Diesel International 2021-05

Let's start with the John Deere 18-litre that was awarded Diesel of the Year 2021. Michael Lefebvre reported on the knowledge and passion that went into it. Sustainability? Yes, even among yachts it must be right now! This is what the first leg of the Sustainable Powertrain Tour revealed. AB and Stirling Cryogenics, biomasses and hydrogen. Hatz is (nearly) immune to Covid. Anyway, it feels good. Hybrids, and H-series, are intriguing OEMs. A ‘bit off-road generation’: 9 litres Cummins Diesel engine for Soilmec's drilling, FPT Industrial F28 biomethane engine for His Wine Majesty made by Barolo grapes. Comparisons: industrial engines between 1.5 and 1.9 liters. MAN Engines. We gave the old Nuremberg Lion a tonsil examination. He roars like a teenager. A detailed report from the MAN’s ecosystem. An imaginary wire drives JCB to the quarry, DAF to the road. Reading a lengthy marine chapter, beginning with Rolls-Royce’s emphasis on the Power-to-X approach. Cummins Marine is really booming. Hug Engineering improved catalysis to exorcise the ghost of SCR. Grimaldi's Cruise Smeralda, which has been repowered and is as good as fresh, takes Vulkan on a cruise.

Let's start with the John Deere 18-litre that was awarded Diesel of the Year 2021. Michael Lefebvre reported on the knowledge and passion that went into it.
Sustainability? Yes, even among yachts it must be right now! This is what the first leg of the Sustainable Powertrain Tour revealed.
AB and Stirling Cryogenics, biomasses and hydrogen.
Hatz is (nearly) immune to Covid. Anyway, it feels good. Hybrids, and H-series, are intriguing OEMs.
A ‘bit off-road generation’: 9 litres Cummins Diesel engine for Soilmec's drilling, FPT Industrial F28 biomethane engine for His Wine Majesty made by Barolo grapes.
Comparisons: industrial engines between 1.5 and 1.9 liters.
MAN Engines. We gave the old Nuremberg Lion a tonsil examination. He roars like a teenager. A detailed report from the MAN’s ecosystem.
An imaginary wire drives JCB to the quarry, DAF to the road. Reading a lengthy marine chapter, beginning with Rolls-Royce’s emphasis on the Power-to-X approach. Cummins Marine is really booming. Hug Engineering improved catalysis to exorcise the ghost of SCR. Grimaldi's Cruise Smeralda, which has been repowered and is as good as fresh, takes Vulkan on a cruise.


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Diesel of the year 2021: John Deere 18.0L - MAN: cover story -

Comparisons: between 1.5 and 1.9 liters - Alternatives: F28

biomethane - Marine: MTU, Cummins, Hug Engineering, Vulkan





ISSN 0042

Press Register n. 4596 – April 20th 1994

Poste Italiane Inc. – Mail subscription

D.L. 353/2003 (mod. in L. 27/02/2004 n° 46)

Art. 1, subsection 1, LO/MI


May 2021



MAY 2021




John Deere 18.0L is a rear gear train engine


Cat, Doosan,

Hatz, Iseki,

Isuzu, Kohler




Perkins, Yanmar



ICOMIA, Amer Yachts and Fincantieri Yachts


TK tractors are powered by F28 biomethane

34. JCB

An electric shake in the quarry

36. DAF

BEV and PHEV trucks



Working together to produce liquid biomethane


16. HATZ

Ruhstorf is COVID-free (just to say it’s ok)


A journey into the Lion’s ecosystem



With a 9 liters diesel engine by Cummins



11 engines, 5 are from Japan





Everything is in full swing


ATS integration and switchability


Replacing couplings on Cruise Smeralda


5. Automotive 10. Newsroom 48. Techno

Why ‘POWERTRAIN’ Magazine?

You can’t ignore change, you don’t have to undergo

it. Becoming ‘Powertrain’ means assisting

and interpreting change, without denying the past

or distorting the present. We’ll keep you posted.



by Fabio Butturi




28 October 2013: «FIAT Group

acquired an initial 50% stake in VM

in 2010 and now has 100% control»

CE is like the witches burned at the stake

by the Inquisition in medieval Spain. It is

the scapegoat, thrown to a public opinion

hungry for culprits in order to clear their

conscience. Diesel International has

decided to oppose this trend and to refute the

instrumental use of the word ‘sustainability’.

What does ‘sustainability’ really mean? To

understand it better, we decided to consult those

who deal with this issue every day. Thus, we

have organized the ‘Sustainable Powertrain Tour

2021’, in three stages. Three Thursdays, April

22, July 15 and October 21, for leisure boating,

power generation and NRMM applications.

Are fans of forced electrication so condent

that the environmental balance is beneting

from it? Certainly, urging car drivers to leave

diesel in favor of gasoline has not done much

good to the cause of CO2 reduction. The energy

transition does not know a single winning

fuel but a mix of sources. The real goal is to

understand which type of diet is most suitable.

Work cycles, peaks, starting torque, thermal

stress, weather variables, accessibility of fuels

and raw materials (such as lithium), economies

of scale, incentives, municipal laws and national

and supranational regulations. Propulsion and

power supply must be set according to these

and other variables, the center of which must

be the application. The endothermic engine, in

Stage V and Euro6E homologation, is proposed

as a champion of efciency and reduction of

pollutants in the exhaust. Methane gas has

found new life, lean burn or lambda1, in LNG

the compromise for heavy-duty applications,

especially for trucks. If we add the prex

‘bio’, the compromise becomes optimal.

Hybridization, mild or strong, hydrogen, blue,

brown, gray or green, electrication, PHEV

or BEV. Sustainability must also make sense

in reference to public spending constraints,

the type of use of applications and social and

employment implications.

On April 22 we began this adventure with

leisure boating. What to do to avoid oil bubbles

and sooty trails in the water? Could hybrid be

the magic formula? ICOMIA drew the general

picture, Amer Yachts and Fincantieri Yachts

told their vision. Rolls-Royce Power Systems

and AS Labruna shared the microphone at the

round table. You can read some excerpts at

page 8.

rokee, as well as on Maserati sedans

and SUVs.

Named Ecodiesel MultiJet V6, the

Gladiator’s engine is the result of an

ad hoc development that on the one

hand guarantees Euro6D Final compliance

(with 248-256 g/km Wtp

CO2 emissions); on the other hand,

it winks at off-road use. With 264 hp

VM’s 264-hp V6, made

in Cento (Italy), for the

US pick-up winking at

Europe. The 6-cylindres

diesel engine of the

FCA brand, now

under the Stellantis

umbrella, gets 264 hp

@3600 rpm and 600

Nm between 1400 and

2800 rpm

early one million pick-ups

sold in 2019, before the pandemic

broke out: after the

SUVs, the boxy mini-truck is

FCA’s best-selling model worldwide,

up 21 percent in sales within a

year. For this reason, we’ll also see

in Europe the Gladiator, the pick-up

version of the Jeep Wrangler born in

the States to offer a more compact

and sporty alternative to the best-selling

RAM 1500 (454,000 units sold

in 2019). Such a choice was taken in

contrast to both the farewell to the

Fiat Fullback and Mercedes’ decision

to withdraw the X-Class pick-up

truck resulting from the joint venture

with Nissan.

The fact that in the US the Regular

currently costs just over 62 euro cents

a litre is not enough to make people

settle for a classic 3.6-litre petrol

Pentastar. As for the diesel, the choice

has fallen on the VM’s three-litre

V6, already seen on the Gran Cheat

3,600 rpm and 600 Nm of torque

between 1,400 and 2,800 rpm, this

5.59-metre-long pick-up has a load

of over three tonnes, not to mention

another 2,700 kilos to tow. The 60-degree

V6 between the cylinder banks,

with cast-iron cylinder block, has an

optimised compression ratio from

16.5:1 to 16:1 with redesigned intake

valves to ensure greater ow. Also

new are the water-cooled variable geometry

turbo, the aluminium pistons

with low-friction coating to reduce

parasitic losses, the dual-circuit EGR

system in which low-pressure recirculation

draws gases downstream of

the particulate lter, reducing turbine

energy losses. Last but not least,

the oil sump, made in two pieces of

polymer-metal laminate to improve

overall acoustic comfort. Adblue dosing

gets on the road for the rst time.

And it’s not doing badly at all, given

its CO2 emissions of 112 g/km tested

according to NEDC standards.






MOLINE, ILLINOIS (February 24, 2021) – The Deere & Company Board of Directors

increased the company’s quarterly dividend to $.90 per share on common stock. «The

dividend increase is a reection of Deere’s recent strong performance and it shows our

condence in the company’s future direction» said John C. May, chairman and CEO.

uring a Diesel Technology

Forum webinar, we met up

(by remote) with Michael

Lefebvre. After a short

time, and before announcing the prize

winner, we made an interview with

him about the 18.0L. We believe it is

a good idea to continue our quest for

Diesel of the year 2021 with him. This

isn’t the last time he’ll tell us about

the 18 liters engine.

What has changed in these 15 years

in the design of these two engines?

tant to us and to our customers to be

compliant and it’s really driven a lot

of our engines development over that


Post Tier IV Final and Stage V I think

we have reached a new plate where

we could bring a little bit broader focus

on our customers’ needs. A little

bit heavy development of the after-

No downtime and

great attention to

customers’ needs,

combined with

discipline to comply

with regulations.

A rst John Deere

balance sheet

When we began the emissions era in

the off-highway engines, we were really

focused on how we could meet

every change of the emission standards

around the world. It’s been an

absolute focus for us, it’s very importreatment,

a new focus on customers’

needs and we really changed a lot,

developing engines that are focused

on our customers’ needs and not so

much on certi cation compliance. Of

course, engines have to be compliant,

but we had more time to focus on

what our customers want. In the actual

technical area during this time a

lot more simulation has been utilized:

combustion analysis, CFD (computational

uid dynamics), even 3D printing

is becoming a reality for many of

our prototypes and packaging. It really

allows for assessment of these requirements

that customer needs, even

before you do full prototyping.

Could you please tell us something

more about the 18.0L from a blank


It will be the largest engine in our lineup,

it is going to extend our power

availability up to 650 kW. Only a few

years ago we announced our 13.6 liters

engine: these two are pretty much

a family of engines, as they share a lot

of architectural concepts.

The 18.0L is really a rear gear train

engine, it utilizes our model-based

controls, with a real focus on service

and repairability. The rear gear train

is really focused on sound and reducing

torsional vibrations as well as

about customer experience. Modelbased

controls are really important.

They provide the foundations for us

to do market-leading connected support

for our customers. John Deere

is well-known for its customer support

around the world. Model-based

control is about understanding from a

model prospecting what’s going on inside

the engine, being able to transfer

the data to support our customers.

Any reduction in sensors offers an

improvement in reliability. Electronic

engines provide some challenges

on reliability. Anything electronic or

electrical has to survive in an offhighway

environment. We’re really

focused since the early days on the

design of these engines and on how

can we signi cantly reduce the time

for these repairs.

Let me guess, one of the goals will

be no downtime…

Absolutely. Talking about these large

engines, what customers need is uptime,

which is paramount for us in

developing our engines, including, of

course, the 18.0L.

Let’s talk about applications. Could

the 18.0L prove to be a erce competitor

in repowering enormous

machines such as maxi-dumpers?

What other applications would lend

themselves to such a hybrid?

The concept of electri cation is becoming

very prominent in automotive,

of course, but it’s very visible to us in

the off-highway world as well. I believe

the off-highway world will have

a challenge in the future to manage.

The major power elements that go

on in such applications you described

need to be balance: mechanical,

hydraulic, electrical systems. This is

important in order to optimize performances

for our customers.






hursday April 22th. That’s

how the web event ‘Evolution

of the species: the unplugged

hybrid’ began: “We have started

this journey from the primordial

element, water. So, in compliance

with the Darwinian ‘evolution of the

species’, we focus on hybridization,

as a cost-effective technology that

can be implemented immediately.

Because the real keyword of sustainability

is ‘right now’”. After the

opening video by Water Revolution

Foundation, we gave the floor

to ICOMIA and IMEC. Improving

the ICE is still the best option for

the engine room and ecosystem balances

as well. The topic of material

recycling has been and will continue

to be brought up as one of the pillars

of sustainability. All the more reason

to think about battery packs, which

suggest a moral as well as an operational

duty to dispose of lithium.

The work cycle of yachts requires

the storage of a considerable amount

of energy on board, and meeting the

demands of eco-compatibility must

meet the needs of owners. It comes

down to volume, additional masses

Bimotor adopted

Raywin for the

sprinkler and the

marine applications

as well. The Raywin

4-cylinder was the

special guest of the

Bimotor booth at the

Power Village of the

Genoa Boat Show

in terms of power-to-weight ratio and

cruise speed.

Let’s give the floor to Amer Yachts,

which has made it a goal to reduce

waste by reducing conventional composite

content, extending glass surfaces,

and using eco-materials, among

other things. As compared to a comparable

sized 80-foot yacht, the Amer

94 saved 20 tonnes of weight and up

to 45 percent of diesel while sailing

from Venice to Monaco. 3 litres per

nautical mile is the average fuel consumption.

Amer Yachts is developing

hybrid powertrain equipped with

SCR in the next two years, which

will be tracked to assess its impact,

skills, started with a sentence who

sound as a technological manifesto:

« We are here, after diesel and before

future». And now enjoy some

very interesting pills. We mention

just a couple of sustainable boats: the

Dual-Fueled 99m MY X-Vintage and

H2 + fuel cells powered 75m Swath

MY. Hybridization? The best way is

with peak-shaving battery system.

Are you aware about how to store

the same quantity of energy in fuel

form? Take, for example, Diesel oil,

LNG, and hydrogen. There are two

keys to properly understanding: mass

and volume. Hydrogen is rewarded

by the power density, while LNG

and diesel get worse. The function

of volume, or energy density, is reversed:

Diesel is still the best choice,

with hydrogen coming in third. Reas

well as an electric motor with six

hours of autonomy. Even the hydrogen

option will be available by 2024.

Fincantieri Yachts, optimizing the

cruise and defense ships’ in-house

mind that space constraints are critical

on current mega-yachts designs.

They gave us an example, by energy

percentages purely representative

in terms of of magnitude, talking

about the heat balance of a genset.

From 100% fuel you will generate

36% electric power. Well, 4% is wasted

due to the alternator efficiency,

around 28% due of exhausted gases,

30% due of the cooling system, 2%

in the engine room. Fincantieri could

recover up to 20% to direct heating

or to Organic Rankine Cycle units in

order to upgrade electric power.

For the rst time, we’ve highlighted

the OEM side. On the Diesel International

YouTube page, you can watch

the round table’s contributions with

AS Labruna and Rolls Royce Power







The Osaka’s response

to the entry-level

power challenge.

Daniel Grant, Manager

Marketing Intelligence

for Kubota BUEE,

said: «As part of our

customer rst strategy,

it’s also crucial that the

solutions we provide

exceed the needs of

our OEM customers»

he Kubota 3-cylinder D902-K

is the Osaka-based company’s

most recent response to the

entry-level power range challenge.

We have been often outspoken

on the crucial topic of displacement.

The secret to get hegemony, or at the

very least, securing substantial market

share, is to nd the proper single

cylinder displacement. A prime

example is Deutz’s TCD3.6, which

for more than a decade has led the

way for compact machines, essentially

replacing the iconic 1-litre

unit displacement. One battlefront

will soon be the one under 19 kilowatts,

as we expected. The demand

for ultra-compact engines and

downsizing will drive this evolution,

which will be followed by the

hybridization of small applications,

especially stationary and construction.

Stage V, which has resulted in

a power difference between 19 and

36 kilowatts in engines. Let’s read

the ofcial from Kubota. “The new

Kubota 3-cylinder D902-K (displacement

0.898L), which is set

for mass production from 2022,

is the rst electronic CAN (Controller

Area Network) controlled

engine that the globally-renowned

manufacturer of industrial Off-Highway,

Diesel and Spark-Ignited engines

has developed for output less

than 19kW. Designed and developed

to meet the latest exhaust emission

regulations (EU Stage V, EPA

Tier4 and China NR IV, and China’s

Class III visible smoke regulation

GB36886-2018) scheduled to come

into force in December 2022. The

new D902-K diesel engine features

a newly designed TVCR combustion

chamber combined with a new

and unique common rail system

within its compact size, making it

the ideal replacement for conventional

mechanical controlled models.

This innovative system enhances

the engine performance efciency

whilst reducing fuel consumptions

of approximately 5% compared to

conventional control model, meaning

that black smoke emission is

reduced and suppressed to an invisible

level, even during start-up, acceleration

and sudden load. Through

the acquisition of engine operation

data, telematics technology and

communicating via CAN (Controller

Area Network) by electric control,

both the rotation and torque of

the engine can be enhanced or suppressed

to improve performance and

efciency that cannot be achieved

by mechanical control”.


Cummins has recently announced the promotion of two top executives. More into detail, Tony Satterthwaite

has been named Vice Chairman and Jennifer Rumsey will succeed Satterthwaite as President and Chief

Operating Ofcer. These appointments have been effective since March 1.

«I am thrilled to have Tony join the Chairman’s ofce and condent he’s the right leader for this role, given

the signicant opportunities in front of us», said Tom Linebarger, Cummins’ Chairman and CEO. «Tony

understands our business at all levels and has a truly global view, having lived for extensive periods in

Asia, Europe and the US. He’s a well-respected leader, strategist, mentor and thinker and an asset to our





eritor, in consortium with its

partners Danfoss Editron and

Electra Commercial Vehicles,

has announced that it is

the recipient of the Advanced Propulsion

Centre’s (APC) Core Competition

Program in the UK to partially fund the

design and development of Meritor’s

17XeTM electric powertrain system

for heavy-duty electric trucks and buses

equipped with a single drive axle.

«With this award, our consortium will

develop a game-changing electric powertrain

for heavy-duty 4×2 and 6×2

vehicles up to 44 tonnes without wheel-end

reduction and up to 65 tonne

vehicles with wheel-end reduction»,


said Chris Villavarayan, CEO and

President, for Meritor. «This technology

will provide commercial vehicle

OEMs with the optimal solution to

meet EU 2025 CO2 reduction targets

and enable Meritor to significantly

expand its Blue Horizon technology

portfolio brand into Europe».

EPIC is the acronym of Electric Powertrain

Integration for heavy Commercial

vehicles project.

Kohler has been ready for Tier IV Final, then Stage V and nally

it is for China IV. It’s what came out of the ‘Non-road Mobile

Machinery Tier 4 Emission Standards Exchange seminar’.

The seminar was managed by CCMA (China Construction

Machinery Association), in Wuxi, Jiangsu Province. The new

emissions standard will be implemented on December 1, 2022,

for industrial engines with a power rating of less than 560 kW.


The DLG (German

Agricultural Society) decided

to postpone Agritechnica:

the new dates are February

27 - March 5, 2022. «Our

primary goal as the organizer

is to give exhibitors and

visitors planning security.

This is currently not the

case. That is why the DLG,

in close coordination with

the Agritechnica exhibitor

advisory board and the

VDMA Landtechnik as

industry partner, made

the decision to postpone

Agritechnica», said Reinhard

Grandke, General Manager

of the DLG.







Stirling Cryogenics has a strong specialisation in the

liquefaction of technical gases in general, and methane

in particular. The Dutch company’s experience in

liquefaction also in the ‘bio’ sector was important, from

AB’s point of view, in order to enter into an agreement

that integrated Stirling’s expertise and AB’s universally

recognised know-how in plant manufacturing. Stirling

Cryogenics’ cryo-cooler is a proven technology that has

been in use for over 60 years.

Its main application is in the re-liquefaction of boil-off

gas on board LNG carriers, but the cryo-cooler is also

used for the generation of liquid nitrogen for medical

purposes, space applications or in the service of

superconductors reaching below 12K (-261°C).

Each cryo-cooler is equipped with four pistons driven

by a single electric motor, and is capable of generating

about 1 tpd of LNG.

In these pages: overview of a BIOCH4NGE plant manufactured by AB for

the upgrading of biogas to biomethane. The project shared with Stirling

that led to the creation of the CH4LNG can be considered as the further

step: receiving gaseous biomethane and producing liquid biomethane.

ometimes, the right company

can make the difference.

That’s what they must have

thought at the headquarters

of AB, an Italian company specialising

in generation and cogeneration

plants with a highly innovative approach.

In the field of cryogenics,

a collaboration agreement has been

signed with Dutch specialists Stirling

Cryogenics. This has made it

possible to develop the CH4LNG

liquefier, which also opens up interesting

opportunities in the civil

and industrial sectors. We talked

about this with Federico Capra,

R&D Engineer at AB.

Where does the combination of

skills between AB and Stirling

Cryogenics come from? And what

Receiving incoming

gaseous biomethane

and producing liquid

biomethane, with a

production capacity of

up to 12 tonnes per

day. CH4LNG is the

name of the lique er

created by AB and

designed to contribute

to decarbonisation in

the transport sector

and beyond.

Focusing on the key

concepts of small scale

and modularity

are the main goals of the agreement

that has been signed?

AB is a national and international

benchmark for cogeneration from

natural gas and biogas. This has

allowed us to develop solid technological

know-how, which has already

been expressed in new products

such as the BIOCH4NGE system,

dedicated to upgrading biogas to

biomethane. Gaseous biomethane

is a CO2-neutral fuel, which is

currently distributed using existing

natural gas infrastructure. The natural

evolution of the supply chain

is to add the biomethane liquefaction

step, in order to obtain a fuel

with higher added value to be spent

on the market.

In such a scenario, the expertise

of Stirling Cryogenics, which can

boast decades of experience in the

field of methane/natural gas liquefaction,

fits in. The aim of the agreement

is to develop a biomethane

liquefaction system that relies on

the expertise of Stirling Cryogenics,

and at the same time has the

quality and reliability standards

typical of AB products, meeting the

needs of the biogas sector.

Within the framework of the

agreement, what will be the role

of Stirling Cryogenics and, above

all, what will be the role of AB


The roles are well defined and complementary

indeed. Stirling Cryogenics

will act as a technological

supplier of cryogenerators to AB.

The cryogenerator is the heart of

the plant, that is to say the machine

that generates the cooling power

required for the liquefaction of biomethane.

AB will integrate the cryogenerator

into a complete turnkey product

for the end customer. A strong

collaboration between AB, Stirling

Cryogenics and its parent company

Hysytech is paramount for the success

of the project.

AB approached this application by

acting as a single interface for all

the customer’s needs, so it will carry

out the design, construction, installation

and start-up of the plant

in-house. Finally, AB will be able

to rely on its extensive network of

specialised technicians in order to

maintain the installations and provide

customers with full assistance.

What are the main features of the

CH4LNG liquefier?

The CH4LNG liquefier is designed

to receive gaseous biomethane and

produce liquid biomethane, with

a production capacity of up to 12

tonnes per day (Tpd; i.e. the production

of a typical 1 MWel biogas

plant is equal to about 5 tpd of


Following the well-known AB approach,

the CH4LNG is a modular

and fully containerised system, requiring

minimal field installation.

The CH4LNG system is designed to

be highly decentralised and to decarbonise

the trucking industry, as

bio-LNG is the only carbon-neutral

fuel available today. The possibility

of having bio-LNG production

plants distributed throughout the






The European Green Deal includes a series of measures aiming

to eliminate net emissions by 2050. Interim targets for 2030

envisage a reduction of at least 55 percent in EU emissions.

The European Biogas Association (EBA) has tried to quantify

the impact of biomethane within these targets.

«The study shows that, already in its current state, the

European gas vehicle fleet uses a blend of 17 percent

biofuel», explains Federico Capra. «At the moment, European

biomethane production is worth 22 TWh, with a potential

of 1200 TWh. It is estimated that in 2030, 117 TWh will be

used as fuel in the transport sector (as liquid or compressed

biomethane), covering 40 percent of the needs of the European

CNG fleet. This would correspond to a 55 percent emission

reduction for the natural gas vehicle sector».

territory, supplying nearby service

stations, further reduces environmental

impact, emissions and

costs, moving towards a logic of

locality that overturns the need to

transport fuel for hundreds of kilometres.

ged to be expanded by inserting additional


Furthermore, the plant modularity

that is achieved through the implementation

of Stirling Cryogenics

technology allows all sizes to be

‘tailor-made’, without affecting investment

cost and, above all, specific

consumption. Other processes

may not be suitable for all sizes

and may find themselves working

at conditions far from optimal.

Another advantage is that biogas

production plants have their own

fluctuation during the year: having

the modules located side by side is

important to guarantee the plant’s

adjustability without jeopardizing


Thinking about the ultimate goal,

Small scale and modularity are

concepts that come up again and

again in relation to installations

of this type. Why?

We believe modularity is a great

advantage, as it allows us to approach

the small scale effectively.

The modular nature of these plants

means that a plant can be set up

to accommodate a given number

of cryogenerators, but only part of

them can be installed at first. However,

the system is already arrani.e.

decarbonisation, how crucial

is the step of biogas upgrading?

And why?

Biogas is typically converted into

electricity at the production site,

where it is often difficult to recover

all the thermal energy available

due to demand constraints. Biomethane,

on the other hand, can be

transported through the gas grid

and subsequently exploited in cogeneration

plants located close to

end users (electricity and heat).

What’s more, conversion to liquid

biomethane also makes it possible

to reach sectors where reducing

emissions has always been more

complex, such as heavy transport.

Liquid biomethane is a fuel with

an energy density comparable to

diesel (around 60 per cent) and

represents the only technologically

ready and economically viable

solution to provide a CO2-neutral

fuel for heavy-duty applications.

In terms of applications, are there

any sectors other than transport,

where bio-LNG can play an important

role in the near future?

At the moment, the transport sector

ranks high on the list of possible

uses for bio-LNG, especially as a

result of the incentives currently in


Looking at the medium term, the

shipping sector is already looking

at fossil LNG as a decisive improvement

on the current situation (bunker

oil). It is a step towards reducing

pollutant emissions (sulphur

dioxides, nitrogen oxides, ne dust).

The use of bio-LNG would also guarantee

a reduction in climate-altering

emissions, i.e. CO2.

In addition, bio-LNG makes it possible

to extend the advantages of

power generation (and cogeneration)

from renewable sources to offgrid

civil and, above all, industrial







Maren Hellwig, Hatz IoT specialist: «When I approach

a component with a mixed-reality glasses or a tablet, our

solution shows me all the information that I need to carry

out a professional maintenance job».

atz had shown up at bauma in

great shape, impressing the audience

with electronics’ irruption

into single-cylinder domain

and hinting at hybrid lighting towers.

But then came Covid and messed things

up. So we had a chat with them to pick

up where we left off.

«Hatz fosters the use of electronically

controlled engines as they enable machine

control strategies one could not

event think of with mechanically controlled

ones. Control via the CanBus

J1939 protocol allows for continuous

monitoring of the engine-machine interface.

The single cylinders of the E1

series rely entirely on electronic injection

control. An HDS team was set up in

Ruhstorf to handle remote diagnostics.

The HDS2 diagnostic tool was developed

jointly by Hatz and Bosch, that took

care of the injection system for the electronically

controlled single-cylinder E1

as well as for the H series. The ECU

was developed by Hatz together with a

US-based partner, which allows E1 single-cylinder

engines to be certied both

as EPA Tier 4 Final and Stage V with no

need to derate the engines».

Is electronics bound to gain ever

more ground, then?

E1 models t in the same footprint as

their mechanical counter-parts, plus

Is the 25 kilowatt

threshold going to

be really obsolete?

Hatz seems to think so

they come in different congurations

with horizontal or vertical shaft, and

different displacements, starting from

the 347 cc of the 1B30E up to the 722

cm of the 1D90E – actually, the most

powerful single-cylinder diesel engine

on the market, with its 11 kW.

The IoT dashboard allows for the direct

remote monitoring of eet parameters.

On the American market, Hatz’s

offer consists solely of the electronic

versions, so that we would not have

to include derated engines that do not

meet the needs of OEMs. To name but

one example, a software was developed

specically for Hatz by ifm electronics

whereby it is possible to monitor all parameters

and enable active interaction

with the engine.

Waht about regeneration?

The Premium version of the DPF-DOC

module designed for low-load or intermittent

operation features a pair of

preheating glow plugs. Located on the

unit’s rst section, they are controlled

by an ad-hoc ECU installed in the engine’s

electrical system. The ECU will activate

the glow plugs according to need,

raising temperature at the exhaust inlet,

which, in turn, will make regeneration

easier and operable already at 1500

rpm, not 2300 rpm like in the average

systems available on the market.

And what about hybrids?

The PMG genset presented at bauma

is extremely compact, thanks to

its permanent magnet generator. This

new technology combines the benets

of electrical machinery with the fuel

autonomy of combustion engines, thus

laying the foundations for the creation

of fully-edged power stand alone

hybrid units. Fitted with an inverter, the

genset can actually work as a battery

charger, ideal for customers wishing to

set up a hybrid system that’s independent

from the power grid. The genset

runs at variable speed depending on

power demand from the battery and to

the battery management system chosen

by the specic manufacturer, based on

the CanBus J1939 protocol. Its compact-sized

nature is a decisive factor,

it minimises size and weight adding a

mere 3 kg and 35 mm to a single cylinder

engine. The gensets are offered in

both vertical and horizontal shaft con-

gu-rations, to t into whatever space

is available. As for the 1B30VE, it has

been chosen by Dometic for gensets

used in motor home applications.

The 3H50T?

The 3H50T delivers 18.5 kW and 130

Nm, with no need for aftertreatment. In

this power range, mechanically controlled

engines can’t go above 80 Nm. This

makes it the ideal candidate for small

machinery requiring high torque density

and constant power, which the 3H50T

can secure at a speed of only 1350 rpm

thus reducing rpm number, vibrations

and fuel consumption. The underlying

idea in Hatz’s engineering work is

right-sizing, that is to say providing the

rightly sized solution to t the application

needs, including with regard to

emissions; in practice, this means abandoning

the 25 kW threshold that’s by

now become obsolete – as conrmed,

for instance, by Varisco’s choice. Also,

the same engine in the 30.4 kW version

can be certied to Stage IIIA.







Drilling in Stage V is possible, as well as desirable. Soilmec,

which draws heavily on the free market – as evidenced by

the collaboraons with Cat and Volvo Penta for hydraulic

drills, hydraulic rope shovels and hydrofoils, or with Deutz

for micropile machines – played it safe side with the

Cummins red on the SR-65 Blue Tech. Strengthened by

a consolidated relaonship with the American company,

which has been going on since the early 90s, going

through the various updates of emissions regulaons.

The L9 Performance Series model delivers 272 kilowas of

power at 2,100 rpm but it can be congured for a power

surplus of up to 283 kilowas and is Stage V cered.

The torque curve of the Cummins engine is very relevant

to Soilmec because it allows the engine to be sensive

and stable at all speeds, including the most demanding

ones. In its Performance Series conguraon, the

Columbus’ 9-liter engine has lost its EGR and opmized

the aertreatment system, to the advantage of the space

required for installaon.

Red is the colour of Cummins’ L9 Performance Series (below),

whose torque curve as well as high responsiveness are highly

appreciated by the Italian OEM.

ot a new machine, in this case,

but the evolution of one already

well introduced on the

market. Soilmec launched the

SR-65 drilling machine as early as

2018 in the EVO version, while its

‘Blue Tech’ conguration was presented

at the end of last year.

We will explain what’s ‘under the

bonnet’ in the box on the next page.

The red that peeps out, however, is

that of Cummins, with the 272-kilowatt

L9 diesel engine. We talked

to Soilmec’s management about the

latest evolution of the SR-65, which

plays on keywords such as multifunctionality

and efciency. «A key

advantage of Blue Tech machines is

their extremely simpli ed management

of the transition from one work

technology to another. In our sector,

when technology is changed, more or

less important changes are required

to be made to the machine. In Blue

Tech technology, these changes concern

only the mechanical elements,

The SR-65 Blue

Tech is powered by

the Cummins L9

Performance Series,

Stage V compliant.

When the search for

performance and

reliability does not

collide with the efforts

to reduce the polluting


not the systems (hydraulic, electrical

and software)».

The Soilmec SR-65 is capable of

combining apparently contrasting

characteristics: high performance,

manageability and ease of transport. A

drilling machine designed to be able

to perform all technologies of large

diameter piles for deep foundations.

«Thanks to the large space under the

drill head and the stroke of the drill

head itself, the SR-65 is one of the

most performing machines in its class

for ‘segmental casing piles’, bored piles

with a kelly rod and coated with

steel pipes».

Signicant interventions were made

on both the hydraulic and electrical

systems, with the idea of optimizing

drilling performance. And with a clear

goal, as conrmed by Soilmec. «Op-

timized passages and fewer hydraulic

components allow for a shorter oil

path and more free space for easier


Changes have been made also to the

hydraulic system, with the aim of optimizing

performance and efciency.

A new distributor is placed directly

on the rotating head. The minimum

losses in the circuit, the simplication

and reduction of the number of

components, as well as the improved

sizing of components contribute to the

reduction of losses, in the order of 39

percent on the rotating

head line.

The Cummins engine

is equipped with Soilmec’s

Auto low idle system,

which acts on engine

rpm, and automatic

control of the radiators,

automatically adjusting

their speed according to

the actual needs of the

drill. The engines are

thus able to improve the

efciency of combu-

stion and cooling and allow for a real

reduction in noise and environmental

pollution. «We are talking about an

engine control system capable of making

a continuous comparison between

the number of revolutions at which the

engine is set, through the accelerator

located in the cabin, and the power

required by the machine. When active,

if a certain period of time has passed,

the engine is not required to provide

any power because no maneuver is

active. Automatically, the engine goes

to idle speed, regardless of the position

at which the accelerator is set. As

soon as any maneuver is activated, the

system promptly returns the engine to

the speed corresponding to the accelerator

position, immediately making

available all the power required by the

activated maneuver».






Fontanafredda grower Andrea Farinetti: «We need a new

Renaissance; otherwise, a tomorrow that is like today is

unthinkable. Obviously, we have to change and renew ourselves.»

n November 11th, 2019, the

F28 engine was revealed at

Agritechnica. Placed on two

perches, the diesel and gas versions

would join four months later by

the hybrid version in Las Vegas. Now,

let's go back to Italy, to the present

day, very close to the headquarters of

FPT Industrial. We are in the Langhe

area, where you can almost literally

breathe trufes and Barolo in the air.

Founded by Vittorio Emanuele II, the

rst King of Italy, the Fontanafredda

winery celebrated 150 years in 2018

and owns 120 hectares of organically

certied vineyards. «Ours will be

the 'green' wine. The partnership with

FPT shows that together we can do

more and better». Words spoken by

Andrea Farinetti, who referred to a

green renaissance when mentioning

mont Region has sponsored the socalled

Tobias Project, joined by CNH

Industrial, New Holland and FPT.

The ‘director’ of the whole operation

is the 4-cylinder engine. «Our F28

was born modular and is unprecedented

in this range of agricultural machinery»,

explains Pierpaolo Biffali,

Vice President Product Engineering at

FPT Industrial. «The two prototypes of

biomethane-fueled crawler vineyard

tractor, created as part of the Tobias

project and coming from NH AG's

TK, make it possible to work in very

tight spaces with performance and

manoeuvrability comparable to a conventional

engine». To those who ask

why biomethane was chosen and not,

for example, a full electric solution,

Biffali replies that batteries, although

considered a key element for ecolothe

Vigna La Rosa cru, parent of the

Barolo under the same name, included

in the Wine Spectator's Top 100. The

year 2021 will be the rst with a CO2-

free harvest. In 2025 it will reach its

maximum, with the tasting of a ‘zero

emissions’ Barolo wine. The Pied-

FPT Industrial,

New Holland and

Fontanafredda join

forces for the world’s

rst zero emissions

Barolo wine vintage.

Biomethane is the

available technology to

do it, with F28 engine

gical transition, would not guarantee

the right autonomy. «Our biomethane

engines are just as efcient and highperforming

as diesel engines, and this

renewable and sustainable fuel is the

actual and ready zero-emissions alternative

for agricultural vehicles»,

added Annalisa Stupenengo, CEO

of FPT Industrial. We turned to Sergio

Giordana, Head of Innovation

- Alternative Fuels at FPT, for some

insight. «Biomethane is an emerging

technology in Italy, where there are

around 1,600 biogas producers who

sell electricity to the grid. We’ve got

a system based on credits that allows

feeding electricity into the grid through

the sale of a certicate. This is an

interesting initiative that we would

like to promote through this project».

Regarding the prospects for the 'bio'

version of the F28, Giordana explains

that «testing is underway, and we’re

ready for eld tests». First impressions?

«We're pleasantly surprised by

how the tractor has reacted to stress.

As for the torque and power curves, it

is similar to those of the diesel engine.

PTO control and acceleration are the

aspects on which we have focused our

attention. I am talking about the limits

of gas engines compared to diesel in

terms of their reaction to impulsive

loads, which depend on acceleration

or the use of implements such as the

PTO. Compression-ignition engines

just need more fuel to react quickly.

The demand for additional power

from a spark-ignition engine requires

the throttle to open and the combustion

to be adjusted to meet stoichiometric

values. Basically, the cycle

is less responsive. We have therefore

intervened in the software and control

strategies, managed in-house. We

have developed specic algorithms

that run in the microprocessor inside

the control unit to adjust the engine


Sergio Giordana outlines the framework

of the initiative. «In addition

to the evaluation of the biomethane

engine, the Tobias Project looks at the

environmental and nancial impact

analysis of available technologies,

with a clear environmental benet.

Carbon footprint has a cost and biomethane

can compete with an electric

machine. Hybridisation is a promising

trend, with the ICE coupled to an electric

motor that produces power to run

the implements. All this would imply

two benets: improving efciency and





The 10,000th Cursor 13 NG engine rolled off the line of FPT Industrial

plant in Bourbon-Lancy (France) on March 9th. The natural gas version

was unveiled in Turin (Italy) in October 2017 during the FPT Tech Day.

wever, the F28 ts in very well with the

requirements of the specialized tractors.

The rst results have not revealed

any criticalities, the performance

is in line with expectations. We can be


You know end users quite well. Are

farms ready to switch to biomethane?

Given the size of the farms, could not

Eastern Europe as well as North and

South America be the new frontiers of

biomethane for agricultural use?

«CNH Industrial has made signicant

investments in this technology.

At Agritechnica 2019, the T6 Methane

Power was launched. First of all, we

are approaching the European market,

as biomethane requires relevant investments

and we have identied some

large companies that are going in this

direction. But also in South America

eliminating hydraulic oil. A biomethane-fueled

ICE would be the best solution

for this type of application: zero

CO2, elimination of hydraulics and

reduction in consumption».

We bid farewell to FPT with Sergio

Giordana's latest statement, which

helps us introduce Marco Gerbi, New

Holland Global Product Marketing

Manager, and Stefano Fiorati, CNH

Industrial Tractor Innovation Manager.

Do you conrm that «we really

like the engine, not least because of its

compactness and the fact that it has a

nice sound?». The answer is supportive.

«The engine has a good musicality

indeed». And, with regard to power

density, «the compact size is related to

the engine specications, compared to

the F5 that it replaces and which encompasses

a higher power range. Hothere

are investors who believe in this

evolving segment. We might say that

currently California is the most mature

market, which benets from strong

incentives for everything that is considered


A second tractor will reach Fontanafredda

in the summer. They need a

compressor and a system for refueling

at night, which are easily available and

sustainable. As there is no biodigester

on site, in the prototype stage the fuel

will be supplied by a mobile tank.

«Agriculture has always been supported

by tax incentives – they point out

– and the overall electrication of the

driveline is quite complex on specialized

tractors, which have clear size

limits to meet. The experience of the

Bellotta farm in Venaria Reale (near

Turin, ed) was the starting point for

New Holland's gamble».

Finally, one last question to Mr Gerbi

and Mr Fiorati. What if the hybrid

were to include a methane thermal

unit? They reply that «all the pieces of

the puzzle are there. We have to evaluate

the overall dimensions, in order

to nd space, without affecting visibility

and weight distribution, especially

for the crawler tractor. Within

the Fontanafredda wineyard, tractors

work on slopes and sides. The idea is

certainly good, but we need to understand

the target vehicles».

New Holland is open to any interpretation

of the sustainability paradigm,

including electric, of course. The impression

is that the synergy with Nobili,

which won an award at EIMA Digital,

will not be an impromptu one, and

that we will nd the prex 'e' more and

more often: e-Sprayer, e-Mulcher, etc.

Not to mention the investment made

by CNH in Monarch Tractor.

«The TK has changed its driveline but

the hydraulics have not been modied.

We will make any commercial evaluation

based on performances. There

could be more between the T6 and

the TK. The technology of methane

applied to crawler tractors was introduced

many years ago. As a matter of

fact, the Fiat Borghetto, equipped with

side tanks, dates back to 1939 and was

used in the Russian campaign...».






as possible and include their S4L2. A

due tribute to the Japanese engineering

heritage, which dominates this


The 4 cylinder diesel engine by Mitsubishi

is available in both an aspirated

version with 28.8 kW at 3000

rpm, and a turbocharged one, 36.8

kW at 3000 rpm, and 125 Nm at 2000

rpm. It’s the only turbo in the SL series,

cylinder displacement is 440 cc.

It’s Hatz that breaks the Japanese

soliloquy. Whatever the segment between

1 and 2.5 litres, their series H

hits the spot on Diesel index. Their

4-cylinder was ruled out by a handful

of cubic centimetres, since we decided

to keep the comparison below

1.9 L. No harm done for Ruhstorf

anyway. Hatz’s modular - hence

1.5 L – 3-cylinder was unveiled at

Bauma in 2016. According to the

German engine maker, the 3H50T

can meet efcieny and power derating

targets. All of which is done

by playing two cards: the one below

19 kW – unencumbered by the

burden of after-treatment – and the

one with higher performances that

was crowned with a laurel wreath in

this comparison. The 3H50T is a water-cooled

3-cylinder, just like its rivals

- except for Yanmar. Its low displacement,

the turbocharger and its

common rail by Bosch pave the way

for smooth engine running including

at low rpm. The standard maintenance

cycle is 500 hours. Kohler follows

in its trail just a few decimals

behind; upon launching their 1.9 and

2.5 L (Diesel of the year 2012) the

company released a double version -

a mechanical and an electronic one

- for each displacement.

Five Japanese engine makers: Iseki,

Isuzu, Kubota, Mitsubishi and Yanmar.

Doosan from Korea and Cat from

US. Hatz, Kohler (twice) and Perkins

represent the Old Continent

n our comparison between 9 and

11 litres, published on Diesel International

March issue, Isuzu

earned a special mention though

being excluded from the ranking

list due to missing Stage V release,

and now another Japanese will be

impacted by the same regulatory restrictions.

Indeed, this comparison’s

average is around 30 kilowatts, so

we’re above 19 and the weight of

Stage V is felt – it denitely is. So

once again for reasons of compliance

with emission standards, a Japanese

contestant – namely Mitsubishi,

currently a rareed presence in mobile

applications tradeshows – was

supposed to be listed “in brackets”

since we could not nd info related

to Stage V. Instead, we made up our

mind to make our matrix as exible











I. D.

B x S mm - S/B 84 x 90 - 1,07 90 x 94 - 1,04 84 x 88 - 1,05 87 x 102 - 1,18

N. cil. - dm 3 3 - 1,49 3 - 1,79 3 - 1,46 3 - 1,82

Maximum power kW - rpm 30 - 2.800 37 - 2.800 42 - 2.800 29,4 - 2.600

Mep at max power bar 8,8 9 12,5 7,6

Piston speed m/s 8,4 8,8 8,2 8,9

Maximum torque Nm - rpm 125 - 1.800 165 - 1.600 185,2 - 1.600 125 - 1.500

Mep at max torque bar 10,8 11,8 16,2 8,8

% power at max torque (kW) 31,8 34,9 34,2 32,5

Torque at max power Nm 98 127 147 108

% power at max torque (kW) 78,8 (24) 74,80 (28) 73,90 (31) 66,80 (20)

Work range rpm 1.000 1.200 1.200 1.100


Speci c power kW/dm 3 20 20,4 28,6 16,1

Speci c torque Nm/dm 3 83,8 91,9 126,5 68,4

Areal spec. power kW/dm 2 18,07 19,37 25,30 16,52


Dry weight kg 190 163 133 230

L x W x H mm 514x422x643 573x536x673 576x541x603 618x535x930

Volume m 3 0,14 0,21 0,19 0,31

Weight/power kg/kW 6,3 4,4 3,2 7,8

Weight/displacement kg/dm 3 127 90,9 90,9 126,0

Power density kW/m 3 214,3 176,2 221,1 94,8

Total density t/m 3 1,36 0,78 0,70 0,74

Displacement/volume dm 3 /m 3 10,69 8,54 7,70 5,89




KDI 1903M


KDI 1903T CR









8 88 x 90 - 1,02 88 x 102 - 1,16 88 x 102 - 1,16 87 x 102 - 1,18 86 x 95 - 1,10 84 x 90 - 1,07 86 x 90 - 1,05

3 - 1,64 3 - 1,86 3 - 1,86 3 - 1,82 3 - 1,65 3 - 1,49 3 - 1,56

0 29 - 3.000 31 - 2.800 42 - 2.600 42 - 2.700 36 - 2.500 34 - 2.800 40,1 - 2.600

7,2 7,3 10,6 10,4 10,6 9,9 12

9 9,5 8,8 9,2 7,9 8,4 7,8

118,6 - 1.900 133,3 - 1.500 225 - 1.500 182,3 - 1.600 166,6 - 1.600 165,6 - 1.600 197 - 1.690

9,3 9,2 15,5 12,8 12,9 14,2 16,1

30,9 32,9 43,8 33,5 36,2 38,7 38,7

88 108 157 147 137 118 147

81,40 (24) 67,60 (21) 84,40 (35) 72,80 (31) 77,60 (28) 81,70 (28) 87,00 (35)

1.100 1.300 1.100 1.100 900 1.200 910

17,6 16,6 22,5 22,9 21,7 22,7 25,7

72,2 71,6 121,1 99,8 100,6 110,7 125,6

15,93 17,03 23,08 23,60 20,69 20,48 23,05

165 210 233 204 250 149 200

0 611x528x682 598x452x6.675 598x521x716 746x536x745 559x550x622 514x422x643 775x541x762

0,22 1,80 0,22 0,30 0,19 0,14 0,32

5,7 6,8 5,5 4,9 6,9 4,4 5,0

100,5 112,8 125,2 111,7 151,0 99,6 127,6

131,8 17,2 190,9 140 189,5 242,9 125,3

0,75 0,12 1,06 0,68 1,32 1,06 0,63

7,46 1,03 8,46 6,09 8,72 10,69 4,90





The most powerful expression of

KDI1903TCR delivers 42 kW, which

places it in the top performing circle

alongside Hatz and Kubota.

Even with regards to specic curves,

the German contender leaves its

mark. A result that nds its reason

as well as its explanation in the company’s

strong push on the mean effective

pressure parameter. Yanmar’s

the only one that manages to follow

close behind. Instead, if we look at

cylinder design and calculate torque

based on surface area, then Kubota

earns its share of appraisal, too.

Whatever angle you choose to look

things at, Hatz and - closely behind

- Kohler are planting EU’s ag on

this contest’s playing eld, which,

however, still remains rmly tilted

towards the Far East.

Five manufacturers are from Japan,

one from Korea, that Doosan that

aims to break out of Bobcat’s perimeter

with its G series. The D18 is the

entry level version of Incheon’s triplet

- not at all bad in terms of rated

torque and torque reserve. Too bad

Mitsubishi has been gone from industrial

trade shows, when trade shows

were still held… which probably indicates

its disinvestment from Stage

V and from the intricacies of the European

market. There’s a new entry

– sure it’s new for the Italian scene

and also more or less marginal on the

European market: Iseki. We wrote

about them in last month’s Fish-Eye

with reference to Massey Ferguson.

Two are the engines that came under

the spotlight on our stage. The rst

is the Massey Ferguson diesel engine

we quoted: odd-numbered cylinders

with a 600 cc cylinder displacement,

replacing its 1498 cc predecessor. We

know no specs (e.g. bore and stroke)

about the second engine, except that

it’s a 4-cylinder and shares with its

odd-numbered cylinder counterpart

the same injection, turbocharger and

aftertreatment system ‘All-in-One’

which includes a DOC and DPF lters

mounted on top of one another

on the engine’s upper section, near

the blower and the exhaust valve.

It’s available in three power outputs:

36, 39.7 and 49.3 kW.

In this context, Caterpillar has to t

in a displacement that is unusually

low if compared to what is customary

for them, and it ends up being

less performant than usual. Except

for power density, still on top of the

ranking, right behind… guess who?

Perkins, Caterpillar’s ‘little cousin’ –

as the saying goes, the apple does not

fall far from the tree.

Power density is always a key parameter,

but if we consider the comparison

range and the fact all engines

are 3-cylinder, it becomes even more















KDI 1903M KDI 1903T







Torque 11,6 13,7 14,1 12,4 12,6 14,4 13,1 12,8 10,8 14,0 11,3

Performance 3,8 4,0 4,9 3,4 3,5 3,6 4,8 4,3 4,1 4,4 4,8

Stress 6,4 6,9 8,1 5,9 6,1 6,2 8,1 7,3 6,9 7,5 8,0

Lightness 13,4 10,4 10 15,7 11,7 13,7 13,5 12,6 16,1 11,1 13,9

Density 33,5 24,8 37 12,6 18,6 2,3 30,7 19 29,6 43,6 21,7

DIESEL INDEX 5,9 6,5 7,5 5,4 5,9 5,7 6,6 6,4 6 6,8 6,8









18-4000 kVA


63-1750 kVA

Variable Speed Engines

30-1492 kWm

With the most comprehensive range of

robust, fuel-efficient engines available


Durable. Robust. Built To Last.

Discover the full range at Baudouin.com





From trucks to industrials: MAN’s internal supply chain

meant the D3876 LE12 took away the Diesel of the

Year 2016. 2014 was the turning point under the hood

for the TGX, with MAN planning a 6-cylinder at the top

of the range, in the range of 15 to 16 liters, and that

approach should not be underestimated.

The VTG is an advanced solution for the machine

operators sector and, as with recirculation, to

repropose the two-stage adopted on trucking thrusters

would make the work of the air filtration system more

difficult. In the work environment, the air is dusty

and torque rise is not an issue, especially when the

maximum torque is more than enough at 3,000 Nm, as

in the case of the D38 offroad. 485 kW at 1,800 rpm

and 3,000 Nm between 1,050 and 1,450 rpm: keep

stress low without penalizing torque and calibrate the

right electronics recipe to the specific application.

«A high percentage of identical components and component

groups in all MAN engines result in lower servicing costs and

make it easier to perform maintenance work».

he ‘MAN Engines’ banner as

a business unit of MAN Truck

& Bus has been ying since

rst January 2018. The meticulous

planning, in the genuine German

mood, incubated the antibodies

and made it possible to overcome severe

threats such as the nancial speculative

bubble and the domino effect

on the economy in 2008/2009, and

Dieselgate (the Volkswagen Group

has just been reinstated in the UN

Global Compact), which spread like

wildre among the other car passenger

manufacturers (echoing the quote

from the Gospel according to John:

“Let he who is without sin cast the

rst stone”). After its establishment,

MAN Engines then faced the exhausting

and unprecedented sequence of

lockdowns and is preparing to meet

the challenges of decarbonization.

So we asked Reiner Roessner, Head

of Sales MAN Engines, to lead us in

the exploration of the MAN universe,

starting with the pandemic. «We stopped

our production from the end of

MAN Engines still

believes in engines.

This is not a play on

words, but the strength

of those who have

seen the ICE come into

being and can bene t

from the economies

of scale of the largest

automotive group

March until the end of April 2020, but

due to pre-production until closing we

were able to support our customers

with their demands. After the closing,

we quickly catched up and had a production

until the end of the year just

9% below our original 2020 target.

We continuously adapt our Covid-19

measures in all our factories and so

far are very successful, because we

have no major impact based on Covid-19.

We closely monitor and support

our suppliers to make it able for

them supplying our parts. These monitoring

measures include e.g. national

restrictions, the production and

transport situations as well as the

trend how suppliers develop».

The Lion is still strictly linked to

trucks and buses, yet it is part of the

trilogy of leisure boats over 80 feet

(along with MTU and Cat), it is a

main character onto stage of powerful

farming machinery (see AGCO’s and

Claas’ harvesters and tractors), and it

is a must in CHP. How do these prospects

combine? Let’s start with the

captive ag, the one that runs on roads

all around the world, under the aegis

of TRATON, which encompasses

the truck essence of VW Wolfsburg:

MAN, Scania, Volkswagen commercial

vehicles, the Southamerican network,

the partnerships with Navistar,

Sinotruck and Hino, as well as RIO.

«The TRATON Group is one of the

leading manufacturers of commercial

vehicles worldwide», Roessner

said. «The RIO brand provides a

growing portfolio of digital services

and solutions. Due to this combined

knowledge of premium truck manufacturers,

we have an highly modern

drivetrain within the TRATON Group.

We from MAN Engines pro t from this

knowledge of built engines for trucks

and buses and the integration in automotive

processes of the mother company.

This includes high economies

of scale in purchasing, since engines

business pro ts extremely from volume

effects. Therefore we can offer our

clients reliable products with focus on

low fuel consumption and a large service

network for spare parts all over

the world. That all makes us different

from our competitors». Because the

‘mother of all applications milieu’ is

there, and is the road, from there, in

steps, injection systems are balanced,

such as superchargers, air and liquid

ltration, MEP (Mean Effective Pressure)

and so on. We know that the vo-

lume of free market engines is more

or less equally balanced (PG, NRMM,

Marine applications) plus minus 5

percent over the last years. Before

embarking on machines, it is best to

address the inescapable and thorny

issue of electrication: a risky gamble

or a one way path to follow as

soon as possible? Could MAN Engines

draw on the VW group’s capital

of four wheels’expertise? The electrication

of ICE cars is rising up, as

the Up and Golf are proof of this, the

ID.4 being the symbol of the VW electrication

strategy. The Lion’s City E

is the answer among city buses, including

the CNG hybrid declination we

published on the January issue (page

8). «With all that know-how within

the Volkswagen Group as well as in

the MAN Truck & Bus company MAN






The electric transion as seen from Wolfsburg: “The

Volkswagen Group handed over 9,305,400 vehicles to

customers worldwide in 2020. Despite the Covid-19

pandemic, the Group’s e-offensive with a large number of

new models met with keen in-terest from customers in the

year now ended and resulted in deliveries of approximately

231,600 all-electric vehicles, more than three mes the

volumes delivered in 2019. Plug-in hybrids were also very

popular with customers, who purchased 190,500 units

(+175 per-cent). In Western Europe, the share of electric

vehicles therefore surged to 10.5 percent of overall

deliveries (2019: 1.9 percent).

Top 5 all-electric models: VW ID.302 56,500 units; Audi

e-tron 47,300 units; VW e-Golf 41,300 units;

VW e-up! 22,200 units; Porsche Taycan 20,000 units.

Top 5 plug-in hybrid models: VW Passat 27,200 units; Audi

Q5 23,500 units; Porsche Cayenne 21,500 units; ŠKODA

Superb 16,400 units; Volkswagen Golf 15,200 units.

Christian Dahlheim, Head of Volkswagen Group Sales:

«We are particularly pleased that we hit the ground running

in our e-offensive in spite of the pandemic.»

Engines (as a business unit of MAN

Truck & Bus) is well prepared for all

possible developments», Roessner

explained. «Already in the past many

developments of engine technology or

exhaust after-treatment systems were

based on the know-how and experience

from the mother company of MAN

Engines. Using well-engineered and

proofed components and modifying

them for the speci c application is

one of the USP of MAN Engines. At

the end it is a very big advantage

for us to be part of the Volkswagen

group and the electri cation in this

big company». To be honest, it’s not

just a matter of know-how. Infrastructure

and battery autonomy,

for example, are on the agenda of

policy makers, who are expanding

the green horizon to accelerate fuel

cells improvement. Simple marketing

leverage or can we really expect

the rst hydrogen applications around

2025? We know that this is a hot topic,

and indeed, the rst approach is

quite generic, «apart from the rapid

development of battery technology,

hydrogen (H2) is a good complementary

option as an alternative fuel for

long-distance transport, which is why

MAN Truck & Bus is now presenting

its R&D roadmap for this. According

to this, prototype vehicles are to be

built this year in line with the currently

ongoing development projects».

And the key announcement comes at

the end: «MAN is testing both the use

of a fuel cell and an H2 combustion

engine». Biofuels are another exciting

topic, also on the EU’s agenda. While

the massive adoption of biomasses

is no longer on the agenda, synthetic

fuels are very popular, at least in the

Northern Europe, especially in Scandinavian

countries. In Germany, the

focus is on Power-to-X. Not too far

from here, in Friedrichshafen, and

even here, that is, in and around Munich,

as Roessner comments: «Biofuels

are used in our vehicles, are

compatible with our engines and help

reduce global CO2 emissions. We are

ready to adapt our products for future

power-to-X fuels».

And now let’s turn the page and move

on to the NRMM chapter, starting

with the dusty quarries of Chili and

the cornelds of the US, the Chinese

civil infrastructure and the building

sites that give in African and Indian

slums a new look. The D15, for example,

as a ‘rst job’ equipped MAN’s

TGX truck. The Denso 2,500 bar

common rail, VGT, 9 litre displacement

(BxS 115x145mm) could power

large capacity work machines. So,

what is MAN's engine favourite kind

of application? «The MAN D1556 is

the perfect 9 litre engine for all three

applications truck, bus and OEM.

The reason is the same base engine,

with a modi cation for all different

elds of applications. So, there are

even more elds of application like

coaches or even gas driven buses with

the E1856 on the same base engine.

The modularity of our engines as well

as exhaust ATS is something that sets

our engines apart. Currently for OEM

business we see the most projects in

the AG and CE applications.»

At Bauma 2016 our jury awarded

Diesel of the year the MAN D3876.

Could you mention some applications

currently equipped with this engine?

«Beside the very successful use in

heavy truck applications, the MAN

D3876 powers the combine harvester

Fendt/Challenger/Massey Ferguson

Ideal 9T as well as the Challenger MT

800 or even the hybrid rail application

Toshiba HDB-800 with up to 660

hp (depending on the application).

What makes this engine so important

for our company and our customers

is its completely new development.

Based on it, we could initiate the further

development of the MAN D4276

with a bigger bore of 142 mm instead

of the 138 mm of the MAN D3876

(and some other modications) to get

an even higher output up t0 790 hp.

This MAN D4276 is installed in the

wood chipper Diamant 2000 from

Albach Maschinenbau, premium manufacturers

AGCO Fendt and Claas

have also adopted the MAN D4276

for their Fendt Ideal 10 (harvester),

Claas Lexion 8900 (harvester) and

Claas Jaguar 970 (forage harvester)

machines. In addition, the Austrian

manufacturer Kahlbacher is also installing

the engine to power snow cutter

blowers for use at airports.»

Few years ago Diesel International

talked about the cooperation betweeen

AGCO Corporation and MAN

Engines regarding ‘zero kilometers

failure’ in the Breganze factory. «This

cooperation is very successful for

both companies as you can see in the

positive results in the market» stated

Roessner. «Currently we supply the

D26 and the D38 for the AGCO Ideal

8, 9 and 10 to the former Laverda





EPA Tier 3 recreational, China Marine Recreational

Stage II, IMO Tier II, RCD 2013/53/EC; power range from

730 to 2,000 HP; 12.4 to 24.2 litres displacement.

plant and we are optimistic that this

cooperation will be even more successful

in the future.»

Before the controversy surrounding the

diesel cycle, MAN Engines briey displayed

VW engines up to 2 litres on its

booths. Could MAN Engines come to

an agreement with some manufacturer

for engines under 4 litres displacement?

John Deere, for example, has

signed an agreement with Deutz AG

up to 130 kW. No doubts at all, listening

to the reply... «We have currently

no plans at MAN Engines for engines

below 4.6 litres. As you know our range

is 4.6 to 25.8 litres and we invest

more on the upper end of our portfolio».

We then asked about simplied

versions of the engines (without SCR,

ATS, EGR, etc.) to suite the needs of

the so-called emerging markets (which

follow the Lion into the CHP jungle.

Let’s start with ‘grieving process’ for

the D/E28: «Over the last years we

replaced the E28 V series very successfully

by the E32 V series (available

as V8 and V12). With this step we

increased the power output to 550 kW

and we gain market share compared

to the E28 series». At this juncture

it seems to us that the time has come

to explore the MAN cogeneration engines

scene. Biogas? «Our complete

portfolio is available for biogas» is the

answer. «Our gas engine portfolio for

PG is based on 4-cylinder inline engines

(E0834, 4.6 litres) and 6-cylinder

inline engines (E0836, 6.9 litres and

E2676, 12.4 litres), 8-cylinder V engines

(E3268, 17.2 litres) and 12-cylinder

V engines (E3262, 25.8 litres). This

portfolio is available for multiple marhave

actually been emerging for decades

already). We received the message,

loud and clear: «MAN Engines are of

course premium products for premium

brands. This is not only because of the

quality of our engines and are different

factors, depending of the needs of

our customers. Developing a product,

which fullls absolutely the needs of

our customers and nally brings a benet

to their customers does is bring

to the point. We have currently simpli-

ed versions of our engines available

based on the EU Stage IIIA emission

level.» We talked about MAN’s commitment

to the road, which echoes in

the water and beyond. The milestone

two-litre cylinder displacement has

in fact taken root under bonnets,

in yacht engine rooms and in CHP

containers as well. And from here we

kets for 50 Hz and 60 Hz applications

with 1,500 rpm or 1,800 rpm. These

engines are available as Lambda-1/

rich burn (naturally aspirated) engines

with outputs from 54 kW to 275 kW.

Our turbocharged lean burn engines

range from 68 to 550 kW. Since more

than a year MAN Engines offers these

turbocharged engines very successful

as twin-packs for 1 MW installations.

Most of the turbocharged gas engines

from MAN Engines are available for

special gas (e.g. biogas, sewage) operations

alternatively». And now we’re

going to surf in a sea rippled by the

waves of 2,000 ‘skittish horses’ (hp).

MAN led the escalation, raising 100

hp at a time: 1,800, 1,900 and 2,000

hp, always under the Cannes Yachting

Festival spotlights. «MAN Engines is

denitely a leader in marine engines,

when talking about yachts from 40 to

120 feet. We successfully enlarged our

engine range consequently in the last

years, and there is still air upward: our

customers appreciate our wide engine

range with lots of intermediate steps.

Not to forget the latest emission requirements,

which our engines fulll. However,

what makes our engines really

unique is their power density».

At this point we are pulled in, which

embarrasses us slightly, and on the

other hand emphasizes Diesel International’s

cookie jar: engines comparisons.

«Your magazine Diesel International

made an objective comparison

and concluded: the MAN V12-2000

has the highest power density on

the market. The high power density

is one of our credos in general. Since

we have the experience from different

applications, our engineers succeed

in building robust engines on the

one hand with high outputs and light

weight on the other hand. This is what

our customers need for their applications

and what helps to make their boats

for their clients unique».

At the end of this broad survey of the

MAN universe, we will once again bring

up the stone guest, the CO2-free propulsion

systems. Is the parallel hybrid the

best solution for early partial decarbonization

for yachts? «A parallel hybrid

is for sure one block for decarbonization

for yachts. Nevertheless, also zero

emission for special areas and comfort

are big drivers for hybrid systems on

yachts. Efciency and performance will

be also improved and therefore we see a

huge potential for a standardized MAN

hybrid solution in the future».






Above, a Power Pack is charging a HTD-5 Dumpster tracked carrier. Left,

the 525-60E telehandler ‘running’ at a public city park showing off its zeroemissions

soul. Below, JCB’s newly-introduced Universal Charger.

vator was launched and went into production

the following year, also winning

awards for innovation in the UK.

The vision, we might say, is clear and

leads towards a highly modular offer

according to the type of machine re-

JCB keeps on

pushing on

electri cation for its

range of machines.

With a couple of

very interesting

innovations: from the

power pack for offgrid

applications to

the universal charger

echnology is moving really

fast. Users are starting to demand

- especially for certain

applications - low-emission

machines; as a matter of fact, manufacturers

just have to be ready. It is

becoming increasingly clear that the

great challenge for low-impact construction

sites (or elds) deals with

the design of machines capable of

going beyond the Diesel cycle as we

know it today, without signicantly

affecting their throughput. Looking to

the future, this seems to be the key, as

it is unthinkable to ask users to give

up a certain degree of performance.

Especially when it comes to smaller

machines, electrication is a great opportunity.

JCB has believed in electri-

cation since the year 2018, when the

rst example of an electric mini-excaquired,

the emission standards in force

in a given territory and, above all,

the needs of each customer. Not too

far away, customers will also be able

to choose the propulsion technology

for their entire range of construction

and agricultural machines, without giving

up performances.

Talking about recharging, JCB has

recently introduced two different and

complementary options, namely the

Universal Charger and the Power

Pack. The rst one is a universal fast

charger, compatible with current and

future E-Tech electric models with

48, 96 volts and above. The Power

Pack, on the other hand, is a backup

solution conceived for urban construction

sites and locations that doesn’t

have a power grid. Both solutions

have been designed and implemented

in-house, due to an R&D department

that is rapidly gearing up for this type

of requirements.

But let’s get down to the machines,

and to a range that is rapidly expanding

and now also includes the electric

version of the HTD-5 Dumpster

tracked carrier equipped with a 9 kW

electric motor that allows a maximum

travel speed of 3 km per hour, as well

as a 48V lithium-ion battery pack that

can be recharged in two hours using

a 240 or 110V electrical supply. In

the dumper segment, the 1TE electric

high-loader model with a maximum

payload of one tonne is a step up in

size, as it incorporates electric powertrain

in a basically heavy-duty vehicle,

conceived especially for the European

and North American markets.

The E-dumper’s partner of choice

on site is the aforementioned mini

excavator, JCB’s rst major zeroemission

vehicle. The 19C-1E will

now be equipped with a fully glazed

cab, making it attractive for countries

with very cold and wet climates.

Finally, a new ‘electric’ life has also

been breathed into one of the iconic

machines in the JCB galaxy, the 525-

60E telehandler, which uses «two

proven electric motors, one for the

transmission and the second to manage

the hydraulics. The four wheel

drive system uses new high ef ciency

axles, driven by a large inboard

mounted electric motor connected to

the driveline via a drop box».

According to the manufacturer, the

machine uses a 96V lithium-ion battery

pack with an onboard charger that

can recharge the machine overnight

from a standard 230 volt 16 amp outlet.

Tests have also shown a signicant reduction

in noise emission levels.






“Although electric vehicles are ideal for urban distribution, hybrid technology

is preferable for longer routes. In the city, the operation of the DAF CF Hybrid

model is fully electric, and thanks to the diesel engine, the vehicle can move to

and from the various distribution centres”.

Marcel Pater, eet manager at Peter Appel Transport, The Netherlands.

ere is DAF’s turn to step boldly

into the electric territory. Which

they do, as is natural, with urban

distribution and city service

applications in mind (e.g. waste collection)

aiming straight to the highest capacities

that t into this kind of applications.

It is well known, after all, that city

routes are short and low-speed, hence

ideal given that range is still every EV’s

Achilles heel. On the other hand, the

urban environment is also what suits

best a powertrain whose gas and, notably,

also noise emissions are equal to

zero. DAF’s offer is particularly interesting

not only for the 28-tonne potential

GVW of the 3-axle CF, a fully-

edged heavy vehicle (and yet one that

boasts high manoeuvrability thanks to

a third steered axle) but also for the enticing

truck and trailer combo with the

same 28-tonne potential GVM. The

weights we are talking here are, indeed,

potential, to be measured against every

country’s legal requirements. In both

cases, however, these vehicles are ideal

for round the clock supermarket distribution,

as the truck’s (or tractor’s) battery

pack can be (re)charged during loading

and unloading operations. Indeed,

100/150 kW – a power range that is no

doubt already available at every store –

is well enough to bring batteries back

DAF enters the electric

sector, aiming at city

distribution and urban

services, with the

highest capacities

to 80 percent charge capacity in half an

hour, or a little more than that, thus securing

the driving range that is needed

to get back to the central depot - usually

found in the suburbs – to get loaded

with goods, as well as with electrons.

Back and forth. And when the time comes

to get fully charged, one hour and

a half will be enough. Such difference

in charging times conrms the time/

charge level ratio as being non-linear;

a detail to keep into account when planning

when and where to get a recharge.

While CF’s architecture is well known,

there’s a difference with traditional

versions in that this one is tted with a

210 kW engine and a 170 kWh battery

pack. Differently than on the models

from the Volvo range, here there’s no

gearbox and it’s up to the proverbial

drive shaft-breaking torque of 2000

Nm that’s typical of electric motors to

guarantee that driving is as smooth as

required. Power-wise, if we compare it

to their diesel counterparts, the CF tted

with the 6.7 l M-X7 gets around 210

kW, so you need to step up to the 10.8 l

of the MX-11 to start with some ten kW

more, going up to 330 kW depending

on rating. Whilst, then, they are similar

in power, torque is what truly marks the

difference: with 2000Nm, we’re getting

50 to 100% more as compared to the

MX-7 with the same power level, and

only the XM-11 with higher ratings manages

to go slightly above that. What’s

more, one can benet from the extraordinary

torque curve that’s typical

of electric motors: an awful lot of

torque immediately available that

stays as high as desired. Going back

to the hardware, the whole powertrain

was named VDL E-Power and it stems

from cooperation with Dutch company

VDL taking charge of the entire electric

section, from batteries to the motor, all

the way through to the BMS, down to

the very quick charging stations. Before

they were put to market (just a few units

a year to begin with, to make sure that

even such innovative vehicles could

meet the Dutch manufacturer’s usual

quality standards) both versions were

tested by longstanding customers of the

Eindhoven-based company. Vehicles

were purposedly put under strenuous

conditions to ensure they were suitably

challenged. In one test, for example,

a food distributor used them 7 days

a week on 18-hour shifts, driving an

average of 250 km per day, thus well

over the 100 km range secured by the

battery pack - which entailed a careful

planning of routes and stops. This also

placed considerable strain on batteries,

as they’re particularly sensitive to

charge-discharge cycles. But all of the

above comes at a price – not simply the

one that’s found on the price list. The

battery pack adds about 3 tonnes to the

empty weight, net of a weight loss of

700 kg compared to the rst prototypes

thanks to advancements in battery

technology. Yet, there are still 3 tonnes

to be subtracted from payload capacity,

at least until amendments to legal requirements

allow batteries to be excluded

from GVW calculations.

But what if it turns out the 100 km range

just isn’t enough? In such a case,

DAF’s offer includes the same CF, but

in a hybrid conguration. Which is not

meant to be second-best, but rather a

erce competitor to the full-electric version.

In addition to the renowned muscle-exing

attitude of the 10.8 l, 330

kW Paccar MX-11, with 2200 Nm of

constant torque between 900 and 1400

rpm (going up to 2300 between 900

and 1125 rpm in top gear with direct

drive and in the two highest gears with

overdrive transmission) we have a continuous

output of 75kW (rising to 130

under peak conditions) from the electric

motor integrated into the gearbox,

a ZF TraXon that’s been modied to t

hybrid applications. This model features

half the batteries of the full electric

counterpart, so it settles at 85kWh not

to further impact an empty weight that’s

already strongly affected by the presence

of the combustion engine and its ancillaries.

Battery capacity is, however,

enough to guarantee a range between

30 and 50 km with the combustion

engine turned off. Not bad, then, considering

that the goal here is not running

in electric mode all day long but simply

covering the entire required city route.

Great care has been taken to integrate

the engine and the motor. For example,

to slow down while saving the brakes,

priority is given to the 130kW recovered

from the electric motor, also available

at relatively low rpm, then to the

340kW MX integrated Engine Brake

with exhaust brake, especially effective

at the highest speed levels. As for the

charging system, it features a typical

plug that ts into both AC and High

voltage direct current mains, but batteries

can also recharge while driving,

using some of the power from the combustion

engine. An option that could

turn out to be more interesting than one

might think, so much so that it could

rival, cost-wise (€/kWh) with some super

expensive ultrafast chargers.

Its only limitation lies in the on-board

inverter’s rating that might extend the

charging time, thus making this an option

only for longer routes.






“I’m assuming we’re going to see various different fuels in future,

without any one of them becoming a panacea,” Daniel Chatterjee,

Director of Technology Management & Regulatory Affairs at

Rolls-Royce Power Systems.

n the roulette of decarbonisation,

something different from full

electrication seems to be appearing,

the so-called Power-to-X.

This is how Stefan Müller, Director

Application Center Marine & Naval

at MTU, and Daniel Chatterjee, Director

Technology Management &

Regulatory Affairs and the Green- and

High-Tech Program, Rolls-Royce Power

Systems, have been talking about

Power-to-X in commercial shipping.

MTU’s premise starts with the

36,573 Giga Tonnes of CO2 emitted

on an annual basis. Emissions from

international shipping are expected to

increase by between 50 and 250 percent.

In the short term, action must

be taken on fuels, perhaps the most

immediate way in order to trigger ef-

ciency. MTU reassures us by saying

that ICEs will have a long life, thanks

to their energy density, and they can

also run on gas, hydrogen and methanol.

The Power-to-X ecosystem

E-fuels are produced

in a process known

as Power-to-X.

Electricity obtained

from renewables

such as wind or solar

power is used to break

water down into its

components (hydrogen

and oxygen) by a

process of electrolysis

relies on renewable energy, i.e. wind

and solar, which the electrolysers

may convert into hydrogen. Green

hydrogen is the key ingredient in all

Power-to-X fuels and the vector for

reducing greenhouse gas emissions

for ‘hard-to-electrify’ applications

(mainly long-haul trucks, aviation,

commercial marine and rail). According

to MTU, by 2030, Power-To-X

fuel production will be cost-neutral

thanks to biofuels, produced in areas

of the world where such a transformation

is convenient.

The shares of Power-to-X fuels vary

depending on sectors: in the marine

one, they are around half, in cars just

10 percent (here, electrication prevails).

In 2050, demand for CO2-neutral

fuels will be around 20,000 TWh.

What fuel, then, for high-speed ap-

plications? As for the marine sector,

LNG, e-diesel, e-methanol and

hydrogen. The key question is ‘where

to produce these fuels?’. The energy

perspective has to be on a global

scale. If, for instance, the idea is to

produce hydrogen in Germany, efciency

losses should be taken into account.

Electrolysers would need to be

moved there, with a negative balance

of 50 percent in terms of efciency

with both thermal and fuel cells. In

gures, while 10 MW of wind power

in Germany will operate for 1,800

hours, requiring 13.2 GWh, the same

10 MW wind farm in Patagonia will

operate for 6,000 hours. It is expected

that by 2030 Power-to-X fuels will

be cost-neutral, given that these are

produced in favourable locations. E-

fuels imply lower land consumption

and water requirements and will become

competitive with biomass fuels

in terms of CO2 abatement costs, in

the range of 100 to 300 euro/tCO2. A

quick comparison among fuels shows

methanol to be the leader in both gravimetric

and volumetric energy density.

Then, commercial implications

should be also taken into account,

both in terms of CAPEX and OPEX,

i.e. capital and current expenditure.

The use of methane is suitable for several

marine applications. The same

is true for ammonia, which, however,

is a harmful gas and therefore not

recommended in densely populated

areas. MTU gives the example of a

70-tonne tug, 28 metres long, 13 metres

wide, 5,000 kilowatts of propulsion

power and 100 kVA of on-board

power. The methanol hybrid option

involves two 4,400 kW thermal engines

and 2 x 1 MW cells, 120 tonnes,

with a predicted 290 hours of autonomy.

The electric option has 140 x

7-module batteries, half the weight,

11 MWh and 5,400 kW and guarantees

8 hours of autonomy. Finally, the

fuel cell option, with 24 fuel cells,

200 kW each, for a total of 4,800 kW,

70 tanks of compressed hydrogen and

an autonomy of 17 hours at 30 percent

average power with a peak of 5

hours at 100 percent. Weight drops to

45 tonnes.

How long will diesel last? As for

mega yachts, by 2030-2035, on less

than 50 percent of the boats and fast

ferries between 20 and 40 metres. In

2030, the rst hydrogen cells are expected

to be installed on megayachts

to support auxiliary systems.






Cummins announces the new X15 Stage V solution

for vessels operating on European inland waterways.

Launching in 2021, the Stage V certied product offers

a power range from 500 to 600 hp (373 to 447 kW).

e are in the company of Stefano

Unali, Sales Manager

of Southern Europe for Cummins

Marine. His opening

remark is jaw-dropping. «2020 has been

a memorable year» he says. Not what

you’d expect to hear in such troubled

times. And what follows may even get us

to drop the conversation in astonishment:

«and 2021 will be even more so».

Considering how things are going

in general, can you explain such an

outburst of optimism?

It’s due to the level of demand, which is

actually very high. I couldn’t honestly

say whether this depends on the feelings

of anxiety triggered by Covid -19,

on the expectations about the billions of

the Recovery Plan, or on the frustration

built up over 2020. Maybe since we’ve

all been stuck at home, we’ve rediscovered

the potential of boats as a means

to practice social distancing virtuously

and enjoyably.

Generally speaking, I can conrm that

production orders for our lines are still

Stefano Unali’s words

are a celebration

of faith. He’s Sales

Manager of Southern

Europe for Cummins

Marine, which

revised its structure

and is aiming to be

recognized as a

solutions provider

consistent, or even on the rise, in this

rst glimpse of 2021.

Meanwhile - aside from COVID -

what happened at Cummins Marine?

Cummins revised its structure. We’ve

discussed the options with Coladonato,

a distributor of both Cummins and

ZF, and we agreed we could set aside

a space at their headquarters to stock

marine engines to be sold to Southern

Europe. Coladonato will guarantee

immediate service, as they’re used to

handling a stock of 100 inverters on top

of which are 12 to 20 Cummins engines

available for sale, plus the so-called rotating

stock – i.e. the engines ordered by

clients. Upon arrival at the warehouse,

engines are checked in and undergo all

regular checks (general check-up, uid

top-up, electronic system programming

etc.) so that we can provide boatbuilders

with a turnkey engine solution.

This service, combined with aligned or

competitive pricing and engine quality,

is one more string to Cummins’ bow.

Look out of your window. What do

you see?

I may repeat myself, I see boatbuilders

that turn to us because we can provide

an integrated offer which includes

Onan gensets and San Giorgio SEIN

integrated joystick and dashboard

systems. Cummins is equally driven

towards light duty commercial boats

and yachts and can match its engines

with gensets. In 2020, we made our

rst appearance on eight boats we had

never been on before, including Innity,

Austin Parker, Aprea Mare, Mauri

Yacht (Sardinia) in addition to extending

our cooperation with Ferretti for

their yacht 500. I’d like to conclude by

annoucing that Cummins will not take

part in any tradeshow in 2021.

Aside from Italy?

The American market is going full

speed ahead and that helps, considering

where the brand is headquartered.

Turkey and Greece are strongly expanding,

especially Greece, which looks on

the verge of a boom in 2021.

Southern Europe’s projections are for

growth of 30%. QSB, QSC and Onan

units are the most in demand for leisure

boating. Talking, instead, about

working vessels, our QSK19, QSK 38,

KTA19 and KTA38 take the lion’s share.

Now a little stocktaking.

Going back to what we said earlier, Co-

ladonato is a Cummins dealer; as such,

it has a dedicated area where engines

and gensets are received weekly, plus

they provide us with a checklist that

shows which engines are ready. They

can also do mechanic work. Today, having

a stock of ZF inverters alongside

engines is an absolute plus. Coladonato

also has engines in store that are

reserved for special boatbuilders. I’d

like to stress the importance of our assistance

network: boat owners in need of

a mechanic where there is no maritime

dealer could turn to Cummins automotive,

off-road or powergen dealerships:

at the end of the day, our control logics,

wiring diagrams and circuit boards are

basically the same.

Cummins is not interested in pushing

sales at all costs, but rather in being recognized

as a solutions provider.







Faurecia aims to play a primary role in the development of hydrogen-based

soluons in China. The global automove technology company, in fact, has

just announced the acquision of CLD, one of China’s largest high-pressure

tank manufacturers. More into details, CLD is headquartered in ShenYang

and relies on around 200 employees and 2 plants in Liaoning with a

capacity of 30,000 tanks per year. The company is already an established

and recognized player providing homologated hydrogen tanks to leading

Asian commercial and light vehicle automakers. «CLD is the right partner

for Faurecia to accelerate hydrogen mobility in China. By 2030, China will

represent a market of

at least one million fuel

cell vehicles. Through

our complementary

technologies and industrial

experse, we will further

develop CLD’s leadership»,

commented Mathias

Miedreich, Faurecia Clean

Mobility EVP.

Patrick Koller, Faurecia CEO (2020): «Fuel cell electric vehicle

technology will become signi cant in the powertrain mix in the next

ten to fteen years in particular for commercial vehicles.»

ug has taken a step in the

direction of ATS integration

and switchability. Let’s take

a step back to its acquisition

by Faurecia, a name which has made

headlines in the Stellantis case. Being

part of the PSA Group, the French

company invested in Hug three years

ago to enter the high horsepower

(HHP) segment. The logic behind this

operation is to face those markets that

will have a higher growth rate relative

to the so-called ‘emissionization’.

We asked Hug Engineering to start

right from the premises. «Since 2014,

we have worked to diversify our client

base: in the Italian shipyard industry

alone, at Fincantieri Yachts and Azimut

Benetti, we have established a

partnership with, among others, Tecnomar,

NCA and San Lorenzo. At the

moment, the SCR is suf cient, but the

demand trend goes towards an ATS

integrating SCR and DPF. The IMO

Tier III has been mandatory for vessels

over 500 gt in the US since 2016,

with a waiver below this tonnage. Its

suspension has been applied until January

2021. Now, there are no more

excuses or loopholes».

In 2020, Hug


developed a new

catalyst which enables

chemical performances

that, given the same

volume, are higher

than 50 per cent

Let’s clarify the differences between

an automotive and an industrial SCR.

«An industrial SCR has a number of

prerogatives: it is not made of a metallic

material but of a ceramic extruded

material; back pressures are

very low; there is a ‘transparency’

requirement with respect to the original

Tier II engine emission limits,

its mixing and uniformity of dosages;

and the urea injection must be assisted

by compressed air. The opposite

is true for the automotive industry: it

must be integrated into the engine; it

is subject to high back pressures; it is

made of metallic materials to endure

the cycle of use. The mechanical resistance

is key, since it is a device which

is subject to moving parts stresses,

such as with cars, especially when

driving on highly challenging road

surfaces. Automotive follows standardisation

criteria, whereas project

adaptability is fundamental in the industrial

sector, where all products are


In the absence of draconian constraints,

the leverage comes from the

shipowners’ sensitivity. «In the last

two years, in particular, we have seen

a strong interest in an aftertreatment

solution that is sustainable in terms of

weight, size, performance and reliability,

and also takes care of all those

aspects which are neglected by the

current regulations, such as ammonia

slip. We also consider the request for

‘comfort’ coming from yacht users:

the ammonia odour threshold must not

be exceeded, and shipowners wish to

sail all over the world without leaving

a trail of soot, neither in the air nor in

the water, as happens today». At this

point I think we should explain the innovation

rate of the ATS for yachting,

recently realized by Hug. «We have

decided to raise the catalyst bar from

a chemical-catalytic point of view. In

2020, we developed a new catalyst

which enables chemical performances

that, at the same volume, are higher

than 50 percent. Therefore, we have

increased the degree of conversion. In

few words, the NOx are eliminated by

ammonia, which cannot be stored on

board. The solution is to produce ammonia

from technical urea. Urea goes

from a liquid state to a gaseous state,

then converts to ammonia, triggering

the reaction in the catalyst. Ammonia

and NOx residues must be eliminated.

Depending on the ef ciency, these residues

are between 1 and 5 per cent.

What is the competitive advantage of

our system over the typical formulas

adopted by the other engineers?

Generally, the latter provide ner

meshes and create back pressures that

require a constant use of the SCR, regardless

of the conditions of use and

latitude. In case of an ocean crossing,

considerable urea storage is required.

We are also talking about three

to four thousand litres of additional

urea on board». This is where the famous

‘switchability’ comes into play,

allowing the system to be switched off

and on as required. This means having

as much urea on board as is needed to

cross American territorial waters and

drop anchor in Fort Lauderdale, Tampa

or Miami. Otherwise, the engine runs

peacefully without downstream aids,

including technical urea.






Grimaldi Lines’ Cruise Smeralda is a

RoPax, that is to say a ship capable of

transporting both passengers and items.

Built in 1996, it currently operates in

Italy and is powered by four MAN B&W

8L 58/64 4-stroke engines which deliver

11,120 kilowatts at 428 rpm.

hat does conversion

mean? We are talking

about the installation of

a new type of couplings

compared to the previous ones. Such

an intriguing technological story has

two main characters, namely Grimaldi

Group and Vulkan, with the

rst turning to the second player for

the replacement of two propulsion

engine couplings installed on board

the Cruise Smeralda motor vessel

with Vulkan’s RATO S couplings. A

project started in early 2019 and ended

last year with the assembly and

tests carried out on the two RATO S

couplings, customized so as not to affect

the original layout of the Cruise

Smeralda’s propulsion system. We

talked about this project with Giulio

Alberti, After Sales Service Manager

at Vulkan Italia, and Ferdinando De

Angelis, inspector and technical manager

at Grimaldi Group, who began

by ‘introducing’ us to the ship.

«The Cruise Smeralda is a RoPax,

which means that it is able to tran-

Relying on the

scheduled stops of

the Cruise Smeralda,

Vulkan managed to

replace two existing

engine couplings

with its own RATO S

couplings. Without

changing at all the

equipment layout

sport both passengers and items. The

ship was built in 1996 at the Norwegian

shipyard Fosen and later on

purchased by Grimaldi Group through

one of its subsidiaries. The ship

is equipped with four MAN B&W 8L

58/64 4-stroke engines which deliver

11,120 kilowatts power at 428 rpm.

The Rolls-Royce KaMeWa propulsion

system also includes two gearboxes,

two propeller lines and two

propellers. Since the very rst moment,

Grimaldi Group set the goal of

making it ef cient and reliable, thus

meeting technical, economic and environmental


How did the need to replace the

couplings actually arise? And why

did you turn to Vulkan?

De Angelis: «The couplings, located

between the engine and the gearbox,

are key element indeed within

the propulsion system. The previous

couplings, which were not part

of the Vulkan range, had reached

the end of their life. Grimaldi and

Vulkan Italia have been working for

a long time on the monitoring and

maintenance of the elastic (rubber)

parts of the Grimaldi eet: annual

inspections are carried out to detect

and check the couplings’ wear,

intervening in a timely manner in

order to ensure both the continuity

of operation and reliability of our


Vulkan Italia was very responsive

indeed, also in terms of delivery

time as well as the ability to carry

out the operations during the scheduled

rest of the ship».

Could you say more about it?

De Angelis: «It is paramount to minimize

any unforeseen events and to

ensure that the ship does not have to

stop, but can take advantage of the

technical and commercial stops for

maintenance activities. So, once the

conversion project was de ned with

Vulkan, it was possible to intervene

during the scheduled stops in Savona

(in Italy, quite close to the French

border, ed) to make the necessary

modi cations to the coupling housing

area. We rst replaced the coupling

on engine number two and then, taking

advantage of a dry-dock stop in

Messina, we installed the RATO S on

engine one, without interfering with

the vessel’s service. Currently, the

ship is in regular service and we are

pleased with the way Vulkan Italia

has managed the project».

From a technical point of view, what

were the most challenging steps of

the replacement operation?

Alberti: «The challenge for Vulkan

was that the installation had to be

performed in quite a restricted area.

Another requirement was about not

to change the equipment layout in

the engine room, so we had no other

option than providing a customized

solution on an existing layout. In

other words, we had to adapt our

solution to a context that had dimensional


After the very rst surveys, we opted

for our standard RATO S 531T

coupling with a lot of customization

work in order to meet the requirements

of Grimaldi Group. Therefo-





Within a collaboration project started in 2019 and nished in 2020, Vulkan

was able to convert two of the existing engine couplings into its own

RATO S couplings, featured by high exibility and 315 kNm nominal

torque. These components have a great capacity to accept radial, axial

and angular motion.

re, no machinery was moved, but

only a small modi cation was made

to some sections of piping that sided

the main engines.

Once this stage was completed, we

checked the alignment and more vibration

controls were carried out to

exclude abnormal vibrations. The

results were more than satisfactory

in terms of vibration management».

dition to tuning, we’ve also considered

their ease of installation. More

speci cally, the coupling is made up

of several sectors: both during installation

and replacement, one sector

at a time can be used, reducing

assembly and handling issues.

Our RATO S, being a highly exible

coupling, has great capacity to accept

radial, axial and angular motion».

What kind of cooperation has

been promoted between Vulkan

Italia and Vulkan Germany?

Alberti: «Our of ce in Germany has

got a department in charge of technical

design and conversions. Such

department supports Vulkan Italia

in de ning projects to replace a coupling,

especially, but not only, from

Let’s focus on the type of couplings

used within this project.

What are the main features of the

Vulkan RATO S couplings?

Alberti: «Those are highly exible

couplings, with 315 kNm nominal

torque, which we have often used

in applications of this type, also because

of their ease of installation

compared to other couplings. In adother

manufacturers, with a Vulkan

solution, more performing or more

up-to-date, or simply with the right

coupling according to every application.

In this speci c project, Vulkan Italia,

with its after sales team, took

care of the inspections and surveys

on board and the continuous talks

with the customer in order to de -

ne the overall project timing in ad-

dition, of course, to the installation

and commissioning on board. Our

technical department within Vulkan

Italia, in close collaboration with

Germany, developed a preliminary

offer which was submitted to Grimaldi

and subsequently re ned. The

torsional checks and the elaboration

of the drawings were carried out in

Germany. In short, customization

was absolutely shared».

Let’s talk about monitoring and

maintenance. A higher attention

was being paid to this aspect? And

can technological developments

(sensors, preventive maintenance)

make an actual contribution in this


Alberti: «Grimaldi is a shipowning

group that carries out continuous

maintenance. For this kind of application,

Vulkan recommends at least

one inspection per year by a Vulkan

technician on the elastic components

that are subject to wear, just to ensure

that the couplings are working at best.

For the future, I see interesting opportunities

for continuous monitoring

within this type of application. Vulkan

has its own systems that can be easily

installed on board and measure, for

example, the torsion angle width».

De Angelis: «Grimaldi Group has

conducted several studies in recent

years, also using dedicated sensors

on board, to monitor and check the

state of wear of the various components,

which are, as mentioned, key

elements indeed within a ship. The

concept of preventive maintenance,

as far as we are concerned, is deeply

rooted in our everyday work».





At Bauma China, Dana

launched an integrated

system for electricdriven

boom and scissor

lifts with working heights

above six meters.

Dana has also

developed the new

Spicer C330 remote

torque converter for

rough-terrain cranes

ana moves on electrication

and acquires Pi Innovo to

increase its in-house electrodynamics


and electrication product portfolio

by adding a strong library of turnkey

electric vehicle application software,

vehicle level controllers, and auxiliary


Dana Incorporated believes in the

electric solutions both in the promotive

and industrial applications. So,

going back the Bauma China, Dana

launched an integrated system for

electric-driven boom and scissor lifts

with working heights above six meters.

It improves safety, productivity,

efciency, operator comfort, and

reliability while reducing total cost

of ownership as well as the impact

on the environment. The complete

package from Dana features Spicer

Torque-Hub wheel drives, lowvoltage

internal permanent magnet

motors, inverters, slew drives, pumpmotor,

system pumps, proportional

valves, and electronic control units.

Dana offers advanced drive and

motion products for a wide range

of MEWP designs, including scissor

lifts, vertical mast lifts, articulating


and telescopic boom lifts, crawler

lifts, and truck-mounted lifts.

Dana has developed the new Spicer

C3300 remote torque converter specically

for rough-terrain cranes. It is

optimized for engines up to 195 kW

(260 HP) and can be packaged with

Spicer remote transmissions. Dana is

the only manufacturer worldwide that

supplies a remote torque converter

with three large pump drives for implements.

The Spicer C3300 remote torque converter

is available with an optional

lockup that improves efciency while

providing higher braking effort during

downhill operation. It features new

converter wheel sizes congured to

optimize the performance of today’s

low-RPM engine designs.

Available now, the Spicer C3300 remote

torque converter is already in

use in terminal tractor applications,

where it enables lower heights for

fth wheels.

FI Filters is working

side by side

with Lieberr and

Kamaz to improve

the performances

of 6-cylinder diesel engine

R6, developed by the

Liebherr D956. Based on

cellulose and featuring

glass bre, the lter media

provides a very high ltering

efciency – higher

than 98.6% for particles up

to 4 microns (in accordance

with ISO 19438) – and a high number

of operating hours – up to 3,000

hours of service life. A solid die-cast

aluminium support hooks the lter

to the motor body and the plastic

cap ensures lightness and exibility,

allowing the lter to work up to

pressures of 12 bar. Finally, to protect

the engine from any misuse of a

cartridge that does not meet OE performance,

UFI lters has adopted a

patented coupling system between the

lter cartridge and the plastic cap. The

UFI oil lter with die-cast aluminium

support and plastic cap, can work at

pressures of 15 bar, and the internal

cartridge, with patented coupling, is

developed with ‘FormulaUFI.StratiFlex’

lter media. Here, a pleated

multilayer featuring glass bres, guarantees

a ltering efciency of 99.5%

for particles greater than 12 microns

(Beta 200 @12μ). In addition, to guarantee

high ltering efciency, the

‘FormulaUFI.StratiFlex’ media is able

to perform at a high accumulation capacity,

thus ensuring a replacement

interval of up to 3,000 working hours.

The high ltering efciency keeps the

oil clean, therefore minimising wear

on the engine components. The UFI

blow-by lter both lters and recovers

the oil aerosol from gas and vapours

that leak from the combustion chamber

to the oil pan. This includes the oil

droplets generated by the crankshaft

during operation (oil shaking). Oil

must be removed before blow-by gas

is recirculated into the combustion

chamber mixed with intake air. It

has a fundamental role in reducing

polluting emissions, due to burning

of oil droplets recirculated in the

combustion chamber. The gases are

recovered and highly ltered, which

avoids the discharge of contaminants

into the atmosphere and the formation

of nucleation centres by ashes

as well as PM (particulate matter) at

the tailpipe which is caused by burned

oil. It is mounted directly on the highpressure

fuel pump shaft and consists

of a lter media made of synthetic

material and glass bre, ‘FormulaU-

FI.Micron’. The lter is able to resist

acid ambient particular to blow-by

gas. It has a ltration capacity of 95%

according to ISO 17536 and works at

an operating pressure of between 2 to

25 mbar for ¾ of the mapping of the

motor and maintains its performance

for up to 3,000 working hours.


ABB and Hitachi Construcon Machinery have signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to share

their experse and collaborate in bringing soluons to market that will reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG)

emissions associated with heavy machinery in mining. The target, then, is to accelerate transion to all-electric

mines. Within a clear strategy brought forward by ABB rst of all (here, another post about the company’s

developments in smart electricaon), the two major companies will explore

possibilies to apply ABB’s electricaon, automaon and digital soluons to

mining trucks and excavators provided by Hitachi Construcon Machinery as

part of wider efforts with mine operators to electrify all processes from pit to

port. Worthington Industries has recently announced the acquision of PTEC

Pressure Technology, a leading independent designer and manufacturer of valves

and components for high-pressure hydrogen and compressed natural gas (CNG)

storage, transport and onboard fueling systems, based in Germany.





Art. 1, subsection 1, LO/MI




Art. 1, subsection 1, LO/MI


art. 1, comma 1, LO/MI




Art. 1, subsection 1, LO/MI



N. 1 NOVEMBER 2014

Vado e Torno Edizioni srl,

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Authorized by the tribunal of Milan

n. 786 of 17 dicember 1 90

Managing director:

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Print: Industrie Grache Rgm srl,

Ro zano (Mi), Italy.

Kubota V5009 is the Diesel of the year 2019

Cummins 100 years - MEE & BAUMA - DRiV - MTU - FPT

Comparisons: 1.5-1.7 liters and 4 liters - H as Hydrogen


CNH Capital Markets Day - Kohler Hybrids - Kubota DOTY 2019

Comparisons: 5 and 16 liters - Interviews: AGCO, Cummins, SAME -

Biogas Mixing Truck - DPE & Agritechnica - MTU - ENI - TOTY


Fpt Industrial


www.vadoetorno.com - ISSN 0042

Comparisons: 2-2.5 liters - Interviews: Cummins - Deere - MTU - Perkins

JCB&Cummins - Conexpo&O f-Road - MEE Dubai&PG - Europe&China

FPT F28 Diesel of the year 2020 - Interview: Nanni Energy CEO -

Report: SCR - Fish-Eye: MCY and MAN V8 - Comparisons: 100 HP

Hybrid: Hyundai Seasa l, Huracan, Mercury - N igata - Kohler Power

Diesel of the year 2020: an abstract of the FPT F28 - MAN Engines for

buses: off-road, with Torsus, and CNG hybrid - Weichai and Bosch

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April 2019


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November 2019

Diesel of the year 2020 - Perkins&Hybrids - Comparison:

2.8-3 liters - Logset & Danfoss - Agritechnica: FPT and MAN play

their cards right - PG Cummins - Marine: Cannes, Genoa and METS


www.vadoetorno.com - ISSN 0042

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March 2020

F28 Diesel of the year 2020: also hybrid - Interview: Dana INC. -

Report from Conexpo: JD, Kubota - Comparisons: 1-cylinder

and 9 liters - Lindner&Perkins - MEE Dubai - LNG - DPFs



ISSN 0042

Pre s Register n. 4596 – April 20th 1994

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August 2020

Hydrogen: Could it be the elixir of life for ICE? - FPT F28: DOTY 2020

- Efciency: a case study - Comparison: from 6 to 7 liters -

Fish-Eye: Doosan&Perkins - Alternatives: John Deere’s recipe





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January 2021

Diesel of the year 2021: John Deere 18.0L - MTU Series 500 -

Interviews: Yanmar Europe and NGV Powertrain - Comparison:

from 9 to 11 liters - Fish-Eye: Massey Ferguson and Iseki - Hydrogen


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March 2021

May 2020

November 2020



AGCO - 29, 31


ALBERTI, Giulio - 44, 45, 46

AMER YACHTS - 4, 8, 9


ATS - 43



BALSARI, Paolo -

BAUMA - 16

BIFFALI, Pierpaolo - 20

BOSCH - 16, 25


CAPRA, Federico - 12

CATERPILLAR - 24, 25, 29

CHATTERJEE, Daniel - 38

CLAAS - 31

CNH - 22, 23

CUMMINS - 11, 18, 19, 40, 41


DAF - 36

DAHLHEIM, Christian - 31


DE ANGELIS, Ferdinando - 44

DEUTZ - 10

DLG - 11

DOOSAN - 24, 25, 26


EIMA - 23



FARINETTI, Andrea - 21

FCA - 5

FENDT - 31

FIAT - 5, 23

FINCANTIERI - 4, 9, 42

FIORATI, Stefano - 22, 23

FPT - 20, 21, 22


GERBI, Marco - 22, 23

GIORDANA, Sergio - 21

GRANDKE, Reinhard - 11

GRANT, Daniel - 10



HATZ - 16, 17, 24, 25, 26

HELLWIG, Maren - 17

HUG - 41, 42, 43


ICOMIA - 4, 8, 9

IMEC - 8

ISEKI - 24, 25, 26

ISUZU - 25, 26


JCB - 34, 35

JOHN DEERE - 6, 7, 32


KOHLER - 11, 25, 26

KUBOTA - 10, 11, 26


LEFEBVRE, Michael - 6



MAN - 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 44,


MAY, John c. - 7



MIEDREICH, Mathias - 43


MTU - 29, 38, 39

MULLER, Stefan - 38


NEW HOLLAND - 20, 21, 22, 23


PATER, Marcel - 37

PERKINS - 25, 26



ROESSNER, Reiner - 28, 30, 31

ROLLS ROYCE - 4, 9, 44

RUMSEY, Jennifer - 11



SOILMEC - 18, 19


STUPENENGO, Annalisa - 21


UNALI, Stefano - 40


VDMA - 11


VM - 5

VOLKSWAGEN - 28, 29, 31, 32

VULKAN - 44, 45, 46


YANMAR - 25, 26


ZF - 37, 40, 41



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