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Archives Special Edition

A look into

Northwestern’s old

natural history museum

at University Hall

p. 27

The staff of the Northwestern Undergraduate Research

Journal would like to express our appreciation for all those

who recognize and contribute to our endeavors. Without

their support, we would not be able to produce this edition

of the Journal.

We would like to thank Morton Schapiro, President of

Northwestern University, along with Provost Kathleen

Hagerty and Associate Provost for Undergraduate

Education Miriam Sherin for their generous patronage.

We are especially appreciative of our late faculty adviser,

Allen Taflove of the Electrical and Computer Engineering

Department, for his unwavering dedication to NURJ as a

whole. His direction and guidance has allowed us to create

the best version of the Journal as possible.

Cover by Sarah Tani.

Published May 2021

ISSN 2689-1034



Maia Brown

Shreya Sriram

Faculty Adviser

Allen Taflove

Art Directors

Nancy Qian

Sarah Tani


Suzie Bian

Soumya Jhaveri

Yuchen Liu

Nithya Mahakala

Hermione Ren

Alex Solivan

Vivian Xia

Jonic Zhehao Zhu

Table of Contents




From Archivist Kevin B. Leonard and NURJ STEM

Managing Editor Jonic Zhehao Zhu


From NURJ Editor-in-Chief Shreya Sriram

7 A Dialogue with the University Archivist

Written by Jonic Zhehao Zhu


Celebrating the Life and Contributions

of Neena Schwartz

Written by Soumya Jhaveri


The Legacy of Quentin Young:

a Public Health Hero

Written by Suzie Bian


Studying with Skeletons: A Look

into Northwestern’s Old Natural

History Museum

Written by Yuchen Liu


The Path of Progress: The Program on

Women at Northwestern

Written by Nithya Mahakala



Dear Readers,

I invite you to read closely the first Archive Project from the

Northwestern Undergraduate Research Journal (NURJ), the inaugural

annual publication showcasing the original investigative studies by

exceptional and talented Northwestern University students.

I need not remind you that this past turbulent year has been one for the

history books. And, in facing what seems an unprecedented, unsettled

period of time, so many have looked to the past for an appreciation of how

our forebears confronted comparable circumstances. So it has not surprised

me, in this era of the pandemic, that several of the articles within this NURJ

Archive Project reflect on the theme of history.

My work at Northwestern involves collecting and preserving the

University’s historical records. Therefore, I am particularly grateful that

these NURJ efforts to understand the past, and thereby to better appreciate

the contours of our own present, dig into NU’s history — and that the

NURJ articles take their points of departure from sources found within our

University’s collection of archival records and manuscripts. It has been my

privilege, and that of my colleagues at Northwestern University Libraries,

to share our archival holdings with the authors and editors of NURJ.

But let’s not stop there. I invite all of you to visit Northwestern University

Archives to conduct your own research into Northwestern’s past. A

sympathetic examination of our collections will introduce you to earlier

people whose interests and personalities, regardless of their times,

remain very recognizable. The endeavor will be illuminating, rewarding

you with a better knowledge of Northwestern and maybe even a fuller

understanding of our own time.

When conditions permit, come in and say hello, and spend some time with

our holdings. Then, go out and make your own history.

With best wishes,

Kevin B. Leonard

University Archivist

Northwestern University



Dear Readers,

We are witnessing history.

In our current landscape, civil unrest and the continuing pandemic

remind us day in and day out how intimately closely related we are,

despite physical isolation.

For Northwestern, these bigger discourses have their fair share of ripples in

our community. We are at a turning point in NU history, with unprecedented

transitions of both the student body and the University’s leadership.

Throughout this period of change, the Northwestern Undergraduate

Research Journal has continued to publish excellent undergraduate research.

In our efforts to advocate more for undergraduate researchers, last year

the STEM team spearheaded the collaboration with the Chicago Area

Undergraduate Research Symposium (CAURS) and the Northwestern

Undergraduate Research & Arts Exposition (EXPO) — both of which will

grow into regular publications in the years to come.

These shifts and challenges that we’re all facing provide grounds for

innovation and development. In this spirit of pursuing new knowledge,

the entire NURJ team is thrilled to offer you the first-ever collaborative

publication with the University Archives. From the Northwestern natural

history museum, once situated in University Hall, to the evolution of the

Program on Women, you will unearth some of the University’s most

coveted treasures in this Edition. I invite you to explore the very fabric that

constitutes what it means to be at Northwestern and what we carry forward

as undergraduate researchers.

We are also making history.


Jonic Zhehao Zhu

NURJ STEM Managing Editor

EIC’s Preface

In March 2020, I stepped into the Editor-in-Chief role alongside Maia

Brown, and we encountered a host of new challenges brought about by the

pandemic, including reshaping how we publish content. Despite a punt to

morale, we knew the NURJ must continue to produce quality publications

showcasing undergraduate innovation and scholarship.

However, publishing new projects depended upon new research and the

pandemic had put such activity on hold. Instead of waiting to see what may

happen, we reimagined what a “research journal” could do and worked to

incorporate the great minds, personal voices and academic interests of the

NURJ staff in our articles. Still, we were faced with the question of how such

a project would fit under the title of “Undergraduate Research” among other

arising questions and no solutions.

Then all at once, it struck.

Having worked with Kevin Leonard, the University Archivist, closely

over the summer, I witnessed firsthand the depth of knowledge he retained. I

came to the timely realization that such a strong mental collection could only

be the result of a doubly expansive physical collection in Deering Library.

After noticing how many people were exploring their own pasts in a time of

uncertainty, it seemed the library’s archives were the subject that deserved

our platform and this was the best year to do it. Thus, the Archives Special

Edition was born.

Northwestern has a history of novel discoveries, and we felt it imperative

to highlight the pioneers who inaugurated the pervasive culture of curiosity.

Our STEM team, equipped with their own academic interests, traversed

to the Archives and worked hard to authentically present the achievements

of Wildcats from the past. As the contents of the Archives are all primary

sources, our editors’ findings in this journal still constitute undergraduate

research, concomitantly fulfilling our desire to expand the limits of scholarly

publication from the NURJ.

In a year full of disorder and confusion, the Archives project acts as a

symbol of perseverance. Those at the Archives work to make sense of documents

and artifacts and without them, the immense information would be

impossible to digest. Our hope is that with this project, you will see clarity in

what might be overwhelming and learn to apply that to your own endeavors.

Jump into this beautifully designed journal with an eye-opening Q&A with

the Archivist himself to see how extensive and meticulous the University

collection is. Then, indulge in each article that features a distinct sliver of

Northwestern’s academic excellence and trail-blazing past. This project was

made possible because of present students learning from the past, and we

hope we all continue to incorporate this important practice not just now, but

for years to come.

Shreya Sriram

NURJ Editor-In-Chief, 2020–2022

A Dialogue with the

University Archivist

By Jonic Zhehao Zhu


Kevin Leonard ‘77, ‘82 MA, University Archivist at the

McCormick Library of Special Collections and University

Archives, began his journey with Northwestern as an

undergraduate in 1973. As a history major, Leonard fell in love

with the Archives while paging through historical records,

handling them and learning about the lives of people from the

past. Eventually, Leonard accepted a job offer to come back to

the Archives as a full-time employee and has recently celebrated

his 40th anniversary serving the Archives. Having engaged in

research as an undergraduate, Leonard now sees the Archives’

efforts as an enduring work that preserves the most significant

and memorable pieces of history, to which generations of

students, faculties and alumni have had and will continue to

access and appreciate.

JZ: Can you share your experience with the Library and the

Archives when you were a student at Northwestern? What

were you studying? What was your interaction with the

Library like at that time?

KL: I was a history major in college. For some classes, I was sent

out to find some facts based on historical records, and I found

my way to the Northwestern University Archives, which was, at

that time, located on the ground floor in a corner of the Deering

library — kind of an obscure location. I went there, found the

information I needed and thought that was kind of cool. I struck

up a conversation with the guy who was working there who was

in charge of the archives, and we got along very well. I came back

on another occasion to do independent research on something

related to Northwestern history and I just got sucked into the

whirlpool, spending more and more time burrowing into the

historical records.

As you can see, basically, I almost never left. I’m still

descending into the past time. Most undergraduate kids will

get through their Northwestern career without ever going to

the Archives, without ever hearing of the Archives probably.

While I would like to say it’s been my mission to ensure that

that doesn’t happen, still it’s a small minority of the student body


Alumna Agnes Nixon’s (1922-2016) X

Lifetime Achievement Emmy Award.

W Purple Parrot (a Northwestern

campus humor magazine), October,

1926 edition.

that actually comes in. I believe your classes are challenging and

you might not have any need for the information in the material

we can make available too, but I’m here to tell you there’s a lot

of fun stuff there.

Say, when you leave, what are you going to do with all those

notes and your papers that you’ve written and things like that?

Probably gonna throw them away? Right? That’s a lot of people.

But we collect that type of stuff. We can’t collect every student’s

paper or project or notebook. We don’t have those types of

resources. But we do try to document what the Northwestern

experience is like for a typical person. Northwestern is in the

business of creating and disseminating knowledge. How do we

know what that business is like at a given point in time if we

don’t have records of students taking notes in classes? Or if we

don’t have faculty lecture notes? How do we know what actually

happened inside those classrooms? So we try to answer that question

by collecting material from students and student organizations.

JZ: Can you share a bit more about what your day-to-day

looks like?

KL: The mission of the Department is to acquire and preserve

— and eventually to share — the institutional records of NU.

We have to keep some things for the business continuity of the

enterprise: documents that reflect policy and procedure, major


undertakings and decisions and catalogs in official publications

of the school. That alone doesn’t necessarily bring people

into the library to use our material all that much, so we have

expanded the collection to include individuals whose lives or

careers somehow intersect with Northwestern. We try to collect

earlier records of student organizations, get samples of student

work over periods of time and collect the papers of prominent

Northwestern alumni.

We have collection advantages in areas where Northwestern

has had long strengths in research or pedagogy. So we have really

extensive and significant holdings pertaining to journalism

because the Medill school has the personal papers of a lot of

people who have been involved in performing arts: movie

stars, television stars, people who perform on stage. We have

a huge physical collection; now we’re also incorporating digital

materials into the collection. Physically, we’ve got about 20,000

linear feet — several miles worth of shelving of university records

and papers — so part of my day is to chase down collections that I

think we need to have fill in the gaps, document important areas

of Northwesterners’ endeavors or chase after people who made

contributions in various fields that I think will bring people into

the building. Much of my day is answering questions based on

our holdings. Lately, I’ve been spending upwards of 90% of my

time just trying to help people with their research questions.

S Alumna Georgie Anne Geyer’s (1935-2019) reporter’s

notebook and portable typewriter.


JZ: Do you have a personal favorite in the Archives?

KL: If I said I had a personal favorite, that would imply that

something else wasn’t my favorite. Every collection that comes

in here is a donation. These collections are very meaningful to

the individuals who assembled these and then gave them to us.

I am very, very deeply grateful to each of those individuals for

sharing their knowledge of the world or their records of some

point in history with us, so they’re all my favorites. You’re not

going to believe that.

Today, I am doing some stuff on the history of RTVF —

television production at an earlier stage in American history.

There’s some really cool stuff that just arrived relating to

television history. There’s some great stuff on the history of

sports at Northwestern. I happen to like that field because it is

something that tends to unify a lot of the students and alumni. If

I show that to you or to a group of people, somebody is going to

fuss over it. We have the papers of several very, very prominent

Chemists. And there are, of course, many prominent Chemists

on the faculty right now whose papers I hope will come to us in

the future. I probably won’t be here when that happens, but we

want to document the history.

JZ: What are some of the changes or developments during

your tenure at the Archives?

KL: If we talk about Northwestern it’s hardly recognizable. We’re

collecting the records of the institution and providing services

to people who need information. It’s basically the same job, just

different in that there is a lot more material as the collection has

grown over time.

Another change is that, in the digital era, records that we once

accommodated in physical form are coming to us in electronic

form and now, thankfully, we have the ability to take care of

those. The major transformation is that the University Library

and Northwestern University supported the efforts, which

means directing resources to take care of digital records. We’re

trying to capture electronic publications or trying to capture an

email and other digital formats. So that is a big change.


W Jimmy Johnson (1879-1942), NU football

quarterback, 1904-1905.

Football Program, November 15, 1924:

the game at which Northwestern became

known as the Wildcats.

Yet another change is in the current environment. It

is almost an expectation of students and other patrons that

collections be available to them remotely. That’s not easy to do.

That takes a tremendous amount of effort and resources. We

have been doing that, but it’ll be a long time before the entire

collection is digitized and I doubt that it ever will be. There are

elements that we will want to digitize, and certainly, there are

major collections within our holdings that we have digitized —

the school newspaper, for example. We’re very lucky, having

that digitized from its inception in 1871.


JZ: Given recent events, do you feel like the Library or the

Archives have a bigger role to play?

KL: We certainly have a role to play in documenting the things

that we’re going through and we’re trying to capture records

as best as we can in real-time. We’re following events; we’re

following trends; we’re following behaviors and lives that

people will have interest in the future. Who knows whether

we’re getting it right. I would guess that, for the most part, yes.

But are we taking in collections that might not have any value

to people in the future? Probably. You know, probably some

materials might sit on the shelf forever and not get looked at.

We want to find things that will engage people. Encourage

them to look to the past to make arguments about the past,

maybe understand the past and the present a little bit better.


I’m sure I’ve made many mistakes along the way and pulled in

some materials that may not have pertinence to the people in

the future, but my hope is that I haven’t made too many of those

mistakes. Sometimes you roll the dice and hope for the best.

Who knows! We’ll see what happens and someone will see what

happens. I won’t be around. Someone will find out.

My hope is that someone in the future will find some

collection here and they’ll maybe say, “God, how did that stuff

get here? I wonder who touched this and got it into the building?

Whoever it was is pretty damn smart.” I hope it’ll work out that

way for the most part.

JZ: Are there any other things you want to share?

KL: I am very remorseful over the time in which we live that

prevents people from coming in and using the materials to the

full advantage. It’s just been a tough year. I hope this will end

soon because we have a lot to share. I’m tired of living like this.

You are too. I want to see you in person. I want to show you our

collections. I love physical objects. Sometimes when you give

somebody an old book, or a scrapbook, or any kind of artifact

of someone’s life from a distant time, it’s just a magical thing. ■


Celebrating the Life and

Contributions of

Neena Schwartz

Pioneering endocrinologist Neena Schwartz was one of

the first acclaimed female scientists to pursue a career at

Northwestern University. After receiving an honors degree

from Goucher College in Baltimore, Maryland, Schwartz

attended Northwestern for her M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in

Physiology, which she received in 1950 and 1953. Schwartz

then became an instructor of physiology at the University of

Illinois College of Medicine and later served as the director of

Biological Laboratories at the Michael Reese Hospital Institute

for Psychosomatic and Psychiatric Research and Training. After

returning to the University of Illinois College of Medicine as

an Assistant Professor of Physiology, Schwartz worked her

way up to become a full professor and, ultimately, Assistant

Dean of Faculty Affairs. 1 In 1973, she returned to Northwestern

University, where she

spent the remainder of

her professional career.

She served as the Deering

Professor and chairman

of the Department of

Biological Sciences as

well as the director of

Northwestern’s Center

for Reproductive Science

(originally founded as the

Written By Soumya Jhaveri

S Professor Neena Schwartz was

a key mentor to female students

interested in biology research

1 The Endocrine Society 1998 Annual Awards, Endocrine Reviews, Volume 19, Issue

4, 1 August 1998, Pages 506–519.


Program for Reproductive Research). Additionally, Schwartz

held positions on the National Research Council and the

National Science Foundation, as well as the Endocrine Society

and the boards of several major endocrine journals. In 1992,

Schwartz received the Carl G. Hartman Award, the highest

honor bestowed by the Society for the Study of Reproduction. 2

Professor Kelly Mayo — who teaches in Northwestern’s

department of Molecular Biosciences — worked closely with

Schwartz in his early years at Northwestern and remained

close friends with her until her passing on April 15, 2018. Once

Schwartz retired in 2003, Mayo assumed her role as the director

for the Center for Reproductive Research. He held the position

until 2015. Mayo will take over as the new dean of The Graduate

School, effective May 1.

“She was trained as a physiologist, I was trained as a molecular

biologist,” Mayo said. “We brought those two backgrounds

together in a way that I think made us each stronger than we

would have been alone.”

According to Mayo, the duo

went on to publish six or seven

papers together. As Schwartz

edged closer to retirement and

Mayo began to pursue other

research interests, they stayed

in close contact.

“We remained good friends,

colleagues, occasional collaborators

— she was an important mentor

for me for sure,” Mayo said.

To better understand

Schwartz, one has to look at

her autobiography, A Lab of

My Own. Published in 2010,

it highlights her struggles and

triumphs in breaking into

Archives Special Edition

2 Neena B. Schwartz, Carl G. Hartman Award, Biology of Reproduction, Volume 48,

Issue 1, 1 January 1993, Pages 24–25.


S Professor Neena Schwartz

examining samples under

a microscope in the lab

the boys’ club of science to

conduct her revolutionary

endocrinology research. While

the book does focus primarily

on her engagement with

science, it also touches on some

of the struggles she faced in

her personal life. She discusses

identifying as lesbian, having a

brother with a terminal illness

and her vision for the future of

women in science. 3

Schwartz quotes Anne

Fausto-Sterling, saying “To

imagine a future with women integrated into science is to

imagine a culture transformed.” 4 The number of women

engaged in science in the United States has increased greatly

since the 1960s, but Schwartz’s 15th chapter, “Would Science be

Different if Women Participated Equally?” paints an optimistic

picture of the vast contributions women could offer to the

field of science. She explores the intersection of feminism and

science and lists the differences she predicts if women became

more involved in science: women will do different science,

women will have a different “connecting” style and women

will use scientific results differently. 5

Schwartz put forth the idea of a “social positive feedback

system” whereby women who were able to enter fields dominated

by men would then draw increasing numbers of other women

into these fields. Over time, this could change the dynamics

of this field into a more diverse and inviting environment for

women. Additionally, the mid-20th century represented an

increase in the amount of women subjects in human health

studies, which Schwartz realized was crucial in allowing women

to receive more accurate healthcare recommendations. 6

3 Schwartz, Neena B. A Lab of My Own. Amsterdam [etc: Rodopi, 2009.]

4 Ibid.

5 Ibid.

6 Ibid.


“‘We brought

those two


together in a

way that I think

made us each

stronger than

we would have

been alone.’”

“Very early on, she was part of a class action suit against

the National Institutes of Health regarding the engagement

of women in the review sections which make determinations

about grants and money distribution,” Mayo said.

Additionally, her strong presence through leadership roles in

national organizations allowed for her to serve as an inspiration

for other women in science.

“The representation of women in science was not terribly

strong and where there were women in scientific positions, they

often weren’t significant leadership positions, so she essentially

set a trend in that regard,” Mayo said.

One of Schwartz’s most notable contributions, however, lies

outside the realm of the work she produced. It is her extensive

commitment to mentorship, for which she won several

awards, including the Lifetime Mentor Award of the American

Association for the Advancement of Science. Schwartz ensured

younger students she worked with received credit for their work

instead of herself, which was the norm when students used an

experienced researcher’s methodology. According to Schwartz,

mentoring is a keystone of research and teaching. 7 She credits her

own mentors in laboratory, classroom and teaching settings, but

notes that while she never faced discrimination for being a woman

when she was a student, she did when she was a faculty member.

In her memoir, Schwartz wrote about her first day at

Northwestern, when a graduate student was presenting about

her research and she did not understand a word of it. Reflecting

on this helped her realize how overwhelmed a new graduate or

undergraduate research student might have felt on their first day

in her own lab. Because she had once been in the same position,

she tried to extend empathy towards her students.

“Neena was always very active and interested in the scientific

progress of those around her and so she was often willing to

give advice,” Mayo said. “Sometimes that advice could be pretty

critical, but it was often right or insightful. Neena had a bit of

a reputation for asking a critical question in a very direct way

that might throw a student into sheer panic for a little bit. But

7 Ibid.


that was almost always followed by a real, thoughtful discussion

of the issues and a willingness on her part to be involved in the

students’ training, mentoring and research career.”

Thoroughness in the scientific process was of the utmost

importance to Schwartz, and this was reflected in not only her

work but in the way she led students in her lab.

“She talks a lot about doing research that comes from

a good hypothesis, and how you can meld that with a strong

physiological strategy to come up with critical interpretations.

And, in fact, she talks a lot about scientific revolutions and how

they take place, not just because data are proven or disproven

but because of interpretations of data,” Mayo said.

While this may now seem consistent with scientific

processes, at the time it was an incredibly speculative and new

way of thinking, demonstrating her forward-thinking nature.

Schwartz remained a force to be reckoned with even after

stepping down from her various positions both at Northwestern

and on national boards.

“Even once Neena retired, I think she was someone who is

... a bit of an oracle in the sense where people would go to visit

Neena to see what she thought about the important issues of the

day,” Mayo said.

But while Schwartz was a cornerstone of female

empowerment — especially in the sciences — through her

leadership and mentorship, her primary contribution to the

world remains her work with the female reproductive system

through endocrinology research.

“Don’t lose track of the fact that she was truly a distinguished

and respected scientist, first and foremost,” Mayo said. ■


Neena B. Schwartz, Carl G. Hartman Award, Biology of Reproduction,

Volume 48, Issue 1, 1 January 1993, Pages 24–25, https://doi.


Schwartz, Neena B. A Lab of My Own. Amsterdam [etc: Rodopi, 2009.]

The Endocrine Society 1998 Annual Awards, Endocrine Reviews, Volume

19, Issue 4, 1 August 1998, Pages 506–519, https://doi.org/10.1210/



The Legacy of

Quentin Young:

A Public Health Hero

Written By Suzie Bian

Quentin Young spent his

life fighting inequity

during the twentieth century

— a time characterized by

an ever-increasing emphasis

on commercialistic ways

of thinking. This emphasis

widened the gaps between

socioeconomic classes and

left many stranded without

any affordable way to receive

healthcare. Young believed that

real, lasting change needed to

come from the American people

solidifying into one cohesive

voice and demanding increased

quality of healthcare. In order

for the healthcare system to truly

be universal, he wrote, the entire system needed to be changed,

with profit no longer being the central factor. 1 As a result,

Young believed an emphasis should be placed on historically

underrepresented groups within the healthcare system.

One of Young’s major proposals was for a universal

equitable system of healthcare that covered everyone regardless

of income, race or insurance status. 2 It was a system with clearly

delineated parameters: non-health related costs such as tests,

1 Quentin D. Young, “Impact of For-Profit Enterprise on Health Care” Journal of

Public Health Policy, December, 1984.

2 Quentin D. Young, “The Crisis in Healthcare and its Remedy”, 1978.


S Quentin Young (1923 –2016),

public health activist

Archives Special Edition

T Newspaper clipping, 1987


consultations and insurance providers would no longer be

shouldered by patients. In an era of widening income inequality,

Young believed that this was especially necessary. Continuing

with the current system, one of preferential treatment based

on the patient’s ability to pay, would directly translate into

inequities within the care that patients received. In critiquing

the U.S. system, Young looked internationally for a source of

inspiration. 3 In particular, he cited the British healthcare system

as one that warranted praise. Despite spending about 25% of the

cost per capita of the American system, the British maintained

a system with a much higher quality of healthcare than the

United States. Young considered this proof that such a system

could work in the U.S. — a country with a similarly privatized

economy. Also drawing from Canada’s health plan, he pushed

for an increase of governmental involvement in healthcare,

believing that more corporate power would create a system

centered around profit and not the patients themselves. 4 Young

feared that this inequality and decreasing standards of care

would erode relationships between providers and physicians

and disillusion patients about the purpose of the healthcare

system. By getting the government more involved, work could

be done to reduce medical inequality in an increasingly polarized

society. However, Young disliked systems that relied heavily on

government subsidies, such as Medicare for the elderly. Systems

like those were rife with opportunities to be taken advantage of,

he believed. Those responsible for allocating these federal funds

were the ones that stood to gain the most from additional costs. 5

Often this caused the amount of unnecessary costs to skyrocket

with doctors performing unneeded surgeries or “abortions” on

non-pregnant women. To avoid such abuses of power, Young

discouraged an implementation of a Medicare-analogous system

across age groups, believing it would merely be a patch over

3 Young, Quentin D. “Impact of For-Profit Enterprise on Health Care” Journal of

Public Health Policy, December, 1984.

4 Young, Quentin D. “Should the US adopt a health plan like Canada’s?” Physician’s

Bulletin, March, 1987.

5 Young, Quentin D. “The Problem of the Costs of Ambulatory Care from the

Point of View of Non-Hospital Providers: the Individual Practitioner” Public Health

Information Services, August 24, 1987.


“Within Young’s universal

system of coverage was

a restructuring of the

system itself.”

the problems in a system rather than a true fix. Instead, what

he advocated went more towards the root of the problem: the

structure of the healthcare system.

Within Young’s universal system of coverage was a shift back

towards a ‘fee-for-service’ type of healthcare wherein services are

paid for separately (as opposed to capitation, wherein healthcare

providers are incentivized to provide a higher quality of care

based on monetary gain). Young explained that the original

debate between these two models of healthcare had been based

on the belief that greed was the primary motivation for doctors,

so a system was chosen that promoted that concept. Instead,

he argued, the focus should be on developing a healthy culture

within the system and creating an infrastructure dedicated

to supporting quality medical care and healthy relationships

between physicians and their patients. Young also disparaged the

American health insurance system, citing Blue Cross/Blue Shield

as an example of how the system was failing. The company, even

today, has enormous power and economic influence. However,

it failed to lead in fields such as outpatient care by refusing to

focus on aspects such as early detection, prevention and health

maintenance. 6 In other words, this major health insurance

company was failing to keep people out of the hospitals. Young

disliked the commercialization of these services, writing that it

encouraged insurance companies to maximize their profits by

reducing their risk. While a solid economic theory, in practice,

it meant that higher-risk individuals were excluded from access

6 Young, Quentin D. “The Problem of the Costs of Ambulatory Care from the

Point of View of Non-Hospital Providers: the Individual Practitioner” Public Health

Information Services, August 24, 1987.


to affordable care. This strayed far from the original purpose

of these companies, which had been universal access for all. 7

Additionally, Young denounced the number of scams within

the industry, perpetuated by smaller businesses — who took

advantage of the American public to make a quick profit —

and the creation of a medical power structure. This structure

was often maintained by American medical schools, as they

were the ones that controlled the workforce within the health

sector and made it ridiculously easy to overcharge patients.

Young also attributed this overcharging to an increase in hightechnology

equipment. The salesmen of these devices have

convinced doctors and hospital administrators alike that this

new technology is crucial to their hospitals being prepared.

This allows for gross overcharging for this equipment which

in turn results in overutilization within the hospitals that

purchase them in an attempt to break even. These added costs

almost always end up as an additional burden to the patient. 8

Health insurance as a whole was problematic for many of the

same reasons that Young believed healthcare was: it was wildly

commercial, turning the practice of medicine into a competition

for profit. For this reason, he argued that America should switch

to a health service system. Within a health service system, the

incentive would be to keep patients well, instead of being paid

to care for sick patients. Additionally, Young advocated for

some form of democratic control at a local level to provide a

safeguard against any kind of federal bureaucracy exploiting

the people. By changing major aspects of the healthcare system,

Young believed that America could make major strides towards

achieving universal access to healthcare.

However, Young also acknowledged that in order for a

true universality, recognition of existing disparities between

various groups of people had to be made. One such example of

a group marginalized by the healthcare system are those with

7 Young, Quentin D. “Impact of For-Profit Enterprise on Health Care” Journal of

Public Health Policy, December, 1984.

8 Young, Quentin D. “The Problem of the Costs of Ambulatory Care from the

Point of View of Non-Hospital Providers: the Individual Practitioner” Public Health

Information Services, August 24, 1987.


T Newspaper clipping, 1980


chronic illnesses. The American system is not designed for their

care, which often takes place over an extended period of time.

Many chronically ill patients suffer from fragmented care and

poor communication between their physicians. Young also

focused on the underlying problem: the stigma surrounding

chronically ill patients. Many are not taken in to keep costs low

— although they make up 5% of the population, they account

for 55% of healthcare costs. 9 In order to reduce the negative

stigma and ensure that chronically ill patients get the care that

they need and deserve, Young called for renewed emphasis on

the relationships between patients and their physicians. This

would create a caring atmosphere that enabled physicians to

better treat their patients than they would be able to within a

more profit-driven environment. Another group that Young

focused on was the Black community, primarily within Chicago,

where he lived. He promoted the decentralization of hospitals,

calling instead to move them into various parts of the city to

ensure increased access. He asked the city to deny licensing or

tax exemptions to hospitals that turned patients away on the

basis of income or race. However, he also acknowledged that

the relationship between Black people and the healthcare system

in America was historically fraught and tense. To fight this, he

encouraged more young Black students to work towards entering

the medical field in the future, creating programs like aptitude

testing, cultural enrichment programs, and tours of medical and

scientific buildings in Chicago. With these initiatives, Young

aimed to not only generate interest but also to solidify a future

in the medical field as something tangible and as something that

could occur for all people. Through this, he helped increase

the accessibility of the healthcare system within the African-

American community. 10

Quentin Young was an exceptional activist for the American

healthcare system because he understood that the root of these

problems stemmed from societal issues, not just from within the

9 Young, Quentin D. “The Patient is Dying. Shouldn’t He Be at Home?” Chicago

Tribune Magazine, August 4, 1974.

10 DeYoung, Vernon; Falls, Arthur G.; Mercer, A.M.; Stein, Alfred B.; Young,

Quentin; Schayer, Lillian. “Discrimination in Hospitals”, February 7, 1954.


healthcare system. In order to truly address these problems in an

impactful, long-lasting way, he believed that power needed to

shift to the hands of the people. For this to happen, the people

need to unify their voices in order to make a call for change.

Young dedicated his life to creating solutions and to working

towards a better and more refined system of healthcare. In doing

so, he helped America take major strides towards ensuring

equitable access to healthcare for its people. ■


DeYoung, Vernon; Falls, Arthur G.; Mercer, A.M.; Stein, Alfred B.; Young,

Quentin; Schayer, Lillian. “Discrimination in Hospitals”, February 7, 1954.

Special Committee on Staff Appointments for Negro Physicians. “Final

Report to the Mayor”, July 26, 1965.

Young, Quentin D. “Everybody In! Nobody Out!” In These Times, October

9, 1998.

Young, Quentin D. “Impact of For-Profit Enterprise on Health Care”

Journal of Public Health Policy, December, 1984.

Young, Quentin D. “Should the US adopt a health plan like Canada’s?”

Physician’s Bulletin, March, 1987.

Young, Quentin D. “The Crisis in Healthcare and its Remedy”, 1978.

Young, Quentin D. “The Patient is Dying. Shouldn’t He Be at Home?”

Chicago Tribune Magazine, August 4, 1974.

Young, Quentin D. “The Problem of the Costs of Ambulatory Care from the

Point of View of Non-Hospital Providers: the Individual Practitioner”

Public Health Information Services, August 24, 1987.


Studying with


A Look into Northwestern’s Old

Natural History Museum

Written By Yuchen Liu

S “Baldy” the whale skeleton


Archives Special Edition

As most current students would see it, University Hall is

synonymous with speaker series, late-night club meetings

and above all, the English department. There is a general bustle of

literary rigor, whether it be the critiques coming from creative

writing majors or the after-class discussions at instructor office

hours. But students should also know that as the oldest building

on campus, this hallowed structure has a long, storied past, one of

which includes housing the University’s natural history museum.

Founded by Professor Oliver Marcy in 1871, the

Northwestern University Museum of Natural History — known

as “The Museum” to early students and the “geology library”

to later students — resided on the top floor of University Hall,

created 20 years after the University’s founding and two years

after the building was completed. 1

The first mention of this museum in the school newspaper

was during the same year it was founded, which was also when

the Daily Northwestern first started publishing. Back then,

the newspaper was called “The Tripod.” In the April 20, 1971

publication, an unnamed student details walking alongside the

beach and recounting the time they found a cedar stump with

roots preserved in clay. They took it to the museum. 2

It would make sense that in its early days, the museum

would have plenty of student engagement since it still had space

to grow. Eventually, however, there would be more interesting

items added. At its height, the museum would contain 8000

books, as well as various skeletons and other things befitting of

a natural history museum, including the donated remains of a

mastodon, an extinct, close relative to the wooly mammoth. 3,4

Perhaps the most iconic display among the catalog of

museum items was a large whale skeleton that dangled from

the ceiling. Stretching 40 feet, students came to affectionately

call it “Baldy,” short for Balaenopter Laciteps, its scientific name,

of the family Balaenopteridae. “Baldy” had quite a journey to

1 “History.”

2 “Geological Rambles.”

3 Sincavich, “Top Floors Vary in Uses.”

4 “Donations to the Museum.”


W Drawing of

Northwestern’s Natural

History Museum

get to Northwestern.

Legend says it was

killed by a Confederate

cannonball in the Gulf

of Mexico during the

American Civil War.

Other sources say that it

was simply beached by a

large wave in Florida. 5

Either way, its skeleton

was displayed in the Chicago Exposition of 1875, during which it

was valued at $1000, and was brought to the university as a class

gift. 6 Due to the skeleton’s long and interesting history, students

appreciated it and eventually developed a new tradition where if

one were to flip a coin (or their bluebooks, in later years) onto it

and have it stay, that would signal good luck in a future exam. 7

However, in the mid-1900s the museum was dismantled, and

all the skeletons, including the whale itself, were removed. 8

Remnants of the geology library were moved to the ground

floor of Locy Hall, where it would finally be closed for good. 9

After the closure, museum materials were sent to the

basement of Harris Hall, as recorded in a 1940 correspondence

between Florence Stewart, the Secretary on the Committee

on University Archives, with John R. Ball, a faculty member

of the Geology Department. Ball’s department, along with the

Anthropology, Botany and Zoology departments of that time

were able to keep some material for teaching and research.

However, other objects, including mounts of bison, walruses

and Irish deer, were given away to schools of the North Shore.

In particular, there were schools on Orrington Avenue and

5 Wilde, Northwestern University: A History, 1855-1905.

6 Turk, “Whale of a Jaw Has Balaenopter Laciteps.”

7 Sincavich, “Top Floors Vary in Uses.”

8 Schellhardt, “University Hall Owns Museum-Filled History.”

9 “Library Houses More than Million Books.”


T Students sitting in the Northwestern Natural History Museum

Dempster Street that received some large specimens. The

Chicago Field Museum, which was founded in 1893, was also

a recipient, being given the skeleton of an Asian elephant. 10

Sale of these pieces were not limited to educational facilities,

though. For instance, this correspondence also details how two

boys from Rogers Park were able to buy some mounts, one of

which was that of a walrus. 11 Unfortunately, objects that were

not taken were destroyed. 12

As for “Baldy,” it currently resides in the Jurica-Suchy Nature

Museum of Benedictine University in Lisle, Illinois, roughly 40

miles away from Northwestern and over 1000 miles away from

its original home of the Gulf of Mexico. 13 In a 2009 email from

Beckie Dyer, the Museum Technician of Illinois State Museum,

to Kevin Leonard, the University Archivist here at Northwestern,

it was discovered that the founder of the Jurica-Suchy Museum,

Father Hilary, seized upon the opportunity to secure the whale

upon hearing of the imminent closure of Northwestern’s Natural

History Museum. He and his team disassembled the skeleton and

reassembled it at Benedictine University.

10 “Hibbard, Addison, 1930-1933 | Archival and Manuscript Collections.”

11 “Stewart, Miss Florence | Archival and Manuscript Collections.”

12 “Hibbard, Addison, 1930-1933 | Archival and Manuscript Collections.”

13 “Benedictine University Nature Museum Exhibit Detail.”


W Northwestern Natural

History Museum Regulations

A lot of the museum’s

success owes itself to the

founder, Oliver Marcy. Marcy

was born on February 13, 1820

in Massachusetts as the seventh

child of eleven children. He was

an instructor of mathematics

and later found his calling

with geology. After teaching

at academies, he became a

professor at Northwestern and

stayed for 37 years, overseeing

a wide variety of subjects,

from philosophy to the natural sciences. He eventually became

president of the university. 14

Marcy came upon the opportunity of establishing the

museum after talks about the establishment began during

the 1850s by famed naturalist Robert Kennicott, a university

faculty in the field of botany and zoology, and his pupil Henry

Bannister, an employee of the Smithsonian Institution. These

two were able to start a small collection with much help from

the Smithsonian, but it was lacking in many ways. For one,

there were not many mammals included, and the fish, birds and

insects that were collected were not in the best conditions. 15

Marcy took many pains in procuring valuable specimen,

maintaining exchanges with other professors around the country.

For instance, in the early days of the museum, Marcy corresponded

with Professors Shaler and Allen of the Museum of Comparative

Zoology at Harvard to exchange Midwestern fauna for goods of

other regions. During the Spring of 1871, the package arrived

containing 103 species and 320 fossils. They included coral from

Singapore, the Sandwich Islands and Haiti, as well as birds from

14 “Oliver Marcy, University Archives, Northwestern University Library.”

15 “Robert Kennicott Correspondence, 1857-1864 | Archival and Manuscript



Receipt of items received X

from the Smithsonian

Texas, Indonesia and Brazil.

A particular mammal that

was delivered was mentioned

to be the hispid cotton rat

from Florida. 16

Of course, curating and

managing a museum was

not always easy, and finances

were a primary concern.

Many purchases were made

with private donations,

like obtaining 600 labeled

specimens of plants from the Rocky Mountains for $100 in the

mid-1800s, which is roughly $2000 in 2021 dollars. 17 Thus, to

find “a working fund or an annual contribution … by means of

which collections may be made, and exchanges effected” was of

the utmost importance. 18 Maintenance was another concern,

since a natural history museum needs to be responsible for

the upkeep of its materials. For instance, it was detailed that the

alcohol in some specimen jars was not replenished in 25 years. This

coincided with a slump in which annual reports for the museum

were not published from 1876 to 1882 due to the sheer amount

of work that needed to be done with limited resources.

Managing the workings of the Northwestern Natural History

Museum is certainly a labor of love, but to its workers, it always

seemed to be worth it. As Marcy wrote in the 1871 annual report,

“...science cannot be learned from books. To learn science the

student must study the things themselves and their phenomena.”

It was an essential part of a budding natural scientist’s journey.

Furthermore, to Marcy, the museum was a great source of pride

for his department, stating that the university could not claim to

16 “Museum.”

17 “Oliver Marcy, University Archives, Northwestern University Library.”

18 Wilde, Northwestern University: A History, 1855-1905.


have a department of Natural History until it was established. 19

Today’s students may not get the opportunity to study

with ancient fossils or donate driftwood found in beaches for

all to see, but it is fitting that this bygone museum — whose

contents document Earth’s natural history — becomes itself an

object of study, woven into Northwestern’s history. Though we

may regret its absence from our campus, it has found new life

elsewhere, whether physically as part of the Field Museum or in

our collective understanding of the changes Northwestern has

gone through and the exciting changes to come. ■

19 Wilde.



“Benedictine University Nature Museum Exhibit Detail.” Accessed

March 3, 2021. https://www.ben.edu/museum/exhibitdetail.


“Donations to the Museum.” Daily Northwestern (Published as THE

TRIPOD). July 20, 1871.

“Geological Rambles.” Daily Northwestern (Published as THE TRIPOD).

April 20, 1871.

“Hibbard, Addison, 1930-1933 | Archival and Manuscript Collections.”

Accessed March 3, 2021. https://findingaids.library.northwestern.edu/


“History : Northwestern University.” Accessed January 12, 2021. https://


“Library Houses More than Million Books.” Daily Northwestern. September

17, 1959.

“Museum.” Daily Northwestern (Published as THE TRIPOD). May 20, 1871.

“Oliver Marcy, University Archives, Northwestern University Library.”

Accessed January 13, 2021. http://exhibits.library.northwestern.edu/


“Robert Kennicott Correspondence, 1857-1864 | Archival and Manuscript

Collections.” Accessed March 3, 2021. https://findingaids.library.


Schellhardt, Tim. “University Hall Owns Museum-Filled History.” Daily

Northwestern (Published as NORTHWESTERN). May 18, 1965.

Sincavich, Bob. “Top Floors Vary in Uses.” Daily Northwestern (Published

as NORTHWESTERN). January 10, 1951.

“Stewart, Miss Florence | Archival and Manuscript Collections.” Accessed

March 3, 2021. https://findingaids.library.northwestern.edu/


Turk, Marion. “Whale of a Jaw Has Balaenopter Laciteps.” Daily

Northwestern (Published as SUMMER NORTHWESTERN). August

5, 1932.

Wilde, Arthur. Northwestern University: A History, 1855-1905. Semi-

Centennial. Vol. 3. New York: The University Publishing Society, 1905.


The Path of Progress:

The Program on Women at


The same features that attract thousands of students to

Northwestern today are much of what won over Methodist

ministers to establish an institution of higher education on the

coast of Lake Michigan in 1851, namely the picturesque setting

of a campus by blue water, not too far from the city of Chicago.

However, one significant part of today’s Northwestern college

experience departs itself from the ideals of the male founders:

the inclusion of women. In the ensuing decades from the

University’s founding, women of Northwestern would face an

uphill battle in establishing programming that would help in

their fight for equal rights

and recognition — paving

the way for today’s female

students to study on equal

grounds with their male


When classes began in

1855, the doors were only

open for young men. The

S Flyer advertising North-

Western Female College,

University Archives

Written By Nithya Mahakala

nearby North-Western

Female College served as

the only collegiate option

for women, providing a

coursework of natural sciences,

history and literature

that went beyond the traditional

subjects of other pre-


Archives Special Edition

S Minutes from Board of Trustees meeting, University Archives

paratory education for women. 1 Though this closely resembled

what their male peers were also studying, it failed to come with

an actual college diploma and degree attached to it.

The inclusion of women’s education at Northwestern was

catalyzed by the election of University president Erastus O.

Haven, a well-known proponent of co-education. He and people

who shared his judgement initially faced great opposition,

which was reflected on the record of minutes from the countless

meetings dedicated to this topic. 2 For instance, several trustees

initially opposed the idea and worried that allowing women to

partake in classes might damage the University’s reputation.

Others felt that a greater need of supervision would be required,

which could take away from other resources. Only after

significant discussion did the trustees reach the unanimous

decision that women could be admitted to Northwestern. 3

Over time, as co-education became the norm, the separation

1 Northwestern University (Evanston, Ill.). Program on Women. Northwestern

Archival and Manuscript Collections. Retrieved from https://findingaids.library.


2 150 Years of Women. Northwestern Archival Material. Retrieved from https://


3 150 Years of Women. Northwestern Archival Material. Retrieved from https://



of women students from

men gradually died out. By

the mid-1970s, there was

no longer a dean of women

and the Women’s Self-

Government Association

had disbanded. Title IX

had opened the door to

women’s varsity sports

and more women had

begun to fill the seats in the

lab of the Technological

Institute. The era of curfew

and parietal hours was

over. Almost a century

after the initial historic

resolution was passed

to allow co-education,

S Newspaper clipping announcing

the abolition of Associated

Women Students in 1967

the Northwestern University Faculty Senate resolved, on the

recommendation of its Committee on Educational Policy, to

establish an “interdisciplinary Program on Women.” 4

The objective of such a program was to “guide the expansion

of the educational curriculum to include interdisciplinary

courses ... which will focus on the causes, concomitants

and consequences of present alterations in sex roles and sex

stereotypes and explore the implications of these changes for

personal, social, and institutional adjustment.” 5 Additionally,

the program aimed to encourage faculty work in these areas

and to facilitate an increase in the number of women on campus

through various forms of outreach and advocacy.

Once the program was founded, Vice President and Dean

of Faculties Raymond W. Mack oversaw a committee on the

Program on Women that focused on finding a program director

4 Our History: Women’s Center. (2021, March 4). Retrieved from https://www.


5 Northwestern University (Evanston, Ill.). Program on Women. Northwestern

Archival and Manuscript Collections. Retrieved from https://findingaids.library.



S Arlene Kaplan Daniels,

Director of the Program on

Women (1974-1979)

and handling responsibilities regarding the status of women

at Northwestern. In August 1974, sociologist Arlene Kaplan

Daniels became the program’s first director.

Daniels split her time at Northwestern between her role as a

professor in the Department of Sociology and her work with the

Program on Women. Her research interests concerned social

inequality, sex roles and civilization, the sociology of education,

women’s work lives and feminist networking. She went on to

publish a book titled “Invisible Careers” in 1988, and it detailed

the social, personal, and family lives of women who volunteered

much of their time to the community. Daniels maintained a

strong presence in the academic sphere outside of Northwestern

as well: she served as the first female editor of the peer-reviewed

journal Social Problems and was also elected as president for the

Society of the Study of Social Problems.

Not long after its founding, the Program on Women ran

into logistical and administrative barriers. The University expected

that the project would receive enough financial support

from outside sources to eventually become self-sustaining, so a

limited amount of funding was set aside by the administration

to endow the program’s efforts.

6 These budgeting issues

quickly escalated and created

tension between Northwestern

officials and Daniels.

When oversight of the program

was transferred into the

hands of the Vice President for

Research and Dean of Science

David Mintzerin in 1977, the

strain of the situation worsened.

Persistent conflict between

Daniels and the University

administration continued

6 150 Years of Women. Northwestern Archival Material. Retrieved from https://



over the proper purpose of the program. This culminated in the

resignation of Daniels in 1979, who was succeeded by a series of

women serving as acting directors.

Despite these obstacles, one of the greatest endeavors of

the Program on Women was its coordination of the women’s

studies curriculum and support of research in women’s studies

at Northwestern. The women’s studies coursework offered an

undergraduate certificate in the subject starting in the winter

of 1980. The curriculum presented three courses and suggested

supplemental classes in sociology, anthropology, history and

psychology. Daniels was one of the first faculty appointments

and she served as the director of the program beginning in 1991.

Soon after, the first graduate certificate was awarded in women’s

studies, which became its own department in 1993. This allowed

for Women’s Studies to become an independent major. In

early 2000, the department was renamed to Gender Studies,

which was renamed again as it currently exists as Gender and

Sexuality Studies.

S 1980-81 Undergraduate Study

Catalog, University Archives


Outside of the classroom, the Program on Women created

many opportunities to promote the scholarship of women

at institutions of higher education. This included efforts to

sponsor, produce and circulate several resources on campuses

like “It’s Never Too Late to Go to College,” “Pathfinder: A Backto-School

Guide for Adults,” and “Women and Healthcare” by

Sheryl K. Ruzek, as well as “The Health of Women at Work” by

Vilma R. Hunt.

On today’s campus, the Program on Women has been

rebranded into the Northwestern Women’s Center, a change

that took place in 1986 and was meant to redirect supervisory

focus and build upon inter-organizational capabilities. The

academic and social support group for collegiate women

throughout the 1970s laid the framework for the mission

statement of the Women’s Center, which highlights its

commitment to “advancing women, gender equity, and inclusion

engaging the Northwestern University community.” 7 Many

of these sentiments stem from the same language used in the

initial proposition of the Program on Women, drawing from

its dedication to fostering educational and personal equality,

providing opportunities for professional growth, and advocating

for women within the greater Northwestern community. ■

7 Our History: Women’s Center. (2021, March 4). Retrieved from https://www.



Northwestern University (Evanston, Ill.). Program on Women.

Northwestern Archival and Manuscript Collections. Retrieved from



150 Years of Women. Northwestern Archival Material. Retrieved from


Our History: Women’s Center. (2021, March 4). Retrieved from https://



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