PLUSH Portfolio

shelby.doyle


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Table of Contents

Premise

Project Team

Low Tech Case Studies

High Tech Case Studies

Casting Studies

Semi Final Proposals

Final Proposal

Budget

Fabrication

Final Exhibition

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PLUSH

PLUSH is a full scale exhibition

exploring the fluid and organic

capabilities of concrete. This

exhibition will be a culmination of

the work of Assistant Professor

Shelby Doyle’s DSN S 546

interdisciplinary studio. Throughout

the semester, the twelve students

in Doyle’s studio have researched,

tested, and designed concrete

casting methods. As a result, the

students have created a series

of flowing objects that showcase

this process. Wall-like modules

flow throughout the space,

guiding users and creating more

private areas. Additionally, vertical

elements populate the courtyard’s

grid and create intrigue with their

organic forms.

Located in the King Pavilion

courtyard on the north side of

the College of Design, PLUSH

invites users to engage with the

exhibition firsthand. Through

touch, dwelling, or moving through

the space, users can experience

these unexpected and fascinating

qualities of concrete.

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Project Team

Grant Runtsch

3 rd year

Industrial Design

Sarah Cobb

5 th year

Architecture

Brett Biwer

5 th year

Architecture

Deysy Cruz Escobar

5 th year

Architecture

Matt Koepke

5 th year

Architecture

Andrew Evans

5 th year

Architecture

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Shelby Doyle

Studio Professor

Chase Ritchie

5 th year

Architecture

Elisabeth Hocamp

5 th year

Architecture

Mary Le

5 th year

Architecture

Jordyn Holtmeyer

5 th year

Architecture

Jacob Gockel

5 th year

Architecture

Jacob Gasper

5 th year

Architecture

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Branching Column

Winnipeg, Canada

ARCHITECT: MARK WEST, ANYNSLEE HURDAL, LEIF

FRIGGSTAD

DATE: 2007

SIZE: 12’ x 9.5’

The Branching Column was

inspired from the natural

formed “branching shapes” that

can be found when a flat flat

set buckles creating folds or

creases in the material. Mark

and his associates decided

to try controlling the buckling

of the fabric to choose a

branching design. To create the

Branching Column, Mark and

his associates used the Stencil

method. This is when a shape

is cut out of a plywood piece to

determine what the cast will look

like. Then woven, uncoated,

polypropylene geotextile fabric

is layed over the stencil. This

fabric was chosen because it

lets excess mix water and air

bubbles escape improving the

concrete surface and making it

stronger than a traditionally cast

concrete column. To determine

the thickness of each part of the

column a guide tool is used.

added and the whole process is

done again to create the second

half of the mold. The mold is

then stood up and the halves

are laced together by cutting

holes into the plywood, lacing

the halves together and using

2x6 boards to keep the tension

on the molds. The concrete

mixture is then poured into both

branches of the mold to keep

them even. Once the concrete

is hardened the mold is unlaced

and carefully pulled apart. This

mold can then be reused as

many times as needed to create

branching columns.

The fabric is then pretensionedpulled

tight and stapled in place

to the plywood on the sides and

the bottom is pulled tight and

clamped in place with another

2x6. The pretensioning keeps

the fabric from slipping and

gets rid of any wrinkles from the

surface of the mold. The rebar is

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Front Elevation

1/4” = 1’

Stencil is formed from 3/4”

plywood and 2x6 boards.

9’6”

Fabric is laid and pretensioned

then stapled in place.

Rebar is placed and steps

1-3 are repeated.

Side Elevation

1/4” = 1’

2 halves of the mold are stood

up and laced tightly together.

12’

add scale figures^

Lastly the concrete is poured

into both branches.

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Bruder Klaus Chapel

Iversheimer Str. 53894

Feldkapelle, Germany

ARCHITECT: PETER ZUMTHOR

CHAPEL DEVOTED TO SWISS SAINT NICHOLAS VON DER FLUE.

DATE BUILT: 2007

SIZE: 1965 SQFT

The Bruder Klaus Field Chapel

is situated in a remote field of

Wachendorf, Germany, it was

originally commissioned by a local

farmer and his wife. The chapel

was dedicated to Swiss Saint

Nicholas Von der Flue, better

known as Brother Klaus (1417-

1487). The verticality of the chapel

is accentuated in its juxtaposition

to a flat field. The Bruder Klaus

Field Chapel stands on a concrete

platform that is buried in the earth.

This serves as a strong base. The

sustainable construction process

behind Bruder Klaus Field Chapel

elevated the quality of the design.

The materials used for this chapel

were all locally sourced from

nearby towns. 112 local pine tree’s

were harvested to initiate the

construction of the chapel. The

tree trunks were arranged to create

a teepee style inner framework.

Layers of concrete were then

poured, creating a simple five face

geometry. Once the concrete had

become completely cured, low

temperature fire was used to dry

and shrink the wooden framework.

The fire was kept burning for three

weeks inside the interior so that the

tree trunks would shrink. The tree

trunks would then be mechanically

removed, exposing a natural

looking carved interior cladding. In

addition to this texture, the interior

classing is embellished with crystal

elements that create illuminating

light refraction within the interior

space. The crystal elements were

used to plug 300 small shafts that

used to hold the steel ties bounding

the outer and inner cribbing

together during the construction

process. There is a narrow hallway

that widens to a more open space

a tear drop shape is revealed

that opens through an oculus,

to the above sky. (Axis Mundi,

connection between heaven and

earth). The oculus at the center

of Teepee allows light to filter in

through the space creating an

intimate relationship with nature.

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Oculus open to

the sky above

24 Layers of Rammed

Reinforced Concrete

Cladding

Framework Composed

of 120 Local Tree Logs

Frozen Zink and Lead

Interior Flooring

Concrete

Foundation

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24 day process to layer concrete over

wooden framework

+

3 weeks to slow burn wooden

framework

Wooden logs removed once dried

leaving this natrual texture

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35 ft

40 ft

300 Tieback

Holes Filled with

Crystals

50 cm Layers

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Low Cost Alternative Fabrication Methods

of Hollow Core Beams

Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA

ARCHITECT: MOHAMED A. ISMAIL, CAITLIN T. MUELLER

MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

DATE BUILT: JULY 16-20, 2018

My case study expands upon an MIT

research project investigating low

cost alternative hollow core beam

assemblies. This prompt comes

from the MIT team’s research of

construction challenges facing India

and other developing countries. In

many of these countries, the cost of

materials far outweighs the cost of

labor. This, however is not the case in

for technologically advanced countries

such as the United States. Typically,

these developing countries attempt to

follow more advanced methodologies,

even though it may not be best for

their specific challenges.

The MIT team hopes to pave a more

efficient path in vernacular structural

design. This study sees the team

using water bottles placed within

formwork to imitate a hollow core

beam casting. This simple change is

cheaper, simpler, and utilizes products

readily available. The team began

on a 48” long beam, performing

structural studies - both diagrammatic

and hands-on stress testing. Both

styles of experimentation pointed

them to ideal object placements and

rotations. Grasshopper studies and

force diagrams show areas where the

beams require maximum structural

support and others where filler objects

would be permissible, lightening the

material need and weight of the beam.

Through these gathered conclusions,

the team speculated how this design

would scale to a more practical 20’

length. This speculation presented

the opportunity to further explore

this approach on a building scale.

This seems to lead in one of three

directions. First, one can explore

varying structural typologies such as

columns and floor slabs in addition to

the beam. Second, you can investigate

vary items to use in the structure. The

team used different sized water bottles

for the different scales, but the options

range much wider. Other common

goods such as milk jugs would

perhaps offer more depth to the beam

than a narrow water bottle. Depending

on the selected construction method,

the depth of the object may dictate the

depth of the beam. Depending on the

scale of the structure, you can explore

larger objects such as beach balls or

enclosed plastic containers. Each of

these objects must be enclosed to

prevent concrete seaping in the object.

Lastly, one can explore the depth

variation of the beam and its internal

objects. Not only does the beam need

to scale in the X and Y directions, but

also the Z. Finding objects that can

also scale in this manner is critical to

proper execution of the approach.

The final element of the study I

explored was fabrication methodology.

The MIT team utilized CNC routing to

create forms for each object to rest.

This high tech method is effective,

precise, and highly customizable, but

seems to be at odds with the target

audience of developing countries.

alternative methods of temporarily

affixing the filler objects to the

formwork. A diagram on the following

page illustrates dowels puncturing

milk cartons to support them in the

formwork. This diagram implies the

dowels being trimmed or broken away

as formwork is removed. Alternatively,

other low-tech methods include using

affixatives such as hot glue or simply

placing each object in the concrete

during the casting process. These lowtech

methods are not nearly as precise

as computer controlled forms, but they

are also cheaper, more accessible,

and quicker for prototyping. Perhaps

refining and advancing one of these

low-tech methods can help bridge

the gap between accuracy and

accesibility.

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6”

SMALL SCALE PROTOTYPE TEST

45”

Concrete, Rebar, and Plastic Water Bottles, Varying Beam Depths

FULL SCALE MOCKUP

240”

Concrete, Rebar, and Plastic Water Bottles, Varying Beam Depths

MIT Team’s Structural Analysis of Small Scale Beam

MIT Team’s Structural Analysis of Large Scale Beam

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Full Scale Assembly Axonometric

High Tech CNC Process

Full Scale Assembly Axonometric

Low Tech Dowel Process

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Alternative Hollow Core Object Exploration

OBJECT

Full beam

Water Bottle

Milk Carton

Miniature

Beach Ball

CUBIC FEET

12.5 ft ³

.021 ft ³

.036 ft ³

.038 ft ³

CONCRETE

WEIGHT PER

CUBIC FOOT

(lbs.)

150

150

150

150

WEIGHT AS

CONCRETE PER

OBJECT (lbs.)

1875

3.15

5.4

5.7

WEIGHT AS

CONCRETE FOR

20 OBJECTS

(lbs.)

N/A

63

108

114

NEW BEAM

WEIGHT (lbs.)

1875

1812

1767

1761

DELTA

(%)

N/A

3.36

5.76

6.08

These diagrams explore the varying

avenues within the project. First,

the high tech CNC process reflects

the high accuracy of the MIT team’s

process.

Second, I explored a variety of

alternative hollow core filler items.

As the beam scales, the items must

scale accordingly. Varying object

depths allow for varying beam depths.

Nearly any common, lightweight, and

enclosed object can be used in this

beam method.

Lastly, I explored low tech assembly

methods, seemingly more fitting with

the ideals of construction methods for

developing countries. This includes

using affixatives, dowels, and simply

placing the objects in each location.

Although some accuracy and

repeatability are lost in these methods,

they provide opportunities for those

without access to high-tech machinery

such as CNC routers.

The table above showcases the

impact of each hollow core object on

the beam’s overall weight. Increasing

the object’s size or quantity are the

two key ways to further decrease the

beam weight.

One note is that this beam’s

compressive strength will gradually

increase from the casting day until day

28, where it is very near to maximum

compressive strength.

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House and Restaurant

Yamaguchi, Japan

ARCHITECT: JUNYA ISHIGAMI AND ASSOCIATES

DATE BUILT: NOVEMBER 2016

SIZE: 268 M2

Hotel and Restaurant, a project

designed by Junya Ishigama

and Associates is located in

Yamaguchi, Japan. The building

covers and area of 268 m2 on a

site of 915 m2. The client asked

for “something like a wine cellar”,

so Junya Ishigami set out to create

“a variety of spaces as easily as

possible”.¹ The project employs

simple casting methods to create

a fluid and cave-like structure set

into the ground.

rough texture from the natural

dirt formwork it appeared from,

seeming to map the stratified

ground onto its surface. The

architect elected to keep this rough

effect stating “ The surface of the

concrete rock appears differently at

each location, the accidental kinks

adding richness to the space.”¹

First, a series of holes are dug

into the site, some connecting to

each other and some independent.

With varying heights and sizes,

these voids are the formwork

for the “columns” that surround

the programmatic spaces of the

project. Second, concrete is poured

into the holes and eventually fills

the building footprint. The pour is

contained by a brim, excavated

as an organic line surrounding the

site. Over 450m³ of concrete was

poured in a continuous session

to ensure monolithic structural

behavior.² Third, after the concrete

solidifies, the dirt formwork is

removed from under the poured

ceiling. This excavation reveals

cavelike spaces and large curvy

columns. In a few spots the dirt

formwork rose above the casted

roof, creating holes in the cast for

open air courtyards.

The final casted result has a

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Final concrete form is exposed

Dirt is removed from around the concrete

Concrete is poured into the voids

Voids are dug into the existing ground

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EXISITING GROUND MASS

FORMWORK VOIDS ARE DUG

CONCRETE FILLS THE VOIDS CREATING A NEW MASS

GROUND IS STRIPPED AWAY TO REVEAL FINAL PRODUCT

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ICE FORMWORK

ARCHITECT: VASILY SITNIKOV

CLIENT: ROYAL TECHNICAL INSTITUTE

DATE BUILT: 2010-PRESENT

SIZE: 2’ X 4’

Allow ice to melt,

reveal finished

cast element

Ice Formwork is a project aimed to

create a more sustainable option

for concrete forms that is less labor

intensive and highly customizable.

The project is based on PhD

research led by Vasily Sitnikov

at the Royal Technical University

School of Architecture Department

of Architectural Technology.

The research has contributed to

developing a method of casting

that early assessments show uses

less energy and produces less

waste than traditional methods. Ice

formwork reduces the embodied

energy and carbon footprint of

concrete 40-50% when compared

to EPS foam.The formwork begins

its journey as a frozen block of

ice that is then CNC’d to any form

desired. This part of the process

allows “production of non-repetitive

and complex geometries” in the

formwork. After the formwork is

milled to spec, the edges are then

treated with water that freezes to

create a sealed form. Once sealed,

the concrete is then cast in to the

cavity that has been milled in to

the block of ice. After casting, once

must simply wait for the formwork

to melt away. The formwork

releasing in this manner is the

main advantage of this method.

It eliminates shock stresses in

the de-molding process of newly

cast pieces. It also reduces labor

necessary to de-mold the cast

element. Best of all, the melted

water from the formwork can be refrozen

and re-milled indefinitely to

continuously create new designs.

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Begin with solid ice

stock

Split in half, CNC bottom

half to desired design

Fill carved space with

concrete and cover until

cured

Allow for up to 12 hours

for ice to melt and reveal

cast piece

Clean and inspect piece

Refreeze melted

formwork water for next

project

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Begin with

moldable

postive

Lorem

ipsum

Begin with

ice postive

Iceberg

Freeze

ice arond

positive

Cast concrete over

ice postive

Cast

concrete in

to negative

in ice

Cast concrete

over iceberg

Allow for

concrete to

cure and ice

to melt, 1-4

days

Wait 2-12 hours

for ice to melt

revealing organic

negative

Allow ice to melt,

reveal finished

cast element

Clean and

inspect final

cast piece,

reuse water for

next ice mold

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There are other ways of forming

with ice. For example, in the

diagram and picture on the

right, you can see how Olafur

Eliasson uses glacial icebergs as

a positive form to cast concrete

around. It then melts out creating

a compelling negative space of

what once was present. We also

investigated low-tech solutions

of ice casting where a malleable

postive was used insided the

ice which created the cavity for

concrete to formed in. Both of

these processes take a few days

ddepending on temperatures

during the process. At less than

32 degrees farenheit the incial

ice stockk can take uowards of

8 hours to freeze. Once frozen

then concrete can be casted

and must be given ample time to

cure which varies based on the

concrete used. Once the concrete

has cured over likely a couple

days, the ice melt can begin which

can take from 2-12 hours to melt

dedpending on ice volume and

temperature.

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MUNICIPAL THEATER OF

CASTILBLANCO DE LOS ARROYOS

Calle Sta. Escolastica, 8, 41230

Castilblanco de los Arroyos, Sevilla, Spain

ARCHITECT: MIGUEL FISAC

Inaugurated on February 18, 2003 by the Minister of Culture of the

Junta de Andalucía, Ms. Carmen Calvo Poyato, and the President

of the Seville Provincial Council, Mr. Luis P. Navarrete Mora.

SIZE: 9,104 SQFT

To reminisce the white textured

houses of Castilblanco de los

Arroyos, Miguel Fisac conceived

the building of the Municipal

Theater, under his name.

Located in the Sevillian town

of Castiblanco de Los Arroyos,

the building is situated in the

urban centre and surrounded

by houses that had a role in the

typology of the theater’s facade.

The facacde was constructed

through a system of cubes of

white concrete slabs. Housed

with stage space for a theater

and performance, a library,

and exhibition hall, this building

allowed Fisac to experiment

recognize the method of fabric

formworks with the urban

complex and materials that

would resonate with the context.

The facade, being composed

with a series of concrete

slabs, were cast in situ and

handmade. Fisac wanted

to show the materiality of

concrete to appear on the soft

side, patenting the concept

of “flexible formwork” with the

addition of applying polystyrene

for more elastic textures. His

experimentations included

improvising wire frames and

plastic sheeting, achieving in a

textured spongy surfaces when

pouring concrete. Specifically

for the theater, Fisac’s formwork

methodology used flexible

polyethylene lamina that

hung from a more stable rigid

structure to result in the desired

shape. This material would be

tensioned on opposite ends

of the mold, most possibility

secured by clips flushed to the

edge, to create the desired

creases of the fabric.

In terms of supplies, rather

than acquiring large amounts

of timber within conventional

construction that help resist

the lateral loads when pouring

in the concrete, in flexible

formworks, resisting lateral

forces are not required. Instead,

“fluid pressures are used” to

create the desired shapes

and surfaces. These surfaces

that change their shape after

continuous cycles of molds

create ever present unique

textures that are irregular.

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Fabric is placed within

base of the wooden slab

Fabric is secured on

opposite edges

Concrete is poured

Flexible formwork has appeared to

be a “globally accessible method

for the construction of low carbon,”

materially efficient, and the

ability to create unique concrete

surfaces. Impact of construction

and inputting infrastructure is such

a large factor when thinking about

the health of the environment,

and “replacing rigid formworks

with systems comprised of flexible

sheets of fabric” has become a

great option to address that issue.

Additionally, the materials for these

flexible systems are low cost as

well. The strength of conventional

orthogonal molds can still be

achieved through low cost fabrics,

resulting in structurally optimized

concrete structures from utilizing

the fluidity of concrete. Moreover,

transporting and storage is

reduced, as well as easier

maintenance of supplies.

After concrete is set,

slab is removed

Result

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MUPAG Rehabilitation Center

Calle Madre de Dios 42,

Madrid, Spain

ARCHITECT: MIGUEL FISAC

CLIENT: MUTUALIDAD DEL PAPEL, PRENSA Y ARTES

GRAFICAS

DATE BUILT: 1969

SIZE: ~4000 SQ FT

Miguel Fisac was a Spanish

Architect most active from the

1950s through the 1970s. His work

involved the use of concrete, often

taking advantage of concrete’s

liquid properties before it dries

out. In 1999, after the Laboratorios

Jorba was torn down, Miguel

Fisac described his work as “kind

of hortera.” In Spanish, the word

hortera roughly translates to tacky

or kitsch.

After working for the Spanish

government from the late 40s

and early 50s, he left and began

developing more of his own work.

He began to experiment with

what could be achieved with the

materials and techniques he had

access to. He would continue

to experiment with assembly

processes, prefabrication systems,

housing prototypes, and developed

many construction patents. This

experimenting would lead him to

work with a technique he called

“flexible formwork.” Flexible

formwork was a method in which

Fisac would pour concrete into

a mold that when finished, would

betray the normal texture concrete

had. This method meant that Fisac

could translate a wide array of

different textures and forms to give

the building the connotation he

desired. The MUPAG rehabilitation

center was Fisac’s first large scale

foray into flexible formwork.. While

I was building Mupag, I asked the

foreman to use a wooden mould

and to tie up some wires like those

you use to join the reinforcing bars;

we put plastic on top of it and set the

steel mesh between two concrete

lifts of about three centimeters;

when we removed the formwork it

looked great, a smooth and bright

surface as if it were still soft. Then

I registered this flexible formwork

and kept on using it, but eventually

I stopped paying the patent,

because no one was interested in

it.” This plastic formwork was also

cheaper and less wasteful than the

traditional method of using wood to

create a concrete mold. The plastic

allowed the facade to have an

organic, imperfect quality to them,

rather than the squared order

that dominates many concrete

buildings.

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“After a decade making exposed

concrete, I realized that something

was not right, because the

concrete took on the texture of

the planks, as if it were wood; so

I decided to give it an expression

of its own, because if it is a

material you pour on site when

it is still soft, it should have a

final appearance resembling

that fluidity. While I was building

Mupag, I asked the foreman to

use a wooden mould and to tie

up some wires like those you use

to join the reinforcing bars; we

put plastic on top of it and set the

steel mesh between two concrete

lifts of about three centimeters;

when we removed the formwork

it looked great, a smooth and

bright surface as if it were still

soft. Then I registered this flexible

formwork and kept on using it,

but eventually I stopped paying

the patent, because no one was

interested in it.” - Miguel Fisac

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Plastic

Sheet

Wire

Frame

Plastic is draped over the

frame.

Concrete is poured over

plastic mold

Result

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P_Wall

151 3rd St.

San Francisco, California

ARCHITECT: ANDREW KUDLESS

CLIENT: SAN FRANCISCO MUSEUM OF MODERN ART

DATE BUILT: 2009

SIZE: 12’ H. X 45’ L. X 1.5’ D.

P_Wall is an architectural

installation that explores the ideas

of efficient concrete molding.

P_Wall has been a series of

experiments performed by Andrew

Kudless, a renowned architect and

teacher from Houston, Texas. He

is also the founder of Matsys, an

architectural design studio that is

meant to dive into the exploration

of “the emergent relationships

between architecture, engineering,

biology, and computation.”

The original P_Wall, built in

2006, was designed to dig into the

self organization of materials when

using fabric for casting. Using a

stretchy fabric allowed the plaster

to ultimately determine the size

and shape of each module. This

leads to each module, no matter

how similar the rigid formwork is,

being completely unique with no

two panels being exactly alike.

This lead to a comparison of the

panels to the natural curves and

shapes of the human body.

In a video interview

with Andrew Kudless, for the

SFMOMA, he explains that the

similarities between the panels

shapes and the human body were

a happy accident. He explained

that it makes sense though, as the

skin on the human body is like the

elastic fabric which stretches to

accommodate the amount of liquid

that is on the inside.

In 2009 another installation

of P_Wall was built in the SFMOMA.

Instead of a series of rectangular

panels a grid of hexagons was

created. This allowed for four

molds to be made and not only

does this make the fabrication

process much simpler it also

reduces the amount of materials

that are used. The modules are

made by pouring plaster over a

layer of elastic fabric. Once the

plaster has dried and solidified the

module can be removed from the

mold and the fabric can be peeled

off and reused. The re-use of the

fabric is an extremely efficient way

to create molds for plaster. It also

allows for an incredibly reduced

amount of effort that would

normally be required to create a

mold for such a complex shape.

The installation can

be broken down into four

identical sections each with four

different sizes and unique dowel

arrangement. However, even

though the four main sections are

copies of each other they all look

different because of the unique

traits and casting method.

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Construct jig that will hold the

fabric and mold material

Dowels are inserted to

the base according to the

Fabric is layed on top of

the jig

This method of casting is a

lot more sustainable than

traditional casting. Because

jigs were made to recreate the

molds over and over, it cuts

down the amount of molds

that would need to be created.

Due to the fact that the fabric

conforms to the plaster and

creates its own form work. This

drastically reduces the amount

of labor that would typically be

required to make a complex form

work. With the use of the laytex

fabric as the form work once

the plaster has dried it can be

peeled off of the module and be

reused in the next casting. This

low-tech method of concrete

casting is at a small enough

scale that heavy machinery is

not needed and is easy enough

to create.

Top ring is fastened down to the

jig to hold the fabric tightly

Pour in plaster

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Typical wall construction studs with

5/8” gypsum board on both sides with

blocking for clip fastening.

Anchor clip embedded in plaster panel

and set into reciver clip that has been

screw fastened to the wall.

New plaster module

2’-0”

Module Rendered Model

Module Section

SFMOMA P_Wall Installation Plan

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The Green Corner

Muharraq, Bahrain

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ARCHITECT: ANNE HOLTROP

CLIENT: SHAIKH EBRAHIM

DATE BUILT: 2020

SIZE: ~2,000 SQFT.

0

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Anne Holtrop is well known

for his work with less conventional

design processes, more specifically,

ones that rely on the unexpected

and uncontrolled nature of physics.

He does so in order to find what

he believes is the true identity of

materials in order to fully understand

them and become closer to them. He

argues that our obsession with the

refined and prestine state of materials

is disingenuos to the materials true

nature. In the Green Corner building,

Holtrop takes inspiration from several

projects, however, one in particular

was his jumping off point.

Batara is a collaborative

project between Anne Holtrop and a

photographer named Bas Princen.

Together, they created a series of

forms by setting boundaries and letting

concrete fill them naturally. More

specifically, they dug pits into the earth

and filled them with concrete. The

concrete then flowed into and around

all of the rocks and chunks of soil to

produce a casting of the ground. This

produced a flat and smooth side as

well as a rough, natural looking side.

These pieces were arranged in an

outdoor environment to create an open

air pavilion which has been described

as resembling ruins of an old building

and shows “some fundemental form of

building.”

The same process that was

used to create Batar was used on the

Green Corner building. The walls and

ceiling panels were created by casting

negatives of the site in order to translate

them from the horizontal plane to the

vertical plane. He believes that this ties

the building into the landscape more,

similar to the way historic civilizations

would carve buildings out of cliff-sides.

He is facinated by this continuation of

site into architecture. In an effort to

acheive this effect, Holtrop likes to use

another technique involving material

choice. Many of his buildings can

be considered mono-material. In the

case of the Green Corner building,

this material was concrete. Anne

references the previouosly mentioned

historic civilizations when justifying this

choice. He notes that these historic

pieces of architecture that we study

are often made from one material and

this, he argues, gives the buildings

a unique bond with the surrounding

enironment .

He also claims that this

allows them to blend together at their

boundaries. Another reason Holtrop

decided to use one material is for

the affect it has on our perception of

completeness. Building architecture

out of a single material “creates a

reduced architecture, which feels like

a scale-model or seems unfinished.”

Indeed, when you look at the Green

Corner building, it looks like an

unfinished building or a practice

building, however, it doesn’t detract

from its design. The images that follow

show part of the casting process that

occured on site.

Forms were built to create a

general boundary for the cast concrete

panels. Dirt was piled into these molds

and then roughly spread out in order to

control the minimum panel thickness

as these would be structural. Once the

concrete was poured and set, a crane

would be used to attached a chain to

the panels and lift them into their place

on the structure. What remains is the

negative of the panels and a form that

can be demolished and spread out.

There is less waste in this process and

the dirt is harmless to the site once it is

returned.

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A frame is set on site and filled with

the surrounding dirt or debris

The depth of the frame is over twice

as thick as the finished casting

2” Minimum

concrete covering

1 1/2” Rebar

800

2500

3300

Rebar loops for

crane attachment

Source of materials like sand

or aggregate, the amount of

water used, and the use of

pigment all affect the final

concrete color

Depth reference and

Min/Max lines

Concrete is ready

to pour

The minimum thickness

would be roughly 5 1/2”; this

includes 1.5” rebar and two

layers of 2” concrete

Rebar loops create secure

connection to allow transportation

The remaining dirt mold may be

dispersed onto the site or re-used

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The Truffle

Candamo, Spain

ARCHITECT: ENSAMBLE STUDIO

CLIENT: NONE

DATE BUILT: 2010

SIZE: 25 M 2

Concrete is the most widely used

building material in our modern

world, and by some it is considered

to be the very foundation of modern

development itself [1]. The history

of concrete can be traced back over

5000 years ago; its ingredients

have always been widely available,

cheap, and very flexible to work

with yet rigid in final form [2]. A

history this rich breeds a plethora

of techniques that have been tried

and re-tried, and as we enter into

the age of 3D concrete printing,

it’s important to call out some of

the more unique applications of

concrete - particularly its history

with low-cost, low-waste formwork.

Evidence for low-cost and lowwaste

methods are abundant in

concrete construction, and The

Truffle is a prime example of a

unique use of formwork that results

in economic and environmental

benefits. This single-room building

made by Madrid-based Ensemble

Studio uses concrete to create an

inhabitable stone. The concrete

in this scenario looks nothing like

the pristine, calculated, flat-edged

concrete that is typically designed

for buildings, instead this material

is more of a collection of minerals

shaped by earth, not a man-made

composite for flat lines and boxes.

A study of this unique formwork

requires a look into the whole

construction method. The process

for making The Truffle involves first

making a retaining dike with earth.

This dike is circular on nature and

roughly placed by an excavator.

There’s no need for precision with

this concrete method. Then, the

pit is filled with a layer of concrete

for the foundation, and then they

get started on installing a unique

volume of hay bales. This volume

is more thought-out and calculated

(as calculated as you can get with

bales of hay) and the volume is

specifically put together to create

a cast of the room they wish to

create. In phases, they flood the

space in between the dike and the

hay volume with concrete, letting

it dry in between. They wrap the

hay bales with tarps before each

layer, but no rebar or support is

added to the concrete. (The idea

of concrete construction without

reinforcement is a curious idea to

me, considering there are elements

which span three or four meters,

but those elements are thin and

suffer severe deflection as a result

of the lack of support. The jury’s

still out on whether this could ever

be allowed in public construction).

When the structure hardens, they

remove the dirt formwork, trim the

sides to expose the internal hay

volume, and employ the help of

Paulina the cow to eat away the

hay (the diagrams in this report

instead show Paul the moose as a

visual substitute).

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What is left once the space is

cleaned and refurbished for use

is a structure that houses one

human, similar to the Cabanon

de Le Corbusier is it inspired by,

complete with a bed, toilet, shower,

fireplace, and a window that

overlooks the Costa da Morte [3].

This “Cabanon of béton [concrete]”

has an intimate relationship

with the land which formed it [3].

It blends into the surrounding

cliffs with surprising unity, and

“camouflages, by emulating the

processes of mineral formation in

its structure, and integrates with

the natural environment, complying

with its laws,” [4]. This is all a result

of the formwork they have chosen.

By shaping a structure using earth

and hay, Ensemble Studio has

created a building that not only

saves money on construction and

material costs, but looks as if it is

made from the cliffs it stands upon.

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UNNO REINFORCED CONCRETE

Edogawa-Ku, Tokyo

ARCHITECT: KENZO UNNO/ UMI ARCHITECT’S ATELIER

DATE BUILT: 2003

Kenzo Unno is a principle architect

based out of Tokyo, Japan. He is

known for his technique of fabric

formed concrete or what he calls

it, Unno Reinforced Concrete or

URC. His focus for these ideas

were to minimalize resources

used or lost in the production

and construction of concrete. His

“Zero-Waste” method allows users

to walk away from a project feeling

good about the energy used. His

methods are also all aesthetically

pleasing.

The two basic methods of URC are

the frame method and the quiltpoint

method. The frame method

uses a series of vertical restraints

in between which the fabric is

stretched and the concrete poured.

The quilt-point method uses a

series of ties in the walls between

which the fabric is stretched and

the concrete poured. The concrete

is vibrated externally by poking

the wet concrete contained by the

fabric with a stick and, as in the

case of the quilt-point method,

the fabric being stretched by the

concrete forms into its natural

tension geometries, allowing it to be

entirely selfsufficient structurally.

For my reasearch and drawings,

I chose to focus on the quilt point

method because it seemed more

interesting. That being said, both

methods require the same fabric

forming.

One thing unique to Unno was that

he was able to design a method

that allowed for insulation within

the form. Standard cast-in-place

concrete construction requires the

construction of two heavy walls

of wood for molds. After casting,

these molds are un-built, removed,

and eventually, after only a few

uses, transported to the landfill.

Unno has brilliantly re-thout casin-place

wall molds to produce a

method where no virtually labor or

material is wasted or discarded.

Another positive for Unno is

the flexibility between the fabric

membrane and exisiting boundary

conditions such as footings, floors,

columns, overhead beams, etc. can

be surprisingly simple. Although it

seems counter-intuitive, the fabric

does not need to be continuously

connected along any of its edges.

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The URC Quilt-Method by

Kenzo Unno. This method

of fabric formed concrete is

a simple zero waste casting

technique. Starting with normal

stud framing, insulation and

reinforced steel, the user than

attaches Polyolefin Geotextile

using form-ties. From their the

user begins to pour their desired

mixture of concrete into the top

of the formwork. While pouring,

vibrate from the exterior to

make sure the concrete is

curing correctly. Once full, allow

concrete to solidify in order to

remove the textile away from the

form. Now re-use the textile for

your next form. This recycling

technique makes this method

very sustainable.

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Stud Framing

Foam Board Insulation

Reinforced Steel

Polyolefin Geotextile

Form-Ties

Cast

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WAX FORMWORK

ARCHITECT: S. OESTERLE, A. VANSTEENKISTE, A. MIRJAN

DATE BUILT: 2012

Wax framework is a method used

to cast concrete and is completely

waste-free. Concrete is an ideal

material to use since it can be

molded into any form but the

process of getting it into a specific

shape is what makes it more

complicated and more expensive.

In order to use the wax framework

method, first there must be a

flexible actuated mold that is in

the desired shape, then the wax is

then poured onto this mold creating

the reusable wax mold that will

shape the concrete. The formwork

to pour concrete is usually 35%-

60% of the cost, so finding a more

efficient method would increase

the use of concrete. To create the

wax form, there has to be a flexible

mold to begin with. This is usually

done with a densely packed array

of pins that can move vertically to

change the shape of the flexible

top layer. The top layer is usually a

sheet of plastic foam that allows for

curved formation but is stiff enough

to hold the weight of the wax. On

top of the plastic foam, there is a

2mm silicone layer that is applied

that allows the removal of the wax

to the mold. The wax mixture itself

has several things that require a lot

of attention and the wax softening

point is one of them. The softening

point must be high enough so that

it does not begin to reshape when

a load is applied but low enough

so that it can be remelted after it is

used. Another thing to consider is

the two different heat sources that

will occur when the wax formwork

is in use with the concrete. The first

one is the hydration heat that will

happen when pouring the concrete

mixture onto the wax formwork.

Hydration heat happens when

concrete and water mix and the

mixture begins to harden. The heat

that is created needs to be below

the wax formwork’s melting point.

Another form of heat that has to

be considered is the heat from the

sun. If the wax formation has to sit

in direct sunlight for an extended

period of time it could cause wax

deformation. Several studies

have been done about applying a

white sheet over the wax or even

applying a white coat on top of the

wax so it does not attract the sun.

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Even though there is still a lot of

testing that needs to go into this

method, its pros still outweigh

the cons. One of the really

good qualities about using wax

is that it is able to be remelted

immediately. Even if there is

excess dirt among the wax, it can

easily be separated since they

both have different densities.

Small amounts of dirt in the wax

forms have no negative impact

when the concrete is poured.

It will also decrease the overall

cost of using concrete since

the wax would be a one time

investment. Another point is that

the energy it takes to heat the

wax to reform it does not even

compare to how much it would

cost to buy all new materials for

each use.

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WAX FORMATION

CONCRETE FORMATION

Densely packed array

of pins that can move

vertically

Solid wax with

reinforcements

Flexible actuated

mold movable by pins

Other side of solidified wax

with reinforcements

Apply sides of mold

Pour concrete into wax

formwork

Pour hot wax into

mold

Take sides off of mold

Take the reusable wax

forworks off of concrete

Take wax off of

mold once wax has

Desired concrete shape

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Low Tech Case Study

Sources

Branching Column

Canadian Architect. “UQAM

Centre De Design Presents

Mark West Exhibition.”

Canadian Architect, 26 Feb.

2020, www.canadianarchitect.

com/the-uqam-centre-dedesign-presents-mark-westexhibition/.

“Concrete in All Its Forms -.”

World Architects.com, 19 Feb.

2020, www.world-architects.

com/en/architecture-news/

products/concrete-in-all-itsforms.

“Fabric- Formed Concrete

and Fabric Formwork

Construction.” Surviving Logic,

www.survivinglogic.ca/fabricformwork-construction.html.

West, Mark. “Pressure Building:

A New Arcitectural Language

of Fabric-Formed Concrete.”

Youtube. New York City, NYIT

School of Architecture and

Design, www.youtube.com/

watch?v=gQdvEWBZVks.

West, Mark. The Fabric

Formwork Book: Methods for

Building New Architectural and

Structural Forms in Concrete.

Routledge, 2017.

Bruder Klause Chapel

Gyurkovich Jacek. “Architecture

Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow

Between Beauty and Originality.”

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Defining the Architectural

Space: 115.

Jenner, Ross. “Inner Poverty:

A setting of Peter Zumthor’s

Brother Klaus Field Chapel.”

Interstices: Journal of

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(2011): 35-47.

Sveiven, Megan. “Bruder

Klaus Field Chapel / Peter

Zumthor.” ArchDaily, ArchDaily,

26 Jan. 2011, www.archdaily.

com/106352/bruder-klaus-fieldchapel-peter-zumthor.

Zumthor, Peter. “Bruder Klaus

Field Chapel.” (2007).

Gyurkovich Jacek. “Architecture

Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow

Between Beauty and Originality.”

Defining the Architectural

Space: 115.

Hollow Core Beams

Ismail, Mohamed A., and

Caitlin T. Mueller. International

Association for Shell and Spatial

Structures (IASS) , 2018, pp.

1–8, Computational Structural

Design and Fabrication of

Hollow-Core Concrete Beams.

Ismail, Mohamed, and

Caitlin Mueller. “Agenda.”

Digital Structures, MIT, 2021,

digitalstructures.mit.edu/page/

research#ismail-mueller-2018.

House And Restaurant

Azarello, Nina. “Junya

Ishigami’s Architecture

Digs Deep for House and

Restaurant in Yamaguchi,

Japan,” June 7, 2019. https://

www.designboom.com/

architecture/junya-ishigaminoel-house-and-restaurantyamaguchi-06-03-2019/.

“House & Restaurant.”

ARQA, January 17, 2020. https://

arqa.com/en/architecture/

house-restaurant.html.

Mollard, Manon. “House and

Restaurant in Yamaguchi,

Japan by Junya Ishigami +

Associates.” Architectural

Review, July 27, 2020. https://

www.architectural-review.com/

buildings/earth/house-andrestaurant-in-yamaguchi-japanby-junya-ishigami-associates.

“House and Restaurant

Cave, Yamaguchi - Junya

Ishigami .” Arquitectura

Viva. Arquitectura Viva,

November 4, 2020. https://

arquitecturaviva.com/works/

house-and-restaurant-cave-inyamaguchi.

Ice Formwork

Manaugh, Author Geoff.

“Building Digital with Timber,

Mud, and Ice.” BLDGBLOG,

3 May 2020, www.bldgblog.


com/2020/05/building-digitalwith-timber-mud-and-ice/.

Sitnikov, V. “Ice Formwork for

High-Performance Concrete:

A Model of Lean Production

for Prefabricated Concrete

Industry.” Structures, Elsevier, 9

Nov. 2018, www.sciencedirect.

com/science/article/abs/pii/

S2352012418301310.

Sitnikov, Vasily. Ice Formwork,

Accessed January 30, 2021.

iceformwork.com/. Accessed

“Your Uncertain Archive.”

Studio Olafur Eliasson, www.

olafureliasson.net/uncertain.

Municipal Theater of

Castilblanco de Los

Arroyos

Ballesteros, Mario. “Manchego

Modern: The Peculiar

Architecture of Miguel

Fisac.” Fabric Formwork.

Pin-up Magazine, 2015.

https://pinupmagazine.

org/articles/the-peculiararchitecture-of-miguel-fisac.

Diputaci. “Teatro Municipal

Miguel Fisac.” Turismo de la

Provincia. INPRO. Accessed

February 3, 2021. http://www.

turismosevilla.org/opencms2/

opencms/es/nuestrosPueblos/

quevisitar.html?idlocalidad

=41027&idteatro=29.

Galán, José Joaquin. “Cultural

Complex in Castilblanco De

Los Arroyos, MIGUEL FISAC.”

The only biannual Magazine

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PIN–UP, January 7, 2016. https://

architecturejoaquingalan.

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cultural-complex-incastilblanco-de-los.html.

Veenendaal, Diederik. “Miguel

Fisac.” Fabric Formwork,

September 10, 2010. https://

fabricformwork.wordpress.

com/2010/06/18/miguel-fisac/.

MUPAG Rehabilitation

Center

Ballesteros, Mario.

“MANCHEGO MODERN: The

Peculiar Architecture of Miguel

Fisac.” Pin-Up magazine. Pin-

Up magazine, 2015. https://

pinupmagazine.org/articles/thepeculiar-architecture-of-miguelfisac.

Fisac, Fundacion. “Centro

Rehabilitación MUPAG En

Madrid.” Fundacion Miguel Fisac.

Fundacion Miguel Fisac, June

5, 1970. http://fundacionfisac.

com/centro-rehabilitacionmupag-en-madrid/.

“Mupag Rehabilitation Center,

Madrid - Miguel Fisac .”

Arquitectura Viva. Arquitectura

Viva, March 26, 2020. https://

arquitecturaviva.com/works/

centro-de-rehabilitacionmupag-madrid-.

P_Wall

“Form, Growth, Behavior: The

Making of Andrew Kudless’s

‘Bulbous’ Sculpture.” SFMOMA,

15 Mar. 2019, www.sfmoma.org/

watch/form-growth-behaviorthe-making-of-andrewkudlesss-bulbous-sculpture/.

ISU Andrew Kudless Workshop

PDF Presentation

“P_Wall (2006).” Matsys, www.

matsys.design/p_wall-2006.

“P_Wall (2009).” Matsys, www.

matsys.design/p_wall-2009.

“P_Wall (2013).” Matsys, www.

matsys.design/p_wall-2013.

The Green Corner

Bose, Shumi. “Architect Anne

Holtrop Finds a New Lease

on Life in the Desert.” PIN-UP,

2021. https://pinupmagazine.

org/articles/studio-anneholtrop-in-the-desert-bahrainby-shumi-bose.

Holtrop, Anne, and Bas Princen.

“Batara – Anne Holtrop &

Bas Princen.” Another Space,

January 14, 2016. http://

anotherspace.dk/batara-anneholtrop-bas-princen/.

DSN S 546 Spring 2021 | 67


Mollard, Manon. “Green

Corner Building in Muharraq,

Bahrain by Studio Anne

Holtrop.” The Architectural

Review. Architectural Review,

February 17, 2020. https://

www.architectural-review.com/

buildings/earth/green-cornerbuilding-in-muharraq-bahrainby-studio-anne-holtrop.

“THE GREEN CORNER.”

Shaikh Ebrahim Center, 2020.

http://shaikhebrahimcenter.org/

en/houses/the-green-corner/.

Truffle House

Watts, Jonathan. “Concrete: the

Most Destructive Material on

Earth.” The Guardian, Guardian

News and Media Limited, 25

Feb. 2019, www.theguardian.

com/cities/2019/feb/25/

concrete-the-most-destructivematerial-on-earth

.

Concrete Network Writers.

“History of Concrete - Concrete

and Cement History Timeline.”

Edited by Bill Palmer, The

Concrete Network, Concrete

Network, 5 Jan. 2021, www.

concretenetwork.com/concretehistory/

.

Malone, Alanna. “Snapshot:

Truffle House.” Architectural

Record, BNP Media, 14 Oct.

2016, www.architecturalrecord.

com/articles/6607-snapshottruffle-house

.

Ensamble Studio. “The Truffle.”

Ensamble, self-published, 2010,

www.ensamble.info/thetruffle .

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Ensamble, self-published, 2010,

www.ensamble.info/thetruffle.

“The Truffle / ENSAMBLE

STUDIO.” ArchDaily, 26

Apr. 2010, www.archdaily.

com/57367/the-truffleensamble

Unno, Kenzo. “A Site Dedicated

to Fabric-Formed Concrete.”

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fabric-formedconcrete.com/.

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Concrete

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Formed Concrete for

Architectural Structures - Part 1.”

For Construction Pros, 11 Mar.

2016, www.forconstructionpros.

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www.umi-aa.com/architectureen/.

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Wax Formwork

Darby, Antony, Mark Evernden,

Tim Ibell, and John Orr. “Zero

Waste Free-Form Formwork.”

Essay. In Second

International Conference on

Flexible Formwork: icff2012:

Full Papers. Bath: BRE CICM,

University of Bath, 2012.

“3D Concrete Printing: an

Innovative Construction

Process.”

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Construction: Welcome.

Accessed February 4, 2021.

https://www.buildfreeform.com/.

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32 Biomimetic Reefs

Cap d’Agde, France

CREATORS: XTREEE / SEABOOST

CLIENT: CAP D’AGDE MARINE PROTECTED AREA

DATE BUILT: 01/02/2019

SIZE: 933 X 1689 X 1358 MM X32

Over the last 150 years, climate

change due to rapid human

development has had drastic

negative effects on our earth’s

natural environment. The earth’s

environment is built up with

different ecosystems. Ecosystems

are communities of different,

interacting organisms that coexist

with one another in the same

environment. One of the most

important ecosystems on the

planet is the coral reef. Coral Reefs

are crucial to marine life. While

only covering around 1% of the

ocean floor, coral reefs affect 25%

of all marine life. Industrialization

and climate change have caused

coral reefs to quickly die out. Over

the last 100 years, 50% of all coral

reefs have been destroyed, and it

is estimated that the number will

increase to 90% within the next 30

years.

In order to combat this issue, the

Cap d’Agde marine protected

area commissioned XtreeE

and Seaboost to create these

biomimetic concrete reefs. The

reefs are created with textured,

chemical-resistant concrete. The

concrete used is an inert material

that is resistant to wear from the

harsh ocean currents. This means

it is safe for any fish or other

marine life that live in or near the

structures. The textured nature of

the concrete allows for coral polyps

to easily attach and multiply. The

holes in the structure also allow for

many different varieties of marine

life to hide.

hopes that coral will attach to it

and grow is nothing new. “Artificial

Reefs” as they are called have

had varying success through their

use. Like many other examples in

which humans directly attempt to

improve the environment, many

of these attempts didn’t work. This

would mean entire spaces of ocean

covered in rubber car tires, or an

old ship that’s dropped into the

water leaking chemicals, or eroding

before coral can truly take ground.

However, if placed in the right

area, and with the correct qualities,

an artificial reef can be successful.

In terms of the creation of the reef

itself, this is one of the best and

most optimized designs in recent

memory. Many artificial reefs of

the past used already existing

objects such as cinderblocks and

ships. However, with 3d printing, a

textured concrete framework can

be produced, maximizing surface

area over volume. The biggest

hurdle in making these possible is

the lack of availability in concrete

3d printers. This is a relatively

low-cost, high-tech method that

could become the premier way of

replenishing our reefs.

Placing things in the ocean in the

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Concrete printer prints the top piece on its

side.

A 3-sided rectangular mold is placed to the

base of the reef as it dries and concrete is

poured in.

Final Result

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3D Housing 05

Milan, Italy

ARCHITECT: CLS ARCHITETTI WITH CYBE AND ARUP

CLIENT: NONE, BUILT FOR THE 2018 SALONE DEL MOBILE

DESIGN FESTIVAL

DATE BUILT: APRIL, 2018

SIZE: 100M 2

3D Housing 05 has a strange

name because it is a prototype.

The architect CLS Architetti along

with CyBe and Arup are breaking

new ground for 3D printing with

this building for the 2018 Milan

Design Week.

Typical concrete construction with

professional masons is slow and

costly, and results in buildings

that do not or cannot recycle their

materials at the end of their life, but

CLS/CyBe/Arup want to change all

of that.

Using a robot, the building is built

in different modules that are 3.2m

tall and take just over an hour to

complete. A quick-drying concrete

mixture is piped in and around

rebar in a self-bracing pattern and

workers are on hand to make sure

the layers are smooth and to clear

buildup.

The wall segments are arranged

into a house with a living room,

kitchen, bathroom, and bedroom to

complete a simple home. By using

a robot to print curved concrete

walls in modules, the structure can

be assembled (and disassembled)

in fragments, making it relatively

transportable.

When the festival ended, this

building was picked up in modules

and moved elsewhere to continue

living its life, and as far as I can tell,

the move was successful and the

building is still on display.

the process of developing concrete

construction with 3D printing

robots, and it provides a good

starting or middle-of-the-road point

for other projects to build off of.

At the end of the day, this project

ended up taking 48 total hours with

35 modules, each at 1,400 kilos,

and created a total surface area

100m2. The materials needed

were exactly calculated through

the robotics software and although

they had to start over on one

module, they hardly wasted any

material by the time they were

done. This project is a resounding

success in its category.

As mentioned before, this project is

a test - it’s not meant to be perfect

and it opens the minds of the

architectural profession to a wealth

of developing questions; How

do they seal the seams between

modules? Would this construction

work for most climates? Why not

fill the walls with insulation? Would

anyone actually want to live in

this? The ease of construction

and ability to transport the entire

building are two major pluses with

the 3D Housing 05 project, but

as a whole, this building is just a

doorway into greater constructions

in the realm of 3D printing with

concrete.

This construction is elemental in

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The building is printed in separate modules

Each module takes 60-90 minutes to print

and weighs about 1400kg

The building is retrofitted with door and window frames

as well as plumbing, electric, etc.

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+ rebar

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Script for curved wall exterior


Script for internal structure of wall

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-estudio/5008edd128ba0d27a7000d16-the-truffle-ensamble-estudio-photo.

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3D Printed Community

Tabasc, Mexico

ARCHITECTS: ICON & ECHALE

SIZE: 500 SQFT

In a rural area on the outskirts of a

town in Southern Mexico, a giant,

33-foot-long 3D printer recently

built the walls of the first homes

in the world’s first 3D-printed

neighborhood in Tabasco, Mexico.

The 500 square feet houses are

built by ICON, a construction

tech company based in Austin.

They began developing 3D

printer rugged enough to work in

challenging conditions. ICON uses

the Vulcan 3D printer. This printer

is designed to produce resilient

single-story buildings faster, with

more design freedom and at a more

affordable price. This printer can

print approximately 2,000 square

feet with an adjustable with that

accommodates various slab sizes.

The Vulcan has the capability to

3D print at night an LED lighting

system. 3D printing at night is still

not recommended and typically not

practiced. The material ICON uses

for printing is Lavacrete. Lavacrete

is Portland cement-based mix

that consists of raw materials and

additives and has a compressive

strength of 6,000 psi. For the

operation and installation process

you only need a crew of three to

four people. The Vulcan has data

driven performance with dynamic

motion, environmental, and control

sensors that can capture real time

data.

Software monitors the weather

conditions, and the machine can

adjust the mixture in layers to build

floors and walls. The mixture gets

adjusted to be the correct viscosity

to print the same quality throughout

the day as weather changes. The

blueprint can be slightly adjusted

on site. It takes 24 hours per house

and two houses can be printed

simultaneously.Nonetheless

the Weather and environmental

factors could make 3D printing

in commercial construction more

difficult to work. 3D printing must

be monitored by real humans,

otherwise it can become an

expensive mess. The 3D process

takes the place of traditional

cladding, framing, and sheetrock,

however there are still many parts

that cannot be 3D printed.

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Temporary Tent Structure

Lavacrete Mix

3D Printed House

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3D Printer Framework

Slicer Software for Blueprints

Moveable Tracks

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ASHEN

Ithaca, New York

ARCHITECT: HANNAH

CLIENT: CORNELL ROBOTIC CONSTRUCTION LABORA-

TORY

DATE BUILT: 2019

SIZE: 100 SQ. FT.

By implementing high precision

3D scanning and robotic based

fabrication technology, HANNAH

transforms Emerald-Ash-Borerinfested

“waste wood” into an

abundantly available, affordable,

and sustainable building material.

From the ground up, digital design

and fabrication technologies are

intrinsic to the making of this

architectural prototype, facilitating

fundamentally new material

methods, tectonic articulations,

and forms of construction. The

portion of this project that this

research focues on is the concrete

printing fabrication. This building

uses 3D Printed concrete as its

base and main structural element.

The concrete forms are printed

upside down like a pyramid. While

printing, the interior is filled with a

gravel material for inner support.

Once complete, these “pyramids”

are then flipped over and reinforced

with steel rebar. The unique part

about this project is that although

each support looks independent

from one another, they eventually

meet up at floor level even though

all differ in shape or style. This

tessellating form allows for very

unique looks. Moving forward with

this research, this tessellation is

what was generally focused on.

The idea of unique shapes and

forms coming together at one point

or surface.

is an example of an object that can

be manipulated while maintaing

a simple shape at one point. This

shows that this variable of the

shape could be changed to any

other form.

Below is a representation of how

this tesselation of 3D printed

concrete could be recreated or

altered. As you can see in the

diagrams, each form is unique, yet

comes together at one layer. This

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AXON

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PRINT DETAIL

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Besix

Avenue des Communautés 100

1200 Woluwe-Saint-Lambert

Belgium

ARCHITECT: BESIX3D TEAM

DATE BUILT: JANUARY 2019

SIZE: EACH COLUMN 1.9M X 500MM

WEIGHT: EACH COLUMN 218 KGS (480LBS)

Besix is a multidisiplinary company

that works on construction, project

development, and concession

projects. The company specializes

in construction, infrastructure and

marine works. The company was

started in 1909 and has been

growing in size ever since.

In 2018 Besix opened Besix3D,

their own in-house production

facility soley for 3D concrete

printing. The Besix3D team is

composed of 5 engineers with

different backgrounds from BIM

engineering, to design work, to

workshop experience.

Besix3D has experimented with

printing new structural elements,

arched forms, outdoor furniture,

and architectural elements. Their

3D printwork can be seen in a

few places, such as “Deciduous”

an outdoor pavilion designed

by MEAN, and on Besix3D’s

headquarters building. The entire

facade of the Headquarters building

was 3D printed in 2020 and is the

largest 3D concrete printed facade

in the world. It was made out of 290

panels that took about 10 minutes

each to print, and everyone of

them was created in the Besix3D

lab. The Besix3D team lately has

been working on how to delvelop

sustainable concrete mixtures to

print breakwater units. This is a

study set up by Ghent University.

They are hoping that using 3D

printing methods will allow them to

create more complex and optimal

shapes that line up with wave

patterns and sea currents.

The Besix3D team has also been

experimenting with different

architectural and structural features

that could be revolutionary in the

future as 3D printing cuts down on

time, cost, and less man power.

One of these architectural features

is a twisted parametric column.

This column was able to reach 2

meters weighed 218 kilograms.

Each layer of 3D printed concrete

was 10 millimeters tall and 200

layers were printed taking a total

of 2 hours and 40 minutes to

print. From this column they were

able to create a complex looking

parametric twisting wall. Using the

column as the base code, they

were able to create a wall that is

aestetically pleasing and different

than any concrete wall that that

was cast with traditional methods.

The projects done by Besix3D show

that using 3D printing methods

to create concrete elements is a

valuable technique. The use of

3D printing technology makes it

possible to form any shape desired

in a way that is faster, safer, and

more sustainable than traditional

concrete casting and forming

methods.

PIC

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Make one column out of desired shape.

Rotate the column on all layers. Duplicate the column and rotate

the base.

600mm

Duplicate both columns on the Y-Axis.

Transform the columns into a single closed Brep.

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2.0 M

Parametric Wall Plan

Parametric Wall Eleva-

2M

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Concrete Choreogrpahy

Riom, Switzerland

ARCHITECT: ETH ZURICH

CLIENT: ORIGEN FESTIVAL

DATE BUILT: 2019

SIZE: 2.7 M TALL

Concrete Choreography is a

series of nine concrete 3d printed

columns completed and designed

by Master of Advanced Studies in

Digital Fabrication and Architecture

students at ETH Zurich.

The students partnered with

the Origen Festival in Riom,

Switzerland, where the columns

were used as a stage. Performers

could climb, walk between, and

hide among the field of columns.

needed. In order to use less

concrete, these columns have

hollow cores and voids - which also

takes down on the amount of time

required to print and overall weight.

This process also allows for the

exclusion of formwork, an added

labor, time, and waste intensive

process. Concrete 3d printing also

expands the design and texture

capabilities available compared

to normal formwork concrete

casting. Different expressions and

aesthetics are now possible.

The project reimagines historically

designed columns in the context of

3d printing possibilities by taking

advantage of parametric toolpaths.

These more dynamic designs

actually allow for less concrete to

be used by leaving gaps, voids,

and depressions on the surface of

the column.

The design of each column

includes a fluid patterning and

different surface textures to

highlight the range of possibilities

available when it comes to high

precision 3d printing.

This project exercises the two

main positive attributes of concrete

3d printing - design variability

and specific concrete placement.

Through the process of high

precision 3d printing, the nozzle is

able to place concrete only where

it is structurally or aesthetically

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Final plan view of completed column

A hollow core allows for less concrete use

Parametric curves add visual appeal + effecient

concrete use

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Fossilized

ARCHITECTS: AMALGAMMA GROUP

DATE BUILT: 2015

Amalgamma is a group of masters

students from the Bartlett School

of Architecture. They conducted a

series of experiments digging into

the new ways of 3D printing self

stupporting objects. They would go

on to create a code that would not

only generate the 2D design but

apply a volumetric growth to that

2D design.

Their process began by determining

the stress lines of whatever object

was to be designed. During their

process they created columns,

tables, even a vase. Once the

stress lines were determined

they were able to use a computer

program to assign Voxel Cubes

along the curve. They designed

four different Voxel Cubes two

that would be completely solid

concrete, one that would be

partially concrete and partially

translucent material, and the last

one which was entirely translucent

material. One of the solid concrete

cubes was made with structural

purposes and those are the cubes

that would be assigned to the line

first. After the stress lines had been

completely covered the next step

was using the other Voxel Cubes

to fill in the space.

is one final step before getting to

the physical result. They needed

to break their three dimensional

model back down into two

dimensional components to give

them the tool path, or the route that

the print nozzel would take. Again

they ran a computer algorithm to

determine this.

The physical printing of the

concrete was a more tedious

task as they had to apply a layer

of rock salt after every printed

layer. This was to provide support

for the next layer to be placed

as well as provide a texture that

gives the illusion of fossilization.

Amalgamma managed to create

a way of 3D printing concrete that

would allow them to create more

complex shapes and allowing them

to be more extreme and wild with

their designs. They also created

a computer code that would allow

the design to be kicked out on

its own, all thats needed was the

stress lines. This drastically cuts

down on design time however

fabrication time will still take a

while as the constructor would still

need to apply a layer of salt after

every layer that is printed.

After all of the Voxel Cubes

had been assigned they began

assigning volumetric growth to the

cubes. Using an algorithm and a

series of pre-determined volumes

the two dimensional object grew

into a three dimensional design.

Once the three dimensional

design was all put together there

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Stress lines

Voxel Cubes placed along the entire stress line

3D volumes placed along the curves

Tool path lines generated from the 3D volumetric model

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Voxel Cube Faces

Voxelization Process

Volumetric Growth

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Grasshopper Script for lofting


Grasshopper Script for a Voxelizing a Premade Ge-

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OVERALL PIC


MARSHA

Space Dwelling Proposal

CIENT: NASA

DESIGNER: AI SPACEFACTORY

MARSHA is a design proposal

for a home on mars, one that

is inspired by environmentally

friendly processes, efficiency,

human health, research efficacy,

and affordability. It combines

efficient, recycleable materials

and a program that highlights the

importance of mental and physical

health in the success of missions in

order to preserve NASA’s particular

workflows. The material, created

by AI SpaceFactory used mars

materials and PLA, a form of plastic

commenly used in 3D printing.

This material amalgamation retain

superior thermaldynamic and

structural qualities while limiting

weight, cost, and environmental

impact. The form was isnpired

by the most structurally and

economically efficient shape. This

curved, oblong tower uses the

least amount of mateiral while

remainign strong and stable;

understanding the way a 3D printer

works and performs is essential

to designing the appropriate form

as SpaceFactory was capable of

doing here. Inside the tower is an

inner shell that is used to divide

programming and manage the

lighting situation in the pod. Firstly,

the lighting in the tower is designed

to replicate the circidian pattern of

earth, this mitigates the stresses on

the human body when transitioning

to the culture and climate of mars.

This light management relies on

the open and closed conditions of

the inner pod. Not only does the

inner form manage light, it divides

the tower into and inner and outer

room, as well as smaller interior

compartments such as sleeping

pods, a bathroom, and various

labs. Not only does the material

usage need to be conservative

for a mission to mars, the space

usage does as well. Significant

effort went into the design of the

various programmatic spaces in

MARSHA in order to meet both

NASA’s requirements and those

of the human body. The first

floor maintains a rover charging

station and a wet lab; these cover

the most essential work related

necessities. on the second level,

there is a storage space for suits

and a dry lab; this level acts as a

secondary work space. On the

third level you would find sleeping

pods, a small common space, and

a bathroom. This is the primary

living component of the design

and is essential to the health of its

occupants. Lastly, the fourth level

is a more open and light space

used for excersise and recreation.

As much as food and sleep is

important for a person’s physical

health, recreation is imprtant for

one’s mental health and acuity. A

window is provided on each level

which, when combined, provbides

a full 360 degree view of the mars

landscape.

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First Floor

Second Floor

Third Floor

Fourth Floor

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SANDCASTING

Casting on a Dump: Using Sand as a Form-Generating Formwork

PROJECT BY: JIRIES ALALI

SCHOOL: CALIFORNIA COLLEGE OF THE ARTS

DATE PRESENTED: OCTOBER 2020

This sandcasting method was

presented by Jiries Alali at the

Acadia Conference in 2020.

“Casting on a Dump” focuses on

the idea of this low-cost method

to be accessible and efficient on

the usage of materiality. These

non-standardly shaped panels

are first created from a wooden

framework that holds on the

materials, with a top wooden box

to contain the sand poured, and a

bottom box to catch all the extra

to reuse again. The top box only

carries the boundary of the contain

with no bottom, but instead the

bottom is slightly smaller that sits

on supports inside the bottom box,

and has a interchangable circle

piece with a cutout for sand to filter

through. Once sand is poured,

whatever is left on the top box is

the form itself and sprayed with

water to stick the particles better

toegther, filling in all the gaps.

Concrete is then poured onto the

sand form and cured. Once cured,

the form can be lifted and sprayed

with reinforced concrete as a finish

touch.

possible forms in Grasshopper

combines efforts from both users

of this cast and the computational

academia. Each slight rotation

would change the over shape. As

a way to bring variety to interesting

shapes, this way of constructional

method brings opportunity to be

more material efficient by the

usage of the same materials over

a long period of time.

This sort of sandcasting is a

formwork method that as been

recognized as a zero-waste

formwork construction method.

Many of today’s current fabrication

processes depend high-end

fabrication technologies that are

inaccessible in underprivileged

contexts. Yet in such areas, the

cost of manual labor is substantially

more affordable than obtaining

expensive machinery. The ease

nterchangibility of different forms

makes it more efficient in regards

to the ability of the same material

usage.

With this type of casting, there

is no replica of the same form.

The interchangibility and flexible

assemblage allows for varying

shapes and sizes. This hybrid of

low-tech materials, and simulating

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A plastic panel is placed in the inside of

the mold and coated with oil-based release

agents

Sand is poured in over the plastic panel

within the mold

Plastic panel is removed from a side slit on

the side of the mold, excess exits center

cutout void to create sand form. Water

is sprayed to sand form to fill in spaces

between sand particles to sustain form

Concrete mixture is poured, cured, and

removed. A layer of of refinforced concrete

may be sprayed to the surfaces of cast.

Sand is recycled and reused for next

casting.

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THE CURTAINED WALL

GWANGJU, SOUTH KOREA

ARCHITECT: SWNA

CLIENT: GWANGJU DESIGN CENTER

DATE BUILT: 2019

The Curtained Wall is an

installation by the company SWNA

using 3D printed concrete. It was

designed for and installed at the

Gwangju Design Center in South

Korea. The five walls were first

designed virtually with a windy

effect placed on them to look like

real curtains blowing in the wind.

Then the structural components

were added so that the five

curtains could all stand on their

own. This is why some of the ‘wind’

effect is so dramatic when looking

at the curtains from the side. They

also used a pleat bottom to help

with stability. SWNA collaborated

with a 3D printing company called

CORONA and they were able to

use their 3D printers to make this

installation happen. The purpose

of this installation was to test the

reliability of the material concrete

and to see if it was capable of being

printed by 3D printers at a larger

scale. Each wall shows the path

that the 3D printer took to make

the curtained wall. Layer by layer

the printer followed the path that

was developed through the virtual

modeling process. Up close the

texture really shows exactly how

the concrete comes out of the 3D

printer nozzle. From far away there

are differences in color from some

of the layers to the others, all within

the same curtain. The reason for

this could be that the concrete was

mixed slightly differently during the

process of printing one curtain.

If the ratio of concrete mixture to

water is not the same throughout

the whole process then the results

will turn out to be different shades.

Lighter colored concrete has more

water in the mixture meaning it

takes longer to solidify completely

and a darker tone means that

there is less water in the mixture.

An interesting quality about this

installation overall is that since

there is so much depth to the

bottom of each curtained wall, it

creates an intriguing shadow effect

onto itself when the sun hits it right.

Each picture of this installation

shows a different angle of the

five curtained walls and it brings

out different elements about all of

them. This installation is suppose

to allow visitors of the Gwangju

Design Center the experience

of walking through the five walls

and being able to get close and

touch the concrete. The company

SWNA, which was founded in

2009, describes themselves as

three-dimensional designers.

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CURTAINED WALL 1

CURTAINED WALL 2

CURTAINED WALL 3

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VERTICAL MODULATIONS

ETH Zurich

PROJECT TEAM: ANA ANTON, ANGELA YOO, PATRICK BEDARF,

LEX REITER, TIMOTHY WANGLER, BENJAMIN DILLENBURGER

ETH ZURICH DIGITAL BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES AND PHYSICAL

CHEMISTRY OF BUILDING

DATE BUILT: 2019

Vertical Modulations is an

exploration of the opportunities

and capabilities of concrete

extrusion 3D printing (CE3DP).

This method uses a robotic

arm to extrude concrete onto a

surface in a programmed motion.

The motion is choreographed

by a coding process and can

become as simple or complex

as you would like.

This avenue of concrete

production takes advantage

of the many opportunities

of traditional concrete- it’s

strength, universality, and

malleability. Additionally, it

removes some of the hurdles

that face form-based concrete

construction such as the need

for formwork and the ability to

produce detailed inner cores.

Thanks to these advantages,

CE3DP can produce certain

concrete forms much quicker,

more precisely, and with less

waste than traditional formbased

methods.

To achieve these forms, the

ETH Zurich utilized a code

fully programmed by Python.

This utilized a trigonometric

function engine to establish

a series of point in space

based on their design inputs.

Variables such as wavelength

and amplitude allowed the

team to parametrically alter

the three dimensional form.

The robot would not be able

to move based on a collection

of Cartesian points, instead it

needed a series of path curves.

They utilized a mesh subdivision

engine, transforming the series

of points into one complex and

intricate mesh. To optimize

printability, the team sought

sinous and flowing shapes so

the robotic arm could easily

maintain speed and precision

on its path. A wave motion path

helped achieve this flowing

form- both in 3D and in plan.

With these full scale forms

reaching heights of two meters,

the team quickly identified the

need for internal structure.

Rather than the traditional

material of rebar, this design

needed the robot to also

produce the internal structure.

With the robot being unable

to follow sharp angled paths,

the team developed organic

internal routes that flowed from

the external form, never forcing

the robotic arm to slow down

or move abruptly. Additionally,

the team expererimented with a

variety of print speeds and layer

heights. These changes would

affect the density of concrete per

layer, the cleanliness of each

path, and the density of material.

The most complex design was

printed at 200 m/s with a layer

height of 6 mm. Variables such

as these were able to be tailored

to each of the different team’s

designs-depending on their

scale, complexity, and design

qualities.

Segmented Columns Using Trigonometric Fu

Contrary to traditional 3D printing approaches

the input of a predetermined form which is late

tally sliced, the trigonometric function displace

that are part of the print-path design itself. In th

CE3DP, which has relatively large layer heights

of 4-12 mm, horizontal slicing would predefine

sentation of the design in steps of layers. On the

by varying layer height, vertical geometric cont

design space can be improved. Because the rob

move precisely along a designed curve, the pot

manipulation and expression can be explored. T

coupling of design features with fabrication pa

along a print-path makes this design approach

able for CE3DP.

The experiment in Figure 11 illustrates layer he

tion at constant material flow-rate and variable

(speed of robot movement). It is shown that prin

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must be adjusted to local layer height (Figure 1

If print-speed is too high, insufficient material i


Two structural curves with resulting “tween”

curves

Lofted form derived from two structural curves

6 mm print layer contours

Comprehensive column

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2 m

.75 m

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General Parameters

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Upper Curve

Base Curve

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Casting Study 1

PRECEDENT PROJECT: ODD SOCK STOOL, EXLAB, MEL-

BOURNE SCHOOL OF DESIGN

MATERIAL: CONCRETE, FABRIC, WOOD

SIZE: 2’ TALL, VARYING DIAMETERS

APPLICATION: COLUMN

Fluid Forworks was a study in

the formal potentials of concrete.

How much will it respond to nondefined,

flexible casts? Does it

take on the shape of its cast,

or a life of its own? Inspiration

came from the Melbourne

School of Design’s ExLab and

their Odd Sock Stool, picture to

the left. Using three socks sewn

togetehr as a cast, the team

allowed concrete to assume the

fluid shape of modified socks.

Once rotated upside down,

the piece and its three flowing

stems can function as a stool,

supporting the weight of one

person.

We were drawn to fabric

formworks because of their

deceptively soft and flowing

shapes. These figures tend

to defy the typical notion

of concrete-rigid, stiff, and

orthoganal. Additionally, using

flexible formwork like fabric or

a sock allows for manipulation

before, during, and after the

casting process. For most

formwork, the design is nearly

complete once the form has

been built and assembled. With

our frame and fabric, the design

was just beginning with each

pour. This design flexibility led

to sharp folds, 120 degree twists

and dramatically changing form

diameters. The combination of

a consistent frame paired with

the open-endedness fabric

formwork truly creates endless

design possibilities.

We began our exploration of

fabric forwork with a rectangular

wooden frame. With two open

sides and a hole on top, the

frame provided access for

pouring and manipulating the

form. In addition, plywood

sheets covered two sides and

were punctured with a grid of

holes intended for dowels to

pass through. This allowed

dowels to guide the fabric

through shapes into patterns

featuring sharper curves. The

strict frame and consistent

dowel positioning options

provided constants in an everchanging

set of experiments.

The more comfortable we got

with the materials and their

potentials, the more explorative

the project became.

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ITERATION 1

MATERIALS USED: FINE

CONCRETE, HOT GLUE;

THREAD; DR. SCHOLL’S

SOCK - 50% POLYESTER,

46% NYLON, 4% SPANDEX

VARIABLES: USING ONE

FULL SOCK OR TWO

PARTIAL SOCKS JOINED AT A

SEAM; DOWEL PLACEMENT

KEY TAKEAWAYS:

CONCRETE WILL FILL THE

EXACT FORM OF THE

FABRIC. STITCHED SEAMS

ARE MUCH MORE FLEXIBLE

THAN HOT GLUE; SMALL

DIAMETERS CREATE WEAK

POINTS

This series of three sock studies

was directly inspired by the work of

ExLab. The first casting revealed

how concrete will flow and fill the

exact form the formwork allows.

This resulted in a foot-like form as

the base for our cast, leading us

to join two calf sleeves of socks to

create a more consistent form.

To join the socks, we began with

hot glue in the search for a secure

seal. Once we saw its limited

flexibility and tendency to cinch the

concrete, we switched to a sewn

joint. This held up remarkably well

and allowed the concrete to fill the

join with only minimal restriction.

The last variable we explored

was dowel placement. At first

we attempted consistent dowel

placement throught the form. Next,

we tried dense dowel placement

towards the bottom, stopping

halfway through the frame. This

gradient of structure created a

desirable form that started with

sharp folds and gradually became

more vertical.

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ITERATION 2

MATERIALS USED: FINE

CONCRETE; THREAD;

KNIT POLYESTER

SPANDEX FABRIC - 94%

POLYESTER, 6% SPANDEX;

PERFORMANCE FABRIC -

94% COTTON, 6% SPANDEX;

COTTON BEDSHEET - 60%

COTTON, 40% POLYESTER

VARIABLES: DIFFERENT

FABRICS WERE USED FOR

EACH COLUMN; DOWELS

WERE REDUCED WHEN

FABRIC DID NOT BEND WITH

DOWELS

KEY TAKEAWAYS: FLEXIBLE

FABRICS WORK BEST, WITH

THE PERFORMANCE FABRIC

(MID-STRETCH LEVEL)

BEING THE MOST USER

Looking at scale-ability, we realized

that continually casting into socks

was no longer an option. Instead,

we needed forms that could be

bought in large pieces and trimmed

to our specific nshapes. We found

three fabrics on the spectrum of

stiff to extremely stretchy, and used

them as formwork under the same

parameters. The only variability is

that the most stiff fabric could not

fold around a third column.

The results of this materiality study

aligned with our hypothesis- that

the middle fabric would prevail as

the best choice. This fabric shared

many qualities with the original

sock. Additionally, it still left a

subtle texture on the finished form,

something that initially drew us to

the sock material.

One final change with this iteration

was the addition of a vertical seam.

Using two rows of thread per seam,

the fabric held up extremely well

throughout the form.

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ITERATION 3

MATERIALS USED: FINE

CONCRETE; ; THREAD;

PERFORMANCE FABRIC -

94% COTTON, 6% SPANDEX

VARIABLES: TWISTED THE

TOP PIECE OF THE FRAME

AT DIFFERENT MOMENTS

THROUGHOUT THE POUR;

USED DOWELS TO GUIDE

THE FORM DIFFERENTLY

KEY TAKEAWAYS: TWISTS

ARE MOST DRAMATIC WHEN

DONE MORE SUDDENLY,

DOWEL PLACEMENT IS A

MAJOR DESIGN DECISION

Our third and final iteration

most resembled our precedent,

the Odd Sock Stool. Pouring

three columns at once and

twisting the top of the form, we

attempted to create a unified

series of columns. The first pour

was rather disappointing, as the

forms ballooned and gradually

twisted, creating more of a lean.

Refining this process for the

second pour, we waited to twist

the frame until the concrete had

eclipsed the dowel formation.

This allowed the concrete to fully

navigate the folded form at the

base before rising into a twisting

form. Reducing the height of the

twist made it appear much more

dramatic. Additionally, rotating

an additional 30 degrees - now

120 degrees - brought the top of

each column to directly above

the base of an adjacent column.

We feel that our final pour best

executed our initial design

vision.

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Parametrically, there are a number of

ways to represent our project. Ideally,

a tension driven computation system

such as Kangaroo can respond to

the forces and produce a malleable

model. This would allow us to fluctuate

the density of the material, simulating

the fabric’s response to concrete as

accurately as possible. This type of

modeling would fall into the category

of simulation-based modeling.

The advatage of simulation-based

modeling is being able to anticipate

what may be ahead before doing the

act of modeling. The downside is that

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because it is simply a simulation, it

may not be overly precise. Unable

to execute a proper simulation for

our project, we instead opted for

representational modeling.

This form of modeling is done

after the form has been created,

documenting what has occurred.

To achieve this, we drew a curve

in Rhino that very closely followed

the profile of the concrete. Detailed

side by side comparisons led us to a

form that strongly resembled our cast

form. From there, the pipe variable

command allowed us to create a

number of circular profiles that lofted.

the curve. Once created, we could

adjust the location and radius of each

profile. Following the same side by

side comparison, we were able to

closely replicate the fluctuating form

of our concrete cast. In the future, we

aim to pair siimulation-based modeling

alongside representational modeling.

This would allow us to parametrically

design, seeing the live response to our

variables. Additionally, we would be

able to use a hybrid parametric proces

to closely replicate the created forms.


Looking back on the project, we

consider it a success. Through

making, we learned an extraordinary

amount about fabric formworks

and the creation of fluid concrete

structures. As our parameters evolved

- with some remaining the same - we

could test and evolve our process.

Through early iterations, we had

iterations, we had determined that

sharp folds at the base rising into

a vertical finish created a desirable

form. With this as our ideal shape, we

began to test scale-able fabrics that

could enhance this figure.

After identifying an sock-like fabric

that would allow the process to scale,

we were able to manipulate the forms

even further. Twists attempted to

unify three columns into one form -

with mixed results. Our final iteration

brought us closest to our initial vision,

three swooping columns unified into

one form.

We believe that we have created a

process and framework that lends

itself to very flexible designs and

infinite possibilities. Both single and

group columns can be cast, with folds

or straight patterns, twists or no twists.

By inserting a few variables into our

framework, the design possibilities

have become endless.

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Casting Study 2

PRECEDENT PROJECT: PETER ZUMTHOR | BRUDDER

KLAUSE CHAPEL | ANNE HOLTROP’S GREEN CORNER

BUILDING

APPLICATION: USING NATURAL MEDIUMS TO CREATE

RANDOM AND COMPLEX TEXTURES OR FORMWORK

The

following

explorations are a series of

experiments that stemmed from

reseearching the Peter Zumthor

| Brudder Klause Chapel as well

as Anne Holtrop’s Green Corner

building. Each precedent used

a unique, low -tech method of

manufacturing complex textures

and forms without the need for

highly processed form-work.

We took the essense of each

and combined them in various

ratios to create our own hybrid,

low-tech textural creations.

The Brudder Klause

Chapel used natural wood logs

of relatively consistent diameter

and few protrusions in order to

create a pyramidal form on which

concrete would be layered.

Once the concrete was poured

and set, the interior framework

of logs was set aflame and

left to smolder. This dried out

and shrunk the logs enough

to mechanically remove them

from the remaining concrete

structure. The combination of

random, natural materials, and

a chaotic force like fire created

colors, textures, and patterns

that are difficult to replicate with

3D modeling and machining by

using a relatively simple and

easy form of crafting.

Similar to the low-tech

nature of Peter Zumthor’s

work, Anne Holtrop used a

natural material in various

arrangements to create variable

and reuseable molds in which

he would cast concrete. What

is different in their methods,

however, is that Holtrop used

dirt as his medium and extracted

it from the very site that the

building was being constructed

on. This dirt was re-useable and

infinitely malleable, meaning

that it could be rearranged

without repetition of form. The

result was a gritty and highly

detailed wall panel that can not

be exactly replicated with tools

such as grasshopper.

Our experiments range

from form-making to texturematching

and vary in their

levels of success. The earlier

renditions focus on naturally

shaped sticks and how they

might create voids in the

concrete as well as how they

might serve as form-work. Later

iterations begin to focus on

processed wood for form-work,

bark as a way of producing wood

textures, and the use of hot glue

or caulk to draw patterns that

will etch themselves into the

cast concrete.

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ITERATION 1

MATERIALS USED: PVC

PIPE, WOOD, CONCRETE

VARIABLES: WEATHER

KEY TAKEAWAYS: HOT GLUE

IS AN EFFECTIVE MEDIA TO

REPEL CONCRETE WHILE

RETAINING STRENGTH TO

SECURE STICKS.

This first iteration was created

by hot glueing the sticks to

the circumference of the

pvc pipe. Once they were

secured concrete was poured.

This outcome was sucessful

because the hot glue help up

exceptionally well. This column

was supposed to be slow

burned so that the wooden

sticks could be removed from

the surface of the column. The

sticks however came out easily

with simple removal.

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ITERATION 2

MATERIALS USED: PVC,

WOOD, CONCRETE

VARIABLES: MOVEMENT OF

THE STICKS DURING POUR-

ING

KEY TAKEAWAYS: WOODEN

STICKS WORKED AS CON-

For this iteration we piled loose

sticks inside of the pvc formwork

in a random array. We then

poured a wet mixture of portland

cement over the sticks, allowing

it to fill in any gaps within the

mold. Our goal was to burn the

sticks out of the set concrete

starting with the ends that would

be exposed on the exterior of

the cast. This, however, was

unsuccessful, as the sticks

shifted and there was no point

to start a burn. An interesting

discovery was the use of sticks

as a structural material. When

the sticks absorb the moisture

from the concrete, they become

quite strong and mildly pliable,

giving the cast a relativley

strong impact resistance.

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ITERATION 3

MATERIALS USED:PVC PIPE,

CONCRETE, WOOD

VARIABLES:

CONCRETE CONSISTENCY

KEY TAKEAWAYS: DOING

MOLDS IN TWO HALFS AND

CONCECCTING CURED

CONCRETE IS MORE DIFFI-

CULT.

For this third Iteration we placed

sticks at the base of the first half

mold, and intended to use rebar

to connect the two halfs. For

this iteration the concrete began

to crack and did not hold up as

welll as anticipated. In addition

to this the sticks floated up to

the top of the concrete.

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ITERATION 4

MATERIALS USED:CONCRETE,

HOT GLUE, WOOD, & PVC PIPE

VARIABLES: AMOUNT OF HOT

GLUE

KEY TAKEAWAYS: PROVIDES

FOR AN OPPORTUNITY TO

CREATE CONSTRAINTS FOR

THE DESIGN, EASY TO RE-

MOVE, FOSSIL-LIKE QUALI-

TIES, MAY BE REUSED

This iteration was developed as

a byproduct of using hot glue

for the previous iteration. The

way that the hot glue interacted

with the concrete revealed

that it was a good medium

for creating patterns in the

concrete and the hot glue was

easily removeable. The use of

hot glue can be scaled up and

made more permanent as well

by using caulk. For this process

we used halved pvc tubing on

which the hot glue was applied.

The seams were sealed with

caulk and squeezed together

using hose clamps in order

to prevent leaking. Once set,

we were able to release the

clamps and pry apart the pvc

mold. This left the coloumn with

embedded hot glue, which we

were then able to remove with

relative ease. The thinner the

hot glue, the more difficult it was

to remove.

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ITERATION 5

MATERIALS USED: WOODEN

DOWELS, CONCRETE, PAPER,

& FIRE

VARIABLES:

WEATHER, HEAT FROM THE

FIRE

KEY TAKEAWAYS: NEEDS

LONG BURN TIMES, HEAT MAY

CAUSE CRACKING, NOT A RE-

USEABLE FORMWORK

In a method similar to the ones

used on the Peter Zumthor |

Brudder Klause Chapel, we

constructed a small scale

wooden structure over which

we could pour concrete. Instead

of naturally occuring sticks,

we used processed wooden

dowls ranged in a cone-like

form. Once the concrete was

set and the sticks dried out, we

set the interior aflame and left

it to smolder for a while before

letting it die out. We then began

to pry the dowels out of the

cast. A longer burn would have

been ideal, as the dowels did

not release easily. However, the

process was very interesting to

watch and worked pretty well at

such a small scale. The colors

and textures created were

captivating and difficult, if not

impossible, to recreate withou

the use of natural materials and

fire.

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ITERATION 6

MATERIALS USED: BARK,

PLYWOOD, ROCKS, CAULK,

CONCRETE, METAL ROD, &

FIRE

VARIABLES: WEATHER,

CONCRETE MIX RATIO

KEY TAKEAWAYS: LACK

OF OXYGEN FOR PROPER

BURNING, REPLICATES

BARK TEXTURE WELL

As Anne Holtrop used dirt, we

used bark. Holtrop’s use of

site specific materials creates

an opportunity for a cast

to maintain a more intimate

connections with its site no

matter the available materials.

Any natural material that can

be piled or arranged variably

in a set boundary may be used

in place of dirt and with the

same level of efficacy that Anne

Holtrop experienced while using

dirt. Our use of bark, although

not reuseable, recreated the

natural textured considerably

well. Other options could include

straw, gravel, sand, clay, and

many more natural resources.

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Creating a script for this texture

is something that would not be

ass effective as simply modeling

in rhino. The method we used

for creating our columns was

meant to create texture using

natrual material. Bark has an

unpredictable pattern and is

not repeated in a parametric

sequenence. The grasshopper

script shows a patterns of a

texture that is predictable and

has clean lines. This pattern was

created by first placing a circle

with parameters and offsetting

it. Then it was replicated in the Z

direction and divided to then be

woven. Next some commands

were made for the movement

and the rotation of the column

itself.

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Casting Study 3

PRECEDENT PROJECT: ICE FORMWORK

MATERIAL: WATER, AIR, SAND, PLAYDOUGH

SIZE: 9 IN. X 12 IN.

APPLICATION: AESTHETIC WALL

We started with ice form work

and realized after we made three

castings that our method was a

fail. The temperature needed to

keep the ice frozen was too low

to allow for the concrete form

work to solidify. Instead, the water

within the concrete mixture froze

while being in the below freezing

temperatures.

We decided to change direction

with our case study and try out

multiple materials. We changed to

using balloons, air, water, sand and

play dough. We used the balloons

with the air, water and sand and the

play dough on its own. All of these

materials were then used in four

separate 9 inch by 12 inch pans to

test all of them equally. We started

with filling the balloons with air and

making each balloon a different

size. For the second pan but third

iteration we filled the balloons with

water. We continued with the idea

filling the balloons so that they are

different sizes. We then used the

play dough to hand mold it in the

bottom of the pan. We places saran

wrap over the play dough to keep

the play dough and the concrete

separate. Lastly, we used the

balloons again and filled them with

sand. This method was different

from the air and water because the

sand could not expand the balloon

therefore all of the balloons were

relatively the same side.

be able to take the things learned

from these experiments and

combine them with another case

study. Even though the last four

iterations were successful, we

want to continue with the balloons

filled with water or the balloons

filled with sand. The water balloons

were able to sink into the mold

and the sand balloons were able

to dissemble very easily and we

could reuse the sand.

We learned that ice framework

required a lot more technology

to make the experiment work like

a temperature controlled room.

We were unable to make the ice

framework work while trying to

stay low tech.

When switching to new materials

besides ice, we found that these

methods worked a lot better than

the ice frame work. Air, water, play

dough and sand all worked as

frame work for casting concrete.

We found that water and sand

worked the best for what we were

trying to achieve and hope to move

forward with those materials.

Overall, all of our final iterations

were more successful than using

ice as a form work for the concrete

mixture. Moving forward, we will

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ITERATION 1

MATERIALS USED: ICE

VARIABLES: DIFFERENT

SIZES

KEY TAKEAWAYS: NEEDS

A TEMPERATURE CON-

TROLLED ROOM TO WORK

This iteration was our first and

last experiment with ice. We

wanted to be able to use ice

as a mold to pour concrete into

so that when the ice melts, we

could reuse the water for the

next mold. We found a lot of

issues with this method. We

froze the ice in these round bins

and then broke them to be in

smaller pieces. Then we made

the concrete mixture and poured

it into the ice and bin molds

while outside in below freezing

temperatures. We left the casts

outside for 48 hours and then

brought them inside to a 65

degree room to allow the ice to

melt. The right pictures are the

failed results. We believe that

the concrete was never able

to completely solidify and that

the water in the mixture froze

instead since it was in below

freezing temperatures. This

resulted in a water and concrete

mixture in the end. This iteration

was too complex to continue

with so we decided to test out

four new materials to cast with.

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ITERATION 2

MATERIALS USED: BAL-

LOONS FILLED WITH AIR

VARIABLES: DIFFERENT

SIZES

KEY TAKEAWAYS: AIR

BALLOONS DIDN’T STAY IN

CONCRETE

For this iteration we filled normal

balloons with air. We decided to not

make all of the balloons the same

size so we filled them with different

amounts of air. After preparing

the balloons filled with air we set

them to the side. We then took a 9

inch by 12 inch aluminum pan and

evened out the long edges so that

the cast would be able to stand on

its own after it solidified. We mixed

fine concrete with water and a little

bit of sand in a bucket to make the

concrete mixture. We poured the

mixture into the empty aluminum

pan and then put the five air filled

balloons into the mixture. We

found that the balloons just wanted

to sit on top of the concrete mixture

so to make them sit further down in

the pan, we added 2 x 4’s on top

of them to weigh them down. We

also chose to not allow the ties to

go into the mixture so that once the

balloons are removed, it would be

hard to tell that balloons were used

in the first place. After the mixture

sat for 48 hours, the balloons were

removed by peeling them away

from the concrete while still leaving

the air inside of them. Overall, this

iteration worked how we were

expecting and could be replicated.

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ITERATION 3

MATERIALS USED: BAL-

LOONS FILLED WITH WATER

VARIABLES: DIFFERENT

SIZES

KEY TAKEAWAYS: THE WA-

TER HELPED WEIGH DOWN

THE BALLOONS

For this iteration we filled balloons

with water. We decided to make all

of the balloons different sizes. We

noticed that filling the balloons with

water made them less circular than

when we filled them with air. We

flattened out the short edges of the

aluminum pan on this iteration so

that the cast can stand upright on

its own. We used the same method

as we did with the air balloons by

pouring the concrete mixture first

into the aluminum pan and then

putting the water balloons in after.

We tried to set them more upright

so that the ties of the balloons

would not show in the cast. After

the concrete solidified, we took the

water balloons out the same way

we did the air balloons, by peeling

them out. Overall, this iteration

went really well. When we took the

cast out of the pan it made a very

interesting texture on the backside.

There was also no cracking in the

cast in this iteration.

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ITERATION 4

MATERIALS USED: PLAY

DOUGH

VARIABLES: HAND MOLDING

KEY TAKEAWAYS: SARAN

WRAP STUCK IN CREASES

For this iteration, we molded

play dough on the bottom of

the pan using our hands. This

means that this type of casting

wouldn’t be able to be exactly

replicated very easily unless

you allowed the play dough

to stay in the pan. After we

molded the play dough, we

placed saran wrap on top of it to

separate the concrete from the

play dough. This allows us to

reuse the play dough if needed.

After the saran wrap was put in

place, we poured the concrete

mixture into the pan. Once it

solidified, we took it out of the

pan and the saran wrap stuck

to the concrete. It took some

effort to get the saran wrap

completely off of the concrete

because it got stuck in a lot of

the creases. It was interesting

to see how some places of the

mold turned out really smooth

and some places are full of

creases. Overall, this iteration

worked but would not be one

that we would want to move

forward with.

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ITERATION 5

MATERIALS USED: BAL-

LOONS FILLED WITH SAND

VARIABLES: POURING SAND

OUT

KEY TAKEAWAYS: NOT TIE-

ING BALLOONS MADE IT

EASIER TO GET THEM OUT

For this iteration, we filled

balloons with sand. One thing

that was a major difference

between this one and the air

and water balloons was that the

balloons wouldn’t expand when

filling them with sand. This

made all of the balloon relatively

the same size. We placed them

in a pattern in the aluminum

pan and poured the concrete

directly into the pan. This can be

see in the bottom right pictures.

After the concrete solidified,

we poured the sand out of the

balloons while they were still in

the concrete. This allowed us

to pull the empty balloons from

the concrete more easily. Most

of the balloons sat on the pan

directly making a hole all the

way through the cast. Overall,

this iteration worked really well

and could be repeated.

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For our rhino and grasshopper

definition, we started with a box

that was about the same size as

our 9 inch by 12 inch aluminum

pans. Then we continued to use

grasshopper to create spheres

that act like our balloons. The

spheres are all around the same

size but are at different heights

within the rectangle. We allowed

the spheres to stick out of the

rectangle so that they acted like

the balloons did when casting

with them. We then baked the

rectangle and the spheres into

rhino so that we could use the

geometry for axons and to get

lines for diagrams. Overall, this

grasshopper definition is pretty

similar to the iterations when we

used air in balloons and water

in balloons. It would have to be

adjusted to look like the iteration

where we used balloons and

sand and when we used play

dough.

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Casting Study 4

MATERIAL: SPANDEX FABRIC, 2X4 WOOD, CONCRETE MIX-

TURE

SIZE: EACH CAST IS 1’-6” X 9” X 3”-6”

APPLICATION: FACADE PIECES, COLUMNS, OR POTENTIAL

FLOOR SLABS

In this set of iteration Andrew

Kudless’ P_Wall method was

used. This was a method that was

relatively easy to recreate with

several variables that could be

altered. P_Wall as seen earlier

in this book, is an architectural

installation of several complex

panels that were molded using

an extremely easy method.

The shapes that were able to

be produced naturally from

his molds would be otherwise

impossible to replicate using

traditional molding methods.

This is what peaked our interest

the most.

Kudless was able to use a

limited number of molds and

recreate multiple panels with no

two panels looking alike. This

process is extremely intriguing

as well as efficient, it reduces

the amount of waste produced

by traditional forming as well as

cuts the time down on creating

and installing formwork. As the

prices of concrete and labor are

increasing it is important to cut

down on this as well as creating

more materially efficient ways

of casting. Using one mold that

creates a complex shape by

casting into a spandex fabric

achieves this goal. Kudless’

methods are extremely intuitive

and well thought out however,

they do not particularly lend

themselves to the creation of

columns or structural pieces,

because of the size and shape

of these modules they are heavy

and do not scale up particularly

well.

It is also difficult to find ways to

work in reinforcement in order

to achieve structural stability.

Throughout these iterations we

found ways to cast and create

pieces that could potentially

be used to create a column

or structural piece. These

iterations were created one at a

time and in doing this we were

able to learn and adjust as we

moved on to the next iteration.

This process also allowed us

to decide on which variables

should be changed and what

our next steps should be. This

produced six iterations that build

off of each other but all have the

same or similar processes.

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ITERATION 1

MATERIALS USED: SPANDEX

FABRIC, 2X4’S, WOODEN

DOWELS, CONCRETE MIX

VARIABLES: DOWEL

THICKNESS, CONCRETE

MIXTURE

KEY TAKEAWAYS: THICKER

DOWELS ARE DESIRED,

SOME SORT OF REINFORC-

ING CAN BE ADDED

For this iteration we used 1/2”

diameter dowels with heights of

8”-11”. The completed concrete

cast was 1’6” tall, 9” wide and

6”-12” thick at any given point.

The

concrete mixture used was 1

part water and 2 parts Portland

cement.

The base of the mold that was

1’6” was created from (8) 2x4s

and 3/4” piece of plywood.

The top piece of the mold was

made of (4) 2x4s and was used

to clamp the fabric in place.

This method was used in each

iteration.

The fabric was stretched over

the opening and then clamped

it in place. The concrete was

mixed and then poured over

the fabric and left to harden

for 24 hours. After the first half

was done it was taken out of

the fabric and the process was

done again, this time the first

half was placed on top of the

freshly poured concrete and

then left for 24 hours.

The hardest part of this iteration

was getting the first half to sit

on the second half. Part of the

sides had to be chipped off the

get it to fit back into the mold.

We would attempt to make the

seams look nicer.

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ITERATION 2

MATERIALS USED: SPANDEX

FABRIC, WOOD, CONCRETE

MIX

VARIABLES: DOWEL

THICKNESS, MODEL HEIGHT,

STEEL BEAM MODEL

KEY TAKEAWAYS: THIS

METHOD COULD WORK BUT

IN FUTURE MORE

EXPERIMENTATION IS

NEEDED

For this iteration we used 3/4”

diameter dowels with heights of

8”-11”. The completed concrete

cast was 1’6” tall, 9” wide and

6”-12” thick at any given point.

The

concrete mixture used was 1

part water and 2 parts Portland

cement.

This mold was created in the

same way as iteration 1 but was

9” tall and the dowels were 3/4”

in diameter. A model of a steel

beam was made out of plywood

so that we could create two

halves of a column that would be

placed over a steel beam. The

fabric was placed and clamped

ready to go. The concrete was

then mixed and poured and then

the “steel beam” was inserted.

to keep the beam in extra pieces

of wood were placed on top and

the cast was left for 24 hours.

The indentation that was

created on the back of the cast

was too tight to allow the beam

to fit in any other way aside from

its original position.

Ideas from later iteration would

be combined to allow the casts

to be stacked.

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ITERATION 3

MATERIALS USED: SPANDEX

FABRIC, WOOD, CONCRETE

MIX

VARIABLES: TWO LAYERS

OF FABRIC WAS USED

KEY TAKEAWAYS: BETTER

RESULTS CAN BE OBTAINED

USING ONE LAYER OF FAB-

RIC

For this iteration we used 3/4”

diameter dowels with heights of

8”-11”. The completed concrete

cast was 1’6” tall, 9” wide and

6”-12” thick at any given point.

The

concrete mixture used was 1

part water and 2 parts Portland

cement.

The same mold and dowels

were used from iteration 2 for

this method. A larger piece of

spandex was used so that it

could be folded to have 2 layers

of fabric to cast into. The fabric

was placed over the mold and

clamped in place. The concrete

was then mixed and poured and

the cast was left for 24 hours.

The fabric was slightly harder

to pull off the concrete cast and

the deeper marks left by the

fabric caused parts of the cast

to crack and break off.

This method would not be used

again because better results

were gained using one layer of

fabric

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ITERATION 4

MATERIALS USED: SPANDEX

FABRIC, WOOD, CONCRETE

MIX

VARIABLES: WOODEN

WEDGES TO CREATE

SMOOTH SIDES

KEY TAKEAWAYS: GREAT

WAY TO CREATE CORNERS,

IF WE DO THIS AGAIN WE

WOULD COMBINE 2 AND 3

This iteration used 3/4” diameter

dowels with heights of 8”-11”.

Each concrete cast was 1’6”

tall, 9” wide and varied from 3”-

6” thick. The concrete mixture

was 1 part Portland cement, 1

part water and 2 part sand.

The same mold was used from

iteration 2. To create mitered

corners 2 2x4s were cut into a

45 degree wedge. The wedges

were placed over the spandex

material to stretch it correctly

and keep the fabric from creating

folds at the edges. The concrete

was then mixed and poured and

the mold was gently shaken to

make sure the concrete got to

all corners of the mold. The cast

was then left for 24 hours.

The mold was a little warped

which led to pieces not fitting

properly and the sides of the

cast bulged out around the

frame so we had to remove one

of the 2x4s to get the concrete

cast out.

End pieces would be added

like from iteration 5 to create

pieces that could stand on their

own. The edge pieces should

be connected to the frame that

clamps the fabric in place.

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ITERATION 5

MATERIALS USED: SPANDEX

FABRIC, WOOD, CONCRETE

MIX

VARIABLES: END PIECES

WERE USED TO CREATE A

STANDING COLUMN PIECE

KEY TAKEAWAYS: CON-

CRETE MIX DID NOT WORK,

USE PORTLAND INSTEAD,

AND BASE PLATES WORKED

PERFECTLY

This iteration used 3/4” diameter

dowels with heights of 8”-11”.

Each concrete cast was 1’6”

tall, 9” wide and varied from 3”-

6” thick. The concrete mixture

was 1 part Portland cement, 1

part water and 2 part sand.

The same mold was used

from iteration 2. A piece of 1/2”

plywood was cut into 2 semi

circular pieces to create end

caps.

The end caps were placed over

the fabric to stretch it correct

and create flat ends on the top

and bottom of the mold. The

concrete was then mixed and

poured and the cast was left for

24 hours. This method worked

relatively well; the theory worked

as expected however the end

result was not ideal because of

the concrete mix.

The mold was a little warped

which led to pieces not fitting

properly and the bigger pieces

of aggregate caused the mold

to crumble.

The concrete mix would be

changed to the same mix as

done in iteration 4. The end

pieces should be connected to

the frame that clamps the fabric.

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ITERATION 6

MATERIALS USED: SPANDEX

FABRIC, WOOD, CONCRETE

MIX

VARIABLES: TWO MOLDS

WERE USED TO CAST A

SINGLE

COLUMN

KEY TAKEAWAYS: WE CAN

CREATE COLUMNS WITH

THIS METHOD, SIDE PIECES

ARE NEEDED TO BE ABE TO

This iteration used 3/4” diameter

dowels with heights of 8”-11”.

Each concrete cast was 1’6” tall,

9” wide and varied from 3”-6” thick.

The concrete mixture was ready

mix crack resistant concrete with

water.

The original two molds created

were stood up and the top 2x4

piece of each was taken off to

allow the concrete to be poured.

A base plate was added to

the bottom to create a flat free

standing column. One large piece

of spandex was used and clamped

between the two molds.

The concrete was mixed and

poured and then the dowels were

pushed into the column to shape

the fabric.

This cast was extremely heavy and

it ballooned out along the frame. In

order to get it out the entire mold

had to be taken apart.

Side pieces would be added to

keep the column from bulging out

and the mold would be remade so

we can deconstruct with precision

and put it back together.

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Components added to create mold parameters.

In order to recreate this casting

a large complex grasshopper

script was needed that we were

fortunate enough to receive from

the Iowa State University Andrew

Kudless Workshop. A series of

components were added as shown

above which allows the complex

concrete molding that we created

by hand to be drawn and altered

as needed. The script gives the

ability to completely randomize

the location of the dowels or to

insert specific points that would

control the location of the dowels.

Some components were added

that would allow all of the dowels

to be at the same heights or they

could vary in height. Creating the

definition from scratch was nearly

impossible and would have taken

weeks to figure out, however with

the definition that was provided

it was possible to manipulate the

existing script to match the needs

of the project. Using this method

of 3d visualization is very helpful

in seeing an approximation of

what the modules would look

like and would allow several

different randomized seeds to

be run until a seed is found that

creates something that is attention

catching.

Should a 3d model be

created first or is it easier to just

create the mold and cast without

any 3d modeling done prior? At

the beginning when first trying to

create the script from scratch we

were completely in agreeance that

there was no point to running a 3d

script before casting. It was too

complex of a shape to come up

with an accurate depiction of what

these castings would look like.

However, after being granted

access to the grasshopper files

of Andrew Kudless we are able

to create approximations of what

the modules would look like with

ease. Now that is all that can be

produced, an APPROXIMATION.

There are too many real world

factors that can and will make

the true cast look different from

its 3d counterpart, the mix, where

it’s poured, how fast it’s poured,

etc. So the use of a 3d modeling

software is completely up to the

producer, if desired to have an

approximation or to run simulations

of different column arrangements

before casting a bunch until you

find a suitable model then 3d

visualization prior to casting should

be done. However, it is not critical

to model before casting.

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Casting Study 5

PRECEDENT PROJECT: THE GHOST TABLE BY JOEY ED-

DINGTON & ULTRA-THIN CURVED CONCRETE BENCH BY

MODUSTRIAL MAKER

MATERIAL: TEXTILE AND CONCRETE

SIZE: 2ft 2

APPLICATION: FURNITURE

For this project we combined cloth

and concrete to create different

forms. The methods used and

forms created are based off of the

“Ghost Table” by Joey Eddington.

By dipping cloth into a liquid

concrete mixture and then draping

it over a form, Eddington was able

to create a form that has the shape

of a large piece of fabric draped

over a table. Using this method,

we tested multiple different types

of cloth and drapery methods to

see what forms could be created

with different fabrics and concrete

mixtures.

We began by using different types

of cloth ranging from towels to

plastic based fabric materials.

These fabrics were then dipped

into a thin concrete mix and

draped over simple forms. From

this testing it was determined

that the best cloth to use is one

that absorbs liquid easily, as the

concrete will bind to the fabric

better. In addition, flat surfaces off

of the ground aren’t able to soak

as much concrete, and are weaker

because of this. After the first set of

successful castings, we attempted

a second iteration in which we

attempted to make the forms larger

and stronger.

dry cloth and double dipping in

a thinner then thicker concrete

mixture. In the second iteration,

certain strong shapes such as

the upside down v proved to still

be strong, while issues with flat

surfaces still remained.

With further testing the concrete

cloth method could be applied

mainly in an aesthetic sense. Cloth

and concrete are currently being

joined in a material creatively

called “concrete cloth.” Concrete

is held inside of a long, thin cloth

membrane, and when water is

added the cloth hardens. This is

likely the most similar comparison

to real world design applications.

This could allow concrete to be

formed in a different way rather

than

For our second iteration, we used

a sweatshirt fleece material, as

well as a faux-wool fabric. We

replicated the shapes of previous

successful forms and scaled them

up. We also attempted different

methods of concrete application,

such as painting wet concrete on

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ITERATION 1

MATERIALS USED: TEXTILES

AND FINE CONCRETE

VARIABLES: WOOL MATERIAL

WITH CYLINDRICAL FRAME-

WORK

KEY TAKEAWAYS: ABSORBANT

FABRIC HOLDS CONCRETE

WELL. WOOL + CONCRETE

LOOKS LIKE CAT PUKE

For our first iteration we took a

shetland wool scarf, dipped it in

concrete, and then set it onto

a thin cylinder to let it dry. This

was one of our first “successful”

iterations. The main takeaway is

that the fabric has to be able to

absorb water or the wet concrete

will just slip off of the fabric. The

concrete mixture must also have a

higher water content than normal

as the fabric will soak in much of

it. This iteration achieved our main

goal, which was to create a selfstanding

object without supports.

Unfortunately the combination

of concrete and wool creates a

mixture that eerily resembles a

hairball

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ITERATION 2

MATERIALS USED: TEXTILES

AND FINE CONCRETE

VARIABLES: TOWEL MATERI-

AL WITH HANGING FRAME-

WORK

KEY TAKEAWAYS: TRIAN-

GLEBASED SHAPES WORK

WELL STRUCTURALLY.

For our second iteration, we used

the same dipping technique as

previous but instead of draping

the cloth over an oject, we hung

it from the ceiling instead. We

took a length of twine and tied it

to a pipe on the ceiling, and then

hung a towel from the twine.

Switching from wool to a 100%

cloth towel allowed the cloth

itself to soak in water better

and more consistently across

the entire form. The “pyramid”

shape also gives the form a good

structural integrity. This iteration

also helped us determine that

scrunching the soaked cloth

makes the form stronger, and

thin isolated pieces of fabric are

usually weak.

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ITERATION 3

MATERIALS USED: TEXTILES

AND FINE CONCRETE

VARIABLES: CHEESECLOTH

(FAIL), TOWEL MATERIAL WITH

DYNAMIC FRAMEWORK

KEY TAKEAWAYS: TEXTILES

THAT DON’T ABSORB WATER

DO NOT WORK

For our third attempt, we placed

four dowels diagonally in a

bucket, and then placed the

fabric over it. The first fabric

we used was a plastic medical

fabric similar to gauze. This

ended up being a complete

failure as the concrete could

not bind to the fabric. After this

setback we simply replaced the

fabric with another towel which

worked very well. This form was

also surprisingly strong and

holds up very well even with a

long surface.

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ITERATION 4

MATERIALS USED: TEXTILES

AND FINE CONCRETE

VARIABLES: TOWEL MATERI-

AL WITH BOX FRAMEWORK

KEY TAKEAWAYS: RAISED

HORIZONTAL SURFACES

MAKE THE STRUCTURE

VERY WEAK

For our fourth iteration we did

the same technique as before

but draping the fabric over

a box. Overall the form was

strong, however the top surface

is noticeably weaker, and

seems to have less concrete in

comparison to side surfaces or

surfaces touching the ground.

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ITERATION 5

MATERIALS USED: TEXTILES

AND VARIOUS CONCRETE MIX-

TURES

VARIABLES: BLANKET MATERI-

AL, ONE LAYER OF FINE CON-

CRETE WITH A THICKER LAYER

PAINTED ON AFTER DRYING,

BOX FRAMEWORK

KEY TAKEAWAYS: FABRIC

MUST BE MIXED WITH CON-

CRETE AND CANNOT BE

PAINTED ON

For this iteration, we decided

to scale up the last iteration to

a larger size. We used a stool

with a piece of plywood placed

on the seat, and then draped

the fabric over. The fabric

was a thick cotton/poly woven

blend. In order to attempt to

combat the issue of weak flat

surfaces, we decided to try to

paint the soaked fabric with a

much thicker layer of concrete,

thereby molding together and

forming one, solid structure.

This did not work. Instead what

this did is the concrete simply

dried on top of the fabric, and

didn’t bind with it, causing the

peeling effect that can be seen

in the photos

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ITERATION 6

MATERIALS USED: TEXTILES

AND FINE CONCRETE

VARIABLES: SWEATSHIRT MA-

TERIAL, ONE LAYER OF FINE

CONCRETE WITH A THICKER

LAYER APPLIED WHILE WET,

HANGING FRAMEWORK

KEY TAKEAWAYS: SWEATSHIRT

FABRIC IS A GOOD TEXTILE

FOR OIUR CURRENT TECH-

NIQUE, V-SHAPES WORK WELL

WHEN SCALED UP

For this iteration, we created

an upside-down V with two

bases. We wanted to test how

well the shape would work as

well as the fabric. The fabric is

a basic sweatshirt fleece, and

was dipped first into a thinner

concrete mixture to wet and

appply a light layer of concrete,

the fabric was then immediately

placed into a thicker concrete

mixture, covering more of

the fabric in thicker mixture,

hoping it would better bond with

some fabric with lightly applied

concrete. The end result ended

up a success. The concrete

on this is the smoothest and

cleanest out of any of the

iterations, and it can hold it’s

own weight very well.

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ITERATION 7

MATERIALS USED: TEXTILES

AND FINE CONCRETE

VARIABLES: SWEATSHIRT

MATERIAL, FINE CONCRETE,

PRECARIOUS DRAPING OVER

A BOX FRAMEWORK

KEY TAKEAWAYS: FLAT SUR-

FACES DON’T HOLD WELL.

CLOTH SHOULD BE BUNCHED

TOGETHER AND NOT FLAT.

CONCRETE + CLOTH MIX IS

NOT VERY STRONG WITH CUR-

RENT TECHNIQUES

For this iteration, we draped the

same sweatshirt material from

the last iteration over a box with

a small dragon’s tail wrapping

around the box. This test was

mostly a test of structural

integrity, what’s possible and

what’s not. It confirmed many

of our suspicions, that bunching

up the cloth improves it strength,

flat surfaces dont hold concrete

well, overhangs don’t work, etc.

Unfortunately, this did not hold

up structurally as the weight

from the top part collapsed as

soon as the box was removed

from under it.

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Considering the fact that the

creation of these castings is such

an organic process, it was difficult

to generate a script that could

recreate digitally what we had

created physically. We mainly

utilized the ability to drape surfaces

in rhino and grasshopper, these

drapes could then act as a model

for the appropriate castings. In the

future we would like to explore if

semi “organic” ripples could be

generated through grasshopper,

rather than hand-drawn. It is

possible to create a model of a

casting through grasshopper, but

at this time it would make more

sense for a person to individually

model it rather than creating a

script for it.

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Casting Study 6

PRECEDENT PROJECT: KENZO UNNO, FABRIC FORMED WALLS

MATERIAL: WOODEN FRAME, VINYL, PVC PIPES, THREADED

RODS

SIZE: 18” X 18”

APPLICATION: WALL

Kenzo Unno’s fabric formed walls

allows a flexibility to formwork

castings through a regular

framework.

We were drawn to this method

to see how something that is a

consistent - a framework - can

become a flexible formwork when

using material such as fabric or

the like. There were so many

variables that could be considered

and changed to create different

patterns, dimensionality, and

drama.

Additionally, the application of

the method is extremely flexible

in terms of what type of fabric is

used, the framework, and concrete

mixtures. For our iterations, we

specifically, focused on the varying

patterns we were able to create in

conjuctions of the dimensionality of

those variables. Our methodology

became very consistent, leading

us to be knowledgable about the

basis or our method, in preparation

for the many possibilities when

changing one variable for any

method. This presented a outlook

on many of these options.

As we look at scale, we wonder

about the application of our

method, which were walls with

not much structural resistance or

support for the small scale. As we

think about larger applications, we

keep note of how weight of the

concrete is distributed between

each area within our casts.

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ITERATION 1

MATERIALS USED:

WOODEN FRAME, 24” x 4’4”

WATERPROOF OUTDOOR

FURNITURE LINING, 6 PVC

PIPES, 6 1/2” THREADED RODS,

12 NUTS, 12 1 1/4” WASHERS

VARIABLES: NOT DETERMINED

YET

KEY TAKEAWAYS: LEAKAGE,

WAS NOT FILLED UP ENOUGH,

LEVEL DECREASES BY 1”

For our first experiment, we created

a wooden frame and secured the

fabric by screwing wooden studs

onto the perimeters. We realized

there were many spots where

leakage would be presented, and

used hot glue to seal those edges.

During the process of pouring,

leakage was very prominent at the

bottom base where a woooden

stud secured the fabric down, but

to our surprise, it didn’t soak or

leak through the fabric at all.

We were surprised to see that the

fabric, which was very stiff, was

able to create the pillow shape.

The texture from the fabric was

very prominent onto the surface

of the cast as well, but we very

difficult to peel off.

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ITERATION 2

MATERIALS USED:

WOODEN FRAME, 24” x 4’4”

WATERPROOF OUTDOOR

FURNITURE LINING, 6 PVC

PIPES, 6 1/2” THREADED RODS,

12 NUTS, 12 1 1/4” WASHERS

VARIABLES: PVC PIPE LENGTH

= 3”

KEY TAKEAWAYS: LEAKAGE,

WAS NOT FILLED UP ENOUGH,

LEVEL DECREASES BY 1”,

FABRIC STRETCH OUT A BIT

From our last experiment, we

deepened the form ties from 4

1/2” to 3”, which created a more

exaggerated pillow surface. The

difference was that because the

tension was shorter, this made

the outer pillow sections to be

more pronouced.

Additionally, we made sure

to seal around the edges of

where the fabric met the wood

framework, but leakage was

still present. Another difference

we presented was to push in

the bottom wooden stud further

into the volume to create more

of the roundness of the shape.

Additionally, we used another

wooden stud to secure the

fabric at the top.

The fabric itself was still

resusable, but needed to be

cleaned off quite a bit. We also

noticed some of the fibers on

the fabric was onto to the form

itself, and we questioned the

longevity of the material.

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ITERATION 3

MATERIALS USED:

WOODEN FRAME, 24” x 4’4”

WATERPROOF OUTDOOR

FURNITURE LINING, 6 PVC

PIPES, 6 1/2” THREADED RODS,

12 NUTS, 12 1 1/4” WASHERS

VARIABLES: PVC SIZE

KEY TAKEAWAYS: WASHER

SIZE SHOULD HAVE BEEN

ALSO CONSIDERED, WHICH

AFFECTS HOW FABRIC IS

STRETCHED FROD VARYING

SIZES, FABRIC NON=USEABLE

AFTER THIS LAST USE

For this last experiment, we were

intrigued by how the size of the

holes would affect how much of

the fabric is stretched, how the

wrinkles would be forms, and

whether the size of the holes

would create any challenges We

followed the same assemblege

method as previously done, and

had corresponding washers

to the PVC. After curing and

dissassblage, we realized that

how the fabric form itself on

the concrete did not present

much difference, but we were

more interested in how the

washers formed onto the cast

vs. the size of hole. The top two

holes had the larger PVC pipes

and almost flush to the form,

whereas towards the bottom it

was the opposite.

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ITERATION 4

MATERIALS USED: 18” x 18”

WOODEN FRAME, 24” x 4’4”

VINYL, 12 PVC PIPES, 12 1/2”

THREADED RODS, 24 NUTS, 48

1 1/4” WASHERS

VARIABLES: PVC PIPE

LENGTH = (6) 3” AND (6) 4 1/2”,

ALTERNATING

KEY TAKEAWAYS: BUBBLY

AND IRREGULAR SHAPE OF

TOP SURFACE, NO LEAKAGE,

SMOOTH TEXTURE, SLIGHT

VINYL STRETCH

In comparison to our first iteration,

this assemblage took slight longer,

since it contained more pieces. We

used alternating lengths of PVC

pipes to see how the framework

would fill out despite the great

flexibility of both sides of the mold.

A takeaway from our last iteration

was to consider the perimeters of

the casted mold and to center the

tie-backs.

With the materiality of the vinyl,

we questioned how it was react

with the concrete as it cured but

no to little damage was done. This

resulted in an extremely smooth

surface, which we did not expect.

It peeled off very easily, pretty

much falling off of the surface of

the concrete cast. Additionally,

the wooden braces used did not

cut into the vinyl at all, thickness

of thr vinyl should be noted for

the longevity of use for additional

casts.

Although this assemblage took

some time to set up for the first time,

in comparison to our last iteration,

we didn’t have to take it apart as

much as we expected. The only

components that were required to

remove were the four side braces,

and the vinyl could remain exactly

where it is situated, leading to less

need of creating more drill holes,

tears, and openings for leakage.

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ITERATION 5

MATERIALS USED: 18” x 18”

WOODEN FRAME, 24” x 4’4”

VINYL, 12 PVC PIPES, 12 1/2”

THREADED RODS, 24 NUTS, 48

1 1/4” WASHERS

VARIABLES: PVC PIPE LENGTH

= (12) 3”

KEY TAKEAWAYS: REGULAR

SHAPE OF TOP SURFACE,

STRETCH OF VINYL, EASE +

CLEANLINESS OF REUSE

During this round of our casting,

our assemblage method was very

efficient and systematic, in terms

reinforcing every component was

consistent.

In terms of the cast itself, we were

curious of how much the concrete

would stretch different parts of the

cast. The use of the same length

of PVC pipes was purposed to see

if any portions would be pushed

out in comparison to others, in

response to gravity, obviously, but

instead created a relatively even

surface.

Another issue we wanted to

address was how to create an

evenly shaped top surface. In the

last experiment, we only clipped

the extra lengths of vinyl at one

point, with no control of how the

top surfaces would set. This time,

we rolled each side of the vinyl

with dowels, creating a straighter

edge along the sides. This allows

an even and rigid boundary, rather

than pinned at one point. The

surface perimeters created this

symmetrical shape, straight and

interesting rippling near the ends.

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ITERATION 6

MATERIALS USED:18” x 18”

WOODEN FRAME, 24” x 4’4”

VINYL, 12 PVC PIPES, 12 1/2”

THREADED RODS, 24 NUTS, 48

1 1/4” WASHERS

VARIABLES: PVC PIPE LENGTH

= (2) 1”, (10) 3”, (2) 4 1/2”

KEY TAKEAWAYS:

EXAGGERATED DIMENSIONS

AT FORM TIES, VARYING PVC

LENGTHS AFFECT SHAPE OF

TOP SURFACE, WEIGHT OF

CONCRETE ABOVE THINNER

POINTS, STRETCHED OUT

VINYL

We realized that for the first two

experiments we were playing it

easy. For this test, we wanted to

see how far we could go in how

the length of PVC pipes. We had

varying lengths that were as short

as about 1”, and up to 4 1/2” to

create more dimensions within the

form.

When setting up where to put the

different length, we made sure

that the shortest and the longest

weren’t directly right next to one

another. The mid sized PVC would

be in between to avoid abrupt

chnage in thickness that would

cause weak points and breakage.

After curing, the two shortest PVC

pipes created the most wrinkles

from the vinyl. We realized and

wished to have had more short

PVC, since the other two sizes did

not make much of a difference is

the wavy surface of the cast. We

also noticed that the shape of

the top surface differed from both

ends, although still symmetrical

along the long side, the varying

PVC shanged where the pinches

were.

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Reflecting on our methodologies,

both of our iterations and varying

experiments for each of the differing

methods all worked wonderfully.

We didn’t really encounter may

issues, in terms of leakage,

assemblage, and consistency.

The last experiment was the most

daring test that we did that tested

the limits of the mold, whereas we

played it safe for all the other tests

with little change between each.

To compare the two different

methods, we preferred the second

set of iterations so much more. It was

clean, consistent in reassemblage

and dissassemblage, and had

more or a resusability than the

first set of iterations. The vinyl

presented no issues of leakage,

and we were able to come us with

a wooden framework that didn’t

have to allow too much complexity

in bracing the vinyl. The decision

of having the vinyl in a U-shape

secured onto the base was the

best decision we made, which was

another factor in the little leakage.

For future experiments, we would

like to change the shapes of the

wooden bracing itself. Taking

advantage of te flexibility of te

vinyl allows for these possibilities,

besides creating a straight cut wall.

Examples include to CNC varying

shapes of the two wooden sides

of the framework, in possibility of

a wavy wall, or a curved wooden

base. The stretch of the vinyl is

stiff enough for the concrete to

even distribute, allowing for more

expansion on scale as well.

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Parametrically, we were able to

create a cushion-like surface using

the script above. The use of this

script allowed us to set points

on different options of patterns,

density, and exaggeration. We

were able to set the thickness of

our form, and also the length of

our form-ties, which informed how

far out the surface was created

from those set form-ties. We would

like to explore on how to alternate

the points, in regards to both

alternating lengths of form-ties, as

well as the distance between each

one. Another exploration is seeing

the scale of our current wall and

whether it is possible to created

non standard wall forms with this

script. Besides the form itself, we

also had the option of changing

the diameter of our form ties,

which leads us to question how

the form would look with larger

or smaller diameters. This script

has allowed us to experiment with

these differetn variations.

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High-Tech

Case Study

Sources

32 Biomimetic Reefs

“32 Biomimetic Reefs in Cap

D’Agde.” XtreeE. XtreeE,

January 1, 2019. https://xtreee.

com/en/project/32-recifsartificiels-pour-le-cap-dagde/.

Perrot, Martinq. “Large Scale

3D-Printed Artificial Reefs to

Restore Coral Ecosystems.”

Egis group. Egis group,

October 9, 2019. https://www.

egis-group.com/perspectives/

environment/large-scale-3dprinted-artificial-reefs-restorecoral-ecosystems.

“The Variety of Species Living

on a Coral Reef Is Greater than

in Any Other Shallow-Water

Marine Ecosystem, Making

Reefs One of the Most Diverse

Ecosystems on the Planet.”

Why are coral reefs called the

rainforests of the sea? Florida

Keys National Marine Sanctuary,

April 4, 2011. https://floridakeys.

noaa.gov/corals/biodiversity.

html#:~:text=Covering%20

less%20than%20

one,anywhere%20else%20

in%20the%20world.

“X-Reef, in the Calanques

National Park.” XtreeE. XtreeE,

January 1, 2017. https://xtreee.

com/en/project/xreef/.

3D Housing 05

Jordahn, Sebastian. “Arup and

CLS Architetti’s 3D-Printed

House Was Built in a Week.”

Dezeen, Disqus, 19 Nov. 2018,

www.dezeen.com/2018/11/19/

video-mini-living-3d-printingcls-architetti-arup-movie/.

Morris, Ali. “CLS Architetti and

Arup Use a Portable Robot

to 3D Print a House in Milan.”

Dezeen, Disqus, 20 July 2018,

www.dezeen.com/2018/04/20/

cls-architetti-arup-use-portablerobot-3d-print-house-milan/.

Ravenscroft, Tom. “Arup and

CLS Architetti to Build ‘Europe’s

First 3D Printed House’ at

Milan Design Week.” Dezeen,

Disqus, 29 Mar. 2018, www.

dezeen.com/2018/03/29/arupcls-architetti-3d-printed-housemilan-design-week/.

Stabile, Luca. “Printed Buildings:

Is This Construction’s Digital

Future?” Arup, Arup, 2019,

www.arup.com/projects/3dprinted-concrete-house.

Morris, Ali. “CLS Architetti and

Arup Use a Portable Robot

to 3D Print a House in Milan.”

Dezeen, Disqus, 20 July 2018,

www.dezeen.com/2018/04/20/

cls-architetti-arup-use-portablerobot-3d-print-house-milan/.

Arup and CLS Architetti. “3D

Printed Concrete House - Arup.”

YouTube, uploaded by Arup, 5

June 2019, www.youtube.com/

watch?v=OncqVXAsyfo&list=

LL&

3D Printed Community

“ICON + New Story + ECHALE

Unveil First Homes in

3D-Printed Community.” ICON,

www.iconbuild.com/updates/

icon-new-story-echale-unveilfirst-homes-in-3d-printedcommunity.

“World’s First 3D-Printed

Neighborhood in Southern

Mexico Has Its First Houses.”

Designboom, 13 Dec. 2019,

www.designboom.com/

architecture/worlds-first-

3d-printed-neighborhoodin-southern-mexicohouses-12-12-2019/.

Young, Robin, and Serena

McMahon. “World’s 1st 3D

Printed Neighborhood Being

Built In Mexico.” World’s 1st 3D

Printed Neighborhood Being

Built In Mexico | Here & Now,

WBUR, 6 Feb. 2020, www.wbur.

org/hereandnow/2020/02/06/

worlds-first-3d-printedneighborhood-mexico.

Ashen

“Ashen.” HANNAH, www.

hannah-office.org/work/ashen.

Besix

“BESIX 3D - BESIX Group’s

Innovative 3D Concrete Printing

Solutions.” BESIX 3D Concrete

Printing, 3d.besix.com/.

“BESIX 3D Prints Largest

Concrete Façade in the World.”

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BESIX, 15 Oct. 2020, www.

besix.com/en/news/besix-3dprints-largest-concrete-facadein-the-world.

Kuppers, Mark, editor.

“3D Concrete Printing

with an Industrial Robotic

Arm.” CPT Worldwide,

2019, digitalconcrete2020.

com/wp-content/

uploads/2020/07/2002_CPT_

DCa.pdf.

Say, Asli, and Jayakrishnan

Ranjit. “3D Printing

Concrete by Luai Kurdi.”

ParametricArchitecture, 29

Aug. 2019, 6:53, parametricarchitecture.com/3d-printingconcrete-by-luai-kurdi/.

“Sustainable Concrete Mixtures

for the 3D Printing of Breakwater

Units.” BESIX, 22 Jan. 2019,

press.besix.com/sustainableconcrete-mixtures-for-the-3dprinting-of-breakwater-units.

Concrete Choreography

“Concrete Choreography,”

March 2, 2020. https://dbt.

Aouf , Rima Sabina. “Students’

3D-Printed

Concrete

Choreography Pillars Provide a

Stage for Dancers.” Dezeen, July

23, 2019. https://www.dezeen.

com/2019/07/24/3d-printedconcrete-choreography-pillarsdesign/.

arch.ethz.ch/project/concretechoreography/.

Fossilized

Alice Morby | 21 January 2016

1 comment. “Amalgamma

Develops 3D-Printed Concrete

for Building.” Dezeen, 22

Jan. 2016, www.dezeen.

com/2016/01/21/amalgammadevelops-3d-printing-concretetechnique-building-structuresbartlett/.

Amalgamma, and Amalgamma.

“Fossilized by Amalgamma

[Alvaro Lopez Rodriguez,

Francesca Camilleri, Nadia

Doukhi, Roman Strukov].”

Issuu, issuu.com/amalgamma/

docs/amalgamma_portfolio.

“New 3D Concrete Printing

Method: Amalgamma.”

Arch2O.Com, 24 Oct. 2020,

www.arch2o.com/new-3dprinting-method-amalgamma/.

Rosenfield, Karissa.

“Bartlett Students Develop

New Method for 3D Printing

Concrete.” ArchDaily, ArchDaily,

21 Jan. 2016, www.archdaily.

com/780778/bartlett-studentsdevelop-new-method-for-3dprinting-concrete.

MARSHA

“Architecture on Mars.” AI

SpaceFactory, 2014. https://

www.aispacefactory.com/

marsha.

Baldwin, Eric, Soledad

Sambiasi, Belén Maiztegui, and

Niall Patrick Walsh. ArchDaily,

November 3, 2020. https://

www.archdaily.com/tag/aispacefactory.

Erman, Maria. “NASA-Awarded

‘Marsha’, a 3D-Printed

Vertical Martian Habitat by AI

SpaceFactory.” designboom,

January 8, 2019. https://www.

designboom.com/design/nasaawarded-marsha-vertical-3dprinted-martian-habitat-aispacefactory-07-26-2018/.

Reilly, Claire. “Say Hello to

Your New Home on Mars: A

3D-Printed Egg Made from

Rocks.” CNET, July 10, 2020.

https://www.cnet.com/pictures/

this-3d-printed-mars-habitatcould-be-your-new-home-inspace-marsha-ai-spacefactory/.

Turney, Drew, Megan Nichols,

and Markkus Rovito. “Robot-

Made Mars Habitat Could Bring

Sustainable Building Down to

Earth.” Redshift EN, October 24,

2019. https://redshift.autodesk.

com/mars-habitat/.

Sandcasting

Alali, Jiries, Negar Kalantar,

and Alireza Borhani. “Casting

on a Dump: Using Sand

as a Form-Generating

Formwork.” Disrupted Practice,

Collaboration, Workflows, and

Labor. Lecture presented at the

Acadia 2020, February 9, 2021.

DSN S 546 Spring 2021 | 227


Gericke, Oliver, Daria Kovaleva,

and Werner Sobek. “Fabrication

of Concrete Parts Using a

Frozen Sand Formwork.” IASS

Annual Symposium 2016.

Lecture presented at the Annual

Symposium 2016, January 9,

2021.

Smisek, Peter. This Ceiling Was

Created with 3D Printed Sand

Formwork. The B1M Limited,

August 3, 2018. https://www.

theb1m.com/video/ceilingmade-with-3d-printed-sandformwork.

Voxeljet. “3D Sand Molds

for Ultra-High Performance

Concrete.” Voxeljet. Voxeljet

AG, January 20, 2021. https://

www.voxeljet.com/casestudies/architecture/concretecasting-with-sand-molds/.

Curtained Wall’ in Korea.”

designboom, August 25, 2020.

https://www.designboom.com/

architecture/swna-curtainedwall-3d-printed-concretegwangju-design-center-southkorea-08-24-2020/.

SWNA. Accessed February

10, 2021. https://theswna.com/

projects/the-curtained-wall.

Vertical Modulations

Ismail, Mohamed A., and

Caitlin T. Mueller. International

Association for Shell and Spatial

Structures (IASS) , 2018, pp.

1–8, Computational Structural

Design and Fabrication of

Hollow-Core Concrete Beams.

The Curtained Wall

Contents, WA. “SWNA Installs

Five 3D Printed Concrete

Curtain Walls at Gwangju

Design Center in South Korea.”

World Architecture Community.

World Architecture Community,

August 24, 2020. https://

worldarchitecture.org/article-

links/efnzm/swna-installs-five-

3d-printed-concrete-curtainwalls-at-gwangju-designcenter-in-south-korea.html.

“Studio SWNA 3D Prints

Concrete to Fabricate ‘the

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Casting

Case Study

Sources

Casting Study 1

“Experimental Design Lab.”

ExLab, Melbourne School of

Design, 2019, exlab.org/work/

sarah-diana-carlin-sock-stool.

Casting Study 2

Zumthor, Peter. “Bruder Klaus

Field Chapel.” (2007).

Casting Study 3

Ice Formwork. Accessed

February 26, 2021.

https://iceformwork.com/.

Studio Olafur Eliasson.

Accessed February 26, 2021.

https://www.olafureliasson.net/.

Casting Study 4

Doyle, Shelby. DSN S 546.

24 Feb. 2021, Iowa Statee

University, Ames. Class lecture.

Kudless, Andrew. “ISU Andrew

Kudless Workshop.” Iowa,

Ames, 27 Feb. 2019.

Casting Study 5

“Floating Concrete Ghost

Table Wins QUIKRETE® One

Bag Wonder 2.0.” Floating

Concrete Ghost Table Wins

QUIKRETE® One Bag Wonder

2.0 | Business Wire. Berkshire

Hathaway, July 25, 2017.

https://www.businesswire.com/

news/home/20170725006243/

en/Floating-Concrete-

Ghost-Table-Wins-

QUIKRETE%C2%AE-One-

Bag-Wonder-2.0.

DIY Ultra-Thin Curved Concrete

Bench || How to Make. Youtube.

Modustrial Maker, 2018. https://

www.youtube.com/

Unno, Kenzo. “A Site Dedicated

to Fabric-Formed Concrete.”

FabWiki, 8 May 2018, fabwiki.

fabric-formedconcrete.com/.

Casting Study 6

“An Introduction to Fabric-

Formed Concrete for

Architectural Structures - Part 1.”

For Construction Pros, 11 Mar.

2016, www.forconstructionpros.

com/concrete/equipmentproducts/article/12167917/anintroduction-to-fabricformedconcrete-for-architecturalstructures-part-1.

www.umi-aa.com/architectureen/.

www.umi-aa.com/portfolio/urchouse-4/.

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Nucleus

Preliminary Proposal

Nucleus is the culmination of our

studio’s study of unconventional

concrete casting methods. Through

this semester, we have casted

with ice, socks, hanging fabrics,

and more in an attempt to find an

unconventional method of casting

that is not only beautiful, but useful

and practical. Our experiments

were mostly in the form of walls

and columns, but we have zeroedin

on a modular seating design

method which is not unlike stuffing

a sausage casing with meat.

To make a module, a tube made of

stretchy fabric is stapled and sealed

into circular rings on either side of

a frame that is at a sittable height,

and a specific concrete mixture

that is relatively thick is poured

in bit by bit. We learned to insert

foam into the middle of the fixture

to alleviate some of the weight

once the form is solid. This fixture

is replicated upwards of sixty times

and modified to create several

different joints which produce the

infrastructure for vertical elements

or horizontal bench seating.

These modules are combined onsite

and roughly adhere to a grid.

Ideally, they could each be picked

up by two people and placed

anywhere. The completion of the

assembly process will reveal a

field of bulbous seating fixtures

attached at various points with

wood slat seating elements and

vertical partitions. The space is

full of fascinating, weight-bearing

concrete forms that standalone or

hold up various wooden elements

to make a combination of vertical

and horizontal fixtures. A trip

around the space leads you in and

out of seating configurations in

which people are chatting, doing

homework, or reading a book. It

is a place for slowing down - there

is no easy path through - and the

pause will encourage reflection on

the installation and the concrete

which we have worked so hard to

develop.

Nucleus is a strange, slow world in

the middle of a bustling campus,

and it will hopefully bring people’s

heads up from their phones to

take note of the remarkable study

of concrete casting methods that

Iowa State’s very students have

created.

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Huggeland

Preliminary Proposal

Huggeland is a design that mimics

the rolling pastures of the Midwest.

Inspired by the strict rows of crops

and dancing prairies that glide

over rolling hills, Huggeland is

distinctly Midwestern. Following

this inspiration, its rigid plan

organization creates distinct

views from each direction.

From side elevations, the rolling

characteristics are brought to life.

The vertical wooden elements

expand upon the waving elevation

of the concrete modules. Together

they create a vertical dance as

they move throughout the space.

Viewing the design from the front

or rear elevations, rows of modules

create a strong perspective

atmosphere. This variety of

experiences encourages users

to observe the installation from a

variety of angles as they transition

into the exhibition. Once immersed

amongst the modules, the nodebased

design creates moments of

circulation as well as rest.

This node typology is utilized to

create more static areas for rest.

Horizontal wooden elements

connect concrete modules,

creating opportunities for

seating. Once seated, the user is

immersed in the rolling gestures

of Huggeland. Outside of node

areas, users can circulate freely

throughout the space.

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Interpol8

Preliminary Proposal

Interpol8 is a place making

installation that creates flexible

space. This proposal follows

a 2”x2” grid that extends

throughout the entirety of our

proposed site. It is a series

of permeable boundaries

composed of columns, and

interpolating modules which are

created by a series of points.

Wooden slats occasionally

connect the various points

between the modules, thus

creating places of rest. The fabric

casted columns provide vertical

focal points in the horizontal

array. The columns are created

using stretchy fabric, a wooden

mold, and dowels that allow for

an organic shape to form. The

array of elements aims to create

different spatial conditions

for meandering, pausing and

sitting.

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Semi - Final

Proposal 1

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Semi - Final

Proposal 2

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Table of

Plush

Plush Column 36”

Plush Column 54”

Plush Column 72”

Concrete Filling

Plush Wall A

Plush Wall B

Plush Wall C

Plush Wall A Prime

Concrete Filling

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Portland Cement (90lbs.)

Threaded Rod

1/2” Rebar

All Purpose Sand (50lbs.)

Murphy’s Oil Soap

Vinyl

1/2” PVC Pipe

Knit Solid Fabric

4’ x 8’ x 1/2” Plywood

2’ x 4’ x 8’ White Lumber Washers Nuts

Hot Glue Hot Glue Staples

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Setting the Table


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Budget

Predicted total:

Portland Cement (90lbs):

Coarse Sand (50lbs):

3/4” PVC Pipe (10ft):

Threaded Rod (by ft):

Murpy’s Oil Soap (128fl oz):

Knit Fabric (by yd):

1/2” Rebar (4ft):

Vinyl:

4’ x 8’ x 3/4” Birch Plywood:

4’ x 8’ x 1/2” Plywood:

2’ x 4’ x 8’ White Lumber:

Brackets:

$3,516.84

$1,095.13

$770.40

$37.86

$18.00

$78.66

$531.62

$74.88

$161.82

$181.43

$294.88

$92.17

$180.00

439

75

180

21

30

6.06

38

16

18

3

13

13

60

Materials Per Modules:

Module A:

Casting:

Cement:

Sand:

PVC

Threaded Rod:

Brackets:

x30

0.5 bags

0.9 bags

4’

1’

2

Module B:

Casting:

Cement:

Sand:

PVC

x23

0.45 bags

0.85 bags

2’

Module C:

Casting:

Cement:

Sand:

PVC

x21

0.25 bags

0.45 bags

2’

Mold:

Vinyl:

3/4” Plywood:

1/2” Plywood:

x3

2 yds

0.5 sheets

0.5 sheets

Mold:

Vinyl:

3/4” Plywood:

1/2” Plywood:

x3

2 yds

0.3 sheets

0.6 sheets

Mold:

Vinyl:

3/4” Plywood:

1/2” Plywood:

x3

2 yds

0.3 sheets

0.4 sheets

18” Column:

Casting:

Cement:

Sand:

PVC

Threaded Rod:

Brackets:

Mold:

Vinyl:

3/4” Plywood:

1/2” Plywood:

36” Column:

Casting:

Cement:

Sand:

PVC

Threaded Rod:

Brackets:

Mold:

Vinyl:

3/4” Plywood:

1/2” Plywood:

54” Column:

Casting:

Cement:

Sand:

PVC

Threaded Rod:

Brackets:

Mold:

Vinyl:

3/4” Plywood:

1/2” Plywood:

72” Column:

Casting:

Cement:

Sand:

PVC

Threaded Rod:

Brackets:

Mold:

Vinyl:

3/4” Plywood:

1/2” Plywood:

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