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The Prepress Magazine

issue #6 / a u g u s t 2021


GOLD

The light of the gods

packaging

Looks are everything

Grounds for celebration

Mysterious and dark:

The culture that became a cult

Olfactory Marketing

Swathed in a nice scent



e d i t o r i a l

issue #6 ©

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Dear Reader,

The world has changed dramatically since we proudly

launched our LINKED magazine five years ago. Alongside

many other things, the pandemic has taught us to

completely rethink customer relations. Social distancing

rules and contact restrictions were previously alien

concepts. Digital communication demands a lot from us

and, at the same time, the personal touch always seems

to fall short. Precisely because this situation is ubiquitous

and currently dominates our lives, we can lose sight of

everything else all too easily.

With this in mind, we wanted this sixth edition of LINKED

to sharpen our awareness of the things that enrich our

lives – both large and small. We have cast the net very

wide: LINKED#6 describes the long journey a little bean

makes and how it undergoes sophisticated processing

before we are able to enjoy one of the many varieties of

hot, aromatic coffee.

This edition highlights the wide range of formats and materials

that perfectly meet the diverse demands packaging

needs to fulfil – and it illustrates how some of these types

of packaging help make brands instantly recognisable.

LINKED also includes a report on gold, describing the endless

fascination this element exerts on us and how even

the tiniest amount of it can add a touch of elegance.

You will discover how all these topics tie in with our multifaceted

world of printing and brands. As ever, we want

LINKED to be a source of information and entertainment –

all from Janoschka and Linked2Brands.

On that note, I wish you an enjoyable read.

Yours,

Alexander Janoschka

c h i e f e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r



6 c o n t e n t s

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contents issue #6

6

68

16

58

44

24

32

insights

knowledge & competence

network & people

notes

6 Gold

The light of the gods

32 Swathed in a nice scent

Olfactory marketing

48 How about a coffee with…

The discovery of slowness

68 Japris

Moving patterns for moving brands

16 Packaging looks are everything

The packaging maketh the brand

face to face

24 Grounds for celebration

Mysterious and dark:

The culture that became a cult

44 Can-do cans!

High-quality design with

precision full-circle printing

54 Limited editions

Trendy packaging for trendy sorts

to tell the truth

58 Do you know…

Which came first: the match or the lighter?

66 Judging the book by its cover?

Packaging reflects cultural developments

70 Linked2Brands goes global

Consistent brand presentation for

international consumer goods markets

72 Walk the talk

Green Deal sustainability



8 i n s i g h t s

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The light

of the gods

Lustrous and rare, heavy, alluring, beautiful and magical.

Gold inspires almost all of us to dream: of fairy-tale treasures,

of glittering jewellery, of unbelievable riches.

Gold epitomises luxury – it is exquisite and exclusive and

lends everything a special appeal.

The Incas referred to gold as the “tears of the sun“. The Pharaohs

used it as a burial object. The Spanish Conquistadors crossed

the Atlantic to find the legendary “El Dorado” with its untold

golden treasures for their king. To this day, our fascination with

this precious metal runs literally like a “golden thread” through the

history of humanity. The roofs and façades of temples, mosques

and churches gleam with gold; a golden sheen endows statues

with dignity, status and sanctity. The royal chambers and the state

rooms at Versailles, Schönbrunn and other baroque and rococo

palaces would be unimaginable without their gold lustre. There is

gold wherever you look, but how can that be? Since human beings

first discovered gold thousands of years ago, only 190,000 tonnes

of it have been found across the planet. How can that be enough

to create the many golden things that surround us? Not to mention

the fact that pure gold is very expensive.



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Gold leaf –

it is gossamer thin

yet has tremendous appeal

All that glitters is not gold – or is it? Gilding, the ancient

technique of applying an extremely thin layer of gold

to make any material look valuable and precious, is

thought to have been invented in India over 5,000

years ago. But how do you turn a heavy metal into

this form? What properties does gold need to have to

meld with objects in such a way that they appear to be

solid gold? Above all, it needs to be thin – extremely

thin and flexible. Gold is the most malleable and ductile

of all the metals. This means that its form can be changed

dramatically without breaking.

Numerous steps are required to create what is known as

gold leaf from a gold bar. It is the craft of “gold-beaters“,

who hammer the most precious of the eight “precious”

metals into extremely thin, translucent square sheets

with a thickness of just 0.0001 millimetres (about 1,000

times thinner than a sheet of newspaper). Despite many

technological advances, the manufacture of gold leaf

has not changed over the millennia. Each step requires

delicate work, and skilled craftsmanship is still the key.

And, it also takes some very unusual tools.

The Golden Rock, one of the most sacred

Buddhist sites in Myanmar and according to

legend balanced on just a strand of the

Buddha’s hair. Pilgrims paste gold leaf onto it.

The Victory Column, Berlin

Braving the elements:

surfaces covered in gold leaf retain

their lustre for up to 25 years.



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It all begins with fire

Before the actual beating begins, about one kilogram

of gold is melted at over 1,100°C. At this

stage, other metals like silver, copper or platinum

can be added to create gold colour variations. The

liquid metal is cast into a small bar that is two to five

millimetres thick (approximately 2–5 mm).

Once it has cooled down, the goldbeater passes

this bar through rollers. This process is repeated

numerous times until a ribbon that is approximately

100 m long emerges. The goldbeater sets the rollers

closer together each time he feeds the gold

through. This makes the metal continuously thinner

and shinier. Interestingly, this process, which is

known as “strain hardening“, makes the soft metal

up to 20 per cent stronger. Once the gold finally

reaches the thickness of newspaper (approximately

0.06 — 0.07 mm), the goldbeater cuts it into small

squares. He then stacks them, separating each layer

with a piece of special paper (Montgolfier paper)

to form a package made up of approximately 600 to

700 sheets, which is called a cutch. Finally, he binds

the package with strips of goatskin.

Gold is a chemical element with the symbol Au (aurum in Latin).

Gold is the 79 th element in the Periodic Table.

It is the only metal that does not corrode.

Gold has a density of 19.3 g/cm³.

This means it is considerably heavier than the proverbially “heavy” lead (11.3 g/cm³).

It is malleable and strong. Normally, gold is hardened

by being alloyed with other metals.

Beating strengthens it while retaining its purity.

Au 79

Latin: aurum

melting point: 1,064.18°C

boiling point: 2,970°C



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This is where the actual work begins that earned the goldbeater

his job title: using a spring hammer he beats this stack of paper

and gold. He constantly rotates and moves the package under the

hammerhead until the sheets of gold leaf have spread to about four

times their size and have only a hundredth of the previous thickness

(approximately 0.006–0.007 mm).

Goldbeating – transforms a single ounce of gold

(approximately the size of a sugar cube)

into a sheet measuring about 28 square metres

“Carte des mines d’or” – an ancient treasure map

The oldest known “treasure map” originates from ancient Egypt and

dates back to the reign of Ramses IV – around 1,150 BC. The papyrus

fragments of the map are currently kept at the Egyptian Museum in

Turin and are known as “Carte des mines d’or“. The map shows the

location of gold deposits in the hills, the distance between the quarry

and the mine, and the living quarters for the mineworkers. So where

exactly is this mine? Well, the map is no different to the treasure maps

you will have heard about in stories: its features are somewhat “vague”

and are likely to send you on a wild goose chase.

Next, the gold leaves are removed one

by one from the layers of paper and quartered.

By now, the gold leaf is so thin that

you can only touch it with delicate, long

ebony pincers. The wood will not harm

the gold leaf as it is soft and not prone to

static charging. The goldbeater then sorts

each of the cut gold leaf quarters into a

stack again, which is called the shoder.

Traditionally, vellum made from ox intestines

was used for the dividing layers at

this stage, not paper. Known as goldbeater’s

skins, these membranes are in

fact more valuable than the gold leaf that

they hold during beating because of their

strength and resilience.

To stop the gold leaf sticking to the skins,

the goldbeater uses a hare’s foot to powder

each layer with the finest gypsum,

called brime.

The goldbeater then checks the quality of

the gold leaf in the assembled stack before

the next round of beating: the gold

has now become so thin that you can

shine a light through it to spot any imperfections

or flaws. Then, it goes back under

the hammer until it reaches a thickness of

approximately 0.001 mm.

Cast bar

2.0–5.0 mm

Rolling

0.06–0.07 mm

Beating

0.006–0.007 mm

0.001 mm

0.0001 mm

The oceans hold the greatest gold reserves.

Ocean waters contain forty times more gold than humans have found

and put into circulation to date (roughly 6.8 million tonnes in total).

A stack of

7,055 leaves

is no thicker than a

ten euro cent coin.



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Gentle

hammering

In the final stage of beating, the gold leaf is pounded again

by hand to one hundredth of its previous thickness – i.e.

from 0.001 to 0.0001 millimetres. This calls for the highest

level of craftsmanship as manual beating is the only way

to produce the sought-after soft gold leaf with an even

thickness. Interestingly, this process is no slower than

mechanical hammering and is considerably more precise.

Goldbeaters use a selection of short-handled hammers

weighing between three and twelve kilograms. Experience,

pure instinct, a sense for atmospheric conditions

(above all, humidity) and a feel for the “mood of the gold”

define this last stage of beating. To warm up the gold, an

experienced goldbeater will begin with approximately seventy

strikes per minute. During the whole process, which

can go on for hours, he will rotate and turn over the shoder

again and again. Impressively, he gets a steady rhythm

going while varying the speed from heavy and slow to

lighter and faster.

Sheer physical strength is not as important here as perfect

control. The gold packet in its goatskin sleeve compresses

slightly and makes the hammer rebound. It produces a

sound much like a boxer thumping a heavy punch bag.

Striking the shoder at an angle to take advantage of this

rebound is a fundamental skill in the art of goldbeating that

calls for coordination between the hammer and gravity.

The goldbeater decides when this process is complete

depending on what the gold leaf will be applied

to – glass, wood, stone, leather, porcelain, paper or

frescos. Maybe it will even be used on human skin or

on culinary creations, like risotti, cakes or chocolates

or even as flakes of gold in liqueurs.

A glint of luxury

All that glitters is not gold – but it certainly is an eye-catcher when used on

the packaging of consumer goods. Confectionery, cigarettes, chocolate or coffee

– high-quality consumer goods have an air of luxury when they shimmer with

gold, stylishly standing out from the crowd to great effect.

Finally, the finished gold leaves are normally cut into

squares and laid between layers of tissue paper in a

booklet called a “libretto“. The gold leaf is so fine it

is literally “untouchable” by human hand. It is so fine

that it becomes creased as soon as it hits the paper,

but also so fine that it can be smoothed out again

simply by blowing on it very gently. This fineness allows

it to cling to any shape as if it were part of it.

Refining with hot film in relief printing is the most frequently used method for

packaging. The stamping foil that is common to this day was invented in 1932

by gold leaf producer Konrad Kurz. He vapour-deposited real gold onto foil

strips under a vacuum.

In embossed foil printing, the raised parts of the paper or substrate come into

contact with the hot foil. The latter carries a release layer that is applied

by means of heat and pressure. The layer you see on the finished product is

transferred from the stamping foil during processing. In addition to the foil,

an embossing stamp is required to press the selected parts or motifs into their

raised or sunken shapes.



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Packaging Looks

Are Everything

or: The packaging

maketh the brand

The moment when customers first touch or lay their eyes on packaging is crucial.

Brands have to go all out to make that moment count. After all, 75 per cent of consumers don’t decide

which product to buy until they’re actually in the shop.

Blessed is the packaging with instant appeal, for no matter whether we’re shopping at a supermarket

or a delicatessen, we face the same quandaries over and over again.

Which deodorant, which crisps and which of the countless coffee varieties should we buy?

Fresh coffee is simply a good start to the day – no matter whether it’s a quick espresso made using a

capsule or a coffee celebration of hand-ground beans. These days, being able to grab an aromatic,

perfectly roasted coffee ground to our taste in the comfort of our own home is something we take for granted.

Things were very different in the mid-nineteenth century. In those days green beans were sold loose

from the sack and customers roasted them themselves in an oven or on the stove –

often with less than satisfactory results as the beans easily got burnt.

Sweetening the package

As industrialisation advanced, the inventive

spirit of the era produced a wide range of solutions

across the world. The Arbuckle brothers

in the United States, for example, started selling

ready roasted beans instead of green beans

in 1868. They filled them into one-pound paper

bags and dispatched them from New York to

the American West. To ensure the beans kept

their aroma, each bean was glazed with a patented

egg and sugar coating. The egg also

helped the coffee beans to settle while the

sugar ensured that the popular beverage came

ready-sweetened.

Rivals initially laughed, but the Arbuckle brothers’

strategy soon proved right. Not long afterwards,

they started shipping ready ground

coffee. The accompanying unprecedented advertising

campaign made “Arbuckles’” so well

known that it became a generic name for coffee,

just as Levi’s is for jeans.



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Flat-bottomed bags

and folding cartons

While the Arbuckle brothers were conquering North America

with their packaged coffee beans, Margaret E. Knight invented

a machine that made flat-bottomed paper bags. These were

an initial step towards individual packaging: they allowed products

to be packaged and shipped on a large scale in small units

intended for private households.

In 1879, Robert Gair, a

Scottish-born American

inventor, followed with an

innovation that perhaps

marked the birth of modern, industrially produced

packaging: a machine-made folding carton. It soon

proved to be highly versatile and helped Gair establish

a business empire. Its advantages were many:

it provided ideal protection for packaged goods;

it could be stacked and easily transported; and all

six sides of the box could be printed with advertisements

– a key factor in its remarkable success.

We should remember that up until the mid-nineteenth

century, grocers sold “raw goods“. Tea, coffee

and other exotic and luxury goods came in simple

wooden chests, barrels, sacks and other containers.

Shopkeepers did sometimes sell “house blends“,

guaranteeing the quality of their products with their

name and giving customers detailed advice as a per-

sonal touch. Around this time, these goods started

to attract customers from further afield and therefore

needed to keep longer. Manufacturers began to print

their names – and the associated promise of quality –

on their packaging. The “market” was no longer ruled

by the traders. Manufacturers seized control, printing

advertisements on packaging, placing promotions in

magazines or posting advertising on large billboards –

all perfectly coordinated.

The demand for folding cartons sky-rocketed. They

were perfect for detergents, sugar and cocoa.

Colgate used them to package its soaps and toothpastes

and Ponds its beauty creams.

Robert Gair spent the rest of his life improving and

optimising “his” folding carton. At the same time,

he always focused on the lithographic process used

to print advertisements on the cartons. By 1927, the

year of his death, the world of packaging, consumption

and advertising had been revolutionised.

By pioneering and streamlining the large-scale manufacture and

lithography of inexpensive cardboard packaging, Gair provided

companies advertising space with which they could shape the public

image of their products.



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Crackers and biscuits

One of the first brands to become widely available

nationwide was “Uneeda Biscuits” made by Nabisco

and packaged in – you’ve guessed it – folding cartons.

These crackers were promoted with perhaps

the first ever multi-million dollar marketing campaign.

The slogan “Lest you forget, we say it yet, Uneeda

Biscuits” was everywhere. In Europe, meanwhile,

Bahlsen pioneered production technology and branding,

with its butter biscuits coming off the continent’s

first conveyor belt system in small packages.

Classic brands thus date back to the early twentieth

century. Initially these brands were mainly everyday

items such as food, beverages and tobacco, washing

and cleaning products and personal hygiene and

pharmaceutical items – everything that we would call

fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) today.

Visibility sells –

supermarket shelves

and cellophane bags

Most goods were still supplied without packaging

until the mid-twentieth century. However, in 1916

at the Piggly Wiggly Store in Memphis, Tennessee,

people first encountered a completely new concept

that boosted the demand for packaging once again:

the self-service shop. Ensuring products were visible,

recognisable and thus increasingly identifiable

as a brand was suddenly a must. For the first time,

customers served themselves and then took the

goods to the cashier.

Following the hardship of the war years, Europeans

were now eager to indulge their pent-up need

to consume. By the sixties at the latest, a new era

had dawned: certain long-established brand products

now enjoyed nationwide and international success

and were joined by new ones. Packaging became the

key to being recognised on the market.

Bahlsen biscuits were intended to be high-quality, nonperishable

and affordable. The combination of a

successful recipe and efficient packaging that simultaneously

conveyed the brand message was clearly the key.

The fine taste of the first butter biscuits revolutionised

German baking culture. Hermann Bahlsen protected the

high-quality, tasty contents with the first dust- and moistureproof

cardboard packaging.

In Germany, Bonn-based confectioner Hans Riegel

had already been making sweets under the name

“Haribo” since 1920. His Tanzbären (dancing bears)

made from wine gum did not sell that well at first.

Their breakthrough came after they were renamed

“Goldbären” (Goldbears) and, above all, packaged in

cellophane bags, making the colourful bears visible

and thus irresistible to anyone with a sweet tooth.

Since the sixties, Goldbears have been a mainstay

of the German confectionery sector. The French love

their “Ours d’Or“, the Spanish their “Ositos de Oro”

and the Poles their “Złote Misie“. The cellophane bag

looked modern and contemporary, expressing the

spirit of Germany’s economic miracle era.



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Multiple forms

for multiple functions

Another well-known tube is the one containing

Pringles crisps that was patented in 1970. Not

only is it highly original, it is also highly functional

because the crisps are safely stacked inside the

sturdy cardboard tube and do not get crushed.

The plastic lid can also be closed again, keeping

the crisps fresh longer.

Smarties are another colourful sweet treat. They were

invented by British confectioner Henry Isaac Rowntree

and were first produced in 1937. They, too, conquered

the western European markets (and sweet teeth)

during the sixties. Smarties have always stood out due

to their unusual packaging: a cardboard tube printed all

over with coloured chocolate drops.

SEE ARTICLE ON PAGE – SEE ARTICLE ON PAGE –

p.66

Smarties is a brand with cult status whose recognition

value is inextricably linked to its packaging. Nevertheless,

Nestlé took a daring step in 2021, switching the international

packaging concept for Smarties to paper. The iconic

Smarties tube has been replaced by a hexagonal shape.

Until now, only 10 per cent of Smarties products were

packaged in recyclable paper. The campaign, which goes by

the name “Smart Initiative“, aims to save over 191 tonnes

of plastic each year in the production of tubes, bags and

cartons in Germany alone. According to Nestlé, this will

make it one of the most important sustainable packaging

initiatives in the confectionery field. The company claims

that the new Smarties paper packaging originates from

sustainable forests, is made from coated paper, paper labels

or cardboard, and can be recycled after use.

Customers

buy packaging

Special editions of Nutella jars cannot only be

resealed, but also repurposed. Italian confectioner

Michele Ferrero launched the new hazelnut

and cocoa spread in 1964. The following year,

he filled Nutella into a new style of jar with an

unmistakable, iconic design. Over the decades,

this packaging was enhanced in numerous ways.

Some jar shapes, which can be re-used as drinking

glasses, have gained cult status – especially

those emblazoned with Asterix and Obelix or the

Flintstones. Another advertising ploy is to allow

customers to order personalised labels for their

jars. In Italy, Ferrero sold the regular jars printed

with single letters and thus made them collectors’

items.

All of this shows that packaging is a marketing

instrument. As “signature packaging“, it is a

communication medium, opens a dialogue with

consumers, in some cases inviting interaction.

But no matter how playful or how high-quality

packaging is – function comes first, particularly

in the food and personal hygiene industries. In

addition, consumers are increasingly concerned

about the material and its reusability and recyclability.

These days packaging has to be “green”

and sustainable to sell.

We can see two contrary trends, above all in the

food sector: while convenience products continue

to reflect the fast pace of our lives and require

more sophisticated packaging solutions, many

people feel a need to slow down. This is tied to

a demand for products that have undergone as

little processing and use as little packaging as

possible (or even no packaging at all). Above all,

very young (20-something) consumers who find

green and sustainability issues important are increasingly

influencing the markets.

Manufacturers will have to respond to this

changing demand. Today, the main requirement

in terms of packaging is: as little as possible.

History has shown us that if you want to be selling

a product tomorrow, you need to package it

well today – a principle that is truer now than it

ever was.



26

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“Ethiopian coffee traditionally has

a heavy, earthy taste. Here, it is the

custom to serve coffee with a little sprig

of rue. When I stir the coffee with this

herb, it acquires a bright aroma with

fruity notes of bramble and raspberry.”

Daniel Tesfaye leans back against the

Grounds for

Celebration

colourful hangings covering the wall

of the little street café in Addis Ababa,

a look of satisfaction on his face. The

smell of the coffee just roasted on a

little brazier fills the narrow room. A

wooden mortar to grind the coffee in

and a traditional clay pot called a jebena

– that’s all this corner café needs

to prepare coffee.

The “black gold” is served in small,

Mysterious and Dark:

The Culture That Became a Cult

Thirteen months sunshine a year –

perfect conditions to produce perfect coffee.

But hang on a moment... thirteen months?

What might sound like a marketing ploy is

measurable reality in Ethiopia.

In the birthplace of coffee, not only do the

clocks run differently, life also follows a

completely different calendar.

The year begins on 11 September, and the

last month of the year is only a few days long.

That’s how Ethiopians get thirteen months

of sunshine – much to the benefit of the

country’s world-famous export.

“coffee has to be as hot

as hell, black as the

devil, pure as an angel,

sweet as love.”

With between 800 and 1,000 different

aromas, coffee is a taste

explosion and far more complex

than wine. Coffee testers, or cuppers

as they’re called, distinguish

between earthy, mild and strong;

between sweet, nutty, chocolatey

and fruity aromas; and between

coffees that taste of honey, flowers,

pepper, bread or caramel. It

takes a great deal of experience

to be able to identify the fine and

complex nuances and to describe

and evaluate the coffee.

In Ethiopia, flavours range from

the idiosyncratic, mysterious and

ambiguous taste of Harrar beans

to the elegant, bright aromas that

envelop the Sidamo and Limu coffees

pervaded by floral notes.

But the quintessential Ethiopian

coffees come from Yirgacheffe.

With their shimmering, extravagant,

spicy, lemony aromas, these

full-bodied, eclectic and balanced

coffees are simply unmistakeable,

the expert reveals.

demi-cups typical of Ethiopia. Here, in

the capital of this East African country,

a culture is emerging based on a coffee

tradition dating back thousands of

years that can certainly rival any of the

world’s hippest coffee centres. Daniel

Tesfaye is part of this culture. As a professional

coffee taster, he samples up

to 500 cups of coffee a day, evaluating

and grading the quality, the taste and

the aroma.

Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand

(18th century)



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Coffee is grown in around eighty, mainly

less developed countries on or close to

the equator. After oil, coffee is the world’s

most important traded commodity and,

after water, its most frequently consumed

beverage. Half of the world’s population

drinks at least one cup of coffee a day.

The planet has roughly 15 billion coffee

trees to cover this demand, and about 100

million people earn their living directly or

indirectly from growing coffee. Around 70

per cent of them are small farmers who

produce their coffee by hand and using a

few simple machines. The pairs of hands

each coffee bean passes through before

it reaches the cup are varied and many –

each just as important as the one before.

Coffee trees grow on slopes, so harvesting

coffee cherries is hard physical work

and requires an attentive and keen eye.

There are two main types of coffee: Arabica

(coffea arabica) or mountain coffee that

grows at an altitude of between 600 and

A world of coffee –

coffee for the world

2 4 °degrees latitude north

coffee belt

2 4 °degrees latitude south

Tropic of Cancer

Tropic of capricorn

Only regions with year-round stable, mild, frost-free climates provide the ideal

conditions for growing coffee and producing top-quality aromatic beans.

Coffee is a classic example of what used to be called “colonial goods” in grocery stores.

While coffee is produced mainly in less developed countries near the equator,

three-quarters of it is drunk in industrialised countries.

2,200 metres; and Robusta (coffea canephora),

which also grows lower down and

is known as lowland coffee.

The coffee cherries are hand-picked and

only the dark-red, ripe berries are harvested.

They grow alongside those that

are still green and those that are only just

blossoming. Once they have been picked,

they need to be processed immediately. A

simple machine is used to extract the two

beans from the cherry. After washing off

any fruit flesh still clinging to the beans,

the farmer then leaves them in a trough to

ferment for at least a day. This method is

known as wet processing. The beans are

then spread out in the sun to dry.

Another method is dry processing. In this

case, the ripe coffee cherries are left intact.

To ensure that they dry evenly, they

are spread out on drying terraces and

turned regularly. Only then does the farmer

crack them open. Whichever method is

used, a kilogramme of cherries produces

only 200 grams of raw beans.

Cherry-picking

with a difference:

What we call “beans”

are actually the seeds

of the coffee cherries.

Many hands –

many eyes

Many coffee farmers are organised in

cooperatives to which they sell their

raw beans. From there, the beans

are taken to the hulling machine that

removes the fine parchment skin.

After that, mechanical shakers sort

the beans according to size. In a final

quality control process, diseased or

discoloured beans – i.e. anything that

might spoil the flavour – are picked

out laboriously by hand. In most coffee-growing

countries, women do

this work, and for many of them it is

the only means of earning an income.

The effort, diligence and care that

goes into producing the world’s coffee

is extraordinary at every step.

Every plantation or cooperative is

rightly proud of its product. This pride

is often reflected in the individual

label printed on the traditional burlap

or jute sacks in which the coffee

makes its long journey to its final destination.

In some places, the sacks

with their colourful labels are just as

much cult items as their contents.

Only after drinking the customary third cup of

coffee does Tesfaye leave the little street café.

There will be many more cups to come. At his

place of work he prepares everything for

today’s round of tasting (or cupping). Cupping

is a universal standardised method for

evaluating and grading coffee.

You might compare it to wine-tasting. For this

ritual, Tesfaye, the coffee sommelier, prepares

a dozen bowls of different types of raw coffee

from Ethiopia’s famous growing areas.

These shimmering silvery green beans don’t

have any flavour yet. Therefore, Tesfaye roasts

four cups’ worth of samples of each variety.

He then places them ready for the four obligatory

infusions. Today’s guests are the owners

of small private roasting outfits from Oslo,

Berlin and Melbourne. After the coffee experts

have assessed the appearance of the green raw

coffees and their appearance after roasting,

they will sniff – and slurp – their way through

countless aromas. Slurping is the only way to

obtain the full taste experience from the coffee.



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Coffee sacks

Jute sacks – the pride of every

plantation and cooperative

Releasing the flavours

– the art of roasting

For more than two hundred years, jute sacks have been the material

of choice for packaging raw coffee. Printed with logos, dates

of origin and the names of types of coffee, they testify to the hard

work and pride of the coffee farmers in the respective region.

Jute is a natural and hence environmentally friendly product.

But it also has a number of other advantages:

- The loosely woven sacks allow air to circulate, keeping the coffee

beans fresh while they travel – often for weeks at a time.

- The rough surface is easy to grip, making loading easier and

stopping the piles of sacks slipping during transport at sea.

- They are the official measure for raw coffee: between 50 kg and

70 kg depending on the country of origin.

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For reasons of cost, the current trend is towards plastic sacks:

huge polypropylene super sacks hold around a ton of raw coffee.

Like wine, it’s the terroir that determines the

taste of coffee: in other words, climate, growing

region, altitude, soil quality and weather. But

it takes fire to unlock all the aromas from these

very ordinary looking beans that make coffee the

world’s most popular psychoactive drug. Roasting

– which even scientists describe as an art

– not only brings out the flavour, but transforms

the entire product: in this complex process the

beans change their colour and grow to twice

their size while at the same time losing weight.

They become porous and brittle, and thus suitable

for grinding. The general rule of thumb is, the

darker the roasting, the more intense the taste.

The high temperatures decrease the acid content,

and the sugar in the coffee beans starts to

caramelise, yielding a bitter-sweet flavour. The

resulting aroma is the one we know from typical

Italian espresso: strong and black.

This is the perfect coffee to combine with milk,

whether as a cappuccino, latte macchiato, café

cortado or flat white.

Light roastings have been all the rage for a few

years now. This is part of the so-called Third

Coffee Wave, which has not only revived the

hand filter and the Karlsbad coffee pot, but also

coffee served as cold drip, AeroPress or cold

brew. For these methods of preparation the variety

of tastes and individual flavours plays a key

role. Only high-quality raw coffee can reveal the

secret of light roasts: the subtle acids in the coffee

beans are preserved and the more nuanced

natural aromas of the coffee come to the fore.

The coffee acquires a more aromatic, floral and

fruity flavour with notes of jasmine, bilberries or

raisins. To release these aromas from the coffee

beans, the roaster needs a lot of experience,

an all-round knowledge of the raw product and a

highly attuned feel for the business of roasting.



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“Unlike other natural fruits, such

as vanilla or bananas, there is no

specific coffee taste molecule,” Tesfaye

explains. “Instead, it is the work of

countless diligent hands, the quality

and special goodness of the raw

product and the country of origin that

give the coffee the richness that we experience

with every cup,” he continues,

summing up the long history of coffee

in a nutshell.

A matter of taste

Zeitgeist is King when it comes to preparation

Who needs a coffee molecule?

Coffee is so much more than that.

Coffee is magic...

Pour

over

Arabic

mocca

Espresso

makers

A simple way to indulge the senses: the Ethiopian coffee ceremony

Formally known as filter

coffee. As well as getting the

amount of coffee, the fineness

of the grind and the water

temperature exactly right,

a special pouring technique

is needed to allow the coffee

flavour to fully develop.

The oldest way of making

coffee uses special little jugs

made of copper or brass

with long handles (ibrik).

The classic design of the

little octagonal aluminium

pots originated with Alfonso

Bialetti in 1933.

First wave:

coffee for

everyone

Second wave:

coffee

to go

Third wave:

back to

the beans

Drinking coffee first became an established

household habit between the

1930s and 1960s.

Whereas previously coffee had been an

exclusive commodity, specially weighed

for customers in small shops and

then freshly ground, it now became a

cheaply produced industrial good that

could be bought in supermarkets ready

ground and vacuum packed.

Starting in the 1980s, high-quality

Arabicas and espresso beverages found

their way onto the mass market as “coffee

to go“. Cappuccino, latte macchiato etc.

required a lot of milk. The trend of

enhancing coffee with artificial aromas

and syrup came from the United States.

This wave was accompanied by the advent

of fully automatic coffee machines as

well as machines that used capsules

or pads for a quick cup of coffee at home

or in the office.

Here, the emphasis was on the special

qualities of coffee as well as on fair trade.

“The third wave appreciates each coffee

for what it truly is and takes whatever

steps are necessary to highlight the

amazing, unique character in every

coffee”, Nicholas Cho, Wrecking Ball

Coffee Roasters, San Francisco.

Single-origin coffees, quality criteria such

as growing region and year, plantation,

roaster and method of preparation have

an important role to play alongside

social aspects such as fair production

and trade.

Portafilter

machines

Attempts to make coffee

with machines that generate

steam go back to the nineteenth

century. This method

allows a typical Italian

espresso, with its dark oily

quality and markedly creamy

consistency, to be made in

just 25 seconds.

Aero-

Press

Water is poured onto coffee

powder and, after it has been

stirred by hand, it is pressed

down with a plunger directly

into a cup.

Cold

drip

Ice-cold water drips slowly

into a vessel containing

freshly ground coffee. After

several hours this produces

a coffee concentrate, which

can either be drunk neat

or diluted with water for a

longer drink.



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Just a hint of vanilla or orange

and we already feel relaxed.

Catching a whiff

Swathed

in a Nice

Scent

Scent is the fastest of

all means of communication.

The intense smell of an espresso can

evoke memories of the sun and sea breeze

of last year’s Italian holiday.

The aromas wafting from a bakery will

stimulate our appetites at any time of day,

and the smell of incense can awaken

something inside us, too.

Seventy per cent of our emotions are triggered through our sense of smell:

whether we feel comfortable in our surroundings, whether we feel like doing

something or not, or whether we feel the urge to be creative. Germans even

express their dislike of a person in the phrase “ jemanden nicht riechen

können” – literally not being able to stand the smell of a person.

Scents affect us on so many levels that they can be used as a universal

communication tool, as a medium to convey characteristics,

to arouse feelings and to differentiate. Scents have a longer lasting effect

than any other medium. Scent marketing exploits precisely this property:

the deliberate use of scent can help sell a product better,

boost customer loyalty and increase the brand value.

A product’s “corporate scent” broadens corporate communication

in key ways and forges an identity – a corporate identity (CI), in other words.

Scents make products and brands unforgettable.



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Car manufacturers

pick up the scent

Scents have played a role in the motor industry for

a while now. Daimler Benz patented a scent for vehicle

interiors not long after the Second World War.

However, the fact that the company never enforced

the patent shows above all that it was decades

ahead of its time. It was not until the 1980s that

scents suddenly became important in the automotive

sector. Initially, car manufacturers went to

great lengths to neutralise smells in vehicle interiors

where possible – mainly to eliminate the often unpleasant

plastic odours emitted by the interior trim.

A lot has happened since then. Scent options now

seem to know no boundaries.

Do you want your car to smell new for as long as

possible? Should the interior emit the luxurious

smell of leather and wood? Today, car buyers can in

many cases use a scent system to decide for themselves

how their car should smell and how intensely.

Peugeot was one of the first manufacturers to

use this idea. Now many other carmakers also fit

cartridges in the air vent ducts to release scent into

the vehicle interior.

Other industries have followed. In recent years, almost

all self-respecting brands have addressed the

questions of scents and how their products smell.

The new fragrance, exclusively for

the EQS: no.6 MOOD Linen.

In the Social and Technological Research

department at Mercedes-Benz, futurologist

Sabine Engelhardt analyses the zeitgeist

and long-term social trends.

The research results then flow into strategies,

products – and fragrances.



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A Nobel Prize for the most

fleeting of all senses

You could say the developments in this field have been quite astounding.

For a long time, the sense of smell was left in the shadows, treated

as a “lesser sense” together with the sense of taste – both by researchers

and, ultimately, also in the public perception.

The nose was considered to be the most

mysterious of all sensory organs. It was

not until molecular biologists started to

take an interest in smell that this sense

was awoken from its deep slumber. The

turning point came in 1991 with the discovery

of odorant receptors by Linda Buck

and Richard Axel. In 2004, the two scientists

were awarded a Nobel Prize for their

research into the human sense of olfaction.

Since then we have known that our nose

absorbs tiny scent molecules that stimulate

millions of olfactory nerve cells. The

scent is converted into an electrical signal

and the brain reacts immediately. In other

words, the brain evaluates, deciphers and

memorises the scent. The limbic system

is of central importance in this process. It

controls our emotional life, and it is also

where our memories of scents are stored.

The signal received by the limbic system

causes the brain to secrete hormones,

which – put simply – generate feelings and emotions. This

means that a smell alone is capable of making us feel tired

or vitalised, lowering our blood pressure or speeding up our

heartbeat.

Furthermore, several studies have shown that smells have

a greater impact on our memory than images – the memories

they evoke are more vivid and emotional. In comparison

with verbal stimuli, smells also seem to be ahead by a nose

as they activate the limbic system more strongly.

Back in 1995, an experiment in Las Vegas revealed something

quite astounding: the takings of a casino rose 45 per

cent after a pleasant scent was diffused through its rooms.

A study conducted at Hasselt University in Belgium found

that the smell of chocolate wafting through a bookshop led

to increased sales of romantic novels, although sales of

thrillers fell, keeping the overall turnover the same as before.

Much of this field, like the effect of different scents

on people and how brands can make use of this, still needs

further research.



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Hotel Daniel (in Vienna and Graz) has its very

own brand of shower gel, making a stay there an

memorable experience.

However, one thing is certain: there is no

escape from scents. Olfactory marketing

has long since become an important playing

field for the specialists. Room scents

are now relevant in almost all industries and

are being used in a variety of settings – in

kitchen showrooms, in hotels, at swimming

pools, in care homes, on trains, in offices,

in shops, at opticians, at electronics retailers

and at petrol stations. In most cases,

aroma diffusers carefully dose the respective

scent. Dosing the scent is in fact the

greatest challenge, as it should never be

too complex or intense. Too much scent

will overwhelm customers: the brain will

attempt to decipher the components – it

is distracted and the person no longer concentrates

on what they actually came for.

Research has shown that a subtle use of

scent can have a positive effect on purchaser

behaviour. Nevertheless, in our globalised

world, we need to remember that

there are cultural differences: Germans

associate “cleanliness” more with lemongrass,

the French with flowery scents

and Spaniards with chlorine. You may notice

this if you pass through the airports of

Berlin, Paris and Madrid.



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Scent follows function

An airport was actually among the pioneers of

room scents. In Frankfurt am Main, fragrances

composed of peppermint, rosemary and lemongrass

to promote wellbeing have been flowing

from the air-conditioning system in the departure

lounges for a while now. Of course, the scent experience

does not necessarily end once you are

called to your gate. Singapore Airlines, for example,

developed its own corporate scent – “Stefan

Floridian Waters” – back in the late 1990s. Their

flight attendants wear this delicate fragrance, it is

infused into wet wipes and towels and diffused

through the whole cabin.

A scent used in a room should ideally reflect the

function of that room as well as fitting the architectural

concept and interior design. What do we want

to do in the room? Focus on work or relax?

While an intense scent may be suitable for an

ornate baroque room, minimalistic interiors call

for something more discreet. Experts agree that

smells are only pleasant if they have a subtle and

subliminal effect on us.

Brands are increasingly creating their own scents

rather than using familiar ones as a basis. This allows

the inherent scents of a product to be used

along with an “add-on” scent. Whichever scent is

chosen, it should create a positive experience for

customers and anchor it firmly in their memories.

Scent marketing experts thus utilise the principles

of how smells trigger memories in our brains and

associate certain emotions with certain scents.

The sense of smell – although the most fleeting –

is the most elementary of all human senses. That

is what makes scents so powerful. An opportunity

not to be missed for any brand. Therefore, we can

expect scents to play an even greater role in marketing

over the coming years.



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... more than a thousand words

According to an American study*, imbuing packaging

with scent significantly improves people’s

ability to recall brand attributes. Two groups of

test participants were shown advertising claims

listing a total of thirteen different product characteristics:

one group was given just images

and text while the other group was additionally

exposed to a fragrance.

Two weeks later, the test persons from the

scent group could remember five out of

the thirteen characteristics. The group without

the scent, however, only managed to recall

between one and two on average. So there

are certainly some good reasons for getting

the message across via the nose.

Scented coatings use microencapsulated aromatic

substances or scented oils. The essential

oils enclosed in the plastic capsules are applied

directly in a transparent overprint varnish. Scented

coatings are suitable for use with all common

printing techniques, like flexo, gravure, screen,

sheet-fed or web offset printing.

They can be applied across the whole surface

or at specific points. The scented coating can

be water- or oil-based, contain solvents or be

UV-based, depending on the printing technique

and procedure being used. It can be processed

in printing or coating units. When consumers

touch a surface that has been scented using

this technique, the friction causes the capsules

to break open and release the scent.

* Krishna, A., Lwin, M., Morrin, M., Product Scent and Memory. Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 37, June 2010.

Tree – Sundance Film Festival 2016

“Tree” is a virtual reality experience with “sensible” enhancements.

It transforms you into a full-sized tree in a majestic rain forest.

Your arms become the branches and your body the trunk as

you experience the tree growing from a seedling into its fullest form.

Finally, you witness its fate at first hand.

A team of passionate artists, producers and programmers have

created a truly immersive VR storytelling tool.

A very subtle and impressive dimension of smells is added to stimulate

the senses and fully immerse the audience in their new identity.

The scents range from the fragrance of the soil where the seedling

takes root, all the way to the smell of burning wood.

treeofficial.com



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Beauty is the name of the game here – inside and outside.

The products instantly promise you a radiant complexion,

fresh scent and – while they’re about it – eternal

youth. Beauty products are about the essentials in life:

our bodies and our physical appeal. Their exterior has to

communicate this promise at a glance, so it’s all down to

the packaging: if it puts on a perfect show at the point of

sale, creams, soaps and deodorants will find their way

into the bathrooms – and lives – of consumers.

Can-do cans!

High-quality design

with precision

full-circle printing

How does the brand design find its way onto the aluminium spray can?

Cans containing deodorant or shaving foam greet you every morning in the bathroom.

But in fact a great deal of technical expertise goes into making these everyday items –

even just branding and printing the cans is a highly skilled job.

The brand “guards” at Linked2Brands shed light on

the complex world of spray can printing.

Colours, graphic elements and nifty details on packaging

are used to communicate a brand image. At the same

time, packaging makes promises about the effectiveness

of its contents. The containers, whether high-quality jars,

soft-touch tubes, bottles or tins, also need to guarantee

that the product is packed hygienically, is easy to dispense

and can be used in small quantities.

Airy solution

This is no easy task for marketeer, production

agencies and manufacturers –

particularly when high-tech packaging

formats are involved, like said aluminium

spray cans.

For a start, they have to meet the highest

hygiene requirements, ensuring there is

no direct contact between the packaging

and germ-laden surfaces when you apply

the contents. The outstanding barrier

properties of aluminium keep out light, air

and other gases as well as moisture, corrosion,

germs and bacteria, and thus protect

the contents of the can against any

form of contamination.

Bella figura – an eye-catching figure

Deodorant spray cans are characterised by appealing,

fresh, aesthetic colours and imagery. Shapes that sit

nicely in your hand underline the premium look. The

cans therefore often do not simply have a cylindrical form

– they have waves or are curved or necked. Curves have

a direct impact on the printed images: they shorten or

lengthen lines, make straight lines curved or similar.

This is a job for the repro specialists who ensure that the

writing and images on the spray can do not look distorted.

When they process the print, they compensate the

effect of the specific can shape on the image design until it

looks right again.

They distribute the product on your skin

sparingly, precisely and, above all, in

small doses. Thanks to the premium appearance

of their material, its luxurious

feel and an impressive variety of shapes,

products can be differentiated at the point

of sale. That’s why they’re the packaging

of choice for sensitive care products and

cosmetics. It will come as no surprise

then that the cosmetics industry accounts

for around 85 per cent of the aluminium

aerosol cans produced across the

world. Deodorants and perfumes are the

clear leaders within this sector as they fill

every second can produced.



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Inspired design

Tailor-made for its specific purpose, the aluminium

can awaits its likewise tailor-made brand label. Printing

is done directly on the can. Firstly, it needs to meet

the premium requirements of the beauty sector – to

exude maximum appeal at the point of sale and inspire

a purchase. Secondly, the material and shape

of the aerosol can also set high requirements for the

design, adaptation and printing technology. This is a

job for experts.

“When we print aluminium spray cans, we work

within a highly defined area. Unlike drinks cans, for

example, which are emptied in a single usage and are

therefore purely throw-away products, personal care

products are with us for a much longer time. They are

more of a luxury product and consumer experience

and expectation call for high quality in all respects,“

says Wouter Dalebout, Linked2Brands onsite account

manager at Unilever Rotterdam, summing up the situation.

“To achieve the desired look and feel of this material,

at Linked2Brands we mediate between the idea

and its realisation and thus bring two worlds together:

design and print.“

The print goes onto the shaped aluminium aerosol

can. Unlike working with flat material, there is no way

to detect the starting point for a printing process on

the round shape. Therefore, the whole image is printed

in a single pass.

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High pressure – a lightweight

that packs a punck

In addition to the product-specific payload, spray

cans contain what is known as a propellant.

The propellant generates the pressure required to

dispense the product evenly from the can.

The liquid is only atomised into thousands of

droplets once you press the spray button. When

filled into the can, the propellant is compressed to

such an extent that it liquefies. The pressure inside

most cans lies between 3 and 5 bar – higher

than car tyres.

The different factors that make up the basic

principle can all be adapted flexibly and thus

very specifically to the application: from the

required droplet size and the fineness of the

dispenser to the right propellant and a suitable

can material, special shape or printing.

Spray can or aerosol can – since 1927

The spray can gets its special properties from a

unique technology: aerosol.

An aerosol is a heterogeneous mixture of solid or liquid

particles suspended in a gas.

Greek: aer (ἀήρ) = air | Latin: solutio = solution

The spray can produces an aerosol at the push of a button –

tailored to the respective application so that the

consumer has precisely the product he or she requires at that moment

with the right particle size and the precise degree of fineness.

Dry offset

– pinpoint accuracy

This makes dry offset printing the method of choice.

In this technique, all process colours are applied precisely

and directly to the final product in a single pass.

Since intermediate steps are not required, dry offset

is, although limiting, yet the best fitting decoration

technology for these shapes. Dry offset accurately

places an intricate puzzle of multiple coloured print

images seamlessly side by side. This method creates

impressive images through perfect interplay between

design and implementation.

Guaranteeing this is one of Linked2Brands’ areas of

expertise. The company supports brand owners from

the outset when it comes to producing their packaging.

One can generally say that getting the pre-press specialists

on board as soon as possible will keep costs

down and achieve the desired high-quality results.

Questions come up even in the draft phase: can the

expectations for the desired design or image be met

and are they precise and consistent? What kind of

design works best with the printing technique used?

“All analyses follow an in-depth consultation process

to set the right priorities for the customer’s different

interests,” says Stefan Hilß, Managing Director of

Linked2Brands. “The design, the needs of the brand

and the production process have to be coordinated in

an intelligent way. If, for example, a packaging design

has a large number of details, we will know exactly

where to simplify it so both the premium look and the

brand are retained when one particular manufacturing

method is used.“

Javier Pérez Martínez, Artwork Production Manager,

Unilver, also describes the collaboration as a winwin

situation. “Consulting, repro and support from

Linked2Brands have essentially helped define the

impressive appearance of our deodorant products and

ensured trouble-free processing. That is extremely

valuable because, in addition to high quality, fast and

reliable implementation of our ideas is decisive for us.”

The beauty and cosmetics industry is one of the few

sectors to possess such great potential to win over

loyal and enthusiastic customers. What counts is to

stand out from the crowd with quality and packaging

that convincingly says: “You are beautiful and attractive.

Buy me and you will stay that way.”



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How

about a

coffee

with ...

The Discovery

or:

of Slowness

At coffeehouses, espresso bars and Arab street cafés. . .

all over the world, a cup of coffee is a great opportunity

to meet people, chat and get to know one another.

We were keen to find out more, so we asked staff from

Janoschka and Linked2Brands: Who would you most

like to meet for coffee?

Ana Mahiques

Administration, Janoschka EspaÑa

“Undoubtedly, I’d drink coffee with my grandfather. When he was alive, I didn’t care about his

stories. Abel, the fifth son of a midwife, grew up in an idyllic, remote hamlet in the mountains.

He lived and worked as a miller in his father’s flour mill, next to a waterfall and he married there

too. Although money was scarce, they were self-sufficient, kept farm animals and cultivated their

own fields, besides hunting and fishing. He never went to school and yet he learned to read and

write and devoured technical books about mill engines.

There were so many stories: how he was positioned at the front during the war because he was

an excellent marksman, how he won each egg-eating contest, how he played the mandolin at balls,

mingling with young and old, making friends everywhere, carving the mill stone underwater,

doing household tasks, making his family laugh every day, …

From what the stories tell, he must have been a real ’good-for-all’ kind man.”



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Renata Ziegler

Office Manager,

Janoschka Polska

Kerem Erol

Key Account Manager,

Linked2Brands Turkey

“I’d like to have a cup of coffee with Keanu

Reeves. He is a popular actor who is famous

for the movies Speed, the Matrix trilogy and

the John Wick series. This extraordinary man,

despite his enormous popularity, is modest

and shares his wealth with those in need.

Keanu is mentally strong. He has endured

many difficult moments in his private life.

Despite living among celebrities, he remains

‘the boy next door’. While having a cup of

coffee with him, I would like to take a bass

guitar lesson from him.“

“Honestly, these days I would love to have a coffee

with anyone! It doesn’t matter who it is, as long

as it’s in person. I’ve been working from home

since March 2020 and I miss social life. And as I

have the free choice, I would love to have a coffee

with Douglas Adams. He is an English sciencefiction

author who gained fame with the series

‘The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy’. In 2001

he passed away at the age of 49, leaving an unfinished

novel. I love his unique sense of humour

and the totally crazy alternative universe he

describes. The most important thing about him:

millions of people have read his books and every

single fan is secretly convinced that he or she is

the only one who understands him. Well, I’m one

of those fans and why wouldn’t I discuss “Life, the

Universe and Everything” with him.”



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Priyanka Birari

Client Service,

Linked2Brands India

“Actually, there are many people I would like to have a coffee with...

from our plant manager to my two-and-a-half-year-old kiddo. But here

I’d like to suggest our famous and bold politician, Minister of Road

Transport and Highways, Mr Nitin Gadkari. He talks about renewable

energy management in India, which each and every one of us needs.

Using the resource solar energy, which is abundant in India, will be a

big step towards India becoming a self-reliant country.

He has played a crucial role in the development of

infrastructure as well as small- and medium-scale industries.

People can really see his work on the ground. It is so inspiring

how he is micromanaging such a vast area of development.

Having a cup of coffee with him would be

a learning experience for me.”

“I’d love to have a coffee with my beloved

grandma. She is a strong, independent,

affectionate, albeit stubborn lady. For me

she is a very special person. She loves to tell

stories about the past. She likes to remember

my grandpa and the time when she was young

and independent. She can tell you a story

about any subject you care to mention. She

doesn’t regret a single decision and considers

them all valuable for her life. All of her stories

carry the message that life is precious and

that one should enjoy and treasure even the

smallest experiences. Even if she sometimes

repeats her stories, you can tell from her eyes

that she is relishing the past and feeling wistful

at the same time.

Sandra

Schäfer

Junior Head of Social Media & PR,

Linked2Brands Germany

What fascinates me the most about her is

that, despite some tough times in her life, she

never gives up and always keeps her goals in

mind. The story of her life and the grace with

which she manages to find something positive

in every setback and to integrate this into

her life’s story makes her a role model for me.

Precisely for this reason I would never miss

a single opportunity to have coffee with my

grandma, and there’s always something sweet

to go with it.”



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Limited Editions

trendy packaging for

trendy sorts

Linked2Brands ensures

brand consistency through

seamless processes

Limited editions, seasonal varieties, expanded product lines – customers

like to ring the changes. To ensure they don’t satisfy their thirst for

novelty elsewhere, astute brand manufacturers will do well to retain

customer loyalty with original and creative ideas. What is more, this form

of product differentiation gives companies an opportunity to test the

waters. Product variations are therefore a useful tool in many respects,

but only if they are presented to the customers in the right way.

First and foremost, packaging is the key to getting

a product noticed and arousing curiosity. It needs

to feel good, promise quality and match the brand.

A lot of time, design acumen and meticulous artwork

go into every detail of the brand identity:

the logo, the colours, the graphic elements, the

typography and the proportions. Taken together,

these ensure that customers immediately associate

a product with a certain brand. If small runs of

a brand product, like limited editions and seasonal

varieties, are to have the desired effect, i.e. contribute

to brand awareness, it is important to put

the same effort into them. “Even straying slightly

from the norm can backfire and will not pay off in

the long run,” says Markus Fautz, Site Manager at

Linked2Brands Germany. “If you want packaging

to instantly show customers that the brand keeps

its promises, even in special campaigns like limited

editions, it needs to have the familiar look and feel

at the point of sale – no matter whether it’s on a

shop shelf or sold through eCommerce.“

If all these aspects – from design and artwork to

production – slot together smoothly, brand owners

can be sure that all the elements and information

that make up the brand are visible on the packaging

according to the brand book or the style guide.

Know-how and a sure instinct are the name of the

game here, as is a meticulous approach throughout

the design-to-print-process.

Brands make promises about their whole product

range and the packaging design needs to back them

up. This is precisely where the brand guardians

at Linked2Brands come in. They ensure that the

design, layout and colour result in aconsistent brand

image – globally via all channels. And that is precisely

what brought K-fee to Linked2Brands.

k-fee.com

Design details accentuate the flavour

and the summery feel of the limited edition.



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Different approaches in

print data preparation.

In an exclusive, patented system of machines and

capsules, K-fee offers a wide variety of beverages

of the kind served in cafés: from espresso and teas

to milk drinks. K-fee was planning for the first time

to sell limited editions to expand the product range

by limited editions for its home brand Espresto with

four “in” flavours and was looking for just the right

packaging design.

To find it, K-fee took a more liberal approach to the

style guide, which allowed the designers greater

freedom to develop a slightly unusual variation.

The packaging was to have a clear emphasis on

emotion as well as limited availability. K-fee initially

planned a run of 3,000 units for this limited edition.

While the packaging for the standard products

was to be manufactured using offset printing and

high-quality finishing, such as silver foil, embossing

and UV lacquer, the packaging for the new varieties

would be produced for the first time using

digital printing, to be able to sell small quantities.

Linked2Brands knows that myriad design details

are crucial if you want to ensure a consistent brand

appearance. And so for that exact reason, the production

agency acts as a one-stop shop using clear

communication and close consultation to organise

the interaction of everyone involved. Thanks to

this closely attuned method of working, processes

flow flexibly into one another and produce compelling

results. For customers, this shortens the time

to market and saves money.

“The first edition has already sold out completely,”

Krüger reports. “The feedback from customers

was very good so we have already produced another

run. We are currently considering whether

to add some of these flavours to our core range.”

The collaboration is entering the next round for the

brand-specialists at Linked2Brands with translation

services for other language variants of their

products. Furthermore (we can safely share this

with you), following the resounding success, customers

can look forward to more limited editions

from K-fee.

Linked2Brands has over twenty-five years of experience

and sound knowledge in the area of brand presentation.

From the very beginning of a project, the specialists keep

an eye on the implementation of the design in the different

printing processes. From the design through to the

proofs, with all the different design revisions, artwork

and repro that come in between, they check all relevant

parameters to ensure the brand identity is reproduced

reliably and coherently with a specific printing method.

So, when it came to the limited edition, Linked2Brands

Creative Director, Björn Siebrecht, had to take into

account one key factor: recreating the high-quality appearance

of the packaging with digital printing.

This is no easy task as the digital process needs to simulate

refinements so that the design, layout and colour

that customers are familiar with from the core products

look the same. The final results depend on a wide

range of factors and more than a little experience. What

advantages or limitations does the printing technique

bring with it? How can effects be reproduced in the best

possible way?

“One big reason why our limited edition is spot on is

because one and the same person is responsible for all

production steps at Linked2Brands. As a result, even the

smallest pieces of information flow seamlessly and nothing

gets lost on the way. The results meet our quality

standards in terms both of design and realisation,” says

a pleased Jana Krüger, Product Manager at K-fee.

From design and design adaptation to photography, artwork, colour separation,

all the way to repro, print- and colour management and enhanced services:

with its broad portfolio of services and products, all-round project management and

flexibly structured teams, Linked2Brands ensures consistent brand experiences.

linked.global



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Do you know ...

which came first:

the match

or the lighter?

Night-time in the prairie. A lonesome cowboy casually strikes a match against the

heel of his boot and holds the flame to his cigarette until a glowing red dot

appears. This classic Western scene could never have happened without a chance

discovery by an English pharmacist.

To find out why, we’ll head to Stockton-on-Tees, England. The year is 1826. John Walker,

renowned throughout the town for his extravagant clothing and excellent education,

spent a lot of time conducting chemical experiments. This particular November evening

he was busy mixing antimony-sulphide (a sulphur compound) and potassium chlorate with

gum arabic and starch. We don’t know for sure what he was trying to achieve.

What we do know is that some of the thick paste remained stuck to the little wooden stick

he was using to stir it. Perhaps absent-mindedly, perhaps irritated, he tried to scrape off

the residue along a rough surface. Suddenly, it burst into flame.

He soon saw a practical use for his discovery. He had little wooden sticks

manufactured in the local poorhouse and dipped one end into his

chemical kindling mixture. He sold them in his pharmacy together with

a little piece of sandpaper and called them “friction lights“.

No risk – no light?

Wooden sticks soaked in sulphur were already

used more than a thousand years

ago in ancient China to light fires in fireplaces

and hearths. Not long after that they

came to Europe. However, to get these to

ignite, you needed a spark plus a smouldering

“tinder fungus“. Later, a type of match

was invented with a white phosphorus

and potassium chloride head that would

only ignite when it was dipped into sulfuric

acid. To call this method “playing with fire”

wouldn’t be an exaggeration, since you had

to carry a little bottle of this dangerous liquid

around with you.

Walker’s “friction lights” are based on a different

principle. To ignite the mixture on the

head of the stick, frictional heat was sufficient.

Unfortunately, he neglected to register

a patent for his invention and his matches

were in any case technically flawed. For

one thing, they ignited very easily and were

therefore dangerous; for another, the unevenly

flickering flame gave off a vile smell

of sulphur.

That was why the Londoner Samuel Jones

gave the name “Lucifer” to the product

for which he registered a patent in 1828,

having plagiarised Walker’s discovery.

John Walker’s idea fired imaginations all

over the world. Everywhere chemists

started playing around with different mixtures.

Some of them experimented with –

extremely poisonous – white phosphorus.

Later this was replaced by red phosphorus.

Eventually, around twenty years after

the first “friction light” had seen the light

of day, the ignition and friction substances

were separated, and the handy “safety

matches” that we know today were born.

Walker’s strike-anywhere matches have

not entirely disappeared, though. To this

day, one can light these “cowboy matches”

on any rough surface. They still have

the igniting component in their heads.



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We didn’t start the fire

– or did we?

So was it really these little wooden sticks with

their chemical-coated heads and a friction surface

that transformed the previously laborious

business of lighting a fire into a “free-handed”

experiment that turned the task into child’s

play? Hardly. But exactly when did these handier

and simpler utensils replace the lengthy

process of drilling, striking or ploughing to

make a fire? And what did they look like?

However, with the invention of the wheel lock

in the late fifteenth century, things began to

change in the traditional fire-making culture.

Originally developed for rifles, a drawstring (or

a spring) would set a little iron wheel in motion

that then applied pressure to a piece of pyrite

(iron sulphide). If the sparks it generated came

into contact with gunpowder, it would explode;

if they landed on tinder, it would ignite.

For 40,000 years, fire-striking was the usual

method. Until well into the nineteenth century,

a fire-steel, flints (firestones) and tinder were

the valuable utensils one needed to light a fire.

Around one hundred years later, the key idea

for developing a flintlock lighter emerged –

once again from the gunmakers’ workshops.

A cock holding a flint struck against steel: the

result was sparks… tinder… fire.

Leonardo da Vinci – drawing and

description of a matchlock for a scoppietto

(Codex Madrid)

Flint locks as lighters



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So the foundations were laid. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries,

chemical (“Turin candle“) and electro-chemical lighters emerged;

flames were produced by pneumatics, galvanism and oxyhydrogen

mixtures. None of these designs was very practical, however.

They were more like ignition machines, with the added disadvantage that

they tended to explode from time to time.

Complex constructions, sophisticated mechanisms,

extravagant materials – much ado about a little flame.



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A burning interest

in the pocket-size lighter

Once this idea really caught on, it culminated

in Carl Auer von Welsbach’s development

of ferrocerium in 1903. This excellent

ignition substance is still used in

practically every lighter even today. Parallel

to ferrocerium, the friction wheel ignition

method appeared – a perfect match.

The rest of the story can be told in a few

words: the 1960s saw the invention of

refillable tanks – small and handy fuel

containers. After that came the refillable

lighter, followed by the disposable

lighter.

So which came first: the match or the lighter? We can’t

say for certain. The significance of fire for humanity is

so obvious that we don’t need to spell it out. But the

fire-making utensils are certainly interesting, both as

technical curiosities and as attractive objects. And so, of

course, are the enterprising people who were prepared

to risk anything to enable us to literally light fires at the

drop of a hat, safely and effortlessly.

Do you know...

why a sailor dies, if one lights

a cigarette with a candle?

In the old days, sailors used to sell matches

on land during the winter or when

they received no pay on the ship.

If people used a candle rather than

a match to light a cigarette,

they deprived a sailor of his earnings

and robbed him of his livelihood.



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Judging A book

by its cover?

Functional and defining – in addition to protecting its contents, packaging plays

a major role in making brand products stand out from others and instantly

recognisable. The progress in the different product presentations also shows

how our everyday lives have changed. Packaging reflects cultural developments

and success stories in brand management.

Dr. Scheffield’s fills

“Crème Angelique

Dentifrice” into tubes.

Julius Maggi creates his

seasoning sauce and

designs the famous longnecked

bottle.

A classic triangle – the

Toblerone shape and

recipe defined it from the

very beginning.

More than any other

design, this bottle

encapsulates the idea of

modernity and design as

a whole.

Inseparable: the yeasty

spread and its bulbous

dark glass jar.

1 st century A.D.

Egyptians make the first glass bottles

1938

Block-bottom bag

packaging

1810

The first cans for

preserving food

Coca-Cola’s contoured or

Mae West bottle is an

internationally registered

trademark.

The unmistakable

blue tin with the white logo

– Nivea.

Patented by Odol:

the bottle with the

angled neck.

Terry’s chocolate orange:

you can tell its

flavour at a glance.

Ritter Sport designs a

chocolate bar that fits in

your breast pocket.

Ancient times

Ceramic amphorae for

liquids and dry goods

1828

Samuel Jones patents

the safety match

1970

The first drinks packaging

made from an aseptic

paperboard laminate

1927

Invention of

the spray or

aerosol can

1969

Handy, standalone

drinks pouch

with straw

1841

Tubes patented – first used for

ready-mixed artist’s paint

1989

The first can with

“stay-on tabs”

1950

Dispenser box

for tissues

1963

The first “easy-open

ring pull” for aluminium

drinks cans.

1940

Columbia Records puts records

in covers with designs for the

first time

1986

Coffee capsules –

Nestlé positions coffee

in the luxury segment

19XX

Would Asian food have

made its mark without

this iconic folding box?

Kikkoman Soy Sauce – the

iconic bottle designed by

Kenji Ekuan is part of the

MoMa collection.

A container that gets

everything right: it keeps

the sweets fresh and its flip

lid stops you getting your

fingers sticky.

Kölln Flocken rolled oats in

block-bottom bags

featuring the traditional

light and dark blue design.

Twist&drink: soft plastic

bottles that are just as

colourful as their contents

– with a characteristic top.

Cans and soup:

two things that belong

together (and did so long

before Andy Warhol).

No prizes for guessing

what is inside:

Jif lemon juice

Kinder Surprise:

a chocolate egg concealing

a toy inside a plastic shell.

A simple solution to get that

Ketchup on your plate: on

its head and squeezable –

the Heinz bottle.

Mini Babybel –its distinctive,

red wax coating

makes the delightful snack

ready-to-eat anytime and

anywhere.

The unmistakable

cult jar for unmistakable

content: Nutella

Ben & Jerry’s ice cream

pints are just vvas unique as

the flavours inside them –

their modern, fun

designs use expressive

graphics in

unconventional ways.

1993

Aroma-seal valves

keep the contents

fresh for longer

1991

First PET

reusable bottle

1900

R. Gair invents

the first folding box

Just add water – a

meal in its own pot:

Maggi’s

“5-minute terrine”.

Stored separately but eaten

together: the yoghurt with

the corner from Müller.

Manner adds a red tear

strip to the traditional

double-aluminium foil

packaging for its wafers.

Signal advancement:

toothpaste earns

its stripes.

Glistening soap bubbles,

everywhere and at all times.

Pustefix makes it possible:

soap solution in a handy

tube with the blow

ring integrated in the lid.

Pringles tube:

no more

broken crisps...



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A new generation

of finishing solutions for packaging

1

t e c h n o l o g y : p r i s m a t i c e f f e c t c y l i n d e r : j a p r i s

Special design features on packaging, like UV coatings, gold foil and embossing, catch the eye and arouse

interest among consumers at the point of sale. When it comes to competing for the consumer’s attention,

the winning messages are those that stand out from the crowd. Janoschka, the innovative partner for brand

owners and converters, knows just what a challenge this is. They have therefore come up with a

new generation of packaging finishing solution: J A P R I S (Janoschka Prismatic Effect Cylinder).

Moving Patterns for

Moving Brands

JAPRIS uses a special data preparation

process to engrave images on a

gravure cylinder that gives the substrate

a dynamic, three-dimensional

look. This new technique uses light

reflection and different levels of

brightness to create animated patterns

and metallic effects. JAPRIS

can also add special security marks

to provide effective protection against

product counterfeiting. The JAPRIS

gravure cylinder fits in all standard

printing presses and applies these refinements

during the normal printing

process. A method that is as simple

as it is effective.

JAPRIS adds attention-grabbing features

to packaging. One of these is a

pattern that changes as you tilt, rotate

or turn the packaging. This creates

a new kind of visual experience in

which consumers play an active role

and spend longer with the product

and thus with the brand. A clear advantage

at the POS.

Whether applied in specific positions

or across a larger area, these new

finishing touches can be used for a

wide range of applications. Firstly, the

JAPRIS special effects can be combined

with all commonly used refinements.

They can therefore add the

final touches to embossed designs,

UV structures and other decorative

elements. Secondly, JAPRIS is compatible

with all kinds of plastic film

and cardboard as well as laminated

cardboard.

Lutz Braune, Chief Sales Officer at

Janoschka Holding, was impressed

by the innovative power of his team,

who wasted no time in bringing this

novelty to market. The first examples

are already on the shelves in the

form of striking cigarette boxes: “We

develop our JAPRIS designs in close

cooperation with the brand owners.

Our barrel proof service, that is: our

in-house development service that

works directly at the printing unit,

has proven to be invaluable in this

respect. Our experts can implement

any changes requested by the brand

owner fast and flexibly. That gets the

products onto the shelves quickly –

and out to the consumers.“

The JAPRIS trick of making objects

appear to move on the packaging

already has customers fascinated.

So whether it’s the food or non-food

sector we’re talking about, FMCG

packaging featuring these special

effects is clearly heading for a brilliant

career in moving pictures.

janoschka.com/japris



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2

n e t w o r k : l i n k e d 2 b r a n d s

Just two years after the founding of Linked2Brands,

four more branches of the production agency have

started working. Our network continues to spread

across the globe as new offices in India, Russia,

Mexico and Turkey join our sites in Brazil (on which

we reported in Linked#5) and Germany. At each

location, a team of prepress specialists ensures

consistent implementation and presentation of

brands at the point of sale for local clients.

So what do these countries have in common? They

all have growing middle classes and therefore a

constantly rising demand for consumer and luxury

goods. Their increasingly well-heeled consumers

want to spend money and they prefer major brand

labels. After all, for this class of customer, consumption

means much more than just fulfilling specific

needs. The symbolic status of a product and

the prestige it confers play an equally important

role in purchase decisions. Consumers expect quality

and they look for it above all in brand products.

Therefore, the markets in Russia, India, Mexico

and Turkey are an important jumping-off point for

many brand owners when it comes to reaching new

consumers.

Brazil

Sao Paulo

Germany

KIPPENHEIM

Germany

MUNICH

India

MUMBAI

Mexcio

MEXICO CITY

Russia

MOSCOW

Turkey

IZMIR

Linked2Brands

goes global

Consistent brand presentation for

international consumer goods markets

Here the onus is certainly on packaging, no

matter whether the items are imports or

domestic products. It makes the premium

character visible on the outside and essentially

communicates the image. Therefore,

doing business with consumer goods

hinges on careful and consistent brand presentation.

This is precisely what the Linked-

2Brands subsidiaries have specialised in:

they guarantee accurate reproduction of all

elements that make up a brand, such as logos,

colours, special typography, imagery etc.

From each of the now six locations, the

Linked2Brands teams take brand owners

through the whole prepress value creation

chain. They use their expertise in design adaptation,

layout, photography, artwork, print

management and colour management along

with advanced brand enhancement services.

Other significant advantages for brand owners

include the teams’ knowledge of the local

markets and their ability to provide consultation

services in the local language for all kinds

of packaging projects whether for food or

non-food products.



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3

s u s t a i n a b i l i t y : h o l y g r a i l 2 . 0

Invisible but highly effective

Walk the Talk:

Green Deal

sustainability

– transparency in plastic recycling

Linked2Brands is supporting the HolyGrail 2.0 project as an enhancing partner

Environmental and climate protection are the most pressing global challenges of our age.

Saving resources is the order of the day. The European Commission has responded to

these issues with its Green Deal, setting standards for sustainable growth and paving the

way for a circular economy with a plan of action.

Digital watermarks are codes the size of postage stamps

(imperceptible to the human eye) that are placed on the

surface of consumer goods packaging. They can hold a

large amount of information and attributes, such as manufacturer,

type of plastics used, composition of multilayered

items, use for food or non-food etc. The watermark

information can be used along the whole value

creation chain – from the manufacture to the reuse of the

packaging. It makes the entire lifecycle of packaging transparent.

When packaging with a digital watermark arrives

at a waste-sorting plant, a high-resolution camera on the

sorting line can decode the information. The packaging is

then sorted into the correct stream based on the transferred

attributes.

Being a strategic partner for enhancement services in

the area of digital barcode solutions, Linked2Brands can

utilise its expertise and experience in graphic packaging

production to the full. The production agency is applying

its know-how to actively support the (semi)-industrial

HolyGrail 2.0 trials in 2021-2022.

“We are contributing our collective specialist knowledge

of data preparation as well as our experience along the

whole packaging value creation chain to the HolyGrail 2.0

project. Responsibility for sustainability and resources has

always been decisive in our work. Our role as an enhancing

partner reflects this,” says Stefan Hilss, Managing

Director Linked2Brands. “Establishing closed cycles is a

very complex task that we can only solve if all stakeholders

actively work together.“

HolyGrail 2.0 with its system of digital watermarks for

sorting has created new options. The technology previously

available fell short of the mark. To test the

watermark technology’s ability to achieve accurate sorting,

an industrial pilot facility is required as are scenarios to

evaluate the system from an economic point of view.

HolyGrail 2.0 brings together innovation, sustainability and

digital technology to achieve the Green Deal objective of

a clean, circular and carbon-neutral economy. More than

130 companies and organisations from the packaging industry

encompassing the whole value creation chain have

signed up to the initiative.

Reusable or recyclable

All plastic packaging in the EU should be reusable or

recyclable at low expense by 2030. The plan is for this

new, sustainable plastic economy to work exclusively

as a circular system. With the Digital Watermarks Initiative

"HolyGrail 2.0", the European Brands Association

AIM (Association des Industries de Marque) drives a

project with the aim of making packaging more easily

sortable. Aware of their responsibility regarding

sustainable packaging, Linked2Brands has joined the

quest for the Holy Grail and is contributing its expertise

and know-how in the role of an enhancing partner.

The HolyGrail 2.0 initiative is making use of the broad

expertise of its various partners to look into digital

watermarks as a possible solution. They want to find

out whether this innovation could contribute to greater

sorting efficiency and hence higher quality recycling

for packaging in the EU. This technology should then

set the circular economy in motion.

After all, an efficient circular economy for packaging

essentially relies on optimum sorting of consumer

waste: the more homogeneous the packaging, the

easier it is to recycle. Therefore, the crucial thing is

to be able to identify the packaging material precisely,

and digital watermarks are currently considered to be

the most promising technology for this.

European Green Deal:

The European Commission launched its “Green Deal” – an extensive programme

for better climate and environmental protection in the EU –

in December 2019. The declared aim is to make the EU the world’s first

carbon-neutral bloc by 2050. This will be achieved by reducing harmful

emissions significantly and further promoting the circular economy in Europe.

At the same time, economic growth is to be decoupled from resource use.

www.aim.be/priorities/digital-watermarks



76

i m p r i n t

THE NEXT EDITION OF LINKED WILL APPEAR IN 2022.

WE ARE DELIGHTED THAT YOU HAVE READ OUR MAGAZINE.

PLEASE LET US KNOW WHAT YOU THINK ABOUT IT SO

THAT WE CAN DO WHAT WE DO EVEN BETTER.

PLEASE GIVE US YOUR OPINION:

linked@janoschka.com

LINKED is Janoschka ’s customer

magazine and appears annually.

Owned & published by:

Janoschka Holding GmbH

Mattweg 1

77971 Kippenheim

Germany

© 2021 Janoschka Holding GmbH

All rights reserved. Reprint or electronic

distribution, including in extracts,

is subject to the publisher’s approval.

Editor-in-Chief (with responsibility

according to German press law) & text:

Corina Prutti, das komm.büro, Munich

www.komm-buero.de

Ideas & Conceptual Design:

Sabine Joachims, Janoschka Holding

Corina Prutti, das komm.büro

Art Direction, Layout & Graphic Design:

Patrick Brandecker

Print & Binding:

Gotteswinter & Aumaier GmbH, Munich

www.gotteswinter.de

The information contained within this magazine has

been prepared with the utmost diligence and verified

for accuracy. However, Janoschka does not assume

any liability for inaccurate or incomplete information.

Any liability claim against the organisation due to

inaccurate or incomplete information is excluded.

Image & content copyright:

Alamy: p. 4, 5, 6, 9, 20, 27, 28, 29, 30, 41, 60, 64, 65 /

Arbuckle Coffee Roasters: p. 16, 17 / Bahlsen:

p. 20 / Manuel Bergamin (photographer) and Mario

Berta Battiloro company: p. 11 / Patrick Brandecker:

13, 47, 66 / Frank Burkhard Fotografie: p. 36 / Andrea

Cacopardi Photography: p. 12 / Createam Promotion:

p. 15 / Hotel Daniel Vienna: p. 38 / Marc De Tollenaere:

p. 15 / Deutsches Museum München: p. 59,

62, 63 / Keith Dotson Photography: p. 20 / European

Brands Association: p. 73 / Ferrero Deutschland:

p. 22 / Getty Images: p. 24, 28, 29, 31, 32, 39, 48 /

Haribo: p. 21 / iStock p. 5, 6,8, 13, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29,

31, 33, 37, 40, 42, 49ff, 54, 58, 64, 72 / Janoschka/

Linked2Brands archive: p. 3, 5, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53,

57, 68 / K-fee System GmbH: p. 55 / Mercedes-Benz

AG: 4, 34, 35 / Nabisco: p. 20 / Division of Medicine

and Science, National Museum of American History,

Smithsonian Institution: p. 19 / Nestlé: p. 22, 23 /

New Reality Company: p. 42 / Piggly Wiggly: p. 21 /

Preston Park Museum & Grounds: p. 59 / Volker Putz,

Lighter Collection: p. 60, 63, 64 / Stadt Schwabach:

p.14 / Unilever: p. 45, 47 / Blattgoldschlägerei Alois

Wamprechtsamer GmbH, Wien: p. 4, 10, 13, 14 /

Wikipedia: p. 8, 18, 25 / Woodyform: p. 28 / Zsinta: p. 20

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issue #6 / a u g u s t 2021

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