Utah Nurse - April 2021


Volume 30 • Number 2 April, May, June 2021


The Official Publication of the Utah Nurses Association

Quarterly publication distributed to approximately 38,000 RNs and LPNs in Utah.


Free Tools and

Apps to Support

the Mental Health

and Resilience of

All Nurses

Page 6

Don’t Forget

To Vaccinate:

Guidance for


Page 7

How the

Pandemic Has

Forced Healthcare

Change in 2020

Page 8


If you’re feeling the strain of


The pandemic has brought unprecedented challenges to our profession.

We understand and that is why the Utah Nurses Association and the Utah

Board of Nursing are introducing a new statewide initiative, RNconnect 2 Wellbeing,

a free resource from UNA, to easily integrate well-being into your day.

RNconnect 2 Well-Being is an opt-in text messaging system where

nurses receive two supportive messages weekly that connect them to selfcare

resources. We’ve simplified finding support like counseling, resources, and

opportunities to connect with other nurses facing the same challenges as you.

RNconnect for Utah nurses kicks off next week.

Sign up for this free resource by texting

RNconnectUT to 60298

You may opt out at any time! Msg&data rates may apply.

Terms & privacy: slkt.io/7Yfv

Learn more at www.utnurse.org/RNconnect

UNA and UNF present the 2021

Virtual Spring Conference


A Special Program for Utah Nurses

Friday, May 14, 2021 | 9:00 AM – 4:00 PM

The Utah Nurses Association and the Utah Nurses Foundation will celebrate 2021 Nurses

Month with a special virtual Spring program of renewal for all Utah nurses. The program features

Dr. Michael Olpin, PhD, Dr. Perry Gee, PhD, RN, and Robin Williamson, RN, speaking on stress

reduction and management, resilience tools and strategies and trauma informed care, respectively.

There will be opportunity for discussion with these experts and among participants to encourage

development of actionable plans to address the challenges we’ve faced over the past year and to

better prepare for the future. Program details and registration are located on the UNA website.

current resident or

Presort Standard

US Postage


Permit #14

Princeton, MN



2 From the Editor

2 In Memoriam

3 President’s Message

4 Close Calls

5 GRC Report

5 Volunteers needed to help with

COVID-19 Vaccination Efforts

6 Exciting News from the 2021

Utah Legislative Session

6 COVID-19 Vaccine News &

Resources from ANA

6 Free Tools and Apps to Support

the Mental Health and Resilience

of All Nurses

6 Congratulations to all Certified

Utah Nurses for national recognition

on March 19th

7 Don’t Forget to Vaccinate:

Guidance for Nurses

8 Telehealth and Social Media Usage

Since COVID-19: How the Pandemic

Has Forced Healthcare Change in 2020

9 Utah Nurses Foundation

10 World War II Pacific Theater or

Southwestern Pacific Theater

11 Utah School Nurse Association

Virtual Spring Conference

11 Welcome New Members 2021

Utah Nurse • Page 2 April, May, June 2021



Sharon K. Dingman, DNP, MS, RN

First Vice President Stacey Shelley, RN, MSN, MBA-HCM, NE-BC

Second Vice President Andrew Nydegger, DNP, RN, CNE


Peggy Anderson, DNP, MS, RN

Treasurer Linda Hofmann, PhD, RN, NEA-BC, NE-BC

Director At Large Claire L. Schupbach, BSN, RN, CPC

Director At Large Teresa Garrett, DNP, RN, APHN-BC

Director At Large

Brenda Freymiller, BSN, MBA, RN

Director At Large




Andrew Nydegger, DNP, RN, CNE

Hello Utah Nurses,

One of the great highlights

of my career was to spend time

with nursing living legend Jean

Watson. Her Caritas theory is

always a popular framework

for nursing students to base

their work on. As nurses, when

we think about caring, we

often think about the amazing

work we do day in and day

out helping our patients and

our community. Dr. Watson

pointed out to me that the most

important person to care for is ourselves.

At first this struck me as selfish, but the truth is that when

we are at our best physically, mentally, and spiritually, we are

the best nurse as well. When we are in a good state of mind,

we are better at assessment, we are better at our medication

administration and we are better at communicating with

everyone around us.

I hope each of us takes an opportunity each day to take

a step towards self-care. Not all of these steps have to be

about exercise, or dieting. They can be simple inconspicuous

acts like noticing one thing you do well, or spending a

moment in the morning to think about a positive thing that

happened yesterday. Bringing positivity into our lives, lifts us

up and makes bigger actions easier in the future.

Thank you all for the inspiring work you do. Each of you is

a hero to the people you care for.

NursingALD.com can point you

right to that perfect NURSING JOB!


Free to Nurses

Privacy Assured

Easy to Use

E-mailed Job Leads


The Utah Nurse Publication Schedule for 2021

Issue Material Due to UNA Office

July, August, Sept 2021, Edition - June 3, 2021

Guidelines for Article Development

The UNA welcomes articles for publication.

There is no payment for articles published in the

Utah Nurse.

1. Articles should be Microsoft Word using a

12 point font.

2. Article length should not exceed five (5)


8 x 11

3. All references should be cited at the end

of the article.

4. Articles (if possible) should be submitted


Submissions should be sent to:

uneditor@utnurse.org or

Attn: Editorial Committee | Utah Nurses Association

4505 S. Wasatch Blvd., Suite 330B

Salt Lake City, UT 84124 | Phone: 801-272-4510

To submit a Letter to the Editor, include your

name and contact information. (Due to sensitive

issues the UNA can elect to publish anonymously.)


Beverly Colleen Roberts Thornley

1938 - 2021

Marci Claire Baak

1969 – 2021


Executive Director




Liz Close, PhD, RN

Andrew Nydegger, DNP, RN, CNE


Liz Close, PhD, RN


Linda Hoffman, PhD, RN, NEA-BC, NE-BC

Government Relations


Diane Forster Burke, MS, RN

Kathleen Kaufman, MS, RN,


Anmy Mayfield, DNP, APRN, FNP-C


Linda Flynn, DNP, RN, CNE

Events Committee

Stacey Shelley DNP, MSN,




Jodi Waddoups, MSN-Ed, NPD-BC, RN-BC, CPPS



Aimee McLean, MSN, RN

Sharon K. Dingman, DNP, MS, RN



Arthur L. Davis Publishing Agency, Inc.

Editor and Publisher are not responsible nor liable for editorial or

news content.

Utah Nurse is published four times a year, January, April, July and

October, for the Utah Nurses Association, a constituent member

of the American Nurses Association. Utah Nurse provides a

forum for members to express their opinions. Views expressed

are the responsibility of the authors and are not necessarily those

of the members of the UNA.

Articles and letters for publication are welcomed by the editorial

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of reject articles, advertisements, editorials, and letters for the

Utah Nurse. The editorial committee reserves the right to edit

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Address editorial comments and inquiries to

office@utnurse.org or to

Utah Nurses Association, Attn: Editorial Committee

434 Ascension Way, Room 516, Murray, UT 84123

No parts of this publication may be reproduced without


Subscription to the print version of the Utah Nurse is included

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Nurses Association. Complimentary electronic copies are sent

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For advertising rates and information, please contact Arthur L.

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Acceptance of advertising does not imply endorsement

or approval by the Utah Nurses Association of products

advertised, the advertisers, or the claims made. Rejection of an

advertisement does not imply a product offered for advertising

is without merit, or that the manufacturer lacks integrity, or that

this association disapproves of the product or its use. UNA and

the Arthur L. Davis Publishing Agency, Inc. shall not be held

liable for any consequences resulting from purchase or use of an

advertiser’s product. Articles appearing in this publication express

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or local associations.

April, May, June 2021 Utah Nurse • Page 3


Sharon K. Dingman, DNP, MS, RN

I have to admit that as I

began to prioritize the topics

to include in the Utah Nurse,

2nd Quarter 2021 Edition there

were many overwhelming

memories of 2020 Covid-19

Pandemic Impact on everyone

everywhere. Hardly a day goes

by that we are not reminded

(and now for a year) of the

value of safety for nurses and

other health care workers

as they engage in patient

care delivery. As colleagues

we have all experienced the impact of Covid-19 of this

past year individually and collectively. I chose three key

observations to address in this article.

Observation #1:

A best way to begin is to thank health care workers from

the bedside to boardroom and in between for their work

and caring on behalf of everyone in need of care associated

with Covid-19. The responses from all involved are full of

lessons learned coupled with the depth of change for future

health care. New care delivery innovations were identified

during crisis causing a review of previously identified

goals for building resilience for nurses and all health care

workers. The value of building relationships, improved joint

decision making, and team building became paramount

to success in all organizations. As a whole and individually

we are adapting to constant change and new learning

opportunities. The prioritization of protecting the health of

workers physical and psychological safety was evident.

We continue achieving “a better normal” in healthcare from

lessons learned during these unprecedented times. We

have learned how to adapt and protect the physical and

emotional health and well-being of care givers, our patients

and their families and one another.

As nurses and health care systems, we are encouraged

by the “lessons learned” during the pandemic crisis. We

have the opportunity to continue to enhance our delivery of

care and associated outcomes of well-being and the desire

for better patient care outcomes for some time. We have

tested the innovation of across multiple venues of health

care delivery. The goal for all health systems continues to

be to share knowledge. We see the value to continue to

apply and enhance care delivery by decisions made and

lessons learned. Through adaptation we have learned and

priority goals for the well-being of health of care workers

is seen more clearly. The impact of Covid-19 heightened

our awareness and has provided new ways of learning.

(American Nurse, February 2021, Vol. 16, No. 2, Editor, Lillee

Smith Gelians, MSN, RNCPPS, FAAN).

Observation #2:

Nurse Resiliency is an essential element in the wellbeing

of nurses and all health care workers in a time

of rapid changes in care delivery associated with the

pandemic influence on our work environments and

ways of being as nurses. Burnout leads to organizational

turnover and may be the major contributor to why nurses

may change positions or leave health care all together.

Burnout and Covid-19 impact on nurse resiliency is at

the core of their professional well-being. Our personal

resiliency and well-being are essential to maintain our

sense of appropriate and meaningful contributions in the

delivery of care to patients and their families.

Health care burnout is real and is associated with

emotional exhaustion, decreased resilience and

increased doubt about our contributions as a nurse. In

a conversation I had with the President of Utah Nurses

Foundation recently, she identified “the importance for

nurses working on the frontlines to have a voice. They are

on the frontlines and their experiences, their feelings, and

their voice is valuable. They are being heard. We recognize

their hard work, their fatigue, their burnout. We recognize

the trauma and stress they have faced in caring for

COVID-19 patients. We care. It is important to recognize

the problems that have surfaced during the pandemic

and important to move toward solutions. We don’t have

all the answers; we just need to seek collaboration with

those looking for solutions. The Utah Department of Health

listened to the need for resiliency support for our nurses

from the five major health systems in Utah. They sought

the support of the Utah Nurses Association (UNA). Then

UNA collaborated with the Utah Nurses Foundation (UNF)

to provide funding that supports resiliency already in place

for these organizations.”

Next Steps Identified

All five Utah health care organizations have active

existing wellness and resiliency initiatives in their hospitals

and are appreciative of the opportunity to support

their nurses with the donation from the Utah Nurses

Foundation. Each has a focus on the wellbeing of nursing

staff and appreciated the opportunity to receive a

donation to their organizations.

On behalf of the Utah Nurses Foundation Board of

Directors and in collaboration with the Utah Nurses

Association and Utah Department of Health, we are

excited to offer a one-time Resiliency Support donation

of $20,000 for our nurses working the front-line in our

four main as well as our rural hospital systems. This

donation will be split between those hospital systems

that choose to participate.

Brenda Bartholomew, RN, CNO, Gunnison Valley

Hospital, representing the Rural 9 hospitals in Utah

requested funds to provide resiliency support for nurses

with: Takeout meals after a long day of COVID patient

care; Housekeeping services for nurses who work extra

shifts; and Thank you grocery bags for our staff. “Thank

you so much!”

Tracy Nixon, MSN, RN, Chief Nursing, University of

Utah will invest in the ongoing resiliency program in two

areas: In Unit 15-minute chair massages at their work

location and to expand to all units this successful service

within their organization to all nurses and to support the

“quick snack” filled with RDA-approved health snacks for

nurses who may not be able to leave the unit for lunch, or

who may just need additional nourishment. “The U would

absolutely love to participate and is eager to improve our

efforts to care for our nurses.”

Susan Roble, RN BSN, MHA, SVP, Clinical Operations

and Chief Nursing Executive and Perry Gee, PhD, RN

Intermountain Health Care anticipate the funds will be

primarily spent in three areas: grocery bags and takeout

meals, respite rooms, and hotel services “to stabilize and

nurture the workforce as the acute phase of the crisis

passes. “We will carefully use the funds and continue to

support nurse wellbeing in additional services throughout

the pandemic to boost morale. We are so grateful for

your support of this so important effort.”

Mary (Katie) Flores, MSN, RN, Chief Nursing Officer,

Mountain Point Medical Center, Steward Health Care

plans to help support their nursing staff PTO carryover,

negative balances, donation, and MTO carryover. Any

funds received will go towards their Nurse Resiliency

program to be utilized for our Sub for Santa program for

our employees that are in need due to loss of household

income from Covid-19. “Thank you for your donation, we

are grateful to accept this support.”

Jennifer Wagenaar, MBA, RN, CPHQ, FACHE,

CENP, Division Chief Nurse Executive HCA Healthcare,

Mountain Division expressed her appreciation and plan

for the Utah Nurse Foundation’s support efforts for

their bedside nurses. Their organization has provided

many support strategies during the pandemic, including

but not limited to: pandemic pay, quarantine pay, hotel

accommodations, and child care. “The UNF donation will

be added to the HCA Healthcare HOPE Fund that helps

hundreds of Utah colleagues and families, and the need

is as great as ever to provide compassion, assistance

and support to our resilient colleagues.”

UNF in conjunction with UNA are pleased to have the

opportunity to make a difference in the five Utah Health

Systems. Thank you each for your efforts to continually

support your staff in these unprecedented times.

Observation #3:

The old saying “it takes a village” to accomplish a full

completion of any initiative. Collaboration and the ability

to persevere in working toward shared goals are essential

for success. The common attributes of individuals

working toward the achievement of a shared goal have

been well demonstrated by all individuals and teams

involved in all aspects of the Covid-19 response teams.

The pandemic allowed health care organizations to

review and enhance their efforts for nurse resiliency and

the impact of compassion fatigue and burnout. Many of

the more common and or usual ways of delivering patient

care was assessed, revised or eliminated; changes from

having visitors in patient rooms to isolation of patients;

and changes in work schedules and extended time away

from families and friends’; nurses communicating with

families by cell phone; changes in care delivery usual

processes; identified need to promote nurses and other

care givers well-being; helping nurses deal with their

many personal stressors with the worries of family wellbeing;

and the long hours…and the list goes on.


As we pause to reflect on the achievements and

progress of the past year, may we celebrate the trust

our state and nation has for nurses before and especially

during the pandemic. UNA extends our appreciation

and acknowledgment to the nurses in Utah. Thanks

for joining in the successful efforts of the COVID-19

vaccinations at numerous sites in Utah. UNA and UNF

join together to extend our collective appreciation to Utah

nurses “for your resilience, selfless and compassion in

risking health and safety for the common good.” Thank

you UTAH nurses for your compassion and care

delivery in behalf of patient well-being. Take care!

Utah Nurse • Page 4 April, May, June 2021


UNA Executive Director, Dr. Liz Close, speaks to YOU!

This column shares

resources on a regular basis to

highlight services provided free

to all nurses and those services

that are offered only with UNA/

ANA membership. UNA and

ANA consider it a professional

courtesy to provide a variety

of contemporary resources to

all nurses across the country

regardless of membership

status. Membership dues

help support these offerings

but also assist in providing

significant discounts for members on a variety of professional

and personal services. In each quarterly issue of the Utah

Nurse this column features examples of free and memberonly

services to support your ongoing engagement and

professional development in nursing.

Free Resource for ALL Nurses

Quick Videos on Reducing COVID-19

Racial Disparities

Free for all nurses. No registration required.

View immediately.

Racial Health Disparities are not new to the U.S. health

care system. But now more than ever, you can have a direct

and lifesaving impact on the recognition, care and treatment,

and recovery from COVID-19 in vulnerable populations.

The highly acclaimed and important ANA COVID-19

webinar, “How You Can Have a Direct Impact on

Reducing the Devastating Racial Disparities of

COVID-19,” is now also available as easy to access

and view 5 to 15 minute videos.

The full 56-minute webinar provides clarity on the

stark challenges faced by Black and Native American

people during the pandemic. After viewing this ondemand

webinar, you will have very specific actions you

can take immediately to save more lives.

If you do not have 56-minutes to watch the full

webinar, ANA also offers the option to view Quick

Videos on specific topics related to racial disparities and

COVID-19 as your time allows.

These resources are FREE for all nurses.

Click below to access all ANA Racial Disparities

video education content:


The six Racial Disparities and COVID-19 Quick

Videos are:

1. Racial Disparities Case Study

8-minute case study illustrates how unconscious

bias can adversely impact treatment and care.

2. Demographics of High-Risk Populations

7-minute quick video examines demographics of

high-risk groups.

3. Factors that Contribute to High Risk of Severe

Illness and Death in Vulnerable Populations

12-minute quick video examines risk factors that

increase likelihood of severe illness and death.

4. How Implicit Bias Impacts Patient Outcomes

9-minute quick video examines how implicit bias

impacts patient care and outcomes.

5. The Do’s and Don’ts When Caring for High-

Risk Minority Populations

6-minute quick video discusses things nurses

should do (and not do) when caring for high-risk

minority populations.

6. Translating Knowledge into Care to Improve

Outcomes in High-Risk Populations

13-minute quick video details specific information

for nursing actions.

Click below to visit the Reducing COVID-19

Racial Disparities webpage where you can register

for the full webinar and access the quick videos:


Made possible by the generosity of the

American Nurses Foundation.

Explore UNA/ANA membership at



Resources for UNA/ANA Members…

New Webinars for Early Career and

Up and Coming Nurses

Here are two current examples of live, interactive, and

free 90-minute webinars exclusively for early career and

up and coming nurses who are ANA members.

- Early Career Webinar: Seven Important Facts

to Know about Your Nursing License to Stay in

Good Standing

- Up and Comer Webinar: Moving Beyond

Surviving: How to Embrace the Challenges and

Find Joy in Your Leadership Role

Become a UNA/ANA member and have access to

these and other special programs designed to engage

and facilitate you in your nursing career! Nursing

requires dedication, and ANA membership rewards your

commitment. From certification discounts to networking

opportunities, membership benefits your career and your

lifestyle. And because ANA champions nursing at state

and federal level, you can rest assured that your interests

are always protected.

Advance your career with free development

resources and webinars

Stay current with the most

up-to-datenursing news

Save money with big discounts on CE,

certification, publications and more

Network and connect with Registered Nurses

(RN) for support and advice

Make your voice heard with opportunities to

tell policymakers what you think

Receive state nurse association

member benefits.

Explore UNA/ANA membership at



April, May, June 2021 Utah Nurse • Page 5


2021 UNA Nurses Day at the Legislature

UNA held the first ever virtual Nurses Day at the Legislature on Friday, February

26th with a record 356 registrants for the session. Nurses and nursing students across

the state from Logan to St. George participated in lively discussion with the following

Utah State Legislators and Nurse Experts/Guest Speakers focusing on advocacy for

respective 2021 legislation related to nursing and the health of Utahns:

- Nursing Practice HB 287 (Rep. Doug Welton) Nurse Practice Act Amendments

with Lee Moss, MS, FNP, ANP, FAANP.

- Population Health HB 117 (Rep. Ray Ward) Vaccine Reporting Requirements

with Diane Forster-Burke, MSN, RN

- Health Promotion HB 194 (Rep. Suzanne Harrison) Diabetes Prevention

Program with Shalice Brady, BSN, RN

- Public Safety HB 160 (Rep. Carol Spackman Moss) Distracted Driver

Amendments with Leslee Rasmussen-Henson

- Community Health HB 34 (Rep. Jim Dunnigan) Medical Respite Care Pilot

Program with Deborah Thorpe PhD, APRN

- Protecting Public HB 168 (Rep. Angela Romero) Sale of Sexual Assault Test

Kits Prohibition with Julie Valentine, PhD, CNE, SANE-A, FAAN

- Equity SB 63 (Rep. Jenn Dailey-Provost) Caregiver Compensation Amendments

with Cordelia Schaffer, MSN, RN, CHPN

- Human Rights SJR08 (Sen. Kathleen Riebe) Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)

with Liz Close, PhD, RN on behalf of the UNA Board

Participants received a follow-up summary of the outcome of each of these bills at

the conclusion of the 2021 Utah State Legislative session.

2021 Legislative Session Review

There were some wins and some losses. UNA participated virtually for the

committee meetings throughout the 2021 Session. We focused mostly on the Health &

Human Services Committees in the House and the Senate. We joined the Utah Health

Policy Project’s Healthcare Roundtable on a weekly basis; this provides an opportunity

for advocates to share bills about which they were concerned. Advocates are from

a variety of organizations: Voices for Utah Children, Domestic Violence Program,

Association of Utah Community Health, Suicide Prevention, and UHPP.

We posted bills on SLACK and watched the responses of our GRC members.

These responses guided us about what positions UNA should have. Then we emailed

legislators about UNA’s position on bills.


- HB 287 (Welton) Nurse Practice Act (NPA) Amendments. This bill was to achieve Full

Practice Authority for Utah Nurse Practitioners (NP). In our current NPA, consultation

& referral plans are required for NPs working in Pain Clinics and for newly licensed

NPs. These consultation & plans (C&Rs) were to be signed by an MD in the local

area, and some MDs required up to $1000/month for these C&Rs. NPs consult with

a variety of practitioners for patient care issues, and generally do not consult with the

MD who signed the C&R. The Utah Medical Association opposed these changes.

The bill passed the House and was in danger in the Senate HHS. A compromise

was struck with UMA to eliminate the C&Rs for NPs in Pain Clinics. An NP must be

board certified, have 30 hours of instruction in clinical pharmacology, and have seven

CEs in prescribing opioids. UMA then withdrew their opposition, and the bill passed

Senate HHS unanimously and passed the full Senate without opposition on the final

afternoon of the Legislative Session.

- SB 63 (Harper) Caregiver Compensation Amendments sought Medicaid funds

to pay for caregivers where they have been providing care for free as a family

member or friend.

- HB 34 (Dunnigan) Medical Respite Care Pilot Program will seek Medicaid funds

to pay for the respite care for homeless and ill persons to receive care at the INN


- HB 262 (Welton) Children’s Health Insurance Program will use additional funds to hire

outreach personnel to enroll children, and will create a financial restricted account.

- HB 102 (Dailey-Provost) Contraception for Inmates will assure that prisoners are

able to continue their contraception medication while incarcerated. Women take

contraceptive medication for medical reasons in addition to pregnancy prevention. It

is important for their health to continue their medication regime.


- SB 128 (Kitchens) Family Planning Services Amendments would extend family

planning coverage to women up to 250% of the poverty level. This was the

second year that Sen. Kitchens ran this bill. It was not funded.

- HB 168 (Romero) Sale of Sexual Assault Test Kits Prohibited. This bill proposed

to ban the DIY sexual assault kits sold on line. The supporting arguments

were that assault victims should see a health care provider to be assessed for

damage, provided prescription medication, evidence collected for court, and

referred to additional resources. This bill was supported by prosecutors, defense

attorneys, Forensic Nurses, and Emergency MDs. It failed in Senate HHS when

five male senators decided that commerce should not be denied.

- HB 117 (Ward) Vaccine Reporting Requirements would have required that any

vaccines given to adults as well as youth be reported to the USIS at the State

Health Dept. The idea was to make vaccine information easier to track as adults

receive vaccines as various locations and the primary care provider may repeat

a vaccine not knowing if it was already given. The opposition didn’t want their

private health information (vaccines) to be reported and the bill failed in House


- HJR 13 (Hollins) Joint Resolution that Racism is a Moral and Public Health Crisis.

This resolution was stalled on the third reading in the House.

- HB 265 (Ray) State Agency Realignment proposes to merge the Utah Dept of

Health with the Dept of Human Services and would move Medicaid eligibility

to Workforce Services. We strongly opposed this bill that would create a

huge merged agency and cause various programs to compete for funds and

resources. The Governor had asked for greater efficiency and mergers in the

departments reporting to him. This bill passed. We worry that public health has

been undervalued and underfunded for decades. We do not believe that this will

provide increased funding for public health.

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Utah Nurse • Page 6 April, May, June 2021

Exciting News from the 2021

Utah Legislative Session!!

Success for House Bill 287 – Nurse Practice Act Amendments

Sharon K. Dingman, DNP, MS, RN,

President Utah Nurses Association

Expanding Scope of Practice for Advanced Practice

Registered Nurses (APRNs) HB 287 Nurse Practice

Act Amendments was supported, recognized

and approved by a unanimous Utah House of

Representatives’ vote of 70-0 shortly after 3pm

MT on March 5, 2021. The Utah Nurses Association

congratulates our APRN colleagues on this timely

and significant achievement for Utah.

In a brief conversation with Dr. Melissa J.

Hinton, DNP, APRN, FNP-BC, CARN-A, President

of Utah Nurse Practitioners, she joined her

colleagues in expressing appreciation for this

achievement offering the following comments to all

who contributed to this success!

“We are so excited for nurse practitioner legislation

in Utah which has finally moved Utah forward after

decades of work whittling away at restrictions to practice

in state law. House Bill (HB) 287 removed the previous

requirement for a signed Consultation and Referral

(C&R) agreement that NPs had to have for schedule II

prescriptive authority. The C&R has been in place since

the beginning of nurse practitioner practice in Utah,

improving with each attempt for full-practice authority.

HB 287 also retired the “pain clinic” language that

prevented a nurse practitioner from owning their own pain

management clinic where essential early identification

and treatment for opiate use disorders occurs. For new

NPs who planned to prescribe controlled substances, the

restrictions only applied to solo practices, requiring a C&R

for their first year OR their first 2,000 hours of practice.

This has been pared down to a 1,000 hour non-signature

mentorship to help with transition to practice. Removal of

all these restrictions can improve retention and recruitment

of NPs outside of Utah and increases patient access to

healthcare and specialty services, as well as improving

business ownership in Utah.

The Utah Medical Association officially withdrew

their opposition after negotiations with UNP to include

licensure requirements within the Nurse Practice

Act statute, allowing the legislation to move through

committees, the House, and the Senate with several

unanimous votes. March 5, 2021 is a historic day for Utah

Nurse Practitioners!

The Utah Nurse Practitioner Association credits

Representative Doug Welton (a first-year legislator) and the

UNP Legislative Committee, as well as the innumerable

NPs and both individual and organizational supporters

that encouraged passage of this legislation. Special

thanks to Dr. Julie Balk (Legislative Co-Chair), Lee Moss,

NP (Legislative Co-Chair), Dr. Beth Luthy (Immediate Past

Legislative Chair), Dr. Melissa Hinton (President UNP), and

the many co-sponsors of the bill. UNP will be working

closely with DOPL and the State Board of Nursing to

implement the bill’s practice provisions. According to state

law, HB 287 will become effective 60 days after signing.”

Congratulations to all

Certified Utah Nurses

for national recognition

on March 19th

Certified Nurses Day is an annual day of recognition

for and by health care leaders dedicated to nursing

professionalism, excellence, recognition, and service.

Every March 19, employers, certification boards,

education facilities, and health care providers celebrate

and publicly acknowledge nurses who earn and maintain

the highest credentials in their specialty. Learn more here

where you can also find out how to achieve certification

in your nursing specialty.

COVID-19 Vaccine

News & Resources

from ANA


The COVID-19 Vaccine Education and Equity Project, a

group of more than 150 leading organizations representing

patient, provider, employer and public health organizations

launched “Count Me In,” a campaign to provide individuals

and organizations with information to build confidence

in authorized COVID-19 vaccines, and to motivate and

inspire people to collectively fight the pandemic. Led by

the Alliance for Aging Research, HealthyWomen, and the

National Caucus and Center on Black Aging, Inc., one of

the project’s objectives is to convene a dialogue among

organizations representing the multitude of constituencies

that face challenges from COVID-19, particularly diverse

populations that have been most harmed, and those on

the front lines of the pandemic.


Created by the Ad Council in partnership with COVID

Collaborative’s scientific advisory group and the Centers

for Disease Control and Prevention, the “It’s Up to You”

campaign urges audiences to visit GetVaccineAnswers.org

(DeTiDepende.org in Spanish) to get the latest information

about COVID-19 vaccines, with the ultimate goal of helping

the public feel confident and prepared to get vaccinated

once a vaccine is available to them. “By getting vaccinated

we can drive down this virus and prevent its continued

spread and begin to return to life hopefully as we knew it,”

said ANA President Ernest Grant in an interview.


#ThisIsOurShot to help stop the spread of Covid-19.

Watch this inspirational video highlighting nurses across

the country who have received their Covid-19 vaccine. This

video pays tribute to nurses across America and continues

to share the message of hope already being expressed

by nurses everywhere. American Nurses Association

supports the nursing community’s efforts to strengthen

awareness, build vaccine confidence, and foster unity.

The vaccine rollout is top-of-mind for everyone, and ANA

wants to recognize all courageous nurses and healthcare

heroes receiving their vaccines to build confidence in one

another and continue the fight against COVID-19 for each

and every one of their patients. Now there is hope!

Check out this

resource from ANA

Well -Being Initiative

Free Tools and Apps to Support the Mental

Health and Resilience of All Nurses



To access electronic copies of the

Utah Nurse, please visit






April, May, June 2021 Utah Nurse • Page 7

Don’t Forget to Vaccinate: Guidance for Nurses

Hala S. Taylor, RN, MSN-FNP Student

Gonzaga University


Reprinted with permission RN Idaho, February 2021

Vaccination and immunization may be a more relevant topic than ever before. Vaccinations

are a safe and effective means for helping to provide immunity against potentially lifethreatening

disease (CDC, 2019). Vaccinations in the United States are administered to

children and adults per a schedule issued by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

(CDC). There are other vaccines that are administered to people who may be at risk for

contracting disease due to travel, work, illness, or other circumstances. This paper will

address the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the utilization of preventative care services,

specifically the decline in vaccination rates across the country.

Childhood Vaccines

The state of Michigan reported a decline in the number of children receiving vaccinations

(Figure 1) since March 2020, when the country began responding to the spread of SARS-

CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 disease (Bramer et al., 2020). With the required

lifestyle changes and concerns that arose around the COVID-19 pandemic, many children

and adults avoided seeking routine medical care. For this reason, many child wellness visits

were skipped and with this, the vaccines that would usually accompany the visit have been

missed. This sets up our nation for increased outbreak of vaccine preventable illnesses,

which could occur at a time when our health system availability is most challenged.

Vaccines for Adults

Due to increased comorbidities and fear of Covid exposure, older adults are also at

risk for vaccine decline. They are at increased risk of respiratory illness, especially those

over the age of 65. There are scheduled vaccines for adults age 65 and older including,

Pneumococcal conjugate (PCV13) per clinical indication, Pneumococcal polysaccharide

(PPSV23), and the Influenza formulation for elderly adults. Due to a declining immune

system and rates of chronic illness, elderly adults are at increased risk for diseases that

vaccines can prevent.

Racial Disparities and the 2020-21 Flu Season

The importance of vaccination for those at risk due to health disparities is also

relevant to the COVID-19 pandemic. According to data from the CDC, during the

2019-2020 flu season, adult flu vaccine coverage for non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic,

and American Indian/Alaska Native was 10 to 15 percent less than non-Hispanic

White adults (CDC, 2020b). These racial groups have greater rates of flu-related

hospitalization, with Black Americans at a rate of 68 per 100,000 and Whites at 38 per

100,000 (CDC, 2020b). Black Americans are more at risk for the disease, as well as for

greater severity of illness and related mortality (Yancy, 2020).

The CDC provides some guidance for providers to connect with partners in the

community to increase flu vaccination rates by, “developing culturally specific messaging

and linguistically tailored content to reach additional audiences” (CDC, 2020b, What CDC is

Doing section).

The Washington State Department of Health has put together a guide for providers for

safe vaccine delivery during the COVID-19 pandemic. Access this updated guide at https://


At the national level, the CDC has published vaccine guidelines for providers. (CDC,

2020a). Important points to remember during the pandemic include:

• Administration of vaccines is an essential medical service.

• Assess the vaccination status of all patients across the life span at every health

care visit.

• Administer routinely recommended vaccines to children, adolescents, and adults

(including pregnant women).

• Delay vaccination for persons with suspected or confirmed COVID-19.

• Follow guidance to prevent the spread of COVID-19 in health care settings.

• Encourage vaccination at the patient’s medical home.

• Implement effective strategies for catch-up vaccination.

• Communicate with patients/families about how they can be safely vaccinated

during the pandemic. (CDC, 2020a, Deliver Vaccines Safely section)

For more information about the importance of vaccines for children and the risks of

delaying or skipping vaccines, please visit the CDC’s website at https://tinyurl.com/ycel4le2.

The author declares she has no conflicts of interest with this content.

Editor’s Note: For Idaho Health & Welfare visit https://healthandwelfare.idaho.gov/.


Bramer, C.A., Kimmins, L.M., Swanson, R., Kuo, J., Vranesich, P., Jacques-Carroll, L.A.,

& Shen, A.K. (2020). Decline in child vaccination coverage during the COVID-19

Pandemic — Michigan Care Improvement Registry, May 2016–May 2020. Morbidity

and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), 69(20), 630–631. http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2019). Why Vaccinate. https://www.cdc.gov/


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2020a). Pandemic Guidance. https://www.cdc.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2020b). Flu Disparities Among Racial and

Ethnic Minority Groups. https://www.cdc.gov/flu/highrisk/disparities-racial-ethnicminority-groups.html

State of Idaho. (2020, Dec. 28). Idaho official resources for the novel coronavirus

(COVID-19). https://coronavirus.idaho.gov/

Washington State Department of Health (2020). Vaccine guidance for providers during the

COVID-19 Pandemic. https://www.doh.wa.gov/.../PleaseContinueVaccinatingPatie...

Yancy, C.W. (2020). COVID-19 and African Americans. JAMA, The Journal of the American

Medical Association, 323(19):1891–1892. https://doi:10.1001/jama.2020.6548


It is important that all individuals, children and adults, continue to receive their

scheduled vaccines and yearly flu shots. This is critically important during a pandemic, as

a compromised immune system is an increased risk factor for more severe illness from

COVID-19 and other diseases.

Utah Nurse • Page 8 April, May, June 2021

Telehealth and Social Media Usage Since COVID-19:

How the Pandemic Has Forced Healthcare Change in 2020

Bryan R. Werry RN, BSN, CCRN

FNP Graduate Student

College of Nursing, Gonzaga University


Reprinted with permission RN Idaho, February 2021

Telehealth and Telemedicine

Eight years ago, I was introduced to the concept of

telehealth, and the potential use of technology as a means

of delivering medical and behavioral healthcare at a distance

to rural areas and large agricultural communities. According

to The National Organization of Nurse Practitioner Faculties

(NONPF), telehealth is defined as “the use of technology to

provide healthcare services at a distance including direct

patient care, remote monitoring, and education” (Rutledge et

al., 2018, p. 1). Telehealth includes both clinical and nonclinical

aspects of healthcare, such as administration and financial

services, while telemedicine is a narrower term limited to

the provision of clinical services. Although the concept

of telemedicine seemed logical and within our nation’s

technological capabilities, there have always been stringent

conditions and regulations regarding its use. For example,

reimbursement from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid

Services (CMS) and other health insurance companies has

been complicated and inadequate. These conditions clearly

discouraged providers from utilizing telehealth technology in


Regulations and reimbursement practices quickly

changed due to the circumstances of the COVID-19

pandemic. Recently, the U.S. Congress passed the

Emergency COVID Telehealth Response Act, which allowed

all providers the ability to furnish telemedicine services eligible

for Medicare reimbursement (U.S. Congress, May 1, 2020).

This act improved access to health care during the pandemic

by providing compensation of medical services without faceto-face

interaction. Jerich (2020) noted, “The relaxation of

telehealth regulations in response to the COVID-19 pandemic

has triggered a wave of interest and support, with patients

noting the convenience, discretion, and safety of virtual care

as a major selling point” (p. 1).

Increased Use of Telehealth

Even prior to the pandemic, there has been an increase

of telemedicine-related services across all sectors of

healthcare. Advancements in technology, electronics,

computers, and the internet have made healthcare delivery

possible through telemedicine (Claypool, 2019). A few years

ago, NONPF suggested that telehealth be incorporated into

the core curriculum of nurse practitioner (NP) education, so

students could become knowledgeable and proficient at

delivering healthcare in this manner (Rutledge et al., 2018).

Presently, the COVID-19 pandemic has forced us into a

situation that warrants the use of telemedicine in order to

safely deliver healthcare. According to Webel et al. (2020),

the response to COVID-19 has included an astonishing

increase in telemedicine usage and applications. For

example, since the outbreak of COVID-19, my stepfather,

a psychiatrist, has conducted the majority of his patient

visits through the application doxy.me. This provides him a

safe, reliable, and fairly easy way to deliver healthcare while

maintaining social distancing. Prior to the pandemic, my

stepfather only used telemedicine to deliver care to patients

in rural areas. Puro and Feyereisen (2020) reported that prior

to COVID-19, rural areas were already utilizing telemedicine

as a means to deliver healthcare. They concluded that

urban areas hard-hit by the pandemic have the potential to

improve outcomes by exploiting this same capability. The

COVID-19 pandemic has opened up a sort of “Pandora’s

Box” of developments in technology use that leads to the

question: How can providers best use technology during

this pandemic to improve both business practices and

benefit patient outcomes?

Social Media in Healthcare:

Implications for Practice

Increased Use of Social Media

Social media has become ubiquitous in our culture,

with more and more users being added daily. According to

Ventola (2014), the term “social media” has a “constantly

evolving” definition but can be loosely defined as “internetbased

tools that allow individuals and communities to gather

and communicate; to share information, ideas, personal

messages, images, and other content; and, in some cases,

to collaborate with other users in real time” (p. 491). Ventola

(2014) identified categories of social media tools as:

• Social networking (Facebook, MySpace, Google Plus,


• Professional networking (LinkedIn),

• Media sharing (YouTube, Flickr),

• Content production (blogs [Tumblr, Blogger] and

microblogs [Twitter]),

• Knowledge/information aggregation (Wikipedia), and

• Virtual reality and gaming environments (Second Life).

Ventola reported that over 70% of healthcare

organizations, systems, and companies use social media to

their benefit, with the most popular being Facebook, Twitter,

and YouTube.

Benefits of Social Media in Healthcare

The benefits of social media are multiple. It can be

used locally, regionally, nationally, and even world-wide.

For example, a healthcare provider (HCP) working as an

infectious disease specialist out of London, England, can

utilize a social media application to connect with another

HCP in a third-world country like Somalia. Another example

is how certain medical and surgical procedures can now be

streamed via YouTube. Social media signals a new era of

communication and networking, where HCPs can exchange

information and knowledge at an unparalleled rate (Ventola,

2014). I recently performed a Google search (www.google.

com) and found that Facebook alone has over a billion users.

With such a large audience, social media has the potential

for a tremendous impact on patient empowerment and

outcomes. It can facilitate dialogue between sizable groups

of providers and patients, as it offers quick and widespread

communication (American Hospital Association, 2018). In a

systematic review of social media in healthcare, Smailhodzic

et al. (2016) reported that patients found social media to be a

helpful tool for social, emotional, and informational support in


Social Media Obstacles

The negative aspects of social media include potential

loss of privacy, being targeted for promotions and labeling,

and addiction to social media itself. These disadvantages

are complicated by numerous factors. First, there are

no encompassing social media standards to guide its

appropriate use in healthcare. The American Nurses

Association’s (ANA) social media guidelines and tips specify

that nurses must use the same professional standards

online as in other circumstances and also need to develop

organizational policies and ensure privacy settings are in

place when using technology (ANA Enterprise, n.d.). The

American Medical Association’s (AMA) Journal of Ethics

recommends that online behavior should reflect “offline

professional conduct found in-person” as a starting point

(Kind, 2015, p. 442). They also suggest that social media

guidelines should help users address opportunities and

challenges that arise in new platforms.

Although many HCPs would never deliberately commit a

violation of patient privacy, many end up doing so by simply

posting online about their day at work (Sewell, 2019). Patient

privacy is also under the constant threat of unauthorized

users trying to illegally access sensitive information.

Malicious security breaches include: social media intrusions,

identity thefts, phishing scams, malware, misinformation,

and misuse of sensitive medical information. While most

providers do maintain high ethical standards when using

social media, this does not guarantee that the platform

will exist without issues and non-professional behavior

(Claypool, 2019).

Facilitating Patient Use of Social Media in

the Pandemic

At the hospital where I work as a critical care nurse,

mandatory physical distancing requirements are in place and

have resulted in restrictions to visitation rights for patients/

families and limitations on staff meetings. These policy

changes have led to greater use of technology applications

such as secure work chats and use of Facetime and Zoom

to help our patients communicate with loved ones. On my

current unit, the staff often connect family/friends on a tablet

at a scheduled time. Once all participants are accounted for,

we place the tablet on a secure stand next to the bedside,

and the family can interact with their loved one while we

assume care of other patients. The process is not perfect but

overall has been well received.

Patients throughout the U.S. are not limited to a single

avenue of social media for encounters with their providers.

The variety in online communication methods is rapidly

increasing, and patients can often choose the platform they

prefer. Although the opportunities for social media seem

promising, there are still many obstacles and challenges to

overcome. Examples include limited access to the internet

or devices (computers and smartphones) and limited user

knowledge regarding such technology. These barriers are

typically more prevalent in the poorer/rural communities

(Koonin et al., 2020).

From my experience working in an ICU during this

pandemic, families have been able to communicate with

their loved ones infected with COVID-19 through social

media, the most popular choice being Facetime. My coworkers

and I welcome the use of such communication

options, as we witness firsthand the feeling of isolation and

helplessness our patients are experiencing. In the past, many

clinicians were wary about using social media as a method

of communicating with patients and their families (Ventola,

2014). However, it is now considered commonplace amongst

hospitals/clinics, colleges, businesses, and many other

organizations. Users are finding that it provides a sense of

community and sharing that was unimaginable years ago

(Sewell, 2019).

April, May, June 2021 Utah Nurse • Page 9

I predict that social media and telehealth will continue

to see favorable acceptance by providers; the public’s

response and acceptance during the pandemic suggests

that its use will continue to grow. However, as we gain

access to more technology and scientific evidence,

there is also a growing need to govern and legislate the

appropriate use of the information available (Kind, 2015).

Evaluating the safety, privacy, and quality of information

being delivered remains a cause for concern.


With the rapid advancement of telehealth and

the use of social media, it seems clear that a high

percentage of patients and providers will continue

to use this technology after the COVID-19 pandemic

comes to an end. Koonin et al. (2020) found that

consumers use social media as a complement rather

than a replacement to healthcare services. Whether a

provider is treating the patient face-to-face or online, the

standards of professional behavior should remain the

same: Providers should maintain their integrity, respect,

and compassion for others. If committed to these

principles, HCPs will be able to use social media for

educational purposes, networking, quality improvement

initiatives, satisfaction surveys, and measuring

outcomes (Kind, 2015). As long as social media and

telehealth are consistent with current models of ethics,

such as the ANA Code of Ethics for Nurses with

Interpretive Statements (ANA, 2015), these technological

advancements will augment what providers are capable

of offering (Sulmasy et al., 2017). The COVID-19

pandemic has been a tragedy and struggle for so many

people worldwide. However, one silver lining is the

opportunity to evaluate the success of telemedicine and

the ways that it has helped us provide better medical

services during this challenging time.

The author reports he has no conflicts of interest with

this content.


American Hospital Association. (2020, October 9).

Social media policy. https://www.aha.org/


American Nurses Association. (2015). Code of ethics for

nurses with interpretive statements. https://www.



American Nurses Association (ANA) Enterprise. (n.d.) Social

media. https://www.nursingworld.org/social/

Claypool, B. (2020, April 20). Telemedicine and COVID-19:

6 tips to ace your first visit. Mental Health Weekly,

30(17), 5–6. https://doi.10.1002/mhw

Jerich, K. (2020, November 3). Telehealth’s uncertain future

raises alarm bells for cancer patients. Healthcare

IT News. https://www.healthcareitnews.com/news/


Kind, T. (2015, May). Professional guidelines for social media

use: A starting point. AMA Journal of Ethics Clinical,

17(5), 441-447. http://doi.org/10.1001/journalofethics.2


Koonin, L., Hoots, B., Tsang, C., Leroy, Z., Farris, K., Jolly,

B., Antall, P., McCabe, B., Zelis, C., Tong, I., &

Harris, A. (2020, October 30). Trends in the use of

telehealth during the emergence of the COVID-19

pandemic. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report,

69(43), 1595-1599. http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.

mm6943a3external icon

Puro, N., & Feyereisen, S. (2020). Telehealth availability in

U.S. hospitals in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic.

The Journal of Rural Health, 36(4), 577-583. https://


Rutledge, C., Pitts, C., Poston, R., & Schweickert, P. (2018).

NONPF supports telehealth in nurse practitioner

education. https://cdn.ymaws.com/www.nonpf.org/



Sewell, J. (2019). Informatics and nursing: Opportunities and

challenges (6th ed.). Wolters Kluwer.

Smailhodzic, E., Hooijsma, W., Boonstra, A., & Langley, D.

(2016). Social media use in healthcare: A systematic

review of effects on patients and on their relationship

with healthcare professionals. BMC Health Services

Research, 16(442). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-


Sulmasy, L. S., Lopez, A. M., & Horwitch, C. A. (2017).

Ethical implications of the electronic health record: In

the service of the patient. Journal of General Internal

Medicine, 32(8), 935-939.

United States Congress. (2020). Emergency COVID

Telehealth Response Act. https://www.congress.gov/


Ventola, L. (2014). Social media and health care

professionals: Benefits, risks, and best practices.

Pharmacy and Therapeutics, 39(7), 491-499.

Webel, E., Miller, S., Astha, V., Janevic, T., & Benn, E. (2020).

Characteristics of telehealth users in NYC for COVIDrelated

care during the Coronavirus pandemic.

Journal of the American Medical Informatics

Association, 00, 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1093/jamia/



Utah Nurses Foundation Scholarships

Support Nursing Students and Funding

for Utah Action Coalition for Health

Mark Siemon, PhD, RN, PHNA-BC, CPH

Utah Nurses Foundation Executive Board

The Utah Nurses Foundation (UNF) exists to promote

and advance the nursing profession by supporting

educational development, scholarly work, and research.

Consistent with its charitable purposes, UNF awarded

three scholarships in the Fall of 2020. Rebecca Jensen

lives in Bountiful, and she is enrolled in the Roseman

University of Health Sciences Accelerated Bachelor of

Science in Nursing program. She was inspired to become

a Registered Nurse from seeing her mother, an RN,

caring for people in her community. She is a Certified

Health Education Specialist (CHES), and she was the

Vice President of the Roseman Nursing Honor Society.

Elizabeth Dunford from Kaysville has wanted to become

a nurse since she was a young girl. She delayed entering

nursing school to start a family. Now that her four children

are in school, she decided it was time for her to begin

nursing school. She is currently enrolled in the Bachelor of

Science Nursing program with Ameritech College of Health

Care. Her experience in nursing school has strengthened

her commitment to making a difference in people’s lives.

The third scholarship recipient lives in Hurricane, and she is

a student in the BSN program at Dixie State University. She

worked as a Certified Nursing Assistant before entering

nursing school. She’s not sure where her “nursing passion”

will be, but she’s convinced that nursing will provide her

with a rewarding career. Each of the 2020 UNF scholarship

recipients demonstrates the talent and willingness to

serve and care for Utah’s families and communities during

the pandemic and in the future. The UNF Scholarship

applications for 2021 are available on the Utah Nurses

Association website https://una.nursingnetwork.com/


The UNF Board also approved funding to support

the Utah Action Coalition for Health (UACH) during its

meeting in February 2021. Historically, the UACH has

championed policies to improve nursing workforce data

collection, developed recommendations to improve

nursing education, studied how best to influence

workforce diversity, and piloted projects to improve

a culture of health for nurses and communities. UNF

funding will assist UACH with strategic planning and

preparation for the release of the Future of Nursing 2020-

2030 report. The next iteration of the report is anticipated

to be released during Nurses Week in May 2021. If you

are interested in learning more about the work of the

UACH you can contact Dr. Teresa Garrett, DNP, RN,

PHNA-BC at teresa.garrett@nurs.utah.edu or Joan M.

Gallegos, MSW, RN at joan.gallegos2@aol.com

UNA wishes all Utah nurses a very happy

and healthy Nurses Month this May 2021

Visit nursingALD.com today!

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in all 50 states, and filter by location and credentials.

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Your always-on resource for nursing jobs, research, and events.

Utah Nurse • Page 10 April, May, June 2021

World War II Pacific Theater or Southwestern Pacific Theater

Kathleen Kaufman MS, RN

Pearl Harbor

“The day that will live in infamy” occurred on December 7,

1941. (Franklin Delano Roosevelt) when the Japanese Airforce

attacked and destroyed most of the American Pacific Fleet

which was stationed at Honolulu Harbor in Hawaii. Nineteen

U. S. Navy ships including eight battleships were destroyed.

That Sunday morning 2,403 men were killed and 1,178

were wounded. The hospital nurses and Navy nurses

stationed at Pearl Harbor cared for the massive influx of

wounded with the help of volunteers, service wives, even

prostitutes. They established eight burn units because so

many sailors had jumped from their ships into burning oil.

According to Phyllis Dana, RN from the Navy hospital in Pearl

Harbor, the only treatment for these severe burns was sulfa

powder and mineral oil. Morphine and phenobarbital were

given for pain. This was definitely not sterile treatment but

Dana notes that the “rate of survival was surprisingly good.”

(DBF, p.13)

Prior to the bombing of Pearl Harbor, many American

Army, Air Force, and Navy nurses were stationed in islands

and atolls stretching from Hawaii through Guam, the Johnson

Islands, the Marianas Islands to the Phillipines, which was

a territory of the United States at that time. These assigned

locations with palm trees, and lovely beaches contributed to

the reputation of these as “cushy’ or “plush” assignments.

These nurses provided relatively “routine” patient care at

Army and Airforce bases as well as at Navy hospitals and

hospital ships. This all changed December 7th.

These assignments changed rapidly as the Japanese

began the systematic attack on outlying islands as well as the

Philippines. When the area around Stozenberg Hospital north

of Manila was bombed nine hours after Pearl Harbor had

been hit; the hospital had been emptied of patients. Nurses

and doctors awaited an influx of wounded. Now a steady

flow of badly burned soldiers and sailors required constant

care before they could be shipped out to mainland hospitals

nearly 6,000 miles away.

Nurses were performing triage of the wounded – a skill

they had read about but had never been trained to nor

expected to perform. They never expected to be responsible

to make these decisions: One group would receive required

medical treatment immediately for serious wounds; a second

group whose wounds could be treated a bit later such as

massive burns; and a third group with catastrophic injuries

who could only be kept comfortable with morphine until they


The Philippines

After the bombing at Pearl Harbor, there was a lull of nine

hours before the Japanese started to bomb the Philippines.

The few ambulances at Stosensberg Hospital north of Manila

brought in the wounded and dying to overflowing wards.

Nurses had no time for charting and simply marked ”M” for

morphine or “S” for sedation on the foreheads of patients

they had medicated. Morphine was given to deaden the pain

and quiet the screaming of the patients. (MCKFp.20)

The nurses dealt with the hundreds of combat wounds

as well as possible. At this time no Army nurses had had any

training for combat nursing. Patients lay on porches, on litters,

some on the ground. The Japanese attack on Clark Field

killed 85 men, wounded 350, and destroyed half of America’s

Far East Air force. Nurses at Stosenberg Hospital were

issued dog tags – for identification in case of death.

As the Japanese started the attack on the Philippines,

nurses discharged all ambulatory patients back to their duty

stations. The bombing of Clark Air Field and Ft. McKinley

led to mounting casualties at Sternberg and Stosenberg

Hospitals. (Sternberg General Hospital in Manila was the

larget and best equipped hospital in the Philippines and

became the center for military and civilian casualties.)

The Army, Navy and Filipino nurses in the multiple

hospitals and stations throughout the island were gradually

forced north by the invading Japanese. They moved into

older hospitals on the Bataan Peninsula or into the heavily

fortified base inside Corregidor Island. This base was a tunnel

under many hundreds of feet of rock. The tunnel had a full

medical facility inside. The hospital at Lemay on Bataan

(Hosp. no. 1) had only equipment remnants from WWI

– rusted cots, surgical sets packed in petroleum jelly – In a

day the nurses had cleaned and set up 18 wards with three

dozen cots each. While expecting rescue that never came,

nurses and medical teams cared for 200 patients that first

day at Hosp. No. 1.

The fierce fighting on the peninsula drove some nurses

to escape via submarine or on sea-going bombers. One

bomber was not able to take off and the nurses on that

plane ended up captured and held as prisoners in internment

camps. This left 76 nurses who continued to care for

military wounded and civilians. These nurses worked in the

tunnel under Corregidor. When Corregidor surrendered, the

Japanese moved the nurses into two internment camps:

Santo Tomas and Las Baños. The POW nurses cared

for three to four thousand internees with minimal medical

supplies and too little food — and endless interruptions and

inspections by Japanese guards. Three Filipinos, a doctor

and two nurses cared for the entire local population in the

small station at Hermosas.

Life at Santo Tomas was routine, repetitive and

boring unless there was an influx of patients. Although

nutrition became a great problem, there were usually

enough medical supplies and medicines due to Red

Cross deliveries. Food rations were reasonable at first

but dwindled over the three years of imprisonment to a

starvation diet. A daily average intake of 1,300 calories in

1944 dropped to 800 calories by November and December

and to 680 calories for the last months of their captivity.

In the midst of this the internees were allowed to plant

vegetable gardens which brought some welcome fresh

foods. By the end of their days at Santo Tomas, each

person was receiving a small cup of veg gruel, a spoon

of moldy rice and a cup of warm water per day (500 cal).

The starvation diets led to beriberi, edema, anemia, TB,

measles, whooping cough, and bacilliary dysentery. This

diet despite the need to care for patients… (p.34 BBT)

As the American recapture of Bataan came ever closer,

the restrictions became more stringent: all dead bodies were

only to be buried inside the camp. As no one was strong

enough to dig graves, the bodies piled up at a rate of seven

to 10 per day. The large camp rats ate well, nibbling toes and

fingers from corpses.

Throughout the 37 months of captivity, the nurses

remained a cohesive unit with the leadership of “Commander

Maude Davison whose goal was to pull her nurses together

by insisting on discipline, order, and dedication to their

patients. This ‘prescription for endurance and courage’ had

kept her nurses alive.(p. 121 MCF) Not one of the captive

nurses in the Army or Navy ranks died during their time in the

camps. As several nurses said, they were just too busy taking

care of patients to worry about their own fears.


Upon return home, after family celebrations were over and

the Army had trotted out the “nurse POWs for speeches or

fundraising (!), these same POW nurses felt abandoned. Their

captivity had been glamorized. Despite the fact that no nurse

died in captivity and none were raped or physically abused,

the public and even close friends and family did not really

want to hear, and even ignored attempts by the nurses to tell

their stories.

Physical problems of the nurses tended to be ignored by

the VA. The VA System focused primarily on the problems

of men who were POWs. Any signs of what we know now

as PTSD was called combat fatigue in WWII. This was

addressed in men — but ignored in women who had been

POWs. Some nurses never got VA support until the Former

Prisoner of War Benefit Act was passed in 1981!

“In the 1940s no framework existed that allowed people

to understand women who had acted with enduring courage

and strength on the battlefield and as prisoners of war —

women who had acted like men…the former POW nurses

were told by their supervisors to sign statements agreeing not

to speak publicly of atrocities they had seen” (p. 119 MCF).

Friends and family rarely wanted to hear about their

experiences. No counseling or medications existed yet to

treat what we recognize as PTSD today. The nurses felt very

alone with little contact between them as they spread home

across the States – no email, no Facebook to help them stay

in touch with their sisters who had survived the same trials as


What became of the nurses of the Pacific Theater? Many

continued their military careers, some worked as civilian

nurses, others married and started families. Read about their

stories in the references listed below.

If this series continues, it will look at the history of flight

nursing…which did begin in WWII, in the China-Burma-India


References (see initials to trace source):

Clark, A.R Thirty-seven Months as Prisoners of War. The

American Journal of Nursing V. 45 No. 5 (May 1945) pp.


Farrell, M. C. (2014) Pure Grit: How American WWII Nurses

Survived Battle and Prison Camps in the Pacific.

Abrams, NY, NY.

Fessler, D. B. (1996). No Time for Fear: Voices of American

Military Nurses in WWII. Michigan State University Press.

East Lansing, Michigan.

Ritt, C. Filipino Nurses on Bataan. The American Journal of

Nursing V. 45 No.5 (May 1945).pp. 346-347.

Tomblin, B.B. (1996) G.I. Nightingales: The Army Nurse Corps in

WWII. University Press of Kentucky, Lexington Kentucky.

April, May, June 2021 Utah Nurse • Page 11



(December 16, 2020 –

March 15, 2021)

Sara Hart

Kindra Celani

Anita Hill

Natan Gama

Kristin Harko

Raeshelle Larsen

Peter Stewart

Scot Stevig

Angela Badham

Jody De Jonge

Amy Parry

Candace McClintick

Scott Allgier

Bonnie Leman

Hillary Watson

Stacey Lopez

Greg Smith

Emily Keim

Wendy Scott

Kammie Phillips

Marlyn Conti

Mary Ann Johnson

Kyunghee Seo

Holli Jones

Beth Makar

Marimar Otero-Rojas

Pamela Archbold

Barbara Kortes

Kirsten Brown

Sarah Walker

Ariel De Anda

Teya Wilson

Lisa Evans

Sharlene Campbell

Stephenie Iverson

Brittania Doxstader

David Wakefield

Holly Kissell

Jilleen Kirkland

Natasha Ansari

Amber Tate

Sharon Miller

Tonya Lazaro

Contessa Ramos

Tamara Deitrick

Cynthia Byerly

Ruth Earley

Nancy Long Foster

Sean Graff

Cody Morgan

Eva Comollo Angerhofer

Kristi Johnson

Peggy Shadel

Snow College announces

new 2-year RN program

The Snow College Nursing Department is transitioning to a

2-year Registered Nursing, Associate of Science in Nursing,


The first cohort will begin spring semester of 2022. We will

be accepting cohorts fall and spring semester. Applications

for spring semester 2022 will be due on September 1, 2021.

Applications for fall semester 2022 will be due on March 1,

2022. Courses will be taught on the Richfield and Ephraim


Contact us today for more details!

Melissa Blackner: 435-893-2232 or Amber Epling: 435-893-2228



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