Volume 30 • Number 2 April, May, June 2021
The Official Publication of the Utah Nurses Association
Quarterly publication distributed to approximately 38,000 RNs and LPNs in Utah.
Free Tools and
Apps to Support
the Mental Health
and Resilience of
Change in 2020
If you’re feeling the strain of
COVID-19, YOU ARE NOT ALONE!
The pandemic has brought unprecedented challenges to our profession.
We understand and that is why the Utah Nurses Association and the Utah
Board of Nursing are introducing a new statewide initiative, RNconnect 2 Wellbeing,
a free resource from UNA, to easily integrate well-being into your day.
RNconnect 2 Well-Being is an opt-in text messaging system where
nurses receive two supportive messages weekly that connect them to selfcare
resources. We’ve simplified finding support like counseling, resources, and
opportunities to connect with other nurses facing the same challenges as you.
RNconnect for Utah nurses kicks off next week.
Sign up for this free resource by texting
RNconnectUT to 60298
You may opt out at any time! Msg&data rates may apply.
Terms & privacy: slkt.io/7Yfv
Learn more at www.utnurse.org/RNconnect
UNA and UNF present the 2021
Virtual Spring Conference
HEALING THE HEALERS:
A Special Program for Utah Nurses
Friday, May 14, 2021 | 9:00 AM – 4:00 PM
The Utah Nurses Association and the Utah Nurses Foundation will celebrate 2021 Nurses
Month with a special virtual Spring program of renewal for all Utah nurses. The program features
Dr. Michael Olpin, PhD, Dr. Perry Gee, PhD, RN, and Robin Williamson, RN, speaking on stress
reduction and management, resilience tools and strategies and trauma informed care, respectively.
There will be opportunity for discussion with these experts and among participants to encourage
development of actionable plans to address the challenges we’ve faced over the past year and to
better prepare for the future. Program details and registration are located on the UNA website.
current resident or
2 From the Editor
2 In Memoriam
3 President’s Message
4 Close Calls
5 GRC Report
5 Volunteers needed to help with
COVID-19 Vaccination Efforts
6 Exciting News from the 2021
Utah Legislative Session
6 COVID-19 Vaccine News &
Resources from ANA
6 Free Tools and Apps to Support
the Mental Health and Resilience
of All Nurses
6 Congratulations to all Certified
Utah Nurses for national recognition
on March 19th
7 Don’t Forget to Vaccinate:
Guidance for Nurses
8 Telehealth and Social Media Usage
Since COVID-19: How the Pandemic
Has Forced Healthcare Change in 2020
9 Utah Nurses Foundation
10 World War II Pacific Theater or
Southwestern Pacific Theater
11 Utah School Nurse Association
Virtual Spring Conference
11 Welcome New Members 2021
Utah Nurse • Page 2 April, May, June 2021
2021 BOARD OF DIRECTORS
Sharon K. Dingman, DNP, MS, RN
First Vice President Stacey Shelley, RN, MSN, MBA-HCM, NE-BC
Second Vice President Andrew Nydegger, DNP, RN, CNE
Peggy Anderson, DNP, MS, RN
Treasurer Linda Hofmann, PhD, RN, NEA-BC, NE-BC
Director At Large Claire L. Schupbach, BSN, RN, CPC
Director At Large Teresa Garrett, DNP, RN, APHN-BC
Director At Large
Brenda Freymiller, BSN, MBA, RN
Director At Large
CJ Ewell, MS, APRN-BC
Andrew Nydegger, DNP, RN, CNE
Hello Utah Nurses,
One of the great highlights
of my career was to spend time
with nursing living legend Jean
Watson. Her Caritas theory is
always a popular framework
for nursing students to base
their work on. As nurses, when
we think about caring, we
often think about the amazing
work we do day in and day
out helping our patients and
our community. Dr. Watson
pointed out to me that the most
important person to care for is ourselves.
At first this struck me as selfish, but the truth is that when
we are at our best physically, mentally, and spiritually, we are
the best nurse as well. When we are in a good state of mind,
we are better at assessment, we are better at our medication
administration and we are better at communicating with
everyone around us.
I hope each of us takes an opportunity each day to take
a step towards self-care. Not all of these steps have to be
about exercise, or dieting. They can be simple inconspicuous
acts like noticing one thing you do well, or spending a
moment in the morning to think about a positive thing that
happened yesterday. Bringing positivity into our lives, lifts us
up and makes bigger actions easier in the future.
Thank you all for the inspiring work you do. Each of you is
a hero to the people you care for.
NursingALD.com can point you
right to that perfect NURSING JOB!
Free to Nurses
Easy to Use
E-mailed Job Leads
The Utah Nurse Publication Schedule for 2021
Issue Material Due to UNA Office
July, August, Sept 2021, Edition - June 3, 2021
Guidelines for Article Development
The UNA welcomes articles for publication.
There is no payment for articles published in the
1. Articles should be Microsoft Word using a
12 point font.
2. Article length should not exceed five (5)
8 x 11
3. All references should be cited at the end
of the article.
4. Articles (if possible) should be submitted
Submissions should be sent to:
Attn: Editorial Committee | Utah Nurses Association
4505 S. Wasatch Blvd., Suite 330B
Salt Lake City, UT 84124 | Phone: 801-272-4510
To submit a Letter to the Editor, include your
name and contact information. (Due to sensitive
issues the UNA can elect to publish anonymously.)
Beverly Colleen Roberts Thornley
1938 - 2021
Marci Claire Baak
1969 – 2021
CHAIRS & LIAISONS
Liz Close, PhD, RN
Andrew Nydegger, DNP, RN, CNE
Liz Close, PhD, RN
Linda Hoffman, PhD, RN, NEA-BC, NE-BC
CJ Ewell, MS, APRN-BC
Diane Forster Burke, MS, RN
Kathleen Kaufman, MS, RN,
Anmy Mayfield, DNP, APRN, FNP-C
Linda Flynn, DNP, RN, CNE
Stacey Shelley DNP, MSN,
MBA-HCM, RN, NE-BC
UTAH NURSES FOUNDATION
Jodi Waddoups, MSN-Ed, NPD-BC, RN-BC, CPPS
Aimee McLean, MSN, RN
Sharon K. Dingman, DNP, MS, RN
Arthur L. Davis Publishing Agency, Inc.
Editor and Publisher are not responsible nor liable for editorial or
Utah Nurse is published four times a year, January, April, July and
October, for the Utah Nurses Association, a constituent member
of the American Nurses Association. Utah Nurse provides a
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April, May, June 2021 Utah Nurse • Page 3
Sharon K. Dingman, DNP, MS, RN
I have to admit that as I
began to prioritize the topics
to include in the Utah Nurse,
2nd Quarter 2021 Edition there
were many overwhelming
memories of 2020 Covid-19
Pandemic Impact on everyone
everywhere. Hardly a day goes
by that we are not reminded
(and now for a year) of the
value of safety for nurses and
other health care workers
as they engage in patient
care delivery. As colleagues
we have all experienced the impact of Covid-19 of this
past year individually and collectively. I chose three key
observations to address in this article.
A best way to begin is to thank health care workers from
the bedside to boardroom and in between for their work
and caring on behalf of everyone in need of care associated
with Covid-19. The responses from all involved are full of
lessons learned coupled with the depth of change for future
health care. New care delivery innovations were identified
during crisis causing a review of previously identified
goals for building resilience for nurses and all health care
workers. The value of building relationships, improved joint
decision making, and team building became paramount
to success in all organizations. As a whole and individually
we are adapting to constant change and new learning
opportunities. The prioritization of protecting the health of
workers physical and psychological safety was evident.
We continue achieving “a better normal” in healthcare from
lessons learned during these unprecedented times. We
have learned how to adapt and protect the physical and
emotional health and well-being of care givers, our patients
and their families and one another.
As nurses and health care systems, we are encouraged
by the “lessons learned” during the pandemic crisis. We
have the opportunity to continue to enhance our delivery of
care and associated outcomes of well-being and the desire
for better patient care outcomes for some time. We have
tested the innovation of across multiple venues of health
care delivery. The goal for all health systems continues to
be to share knowledge. We see the value to continue to
apply and enhance care delivery by decisions made and
lessons learned. Through adaptation we have learned and
priority goals for the well-being of health of care workers
is seen more clearly. The impact of Covid-19 heightened
our awareness and has provided new ways of learning.
(American Nurse, February 2021, Vol. 16, No. 2, Editor, Lillee
Smith Gelians, MSN, RNCPPS, FAAN).
Nurse Resiliency is an essential element in the wellbeing
of nurses and all health care workers in a time
of rapid changes in care delivery associated with the
pandemic influence on our work environments and
ways of being as nurses. Burnout leads to organizational
turnover and may be the major contributor to why nurses
may change positions or leave health care all together.
Burnout and Covid-19 impact on nurse resiliency is at
the core of their professional well-being. Our personal
resiliency and well-being are essential to maintain our
sense of appropriate and meaningful contributions in the
delivery of care to patients and their families.
Health care burnout is real and is associated with
emotional exhaustion, decreased resilience and
increased doubt about our contributions as a nurse. In
a conversation I had with the President of Utah Nurses
Foundation recently, she identified “the importance for
nurses working on the frontlines to have a voice. They are
on the frontlines and their experiences, their feelings, and
their voice is valuable. They are being heard. We recognize
their hard work, their fatigue, their burnout. We recognize
the trauma and stress they have faced in caring for
COVID-19 patients. We care. It is important to recognize
the problems that have surfaced during the pandemic
and important to move toward solutions. We don’t have
all the answers; we just need to seek collaboration with
those looking for solutions. The Utah Department of Health
listened to the need for resiliency support for our nurses
from the five major health systems in Utah. They sought
the support of the Utah Nurses Association (UNA). Then
UNA collaborated with the Utah Nurses Foundation (UNF)
to provide funding that supports resiliency already in place
for these organizations.”
Next Steps Identified
All five Utah health care organizations have active
existing wellness and resiliency initiatives in their hospitals
and are appreciative of the opportunity to support
their nurses with the donation from the Utah Nurses
Foundation. Each has a focus on the wellbeing of nursing
staff and appreciated the opportunity to receive a
donation to their organizations.
On behalf of the Utah Nurses Foundation Board of
Directors and in collaboration with the Utah Nurses
Association and Utah Department of Health, we are
excited to offer a one-time Resiliency Support donation
of $20,000 for our nurses working the front-line in our
four main as well as our rural hospital systems. This
donation will be split between those hospital systems
that choose to participate.
Brenda Bartholomew, RN, CNO, Gunnison Valley
Hospital, representing the Rural 9 hospitals in Utah
requested funds to provide resiliency support for nurses
with: Takeout meals after a long day of COVID patient
care; Housekeeping services for nurses who work extra
shifts; and Thank you grocery bags for our staff. “Thank
you so much!”
Tracy Nixon, MSN, RN, Chief Nursing, University of
Utah will invest in the ongoing resiliency program in two
areas: In Unit 15-minute chair massages at their work
location and to expand to all units this successful service
within their organization to all nurses and to support the
“quick snack” filled with RDA-approved health snacks for
nurses who may not be able to leave the unit for lunch, or
who may just need additional nourishment. “The U would
absolutely love to participate and is eager to improve our
efforts to care for our nurses.”
Susan Roble, RN BSN, MHA, SVP, Clinical Operations
and Chief Nursing Executive and Perry Gee, PhD, RN
Intermountain Health Care anticipate the funds will be
primarily spent in three areas: grocery bags and takeout
meals, respite rooms, and hotel services “to stabilize and
nurture the workforce as the acute phase of the crisis
passes. “We will carefully use the funds and continue to
support nurse wellbeing in additional services throughout
the pandemic to boost morale. We are so grateful for
your support of this so important effort.”
Mary (Katie) Flores, MSN, RN, Chief Nursing Officer,
Mountain Point Medical Center, Steward Health Care
plans to help support their nursing staff PTO carryover,
negative balances, donation, and MTO carryover. Any
funds received will go towards their Nurse Resiliency
program to be utilized for our Sub for Santa program for
our employees that are in need due to loss of household
income from Covid-19. “Thank you for your donation, we
are grateful to accept this support.”
Jennifer Wagenaar, MBA, RN, CPHQ, FACHE,
CENP, Division Chief Nurse Executive HCA Healthcare,
Mountain Division expressed her appreciation and plan
for the Utah Nurse Foundation’s support efforts for
their bedside nurses. Their organization has provided
many support strategies during the pandemic, including
but not limited to: pandemic pay, quarantine pay, hotel
accommodations, and child care. “The UNF donation will
be added to the HCA Healthcare HOPE Fund that helps
hundreds of Utah colleagues and families, and the need
is as great as ever to provide compassion, assistance
and support to our resilient colleagues.”
UNF in conjunction with UNA are pleased to have the
opportunity to make a difference in the five Utah Health
Systems. Thank you each for your efforts to continually
support your staff in these unprecedented times.
The old saying “it takes a village” to accomplish a full
completion of any initiative. Collaboration and the ability
to persevere in working toward shared goals are essential
for success. The common attributes of individuals
working toward the achievement of a shared goal have
been well demonstrated by all individuals and teams
involved in all aspects of the Covid-19 response teams.
The pandemic allowed health care organizations to
review and enhance their efforts for nurse resiliency and
the impact of compassion fatigue and burnout. Many of
the more common and or usual ways of delivering patient
care was assessed, revised or eliminated; changes from
having visitors in patient rooms to isolation of patients;
and changes in work schedules and extended time away
from families and friends’; nurses communicating with
families by cell phone; changes in care delivery usual
processes; identified need to promote nurses and other
care givers well-being; helping nurses deal with their
many personal stressors with the worries of family wellbeing;
and the long hours…and the list goes on.
As we pause to reflect on the achievements and
progress of the past year, may we celebrate the trust
our state and nation has for nurses before and especially
during the pandemic. UNA extends our appreciation
and acknowledgment to the nurses in Utah. Thanks
for joining in the successful efforts of the COVID-19
vaccinations at numerous sites in Utah. UNA and UNF
join together to extend our collective appreciation to Utah
nurses “for your resilience, selfless and compassion in
risking health and safety for the common good.” Thank
you UTAH nurses for your compassion and care
delivery in behalf of patient well-being. Take care!
Utah Nurse • Page 4 April, May, June 2021
UNA Executive Director, Dr. Liz Close, speaks to YOU!
This column shares
resources on a regular basis to
highlight services provided free
to all nurses and those services
that are offered only with UNA/
ANA membership. UNA and
ANA consider it a professional
courtesy to provide a variety
of contemporary resources to
all nurses across the country
regardless of membership
status. Membership dues
help support these offerings
but also assist in providing
significant discounts for members on a variety of professional
and personal services. In each quarterly issue of the Utah
Nurse this column features examples of free and memberonly
services to support your ongoing engagement and
professional development in nursing.
Free Resource for ALL Nurses
Quick Videos on Reducing COVID-19
Free for all nurses. No registration required.
Racial Health Disparities are not new to the U.S. health
care system. But now more than ever, you can have a direct
and lifesaving impact on the recognition, care and treatment,
and recovery from COVID-19 in vulnerable populations.
The highly acclaimed and important ANA COVID-19
webinar, “How You Can Have a Direct Impact on
Reducing the Devastating Racial Disparities of
COVID-19,” is now also available as easy to access
and view 5 to 15 minute videos.
The full 56-minute webinar provides clarity on the
stark challenges faced by Black and Native American
people during the pandemic. After viewing this ondemand
webinar, you will have very specific actions you
can take immediately to save more lives.
If you do not have 56-minutes to watch the full
webinar, ANA also offers the option to view Quick
Videos on specific topics related to racial disparities and
COVID-19 as your time allows.
These resources are FREE for all nurses.
Click below to access all ANA Racial Disparities
video education content:
The six Racial Disparities and COVID-19 Quick
1. Racial Disparities Case Study
8-minute case study illustrates how unconscious
bias can adversely impact treatment and care.
2. Demographics of High-Risk Populations
7-minute quick video examines demographics of
3. Factors that Contribute to High Risk of Severe
Illness and Death in Vulnerable Populations
12-minute quick video examines risk factors that
increase likelihood of severe illness and death.
4. How Implicit Bias Impacts Patient Outcomes
9-minute quick video examines how implicit bias
impacts patient care and outcomes.
5. The Do’s and Don’ts When Caring for High-
Risk Minority Populations
6-minute quick video discusses things nurses
should do (and not do) when caring for high-risk
6. Translating Knowledge into Care to Improve
Outcomes in High-Risk Populations
13-minute quick video details specific information
for nursing actions.
Click below to visit the Reducing COVID-19
Racial Disparities webpage where you can register
for the full webinar and access the quick videos:
Made possible by the generosity of the
American Nurses Foundation.
Explore UNA/ANA membership at
Resources for UNA/ANA Members…
New Webinars for Early Career and
Up and Coming Nurses
Here are two current examples of live, interactive, and
free 90-minute webinars exclusively for early career and
up and coming nurses who are ANA members.
- Early Career Webinar: Seven Important Facts
to Know about Your Nursing License to Stay in
- Up and Comer Webinar: Moving Beyond
Surviving: How to Embrace the Challenges and
Find Joy in Your Leadership Role
Become a UNA/ANA member and have access to
these and other special programs designed to engage
and facilitate you in your nursing career! Nursing
requires dedication, and ANA membership rewards your
commitment. From certification discounts to networking
opportunities, membership benefits your career and your
lifestyle. And because ANA champions nursing at state
and federal level, you can rest assured that your interests
are always protected.
Advance your career with free development
resources and webinars
Stay current with the most
Save money with big discounts on CE,
certification, publications and more
Network and connect with Registered Nurses
(RN) for support and advice
Make your voice heard with opportunities to
tell policymakers what you think
Receive state nurse association
Explore UNA/ANA membership at
April, May, June 2021 Utah Nurse • Page 5
2021 UNA Nurses Day at the Legislature
UNA held the first ever virtual Nurses Day at the Legislature on Friday, February
26th with a record 356 registrants for the session. Nurses and nursing students across
the state from Logan to St. George participated in lively discussion with the following
Utah State Legislators and Nurse Experts/Guest Speakers focusing on advocacy for
respective 2021 legislation related to nursing and the health of Utahns:
- Nursing Practice HB 287 (Rep. Doug Welton) Nurse Practice Act Amendments
with Lee Moss, MS, FNP, ANP, FAANP.
- Population Health HB 117 (Rep. Ray Ward) Vaccine Reporting Requirements
with Diane Forster-Burke, MSN, RN
- Health Promotion HB 194 (Rep. Suzanne Harrison) Diabetes Prevention
Program with Shalice Brady, BSN, RN
- Public Safety HB 160 (Rep. Carol Spackman Moss) Distracted Driver
Amendments with Leslee Rasmussen-Henson
- Community Health HB 34 (Rep. Jim Dunnigan) Medical Respite Care Pilot
Program with Deborah Thorpe PhD, APRN
- Protecting Public HB 168 (Rep. Angela Romero) Sale of Sexual Assault Test
Kits Prohibition with Julie Valentine, PhD, CNE, SANE-A, FAAN
- Equity SB 63 (Rep. Jenn Dailey-Provost) Caregiver Compensation Amendments
with Cordelia Schaffer, MSN, RN, CHPN
- Human Rights SJR08 (Sen. Kathleen Riebe) Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
with Liz Close, PhD, RN on behalf of the UNA Board
Participants received a follow-up summary of the outcome of each of these bills at
the conclusion of the 2021 Utah State Legislative session.
2021 Legislative Session Review
There were some wins and some losses. UNA participated virtually for the
committee meetings throughout the 2021 Session. We focused mostly on the Health &
Human Services Committees in the House and the Senate. We joined the Utah Health
Policy Project’s Healthcare Roundtable on a weekly basis; this provides an opportunity
for advocates to share bills about which they were concerned. Advocates are from
a variety of organizations: Voices for Utah Children, Domestic Violence Program,
Association of Utah Community Health, Suicide Prevention, and UHPP.
We posted bills on SLACK and watched the responses of our GRC members.
These responses guided us about what positions UNA should have. Then we emailed
legislators about UNA’s position on bills.
- HB 287 (Welton) Nurse Practice Act (NPA) Amendments. This bill was to achieve Full
Practice Authority for Utah Nurse Practitioners (NP). In our current NPA, consultation
& referral plans are required for NPs working in Pain Clinics and for newly licensed
NPs. These consultation & plans (C&Rs) were to be signed by an MD in the local
area, and some MDs required up to $1000/month for these C&Rs. NPs consult with
a variety of practitioners for patient care issues, and generally do not consult with the
MD who signed the C&R. The Utah Medical Association opposed these changes.
The bill passed the House and was in danger in the Senate HHS. A compromise
was struck with UMA to eliminate the C&Rs for NPs in Pain Clinics. An NP must be
board certified, have 30 hours of instruction in clinical pharmacology, and have seven
CEs in prescribing opioids. UMA then withdrew their opposition, and the bill passed
Senate HHS unanimously and passed the full Senate without opposition on the final
afternoon of the Legislative Session.
- SB 63 (Harper) Caregiver Compensation Amendments sought Medicaid funds
to pay for caregivers where they have been providing care for free as a family
member or friend.
- HB 34 (Dunnigan) Medical Respite Care Pilot Program will seek Medicaid funds
to pay for the respite care for homeless and ill persons to receive care at the INN
- HB 262 (Welton) Children’s Health Insurance Program will use additional funds to hire
outreach personnel to enroll children, and will create a financial restricted account.
- HB 102 (Dailey-Provost) Contraception for Inmates will assure that prisoners are
able to continue their contraception medication while incarcerated. Women take
contraceptive medication for medical reasons in addition to pregnancy prevention. It
is important for their health to continue their medication regime.
- SB 128 (Kitchens) Family Planning Services Amendments would extend family
planning coverage to women up to 250% of the poverty level. This was the
second year that Sen. Kitchens ran this bill. It was not funded.
- HB 168 (Romero) Sale of Sexual Assault Test Kits Prohibited. This bill proposed
to ban the DIY sexual assault kits sold on line. The supporting arguments
were that assault victims should see a health care provider to be assessed for
damage, provided prescription medication, evidence collected for court, and
referred to additional resources. This bill was supported by prosecutors, defense
attorneys, Forensic Nurses, and Emergency MDs. It failed in Senate HHS when
five male senators decided that commerce should not be denied.
- HB 117 (Ward) Vaccine Reporting Requirements would have required that any
vaccines given to adults as well as youth be reported to the USIS at the State
Health Dept. The idea was to make vaccine information easier to track as adults
receive vaccines as various locations and the primary care provider may repeat
a vaccine not knowing if it was already given. The opposition didn’t want their
private health information (vaccines) to be reported and the bill failed in House
- HJR 13 (Hollins) Joint Resolution that Racism is a Moral and Public Health Crisis.
This resolution was stalled on the third reading in the House.
- HB 265 (Ray) State Agency Realignment proposes to merge the Utah Dept of
Health with the Dept of Human Services and would move Medicaid eligibility
to Workforce Services. We strongly opposed this bill that would create a
huge merged agency and cause various programs to compete for funds and
resources. The Governor had asked for greater efficiency and mergers in the
departments reporting to him. This bill passed. We worry that public health has
been undervalued and underfunded for decades. We do not believe that this will
provide increased funding for public health.
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Utah Nurse • Page 6 April, May, June 2021
Exciting News from the 2021
Utah Legislative Session!!
Success for House Bill 287 – Nurse Practice Act Amendments
Sharon K. Dingman, DNP, MS, RN,
President Utah Nurses Association
Expanding Scope of Practice for Advanced Practice
Registered Nurses (APRNs) HB 287 Nurse Practice
Act Amendments was supported, recognized
and approved by a unanimous Utah House of
Representatives’ vote of 70-0 shortly after 3pm
MT on March 5, 2021. The Utah Nurses Association
congratulates our APRN colleagues on this timely
and significant achievement for Utah.
In a brief conversation with Dr. Melissa J.
Hinton, DNP, APRN, FNP-BC, CARN-A, President
of Utah Nurse Practitioners, she joined her
colleagues in expressing appreciation for this
achievement offering the following comments to all
who contributed to this success!
“We are so excited for nurse practitioner legislation
in Utah which has finally moved Utah forward after
decades of work whittling away at restrictions to practice
in state law. House Bill (HB) 287 removed the previous
requirement for a signed Consultation and Referral
(C&R) agreement that NPs had to have for schedule II
prescriptive authority. The C&R has been in place since
the beginning of nurse practitioner practice in Utah,
improving with each attempt for full-practice authority.
HB 287 also retired the “pain clinic” language that
prevented a nurse practitioner from owning their own pain
management clinic where essential early identification
and treatment for opiate use disorders occurs. For new
NPs who planned to prescribe controlled substances, the
restrictions only applied to solo practices, requiring a C&R
for their first year OR their first 2,000 hours of practice.
This has been pared down to a 1,000 hour non-signature
mentorship to help with transition to practice. Removal of
all these restrictions can improve retention and recruitment
of NPs outside of Utah and increases patient access to
healthcare and specialty services, as well as improving
business ownership in Utah.
The Utah Medical Association officially withdrew
their opposition after negotiations with UNP to include
licensure requirements within the Nurse Practice
Act statute, allowing the legislation to move through
committees, the House, and the Senate with several
unanimous votes. March 5, 2021 is a historic day for Utah
The Utah Nurse Practitioner Association credits
Representative Doug Welton (a first-year legislator) and the
UNP Legislative Committee, as well as the innumerable
NPs and both individual and organizational supporters
that encouraged passage of this legislation. Special
thanks to Dr. Julie Balk (Legislative Co-Chair), Lee Moss,
NP (Legislative Co-Chair), Dr. Beth Luthy (Immediate Past
Legislative Chair), Dr. Melissa Hinton (President UNP), and
the many co-sponsors of the bill. UNP will be working
closely with DOPL and the State Board of Nursing to
implement the bill’s practice provisions. According to state
law, HB 287 will become effective 60 days after signing.”
Congratulations to all
Certified Utah Nurses
for national recognition
on March 19th
Certified Nurses Day is an annual day of recognition
for and by health care leaders dedicated to nursing
professionalism, excellence, recognition, and service.
Every March 19, employers, certification boards,
education facilities, and health care providers celebrate
and publicly acknowledge nurses who earn and maintain
the highest credentials in their specialty. Learn more here
where you can also find out how to achieve certification
in your nursing specialty.
News & Resources
“COUNT ME IN”
The COVID-19 Vaccine Education and Equity Project, a
group of more than 150 leading organizations representing
patient, provider, employer and public health organizations
launched “Count Me In,” a campaign to provide individuals
and organizations with information to build confidence
in authorized COVID-19 vaccines, and to motivate and
inspire people to collectively fight the pandemic. Led by
the Alliance for Aging Research, HealthyWomen, and the
National Caucus and Center on Black Aging, Inc., one of
the project’s objectives is to convene a dialogue among
organizations representing the multitude of constituencies
that face challenges from COVID-19, particularly diverse
populations that have been most harmed, and those on
the front lines of the pandemic.
“IT’S UP TO YOU”
Created by the Ad Council in partnership with COVID
Collaborative’s scientific advisory group and the Centers
for Disease Control and Prevention, the “It’s Up to You”
campaign urges audiences to visit GetVaccineAnswers.org
(DeTiDepende.org in Spanish) to get the latest information
about COVID-19 vaccines, with the ultimate goal of helping
the public feel confident and prepared to get vaccinated
once a vaccine is available to them. “By getting vaccinated
we can drive down this virus and prevent its continued
spread and begin to return to life hopefully as we knew it,”
said ANA President Ernest Grant in an interview.
“THIS IS OUR SHOT”
#ThisIsOurShot to help stop the spread of Covid-19.
Watch this inspirational video highlighting nurses across
the country who have received their Covid-19 vaccine. This
video pays tribute to nurses across America and continues
to share the message of hope already being expressed
by nurses everywhere. American Nurses Association
supports the nursing community’s efforts to strengthen
awareness, build vaccine confidence, and foster unity.
The vaccine rollout is top-of-mind for everyone, and ANA
wants to recognize all courageous nurses and healthcare
heroes receiving their vaccines to build confidence in one
another and continue the fight against COVID-19 for each
and every one of their patients. Now there is hope!
Check out this
resource from ANA
Well -Being Initiative
Free Tools and Apps to Support the Mental
Health and Resilience of All Nurses
To access electronic copies of the
Utah Nurse, please visit
UNP IS PROUD TO SUPPORT UTAH NURSE
PRACTITIONERS THROUGH EDUCATION,
LEGISLATION, AND BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT.
JOIN US AT UNP.ORG
April, May, June 2021 Utah Nurse • Page 7
Don’t Forget to Vaccinate: Guidance for Nurses
Hala S. Taylor, RN, MSN-FNP Student
Reprinted with permission RN Idaho, February 2021
Vaccination and immunization may be a more relevant topic than ever before. Vaccinations
are a safe and effective means for helping to provide immunity against potentially lifethreatening
disease (CDC, 2019). Vaccinations in the United States are administered to
children and adults per a schedule issued by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
(CDC). There are other vaccines that are administered to people who may be at risk for
contracting disease due to travel, work, illness, or other circumstances. This paper will
address the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the utilization of preventative care services,
specifically the decline in vaccination rates across the country.
The state of Michigan reported a decline in the number of children receiving vaccinations
(Figure 1) since March 2020, when the country began responding to the spread of SARS-
CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 disease (Bramer et al., 2020). With the required
lifestyle changes and concerns that arose around the COVID-19 pandemic, many children
and adults avoided seeking routine medical care. For this reason, many child wellness visits
were skipped and with this, the vaccines that would usually accompany the visit have been
missed. This sets up our nation for increased outbreak of vaccine preventable illnesses,
which could occur at a time when our health system availability is most challenged.
Vaccines for Adults
Due to increased comorbidities and fear of Covid exposure, older adults are also at
risk for vaccine decline. They are at increased risk of respiratory illness, especially those
over the age of 65. There are scheduled vaccines for adults age 65 and older including,
Pneumococcal conjugate (PCV13) per clinical indication, Pneumococcal polysaccharide
(PPSV23), and the Influenza formulation for elderly adults. Due to a declining immune
system and rates of chronic illness, elderly adults are at increased risk for diseases that
vaccines can prevent.
Racial Disparities and the 2020-21 Flu Season
The importance of vaccination for those at risk due to health disparities is also
relevant to the COVID-19 pandemic. According to data from the CDC, during the
2019-2020 flu season, adult flu vaccine coverage for non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic,
and American Indian/Alaska Native was 10 to 15 percent less than non-Hispanic
White adults (CDC, 2020b). These racial groups have greater rates of flu-related
hospitalization, with Black Americans at a rate of 68 per 100,000 and Whites at 38 per
100,000 (CDC, 2020b). Black Americans are more at risk for the disease, as well as for
greater severity of illness and related mortality (Yancy, 2020).
The CDC provides some guidance for providers to connect with partners in the
community to increase flu vaccination rates by, “developing culturally specific messaging
and linguistically tailored content to reach additional audiences” (CDC, 2020b, What CDC is
The Washington State Department of Health has put together a guide for providers for
safe vaccine delivery during the COVID-19 pandemic. Access this updated guide at https://
At the national level, the CDC has published vaccine guidelines for providers. (CDC,
2020a). Important points to remember during the pandemic include:
• Administration of vaccines is an essential medical service.
• Assess the vaccination status of all patients across the life span at every health
• Administer routinely recommended vaccines to children, adolescents, and adults
(including pregnant women).
• Delay vaccination for persons with suspected or confirmed COVID-19.
• Follow guidance to prevent the spread of COVID-19 in health care settings.
• Encourage vaccination at the patient’s medical home.
• Implement effective strategies for catch-up vaccination.
• Communicate with patients/families about how they can be safely vaccinated
during the pandemic. (CDC, 2020a, Deliver Vaccines Safely section)
For more information about the importance of vaccines for children and the risks of
delaying or skipping vaccines, please visit the CDC’s website at https://tinyurl.com/ycel4le2.
The author declares she has no conflicts of interest with this content.
Editor’s Note: For Idaho Health & Welfare visit https://healthandwelfare.idaho.gov/.
Bramer, C.A., Kimmins, L.M., Swanson, R., Kuo, J., Vranesich, P., Jacques-Carroll, L.A.,
& Shen, A.K. (2020). Decline in child vaccination coverage during the COVID-19
Pandemic — Michigan Care Improvement Registry, May 2016–May 2020. Morbidity
and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), 69(20), 630–631. http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2019). Why Vaccinate. https://www.cdc.gov/
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2020a). Pandemic Guidance. https://www.cdc.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2020b). Flu Disparities Among Racial and
Ethnic Minority Groups. https://www.cdc.gov/flu/highrisk/disparities-racial-ethnicminority-groups.html
State of Idaho. (2020, Dec. 28). Idaho official resources for the novel coronavirus
Washington State Department of Health (2020). Vaccine guidance for providers during the
COVID-19 Pandemic. https://www.doh.wa.gov/.../PleaseContinueVaccinatingPatie...
Yancy, C.W. (2020). COVID-19 and African Americans. JAMA, The Journal of the American
Medical Association, 323(19):1891–1892. https://doi:10.1001/jama.2020.6548
It is important that all individuals, children and adults, continue to receive their
scheduled vaccines and yearly flu shots. This is critically important during a pandemic, as
a compromised immune system is an increased risk factor for more severe illness from
COVID-19 and other diseases.
Utah Nurse • Page 8 April, May, June 2021
Telehealth and Social Media Usage Since COVID-19:
How the Pandemic Has Forced Healthcare Change in 2020
Bryan R. Werry RN, BSN, CCRN
FNP Graduate Student
College of Nursing, Gonzaga University
Reprinted with permission RN Idaho, February 2021
Telehealth and Telemedicine
Eight years ago, I was introduced to the concept of
telehealth, and the potential use of technology as a means
of delivering medical and behavioral healthcare at a distance
to rural areas and large agricultural communities. According
to The National Organization of Nurse Practitioner Faculties
(NONPF), telehealth is defined as “the use of technology to
provide healthcare services at a distance including direct
patient care, remote monitoring, and education” (Rutledge et
al., 2018, p. 1). Telehealth includes both clinical and nonclinical
aspects of healthcare, such as administration and financial
services, while telemedicine is a narrower term limited to
the provision of clinical services. Although the concept
of telemedicine seemed logical and within our nation’s
technological capabilities, there have always been stringent
conditions and regulations regarding its use. For example,
reimbursement from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid
Services (CMS) and other health insurance companies has
been complicated and inadequate. These conditions clearly
discouraged providers from utilizing telehealth technology in
Regulations and reimbursement practices quickly
changed due to the circumstances of the COVID-19
pandemic. Recently, the U.S. Congress passed the
Emergency COVID Telehealth Response Act, which allowed
all providers the ability to furnish telemedicine services eligible
for Medicare reimbursement (U.S. Congress, May 1, 2020).
This act improved access to health care during the pandemic
by providing compensation of medical services without faceto-face
interaction. Jerich (2020) noted, “The relaxation of
telehealth regulations in response to the COVID-19 pandemic
has triggered a wave of interest and support, with patients
noting the convenience, discretion, and safety of virtual care
as a major selling point” (p. 1).
Increased Use of Telehealth
Even prior to the pandemic, there has been an increase
of telemedicine-related services across all sectors of
healthcare. Advancements in technology, electronics,
computers, and the internet have made healthcare delivery
possible through telemedicine (Claypool, 2019). A few years
ago, NONPF suggested that telehealth be incorporated into
the core curriculum of nurse practitioner (NP) education, so
students could become knowledgeable and proficient at
delivering healthcare in this manner (Rutledge et al., 2018).
Presently, the COVID-19 pandemic has forced us into a
situation that warrants the use of telemedicine in order to
safely deliver healthcare. According to Webel et al. (2020),
the response to COVID-19 has included an astonishing
increase in telemedicine usage and applications. For
example, since the outbreak of COVID-19, my stepfather,
a psychiatrist, has conducted the majority of his patient
visits through the application doxy.me. This provides him a
safe, reliable, and fairly easy way to deliver healthcare while
maintaining social distancing. Prior to the pandemic, my
stepfather only used telemedicine to deliver care to patients
in rural areas. Puro and Feyereisen (2020) reported that prior
to COVID-19, rural areas were already utilizing telemedicine
as a means to deliver healthcare. They concluded that
urban areas hard-hit by the pandemic have the potential to
improve outcomes by exploiting this same capability. The
COVID-19 pandemic has opened up a sort of “Pandora’s
Box” of developments in technology use that leads to the
question: How can providers best use technology during
this pandemic to improve both business practices and
benefit patient outcomes?
Social Media in Healthcare:
Implications for Practice
Increased Use of Social Media
Social media has become ubiquitous in our culture,
with more and more users being added daily. According to
Ventola (2014), the term “social media” has a “constantly
evolving” definition but can be loosely defined as “internetbased
tools that allow individuals and communities to gather
and communicate; to share information, ideas, personal
messages, images, and other content; and, in some cases,
to collaborate with other users in real time” (p. 491). Ventola
(2014) identified categories of social media tools as:
• Social networking (Facebook, MySpace, Google Plus,
• Professional networking (LinkedIn),
• Media sharing (YouTube, Flickr),
• Content production (blogs [Tumblr, Blogger] and
• Knowledge/information aggregation (Wikipedia), and
• Virtual reality and gaming environments (Second Life).
Ventola reported that over 70% of healthcare
organizations, systems, and companies use social media to
their benefit, with the most popular being Facebook, Twitter,
Benefits of Social Media in Healthcare
The benefits of social media are multiple. It can be
used locally, regionally, nationally, and even world-wide.
For example, a healthcare provider (HCP) working as an
infectious disease specialist out of London, England, can
utilize a social media application to connect with another
HCP in a third-world country like Somalia. Another example
is how certain medical and surgical procedures can now be
streamed via YouTube. Social media signals a new era of
communication and networking, where HCPs can exchange
information and knowledge at an unparalleled rate (Ventola,
2014). I recently performed a Google search (www.google.
com) and found that Facebook alone has over a billion users.
With such a large audience, social media has the potential
for a tremendous impact on patient empowerment and
outcomes. It can facilitate dialogue between sizable groups
of providers and patients, as it offers quick and widespread
communication (American Hospital Association, 2018). In a
systematic review of social media in healthcare, Smailhodzic
et al. (2016) reported that patients found social media to be a
helpful tool for social, emotional, and informational support in
Social Media Obstacles
The negative aspects of social media include potential
loss of privacy, being targeted for promotions and labeling,
and addiction to social media itself. These disadvantages
are complicated by numerous factors. First, there are
no encompassing social media standards to guide its
appropriate use in healthcare. The American Nurses
Association’s (ANA) social media guidelines and tips specify
that nurses must use the same professional standards
online as in other circumstances and also need to develop
organizational policies and ensure privacy settings are in
place when using technology (ANA Enterprise, n.d.). The
American Medical Association’s (AMA) Journal of Ethics
recommends that online behavior should reflect “offline
professional conduct found in-person” as a starting point
(Kind, 2015, p. 442). They also suggest that social media
guidelines should help users address opportunities and
challenges that arise in new platforms.
Although many HCPs would never deliberately commit a
violation of patient privacy, many end up doing so by simply
posting online about their day at work (Sewell, 2019). Patient
privacy is also under the constant threat of unauthorized
users trying to illegally access sensitive information.
Malicious security breaches include: social media intrusions,
identity thefts, phishing scams, malware, misinformation,
and misuse of sensitive medical information. While most
providers do maintain high ethical standards when using
social media, this does not guarantee that the platform
will exist without issues and non-professional behavior
Facilitating Patient Use of Social Media in
At the hospital where I work as a critical care nurse,
mandatory physical distancing requirements are in place and
have resulted in restrictions to visitation rights for patients/
families and limitations on staff meetings. These policy
changes have led to greater use of technology applications
such as secure work chats and use of Facetime and Zoom
to help our patients communicate with loved ones. On my
current unit, the staff often connect family/friends on a tablet
at a scheduled time. Once all participants are accounted for,
we place the tablet on a secure stand next to the bedside,
and the family can interact with their loved one while we
assume care of other patients. The process is not perfect but
overall has been well received.
Patients throughout the U.S. are not limited to a single
avenue of social media for encounters with their providers.
The variety in online communication methods is rapidly
increasing, and patients can often choose the platform they
prefer. Although the opportunities for social media seem
promising, there are still many obstacles and challenges to
overcome. Examples include limited access to the internet
or devices (computers and smartphones) and limited user
knowledge regarding such technology. These barriers are
typically more prevalent in the poorer/rural communities
(Koonin et al., 2020).
From my experience working in an ICU during this
pandemic, families have been able to communicate with
their loved ones infected with COVID-19 through social
media, the most popular choice being Facetime. My coworkers
and I welcome the use of such communication
options, as we witness firsthand the feeling of isolation and
helplessness our patients are experiencing. In the past, many
clinicians were wary about using social media as a method
of communicating with patients and their families (Ventola,
2014). However, it is now considered commonplace amongst
hospitals/clinics, colleges, businesses, and many other
organizations. Users are finding that it provides a sense of
community and sharing that was unimaginable years ago
April, May, June 2021 Utah Nurse • Page 9
I predict that social media and telehealth will continue
to see favorable acceptance by providers; the public’s
response and acceptance during the pandemic suggests
that its use will continue to grow. However, as we gain
access to more technology and scientific evidence,
there is also a growing need to govern and legislate the
appropriate use of the information available (Kind, 2015).
Evaluating the safety, privacy, and quality of information
being delivered remains a cause for concern.
With the rapid advancement of telehealth and
the use of social media, it seems clear that a high
percentage of patients and providers will continue
to use this technology after the COVID-19 pandemic
comes to an end. Koonin et al. (2020) found that
consumers use social media as a complement rather
than a replacement to healthcare services. Whether a
provider is treating the patient face-to-face or online, the
standards of professional behavior should remain the
same: Providers should maintain their integrity, respect,
and compassion for others. If committed to these
principles, HCPs will be able to use social media for
educational purposes, networking, quality improvement
initiatives, satisfaction surveys, and measuring
outcomes (Kind, 2015). As long as social media and
telehealth are consistent with current models of ethics,
such as the ANA Code of Ethics for Nurses with
Interpretive Statements (ANA, 2015), these technological
advancements will augment what providers are capable
of offering (Sulmasy et al., 2017). The COVID-19
pandemic has been a tragedy and struggle for so many
people worldwide. However, one silver lining is the
opportunity to evaluate the success of telemedicine and
the ways that it has helped us provide better medical
services during this challenging time.
The author reports he has no conflicts of interest with
American Hospital Association. (2020, October 9).
Social media policy. https://www.aha.org/
American Nurses Association. (2015). Code of ethics for
nurses with interpretive statements. https://www.
American Nurses Association (ANA) Enterprise. (n.d.) Social
Claypool, B. (2020, April 20). Telemedicine and COVID-19:
6 tips to ace your first visit. Mental Health Weekly,
30(17), 5–6. https://doi.10.1002/mhw
Jerich, K. (2020, November 3). Telehealth’s uncertain future
raises alarm bells for cancer patients. Healthcare
IT News. https://www.healthcareitnews.com/news/
Kind, T. (2015, May). Professional guidelines for social media
use: A starting point. AMA Journal of Ethics Clinical,
17(5), 441-447. http://doi.org/10.1001/journalofethics.2
Koonin, L., Hoots, B., Tsang, C., Leroy, Z., Farris, K., Jolly,
B., Antall, P., McCabe, B., Zelis, C., Tong, I., &
Harris, A. (2020, October 30). Trends in the use of
telehealth during the emergence of the COVID-19
pandemic. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report,
69(43), 1595-1599. http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.
Puro, N., & Feyereisen, S. (2020). Telehealth availability in
U.S. hospitals in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic.
The Journal of Rural Health, 36(4), 577-583. https://
Rutledge, C., Pitts, C., Poston, R., & Schweickert, P. (2018).
NONPF supports telehealth in nurse practitioner
Sewell, J. (2019). Informatics and nursing: Opportunities and
challenges (6th ed.). Wolters Kluwer.
Smailhodzic, E., Hooijsma, W., Boonstra, A., & Langley, D.
(2016). Social media use in healthcare: A systematic
review of effects on patients and on their relationship
with healthcare professionals. BMC Health Services
Research, 16(442). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-
Sulmasy, L. S., Lopez, A. M., & Horwitch, C. A. (2017).
Ethical implications of the electronic health record: In
the service of the patient. Journal of General Internal
Medicine, 32(8), 935-939.
United States Congress. (2020). Emergency COVID
Telehealth Response Act. https://www.congress.gov/
Ventola, L. (2014). Social media and health care
professionals: Benefits, risks, and best practices.
Pharmacy and Therapeutics, 39(7), 491-499.
Webel, E., Miller, S., Astha, V., Janevic, T., & Benn, E. (2020).
Characteristics of telehealth users in NYC for COVIDrelated
care during the Coronavirus pandemic.
Journal of the American Medical Informatics
Association, 00, 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1093/jamia/
UTAH NURSES FOUNDATION
Utah Nurses Foundation Scholarships
Support Nursing Students and Funding
for Utah Action Coalition for Health
Mark Siemon, PhD, RN, PHNA-BC, CPH
Utah Nurses Foundation Executive Board
The Utah Nurses Foundation (UNF) exists to promote
and advance the nursing profession by supporting
educational development, scholarly work, and research.
Consistent with its charitable purposes, UNF awarded
three scholarships in the Fall of 2020. Rebecca Jensen
lives in Bountiful, and she is enrolled in the Roseman
University of Health Sciences Accelerated Bachelor of
Science in Nursing program. She was inspired to become
a Registered Nurse from seeing her mother, an RN,
caring for people in her community. She is a Certified
Health Education Specialist (CHES), and she was the
Vice President of the Roseman Nursing Honor Society.
Elizabeth Dunford from Kaysville has wanted to become
a nurse since she was a young girl. She delayed entering
nursing school to start a family. Now that her four children
are in school, she decided it was time for her to begin
nursing school. She is currently enrolled in the Bachelor of
Science Nursing program with Ameritech College of Health
Care. Her experience in nursing school has strengthened
her commitment to making a difference in people’s lives.
The third scholarship recipient lives in Hurricane, and she is
a student in the BSN program at Dixie State University. She
worked as a Certified Nursing Assistant before entering
nursing school. She’s not sure where her “nursing passion”
will be, but she’s convinced that nursing will provide her
with a rewarding career. Each of the 2020 UNF scholarship
recipients demonstrates the talent and willingness to
serve and care for Utah’s families and communities during
the pandemic and in the future. The UNF Scholarship
applications for 2021 are available on the Utah Nurses
Association website https://una.nursingnetwork.com/
The UNF Board also approved funding to support
the Utah Action Coalition for Health (UACH) during its
meeting in February 2021. Historically, the UACH has
championed policies to improve nursing workforce data
collection, developed recommendations to improve
nursing education, studied how best to influence
workforce diversity, and piloted projects to improve
a culture of health for nurses and communities. UNF
funding will assist UACH with strategic planning and
preparation for the release of the Future of Nursing 2020-
2030 report. The next iteration of the report is anticipated
to be released during Nurses Week in May 2021. If you
are interested in learning more about the work of the
UACH you can contact Dr. Teresa Garrett, DNP, RN,
PHNA-BC at firstname.lastname@example.org or Joan M.
Gallegos, MSW, RN at email@example.com
UNA wishes all Utah nurses a very happy
and healthy Nurses Month this May 2021
Visit nursingALD.com today!
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Utah Nurse • Page 10 April, May, June 2021
World War II Pacific Theater or Southwestern Pacific Theater
Kathleen Kaufman MS, RN
“The day that will live in infamy” occurred on December 7,
1941. (Franklin Delano Roosevelt) when the Japanese Airforce
attacked and destroyed most of the American Pacific Fleet
which was stationed at Honolulu Harbor in Hawaii. Nineteen
U. S. Navy ships including eight battleships were destroyed.
That Sunday morning 2,403 men were killed and 1,178
were wounded. The hospital nurses and Navy nurses
stationed at Pearl Harbor cared for the massive influx of
wounded with the help of volunteers, service wives, even
prostitutes. They established eight burn units because so
many sailors had jumped from their ships into burning oil.
According to Phyllis Dana, RN from the Navy hospital in Pearl
Harbor, the only treatment for these severe burns was sulfa
powder and mineral oil. Morphine and phenobarbital were
given for pain. This was definitely not sterile treatment but
Dana notes that the “rate of survival was surprisingly good.”
Prior to the bombing of Pearl Harbor, many American
Army, Air Force, and Navy nurses were stationed in islands
and atolls stretching from Hawaii through Guam, the Johnson
Islands, the Marianas Islands to the Phillipines, which was
a territory of the United States at that time. These assigned
locations with palm trees, and lovely beaches contributed to
the reputation of these as “cushy’ or “plush” assignments.
These nurses provided relatively “routine” patient care at
Army and Airforce bases as well as at Navy hospitals and
hospital ships. This all changed December 7th.
These assignments changed rapidly as the Japanese
began the systematic attack on outlying islands as well as the
Philippines. When the area around Stozenberg Hospital north
of Manila was bombed nine hours after Pearl Harbor had
been hit; the hospital had been emptied of patients. Nurses
and doctors awaited an influx of wounded. Now a steady
flow of badly burned soldiers and sailors required constant
care before they could be shipped out to mainland hospitals
nearly 6,000 miles away.
Nurses were performing triage of the wounded – a skill
they had read about but had never been trained to nor
expected to perform. They never expected to be responsible
to make these decisions: One group would receive required
medical treatment immediately for serious wounds; a second
group whose wounds could be treated a bit later such as
massive burns; and a third group with catastrophic injuries
who could only be kept comfortable with morphine until they
After the bombing at Pearl Harbor, there was a lull of nine
hours before the Japanese started to bomb the Philippines.
The few ambulances at Stosensberg Hospital north of Manila
brought in the wounded and dying to overflowing wards.
Nurses had no time for charting and simply marked ”M” for
morphine or “S” for sedation on the foreheads of patients
they had medicated. Morphine was given to deaden the pain
and quiet the screaming of the patients. (MCKFp.20)
The nurses dealt with the hundreds of combat wounds
as well as possible. At this time no Army nurses had had any
training for combat nursing. Patients lay on porches, on litters,
some on the ground. The Japanese attack on Clark Field
killed 85 men, wounded 350, and destroyed half of America’s
Far East Air force. Nurses at Stosenberg Hospital were
issued dog tags – for identification in case of death.
As the Japanese started the attack on the Philippines,
nurses discharged all ambulatory patients back to their duty
stations. The bombing of Clark Air Field and Ft. McKinley
led to mounting casualties at Sternberg and Stosenberg
Hospitals. (Sternberg General Hospital in Manila was the
larget and best equipped hospital in the Philippines and
became the center for military and civilian casualties.)
The Army, Navy and Filipino nurses in the multiple
hospitals and stations throughout the island were gradually
forced north by the invading Japanese. They moved into
older hospitals on the Bataan Peninsula or into the heavily
fortified base inside Corregidor Island. This base was a tunnel
under many hundreds of feet of rock. The tunnel had a full
medical facility inside. The hospital at Lemay on Bataan
(Hosp. no. 1) had only equipment remnants from WWI
– rusted cots, surgical sets packed in petroleum jelly – In a
day the nurses had cleaned and set up 18 wards with three
dozen cots each. While expecting rescue that never came,
nurses and medical teams cared for 200 patients that first
day at Hosp. No. 1.
The fierce fighting on the peninsula drove some nurses
to escape via submarine or on sea-going bombers. One
bomber was not able to take off and the nurses on that
plane ended up captured and held as prisoners in internment
camps. This left 76 nurses who continued to care for
military wounded and civilians. These nurses worked in the
tunnel under Corregidor. When Corregidor surrendered, the
Japanese moved the nurses into two internment camps:
Santo Tomas and Las Baños. The POW nurses cared
for three to four thousand internees with minimal medical
supplies and too little food — and endless interruptions and
inspections by Japanese guards. Three Filipinos, a doctor
and two nurses cared for the entire local population in the
small station at Hermosas.
Life at Santo Tomas was routine, repetitive and
boring unless there was an influx of patients. Although
nutrition became a great problem, there were usually
enough medical supplies and medicines due to Red
Cross deliveries. Food rations were reasonable at first
but dwindled over the three years of imprisonment to a
starvation diet. A daily average intake of 1,300 calories in
1944 dropped to 800 calories by November and December
and to 680 calories for the last months of their captivity.
In the midst of this the internees were allowed to plant
vegetable gardens which brought some welcome fresh
foods. By the end of their days at Santo Tomas, each
person was receiving a small cup of veg gruel, a spoon
of moldy rice and a cup of warm water per day (500 cal).
The starvation diets led to beriberi, edema, anemia, TB,
measles, whooping cough, and bacilliary dysentery. This
diet despite the need to care for patients… (p.34 BBT)
As the American recapture of Bataan came ever closer,
the restrictions became more stringent: all dead bodies were
only to be buried inside the camp. As no one was strong
enough to dig graves, the bodies piled up at a rate of seven
to 10 per day. The large camp rats ate well, nibbling toes and
fingers from corpses.
Throughout the 37 months of captivity, the nurses
remained a cohesive unit with the leadership of “Commander
Maude Davison whose goal was to pull her nurses together
by insisting on discipline, order, and dedication to their
patients. This ‘prescription for endurance and courage’ had
kept her nurses alive.(p. 121 MCF) Not one of the captive
nurses in the Army or Navy ranks died during their time in the
camps. As several nurses said, they were just too busy taking
care of patients to worry about their own fears.
Upon return home, after family celebrations were over and
the Army had trotted out the “nurse POWs for speeches or
fundraising (!), these same POW nurses felt abandoned. Their
captivity had been glamorized. Despite the fact that no nurse
died in captivity and none were raped or physically abused,
the public and even close friends and family did not really
want to hear, and even ignored attempts by the nurses to tell
Physical problems of the nurses tended to be ignored by
the VA. The VA System focused primarily on the problems
of men who were POWs. Any signs of what we know now
as PTSD was called combat fatigue in WWII. This was
addressed in men — but ignored in women who had been
POWs. Some nurses never got VA support until the Former
Prisoner of War Benefit Act was passed in 1981!
“In the 1940s no framework existed that allowed people
to understand women who had acted with enduring courage
and strength on the battlefield and as prisoners of war —
women who had acted like men…the former POW nurses
were told by their supervisors to sign statements agreeing not
to speak publicly of atrocities they had seen” (p. 119 MCF).
Friends and family rarely wanted to hear about their
experiences. No counseling or medications existed yet to
treat what we recognize as PTSD today. The nurses felt very
alone with little contact between them as they spread home
across the States – no email, no Facebook to help them stay
in touch with their sisters who had survived the same trials as
What became of the nurses of the Pacific Theater? Many
continued their military careers, some worked as civilian
nurses, others married and started families. Read about their
stories in the references listed below.
If this series continues, it will look at the history of flight
nursing…which did begin in WWII, in the China-Burma-India
References (see initials to trace source):
Clark, A.R Thirty-seven Months as Prisoners of War. The
American Journal of Nursing V. 45 No. 5 (May 1945) pp.
Farrell, M. C. (2014) Pure Grit: How American WWII Nurses
Survived Battle and Prison Camps in the Pacific.
Abrams, NY, NY.
Fessler, D. B. (1996). No Time for Fear: Voices of American
Military Nurses in WWII. Michigan State University Press.
East Lansing, Michigan.
Ritt, C. Filipino Nurses on Bataan. The American Journal of
Nursing V. 45 No.5 (May 1945).pp. 346-347.
Tomblin, B.B. (1996) G.I. Nightingales: The Army Nurse Corps in
WWII. University Press of Kentucky, Lexington Kentucky.
April, May, June 2021 Utah Nurse • Page 11
(December 16, 2020 –
March 15, 2021)
Jody De Jonge
Mary Ann Johnson
Ariel De Anda
Nancy Long Foster
Eva Comollo Angerhofer
Snow College announces
new 2-year RN program
The Snow College Nursing Department is transitioning to a
2-year Registered Nursing, Associate of Science in Nursing,
The first cohort will begin spring semester of 2022. We will
be accepting cohorts fall and spring semester. Applications
for spring semester 2022 will be due on September 1, 2021.
Applications for fall semester 2022 will be due on March 1,
2022. Courses will be taught on the Richfield and Ephraim
Contact us today for more details!
Melissa Blackner: 435-893-2232 or Amber Epling: 435-893-2228