Powertrain | Diesel International 2021-07

Euro7 is coming and even in the US Cummins and Tula ‘squeeze’ the diesel to get the best out of it. We considered low entry and downsizing for the comparison, and the choice fell on the little one-liter displacements 3-cylinders engines. We're not simply talking about an electric SUV (by Volvo), but rather what's going on all around it! What about ‘clean diesel’? Mission accomplished for the Visa gensets, powered by FPT Industrial and Bimotor, at the World Ski Championships. He’s a demolition guy, works hard and relies on Kohler and Kubota, Sweden's Brokk. Lefebvre ends here his long talking about Diesel of the year, John Deere 18.0L. Research and efficiency, two words that suit for engines, motors, batteries, etc: here we are with Liebherr, Ricardo, and Caterpillar. Finally, Stage V in the water.

Euro7 is coming and even in the US Cummins and Tula ‘squeeze’ the diesel to get the best out of it.
We considered low entry and downsizing for the comparison, and the choice fell on the little one-liter displacements 3-cylinders engines.
We're not simply talking about an electric SUV (by Volvo), but rather what's going on all around it!
What about ‘clean diesel’? Mission accomplished for the Visa gensets, powered by FPT Industrial and Bimotor, at the World Ski Championships.
He’s a demolition guy, works hard and relies on Kohler and Kubota, Sweden's Brokk. Lefebvre ends here his long talking about Diesel of the year, John Deere 18.0L.
Research and efficiency, two words that suit for engines, motors, batteries, etc: here we are with Liebherr, Ricardo, and Caterpillar. Finally, Stage V in the water.


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Diesel of the year 2021: John Deere 18.0L - AGCO Power: 100

million euro to relaunch Linnavuori - Kohler: All about

the engines division - Sustainability: e-SUV & more





ISSN 0042

Press Register n. 4596 – April 20th 1994

Poste Italiane Inc. – Mail subscription

D.L. 353/2003 (mod. in L. 27/02/2004 n° 46)

Art. 1, subsection 1, LO/MI


July 2021



JULY 2021



5. EURO7

Brussels steps back


diesel Dynamic Skip Fire (dDSF)



John Deere 18.0L: yesterday, today, tomorrow



To Cortina with FPT Industrial and Visa


All you need for being greener



When robots appear efcient and familiar



We’re meticulous creators of power components that integrate easily and

perform reliably. From inspiration to application, we celebrate the process

of bringing your equipment to life. We truly understand the needs of the

OEM because we are one. We’ll put our insight and expertise to work

to provide a seamless solution for your machine — from the engine and

electrification to the drivetrain.

We’re John Deere Power Systems. We’re proud to power you.




A complete overview


They are building ideas for the future


18. 1 LITER


by Fabio Butturi




This initiative, which is part of the

European Green Deal, will develop

stricter emissions standards (Euro 7) for

all petrol and diesel cars, vans, lorries

and buses.»

evolutionary outbursts are a part of human

society’s evolution. Two events heralded the

dawn of modernity in the Western world

and beyond. The industrial revolution in the

United Kingdom between the 18th and 19th

centuries, as well as the Enlightenment-inspired revolution

in France, which resulted in the storming of

the Bastille on July 14, 1789. At the end of the 1800s,

Nikolas Otto and Rudolf Diesel conceived the mother

of all revolutions, the ICE, which would have conditioned

heavy industry, mobility, energy production,

and AG and CE mechanization.

Another revolution is on the horizon; in reality, it is

marked by the stages of the so-called energy transition,

which surround the evolution of the industrial

scenario on a daily basis. This is the rst instance of

the genesis of the POWERTRAIN editorial platform.

At this point, it’s important to clear up a misunderstanding:

Diesel International’s renaming is not the

result of a desire to exclude the Diesel engine from

our agenda and vocabulary.

The ICE remains the leading powertrain player and

boasts the features of sustainability, as we outlined it in

the Sustainable powertrain tour. Efciency, cost-effectiveness,

deployment, infrastructure, combustion optimization

and emission reduction make the diesel engine

the ‘best in class’ for industrial applications, whether

onroad, offhighway, stationary or marine. On the path

to decarbonisation, the combustion chamber must be

optimized, and renewable fuels such as biodiesel, synthetic

fuels, and E-fuel must be improved and shared.

There is a paradigm that needs to be debunked in light

of real-world requirements, workloads and duty cycles,

available infrastructure, incentives and public policies,

as well as fuel supply and economics (aka TCO).

The feeling is that there isn’t any technology that can

prevail. Several technological-distributive platforms will

compete in this decade: fossil fuels, alternative fuels,

gasication, hybridization, electrication, and hydrogen.

Each of these necessitates a deep component and storage

infrastructure adaptation. That is why we chose

the name ‘POWERTRAIN’ rather than simply

‘POWER’. It’s no longer just a matter of producing

mechanical or electric kilowatts. To achieve

efciency and sustainability, the entire component

universe must be optimized, from electronics to mechatronics,

ltration, lubrication, and so on.

POWERTRAIN magazine will make a signicant

contribution in this case, based on the daily contact

with our professional environment and also sourcing

the synergies derived from the Sustainable Bus and

the newborn Sustainable Truck&Van platforms. For

any application (automotive, off-highway, PG and

CHP, marine) and for any kind of technology (ICE,

gasied, hybrid, electric and hydrogen).

And it’s just the beginning…

t was Bruno Le Maire - French

minister of Economy – who spiked

the decisive ball, but the surreal

prospective Euro 7 emission

standards were rst blocked by Berlin’s

Minister of Transports Scheuer

and VDA – the German Manufacturers’

Association headed by Hildegard

Müller. At any rate, this match’s result

is of the essence: Brussels is backtracking

on the draft proposal tabled last

October by AGVES – EU’s Advisory

Group on Vehicle Emission Standards

– against which car manufacturers

protested unanimously; so much so

that Carlos Tavares - Stellantis CEO

and former chairman of ACEA -European

Automobile Manufacturers’ Organisation-

was prompted to comment

that “the draft Euro 7 standards are beyond

the laws of physics. If these are

the standards about to come into force,

it will be simply impossible to keep

making cars with internal combustion

engines” – he said.

Both Le Maire from France and

Scheuer from Germany described

the draft Euro 7 standards as a “destructive

factor” for the European

carmaking sector. And the German

metalworkers’ union joined the battle,

with its spokesmen warning against

“the risk of unprecedented unemployment”.

Not exactly the ideal picture

for a sector already severely battered

by the pandemic.

Having established that Euro 7 emission

standards are not scheduled to

enter into force before 2025-27, there

ICEs were on the

verge of extinction as a

result of the new rules.

Instead, the VDA and

the Rhine axis have

questioned the AGVES


are two pillars to Brussels’ U-turn. Not

only was the limit for nitrous oxides

emissions applicable to cars and light

commercial vehicles raised from 10 to

30 mg/km but, above all, the “fundamentalist”

proposal for zero tolerance

whatever stage the engine is running

in was ruled out. From cold starting to

short city routes, the original Euro 7

draft version left no room for deviation

from the emission standards. As a further

sign of level-headedness, AGVES

technical experts have now brought

petrol and diesel engines in line with

each other according to emissions, assessing

pollutant levels not based on

PEMS test results per single kilometre

upon homologation, but rather on an

average value per kilometre calculated

during the test cycle. And the choice

of this method for assessment test

should supposedly stave off the need

to install expensive preheating devices

to “muzzle” emissions when starting

and at low speed.







Cosworth has expanded its range of pistons through a

collaboraon with advanced materials supplier Materion,

that sees Cosworth produce and machine Metal Matrix

Composite (MMC) pistons for the automove sector.

Materion’s SupremEX composite combines ultrane silicon

carbide reinforcement with aerospace aluminium alloys.

The result is a composite that is superior to convenonal

alloys, combining the lightweight properes of aluminium

with outstanding strength and sffness.

The pistons can be used to replace aluminium, tanium,

steel and other structural alloys and composites. The

specic sffness of SupremEX exceeds that of other piston

materials by at least 40 percent, allowing for a signicant

reducon in reciprocang mass.

The MMC pistons are crucial components of the advanced

lightweight V12 engine for the Gordon Murray Automove

(GMA) T.50. The pistons are key to the engine’s ability

to hit a maximum speed of 12,000 rpm and produce

the highest specic output of any road-going naturally

aspirated engine at 166PS-per-litre.

Below, Cummins’ X15 HD engine. The collaboration between

Cummins and Tula paves new ways as for emissions reduction

related to the use of ICEs.

ciency Series diesel engine.

Tula Technology is a Silicon Valleybased

company that provides softwa-

Cummins and Tula

recently showed the

results of their study

on the effectivness

of the diesel Dynamic

Skip Fire (dDSF).

The dDSF managed

to reduce nitrogen

oxides emissions by

74 percent and carbon

dioxide emissions by

5 percent also in low


ummins and Tula started their

collaboration in early 2019.

Their main goal was to reduce

emissions by optimizing cylinder

deactivation strategies for diesel

engines. The companies recently announced

the results of their joint work

on the effectiveness of Tula’s diesel

Dynamic Skip Fire (dDSF), and there

was a 74 percent reduction in nitrogen

dioxides (NOx) and a 5 percent reduction

in carbon dioxide (CO2) compared

with today clean technologies.

Moreover, in comparison with current

engine technologies and modications

to the thermal management techniques,

dDSF made it possible to save 20 percent

in fuel, making it a fuel-efcient

mean of reducing nitrogen oxides. All

the tests were made on a Class 8 truck

powered by a Cummins X15 HD Efre

controls to optimize propulsion

efciency and emissions across the

mobility spectrum, including gasoline-powered,

diesel, alternative fuel,

hybrid, and electric vehicles. Their

original Dynamic Skip Fire software

has been shown to signicantly reduce

CO2 emissions in gasoline engines and

has been in production since 2018 with

more than one million vehicles on the

road, the dDSF is the application of the

Dynamic Skip Fire for diesel engines.

The Dynamic Skip Fire is an advanced

cylinder deactivation control strategy

that makes decisions for an engine’s

cylinders on an individual basis to best

meet torque demands while saving fuel

and maintaining performance. The reduction

of tailpipe NOx is achieved

primarily by optimized exhaust temperature

control, resulting in improved

conversion efciency of the aftertreatment

system. The technology achieves

CO2 reductions through improvements

in combustion and reductions in

pumping work. Furthermore, the dDSF

delivers improved tailpipe emissions

while simultaneously reducing fuel

consumption, allowing for further optimization

of these critical parameters.

Both companies are pleased with the

results and commented on the news release.

Lisa Farrell, Director, Accelerated

Technology Center for Cummins

Inc. said: «Our mission at Cummins is

to make people’s lives better by powering

a more prosperous world, and we

accomplish this through innovation.

Tula’s dDSF technology provides signicant

benets to reducing NOx and

CO2 emissions under low-load vehicle

operation, which will aid our efforts to

produce more reliable, more powerful

engines while meeting our environmental


R. Scott Bailey, president and CEO

of Tula Technology, stated: «NOx

standards are becoming progressively

more stringent for diesel engines, and

meeting those standards is increasingly

challenging, even for a class-leading,

efcient engine like the Cummins X15

HD. Our dDSF is a powerful and unique

technology that enables original

equipment manufacturers to signicantly

reduce NOx emissions that contribute

to smog while simultaneously

reducing fuel consumption and greenhouse

gas production. We appreciate

the opportunity to work with Cummins

to demonstrate the capability of our


Every year legislations for diesel emissions

become more stringent and it’s

imperative for companies to address

future more restrictive nitrogen oxides

and carbon dioxide regulations before

they become effective.






Michael Lefebvre, JDPS: «Increased engine connectivity through the use of

smart sensors and enhanced engine controls also allows us to optimize overall

operations. In the future, we anticipate there will be a completely new generation

of engine electronic control systems that will be more capable».

e wrap up our conversation

with Michael Lefebvre

regarding the John

Deere Power Systems

18.0L, Diesel of the year 2021.

Cummins QSK19 and Liebherr

D9512. Will John Deere combines

and harvesters around 600 and

700 kW be powered by the 18.0L?

However, could you explain why a

manufacturer of large operating

machines should use this engine?

We do plan to integrate the 18.0L

engine in the John Deere equipment

that currently use engines in the same

power range. Speci c application details

will be nalized as the engine

nears completion. Any manufacturers

with machines that require higher

power levels would bene t from utiliz-

ing the 18.0L engine. In addition, the

18.0L meets customer needs for fewer

and shorter planned maintenance

intervals by utilizing hydraulic lash

adjusters (HLAs). The HLAs are hydraulically

operated and self-adjusting,

eliminating the need to manually

reset the valve lash — a lengthy service


Horizon and

perspectives of the

DOTY 2021, noise,

reduction, HLAs,

exibility in terms

of applications,

renewable diesel fuels,

IoT and Industry 4.0

Locating the gear train in the rear

of the engine reduces noise and torsional

vibration. Sound intensity is reduced

for increased operator comfort.

Additionally, the location directly

improves durability while enhancing

operational exibility, as it enables

more gear drive auxiliary power takeoff

(PTO) capabilities.

650 kWm engine plus… 100 kWe…

200 kWe electric motor. It could be

a real option? And for what?

The feasibility of implementing more

alternative power systems in off-highway

equipment depends on optimizing

an overall power solution — balancing

mechanical, hydraulic and electric

power systems as well as the cost.

That’s why we’re focused on providing

scalable, exible and modular

solutions to generate and deliver the

variety of power solutions needed in

off-highway applications. Our electric

drivetrain components include compact,

high-speed motors, controlled

by power electronics from John Deere

Electronic Solutions. These eMachine

components are integrated in various

John Deere pump drive and transmission

solutions, resulting in a exible

drivetrain portfolio for ease of OEM

implementation. Since this is our

highest power engine, combining the

18.0L with our electric drivetrain offerings

will present new opportunities

for larger electri ed applications.

John Deere can offer high-powered

electri cation capabilities. We’ve

implemented electri cation solutions

in large applications such as slurry

spreaders. This eAutoPower transmission

solution was highlighted as a

gold winner for the Agritechnica Innovation

Awards in 2019.

Could the ICE second life begins

from HVO, bio-fuels and e-fuels?

In regard to internal combustion engines

for off-highway applications,

we believe diesel has a long life

ahead. For years, petroleum-based

fuels have been the industry standard,

primarily due to the lack of acceptable,

cost-effective and reliable

alternatives. However, with growing

interest in sustainable energy, alternative

fuels are becoming more widely

adopted and readily available.

We consider biodiesel and renewable

diesel fuel to be the way alternative fuels

can integrate into the heavy equipment

industry. John Deere engines op-

erate ef ciently using ultra-low sulfur

diesel as well as biodiesel blends. It’s

the right thing to do from a long-term

economic standpoint, as well as environmental,

energy-security and rural-development


How does John Deere imagine IoT

and Industry 4.0 applied to engines,

considering the experience as a machine


To fully leverage connectivity and machine

learning, we’re focused on gathering

data that is both broad — across

a wide range of applications — and

detailed in the data points collected.

We utilize the Internet of Things (IoT)

and machine performance data to

develop new solutions through John

Deere Connected Support on partner







«With this cooperation,

we are combining our

competencies – on

the one hand, PBST’s

global sales structure for

turbochargers and, on the

other hand, Rolls-Royce’s

latest high-efciency mtu

turbocharger technology

for high-speed diesel

and gas engines», stated

Andreas Schell

olls-Royce and MAN Energy

Solutions will soon cooperate

on turbochargers. The news is

quite relevant and deals with

the development and distribution of

a new generation of turbochargers,

capable to reduce engine emissions

without compromising performance.

«With this cooperation, we are combining

our competencies – on the one

hand, PBST’s global sales structure

for turbochargers and, on the other

hand, Rolls-Royce’s latest high-ef -

ciency mtu turbocharger technology

for high-speed diesel and gas engines»,

stated Andreas Schell, CEO

of Rolls-Royce Power Systems. The

turbochargers developed and produced

in-house by Rolls-Royce Power

Systems will thus be made available

in additional markets. For Rolls-

Royce, this creates a new channel for

sales in addition to Woodward L’Orange.

PBST will include the latest

generation of the mtu turbocharger

family ZR1 to ZR5 in its product

portfolio and will distribute them

under the series name HIRO in the


«The mtu brand is characterized

above all by its in-depth know-how

in high-speed applications. Thanks

to this product expansion, we are

now able to offer our customers

exactly the right turbocharger for

their high-, medium- and low-speed

applications under one roof via the

PBST brand», added Uwe Lauber,

CEO of MAN Energy Solutions. The

mtu turbochargers are offered on the

basis of a modular system for engines

in the 400 to 2,500 kilowatt power

ranges in single- and two-stage

versions. Rolls-Royce designs them

to meet the specic requirements of

various applications such as marine,

rail, construction, heavy land vehicles

and power supply.

«Advanced turbocharging helps engines

achieve low fuel consumption

and high power over a wide speed

range. It is an important building

block for meeting increasingly stringent

emission requirements in the future

– without compromising engine

performance or ef ciency», explained

Otto Preiss, Chief Technology

Ofcer and COO of Rolls-Royce

Power Systems. «With the aim of

offering new propulsion and energy

solutions for a climate-neutral future,

we are also currently working on

electrically assisted turbochargers

for greater agility and lower fuel

consumption, as well as on turbocharger

concepts for fuel cells».


In biogas micro liquefaction plants, the role of the cryogenic pump is at the end of the process, once

the biogas is in the storage tank: the pump is used to transfer the product and represents the last

communicating element between the plant and the company that must pick up the product and take it to

another supply point. Centrifugal pumps are installed on manual skids in micro liquefaction plants.

Vanzetti Engineering handles the supply of the cryogenic pump and builds the entire skid, while the end

customer takes care of installing the plant. The product generally used for this type of application is the

cryogenic pump DSM 230 on skid. This type of pump features an electric motor, direct transmission and

mechanical seal, an ideal conguration for transfer applications.



56KW AND 130KW

he European industry associations


CEETTAR, warmly welcome

the support received from the

European Commission, European

Parliament and Council of the European

Union in tackling the pandemic

through extraordinary measures.

The industry had jointly urged

European Institutions to complement

Regulation (EU) 2020/1040 –

which rightly amended the most urgent

aspects of Stage V Regulation

last year – and also address machinery

fitted with transition engines

between 56kW and 130kW (built

up to 31/12/2019). Commenting on


the vote, CEMA Secretary General

Jérôme Bandry said: «Our industries

continue to face supply chain

and production disruptions caused

by the COVID-19 second and third

waves. But to ensure the resilience

of our agri-food chain, farmers and

contractors need the machines using

transition engines between 56kW

and 130kW, planned and produced

before the pandemic».

ZF’s fourth-generation brake actuator technology provides

signi cant safety and cost ef ciency bene ts for heavy-duty

truck and bus manufacturers. As a matter of fact, the German

company stated that a long-term supply agreement has

already been signed with a major European OEM to equip

its medium and heavy-duty trucks and buses with ZF’s latest

brake chamber range.


Interpump Group signed

a binding agreement for

the purchase of the White

Drive Motors & Steering

business unit from the

Danfoss Group.The

closing of the transaction

is expected in the fourth

quarter of 2021, following

Danfoss’ closing of the

acquisition of Eaton

Corporation’s Hydraulics

business.The White Drive

Motors and Steering

business unit includes

three production sites:

Hopkinsville (Kentucky,

USA), Parchim (Germany)

and Wroclaw (Poland).






Pietro Ottavis, CTO at Comau: «Cobots and digital tools are just some of

the main technologies that Comau has developed following its own approach

to Industry 4.0, called HUMANufacturing».

hree-meter high, almost three

tons of weight, capacity to lift

up to 170 kilos. The collaborative

Aura by COMAU, part of

the Stellantis group, is a collaborative

industrial robot (that is, a robot capable

of sharing the work area with the operator

safely and without barriers) which

is atypical in size, payload and characteristics.

How does a cobot (‘collaborative

robot’) integrate into an assembly

environment typically populated

by human operators? The person who

wanted and welcomed it explained it to

us, namely Giuseppe Daresta, Head

of Manufacturing for FPT Industrial.

What operations is Comau’s Aura

robot currently engaged in?

The robot, added last year, operates in

the heavy axles area of the Driveline

plant in Turin and takes care of the

preparation of sub-assemblies and the

assembly of stub axles for the IVECO

X-Way truck family. Basically, it works

as a back-up to an automatic assembly

station. The cobot picks up the left stub

axle from the full cart in a loading bay

and deposits it near a preparation stand.

At this point it enters the so-called collaborative

mode and gives the operator

a green light to enter the shared work

area; the operator grabs the robot in

Aura by COMAU

is a collaborative

industrial robot. We

talked with the Head of

Manufacturing for FPT


manual guidance mode, therefore with

both hands - also for safety reasons -

and drags the axle on the counter. Then

the operator moves it out of the way to

complete the assembly operation. The

operator then takes the robot back into

manual guidance, releases the axle with

the lever and takes it to a known area

next to the counter. The operator exits

the area and the cobot, thanks to the

activation of a series of safety sensors,

carries the subgroup autonomously into

the empty trolley in the unloading bay.

The cycle is repeated for the same component

on the right side.

How does the ‘sixth sense’ work?

The robot is equipped with several

sensors. What we call ‘sixth sense’ is

in fact a 3D scanner with an angle of

270 degrees that maps the environment

around the robot. It can map up to 8

layers to be managed simultaneously.

In this context, the robot knows which

movements are allowed and any possible

alarms, obstacles and foreign objects.

It does this by recognizing both

the human being and the objects that

can be found in this area. The robot

has other senses: from the so-called

manual guidance to the soft skin foam;

it also has proximity sensors built into

the foam that intervene before potential

contact. In addition, it is equipped with

force sensors on the wrist that measure

the force applied for movements in

manual guidance.

Thinking about the assembly operations

that take place in FPT factories,

do you think this type of collaborative

robot is the only suitable one,

or are you considering the possibility

of introducing even smaller models?

We actually also have collaborative applications

with smaller robots, working

on smaller components. We are also

thinking of an application with the cobot

on an AGV trolley, in order to manage

not only transport but also positioning.

Do you imagine collaborative robots

mainly engaged in pick & place operations

in a factory context or are other

applications not to be excluded?

Screwing, for example, is another of

the operations that can be entrusted

to collaborative robots because it is

a burdensome and repetitive activity,

even if it is difcult to automate it completely

because it has a high difculty

level. The collaborative robot can offer

solutions that are an excellent compro-

mise also in terms of costs.

How far do you think we can go with

the automation of operations in a sector

such as engines manufacturing?

The new frontier of automation lies precisely

in collaboration. I do not believe

that it will ever be possible to completely

replace humans, at least in assembly

processes, which are characterized by

complex operations and often require

manual skills. Cobots can relieve the

operator’s work not only from a physical

point of view, but also in terms of

complexity management, for example.

Collaborative robots can certainly help

in creating ergonomic workstations

even for older operators. Another aspect

is the management of the psychological

load level also with regard to the

most repetitive operations.






Ettore Brunero, Bimotor CEO: «Nothing can be left to chance during a

World Championship. And we’re here at Cortina to support VISA alongside FPT

Industrial, by supplying the best engines for the customer’s on-site needs, in

terms of sustainability and reliability even in the most challenging conditions».

n 2020, stationary engine sales

fell from 40 to 35 per cent of the

turnover, compensated by the

growth of the off-road market.

The marine segment is worth about 7

per cent.» This is how our chat with

Ettore Brunero, Bimotor CEO, begins.

And it continues with a touch of

pride: «The off-road allows us to enhance

our creativity and the peculiarities

of Bimotor.» In fact, the G-Drive

models are substantially available

off the shelf, although in Stage V it

was necessary to intervene for some

power ratings. Bimotor deals with

the wiring, interface and relay box

directly with its original components,

so that the user can control the engine

exclusively via the CAN Bus line of

his control panel. Focusing on the

Winter Olympics in Cortina, Italy,

may we ask where FPT’s contribution

begins with respect to the engine

block, of course, and where the one

of Bimotor does?

«Visa is the company that has best

taken the opportunity of stockpiling,

which, because of Covid waivers, has

meant being able to extend the sale

of machines equipped with transition

engines to the end of 2021.» And af-

Bimotor, FPT Industrial

dealer, has a strong

relationship with Visa

generators. 50 G-Drive

units provided electricity

to the World Alpine Ski


ter the preparatory stage? «We took

part in the Cortina operation as Visa’s

technical support, being a partner

expressly requested to oversee

the smooth operation of the facilities

by the company itself.» Never was a

wish better directed by good fortune.

In fact, Visa’s electrical generators

had to intervene to resolve an emergency

situation related to a medium

voltage cabin power supply near the

nish area, which failed due to a faulty

transformer. The intervention ensured

the correct back-up to the power grid,

allowing a regular and uninterrupted

supply of all services connected to the

line. The whole opening ceremony

was powered by two parallel-mounted

container units for TV broadcasting

and stage and lights service, plus

another two parallel-mounted units.

He then goes into detail: «The range

meets the rental criteria, by bene ting

from the possibility of refuelling from

external tanks. In order to exorcise

cold temperatures, depending on the

environmental conditions, a preheating

of the intake air is used together

with a water preheating. Other interventions

at high altitude may relate

to the protection of the compartment,

through the insertion of a Webasto

device, the protection of all rubber

components, which are replaced by

silicone sleeves, and fan belts, which

require special materials. However,

this was not the case in Cortina».

The collaboration between Bimotor

and Visa also extends to motor

pumps. «In this regard, we have recently

supplied a 54 kW Stage V F34

prototype with the ability to support

our customer also during eld works,

signalling any issues that may arise

in advance.»

Let’s now talk about sprinklers in order

to get an overview on how their

inclusion in the ‘UL/FM club’ is

evolving. «Numbers have gone up

with both FPT and Raywin equipped

machines. The progression saw an

increase of approximately a hundred

units in 2020 compared to 2019, and

we also observed a growth in 2021.

There is also a piece of news, and it

concerns the rst 370-kilowatt engine

in the range, whose origin we

still prefer to keep unknown. Unfortunately,

there are no mechanical

engines with such power in the FPT

range. That is why we have looked for

alternative solutions. Therefore, we

are currently able to supply a family

of Bimotor sprinkler engines ranging

from 37 to 370 kW».

Finally, a quick look at the functional

reorganisation of Bimotor. «We have

divided the technical department into

four divisions: the Application Division

for customer’s technical support,

engine installation and machine

validation; the Bimotor New Product

Development Division, which

involves electronics, telematics and

everything branded Bimotor; the FPT

Engine Prototyping Division for the

last part of the development of pivot

products destined to the retail market,

to be carried out in conjunction with

the parent company; and lastly, the

Training Division. There are also other

gures who deal with drawing and

designing, developing electrical and

electronic parts, and prototyping.»






CAT C175

The Caterpillar C175-16 genset rated at 3250 kW and the Cat C175-20

genset rated at 3500 kW are the rst power soluons engineered by

Caterpillar for specic nodes such as 60 Hz standby and mission-crical

applicaons. They are ideal for data centers, hospitals, wastewater

treatment plants, municipalies and other large facilies.

«As mission-crical facilies grow in size and complexity, our customers

are seeking reliable standby soluons that allow them to minimize their

costs by selecng a soluon that precisely meets the power need», said

Bart Myers, general manager in Caterpillar’s Electric Power Division.

«By expanding our

porolio of large power

soluons, Caterpillar is

in a stronger posion

to address market

demand with four power

nodes between 3000

kW and 4000 kW on

a eld-proven engine


While there is 80.7 GW of installed CHP at more than 4,600 sites

throughout the United States, the U.S. EPA estimates there is more

than 240 GW of technical potential at over 291,000 sites across the


o you want to start a green

power project and make it

successful? Then the CAT

webinar about green energy

with engineers Darrin Johnston and

Lisa Demetrius Walker can provide

the answer. At the webinar they explained

all the steps that it takes to

make a good project.

First we will have to start with the essential

pre-work. We can identify four

phases that must be considered before

we get to the ground, these can’t be

overlooked or the project won’t get

to the next stages. It’s important to

establish your goals, tipycally six:

power resilience and reliability; permitting,

generator sets or constructor

permits for installation; full or partial

grid independence, the ability to disconnect

from the grid; scalability and

adaptability across various site types,

these systems are quite modular and

scalable so you need to think about

the full range of sites; greenhouse gas

objectives; total lifecycle cost, for

example the cost of utility purchases,

cost of fuel purchases, cost of maintenance

operations. The second phase

is having an energy audit, so that you

know the energy usage patterns, the

generation patterns, the equipment

efciency and also how much you

waste. There are many ways to do

Caterpillar outlined

all the processes that

must be followed for a

green CHP project to

be successful

so, the simplest is by taking a look at

the utility bill. A simple walk around

the plant can help uncover opportunities

for energy efciency or waste

reduction. Remember that the most

cost effective kilowatt hour is the

one we don’t have to generate. When

you have identied all the sources

of waste is time to improve the efciency

by reducing wasted energy.

The last stage is to measure the load

prole, since we don’t have essential

data and we don’t know what the site

data is, it’s a guessing game, so the

advice they give is to use real time

measurement equipment if possible,

like a power quality analyzer for at

least a week, or longer. Remember

to keep in mind seasonal peaks and

valleys and to estimate future load

growth and the impact of efciency


The second step for a successful project

is the optimal system design and

the project execution, here we need

to start evaluating local resources,

site specic solar and wind resources’s

infos come from satellite data for

exaple from NASA or software like

Homer Pro. Fuel cost and availability

of all natural resources must be kept

in mind, but also government incentives

and the construction logistics

could be a bit of a challenge, installing

large site of equipment in remote

areas is never easy. Now it’s time to

identify the optimal system design:

construction costs for photovoltaic

and wind turbines are the rst thing

to be considered, they vary widely

upon local site conditions; model

site specic and load specic performance

of the site; evaluate what’s the

best combination of PV-wind-storage-gensets-utility.

Now we are

ready to look at the detailed design:

transient behavior for power quality,

grid interconnect studies, geotechnical

survey for construction conditions

(when we talk about solar and

wind power that can span onto a signicant

amount of land, we need to

understand the ability of the ground

to support the installation), microgrid

controls and system integration.

It’s time to fund the project, could

be grants, loans, leases or power purchases

agreements. Another aspect is

to obtain the appropriate permits, like

environmental permits or construction

permits. When all this is done it’s

time to get on the eld with supplies

and shipments of all components so

that we can start building the actual

site. When the site is operating, it’s

important to have long term eld support.

The system must operate as it is

intended and we can use remote monitoring

to send alerts and alarms back

to have real time awareness of eventual

problems. We can maintain the

system by following manufacturer

maintenance routines and obtaining

long term maintenance agreements to

match expected design life.

Having an efcent repair system is

fundamental, it’s better to utilize

skilled manufacturer-approved parties

to perform repair work, usually

local expertise provides rapid responses

at low cost, as opposed to

bringing in experts from a signicant

distance. Keep in mind that success

depends heavily on eld support.







Drilling in Stage V is possible, as well as desirable. Soilmec,

which draws heavily on the free market – as evidenced by

the collaboraons with Cat and Volvo Penta for hydraulic

drills, hydraulic rope shovels and hydrofoils, or with Deutz

for micropile machines – played it safe side with the

Cummins red on the SR-65 Blue Tech. Strengthened by

a consolidated relaonship with the American company,

which has been going on since the early 90s, going

through the various updates of emissions regulaons.

The L9 Performance Series model delivers 272 kilowas of

power at 2,100 rpm but it can be congured for a power

surplus of up to 283 kilowas and is Stage V cered.

The torque curve of the Cummins engine is very relevant

to Soilmec because it allows the engine to be sensive

and stable at all speeds, including the most demanding

ones. In its Performance Series conguraon, the

Columbus’ 9-liter engine has lost its EGR and opmized

the aertreatment system, to the advantage of the space

required for installaon.

Red is the colour of Cummins’ L9 Performance Series (below),

whose torque curve as well as high responsiveness are highly

appreciated by the Italian OEM.

talking displacement

here, not cylinder displacement.

Which gives a


clue as to where this comparison

is going. There are signals

that the power range between 19

kW is going to take an unprecedented

role. Over the last twenty years,

emission standards have altered the

geography of diesel, and so has Stage

V; it couldn’t be otherwise. Since

the last comparison that showed up

on these pages, our perspective has

changed; something along the lines

of “How come we did not think about

that before?”

Back then the idea revolved around an

engine platform that would develop

into a hybrid incarnation to safeguard

combustion engines, going in the direction

of downsizing - possibly a

small motor generator within a hybrid

pack. This line of reasoning was based

on the assumption that electrication

was the creeping menace for

applications below 56 kW. We had

not considered that this is no longer

regarded as the outermost boundary

of ATS-free power range. There are

now multiple items under the lens: at

59 kW the focus is on nitrous oxides,

at 19 kW on particulate matter.

DPF is therefore the proverbial

unwanted guest. On small tonnage

vehicles, it causes no small inconveniences:

counterpressure to be kept

at bay, bigger sizes, and maybe also

oversized radiator cores.

And here is where some vibrant activity

is observed, translating into a

change of direction towards electronics

on the part of those who have

always been sitting in the comfort

zone of their low ratio mechanical


Kubota proves to be particularly sensitive

to the issue, being a well-established

player in the gardening applications

eld. Which is why electronic

control has made its appearance on the

small Japanese odd-numbered cylinder

engine. Their D902-K, 3 cylinders for

0,898 litres is scheduled for mass production

from 2022 and it’s going to be

the rst electronic engine with a Can

(Controller area network) interface developed

by Kubota for the range below

19 kW of output. It’s been designed to

be compliant with Stage V, Epa Tier4,

China NR IV standards as well as with

Chinese Class III regulation GB36886-

2018 on visible smoke, scheduled to

come into force in December 2022.

timized passages and fewer hydraulic

components allow for a shorter oil

path and more free space for easier


Changes have been made also to the

hydraulic system, with the aim of optimizing

performance and efciency.

A new distributor is placed directly

on the rotating head. The minimum

losses in the circuit, the simplication

and reduction of the number of

components, as well as the improved

sizing of components contribute to the

reduction of losses, in the order of 39

percent on the rotating

head line.

The Cummins engine

is equipped with Soilmec’s

Auto low idle system,

which acts on engine

rpm, and automatic

control of the radiators,

automatically adjusting

their speed according to

the actual needs of the

drill. The engines are

thus able to improve the

efciency of combu-

stion and cooling and allow for a real

reduction in noise and environmental

pollution. «We are talking about an

engine control system capable of making

a continuous comparison between

the number of revolutions at which the

engine is set, through the accelerator

located in the cabin, and the power

required by the machine. When active,

if a certain period of time has passed,

the engine is not required to provide

any power because no maneuver is

active. Automatically, the engine goes

to idle speed, regardless of the position

at which the accelerator is set. As

soon as any maneuver is activated, the

system promptly returns the engine to

the speed corresponding to the accelerator

position, immediately making

available all the power required by the

activated maneuver».






ting back to 2018. 3C100’ lineage can

also be traced back to Osaka – meaning

Kubota – despite 3C100 being born

to Korean Kioti. Bearing the European

ag are Perkins – another expert in

segmentation – and Kohler that as said

earlier has hit the Diesel Index target.

Specic power goes in favour of Kubota’s

electronic breakthrough, while it’s

Kohler that pulls ahead when it comes

to specic torque, consistently with

max torque. The Kdw 1003 contributes

to the hybrid pack easy mechanical and

hydraulic connection as well as a starting

performance that provides a good

t for integration with the electric unit.

Yanmar pulls ahead of competitors with

torque at max power, head-to-head with

the 3 cylinders from Perkins’ 400 series

(in which the Japanese – that is Shibaura-

also had a hand). In its 3-cylinder incarnation,

series 400 showed a serious

upgrade at Agritechnica 2015, with the

1.7 L 403F exing bigger muscles (30

kW and 130 Nm). For the Brits, too,

the move to electronic control was the

driver of change. After a notable disappearance

from the European scene,

Mitsubishi – last seen at Bauma 2013

where their 3.3 L. 74 kW 4 EG, fully

equipped with common rail and EGR

was the ag-bearer of Tier 4 Final– ul-

timately makes its comeback from the

land of the rising sun. Strains are kept

low, which goes to the detriment of performance

- basically aligned with that

of others in the same range – while improving

on the so called “durability” of

the engine block.

So, this is where we left off a few years

ago: “what if the word ‘hybrid’ was

associated with LPG engines? Kubota’s

offer, for instance, includes WG972,

slightly short of one litre, running on

petrol as well as on LPG. If you’re wondering

about specic curves, they’ve

come to overlap those of diesel, with an

output of 18.3 kW”.






3C 100LF


KDW 1003






3 TNV76

Torque 8,4 17,3 11,4 13,5 13,3

Performance 3 3,3 3,3 3,3 3,1

Stress 5,1 5,7 5,6 5,8 5,4

Lightness 11 9,6 8,6 10,3 9,1

Density 23,7 30,6 38,1 27,4 24,4

DIESEL INDEX 5,5 6,1 6,1 6 5,7

Organized by















































Evolution of the species: the unplugged hybrid


Biomethane and Smart grids: the ‘Eco-CHP’

Off-road powertrain - Is it multitasking (or not anymore)?


































Diesel Internaonal

Vado e Torno Edizioni srl







900 1.900 2.900 3.900







900 1.900 2.900 3.900







900 1.900 2.900 3.900


Via Brembo 27, 20139 Milano (Italy)

Phone: +39 02 55230950






A double hit that’s rooted rst and foremost in KDI plaorm’s

break with the past, by means of its 2.5 L rst and with the 3.4

L later. Intermat award winner, both in 2012 and 2015,

Kohler sits at the top of the compact range, between 3.4 and

3.8 L. CEO Vincenzo Perrone had commented saying that

«Kdi strengthens and expands Kohler Engines’ range of diesel

engines. Starng today, our offer to the market includes a full

plaorm made of 3 models coming in different displacements

(1.9, 2.5 and 3.4 L) in a power range from 30 to 105 kW”.

“This level of performance” he added “beng engines of a

higher displacement allow them to operate at low rpm, thus

curbing noise and obviously consumpon levels. Furthermore,

a torque reaching 412 Nm at rpm as low as 1000 provides

for immediate load response thus making it possible to

maximize machine producvity. Having no DPF means lower

consumpon and increased producvity since no regeneraon

is required, engines are smaller, and installaon is easier and

simplied by a pair of auxiliary side-mounted PTOs».

Nino De Giglio, Marketing communications & channel

management: «We’ve become more Kohler than ever».

n the beginning, there was Adelmo

Lombardini, founder of the namesake

company based in Reggio

Emilia, within Italy’s Motor Valley.

Later on, the “pocket size multinational”

would scour Italy in its acquisition

campaign: Ruggerini, Slanzi, ACME,

Intermotor. They were ahead of largescale

globalization trends as they expanded

eastwards, rst by settling in

Martin, Slovakia, and then in Aurangabad,

India. Lastly – in what was actually

a new beginning in all respects

– the pocket-size multinational progressed

to a 1:1 scale. In 2007, Kohler

acquired Lombardini to be incorporated

into its Power Division. That was

no mere cosmetic change of colour,

despite Lombardini’s vibrant orange

being swapped for Kohler’s austere

grey livery starting with the perimeter

duction and functional facilities as

well as corporate symbols; to name

but two among others, the demo area -

timely tted with a roong that shields

it against the Po Valley’s treacherous

weather - and the museum (see box at

page 31).

That capital obviously injected vigour

into research efforts producing the Kdi

platform, that still reverberates in their

impetus to innovation. But before we

delve into a reading of the present and

immediate future, we can’t but ask

for an account of the pandemic experience.

Gianluca Paini - Director

Diesel Plant Manufacturing, Kohler

Engines – comes to rescue. So we’ll

focus on Italy as we speak of the aftermath

of Covid. «The situation turned

out to be extremely hard to tackle» so

he begins «something we had obviwall

of the Reggio Emilia plant – water

tower included – embedded in the urban

fabric of the Emilian town.

The plant wall was, actually, not the

single beneciary of Kohler’s cash

injection that triggered a progressive

strengthening of the company’s pro-

Kohler Engines

recently changed

their organizational

schedule in order to

be more ef cient and

responsive to market


Alternative Fuels: Yes;

Diesel ban: No

ously never experienced before. Each

of us had to give his or her best to get

through it without too much trouble for

ourselves, our clients and our properties.

We kept our focus on two primary

goals at all times. The rst was imperative:

to safeguard the health of all our

employees; the second was to ensure

the continuity of supply for our customers.

I think it can be said that thanks

to everyone’s huge commitment and

dedication we did brilliantly, and without

too many inconveniences. There

was absolutely no guarantee we could

do it. Everybody did a good job and

showed conscience, especially when

having to stick to internal protocols.

In the weeks we were homebound we

worked hard to set up a protocol that

could ensure the health of our workers,

men and women, upon reopening.

In agreement with trade unions, we

reorganized shifts following closure

of canteens and locker rooms, which

went on till last August to reduce the

chances of spreading the virus».

What about the supply chain? «Our

supply chain extends virtually around

the world and is strongly localized

in India and China. Not all countries

reacted the same, because the pandemic

hit different areas in different

times and ways. These months have

been long and complicated: we started

dealing with Covid when it still wasn’t

such big news, and we had to, because

it impacted our supply chain. India,

instead, reacted with a slight delay in

comparison to what we did. We tried

and carried out simulation of production

plans without knowing when we

would be reopening and what type

of engines we would be making. We

worked on conjectures that had to be

conrmed through extensive contacts

with suppliers. Making it so that we

could stay open once we had reopened

was also important; back in those days

it could not be taken for granted».

From Adelmo Lombardini to David

Kohler under the banner of family imprinting,

taking roots in different continents,

and product diversication.

KDIs marked the switch to Stage 5, the

power bar was raised above 100 kW,

power generation found amenable, receptive

soil in KPS and SDMO; space

was gained in leisure boating onboard

equipment and, maybe, also among

engines in the near future, thanks to

marinized 3 and 4 cylinder engines

including the current top-of-the-range

Kdi 3404TCR-SCR. But “if you rest,






Kohler Gallery is open, to the Italian facility in Reggio Emilia, so

close to Ferrari Museums. There is no future for those who do not

remember their own history. And it is in this article that we talk

about both the past and the future: a past celebrated in a museum.

«The opening of the new museum is an important event and full of

many meanings», explains Tommaso Maria Vezzosi, Communication

Specialist at Kohler who, together with Elena Marverti, coordinated

the various operational phases. «As a museum, it is part of a

historical trend of Lombardini’s own: since the construction of the

factory, called Gardenia after the name of the neighborhood on the

outskirts of Reggio Emilia where it stood, there has always been an

exhibition space. Conceived as a showroom rather than a museum,

it collected the company’s models, but without a reasoned or

explanatory path. In 2018 this tradition brought us about fifty

engines as a dowry, among which it seemed right to put some

order into. We then examined this heritage and chose some models

that, due to their history and technology, were representative of

a particular era or business moment. We have added the most

important Kohler units to these and together they will represent the

heart of the new museum».

Li Shaoqi, Kohler Engines Asia Pacic: «Kohler has already upgraded

the traditional engine fuel system, intake and exhaust systems and

control system, to provide OEMs with fully compliant engines».

you rust” as the saying goes. The

trend is clear, after all: Kubota broke

the ceiling of 200 hp and later threw

themselves into making a robust 7.5 ;

Yanmar launched a 3.8 and a 4.6 L at

Intermat 2018; Deutz signed an agreement

on inline engines with Liebherr

and one with John Deere below130

kW; FPT Industrial’s industrial core

got split into a segmented range from

2.2 to 20 litres. So what does Kohler

Engines’ Marketing Communications

& Channel Management Director

Nino De Giglio have to say about it?

«The technical management is looking

ahead to search for new products and

read market trends» he reveals. «These

days, K-HEM (Kohler Hybrid Energy

Module) our hybrid proposal launched

at Bauma 2019 is enjoying great popularity,

both in its internal combustion

– based, 19 kW version KDW 1003

as well as in the KDI-based 56 kW

2504TCR. We see parallel hybrids as

a denitely attractive, suitable solution

for those units whose duty-cycle

is compatible with such system; I’m

thinking for example aerial platforms,

front-loaders, biogrinders. Jointly

with a few clients, we’re applying ourselves

(a term that is as clear as it is

two-fold, in the engine makers’ and

OEMs’ jargon – editor’s note) to designing

the hybrid system for specic

types of machinery. As for power, we’re

oriented to two ratings based on emission

standard. FOCS 1003 – up to 19

kW – has no DPF and gets the boost it

needs from the electric section; the 56

kW 2504TCR, that does have a DPF,

allows us to avoid installing a SCR.

Since EIMA 2018, OEMs have been

opening their doors to hybrids, but it

will take time for this solution to be fully

digested by the market. We’re ready,

insofar as we’re meeting the guidelines

from OEMs». As in some sort of

Pavlov’s conditioned response, we ask

him what market guidelines he thinks

are consistent with - though not totally

overlapping – those of OEMs, taking

into account that some of the latter

played for time when faced with regulatory

ultimatums, or rejected them

altogether. «The market is responding

well to the 19 kW issue, as I have said

earlier, it’s a power segment that’s regarded

as the proverbial “Pillars of

Hercules” for the DPF. The crucial

threshold of 25 kW might prompt

the industrial segment to steer towards

hybrids for this threshold

and for others that show criticali-

ties emission-wise. That’s a trend that

voices the need to resize the power

ratings between 20 and 25 kW, and we

won’t turn a deaf ear to it». We have

no chance to sneak a peek at what’s

going on at Kohler, but the company is

a global, multifaceted entity in the process

of redesigning its architecture and

departmental functions. It has all been

bubbling in the same cauldron, and it’s

not just about a cosmetic change of


Let’s pick up here. «Vincenzo Perrone

was appointed president of the entire

engine group in the widest sense of the

term. Which includes petrol engines,

the ones for which competition with

electric engines is tougher. Kohler’s

engine offer could open up to other

technologies, not limited to internal

combustion. At present, such a strategy

takes the form of hybridisation. As

for the future, you won’t have to wait

too long to see».

So let’s muzzle our curiosity and

move on in our tour of Kohler’s reorganized

structure. «Vincenzo Perrone

is at the lead of Kohler Engines and

reports to Brian Melka, President of

Kohler Power Group, supervising engines

and gen-sets. We set up a single

steering committee which includes ve

global positions both for products and

markets and three levels for sales, with

regional competence. Massimiliano

Bonanni is the General Manager of

Product Strategy, which combines

the technical management for diesel

and petrol engines, R&D included,

as well as the departments of product

marketing, pricing strategy and

product development. This reorgani-

zation brought a new area to the fore,

that of Marketing communications &

channel management, of which I myself

(Nino De Giglio – editor’s note)

am in charge. It’s about client-targeted

activities aimed to push sales with

a bottom-up approach by means of

the so-called channel managers. They

work in proximity with end users and

the sales channels of manufacturers,

contractors, renters, for example in the

eld of gardening, especially in America.

As for global service, it’s entrusted

to a colleague from the US, Christopher

Rector, Global Aftermarket

Service and Support, a position that

coordinates technical assistance, dealership

staff training, after-sales and

spare parts management. Luis Morais,

who comes from a similar engineering

background at Chrysler, is in charge





Ben Marotz, Senior product manager: «Our users depend on Kohler to

provide offerings that meet their diverse needs on the job site. The new

CH440DF engine is designed to do just that.»

of quality (Global Quality) taking care

of all quality control procedures at all

plants, which formerly fell within the

competences of the ‘Operations’ division.

The fth global position was assigned

to Dave Mauer, Vice President

Operations – a role he previously held

at Briggs&Stratton – who supervises

all engine plants. The architecture of

regional levels has sales managers on

top, namely Francesca Rubbiani for

Emea, Craig Magalen for America,

Shaoqi Li for China and Apac (Asian

and Pacic) countries. Having to redesign

our organization provided us with

a chance to streamline our processes,

both in terms of product development

and of customer support”. In case we

needed a brilliant quip for a comment

that best expresses the gift of brevity,

De Giglio has served us one on a silver

platter: «We’ve become more Kohler

than ever». Perrone’s arrival in 2014

sped up the globalization of corporate

processes under the banner of integration,

that reached its peak in 2020. The

momentum slowed temporarily down

during the pandemic that froze the investments

targeted at ofce refurbishment

and the renovation of outdoor

areas, which started in 2015 and is still


What about marine applications?

Rumours talk of a Kohler booth at

the Genoa Boat Show. «I can conrm

that the company intends to dust off the

Lombardini Marine brand» says De

Giglio «for a market relaunch. A project

that will be implemented as per

Kohler’s philosophy, hence through

close relationships with our customers

». A clarication on the new face

of production at the former Intermotor

plant. Moving away from Reggio, what

about Rieti? «That plant is home to the

production of our air-cooled engines.

Single-cylinders are becoming increasingly

geared towards niche specialist

applications like motor tiller cultivators

and small gen-sets». If ten years

ago the threat to petrol engines came

from China, now it takes the form of

electric motors. But this does not apply

to spontaneous ignition engines. «We

still haven’t seen a real attack on diesel

engines on the part of electried solutions.

The KDI boomed especially in

the earth-moving eld and went into a

natural downturn in 2020, which is obviously

due to Covid». «Want to know

what segment was spared by the pandemic?»,

asks De Giglio in a sudden

swap of roles. «That of city cars; they

got dusted off during Covid, probably

taking advantage of the gut reaction of

people steering away from public transport».

2020 – a crucial year, burdened

by the messianic expectations concerning

EU goals. And then came the black

swan. But every cloud has a silver lining

(though this may honestly sound

like mockery à la Voltaire). «In 2020 we

switched to digital platforms to ensure

continuity in the relationships with our

market partners. We set up three digital

event formats specically for them:

Kohler Engines university live, a webinar

series hosted by product managers;

Kohler Engines university web tv,

with live streamed talks from experts –

namely, diesel’s advocate Kelly Senecal

and an American landscaper- on Instagram

and Facebook. Instead, Kohler

virtual booth provided a faithful 3D

rendering of Kohler’s exhibition booth,

including some ten engines tailored to

specic application segments. This is

the tool that enabled us to be at trade

shows during the pandemic». We learn

that due to overlled web broadcasting

schedules and the frantic peaks reached

during the lockdown, the frequency of

remotely held events is bound to fall off

in 2021. How about petrol engines, of-

cially under the same roof as diesel

engines? «In Europe, E technology

is t to make inroads into integrating

petrol and diesel. In the USA, gardening

still takes a 95% share of this business.

Our reorganization will be key in

contributing to nally integrating our

product ranges, including sales-wise.

Our relationships with some of the big

manufacturers was developed directly

by the American team, which is also

tasked with strengthening our distribution

network that’s founded on the so

called VAPs (Value added providers):

we’re talking about some ten business

entities spread across the US and Canadian

territory; outsourcing a part of

sales activities to them turned out to be

a winning choice».

What about India, then? «At the Aurangabad

plant we make FOCS and

single- cylinders, mainly for the local

market inter companies». As is

known, the dialectic method develops

in three stages: a thesis, an antithesis,

and synthesis. So the narration of

Lombardini-Kohler’s historical fortunes

is the rst. Their reorganization

path is the second. What about synthesis?

That is going to be provided by

new products. We feel that we won’t

have to wait long.





They are known as

‘demolition robots’.

These machines

are remotely

controlled and work in

particularly challenging


conditions. The Brokk

900, soon to be

released, is the tip of the

iceberg of a wide and

varied range. Basically

electric but with diesel

options, also Stage V,

with Kohler and Kubota






ICE: Kohler and Kubota

As for the ICE, it is entrusted to Kubota for the Tier3/

Stage IIIA approval and to Kohler for the Tier 4 Final/

Stage V certificate. Due to a corporate decision, I

refer to the Swedish parent company, we do not know

the exact model. We do know, however, that they are

aligned at 55.4 kilowatts, aka 75 hp, which leads us to

portray the identity of the V3307, as regards Kubota

and the so-called non-emissioned markets.

The big leap into the world of emissions is with

Kohler. In this case the kilowatt track takes us

to the Kdi2504Tcr, Diesel of the year 2012. The

regime follows that of Kubota, the power is that

declared, the torque climbs up to 315 Nm in its

most sophisticated interpretation. We refer to the

complete aftertreatment package, Kohler Flex,

with integrated DOC and DPF and the upstream

recirculation valve.

The SCR is not contemplated; that will be addressed

in the power bracket above 56 kilowatts. The

architecture is that of four cylinders in line, in the

electronic processing, which relies on the common

rail and the mediation of the control unit.

Right, the Brokk 900 Rotoboom version with

10-meter range high-precision rotating arm

system. Below, the standard version with

hydraulic hammer.

The patented SmartPower

If the working environment allows it, the electric opon is the rst

choice, and ABB the manufacturer who supplies the propulsion unit.

Also in this case, Brokk prefers not to disclose too much informaon,

except for those reported in the technical data sheet, i.e. 71 kilowas of

power supplied and the recommended fuse size of 125 Ampère.

Of course, there is also a lot of customizaon in the adaptaon of

the electric motor to the machine needs. A predisposion, that of

customizaon intervenons, well represented by the SmartPower power

supply system, patented by Brokk, which connuously monitors engine

temperatures and parameters (rpm, temperature, power request), with

the aim of maximizing engine performance without running the risk of

damaging it, delivering an addional 20 percent power when needed

and protecng the engine from uctuaons due to environments with

insufficient or faulty electrical power.

lutely stay at a safe distance», explains

Carlo Montorfano, Sales Manager

at Brokk Italy. «In the industrial eld,

Brokk machines are required in metalworking:

steel, aluminum, copper, zinc,

lead foundries. Here they work in furnaces

for the renovation of refractory

materials or in the cleaning of casting

Brokk demolition robots

were born electric,

although some models

are also provided

with a diesel engine,

Stage IIIA or Stage

V according to the

speci c requirements

of the countries they

are addressed to

hen the going gets tough,

the robots start playing.

We are talking about demolition

and very special

machines, which the Swedish Brokk

has been designing and manufacturing

since 1976 in the city of Skellefteå,

about 800 kilometers from Stockholm.

These machines, namely demolition

robots, vaguely resemble excavators,

although they do not have a cabin or

controls that can accommodate the

operator. The remote control system

makes it possible to work in environments

that are particularly dangerous

or even inaccessible to humans, so the

robot is in some cases the only possible

solution. So, who are the typical users

of these machines? «Users who need

to work in very conned environments,

mainly inside factories, civil buildings,

tunnels, microtunnels or conned environments

where humans must absoslags,

for example. All environments

characterized by high temperatures

and requiring high productivity in

high-risk situations for the operator».

A varied range, that of Brokk demolition

crawlers, which starts from a

model weighing 600 kilos and 60 centimeters

wide. This reaches the mini

excavator segment, with the advantage

of guaranteeing a level of productivity

- in terms of power supplied to the

arm - comparable to much heavier

and bulky machines. At the top of the

range we nd the Brokk 900 weighing

11.5 tons and 2.15 meters wide; evolution

of the 11-ton Brokk 800, the new

machine has made important progress

in terms of design, power (as for the

engines, of course, we will talk about

it in the box above), operation and

penetration capacity of the hydraulic

breaker. Without signicantly increasing

size and weight. Two options are

available: standard with heavier and

more powerful hydraulic hammer and

the Rotoboom version with 10-meter

range high-precision rotating arm

system. Brokk machines are produced

in-line at the Swedish plant following

strong research development. In addition

to the need to make the machines

absolutely heavy-duty to maximize reliability

and durability, in some sectors

there is a high need for customization

in order to protect the machines, and

especially the most delicate parts, from

very high temperatures, collapses or

even from any

overturning of

the robots themselves.

The Brokk 900

is available both

with a 71 kilowatt

ABB electric motor

and in the diesel

version, with

emissions standards

up to Tier

4 Final for the

American market

or Stage V for the

European market.

The power supplied is in any case

around 55 kilowatts. «We can say that

the Brokk machines were born electric,

precisely because for the most part

they are used in closed spaces where

an electric motor, therefore without

emissions, is a great advantage. Some

models, including the 800 before and

now the 900, also provide the diesel

option for environments characterized

by long distances, where managing

an electrical cable generates major

problems», explains the sales manager

of Brokk Italy. Currently, there

are no batteries capable of supporting

the Brokk machines and above all of

powering extremely heavy tools such

as hammers, cutters or drills. While

waiting for a still hazy future regarding

the development of other power supply

systems, «the diesel engine remains a

great resource for certain users of our

demolition robots».







Its drawbacks are not linked to its autonomy, now

esmated at 400 to 500 kilometers, but to the charging

operaon. There is a need to replace a logiscs system and

infrastructure built in over a century in the next few years.

But here is where the rst problems arise. Whether you

own a plug-in or an electric vehicle, having an individual

charging system (wall box) is almost indispensable. But

its installaon oen proves to be an obstacle course,

especially in apartment blocks, starng from the difficulty of

connecng to the meter or installing a second one (even if

the legislaon allows it, but somemes the local distributor

seems to forget) to the need of adapng one’s own system

to the re prevenon cercaon or nding a suitable

ground without travelling dozens of meters. A baery

has a limited number of cycles, and tends to deteriorate

signicantly over me, as the experiences of early owners

of electric vehicles show.

Martin Lundstedt, President and CEO of Volvo Group: «The Volvo Group

has embarked on an irreversible transformational journey to change our offering

with an ambition to be 100 percent safe, 100 percent fossil-free and 100 percent

more productive. We are ready to drive the needed transformation journey for

our industry together with our customers, partners and society».

t rst glance, the news is not

the kind that makes one cry

out for a miracle. The Swedish

company's rst full-electric,

the XC40 Recharge SUV, will

be equipped with integrated circuits

(ICs) from ADI - Analog devices,

for the battery management system

(BMS) and automotive audio bus

(A2B), developed by the US company

thanks to its expertise of over fty

years in the industrial electronics


The news, however, is that the adoption

of these two systems has led to

a signicant improvement in the autonomy

and performances without increasing

the size of the battery pack.

In other words, theoretically it is like

focusing on the engine efciency

without enlarging the tank.

In practice, this analogy is not correct.

A tank is in fact quite different

from a battery pack. The former has

a predetermined capacity which is

what it is. A battery pack, on the other

hand, has a capacity that depends

The Swedish

company’s rst full

electric, the XC40

Recharge SUV, will

be equipped with

integrated circuits

(ICs) from ADI, Analog

devices, for BMS and

Automotive audio bus


on how it is charged and how it is

discharged. Each battery is made up

of a large number of cells: each cell

works at a few volts, and a hundred or

more cells have to be placed in series

to reach the working voltage. These

units, in turn, must be placed in parallel

to reach the necessary capacity

to store the desired amount of energy.

And therein lies the problem. The

individual cells are all the same, yet

(slightly) different. And, as in a chain,

the most disadvantaged one affects

the performance of those linked to it.

Therefore, assembling a battery pack

requires prior testing of each individual

cell in order to couple it with cells

that are as similar as possible.

In order to give an idea of the process

involved, a cell is rst assembled and

then goes through a forming stage,

which can take many hours depending

on the chemistry of the battery.

During its formation, it is operated

at 0.1 C (C is the cell capacity, therefore

it takes 10 hours to charge and

10 hours to discharge).As a result, the

process can take up to 20 hours for a

complete charge and discharge cycle,

accounting for 20 to 30 per cent of the

total cost of the battery.

It is then followed by electrical tests,

with currents of 1 C for charging and

0.5 C for discharging, therefore each

cycle still takes about three hours. A

typical test sequence requires several

cycles. Formation and electrical tests

follow very strict accuracy specications,

by verifying that voltage and

current remain within ±0.05% in the

expected temperature range.

The two main challenges in the production

of batteries for vehicular applications

are cost and energy efciency.

Cost must be controlled throughout

the process, from materials to production

and maintenance. Efciency

must be kept high while charging, and

the energy returned while discharging

must be maximized.

But that is not enough; similar care

must be taken during its use. This is

where the BMS comes in. Its task is to

control the energy ows during charge

and discharge cycles, in order to ensure

that the cell with the lowest capacity

is not overcharged (with a related re

risk, resulting in thermal runaway) or

discharged below its limit, causing irreparable

damage, by keeping them

between 15 and 75 per cent.

Thus, a sophisticated Bms such as

the Analog device's system allows

to make the most of any type of battery

while ensuring a safe operation

in all conditions. Making the most

of them means storing more energy

and releasing it just as much but

without compromising the integrity

of the battery. The Automotive audio

bus contribution is even more fascinating.

Under the guise of a highly

sophisticated audio system is a device

capable of communicating with all onboard

devices via a low-latency bus

architecture that, in addition to guaranteeing

the high delity of the audio

system, has allowed to save more than

50 kilos in cables and soundproofing

panels. These have been reduced

thanks to the performance, in terms of

latency and audio quality, of the dynamic

noise cancellation system.

Alberto Scalchi






What happens then in the engine water circuit?

«Again there’s a mixture of glycol and water, but here

the circuit’s internal temperature is also dependant on

the ef ciency of the keel-mounted exchanger».

PT’s C9 170, N40 170 and N67

170 are no mere copy-and-paste

job from on-road to marine. Stage

V certication is the triad’s common

denominator; as for their mission,

they’re best suited for light commercial

application. And then there’s keel cooling

- available, by the way, not only on

Stage V-compliant units. We talked with

Alessandro Mazza, Chief engineer at

FPT Industrial to do a little stocktaking.

‘Optimized engine mapping’ means…

that FPT saw an opportunity in emission

standards and grabbed it, on three differently

sized engines. In the range up to

130 kW, N40, N67 and C90 have been

certied for Stage V without ATS with

a view to obtaining an engine that’s as

hassle free as possible installation-wise.

N40 and N67 feature no change in engine

hardware, as the gap between the

performance delivered and the relevant

power range was not that large – so the

engine proved capable of meeting our

requirements. Clearly, we worked on

engine calibration because differently

than IMO or RCD, Stage V certication

requires an emission check at stationary

points as well as emission checks in the

so called NTE – not to exceed – zone.

In its entry-level 380 hp version, Cursor

9 was updated to include the same

turbo as the N40 in order to meet the

power and emission targets set by the

FPT Industrial is IWV

Stage V compliant with

C9 170, N40 170 and

N67 450 N engines

standard– especially regarding particulate

matter. The engine’s smoke emissions

were dramatically reduced thanks

to the optimal turbo matching. And the

credit for NOx reduction goes again to

the turbo, enabling exible calibration

and improving lambda values and consumption


‘To AdBlue or not to AdBlue’: is this

the question? Below 130 kW, two steps

are characteristic of Stage V: the use

of SCR over 130 kW of power, and the

addition of DPF above 300 kW. We are

assessing the impact of counterpressure

increasing due to after-treatment.

For leisure boats, it’s currently in the

range between 70 and 130 mbar and

what’s more, if a SCR is present it can

get twice as high and have an impact on

both transient cycles/states and on max

power. Or you can use a bigger ATS to

soften its impact. The IMO standard

allows to switch from Imo II to Imo III

(with an ATS) depending on whether

you’re operating in an ECA – emission

control area- or not; this means with

and without after-treatment in operation,

which is not possible under Stage

V. Not having such onboard switch

requires using suitably sized tanks. If

Stage V thresholds are complied with

(>130 kW) the SCR needs to reach an

efciency of 65-70%, which is less than

that of their Stage V land counterparts.

Moreover, urea is a compound that has

a tendency to decompose as temperature

increases, which suggests that a

main, smaller tank should be placed

next to the exhaust alongside a bigger

one to be positioned where temperatures

are milder. The effects of a saline

environment on electrical connections

and sensors should also be taken into


And keel cooling? It’s a solution that

best ts shallow waters, preventing

impurities from being sucked in. Differently

than in a classic system, engine-mounted

exchangers – especially

water-to-water – are installed along the

keel. An additional circuit allows for

coolant regulation guaranteeing correct

temperature both in the aftercooler

and in the water circuit. In conventional

engines, water – be it sea or freshwater

– gets into the aftercooler and moves on

to the water-to-water heat exchanger to

cool down engine water, after which it is

dispersed into the environment. TThere

are two separate circuits. With keel cooling

instead, the after-cooler is fed by

the seawater pump, while the coolant

circulates within a closed circuit that in-

teracts with a heat exchanger mounted

on the bottom of the boat.

It remains to be understood what the ef-

ciency of the keel-mounted exchanger

is. Supposing that seawater temperature

is 25 degrees, the water sucked in by

the pump is unlikely retain such temperature,

due to heat exchange efciency.

The mixture that’s normally found in

the closed circuit is made of water and

glycol in different percentages. This

mixture’s heat exchange performance is

weaker as compared to seawater.

The combination of such elements – an

additional exchanger and a uid other

than seawater – has a negative impact

on the air cooling performance. Depending

on geographical location, we

recommend using different percentages

of glycol in the mixture to ensure proper

air cooling.







AGCO has invested around 100 million euro with the aim

of strengthening AGCO Power manufacturing capabilities

in Linnavuori (Finland). The investment program started

in 2019 and is worthy a new and expanded assembly

plant and a logistics center. All this help AGCO Power

modernize and streamline their engine manufacturing


Part of the investment was a multi-million euro overhaul

to the plant’s machining line. Once fully operational, the

100 percent automated machining line enables flexible

manufacturing of components in-house, reducing costs

and increasing control over the production process.

«Upgrades such as the automated logistics center and

state-of-the-art robotics support improved quality,

cleanliness and work ergonomics. In addition, the

investment paves way for the launch of production of a

new engine family by the end of 2022», commented Juha


«Many of our suppliers were closed and we faced lot of critical situations, but

managed well. We may not br the biggest player in engine market, but have

a long term and good partnership network with our vendors around the world.

They respect our fair relationship and worked hard for us», said Mr Tervala.

or the last ten years at least,

AGCO Power has been the

power source of Agco Group’s

tractors. We had last met them

at bauma 2019. Now, we had a chat

with CEO Juha Tervala and asked

him about the company’s strategy

following the Covid outbreak as well

as some more details about the recent

investments made at Finland’s Linnavuori

production plant. Something really

interesting came up, indeed.

chasing team did great work and we

didn’t have to stop the production due

to component shortages. On the other

hand, our customers suffered a lot and

couldn’t continue production and our

engines were not needed and therefore

we had no production for couple of


The recovery was very fast especially

in AG and our engine production en-

«We have quite fresh

strategy to grow», told

us CEO Juha Tervala.

Starting from some

important investments

aimed at optimizing

production processes

How has AGCO Power faced the

pandemic outbreak? How has all

this affected the company’s results

in 2020?

Spring 2020 was naturally challenging.

Many key component suppliers,

especially in Europe, were closing manufacturing

due to Covid-19. Our purded

up to the budget level. Other industries

suffered longer time and those

customers were typically 20 percent

below budget 2020.

What’s AGCO Power’s view for the

current year?

We know already that 2021 is not only

recovery year, but a boosting one! We

have adjusted our forecast higher and

higher month by month. The second

half of the year will be very busy and

again also very challenging not least

due to component situation in the

market. We, like many others, face problems

to get components including semiconductors.

AGCO Power is strongly committed

to the captive market, then supplying

the machines belonging to the

brands of the AGCO Group. Do you

foresee a stronger commitment to

the free market in the future?

Yes, indeed. During AGCO ownership,

we have been growing mainly

together with AGCO by replacing

external engine brands by captive engine

and we have still some room to

grow further. We have though quite

fresh strategy to grow also with new

third-party customers and we believe

to be successful with that.

In the press release, you’ve been

talking about a new engine family

to be released by the end of 2022.

Could you share some information

about it?

We know that in high power heavy-duty

applications, diesel engine will be the

main power source in a long time and

therefore we see still room for modern

diesel engines. The family will include

4- and 6-cylinder versions and, since

the beginning of the project, alternative

fuels have been considered. We have

many branches of research related to

alternative fuels. Full electric is not for

us, but we are already testing gas and


The world of agricultural machines

is facing a strong evolution based on

connectivity, data and smarter machines.

In such a scenario, which are

the main challenges for engine manufacturers?

We have super good and most modern

solutions for connectivity, telemetry

and remote control, but at the moment

we use them only in testing purpose.

The cost is still too high for serial vehi-

cles. It will go down in the future, for


In January 2007, we paid a visit to

the plant. The Sisu imprint was still

visible at the time. What traces of

the imprinting and the Finnish identity

have remained?

We have not given up any Finnish identity,

even though we are part of a large

American group. We no longer use the

brand Sisu, but all the qualities contained

in this very Finnish word are still

a part of us all: perseverance, honesty,

openness, hard work, diligence. The

best way to prove it, is to spend the

evening in our company’s traditional


What habits of the parent company’s

usually American approach





Below, Agco Power’s CEO Juha Tervala. Here and on the other page,

some pictures taken at Linnavuori production site. Here, the Finnish

company has recently carried out some relevant investments aimed at

enhancing automation and improve working conditions.

have you transferred at Linnavuori?

AGCO is the best possible family for us.

AGCO relies on our expertise and has

invested signicant sums in our factory

and products. We have adapted our operations

in line with AGCO’s strategy.

We’ve just talked about a very relevant

investment made by AGCO

in engine manufacturing in Linnavuori.

Could you please give us

some more details about the improvements

expected in the manufacturing


We’ve already Implemented a new logistic

center for incoming goods, a new

storage area with narrow aisle forklifts

as well as a new fully automatic storage

system delivered by KNAPP. Our

internal logistics has been enhanced

with Mobile industrial robots (MiR),

we have a new exible assembly line

with hybrid cells and AGVs, new electric

hot test cells, new painting line and

shipping area.

The next steps will see a new machining

line for key components as well as

a renowned training center.

How would you dene the degree of

process automation within AGCO

Power’s Finnish factory?

The automation level is very high, I

would say highest in our kind of industry

as for production volume. The benets

go from productivity improvement to labor

cost savings, up to more stable quality

and good work environment, mainly in

terms of ergonomics for employees.

Which robots are currently employed

in the assembly area?

The robots we use are made by ABB. We

have though our own very capable team

that takes care of design of xtures, programming,

installation and so on.

What about AGVs in intralogistics?

We have already several mobile industrial

robots (MiR) transporting goods

from logistic center to the assembly

line. We have two different models

carrying 1000 kg or 200 kg. They are

‘more clever’ than traditional AGVs,

which are travelling along dene routes.

Our mobile robots scan continuously

the area around them and select

best possible routes.

Are you planning to employ collaborative

robots? Do you believe they might

t in your manufacturing process?

In our new assembly line employees

and robots are working in the same

stations in seamless collaboration. The

concept is similar as with cobots, but

due to heavy components the safety

measures must be different. We have

laser safety nets around the engine,

making sure that in no conditions accidents

can happen. In our system, which

we call ‘hybrid cells’, human beings

and robots work together.

Talking about engine production,

how do you think it might change

in the near future? Is advanced automation

a good option to make the

processes smoother and ensure a hi-

ghest repeatability?

We have been ‘automation believers’ for

several decades. Robots were used in

machining as early as the 80s, and even

in assembly, robots have been working

for 20 years.

Today’s themes are exibility, consistent

quality and employee well-being. Automation

is an excellent tool for continuous

productivity development. On the

other hand, we want to take advantage

of people’s superior qualities and have

them in this kind of assembly tasks. Heavy

and monotonous work steps should

be automated in rst place. In addition

to machining and assembly, a good

example is painting, which we have automated

a long time ago. Our new painting

line has two robot lines and their

programming is handled exibly using

virtual reality technology.







Ricardo keeps developing clean, efficient and integrated

propulsion and power generation systems for all

modes of transport. Digitalization, electrification and

decarbonisation are all parts of this. Here are some

examples of current R&D projects.

• UK-Alumotor. Building the UK’s electric motor

supply chain by leveraging Ricardo’s manufacturing

expertise to deliver the next generation of

sustainable electric motors.

• Innovative battery immersion cooling technologies.

Help accelerate the adoption of electrified

transport by making electric vehicle batteries better

performing, lightweight, lower in case and safer.

• Hydrogen Fuel Cells. Ricardo has developed a

process to improve the balance of plant components

for multiple stack layouts for aerospace and

commercial vehicles, rail and marine. Using the

Ricardo hydrogen fuel cell system development

approach with multiple stacks balance of plant

leads to an efficiency improvement of 5-15 percent

depending on duty cycle.

he tools and techniques made

possible by the advancement

of digitalization can transform

a product’s whole life cycle:

from design to production, up to the

testing and maintenance phases. This

is true both for vehicles with traditional

powertrain and for hybrid or electric

vehicles; for on-road and off-highway.

Ricardo, a leading name in engineering,

environmental and strategic consulting,

is dedicating this topic a series of

webinars. We spoke with two of their

specialists, Peter Fussey and Farraen

Mohd Azmin, about the impact of machine

learning and articial intelligence

techniques on powertrain systems.

In today’s scenario, it is essential to

nd virtual alternatives to processes

that have always taken place physically,

while maximizing the efciency of key

steps such as calibration and validation.

What is Ricardo’s goal, then? «To help

companies improve not only their product

development, but also their actual

production», begins Peter Fussey. «The

techniques and tools we have developed

Digital twin and virtual

product development

tools are assisting

in managing the

complexity dictated

by the evolution of

powertrain, since

traditional design

techniques are no

longer sufficient

cut across the two areas. Automating

processes bring tangible and measurable

advantages in terms not only of

time saving, but also of product quality

and reliability. Not to mention the good

impact that applying these concepts has

on products’ life cycle».

A promising scenario, also different

when compared to traditional techniques.

«Before, the development of a

vehicle required a sequence of actions,

tests and feedbacks and was highly dependent

on the number of people working

on the project. Now, by automating

all this, algorithms as well as machine

learning and articial intelligence techniques

are able to ‘read’ and predict the

work an engineer might do, creating databases

fed by real data and shared in

the cloud», adds Farraen Mohd Azmin.

One of the keywords is certainly ‘com-

plexity’. «The hybridization of propulsion

systems involves a previously

unknown level of complexity. In fact, a

hybrid system features an engine, automatic

transmission, electric motor,

batteries and battery management systems.

Traditional tools are no longer

effective given the increase in sophistication.

In addition, unlike the physical

environment, virtual models make

it possible to simulate the most varied

operating conditions of the vehicle, with

important repercussions on the quality,

reliability and robustness of the product.

It’s a concept that comes from aerospace

and can now be easily applied

to automotive», explains Peter Fussey.

«The application of machine learning

and AI techniques could be even more

decisive if we think about off-highway.

In fact, these types of vehicles are not

only required to transport people from

one point to another, but they must also

perform very specic tasks: not surprisingly,

they are often interconnected

machines, operating in eets and fami-

liar with data exchange and analysis.

We see that even OEMs in off-highway

are ready to embrace innovation and,

especially after the pandemic outburst,

are keener to consider electrication».

«We have developed an actual toolset,

so a set of tools that we call Efcient

calibration toolset», explains Farraen

Mohd Azmin, an expert in machine

learning and directly involved in their

development. «There is the Model Parameterization

Tool (MPT) for dening

maps, curves or parameter sets; the Ricardo

Trace is a tool that allows users to

automatically convert images extracted

from a pdf into a Simulink model. Still,

the Global optimization tool is designed

for both diesel and gasoline or hybrid

applications. We tried to develop these

tools with user-friendly GUIs so that

nearly any engineer can use them».







A primary player such as Liebherr cannot fail to include

projects involving hydrogen. How do you store hydrogen?

«For our injecon technology, gaseous storage at 350 to

700 bar is ideal since we can directly use the pressurised

hydrogen without the need for addional compression.

However Liebherr will remain interested in various forms of

hydrogen storage. Finally, the storage of H2 in the vehicle is

in the hands of the equipment manufacturer».

Does the switch to hydrogen lead to a drop in

performance? «Regarding the development of our engines

and the injecon systems, we are targeng to meet the

current rated power of the related engines».

What does the retrot kit for exisng trucks include?

«The decision to carry out a retrot is up to the

equipment manufacturer. Liebherr plans to offer engines

that can replace exisng diesel engines with as lile

effort as possible. The associated adaptaon of the H2

infrastructure within the applicaon has to be implemented

by the equipment manufacturer».

Liebherr Components and Stanadyne LLC enter a strategic

partnership for the global distribution and service of joint injection

solutions for on- and off-highway applications.

e talked about Liebherr

Common Rail to Richard

Pirkl, Managing Director

Engineering & Production

for the Common Rail Systems business


How long have common rail systems

been in production?

In 2007, Liebherr decided to start

the production of its common rail

injectors. The goal was to develop a

simple solution for injection systems

that suit different applications, such

as commercial vehicles, construction

machinery, maritime industry,

railway and power generation without

costly individual developments.

In 2008, Liebherr Machines Bulle

SA in Switzerland started developing

injection systems consisting of an

injector, a high-pressure pump, a rail

and an engine control unit. Thanks to

the existing expertise and necessary

test benches for engines in Bulle,

the developers were able to present

a marketable product within only

four years. In 2014, two years after

the successful start of production of

Liebherr’s injection systems, Liebherr

Liebherr started the

Common Rail project

in 2007 and has

become a captive

manufacturer and

supplier on the free


decided to bundle the development,

production and assembly of the injectors

and micro-precision parts at a

new plant Deggendorf, in Germany.

Meanwhile, that plant also develops

and manufactures high-pressure

pumps and covers all system-relevant

components of the hydraulic

injection system.

The quality of the injector is the key

since it forms the heart of the injection

system. Because of their geometry and

surface properties, the precision manufacturing

of parts in the micrometre

(μm) range is a crucial production

step. We, therefore, have taken matters

into our own hands.

Are common rail systems intended

for use in Liebherr diesel engines,

or do you sell them also to other


Initially, Liebherr designed injection

systems specically for off-highway

applications in the medium-duty,

heavy-duty and large engine ranges

of Liebherr’s engines. The Liebherr

Group sets the highest requirements on

its components in terms of robustness,

long service life and stable product

properties across the different fuel qualities

worldwide. Therefore, Liebherr

common rail systems are suitable for

the most aggressive fuels available on

the market and, thus, for use in engine

applications worldwide. The injection

technology developed in-house has

already been successfully used in many

engine variants, both in diesel engines

of the Liebherr Group and in assemblies

of other manufacturers.

Which ones?

In high-performance off-highway engines,

Liebherr supplies common rail

systems to the Guangxi Yuchai Machinery

Group Co., Ltd, one of the largest

engine manufacturers of road vehicles,

gensets, maritime and industrial

applications in China. Liebherr’s fuel

injection systems are installed in the

6TD and 6C engine series for use in

genset applications of the Chinese

manufacturer with a maximum power

output of up to 730 kW and 1,470 kW

and a cylinder capacity of 19.6 and

39.6 litres. Together with Shanghai

Diesel Engine Co. Ltd., a subsidiary

of China’s largest vehicles and components

manufacturer, SAIC Motor Corporation

Limited, Liebherr develops

new high-performance off-highway

engines. The agreement involves the

6-cylinder in-line engines of the newly

developed 6KTAA25-G3 series (25K)

with a maximum power output of 780

kW and cylinder capacity of 25 litres.

Can biofuels be used without any restriction?

Liebherr’s common rail system is released

for biodiesel with a FAME content

of up to 30 percent, produced by

transesteri cation and esteri cation.

Nevertheless, the components have

been designed to be compatible with

B50 and B100. The eld validation on

such particular cases is an ongoing

following worldwide trend, which

requires higher content of FAME in

future. The common rail system has

already been released for biodiesel

produced out of the hydrogenation

process (HVO).







Solid parcle oil polluon is almost inevitable. The

contaminants come from exogenous sources such as aeraon,

and at the same me from endogenous factors, such as

abrasion, triggering further damage, such as the sandblasng

effect. Erosion is another nightmare indeed. Flowing quickly,

the oil drags the ner parcles generang the sandblasng

effect. Water penetrates through the venlaon systems in the

form of moisture, which is absorbed by the oil. In the event

of sudden changes in temperature, this effect is amplied.

Leaks in the cooling system also cause inltraon. What does

it cause? Cavitaon, a phenomenon whereby the parcles

of water in the oil evaporate due to high pressures, implode

and aack the metal surfaces. And corrosion, giving rise to

rust or other chemical reacons, which damage surfaces.

Oil also ages, taking with it resins, varnish, sludge and acids.

Oil degradaon products are found in hydraulic oil as well as

lubricang oil and give rise to muddy and/or resinous deposits.

The main catalysts are oxidaon, hydrolysis and pyrolysis,

due to thermal stress at high temperatures, mostly the

combinaon of all three.

C.C.JENSEN offers two kinds of CJC Filter Inserts, type A removing

all four contamination types in one and the same process: particles,

water, varnish and acidity.

he Danish CJC, initials of the

founder Carl Christian Jensen,

has been operating in a market

niche for about sixty years.

Let’s hear from the subsidiary Karberg

& Hennemann about the genesis of the

company. «He was a captain on a ship

and it is said that one day a drop of oil

fell on his nose. He noticed that it was

surprisingly clean, raised his head

and noticed that it was drained by a

paper ange. He deduced that cellulose

was able to clean the oil. The rst

applications were naval, therefore the

ltration of everything that can be hydraulic

on board, a hatch, a winch, a

crane, an engine. After the war, Jensen

met Mr Karberg and Mr Hennemann

in Hamburg, and it was on that occasion

that they laid the foundations for

the company strengthening. Right here

is the other factory in the Old Continent.

They therefore extended the application

of lters to industrial areas,

such as transformers, wind turbines,

molding presses, wherever there is oil.

We said it is a market niche because

the company manufactures ne lters,

they complete the in-line lters with a

more incisive action, ltering the nest

particulate and removing water and

From a drop of water

on the tip of the nose

of the founder, C.C.

Jensen, to the ltration

of oil and diesel fuel.

Secondary, ne and

redundant ltration

sludge. The company has branches

overseeing strategic locations around

the world, including China, USA,

Benelux, which also covers France,

Spain and Mexico. A production site

has existed in Japan since 1965, following

a marketing agreement. In

China, production has been going on

for about ten years».

What can you tell us about boating?

«Pleasure boating is satisfying because

we are also able to lter the fuel,

while on large ships, which have a different

power supply, we are present for

the hydraulic oil of cranes and thrusters,

certain winches and lubrication

oil for two/four-stroke engines».

A short overview of the product. The

fuel passes through the ne ltration

cartridge, a depth lter that blocks all

particles larger than 1 micrometer and

in which water droplets agglutinate to

form larger drops. In the next stage,

these drops coalesce and water collects

in the lower part of the separator

lter. The Cjc Ptu1 15/25 and Cjc Ptu2

27/27 models allow you to manually

drain up to three liters of water: the

Ptu1 27/54 and Ptu1 27/108 are equipped

with automatic drain thanks to an

electromagnetic valve. Made up of 75

percent hollow Linter cellulose structure,

the Cjc cartridge removes particles

down to 3 micrometers while absorbing

dirt. How to correctly size the

separator lter? This is all in all simple.

To understand how many liters are

needed per hour, simply multiply the

engine power, expressed in kilowatts,

by 0.24 (0.20 in horsepower).

«There are typically three applications:

the ltration of diesel, in the

marine sector, lubricating oil and

hydraulic oil. The oil lubricates any

moving part, which is therefore subject

to wear. Depending on the location on

board, it may be contaminated by water,

solid contaminants and, in some

cases, by sludge. Of course, there are

different types of oil depending on

the organs, for example biodegradable

oils are applied to the thrusters.

Ultimately, however, the applications

are all similar: the hydraulic oil of a

port crane does not differ much from

the oil for the winch of an overhead

crane. To be picky, more than just

lters, we deal with oil maintenance

ltering systems. Around the lter

cartridge there are accessories such

as heaters or coolers, and systems

for dehydrating the oil with physical

processes and leaving the cartridge to

clean only the solid contaminant. The

typical application of marine engines,

where we lter both diesel and lubricating

oil, in the last decade has shifted

to stationary».

During our chat, the downsizing of cogeneration

emerged with an example

that is only apparently self-evident.

«Filter cartridges are a consumable

product and can be the barometer of

the health of these applications. They

have worked little for ten years». The

off-road quote evokes exotic scenarios.

«We are present in large mines in South

America, where the operating machines

cannot stop, because downtime

has signicant costs. At least in certain

latitudes, construction is a sector that

is often reluctant to think in terms of

prevention. Oil is seen as something

that is simply thrown away».





AN Engines introduced

the marine hybrid system.

More into details,

the modular MAN Smart

Hybrid Experience «


The MAN Smart Hybrid Experience

from MAN Engines has

taken top spot in two prestigious

international awards. It has won

both the ‘Red Dot Award: Product

Design 2021’, which recognises

outstanding design quality, as well

as the ‘German Innovation Award

2021’, which is given to products

and solutions that principally set

themselves apart through their user-centric

design and improvements

over existing solutions.


The company’s idea is to enter a

new era of low-emission mobility

through the use of intelligent solutions

without neglecting performance,

comfort and efciency.

As a systems supplier, MAN Engines

supports its customers along the entire

process chain, from the planning

and concept phase to the development

work and on to the technical

implementation of complex drive

components as well as batteries and

power electronics. MAN Engines

provides shipyards with a holistic

system from a single source – each

and every time. What’s more, when

it comes to servicing and maintenance

work, MAN Engines has an

extensive network including service

stations in all major ports across the



», added Matthias

Schreiber, Head of MAN Engines.

The hybrid system developed by

MAN combines all the advantages

of a conventional drive system with

the latest possibilities afforded by

electric motors and batteries.

he international organization

REN21 has released

its Renewables

2021 Global Status

Report focused on how (and

why) it is necessary to promote

and increase the use of

renewable energy sources in

all economic activities.

«We are waking up to the

bitter reality that the climate

policy promises over the past

ten years have mostly been

empty words. The share of

fossil fuels in nal energy consumption

has not moved by an inch», said

Rana Adib, REN21’s Executive Director,

who will take part in the second

stage of our Sustainable Powertrain

Tour, on July 15. «Phasing them

out and making renewables the new

norm are the strongest actions we can


Indeed, the pandemic year 2020 could

have been a gamechanger. Primary

energy demand fell by 4 percent, but –

according to REN21’s Report – even

with this historic decline, G20 countries,

the planet’s biggest polluters,

barely met or even missed their unambitious

renewable energy targets.

The share of fossil fuels in the total

energy mix is as high as a decade ago

(80.3 percent vs. 80.2 percent today)

and the renewable energy share only

increased slightly.

The ve G20 countries with 2020 renewable

energy targets struggled toward

their goals. The other 15 did not

even have one.


However, the power sector has made

great progress already. Today, almost

all new power capacity is renewable.

More than 256 GW were added globally

in 2020, surpassing the previous

record by nearly 30 percent. In more

and more regions, including parts of

China, the EU, India and the United

States, it is now cheaper to build new

wind or solar PV plants than to operate

existing coal-red power plants.

This progress could and should be

replicated in all other sectors.

FPT Industrial connues its acve commitment to sustainability and its partnership with Slow Food, launched in

December 2020, by becoming official partner of Slow Fish 2021 – The Water Cycles. The program for this edion

includes online and face-to-face events. From 3 June at various locaons in Italy’s Liguria region, and from 1 to 4

July at the Old Port in Genoa, the public was able to visit the exhibion in the tradional format, with exhibitors

and official stands run by the regional authories to display the very best experiences on offer locally, together

with restaurateurs, shermen and the event partners, the Food Trucks and Breweries, the Laboratori del Gusto

(Taste Workshops) and the Appuntamen a Tavola (Dinner Dates).

«As a group that has now been heading the most presgious internaonal sustainability rankings for ten

consecuve years», stated Daniela Ropolo, Head of Sustainable Development Iniaves at CNH Industrial, «we

nd it natural to support people and organizaons that decide to make adifference in the area of environmental

protecon, making them the center of a virtuous circle of mindsets, lifestyles and consumpon behaviors that is

constantly expanding just like the circular ripples in water».




orqeedo will build a new facility

in the city of Gilching.

The project covers 3,720

square meters of ofce space

with a mix of co-working rooms and

on-site ofces, 4,800 square meters of

storage, production, and research and

development space. Construction is

scheduled for completion in the rst

quarter of 2022, while the foundation

stone was laid at the end of June 2021.

«We are delighted by the success of

our subsidiary Torqeedo», said Michael

Wellenzohn, member of the

DEUTZ AG Board of Management

responsible for sales, marketing and



service, at the ground-breaking ceremony.

«Consolidating the three current

production sites in the new building

will give us the space we need

for further growth and enable us to

further optimize our processes. It

will also facilitate the collaboration

between DEUTZ and Torqeedo on

electric drives».

«I am delighted that Torqeedo is

staying loyal to Bavaria and investing

in the new headquarters and production

facility in Oberpfaffenhofen», added

Bavaria’s State Minister for Housing,

Building and Transport, Kerstin


Volvo Penta has started production of E-driveline for world’s

rst serial electric re truck from partner vehicle manufacturer

Rosenbauer. The Swedish powertrain manufacturer stated

that the RT pushed Volvo Penta’s electric drivelines to new

heights. Unlike other Volvo Group EVs that might have two

or sometimes three electric machines, the RT required four

to do its job. All four electric machines have to be able to

run simultaneously – two for propulsion, one for the range

extender to provide extra battery power, and one for electric

power takeoff, if re-ghters want to rotate the foam pump for

example. To achieve this, the Volvo Penta engineers created

a system that is completely cutting edge in terms of Volvo

Group technology.





The global automotive player

Faurecia has acquired the

Chinese CLD, a leading

manufacturer of hydrogen

tanks. The closing was

announced last February

and completed at the end

of April, 2021. It is aimed at

further energizing Faurecia’s

momentum for hydrogen

mobility in China, as stated

by the global company.

Since Faurecia announced

the acquisition project in

February, CLD has been

awarded from mainstream

Chinese OEMs like SAIC

for a large eet of different

models of commercial

vehicles.«We are glad to

open a new chapter», said

Alban Brisset, General

Manager of Faurecia Zero

Emission China.


Cummins has chosen Spain to boost its green hydrogen projects. It will be here the world’s largest

electrolyzer plants for the production of green hydrogen to be located in Castilla-La Mancha. The

companies have signed an agreement to accelerate the growth of business opportunities in the electrolyzer

market of Iberia, promoting the green hydrogen value chain and making Spain a leader of this technology

and industry. This alliance helps to position Cummins as a leading supplier of electrolyzer systems for largescale

projects in Iberia and Iberdrola as a leading developer of electrolyzer projects. «Spain offers a strong

and dynamic local environment for hydrogen production, and we are excited to invest here and signicantly

increase our manufacturing capacity in Europe», stated Tom Linebarger, Chairman and CEO of Cummins.







y 2023, all in-production

civil aero engines to be proven

compatible with 100%

sustainable aviation fuels,

contributing to UN Race to Zero

breakthrough goal for sustainable

aviation. Science-based target to reduce

lifetime emissions of new sold

products from Power Systems by

35% by 2030; new generation Series

2000, 4000 engines to be certied

for sustainable fuel by 2023.

According to the British company,

«there is no single solution to net

zero and so we are innovating across

multiple areas simultaneously. However,

the pace and prioritisation

of technological solutions, as well

as global consistency and collaboration

in policy, will also be key

to success. Consequently, we are

expanding our collaboration with

partners, industry leaders and governments

across the three critical

systems in which we operate – transport,

energy and the built environment

– to accelerate progress.

These hard to abate sectors are all

identi ed by the UN Race to Zero as

requiring technological breakthroughs

in order to meet the Paris Agreement

climate goals and limit the

global temperature rise to 1.5°C».

Nigel Topping, UN High Level

Champion for COP26, added:

«Winning the race to a zero emission

economy by 2050 at the latest

requires radical collaboration and

technology breakthroughs across

energy, transport and the built environment

– critical parts of the

economy that are also among the

hardest to decarbonise. By organising

its industrial technology capabilities

to deliver the system change

society needs, Rolls-Royce is

putting itself at the forefront of the

defining economic opportunity of

our time; one that customers want

to buy, investors want to back, and

the brightest talent want to apply

their skills to».

By 2023, RR also intend to certify

for use with sustainable fuels, the

new generation of mtu Series 2000

and Series 4000 engines. These represent

the majority of the reciprocating

engines and are used across

a range of applications from power

generation to rail and shipping.




Art. 1, subsection 1, LO/MI




Art. 1, subsection 1, LO/MI


May 2021

art. 1, comma 1, LO/MI




Art. 1, subsection 1, LO/MI


Diesel of the year 2020 - Perkins&Hybrids - Comparison:

2.8-3 liters - Logset & Danfoss - Agritechnica: FPT and MAN play

Kubota V5009 is the Diesel of the year 2019

their cards right - PG Cummins - Marine: Cannes, Genoa and METS

F28 Diesel of the year 2020: also hybrid - Interview: Dana INC. -

Report from Conexpo: JD, Kubota - Comparisons: 1-cylinder

and 9 liters - Lindner&Perkins - MEE Dubai - LNG - DPFs

Hydrogen: Could it be the elixir of life for ICE? - FPT F28: DOTY 2020

- Efciency: a case study - Comparison: from 6 to 7 liters -

Fish-Eye: Doosan&Perkins - Alternatives: John Deere’s recipe

Cummins 100 years - MEE & BAUMA - DRiV - MTU - FPT

Comparisons: 1.5-1.7 liters and 4 liters - H as Hydrogen

CNH Capital Markets Day - Kohler Hybrids - Kubota DOTY 2019

Comparisons: 5 and 16 liters - Interviews: AGCO, Cummins, SAME -

Biogas Mixing Truck - DPE & Agritechnica - MTU - ENI - TOTY


www.vadoetorno.com - ISSN 0042

Poste Italiane s.p.a.

Sped. in a. p. - D.L. 353/2003

(conv. in L. 27/02/2004 n° 46)

art. 1, comma 1, LO/MI


January 2020

Fpt Industrial F28 Diesel of the year 2020 - Briggs&Stratton -

Comparisons: 2-2.5 liters - Interviews: Cummins - Deere - MTU - Perkins

JCB&Cummins - Conexpo&O f-Road - MEE Dubai&PG - Europe&China


www.vadoetorno.com - ISSN 0042

Poste Italiane s.p.a.

Sped. in a. p. - D.L. 353/2003

(conv. in L. 27/02/2004 n° 46)

art. 1, comma 1, LO/MI



www.vadoetorno.com - ISSN 0042

Poste Italiane s.p.a.

Sped. in a. p. - D.L. 353/2003

(conv. in L. 27/02/2004 n° 46)

art. 1, comma 1, LO/MI



May 2020

FPT F28 Diesel of the year 2020 - Interview: Nanni Energy CEO -

Report: SCR - Fish-Eye: MCY and MAN V8 - Comparisons: 100 HP

Hybrid: Hyundai Seasall, Huracan, Mercury - Niigata - Kohler Power



ISSN 0042

Pre s Register n. 4596 – April 20th 1994

Poste Italiane Inc. – Mail subscription

D.L. 353/2003 (mod. in L. 27/02/2004 n° 46)

November 2020

Diesel of the year 2020: an abstract of the FPT F28 - MAN Engines for

buses: off-road, with Torsus, and CNG hybrid - Weichai and Bosch


Diesel of the year 2021: John Deere 18.0L - MTU Series 500 -

Interviews: Yanmar Europe and NGV Powertrain - Comparison:

from 9 to 11 liters - Fish-Eye: Massey Ferguson and Iseki - Hydrogen





ISSN 0042

Pre s Register n. 4596 – April 20th 1994

Poste Italiane Inc. – Mail subscription

D.L. 353/2003 (mod. in L. 27/02/2004 n° 46)

Art. 1, subsection 1, LO/MI


March 2021

Diesel of the year 2021: John Deere 18.0L - MAN: cover story -

Comparisons: between 1.5 and 1.9 liters - Alternatives: F28

biomethane - Marine: MTU, Cummins, Hug Engineering, Vulkan

April 2019


www.vadoetorno.com - ISSN 0042

Poste Italiane s.p.a.

Sped. in a. p. - D.L. 353/2003

(conv. in L. 27/02/2004 n° 46)

art. 1, comma 1, LO/MI


November 2019


www.vadoetorno.com - ISSN 0042

Poste Italiane s.p.a.

Sped. in a. p. - D.L. 353/2003

(conv. in L. 27/02/2004 n° 46)

March 2020





ISSN 0042

Pre s Register n. 4596 – April 20th 1994

Poste Italiane Inc. – Mail subscription

D.L. 353/2003 (mod. in L. 27/02/2004 n° 46)

Art. 1, subsection 1, LO/MI


August 2020



ISSN 0042

Press Register n. 4596 – April 20th 1994

Poste Italiane Inc. – Mail subscription

D.L. 353/2003 (mod. in L. 27/02/2004 n° 46)



ISSN 0042

Pre s Register n. 4596 – April 20th 1994

Poste Italiane Inc. – Mail subscription

D.L. 353/2003 (mod. in L. 27/02/2004 n° 46)

January 2021



ABB - 28, 31

ADIB, Rana - 47

AGCO - 36, 37



BAILEY, Scott - 7

BANDRY, Jerome - 11

BAUMA - 20, 24

BIMOTOR - 14, 15

BONANNI, Massimiliano - 25


BRISSET, Alban - 48

BROKK - 28, 29, 30, 31

BRUNERO, Ettore - 14, 15



CEMA - 11

CJC - 45

CLD - 48

COMAU - 12, 13

CUMMINS - 6, 7, 8, 49



DARESTA, Giuseppe - 12

DE GIGLIO, Nino - 23, 24, 25, 26

DEUTZ - 24, 48


EATON - 11

EIMA - 24


FARREL, Lisa - 7

FAURECIA - 48, 49

FPT - 12, 13, 14, 34, 35, 47

FUSSEY, Peter - 40


GRANT, Daniel - 19




IVECO - 12


JENSEN, Carl christian - 44, 45

JOHN DEERE - 8, 9, 24

JOHNSTON, Darrin - 42


KIOTI - 19, 20

KOHLER - 19, 20, 22, 23, 25, 26,

27, 28, 29, 30, 31

KUBOTA - 18, 19, 20, 24, 28, 29,

30, 31


LE MAIRE, Bruno - 5

LEFEBVRE, Michael - 8, 9

LIEBHERR - 24, 42, 43




MAN - 10, 11, 46

MAROTZ, Ben - 27

MAYERS, Bart - 43

MAZZA, Alessandro - 34

MOHD AZMIN, Farraen - 40, 41

MONTORFANO, Carlo - 30

MÜLLER, Hidelgard - 5


OTTAVIS, Pietro - 13


PAINI, Gianluca - 22

PERKINS - 19, 20

PERRONE, Vincenzo - 25

PIRKL, Richard - 42


RICARDO - 40, 41

ROLLS ROYCE - 10, 11, 49, 49

ROPOLO, Daniela - 47



SCHELL, Andreas - 10

SCHREIBER, Matthias - 46

SCHREYER, Kerstin - 48

SISU - 37


TAVERES, Carlos - 5

TERVALA, Juha - 36

TOPPING, Nigel - 49

TORQUEEDO - 48, 49

TULA - 6, 7



VISA - 14, 15

VOLVO - 32, 33, 48, 49


WALKER, Lisa demetrius - 42

WALLENZOHN, Michael - 48



YANMAR - 19, 20, 24


ZF - 11



Engines and components for OEM

Culture, technology, purposes

And market of Diesel engines

Established in 1986

Editor in chief

Fabio Butturi

Managing director

Fabrizio Dalle Nogare

Editorial staff

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Cristina Scuteri, Roberto Sommariva


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Roberto Negri, Erika Pasi

Layout & graphics

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Editorial management

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Industrie Grache RGM srl,

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Milano City Court Authorization

n. 860 – December 18th 1987 National

Press Register n. 4596 – April 20th 1994

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D.L. 353/2003 (mod. in L. 27/02/2004 n°

46) Art. 1, subsection 1, LO/MI





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