The All About Clay Student Handbook

The All About Clay Guide for Ceramics Students is an ideal resource for introducing students to the basics of clay. While, there is lots to learn and understand about ceramics, in-depth knowledge is not needed to get started. A basic understanding of key techniques and processes is very helpful. This resource is chalk full of information, but focuses on the key things you/students need to know to get started, to create and design clay artworks, and to fire and finish ceramics pieces.  Some pages include some extensive information to help those looking to understand ceramics at a deeper level.  This book is organized into chapters, each one focusing on different aspects of ceramics including Studio Guidelines, Tools & Equipment, Attributes of Clay, Clay Forming Methods, Glazing & Firing and Ceramics Design. Visit the Art Box Adventures eCommerce site for more information or to purchase this resource. https://payhip.com/b/nF2rt Author Tracy Fortune has other great teaching resources in the other ALL ABOUT CLAY resources such as CLAY MATTERS, SPEAKING OF CLAY, CLAY INSPIRATIONS, FUNCTIONAL CLAY INSPIRATIONS and the CLAY STUDIO TIPS SERIES.

The All About Clay Guide for Ceramics Students is an ideal resource for introducing students to the basics of clay. While, there is lots to learn and understand about ceramics, in-depth knowledge is not needed to get started. A basic understanding of key techniques and processes is very helpful. This resource is chalk full of information, but focuses on the key things you/students need to know to get started, to create and design clay artworks, and to fire and finish ceramics pieces.  Some pages include some extensive information to help those looking to understand ceramics at a deeper level. 

This book is organized into chapters, each one focusing on different aspects of ceramics including Studio Guidelines, Tools & Equipment, Attributes of Clay, Clay Forming Methods, Glazing & Firing and Ceramics Design.

Visit the Art Box Adventures eCommerce site for more information or to purchase this resource. https://payhip.com/b/nF2rt

Author Tracy Fortune has other great teaching resources in the other ALL ABOUT CLAY resources such as CLAY MATTERS, SPEAKING OF CLAY, CLAY INSPIRATIONS, FUNCTIONAL CLAY INSPIRATIONS and the CLAY STUDIO TIPS SERIES.


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Tracy Fortune

Introduction ………………………..……….……...…….2

Studio Guidelines………………………………………..4

Attributes of Clay ………………..…………..…...……..8

Clay Tools and Equipment………..….………….…...16

Clay Methods ……….….…...…....…………………...29

Glazing and Other Surface Treatments…………….44

Ceramic Design….….……………………………….....53

Other Resources ………………………..….……...……70

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While, there is lots to learn and understand

about ceramics, in-depth knowledge is not

needed to get started. A basic understanding

of key techniques and processes is very helpful.

This resource is chalk full of information, but

focuses on the key things you need to know to

get started, to create and design clay

artworks, and to fire and finish ceramics pieces.

Some pages include some extensive

information to help those looking to understand

ceramics at a deeper level.

This book is organized into chapters, each one

focusing on different aspects of ceramics

including Studio Guidelines, Attributes of Clay,

Tools & Equipment, Clay Forming Methods,

Glazing & Firing and Ceramics Design.

I hope this resource helps you on your journey

as a ceramics artist and student.


Tracy Fortune



Clay is an amazing media to work with. This chapter

gives you some important tips and insights to help

you be successful in ceramics class.

• Safety in the Ceramics Studio

• 10 Golden Rules for Working with Clay

• Clay, Ceramics and Pottery Terms

• How do You Say Clay? A Global Look

• History of Ceramics

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Be Safe in the Ceramics Studio

Working with clay and glaze may not seem hazardous, but there are some

unseen physical dangers. You should be aware of the potential impacts on

your health and your life. Below are some safety recommendations when

Use Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

1. Respirator - Protect your lungs, especially when working with dry clay or raw glazes. Without

a respirator, tiny airborne dust particles can enter the

lungs and cause irreversible damage over time.

2. Gloves - Protect your hands and arms from coming

into contact with raw materials. While some materials

are harmless, some can irritate the skin, and others

contain toxic minerals that can be absorbed into the


4. Safety glasses/goggles - Protect your eyes,

especially if looking through a peephole of a hot kiln.

Your vision is too important to risk.

5. Apron - Protect your clothes. This will help keep your

clothes clean and will keep you from taking clay and

glaze dust with you when you leave the studio.

5. Tie your hair back - Protect your head. If you have

long enough hair to tie back, do so.

6. Wipe your feet - Protect your surroundings. It is good

practice to wipe the soles of your shoes after working

with messy materials, so you don’t track dust and

raw materials around your studio.

Other Safety Tips

• Clean the studio often to avoid excessive

dust exposure. Use a wet mop or sponge,

not a vacuum unless it has a HEVA filter.

• Keep clay out of the sink. If your hands or

tools are very dirty, use a bucket or large

bowl of water to rinse them.

• Keep food and drink out of the studio.

Compounds in glaze can be especially

harmful if ingested. Remember to wash

your hands regularly.

• Handle sharp tools with care and avoid using

them on plaster molds or the wedging

area (as they may cause damage).

• Be careful not to let plaster mix with clay as

it can cause problems when clay is fired.

• Keep your back straight when lifting heavy

equipment or materials such as a box of

clay. If possible adjust wheel, bench, and

wedging table heights to help you maintain

good posture.

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1. Clay should be tightly covered with a plastic bag to keep it from

drying out. This applies to works in progress and moist clay.

2. Clay dust can be harmful if you are exposed to it for long

periods of time. Keep clay scraps off the floor, clean-up with a

damp sponge, and never throw clay.

3. Wedge clay to remove air bubbles, achieve uniform

consistency, and to align the particles of clay.

4. Remember artworks made with clay thicker than your pinky

finger and thinner than your thumb are more likely to be

successful than ones made with very thick or thin walls.

5. Trapped air can cause clay issue in the kiln, so hollow out

sculptural forms and make a hole so air can escape.

6. When joining clay together, remember to score, slip, blend,

and smooth while the clay is wet or leather-hard.

7. Clay can be recycled, but only if it is unfired.

Don't glaze the bottom of a clay artwork. Wipe off any excess

glaze off with a damp sponge.

Let your clay artworks dry thoroughly before they are fired.

Handle your artworks with care at all times, especially

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Clay (noun) an earthy material that is plastic

when moist, but hard when fired

and used to make brick, tile, and


“That ceramic jug was made

with red clay”

History of the Term Clay

From the Old English “clæg“

meaning "stiff, sticky earth.”

• Germanic *klaijaz and "Kleie

• Old Frisian klai

• Old Saxon klei

• Dutch clei

• Danish klæg

Pottery (noun)


• Objects (containers) that are made

out of clay by hand.

“The artist created beautiful pottery"

• A studio where pottery is made.

“The artist worked every day at the pottery”"

Pottery (adverb)

• the skill of making pots and dishes

from clay.

“The student took pottery class"

History of Term Pottery

• Pottery derived from the Old English

term “potian” meaning "to push".

• A pottery (potter's workshop) comes

from the Old French word “poterie.”


Ceramics (noun) the art of making and

decorating pottery.

“I am taking a ceramics class”

Ceramic(s) (noun) an artifact made of

hard brittle material produced from non

-metallic minerals (clay) fired at high


“There are ceramics on the table”

Ceramic (adjective) Made of material

produced by the high temperature

firing of inorganic, non-metallic rocks

and minerals.

"A ceramic jug stood on the table"

History of the Term Ceramics

From the Greek word

• “keramos” meaning “burnt earth.”

• “keramic, meaning "of or belonging to


What is the Difference

Between Clay, Ceramics

and Pottery?

Clay is a material that when fired

becomes ceramic.

Ceramics are products such as

bricks, stoneware, china, and tiles

that are made from firing glass,

cements, or clay.

Pottery is generally considered to be

containers made from clay.

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Some Key Events in the…

People have been making items from clay for thousands of years. Ancient

cultures discovered that soft clay could be molded into many different

shapes and then fired to give them permanence.

Early Ceramic Artifacts: The oldest known ceramic artifact is a

female statuette, called the Venus of Dolní Věstonice dated

about 28,000 BC. It was found in a small prehistoric

settlement near Brno, in the Czech Republic. A this

site, hundreds of clay figurines, animals and balls

were uncovered near the remains of a horseshoeshaped



The Pottery of Ancient Civilizations: Ancient pottery

has been found in various places around the world

including .


1. Czech Republic (28,000 BC):

2. China: (16,000 -18,000 BC) Xianrendong Cave

Pottery, Yuchanyan Cave Pottery and later for


3. Croatia: (15,500 BC) Vela Spila Pottery

4. Japan: (14,500 BC) Jamon Pottery

5. Russia:(14,300 BC) Amur River Basin Pottery

6. West Africa (9000 BC): Nigerian Pottery

7. Iran (3500 BC) Ancient Persian Pottery

8. Americas (2000-1500 BC) Pre-Columbian Pottery has been found

in north, south and central America.

9. Greece (1000-400 BC) Ancient Greek Pottery is known for its exceptional vases

with detailed surface decoration.

History of Ceramics Timeline



1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8


BC or BCE (Before Common Era)

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Potter’s Wheel: The first potter’s wheel was invented in

Mesopotamia around 6000 to 4000 BC. This innovation made it

easier and faster to create uniformly cylindrical ceramic pieces

instead of hand-built pottery.

Glaze and Surface Finishes: Burnishing was one of the early ways

that artisans made the surface of their pots smooth. Early glazing

was discovered in China, Egypt, Mesopotamia and Greece. Some

of these glazes were made from the ash of various kinds of wood or

straw and others included lead.

Egyptian Potter

Firing and Kilns: Early clay pieces were dried in the sun or fired at

low temperature (below 1000°F/1830°C) in a shallow hole dug into

the ground. The Chinese were the first to introduce high

temperature kilns capable of reaching up to 2460°F/1350°C, and,

around 600 BC, developed porcelain (a material with less than 1%

porosity) from kaolin clay.

Pit Kiln

A. Middle Ages: During the middle ages, trade through the Silk

Road allowed for the introduction of porcelain first throughout

middle east and later in Europe.

B. 15th Century: Coal and wood furnaces were developed in

Europe, capable of reaching up to 2730°F/1500°C. They were

used to melt iron and were initially constructed from natural


C. 16th Century: When synthetic materials with better resistance to

high temperatures were developed, the results were that

melting metals and glass on an industrial scale as well as firing

mass production ceramics were possible.

D. 20th Century: The ceramic industry continued to change as new

products were developed. In the 20th century both gas and

electricity were used as fuels. Electric potter’s wheels and kilns were

developed and evolved. With kilns electronic programming

became common to control the temperature during a firing.

Roman Kiln

Electric Kiln

E. 21st Century: Technology is playing a bigger role in the firing and creation of ceramic

artworks. Smart phones and 3D printers are two innovations already being used. Who

knows what new innovations are on the horizon.

History of Ceramics Timeline

9 0



AD or CD (Common Era)

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It can be said many ways….

Afrikaans: Klei

Among: Av Nplaum

‏ْصال Arabic:

صَ‏ ل

Chinese: 粘 土

English: Clay

Croatian: Glina

Czech: Hlína Hrnčířská

Danish: Ler

Dutch: Klei

Filpino: Luwad

Finnish: Savi

French: Argile

Gaelic: Crèadh

German: Lehm

Greek: πηλός

חימר Hebrew:

Italian: Argilla

Japanese: 粘 土

Korean: 점토

Napali: माटो

Norwegian: Leire

Polish: Glina Skała

Portuguese: Argila

Romanian: Lut

Russian: глина

Samoan: Omea

Somali: Dhoobo

Spanish: Arcilla

Swedish: Lera

Thai: ดินเหนียว

Turkish: Kil

Ukrainian: глина

Vietnamese: đất sét

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It is helpful for ceramists and ceramics students to

understand the attributes of clay. This chapter

highlights several aspects.

• What is Clay?

• Types of Clay

• Sources of Clay

• Properties of Clay

• Clay Chemistry

• Stages of Clay

• The Ceramic Process

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Geologically, clay comes from

decomposed igneous rock that has been

eroded by weather. Clay is found near the

earth’s surface, often by rivers and lakes.

Chemically, clay is a mixture of alumina,

silica and water and has the formula

Other mineral oxides and organic matter are also found in clays.

Physically, clay is plastic due to its thin

plate-like particles and water content. It

becomes hard and brittle with drying

or firing. Clays naturally vary in color from

white to dull grey, brown to orange-red.

Artistically, clay is an art medium that can

be used to create both functional and

sculptural items. Products can be

handcrafted or mass-produced.

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Clays and clay minerals are found mainly on or near the earth’s surface.

Clay Cycle

When hot magma from

under the earth’s crust

cools, it becomes a solid

called igneous rock.

Through weathering, this

igneous rock is broken

down from boulders to

rocks, rocks to pebbles,

and finally pebbles to

small particles called

platelets. These platelets

are mixed with organic

matter and clay is

formed. Erosion carries

sediment away from the

original site of the

igneous rock.

Primary Clay is found near the igneous (mother) rock and

Secondary Clay is found away from the original site.

Two Classifications of Clay

Based on Where Clay Is Found

Primary (Residual) Clay resides at or near the original site where the igneous rocks were

formed. It is the purest type of clay and has few or no impurities.

Names: Kaolin, Porcelain, China Clay

Color: White

Cone: ∆10-12

Uses: Industrial, Commercial, Residential Artists/Potters

History: Used in China during the Eastern Han Dynasty (206BC–220 AD) and Tang Dynasty

(618–907 AD). Porcelain production was introduced in Europe around 1720.

Secondary (Sedimentary) Clay has been broken down and moved from its original

location by weathering and erosion to a new (sedimentary) deposit. Clay can accumulate

minerals along the way and is often found near rivers, streams and lakes.

Names: Stoneware, Earthenware, Ball Clay

Color: Buff, Red, Brown, Grey

Cone: ∆022-10

Uses: Residential Artists/Potters

History: Used in pre-historic times and common around the world

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The color of clay is determined by the presence

and type of minerals in it.

Examples: Iron=Red/Brown, Manganese=Black/Grey

Ability and ease of a clay body to be

formed and molded.

The roughness or smoothness of clays can vary.

Ones containing grog are rougher.

Grog: a granular material made from crushed, fired clay.

Temperature/Cone at which a clay matures/vitrifies

and becomes its hardest and least porous.

The ability of clay to hold/absorb moisture.

Low fire clays are more porous.

Mid and high-fire clays are less porous.

The amount clay shrinks as it dries and after it has

been fired. This can be up to 20%.

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What are the Main Components of Clay?

Potters are most interested in the periodic table elements that are found in the earth’s crust. These

elements, found in rocks, are present in clay and glazes. The most abundant elements are oxygen,

silicon and aluminum, followed by iron, calcium, sodium, potassium and magnesium.

Periodic Table of the Elements

Alkali Metals

Alkaline Metals

Transition Metals

Other Metals


Rare Earth Metals



Noble Gases

Important Elements for Potters

Primary Function Type of Element Comments


(Melting Agents)


Stabilizing Agent

Glass Formers


Alkali Metals

Alkaline Metals

Transition Metals

Rare Earth Metals

Other Metals



Alkali metals, such as sodium, potassium and lithium, can act as a flux.

Alkaline earth metals, such as magnesium and calcium, are used as fluxes.

Magnesium carbonate is a flux and colorant.

Transition metals, such as chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt and nickel are

colorants for clay and glaze. Zinc oxide is a flux and opacifier.

Rare earth metals, such as neodymium, erbium and praseodymium,

are used as colorants in glass and glazes. Glazes can have vivid colors and

maintain transparency.

Alumina is a stiffening/stabilizer. Lead and bismuth can be used as fluxes.

Tin is an opacifier.

Silica and boron are glass formers. Clay and glaze need a glass former that

reacts when heated. Boron also acts as a flux.

Hydrogen and oxygen form water and are found in all clay and glazes.

Selenium and arsenic are colorants. Phosphorus a flux. Carbon is a key

component in several colorants such as cobalt carbonate.

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Clay mixed with water into a pudding-like

or liquid consistency.

Used for joining clay, slip trailing, and slip casting.

Soft, workable clay that can be easily

molded and formed.

Used for hand-building, extruding and wheel throwing.

Clay that has hardened slightly.

This is the ideal stage for carving clay and

building tall slab constructions.

Clay that is completely dried

and ready to be fired.

Clay is very fragile at this stage.

Clay that has been transformed into

ceramic material after being fired once.

Ready to be glazed, stained or painted.

Ceramic material with glaze applied and

fired a second time.

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Clay Powders


Add Water

Wet Clay


Dried Clay

Add Heat by Firing in a Kiln

Air Pores

Fired Clay

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It is helpful for ceramists and ceramics students to

know about commonly used clay tools and

equipment. This includes learning the names of each

and their key parts.

• Clay Tools

• Clay Equipment

• Anatomy of a Slab Roller

• Anatomy of Wall-Mounted & Handheld Extruders

• Anatomy of a Potter’s Wheel

• Wheel Pottery Tools

• Anatomy of a Kiln

• Types of Kilns

• Kiln Firing Chart

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Loop Tool














Wood Rib

Sgraffito Loop Tool


Hole Cutter

Fettling Knife



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Slab Roller

Wall Extruder

Pottery Wheel

Handheld Extruder

Wedging Table

Pug Mill

Banding Wheel

Clay Mixer

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Heavy Weight Canvas

Top Roller


Lower Brace


Top Roller





Slab Roller

Slab Rollers are great for

making uniform clay slabs

with less time and effort than

using a rolling pin.

Use them to easily make large

slabs of various thicknesses.

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Handheld extruders can create both solid and hollow clay forms

Clay Extruders

Various Dies &


Extruders have

interchangeable dies with

holes that come in a

variety of sizes and


Each die shape produces

different results.

Produce Solid

& Hollow Forms

Hollow forms can be

created with an inner

die-holder (‘spider’).

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Extrude: “The act or process of shaping by forcing through a die.”

Notch Guide

Wall Bracket








End Cap

Dies and

Die-Holder (Spider)



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Wheel Head

Splash Pan

Bat Pin

Table Top




Power Switch



Foot Pedal

Foot Pedal


Leg Cap


Power Cord

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Loop Tool

Wood Trimming







Wood Rib

Ribbon Tool

Bucket for Water

Pot Lifters


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A pug mill is a special electric powered machine used to recycle and

reclaim clay. It can process a lot of clay in a short period of time.

Clay Hopper Cover

Clay Hopper


Drive Housing

Oil Inlet


Nozzle with

extruding slot

Tap Hole


Black= On

Red= Off

Clay Cutter


Clay Shelf

with Rollers

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Kiln Furniture

Lid with Fire Bricks

Lid Handle

Kiln Shelves

Kiln Arm/Brace


Kiln Bricks

Lid Band

Lid Hinge

Kiln Posts

Peep Holes &


Kiln Stand/Feet

Control Box

Metal Jacket/


Power Cord

Bead Rack






Kiln Wash




Spring Loaded Plenum Cup

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There are many different types of kilns which vary by power

source, size, loading access

Kiln Power Sources



Gas (Natural Gas,

Propane, Butane)


Other (Oil/Coal/



Electric Kilns

Gas Kilns

Top Hat (Raku)

Brick Kiln

Pit Fire

Homemade Kilns



Wood Kiln



Free Standing

Kiln Sizes



Small Glass Kilns

Electric and Gas Kilns

Gas Kiln


Large Production Kilns

Car/Shuttle Kilns

Table Top

Kiln Loading Access


Front Loading

Top Loading

Full Access


Many Gas Kilns

Many Electric Kilns

Top Hat (Raku)

Clamshell (Raku)

Free Standing


Top Loading



Front Loading


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Kiln Shapes









Oval Kilns (glass kiln)

Bottle Kilns

Rectangular Kilns

Square Kilns

Beehive (Anagama)

Sprung Arch Kilns

Catenary ‘Cat’ Kilns

Car Kilns

Climbing Kilns

Pit Firing

Brick/Barrell Kilns

Sprung Arch

Car Kiln


Oval Glass Kiln


Kiln Firing Cycles




(fired, cooled, reloaded)


Tunnel Kiln

Commercial Kilns

Electric Kilns

Gas Kilns



Up Draft

Pit Fire

Kiln Heat Flow


Up Draft


Gas Kilns



Down Draft

Cross Draft


Gas Kilns

Tunnel Kilns

Climbing Kilns

Electric Kilns

Cross Draft


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It is very important

to differentiate

between Cones 06

-04 and Cones 4-6,

as the settings are

quite different and

using the wrong

one could have a

negative effect on

the results. Cones

can be used to

gauge the

temperature in the

kiln. Below is an

example of how

they are set up

and what happens

during the firing


Note: Temperature equivalents are based on a rate of climb of 270F (150C) per hour


A ceramic kiln can be used to fuse glass.

Full Fuse: 1480F Tack Fuse: 1350F Slumping: 1220F

Note: Following a detailed firing schedule for each type of fusing

is necessary for desired results.

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Ceramists and ceramics students should be familiar

with key clay techniques for preparing clay and

working with clay, for both hand-building and

doing wheel pottery.

• Wedging

• Clay Thickness Guide

• Joining Clay Pieces

• Pinch Pot

• Coil

• Slab

• Extruding

• Wheel Throwing

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Wedging is kneading/pressing clay to remove air

bubbles and even out clay consistency.

Wedging Methods

Rams (Bull) Head Method: This popular method

has two hands both doing the same actions of

pushing and pulling the clay to form a ram’s

head-like symmetrical form.

Spiral (Shell) Method: This method has each

hand doing different motions and results in an

asymmetrical shell-like form.

Stack and Slam Method: Repetitively stacking,

slamming and slicing through blocks of clay.

Spanking Method (Modified Wedging):

This simple technique is done by ’spanking’ and

rotating clay. Mostly helps with shaping the clay.


• makes clay more pliable

• ensures a uniform consistency

• removes air pockets and any hard spots in the clay.

Wedging clay is a great way to make clay into

• a ball for working on the wheel or making a pinch pot

• a ‘loaf’ for putting it in the slab roller.

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The thickness of clay artworks is important.

What thickness is recommended to minimize issues?

Your clay can be...

“Thin as your Pinky………...Thick as your Thumb.”

Thickness is an important consideration, especially

when rolling out slabs and making pinch pots.

Credit: Wendie Love

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Tips for Joining Clay Pieces

Artists strive to create strong and creative

artworks. When joining or attaching small or

large pieces together, it is important to make

sure they are securely attached.

Clay shrinks as it dries and smaller pieces of

clay dry more quickly than larger pieces. As

smaller pieces shrink, they may detach from

larger pieces if not well attached.

The Slip and Score method is commonly

taught to students. To make joins even

stronger it is recommended to also Blend and

Smooth the seam. Blending is done by pulling

clay across the seam so the gap disappears.

Smoothing afterwards further strengthens the

join and gives a finished look. These four steps

are called S.S.B.S. or Score-Slip-Blend-Smooth.

Some people use the word Stick or Weld

instead of Blend, so call it S.S.S.S. or S.S.W.S.

Making joints and seams

disappear is often done with a

modeling tool

Using sponge, finger, or brush to

make a clay surface smooth

The tools used for S.S.B.S. can vary but

typically artists use a sharp tool such as a

needle tool for scoring. They use slip as gluelike

mixture, a wood or plastic modeling tool

to blend and a sponge or finger for


Tip for Connecting

Large Pieces

When attaching larger pieces together

or onto a base, wrapping a thin coil

around the join like a ‘scarf,’ makes the

seam stronger and less obvious.

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Pinch pots are

small bowl-like

forms created

using a pinching


Pinch pots can

be combined

together in a

variety of ways.

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Pinch Pot Bell

Candle Snuffer

Clay Rattle

Animal Effigy Bowls

Egg Cups

Lidded Bowl

Salt Pig

Dish Sets

Nested Pinch Pots

Altered Pinch Pot

Footed Bowls

Wind Chimes

Multiple Connected Pots


Big Mouth Characters

Double Pinch Pot Character

Animal Lidded Dish

Animal/Character Face

Bobblehead Character

Head Bust Sculpture

Nesting Dolls

Nature Inspired Sphere

Totem Pole Pinch Pots

Abstract Sculpture

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are snake-like ropes of clay.

Ways to Make


1. Roll Coils by Hand

Using palms gently

move hands back

and forth to lengthen

the coil

2. Use an Extruder

Handheld and large

extruders work well to

make uniform coils in

a variety of sizes and


What Can You Do with Coils?

• Construct vessels and sculptures.

• Add surface decorations.

• Strengthen seams when joining pieces of clay together (fill seam, then blend).

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• Coil Vases

• Pitchers and Teapots

• Coil Baskets

• Coil Bowls

• Coil Boxes

• Coil Candle Holders/Lanterns

• Coil Vessels

• Freeform Coiling

• Coil ‘Puzzling’

• Coil Decorated Spoons


• Heads or Faces with Coil Details

• Figurative Coil Sculptures

• Coil Animal/Character Sculptures

• Coil Object Sculptures

• Relief Tiles with Coil Details

• Coil Ornaments

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A slab is a piece of clay which has been made

flat, usually by rolling with a rolling pin or slab roller.

Slab Construction Steps

1. Use a rolling pin or slab-roller to roll out clay

so it is about 3/8” thick.

2. Cut out slabs for each side of your end


3. Lay all pieces and let dry until they are

leather-hard (somewhat stiff). This takes

about an hour or leave overnight in loosely

wrapped plastic. Placing a board on top

can keep the pieces from warping.

4. Consider beveling edges that will be joined

together as that will help the pieces fit

together well (bevel=cut at angle).

5. Score edges that will be attached.

6. Apply slip to scored edges.

7. Join pieces together and blend all of the

seams using a modeling tool.

8. To make the seam stronger, place a coil

along the interior seams of the piece.

Gently blend the coils so the seams and

coils disappear.

9. Blend any visible gaps on the outside.

10. Use a wet brush, sponge or your finger to

smooth out the whole piece.

S l i p

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1. 2D Slab Animals

2. 2D Architecture

3. 2D Human Form

4. Word Play Masks

5. Slab Animal Tiles

6. Incised-Excised Designs on Tiles

7. Coaster Sets

8. Relief Tile Murals

9. Slab Clocks

10. Picture Frames

11. Ceramic Looms

12. Folded Slab Dishes

13. Push Pots

14. Slab ‘Pillows’

15. Relief Personalized Plates

16. Sgraffito Plates

17. Shallow Animal Dishes


18. Cube and Rectangular Boxes

19. Slab Personal Boxes

20. Animal Boxes

21. Fun-Shaped Boxes

22. Sgraffito Boxes

23. Rounded Joint Boxes

24. Open Top Containers

25. Cylindrical Lidded Boxes

26. Dome Character Boxes

27. Other Cylindrical Containers

28. Vases with Matching Front and Back

29. Slab Vessels with Handles

30. Tripod Vessels

31. Organic Slab Vessels

32. Organic Slump Bowls

33. Rim Stitched Bowls

34. Sgraffito Vessels

35. Tissue Box Dispensers

36. Slab Piggy Banks

37. Patch Pots


38. Bird Houses

39. Bird Feeders

40. Rectangular Lanterns

41. Other Shaped Lanterns

42. Slab Bells

43. Windchimes

44. Garden Stakes

45. Wall Vases

46. Garden Totem Poles


47. Animal Sculptures

48. Architecture

49. Figurative Sculptures

50. Nature Inspired Sculptures

51. Sculptural Bookends

52. Ceramic Shoes

53. Mixed Media Sculptures

54. Abstract Sculptures

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“The act or process of

shaping by forcing

through a die.”

Barrel shaped equipment used to make

coils of assorted shapes and sizes.

Note: Extruders can also extrude hollow forms.

What can you do with an extruder?

Extruders are great for making coils

for coil construction or coil decorating,

handles and hollow forms.

Dies vary in size and shape. Hollow

forms require a die holder (spider) to

create a donut-like hole to extrude clay.

Dies and Die-Holders



decorating and

sculpting with coils


Making handles to

attach to functional


Hollow Forms

Extruded hollow

functional and

sculptural forms

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Functional and Sculptural

Functional Extruder Ideas

• Extruded Vase

• Lidded Container

• Pitcher

• Teapot

• Lantern

• Set of Vessels

• Napkin Rings

Sculptural Extruder


• Multiple Hollow Forms

• Architectural Sculpture

• Human Faces/Forms

• Figurative Sculpture

• Animal Sculpture

• Abstract Sculpture

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Tips for

Trimming a Pot

Forming clay on a potter’s wheel

Place your pot upside

down. Adjust the pot’s

position with the pot

spinning slowly. Once

centered, press

several small coils of

clay into place around

the rim to attach the pot

to the wheel. Then use

trimming tools to remove

excess clay, add a foot

and refine shape

For best results, make

some measurements &


A. Pot Height

B. Pot Depth

C. Bottom Thickness


D. Foot Ring Diameter

usually 1/2 - 1/3 of

rim’s diameter.

E. Curves of the Pot

F. Walls of the Pot

should be of even


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1. Get Out the Tools You Will Need: You will need a

bucket about half full of water, as well as some

pottery tools including a sponge, wire cutter, needle

tool, rib and wood modeling tool.

2. Choose the Right Type of Clay: Most potters use

smooth clays, but beginners can find it easier to

work with clay with a bit of grog or sand as it is less

likely to collapse.

3. Wedge Clay: Wedging your clay well is important

as it removes air pockets and small hard spots, and

gives clay uniform consistency.

4. Clay Should Be Well Attached to the Wheel or Bat:

It works best if the clay you put on the wheel is

rounded and not flat on the bottom.

5. Use Plenty of Water: If your clay feels dry against

your hands as you’re centering, you don’t have

enough water on your hands. Your clay can

become too wet if you use too much water.

6. Pay Attention to Wheel Speed: Use med-high or

high for centering and a slower speed when your

are forming the pottery. Put your hands on the clay

once it is spinning, not when it starting to move.

7. Move Your Hands SLOWLY: Move your hands

slowly as clay can easily go off center with

quick movements. Pull clay up slowly with

pressure on inside and out.

8. Pay Attention to Your Body Position: Place your legs

as close to your splash pan as possible. Keep your

arms anchored and back straight. Lean your body

into the clay. Keep your arms anchored to your leg

or the side of your body — that way the clay has

nowhere to go except where you want it.

9. Clean Up: There are quite a few things to clean

including the wheel head, tools, shelf and yourself.

Don’t put clay down the drain. Clay and slip/slurry

can be recycled.

10. Turn On and Off the Wheel: Of course you turn on

the wheel when using it, but don’t forget to turn it off

when you are finished.

Use a “W Position” with your

hands when creating a hole.

Pull clay up slowly with

pressure on the inside and out.

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60 Ideas for What You Can Make Using the Pottery Wheel

1. Basket

2. Bell

3. Bird Bath

4. Bird Feeder

5. Bird House

6. Bowl

7. Butter Dish

8. Cake Stand

9. Candle Holders

10. Candle Snuffer

11. Canisters

12. Casserole Dish

13. Cellphone Speaker

14. Chip & Dip Bowl

15. Christmas Ornament

16. Coasters

17. Colander

18. Cookie Jar

19. Cream and Sugar

20. Cup

21. Cupcake Stand

22. Dog/Cat Bowl

23. Egg Cups

24. Egg Separator

25. Garden Ornament

26. Garden Totem

27. Garlic Holder

28. Goblet

29. Honey Pot

30. Jam Jar

31. Jewelry/Ring Holder

32. Jug

33. Knobs

34. Lamp Base

35. Lantern

36. Lemon Juicer

37. Mug

38. Napkin Rings

39. Nesting Bowls

40. Pencil Holder

41. Piggy Bank

42. Pitcher

43. Plant Holder

44. Plate

45. Rain Chain

46. Salt & Pepper Shakers

47. Salt Pig

48. Serving Dishes

49. Soap Dish

50. Soap Dispenser

51. Soup Tureen

52. Spoon Rest

53. Teacup and Saucer

54. Teapots

55. Toothbrush Holder

56. Toothpick/Match Holder

57. Utensil Holder

58. Vase

59. Wind Chimes

60. Yarn/String Bowl

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Ceramists and ceramics students should be familiar

with ways to finish and alter the surface of clay

artworks, including aspects of glazing and other

ways to finish ceramic artworks.

• Glaze Safety

• What is Glaze?

• Properties of Glaze

• Glaze Chemistry

• Finishing Methods

• Surface Decoration Techniques

• Glaze Issues and Remedies

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Ways to add color to the surface of bisque-fired clay

Glaze is the most common way to add color and finish

clay artworks. It is applied to bisqueware and can be

clear or colored.

Underglazes can be applied to Greenware (unfired clay)

or Bisqueware. May be coated with clear glaze to seal it

or give it a shiny finish.

Stains and oxides can be applied to bisqueware and

then wiped to emphasize texture. To seal and add

shine, apply clear glass over top.

Lusters are overglazes applied on glaze-fired pieces and

require a third firing. Lusters are often metallic and fired at

a lower temperature.

Paint, including acrylic, watercolor or tempera, can be

applied on bisque-fired clay. Paint is used mostly on

ceramic sculptures.

Wax crayons, oil pastel, marker, shoe polish, wet tissue

paper and black or colored inks can be used as

alternatives to glaze or paint.

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Safety Rating of Glaze Products

Non-Toxic: Refers to the product in the jar. Contains no

harmful ingredients in sufficient quantities that

could be harmful to humans (including


Health Caution: Refers to the product in the

jar. There are some ingredients present in

large enough quantities that the product

may be harmful to humans. There will be

detailed information on the product label

about the risk and proper handling

instructions. Even more detailed information

is available on the relevant Material Safety

Data Sheet (MSDS).

Dinnerware Safe/ Food Safe: Refers to the

finished, fired surface of the glaze. Once

fired according to the instructions on the

product label, the fired surface may be

used in contact with food or beverage

without leaching potential harmful

elements from the glaze into the food or


Toxic Minerals In Glaze

Two materials in glaze that have

proven to be especially toxic are

lead and cadmium. Lead is used

to make glazes flow better at low

temperatures. Cadmium is used

primarily to create bright orange

and red colors.

Glaze Safety

Equipment and


• Crystalline silica is

present in almost all

glazes and can scar

lung tissue if


• Do not eat, drink, or

smoke in the glazing

area. Do not

interchange eating

and glazing utensils.

• Scrub your hands

thoroughly after


• Use a ceramic dust

filter mask that fits

well when mixing,

spraying, or sanding


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Potters need to consider several important properties of glazes when selecting

which glaze(s) they will use to finish their artwork. These include color, opacity,

surface finish and firing temperature. Some glazes can be used and applied to

achieve a variety of different special effects.

Glazes can be formulated to produce a wide variety of

colors using stains or metallic coloring oxides. Color is a

major defining characteristic in describing any glaze.

The ability of light to penetrate the glaze layer determines

if a glaze is transparent, semi-opaque or opaque. With

transparent glazes, what is underneath can show through.

Glazes can have various degrees of shine.

Gloss - high shine, smooth

Satin - low shine, semi-smooth

Matte - no shine, slightly rough

The 3 most common temperature ranges in ceramics are

Cone 06 (1830°F), Cone 6 (2232°F) and Cone 9 (2336°F).

Glazes can be developed for wood, soda, salt, luster, raku,

crystalline and other firing techniques.

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What are the Main Components of Glaze?

Periodic Table of the Elements

Glass Forming Agents

Stabilizing/Stiffening Agent

Melting Agents - Fluxes





Essential Glaze Components

Stabilizing Agent

Melting Agents



silicon dioxide

or boron trioxide

Silica needs to be heated to a

very high temperature (about

3100 F or 1710 C) to turn to

glass. This is hotter than can be

reached by ceramic kilns.



aluminum oxide

Alumina stiffens a glaze so it

won’t slide off and helps

disperse fine gas bubbles that

can form in the firing process.


Various options include

calcium oxide, potassium

oxide, sodium oxide

Flux is need to lower the

melting point of the higher

temperature ingredients in a


Glaze Additives

Colorants Opacifiers Other

Made mostly from

Common opacifiers Suspending agents,

metallic oxides such

include tin oxide, gums, and glaze

as iron, manganese,

zirconium, titanium, thinners are also

cobalt, nickel, and

zinc and bone ash. sometimes added.

copper oxides.


Oxygen is present in all glazes.

Various elements combine

with oxygen to form oxides

such as

Tin Oxide SnO₂

Calcium Oxide CaO

Silicon Oxide SiO2

Aluminum Oxide Al2O3

Note: Some oxides impact a glaze in more than one way. For example, iron oxide acts as flux agent and a colorant.

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1. Brushing is a common method of glazing. The right brushes is also

very important. Large flat brushes for bigger pieces. and small,

round-tip brushes for finer details.

2. Dipping can be used to form a base layer to use before

decoration or to apply a solid color that won’t be decorated.

3. Spraying requires a spray gun or air gun is used to apply whole

layers, as well as decorating. Using a banding wheel is

recommended as it is easier to rotate the banding wheel than the

spray gun. Spaying is especially good for larger pieces or pieces of

non-standard shape.

4. Sponging is used to create interesting textures, pattern and soft

transitions of color. Sponges easily absorb the glaze and help to

quickly apply it to pottery.

5. Dripping/Pouring are fantastic techniques that can be used to add

a layer of glaze or for creative decorating. Dripping is usually

associated with decorating, while pouring is often done to cover

the whole piece in a solid-colored layer.

6. Splattering is a fun way to apply glaze. It is typically done with a

stiff brush to create dot-like splatters or streak patterns. It is usually

applied over a base layer of glaze.

7. Wax Resist is done by painting a layer of

liquid wax resist over glaze or underglaze, then brushing a second

color of glaze or underglaze over the surface. Hot or cold wax can

be used.

8. Glaze Trailing is the process of applying glaze-on-glaze or glaze-on

-clay artworks by drawing with a small, squeezable bottle that has

an narrow tip.

9. Stippling is applying glaze with the tip of a soft brush. It works well

when a shading effect is needed, or if you want to apply the glaze

in a dappled texture.

10. Bubbles Effect is done using straw to blow bubbles into a soapy

mixture of 3 parts water,1 part dish or hand soap, and 1 part


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1. WIPE bisqueware with a

damp sponge.

2. CHOSE glaze(s) based on

glaze test tiles.

3. MIX glaze thoroughly.

4. APPLY glaze in even coats

(2+ layers).

5. CLEAN OFF any glaze from

the bottom of pot with a

damp sponge.

6. RECORD info in your glaze

journal noting the name(s)

of glaze and how it was


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Crazing is fine pattern of

cracks in the surface of the

glaze. This crackle-like effect

is the result of the glaze

shrinking more than the clay

body. Note: Some glazes are

designed to craze.

Glaze shivers when it cracks

and pieces of glaze peel off

the piece, often at the edges

of a piece. This is a result of

the clay shrinking more than

the glaze which is opposite of

the crazing problem.

Try changing to a lower

expansion glaze or adding a

relatively low expansion

material such as silica to the

existing glaze. Alternatively,

you can switch to a higher

expansion clay body.

Try to increase the

expansion of the glaze by

adding a material such as a

high expansion frit.

Glaze that crawls or creeps

leaves exposed areas of bare

bisque. Glaze can crawl due

to the presence of dust,

grease or other dirt on the

bisque or when it is too thick.

Wipe bisqueware well with a

sponge before glazing.

Try thinning the glaze by

adding water or by applying

less glaze.

Pinholes are tiny holes in the

glaze surface. They are

caused by gases escaping

from the clay body during the

firing cycle.

Try a longer firing cycle with

a 15-minute hold or do a

thinner glaze application.

Off-gassing can occur if a

kiln cools too quickly from its

top temperature.

Glaze blisters look like little

craters or bubbles on the

glaze surface.

Try thinner layers of glaze or

wait longer before firing to

allow the glaze to fully dry.

Make sure the kiln is not over

firing or cooling too quickly

from its top temperature.

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Creating great ceramic artworks can be improved

by thinking before and during the creation process.

This chapter highlights some things to consider.

• Ceramic Design Considerations

• Steal Like an Artist

• Creative Process

• 2D Surface Decoration

• 3D Surface Decoration

• Element of Design

• Principles of Design

• What is a Vessel?

• Anatomy of a Vessel

• Functional Ideas

• Sculptural Ideas

• Artwork Planning

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Artists create art, but that is not all that artists do.

Artists also observe, connect, reflect,

talk and think like artists.

When creating ceramic artworks, artists go

through a series of design steps as they

make design decisions. These steps are not

the same for everyone, but here are some

common considerations.

• Functionality: Will I create something

functional, sculptural or both?

• Aesthetic Considerations: Which

elements and/or principles of design will I

use to create an aesthetically pleasing or interesting artwork?

• Functional Considerations: If it’s a functional, what are the parts like? Will

it have handle, lid, spout, and/or foot?

• Concept: What message, purpose, idea or theme will my artwork


• Style: If sculptural, what level of abstraction will your idea have?

Realistic? Abstract? Stylized? Cartoonish? Non-Representational?

• 2D-3D: How 3D is the artwork? Is it more 2D (relief) or 3D (viewed from

multiple viewpoints)?

• Size: What are the planned dimensions? Length? Width? Height/Depth?

• Construction Methods: What construction method(s) will work best to

create this artwork? Slab, Coil, Pinch Pot, Wheel, etc.?

• Surface Decoration: What surface decoration technique(s) will you use?

Incising, excising, sgraffito, sprigging, slip trailing, etc.?

• Glazing or Glaze Alternative: What type of glaze and what color(s) of

glaze? What application method will you use? If not glazing, what

alternative way of finishing will you use?

• Tools and Equipment: What tools and equipment will you need to create

your artwork?

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Artists develop ideas in many different ways. It is worth

checking out Austin Kleon’s book How to Steal Like an Artist

as his thinking can help artists and students view idea

development in a an inspiring and freeing way.

Kleon introduces his book with

Every artist gets asked the question

“Where do you get your ideas?”

The honest artist answers

“ I steal them.”

Kleon also states.

When you look a the world in this way, you stop

worrying about what’s “good” and what’s

“bad”—there’s only stuff worth stealing and stuff

that is not worth stealing.

His graphic image (see image on right) comparing

good and bad theft can help you to “steal like an

artist.” by combining and/or revising ideas to reflect

your personal passions. Pairing this with the creative

process can help you build your thinking skills and


This guide provides some list of inspiring ideas, including

• Functional Ideas

• Sculptural Theme ideas

• Pinch Pot, Coil, Slab, Wheel Throwing and

Extruder Ideas

Check out an Artwork Planning tool that can be used to

guide you to not only steal like an artist, but to better

think like an artist as one of the key skills that artists

develop and use.

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Set Challenge - Consider Constraints - Define Goals

Decide on Big Ideas - Determine Direction

Make a List - Generate Ideas - Conceptualize

Visualize - Imagine Possibilities - Mind Map

Gather Inspiration - Sketch Ideations

With the






Eureka or

Aha does not

come at any

set point.

Research Ideas - Explore - Develop - Experiment

Percolate - Incubate - Practice Techniques - Process

Sketch Possibilities - Adapt Ideas - Classify - Sort

Combine - Transform - Consider Approach & Tools

The creative

process often

takes effort and

hard work.

Keep in mind


‘perspiration’ is

worth it.

Create - Produce - Execute - Refine -

Synthesize - Analyze - Adjust - Improve -

Revise - Modify - Finalize - Culminate

Evaluate - Assess - Interpret - Analyze - Critique

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The surface of clay can be altered with various relief effects.

This is usually done at the leather-hard stage.


Carving or engraving

a design into clay by

cutting or scraping

into the surface.


Carving away the

background around

shapes on the surface

of the clay to leave a

raised relief design.


Stamping or

embossing textures or

designs with an

object, tool or stamp

or scraping into

the surface.


Cutting of shapes,

letters, or designs

through the wall of a

pot while in the

leather-hard state.

Slip Trailing

Drawing on the

surface of a clay

with slip using a




Making parallel lines

on the surface of a

pot with a tool such

as a serrated rib

or comb.


Using a carving tool

to remove ribbons

of clay leaving a


appearance on


Decorating with low-relief forms

that are usually made separately

using a mold.

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The surface of clay can be altered with various 2D effects.

This is usually done at the leather-hard stage.

Some techniques require colored slip or underglaze.


Rubbing the surface

of leather-hard clay

with a hard object to

create a smooth,

glossy surface.


Carving a clay

surface, through

layers of underglaze

or colored slip, to

leave behind an

incised image or



Filling incised lines/

areas with colored

slip or underglaze.


Cutting or tearing

paper shapes,

adhering them to

leather-hard clay

and then applying


over the clay


Wax Resist

Brushing a wax

medium over an

area of clay, slip,

or underglaze to

resist the final




Using a sponge

to apply

underglaze to

create gradients

of color.


Painting underglaze

or slip with

a brush in a loose

or precise

manner to give

different effects.

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The elements are like the ingredients for a recipe to design

functional and sculptural ceramics.

Line: Lines are two-dimensional, and are used in sculpture to lead

the viewer’s eye in, around and through a form. Can be actual

or implied. They can vary in many ways including thickness,

length, curvature and direction.

Shape: Shapes are two-dimensional and may be used

on surface designs or be evident in the silhouette of a

sculpture. Slabs look like shapes, but are actually

forms with very little depth. Three-dimensional forms

contain points (vertices), lines (edges) and planes


Form: A 3D sculpture has height, width and depth. Forms

can be geometric or organic. Every sculpture is a

form, but not every form is a sculpture.

Space: Space is the height, width and depth of a 3D

form. It includes the area within and around a

sculpture as well.

Color: Color can be used to enhance a 3D form. It can

be applied (glazed or painted on) or inherent, such

as the natural color of the clay. Color can be used

to increase the clarity of the theme or meaning of a


Value: Value is evident in highlights or shadows on the

surface of a sculpture, meant to create interest

through contrast. Textures and deeply carved areas

have dark shadowed values; areas that stick out

have highlighted values. Value is also evident in the

lightness or darkness of glaze or paint on the surface

of a sculpture.

Texture: Repetitive marks a sculpture’s surface create interest

through contrast. Deeply textured areas appear darker and

smoother; non-textured areas appear lighter.

Volume and Mass; Volume is a shape in three dimensions.

Mass is the density of an object (actual or perceived weight).

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are like a ‘recipe’ or instructions of ways to work with and organize the

elements of design for functional and sculptural ceramics.

Balance: Ordered relationship of parts.

Visual balance is achieved by the

placement of similar or dissimilar


Contrast: Different elements used

together to highlight their differences.

Emphasis: Stressing or calling attention

to some part of a 3D artwork,

creating a focal point.

Proportion& Scale: The size of the

parts or whole compared one to the

whole, other parts, other objects

and/or the human form.

Repetition & Pattern: Repeating one

or more elements of art to create

patterns and help unify an artwork.

Rhythm & Movement: Rhythm is the

result of replication and creates visual

interest. Movement guides the

viewer’s eye around the artwork.

Unity: The elements working together so

everything comes together in a

cohesive harmonious way.

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What is a Vessel?

A vessel is a

hollow container,

often designed to

hold liquids

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What Functional Ideas Interest You?

Consider Creating Something that is Both Sculptural and Functional

1. Address Number Sign

2. Basket

3. Beads

4. Bells

5. Bird Bath

6. Bird Feeder

7. Bird House

8. Book Ends

9. Bowls

10. Box

11. Bracelet

12. Bud Vase

13. Business Card Holder

14. Butter Dish

15. Buttons

16. Cake Stand

17. Candle Holders

18. Candle Snuffer

19. Canisters

20. Casserole Dish

21. Cell Phone Holder/Speaker

22. Chess/Checker Set

23. Chia Pet

24. Christmas Ornament

25. Chopstick Rest

26. Clock

27. Coasters

28. Colander

29. Cookbook Holder

30. Cookie Jar

31. Cream and Sugar

32. Cups

33. Cupcake Stand

34. Decanter

35. Dog/Cat Bowl

36. Door Stop

37. Earring Holder

38. Egg Cups

39. Egg Separator

40. Garden Ornament

41. Garden Totem

42. Garlic Holder

43. Goblet

44. Honey Pot

45. Incense Burner

46. Jam Jar

47. Jewelry Holder

48. Jug

49. Knobs

50. Lamp Base

51. Lantern

52. Lemon Squeezer

53. Measuring Spoons

54. Mug

55. Mug with pocket

56. Mug with surprise

57. Music Instrument

58. Napkin Holder

59. Napkin Rings

60. Nesting Bowls/Plates

61. Pencil Holder

62. Photo Holder

63. Picture Frame

64. Piggy Bank

65. Pitcher

66. Plant Holder

67. Plant Markers

68. Plates

69. Rain Chain

70. Rice/Noodle Bowl

71. Ring Holder

72. Salt & Pepper Shakers

73. Salt Pig

74. Serving Dishes with


75. Serving Platter/Tapas Set

76. Signs

77. Soap Dish

78. Soup Tureen

79. Spoons

80. Spoons—Slotted

81. Spoon Rest

82. Sundial

83. Switch Plate Cover

84. Teacup and Saucer

85. Teapots

86. Teapot Set

87. Tic-Tac-Toe Game

88. Tiles

89. Tissue Box Dispenser

90. Toothbrush Holder

91. Toothpick/Match Holder

92. Trivet

93. Utensil Holder

94. Vase

95. Wall Hanger/Pocket

96. Watering Can

97. Whistle/Ocarina

98. Wind Chimes

99. Wine Bottle Stop

100. Yarn/String Bowl

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Human Form

Animals &




Nature &






Culture Inspired


Historical Events



Body Parts

Whole Figure




Farm/Zoo Animals




Household Items

























Middle East

Past Events

Future Events



Time Travel







Head Bust/Portrait

Group of Figures

Pair of Figures

Cartoon Characters

Prehistoric Animals







Geological Features

Outer Space














Mental Health




Other Concerns


South America

North America

Pacific Islands










Pop Art


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Artwork/Project Name:


Part A: List of Ideas

(A=15+, B=9-14, C=4-8)

Part B: Thumbnail/Small Sketches

(A=6+ B=4-5, C=1-3)















Part C: Image/Idea Search: Look Online (or other Source) for Inspirational Images

to Use as You Develop and Refine Your Ideas. (A=3+ B=2, C=1)

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Part D: Large/Final Sketch

Consider your ideas on the previous page Select/Combine/Refine Idea(s) to best convey the message/concept

you are trying to communicate. Make at least two detailed sketches (1 large sketch and one supporting smaller

sketch). Include notes such as the title, technique(s), size, colors and other information about your plan.

A= 2 detailed sketches (1 large sketch and 1 supporting sketch such as an alternate view or close-up) with descriptive notes,

B= 1 detailed large sketch with some notes, C= 1 medium/large sized sketch.

Large Detailed Sketch

(with notes)

Alternate View

Side, Top, Back or Close-Up View

Other Notes

Estimated Size:

Construction Method(s):

Surface Decoration Method(s):

Glaze (or alternative) Plan:

Teacher’s Initials

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www.artboxadventures.net 70 artboxadventures@gmail.com


Digital Down-

Paperback Books

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By Tracy Fortune

First Edition

Copyright © Tracy Fortune 2021



Tracy Fortune

National Board Certified Art Teacher

Bachelor of Education, Masters of Education




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