DIVE PACIFIC 178 Sept-Nov 2021

Featuring Whale Shark at the door! (?), the threats from WWII wrecks in the Pacific, climate change impacts on kelp forests and coral reefs, new columns, superb u/w/photos and more

Featuring Whale Shark at the door! (?), the threats from WWII wrecks in the Pacific, climate change impacts on kelp forests and coral reefs, new columns, superb u/w/photos and more


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ISSUE <strong>178</strong> - Online<br />

<strong>Sept</strong>ember - <strong>Nov</strong>ember <strong>2021</strong><br />

NEW ZEALAND'S <strong>DIVE</strong> MAGAZINE<br />

NEW ZEALAND’S ONLY <strong>DIVE</strong> MAGAZINE<br />

P A C I F I C<br />

NEW ZEALAND’S ONLY <strong>DIVE</strong> MAGAZINE<br />

Whale Shark at the door!<br />

WWII <strong>PACIFIC</strong> OIL LEAKS:<br />


What our kelp forests<br />

have in common with<br />

coral reefs<br />

Overfishing: the issues<br />

P A C I F I C<br />

Pete Mesley on technical diving : NEW COLUMN<br />

Wild life photographer of the Year preview<br />

How much ocean should we protect?<br />

Experiencing Marine Reserves celebrates 20 years<br />


www.dive-pacific.com 1

2 Dive New Zealand | Dive Pacific

The Dive Zone group are keen<br />

to see divers enjoy their own<br />

backyard this summer and<br />

looking forward to getting you out<br />

on, and under the water in each of<br />

their fantastic dive locations: Dive<br />

Zone Bay of Islands, Tauranga, and<br />

Whitianga.<br />

Each of their stores offer awesome<br />

service with a full range of dive<br />

gear to hire or purchase, with<br />

good quality, reliable brands such<br />

as Mares and Beuchat leading<br />

their range. Be it a new dive<br />

knife, a float or flag or even the<br />

whole kit; the Dive Zone stores<br />

are locked and loaded ready to<br />

help you, our summer visitors,<br />

enjoy, and get the most out of<br />

their diving.<br />

All stores also offer tank filling<br />

and testing, and BCD and<br />

Regulator testing.<br />

Three top dive<br />

destinations<br />

invite you…<br />

Since our stores are located in<br />

out of the way areas, we are well<br />

used to assisting divers with last<br />

minute problems that can pop up<br />

and prevent you from getting out<br />

on the water.<br />

Got a friend or family member<br />

that wants to learn? Or do you<br />

want to upskill? All of our stores<br />

offer a full range of PADI dive<br />

training courses, and all of them<br />

are available throughout the<br />

summer.<br />

Make the most of our Summer Road<br />

Trip offer. Dive with all three stores<br />

and go into the draw to win $1000<br />

to spend with us.<br />

What are you waiting for?<br />

Come and visit us.<br />

Dive Zone Bay of Islands<br />

Dive Zone Tauranga<br />

Dive Zone Whitianga<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 1

contents<br />

16<br />

46<br />

IN DEPTH<br />

4 Wyland-Dive Pacific Award & Leo Ducker Award winners<br />

5 EDITORIAL: Going Deep on the Big Issues<br />

with EDITOR Gilbert Petersen<br />

SOUNDINGS Local and international news & comment<br />

6 Divers death by drowning: Coroner’s report<br />

10 Chalky Inlet in Fiordland recently gave up yet another secret,<br />

a cannon<br />

11 A glove robot underwater has been ‘talking’ to a machine in Croatia<br />

– AUT Professor Iain Anderson explains<br />

35<br />

12 Two more local divers lost<br />

Introducing Eco-ventures<br />

Waiheke Dive wins top award<br />

25 New shark species named<br />

Italian shark has ‘virgin birth’<br />

Call for new treaty to protect the high seas<br />

Ocean beneath controls what’s above<br />

31 400-year-old coral widest ever found in Great Barrier Reef<br />

36 A sunken city known as the Egyptian Atlantis, is yielding further<br />

mysteries<br />

50<br />

37 Wakatobi, your number one wish list destination, has been using<br />

lock down time to upgrade<br />

Queensland govt is killing dolphins, four in the past two months.<br />

Many other marine animals are being destroyed for nothing too<br />


13 Experiencing Marine Reserves celebrates 20 years!<br />

16 “One day in lock down not one but two Whale Sharks turned up at<br />

our front door, in the canal outside, literally.”<br />

Winston Cowie tells the tale of what happened then…<br />

20 Oil from ships sunk during WWII in the Pacific is threatening to<br />

leak. How imminent is the disaster? What’s being done?<br />

Dr Matt Carter of the Australian based Major Projects Foundation<br />

fills us in with the latest<br />

38<br />

35 New Zealand’s kelp forests and the coral reefs of our Pacific<br />

neighbours are being impacted by the effects of climate change. In<br />

what ways and how severe is it?<br />

Dr Chris Cornwall of Victoria University has some answers<br />

30 Overfishing is among the worst of our marine problems.<br />

Coty Perry covers the issues<br />

32 So how much of our oceans should we protect?<br />

Dee Harris reviews where in the world we’re up to on this hot topic<br />

38 The Wildlife Photographer of the Year Awards are always highly<br />

anticipated. Dive Pacific offers a preview<br />

2 Dive New Zealand | Dive Pacific<br />

44 Two of NZ’s diving trailblazers have passed on: Alf Dickerson &<br />

Brian Mayer. Dive Pacific recalls their great contributions

NEW ZEALAND’S ONLY <strong>DIVE</strong> MAGAZINE<br />

P A C I F I C<br />

ISSUE <strong>178</strong> - Online<br />

<strong>Sept</strong>ember - <strong>Nov</strong>ember <strong>2021</strong><br />


P A C I F I C<br />

NEW ZEALAND’S ONLY <strong>DIVE</strong> MAGAZINE<br />

Whale Shark at the door!<br />

P A C I F I C<br />

WWII <strong>PACIFIC</strong> OIL LEAKS:<br />


What our kelp forests<br />

have in common with<br />

coral reefs<br />

Overfishing: the issues<br />

Pete Mesley on technical diving : NEW COLUMN<br />

Wild life photographer of the Year preview<br />

How much ocean should we protect?<br />

Experiencing Marine Reserves celebrates 20 years<br />


www.dive-pacific.com 1<br />

Ex pat Kiwi Winston Cowie<br />

reports in from Abu Dhabi<br />

with the most unlikely of<br />

tales. Big enough to add to<br />

the Arabian Nights -<br />

Head to page 16<br />

13<br />

44<br />


7 Growing support to ban scallop dredging<br />


8 DEEP thoughts, and deeper discussions. NEW COLUMN<br />

with diving legend PETE MESLEY<br />

48 Conservation: Is it necessary? The debate in 1971 Part II<br />

Back in the Day<br />

50 Diagnosing decompression illness<br />

INCIDENT INSIGHTS with DAN, the Divers Alert Network<br />

56 Photography underwater: The basics<br />

DIGITAL IMAGING with Hans Weichselbaum<br />

Photo: Aimee van der Reis<br />

20<br />

59 Black Coral (and Snake Star)<br />

SPECIES FOCUS with Paul Caiger<br />

GEAR BAG<br />

54 The latest underwater torches<br />

Why you need a magnetometer, and a metal detector<br />

60 Shades of Colour Photo Comp returns<br />

66 Classifieds<br />

69 Subscribe to <strong>DIVE</strong><br />

60<br />

Check out our website www.divenewzealand.co.nz<br />

36<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 3



Wyland-Dive Pacific Award goes to...<br />

At the NZUA AGM in July Rob<br />

Wilson was presented with this<br />

year’s Wyland-Dive Pacific trophy<br />

by NZUA life member Dave Moran<br />

for establishing Ghost Diving in<br />

2015. Ghost Diving (https://ghostdivingnz.org)<br />

organises events<br />

and campaigns to remove garbage<br />

and other debris from the seafloor<br />

and coastline especially around<br />

Wellington. It brings together<br />

NZUA earns grant<br />

Grants for water safety initiatives<br />

distributed through<br />

Maritime New Zealand every year<br />

saw NZUA’s ‘Survive the Dive’<br />

RDASS Certificate (Recreational<br />

Dive Activity Skipper/Supervisor<br />

Certificate) receive $16,500 towards<br />

its promotion and related water<br />

A<br />

Swiss Lifesaving Society has<br />

earned one of the highest<br />

awards for underwater safety, the<br />

HIRA3 (Hazard Identification and<br />

Risk Assessment) certificate.<br />

The certification NEW ZEALAND’S ONLY issued <strong>DIVE</strong> MAGAZINE by DAN<br />

(Divers Alert Network) covers<br />

safety work.<br />

The NZUA ‘Survive the Dive’ RDASS<br />

certificate is a free online training/<br />

refresher program teaching,<br />

quizzing and examining participants<br />

on the safe supervision<br />

of divers in the water plus the<br />

Lifesavers earn top safety award<br />

P A C I F I C<br />

established 1990<br />

NEW ZEALAND’S ONLY <strong>DIVE</strong> MAGAZINE<br />

P A C I F I C<br />

<strong>Sept</strong>ember - <strong>Nov</strong>ember <strong>2021</strong><br />

Online Issue <strong>178</strong><br />

NEW ZEALAND’S ONLY <strong>DIVE</strong> MAGAZINE<br />

Find us on facebook -<br />

follow the links on our website<br />

www.Dive-Pacific.com<br />

P A C I F I C<br />

Diver Emergency Number, New Zealand :<br />

0800 4 DES 11 1800 088 200 (toll free)<br />

Australia : +61-8-8212 9242<br />

scuba divers, free divers, scientists,<br />

photographers, supporters<br />

and families at well publicised<br />

events.<br />

The Wyland Award is given to an<br />

individual or group of individuals<br />

who have contributed enormous<br />

amounts of time for the benefit of<br />

all divers and the marine environment<br />

for no real personal gain.<br />

Leo Ducker Award presented<br />

NZUA Board member Annika<br />

Andresen presented this year’s<br />

Leo Ducker Award to Ebi Hussain<br />

for setting up the not-for-profit<br />

Aotearoa Lakes which measures<br />

and monitors the health of our<br />

lakes. (See Dive Pacific Issue 177<br />

for a comprehensive report.<br />

https://nzlakes.org)<br />

The annual Leo Ducker Award<br />

recognises individuals for<br />

years of work including counselling,<br />

all aspects of managing a<br />

diving centre, risk reduction and<br />

mitigation, first aid training, use of<br />

appropriate emergency equipment,<br />

operational procedures, emergency<br />

action plans and more.<br />

Publisher<br />

NZUA Publishing Ltd<br />

New Zealand Underwater Association<br />

40 Mt Eden Rd. Auckland 1024<br />

+64 9 623 3252<br />

Editor<br />

Gilbert Peterson<br />

divenz@divenewzealand.co.nz<br />

+64 274 949629<br />

Advertising Sales Manager<br />

Colin Gestro +64 272 568 014<br />

colin@affinityads.com<br />

Art Director<br />

Mark Grogan +64 9 262 0303<br />

bytemarx@orcon.net.nz<br />

outstanding service to diving<br />

(notably presented to former<br />

conservation minister Nick Smith<br />

in 1997 for turning the Poor<br />

Knights islands into a marine<br />

reserve.) An enduring wish of<br />

Leo was that in 60 years’ time<br />

New Zealanders would be able to<br />

enjoy the fantastic underwater<br />

world he first experienced 60<br />

years before.<br />

basic skippering skills required to<br />

support recreational dive activities.<br />

The program is specifically tailored<br />

to the needs of the typical New<br />

Zealand recreational boat skipper<br />

engaged in diving activities with<br />

groups of friends or family.<br />

“Organised risk management as in<br />

the aerospace and health sectors<br />

does not currently exist in the<br />

diving industry,” said Guy Thomas,<br />

Director of Safety at DAN Europe.<br />

“Our HIRA program aims to fill at<br />

least part of this gap.”<br />

www.dan.org<br />

All rights reserved. Reprinting in whole<br />

or part is expressly forbidden except<br />

by written permission of the publisher.<br />

Opinions expressed in the publication are<br />

those of the authors and not necessarily<br />

the publishers. All material is accepted in<br />

good faith and the publisher accepts no<br />

responsibility whatsoever.<br />

www.DiveNewZealand.co.nz<br />

www.Dive-Pacific.com<br />

Registered Publication<br />

Dive Pacific ISSN 2624-134X (print)<br />

ISSN 2324-3236 (online)<br />

4 Dive New Zealand | Dive Pacific

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Here’s your chance… Please, can you take few moments<br />

to tell us what you like about Dive Pacific mag.<br />

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Please do click here for the survey – thanks!<br />

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Going deep on the big issues<br />

In this issue we go a bit<br />

overweight on the big issues<br />

confronting our future, starting<br />

with the heavy lifting being<br />

done on ocean policy by EDS<br />

(see below) backed by Legasea’s<br />

front line work on replenishing<br />

our fisheries. Plus, more on<br />

overfishing, bottom trawling,<br />

seabed mining... issues that<br />

impact us divers in some way<br />

every time we go into water.<br />

Another way of thinking<br />

about these big environmental<br />

challenges is they’re all about<br />

consequences. As children we<br />

heard about consequences, and<br />

later learned the third law of<br />

physics - “for every action there is<br />

an equal and opposite reaction”.<br />

What did we think was going to<br />

happen from burning all those<br />

fossil fuels?<br />

The upshot for today is, that it is<br />

not acceptable to scrape tonnes<br />

and tonnes off the Waitemata<br />

Harbour seabed and dump it<br />

off Aotea Great Barrier. It is<br />

not acceptable for our courts to<br />

hand down petty ‘litter’ fines on<br />

fish captains who bottom trawl<br />

MPA’s, then gift back to the ships’<br />

owners their confiscated vessels<br />

for tax deductible pocket money.<br />

And it surely is our responsibility<br />

to remediate or mitigate<br />

the oil threatening to spew from<br />

3800 ships wrecked in the Pacific<br />

during WW II.<br />

These are the sort of big reasons<br />

behind why, at a local level, Rob<br />

Wilson was presented this year’s<br />

Wyland-Dive Pacific Award and<br />

Ebi Hussain was awarded the Leo<br />

Ducker trophy (see p2). It’s the<br />

backdrop too for EMR’s calling<br />

(p13).<br />

Dr Christopher Cornwall (p26)<br />

covers off some of his sea parting<br />

research on how our kelp forests,<br />

and the coral reefs of our near<br />

neighbours, are being harmed by<br />

climate change, by both ocean<br />

warming and ocean acidification.<br />



Gilbert Peterson<br />

Dive Pacific is grateful to him for<br />

the superb contribution.<br />

For us divers all this is great stuff.<br />

Reasons to relish the opportunities<br />

in front of us here. As Jean<br />

Michel Cousteau said, divers<br />

should be the first responders on<br />

what’s happening in the oceans<br />

because we are the first to know,<br />

to see first hand the changes<br />

taking place, and as those most<br />

in the know, we surely have the<br />

duty to advise our communities<br />

so we can all begin the big adjustment<br />

we need to make for what<br />

may well be the very survival of<br />

humanity. And, as the hippies<br />

in the 1960s used to say “when<br />

you’re smashing the state” -<br />

making changes to the order of<br />

things - “keep a song in yer heart,<br />

and a smile on yer face.”<br />

- Gilbert Peterson<br />

Editor<br />

EDS kicks off major Oceans Reform project<br />

The Environmental Defense<br />

Society has just launched a<br />

project aimed at reforming how<br />

we manage our oceans with<br />

the release of a paper titled The<br />

Breaking Wave: A conversation about<br />

reforming the oceans management<br />

system in Aotearoa New Zealand.<br />

“The Government’s current reform<br />

agenda is focused on the terrestrial<br />

environment, with oceans<br />

receiving minimal attention,”<br />

said EDS’s Policy Director Raewyn<br />

Peart. “Our ocean realm is one<br />

of the largest in the world with<br />

many unique seabird populations,<br />

marine mammals and significant<br />

fishery.<br />

“We need to be thinking ahead to<br />

when the government will focus<br />

on the marine space. That’s why<br />

we’re progressing this project<br />

now, with an expectation that<br />

oceans reform will follow in the<br />

next few years.”<br />

“The current phase of the project<br />

is to stimulate a blue-skies<br />

conversation about reform,” said<br />

EDS senior researcher Dr Greg<br />

Severinsen.<br />

“We feel society has reached a<br />

point where deep questions need<br />

to be asked and talked about<br />

constructively, whether it’s the<br />

way we fish, how we control<br />

land-based activities impacting on<br />

the seas, who has what rights and<br />

obligations, and what te Tiriti o<br />

Waitangi and tikanga Māori mean<br />

for oceans management.<br />

“In this phase of the project<br />

we’re not making recommendations.<br />

The working paper simply<br />

presents our thinking so far… and<br />

(we) welcome people’s constructive<br />

responses to them.<br />

“We will consider all the feedback<br />

then produce a final report in<br />

early 2022”.<br />

The working paper is on the EDS<br />

website here.<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 5

Diver death by drowning: Coroner<br />

A diver drowned 500 metres south of Channel Island in the Hauraki Gulf on <strong>Nov</strong>ember 6th, 2019;<br />

his death was reported to the Coroner who published his report on June 1st this year, including a<br />

request to make his findings known to the diving community through NZUA and Dive Pacific.<br />

The Coroner’s report says Mr<br />

Yutai Huang was a 51 year<br />

old father and builder handyman<br />

living in Mt Wellington, Auckland.<br />

Wednesday, <strong>Nov</strong>ember 6th 2019<br />

was a fine and calm day. Mr<br />

Huang was with his friend and<br />

fishing companion Jun Wang.<br />

“Mr Huang was going to dive and<br />

go spear fishing alone because Mr<br />

Wang did not know how to dive.<br />

Mr Wang thought Mr Huang was<br />

an experienced diver because he<br />

had seen him go diving alone on<br />

at least four occasions in the past.<br />

“They arrived at the diving spot<br />

just before midday. Mr Huang put<br />

on his wetsuit and tested his dive<br />

cylinder. When he was ready<br />

he asked Mr Wang to drive the<br />

boat to a spot in the gap between<br />

Channel Island and a large rock.<br />

Mr Huang got in the water and<br />

told Mr Wang to drive away and<br />

come back to the same spot in 40<br />

minutes later to pick him up.<br />

“About one minute after Mr Huang<br />

entered the water Mr Wang was<br />

in the driver’s seat getting ready<br />

to drive the boat away when Mr<br />

Huang yelled “my flipper” in<br />

Chinese. Mr Wang said he stood<br />

up from the driver’s seat to see if<br />

he could see Mr Huang’s flippers,<br />

however, he could not see them.<br />

He then saw Mr Huang struggling<br />

in the water and having difficulty<br />

staying afloat. At that time Mr<br />

Huang was about five metres from<br />

the boat so Mr Wang went back to<br />

the driver’s seat and moved the<br />

boat towards Mr Huang. When he<br />

reached the spot where he had<br />

last seen Mr Huang he had already<br />

sunk below the surface.<br />

“Mr Wang immediately called<br />

the Coastguard at 12.24 pm. Mr<br />

Wang said he was on hold for<br />

about three minutes when he saw<br />

Mr Huang resurface. Mr Huang<br />

resurfaced face down in the water,<br />

wearing only his wetsuit and he<br />

no longer had on any of the other<br />

diving equipment.<br />

“At that point Mr Wang said he<br />

began to take his clothes off to get<br />

into the water and as he was doing<br />

that, he saw another boat nearby<br />

and signalled it to come over. Mr<br />

Wang got into the water and with<br />

the help of a person on the other<br />

boat, got Mr Huang …onto his<br />

boat. He said when on board he<br />

was not responsive and there was<br />

blood coming from his mouth.<br />

“Mr Wang and the person from<br />

the other boat performed CPR on<br />

Mr Huang for around 30 minutes<br />

before a rescue helicopter arrived.<br />

A nearby Navy vessel also<br />

responded to Mr Wang’s mayday<br />

call and the Navy Medic assisted<br />

with CPR. The CPR efforts were<br />

not successful. The Navy vessel<br />

transported Mr Huang’s body back<br />

to shore.”<br />

PNDS<br />

Two days later the Police National<br />

Dive Squad (PNDS) recovered Mr<br />

Huang’s dive equipment reporting<br />

all the equipment was in good<br />

condition. But he had left his fins<br />

in his gearbag, and it appears he<br />

was negatively buoyant. Noted<br />

as well was that Mr Huang was<br />

not wearing a dive watch or any<br />

dive computer and “without one,<br />

a diver is not able to accurately<br />

determine how long they have<br />

been underwater.” Compounding<br />

this, Mr Huang’s depth gauge had<br />

no maximum depth indicator. And<br />

he had no dive knife.<br />

Back to front<br />

It was further identified that the<br />

cylinder had been put into the<br />

BCD back to front which meant Mr<br />

Huang had attached his regulators<br />

upside down so that the low<br />

pressure hose could reach the BCD<br />

inflation connection.<br />

Obsolete leaking regulators<br />

A technician engaged by the<br />

PNDS subsequently advised the<br />

regulators used by Mr Huang had<br />

been obsolete since 1999, and they<br />

had a major leak in both second<br />

stages.<br />

Obstruction<br />

A subsequent test dive using Mr<br />

Huang’s first and second stage<br />

regulators set up in the same<br />

way that Mr Huang’s were set<br />

up showed the diver could not<br />

turn his head to the left without<br />

the regulator being pulled from<br />

his mouth, and the second stage<br />

regulator constantly free flowed<br />

making it difficult to control<br />

breathing. The second stage<br />

regulator was also found not<br />

functioning correctly.<br />

Overweighted<br />

Mr Huang was also found to be<br />

carrying too much weight on his<br />

weight belt and not immediately<br />

abandoning it when in difficulty.<br />

Mr Huang’s BCD did not inflate his<br />

BCD when in difficulty.<br />

Though Mr Huang completed<br />

his PADI dive course in 2013<br />

and, according to his son, went<br />

diving about 12 times a year and<br />

was therefore experienced, the<br />

Coroner found Mr Huang entered<br />

the water without a dive buddy,<br />

did not have his fins on, did not<br />

abandon his weight belt or inflate<br />

his BCD when in difficulty on the<br />

water’s surface, some of his diving<br />

equipment was faulty, he did not<br />

have a dive watch or other timing<br />

device, and had no dive plan.<br />

Coroner Woolley noted that 10<br />

years ago Coroner McDowell had<br />

made recommendations after the<br />

death of a diver at Great Barrier<br />

Island, and since then Coroner<br />

Woolley said he was aware of 26<br />

findings of other coroners in New<br />

Zealand addressing the deaths of<br />

recreational divers.<br />

Given there continues to be diving<br />

deaths from unsafe practices<br />

Coroner Wooley said divers<br />

should:<br />

• Ensure their equipment is<br />

appropriate for their body size<br />

and weight and their planned<br />

dive.<br />

• Wear a dive watch/dive<br />

computer or other appropriate<br />

timing device<br />

• Complete pre-dive checks<br />

before entering the water and<br />

to ensure their equipment is<br />

operating correctly<br />

6 Dive New Zealand | Dive Pacific

LegaSea Update<br />

Growing support to ban<br />

dredging<br />

Support for our collective<br />

efforts to get rid of scallop<br />

dredging from New Zealand’s<br />

inshore waters is growing. It’s<br />

strange then that the government<br />

has come out with a plan<br />

to ban all recreational scallop<br />

dredging from the Hauraki Gulf<br />

yet allow commercial fishers<br />

to continue using the Victorian<br />

Box Dredge to gather scallops.<br />

This is illogical.<br />

Fisheries New Zealand’s own<br />

data shows that when using<br />

the Box Dredge only 26% of the<br />

commercial catch by volume is<br />

scallops. Other catch includes<br />

seaweeds, starfish, bivalves and<br />

algae. All important contributors<br />

to a healthy marine<br />

ecosystem.<br />

New Zealand Underwater,<br />

LegaSea, the New Zealand<br />

Sport Fishing Council, Opito<br />

Bay Ratepayers Association and<br />

the Coromandel community all<br />

supported a voluntary ban on<br />

scallop harvesting from Opito<br />

Bay in the Hauraki Gulf. This<br />

voluntary ban was applied in<br />

tandem with a rāhui on scallop<br />

gathering put in place by Ngāti<br />

Hei.<br />

The government’s Revitalising<br />

the Gulf plan sidesteps this<br />

community initiative as if it<br />

doesn’t exist. It justifies the<br />

continuance of commercial<br />

dredging on the basis that only<br />

existing areas will be targeted.<br />

However, it is the very use of<br />

Box Dredges that has created<br />

BEFORE and AFTER images of a<br />

scallop dredged site<br />

Opito Bay on the eastern side<br />

of the Coromandel Peninsula<br />

is an amazing piece of coastline,<br />

a wide expanse of beach<br />

sheltered by nearby Mercury<br />

Island. The commercial exclusion<br />

zone is visible from shore<br />

so it’s difficult to imagine that<br />

the local community will accept<br />

the nonsense that commercial<br />

dredging can continue in their<br />

bay beyond the ‘line’ while<br />

divers there are not permitted<br />

to take scallops.<br />

A practical solution is to permit<br />

commercial diving for scallops.<br />

Currently there is only one<br />

operator permitted to explore<br />

this possibility, and that was<br />

on the back of our submission<br />

last year supporting commercial<br />

hand gathering in the<br />

Northland scallop fishery.<br />

In that submission we urged<br />

the Minister to review the<br />

commercial use of dredges that<br />

target scallops with a view to<br />

encouraging the development<br />

of hand gathering and other low<br />

impact methods of harvesting<br />

scallops. This would protect<br />

the environment from ongoing<br />

damage while enabling the<br />

benthic communities to rebuild,<br />

and this would enhance overall<br />

productivity.<br />

If the government is serious<br />

about improving the state of the<br />

Gulf then a ban on all scallop<br />

dredging is an obvious place to<br />

start.<br />

Another interesting aspect is<br />

that over the summer of 2020/21<br />

the angst in the community.<br />

The community is awakening to<br />

the possibility that our inshore<br />

waters can be revived. That<br />

we can, through our collective<br />

efforts, enhance biodiversity<br />

by increasing abundance and<br />

diversity in inshore waters.<br />

The government needs to get on<br />

board with this movement and<br />

ditch the dredge so productivity<br />

can be restored.<br />

Want to help?<br />

If you want to help this<br />

ongoing effort, please support<br />

us.<br />

https://legasea.co.nz/support-us<br />

• Abandon their dive weight belts<br />

when in difficulty<br />

• Dive with dive buddy for the<br />

duration of the dive<br />

• Have a support person or vessel<br />

remain in the dive area<br />

• Ensure their equipment is<br />

regularly serviced, at least<br />

annually<br />

• Regularly practice emergency<br />

diving drills and refresh<br />

themselves on safe diving<br />

practices.”<br />

Dive Pacific will load the full Coroners<br />

Report to our website as soon as<br />

practicable<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 7


DEEP thoughts<br />

deeper discussions<br />

By Pete Mesley<br />

Technical diving is really<br />

growing in the diving market<br />

today. So what makes Technical<br />

diving so attractive? What are the<br />

diving opportunities for technical<br />

divers?<br />

What are the pathway options for<br />

you to increase your education?<br />

Which agency is the best one?<br />

PADI? TDI? GUE? What are the<br />

differences?<br />

Open Circuit or Closed Circuit?<br />

What is the right path to go? How<br />

far is too far to push your limits?<br />

How do you learn the balance of<br />

Training and Experience?<br />

What is a reasonable progression<br />

in deep diving? Trimix, a must<br />

have or nice to have? Charter<br />

operators: what’s their take on<br />

Technical divers on their boats -<br />

what are their concerns?<br />

These are just some of the<br />

questions I am going to be<br />

answering over the coming<br />

issues of Dive Pacific. So if you are<br />

interested about advancing your<br />

skill levels and wanting more out<br />

of your diving, keep an eye out for<br />

my column where I will be going<br />

over all these areas, and more.<br />

So what draws people into<br />

Technical Diving? I for one can<br />

remember exactly why I got<br />

involved. It was more through<br />

necessity than anything else.<br />

Learning to dive in the UK in the<br />

early 1990’s, all the wrecks we<br />

were diving were in the 30-50m<br />

range, and right from the get<br />

go we were doing these sort of<br />

depths.<br />

I remember finishing my<br />

advanced open water course and<br />

the next weekend we were diving<br />

in the English Channel on 30-<br />

40m wrecks. Bottom times were<br />

limited to gas supply - we didn’t<br />

have twins or stage tanks (yet).<br />

We started off with large capacity<br />

15 litre steel tanks with a 3 litre<br />

“Pony” bottle strapped to the side<br />

of it. Because of the narrow tide<br />

windows we would get in the<br />

water, do a 20 minute bottom<br />

time, then ascend back up the<br />

line and complete the safety or<br />

limited deco stop.<br />

Gear<br />

One of my biggest memories in<br />

this period was that we never<br />

spoke of gear, nor training; we<br />

just focused on researching the<br />

wrecks and what awesome wreck<br />

we were going to be diving on the<br />

weekend.<br />

Over the coming years, when<br />

Technical diving became more<br />

mainstream, we then saw the<br />

real benefits of additional gear.<br />

We added stage tanks with<br />

higher levels of O2 for accelerated<br />

decompression, reducing the<br />

time getting blown about on<br />

the line in the currents (like a<br />

granny in a gale force wind!).<br />

Advancing our training was<br />

needed to handle the increased<br />

amounts of gear and emergency<br />

procedures to avoid problems<br />

while decompression diving.<br />

More equipment! There is nothing<br />

quite like getting more dive gear.<br />

You can never have enough kit<br />

and for those of us who love<br />

more gear, this is a great excuse<br />

DNZ163<br />

8 Dive New Zealand | Dive Pacific

to reduce the amount of space in<br />

your garage with it being taken<br />

up with numerous “essential life<br />

support” pieces of kit (that’s the<br />

information partners get!).<br />

Why do it?<br />

So what draws people into<br />

Technical Diving? Quite a<br />

few reasons. To advance<br />

one’s personal skill levels for<br />

self-actualisation and just<br />

become better at handling<br />

ourselves in the water. To be<br />

able to manoeuvre freely and<br />

unencumbered is a wonderful<br />

feeling which gives you more<br />

time to focus on the environment<br />

around you.<br />

The challenge is a big one too.<br />

Diving sites which are more<br />

difficult to manage because of<br />

depth, currents, location and<br />

access.<br />

Adventure!<br />

Sense of Adventure. This is<br />

probably the main reason why all<br />

people get into Technical diving.<br />

We all have that “Boldly go where<br />

no man, woman, gender neutral<br />

etc etc etc) has gone before,” the<br />

genes in our bodies. Its the sense<br />

of adventure that drives most<br />

of us. It’s what keeps us excited<br />

during the week while we do our<br />

mundane jobs; the only thing<br />

that keeps us moving forward,<br />

knowing what we will be doing<br />

on the weekend - Diving!<br />

Build your group<br />

One of the most important<br />

things to do is to find a group of<br />

likeminded people. Those others<br />

who share the same passion for<br />

adventure, getting out there and<br />

exploring. A group that helps and<br />

supports, building up each other’s<br />

skills and experience levels.<br />

Nurturing new tech divers so that<br />

one day they too will be doing the<br />

sort of experienced diving being<br />

done. This builds a community, a<br />

strong community.<br />

Next issue I will be talking about<br />

how to go about taking that first<br />

step to advance your training.<br />

Asking the questions you need to<br />

ask prospective instructors. Putting<br />

a plan together, and working out<br />

short, mid and long term goals for<br />

the future. It will be fun.<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 9

Photo: Willowbank Wildlife Reserve<br />



Shipwreck at Chalky Inlet?<br />

Drawing, names, cannon found<br />

scientific expedition<br />

A from Christchurch has<br />

found a cannon near a cave at<br />

Fiordland’s Chalky Inlet where<br />

survivors of a shipwreck may<br />

have sheltered, reported Susan<br />

Sandys of the Otago Daily Times<br />

in late July.<br />

The team from Willowbank<br />

Wildlife Reserve was looking for<br />

the elusive South Island<br />

kōkako when they chanced<br />

upon the cave in Chalky Inlet.<br />

Dale Hedgcock and Mark Willis with<br />

the cannon they discovered in Chalky<br />

Inlet, Fiordland, near a cave with a<br />

drawing of a ship.<br />

The cave had a drawing of a<br />

ship and the names of four<br />

mariners. The cannon was<br />

found nearby.<br />

Expedition members Mark<br />

Willis and Dale Hedgcock<br />

unearthed the cannon after<br />

spotting a small, deep orange<br />

patch among the beach stones.<br />

“It was sheer luck that they<br />

saw it, it was a patch of rust<br />

and they knew that there was<br />

something underneath,” said<br />

Willowbank managing director<br />

Michael Willis.<br />

Mark Willis had explored a cave<br />

he had come upon a month<br />

earlier to find there several<br />

names scrawled underneath the<br />

drawing of a sailing ship.<br />

The cave and the cannon<br />

are about 100 metres apart,<br />

suggesting the cannon is from<br />

the ship drawn on the cave<br />

wall. There are at least four<br />

names with one appearing to<br />

be “Jamie Rasmussen,” Michael<br />

Willis said.<br />

Originally there may have been<br />

more names and there is also a<br />

date, which could signify 1810,<br />

1870 or 1890.<br />

The Willowbank team was<br />

at Chalky Bay to install, then<br />

retrieve birdsong and trail<br />

camera equipment used to try<br />

and find the South Island<br />

kōkako.<br />

He said they were now waiting<br />

for the Ministry of Culture<br />

and Heritage to get back to<br />

them about how to go about<br />

retrieving the cannon. It was<br />

too heavy to lift into their<br />

helicopter when they found<br />

it. He said Willowbank hoped<br />

to obtain custodianship of the<br />

cannon and display it.<br />

Photo: Willowbank Wildlife Reserve<br />

“Fiordland is just full of<br />

mysteries, there is so much<br />

going on there that no-one<br />

knows about.”<br />

Clues about where the cannon may<br />

have come from could be in this<br />

news item printed in The Otago<br />

Witness, October 17th, 1906<br />

10 Dive New Zealand | Dive Pacific

What the glove told the robot underwater<br />

on the other side of the world<br />

New Zealand and Croatian<br />

scientists have demonstrated<br />

how a gesture-capturing<br />

dive glove can communicate<br />

with a robot underwater from a<br />

swimming pool on opposite sides<br />

of the world.<br />

The dive glove developed by<br />

the Biomimetics Laboratory at<br />

the Auckland Bioengineering<br />

Institute (ABI) is made with<br />

integrated wearable sensors<br />

and electronics using soft and<br />

stretchy, smart electroactive<br />

polymer materials. Ultimately<br />

the research is aimed at<br />

improving diver safety.<br />

As the diver performs certain<br />

gestures, a machine learning<br />

algorithm assesses the hand<br />

motion and recognises these in<br />

real-time. They are then interpreted<br />

as commands or messages<br />

and transmitted acoustically<br />

through the water to a buddy<br />

diver or robot.<br />

The project called ADRIATIC<br />

(Advancing Diver Robot<br />

Interaction Capabilities), began in<br />

2018 as a collaboration between<br />

the University of Zagreb, Croatia,<br />

and the Biomimetics Lab at the<br />

ABI and was funded through a<br />

grant from the Office of Naval<br />

Research in the US.<br />

The researchers had initially<br />

planned to test their glove and<br />

how well it could communicate<br />

with a Croatian autonomous<br />

underwater vehicle (AUV) developed<br />

by the Croatian researchers<br />

in 2020. It was going to take place<br />

Biomimetics Lab research diver Chris Walker producing gestures that will<br />

trigger a command to the AUV in Croatia (Inset).<br />

on the Adriatic coast of Croatia<br />

but the plans were stymied by<br />

Covid-19 travel restrictions.<br />

However the New Zealand-<br />

Croatian collaboration developed<br />

an alternative. On April 6 this<br />

year New Zealand diver and ABI<br />

researcher, Chris Walker, donned<br />

his wetsuit at 6 am and went<br />

underwater in the 5m diving<br />

pool at West Wave aquatic centre<br />

in West Auckland. Meanwhile,<br />

at poolside, Derek Orbaugh, a<br />

PhD student with the lab, was in<br />

real-time computer contact with<br />

the Croatian researchers.<br />

Wearing the glove Chris was<br />

able to use hand gestures to<br />

send commands to the AUV<br />

that was similarly submerged at<br />

the Laboratory for Underwater<br />

Systems and Technologies<br />

(LABUST) in Croatia using<br />



acoustic signals, at 8 pm Zagreb<br />

time.<br />

That is, the glove ‘talked’ to the<br />

robot on the other side of the<br />

world, using sound detected<br />

by a sonar receiver at poolside<br />

then transmitted to a server in<br />

Croatia. The signal was subsequently<br />

converted back to sound<br />

transmitted to the AUV in the<br />

Croatian pool.<br />

“We could watch it on the<br />

computer, and witness in<br />

real time the robot moving in<br />

response to the gestures sent<br />

by Chris on the other side<br />

of the world,” says Professor<br />

Iain Anderson, head of the<br />

Biomimetics Lab. He describes<br />

this as the “the first Kiwi Croat<br />

transglobal experiment of <strong>2021</strong>”<br />

adding “And there will be more.”<br />

“We wanted to see if we could<br />

transcend the restrictions<br />

imposed by Covid on our collaboration,<br />

and we did it! Hopefully<br />

we’ll be able to continue our work<br />

together with our colleagues in<br />

Croatia in the same time zone<br />

and the warm Adriatic.”<br />

The glove uses motion capture<br />

…We could watch it on the computer, and witness in real<br />

time the robot moving in response to the gestures sent by<br />

Chris on the other side of the world…<br />

sensors made by New Zealand<br />

company StretchSense, a spin-off<br />

of the Biomimetics Lab. This<br />

experiment was a success, and<br />

more will follow as the glove and<br />

AUV are improved, says Professor<br />

Anderson.<br />

“I’m a diver, and while the<br />

underwater world is stunning,<br />

diving into it comes at some risk,<br />

especially if you’re on your own.<br />

“Our research will improve<br />

communication diver-to-diver,<br />

and diver-to-machine in a<br />

world where you often can’t see<br />

more than a couple of metres,”<br />

Professor Anderson said.<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 11



Nuhaka diver dies<br />

Police identified the man who<br />

died while diving off the coast<br />

of Mā hia on May 17th as 21-yearold<br />

Jason Rangi Paul from<br />

Nā haka. The death was reported<br />

to the Coroner.<br />

Another diver drowns<br />

A 63 year old freediver died from<br />

suspected drowning after he<br />

failed to return to shore in the<br />

Far North on August 25th. The<br />

man was diving for seafood near<br />

Waipoua, on the west coast of<br />

Dargaville and found face down<br />

Introducing Ecoventures<br />

ZuBlu has launched Ecoventures<br />

so divers and other travellers can<br />

explore while they help restore<br />

the world’s oceans by contributing<br />

to revenues for conservation<br />

organisations.<br />

Last year a ZuBlu survey identified<br />

a disconnect between scuba<br />

divers’ desire to ‘travel green’,<br />

and their ability to actually do so.<br />

The survey showed 92% of people<br />

want to dive more sustainably,<br />

but 75% struggled to find the<br />

information they needed to<br />

decide where they could do that.<br />

With Ecoventures, ZuBlu aims to<br />

help to bridge that eco gap.<br />

ZuBlu’s curated portfolio of<br />

Ecoventures includes some<br />

of the most sought after dive<br />

internships, ocean conservation<br />

A rā hui was placed on Mā hia<br />

Peninsula in Hawke’s Bay after<br />

the body was found. Paul was<br />

reported missing just after<br />

4pm on Sunday and local boats<br />

assisting with the search found<br />

his body about 9am the next day.<br />

later that evening. CPR was<br />

provided but he was pronounced<br />

dead at the scene. The death has<br />

been referred to the Coroner.<br />

programmes, and citizen science<br />

volunteer opportunities around<br />

the globe. The projects listed<br />

allow divers to do more during<br />

their dive holiday to help restore<br />

and sustain the oceans as they<br />

explore them. Each Ecoventure<br />

empowers divers to:<br />

• Support the preservation and<br />

rehabilitation of marine ecosystems<br />

• Protect threatened species<br />

• Contribute to conservation<br />

work or collect vital data<br />

• Immerse themselves in extraordinary<br />

landscapes and local<br />

Search and rescue staff, a rescue<br />

helicopter and the local fishing<br />

boats had begun the search and<br />

the Police National Dive Squad<br />

was called.<br />

communities<br />

• Kick-start a career in marine<br />

conservation<br />

• Surround themselves with<br />

dive professionals and marine<br />

biologists<br />

Importantly Ecoventures<br />

helps create revenue for the<br />

programmes, enabling guests<br />

to continue their support.<br />

Whenever they book a dive trip<br />

through ZuBlu part of the cost<br />

is donated back to their chosen<br />

programme.<br />

www.zubludiving.com<br />

Waiheke Dive wins top tourism industry award<br />

Waiheke Dive has won a<br />

Qualmark 100% Pure New<br />

Zealand Experience Award <strong>2021</strong>,<br />

New Zealand’s top tourism<br />

industry recognition.<br />

The 12 award winners from over<br />

100 entries were announced by<br />

Qualmark and Air New Zealand<br />

at the Christchurch Art Centre<br />

on July 28th to celebrate our<br />

outstanding tourism operators.<br />

Qualmark is New Zealand<br />

tourism’s official quality assurance<br />

organisation. “The integrity<br />

and genuine commitment<br />

to manaakitanga, kaitiakitanga<br />

and whanaungatanga that<br />

the winners demonstrated to<br />

visitors and the communities<br />

they operate in, is remarkable<br />

and their recognition is well<br />

deserved,” said Sue Parcell, Chair<br />

of the Judging Panel.<br />

www.waihekedive.com<br />

• Manaakitanga - showing aroha<br />

to your people and community<br />

• Tiaki – their duty of care for<br />

people and place, a commitment<br />

to the enhancement of their<br />

operating environment<br />

• Whā nau – maintaining connections,<br />

commitments and caring<br />

for your own people.<br />

12 Dive New Zealand | Dive Pacific

EMR celebrates 20 years!<br />

“You can’t fly with the birds<br />

but you can swim with the fish<br />

- what better way is there to<br />

connect with nature!” says EMR<br />

founder Samara Nicholas.<br />

The Experiencing Marine<br />

Reserves (EMR) - Te Kura Moana<br />

programme is designed to do just<br />

that by providing schools and<br />

communities with opportunities<br />

for hands-on experience in the<br />

ocean.<br />

Seeing huge tāmure/snapper<br />

swimming up close has inspired<br />

thousands of kids to take action<br />

for the marine environment and<br />

exercise kaitiakitanga - guardianship<br />

for their local beach or<br />

harbour.<br />

even marine artwork on a double<br />

decker bus,” Samara says.<br />

Our thrive is to see the buzz on<br />

people’s faces when they come<br />

out of the water! she said.<br />

EMR’s in-water experiences have<br />

often become lifelong memories<br />

for the young people experiencing<br />

them. EMR also offers<br />

the opportunity for taitamariki/<br />

rangatahi who have an affinity<br />

for the moana to engage in our<br />

kaupapa through mentorship<br />

programmes and volunteer<br />

development, which is also<br />

supporting a career pathway.<br />

local aspirations for environmental<br />

protection is hugely<br />

rewarding.”<br />

Each EMR snorkel day event<br />

involves bringing in a community<br />

partner, and each season sees<br />

thousands of volunteer hours<br />

contributed. Community participants<br />

often go on to become<br />

valued volunteer snorkel guides.<br />

…Since 2001 EMR has snorkeled with 147,905 people and<br />

guided 70,928 people at marine reserves all over Aotearoa-<br />

New Zealand…<br />

“Recent action projects include<br />

the removal of invasive seaweed,<br />

citizen science fish surveys,<br />

shellfish monitoring, wetland<br />

restoration, a mufti day and<br />

ocean disco fundraiser, presentations<br />

to parents, upcycling<br />

waste to furniture, murals and<br />

“I love seeing the spread of our<br />

events, particularly our community<br />

guided snorkel days, which<br />

are beneficial to the wellbeing of<br />

the whole whanau by providing<br />

active outdoor recreation, while<br />

learning about the marine<br />

environment!” Samara said.<br />

“Supporting community and<br />

The organisation’s work has<br />

helped restore marine ecosystems<br />

by supporting iwi/hapu<br />

implement the rahui at Maitai<br />

bay (rahui surveillance and<br />

education) and assisting the<br />

Department of Conservation<br />

with its management of marine<br />

reserves through community<br />

engagement.<br />

For their 20th anniversary<br />

birthday bash EMR decided to<br />

make another visit to the Poor<br />

Volunteer snorkel guides Margaret and Justyna exploring Blue Mao<br />

Mao arch at the Poor Knights - Image credit Sophie Journee (EMR)<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 13


Toihau Kumar de Bruin from Te Aho Tu Roa diving into the kelp<br />

forests of the Poor Knights Islands - image credit Sophie Journee (EMR)<br />

Knights Island Marine Reserve<br />

on May 14th this year. The trip<br />

was organised by EMR and made<br />

possible thanks to Dive! Tutukaka<br />

and the Bobby Stafford-Bush<br />

Foundation.<br />

We had representatives from as<br />

far north as Waiharara and as<br />

far south as Rakiura-<br />

Stewart Island,<br />

Samara said. Students<br />

were selected based<br />

on the action projects<br />

they have undertaken<br />

and their enthusiasm<br />

for studying<br />

and experiencing the<br />

Goat Island Snorkel Day<br />

participants spotting tāmure inside the reserve<br />

- Image credit Sophie Journee (EMR)<br />

Reotahi Snorkel Day participants enjoying their guided snorkel at the Whangarei<br />

Harbour Marine Reserve - Image credit Sophie Journee (EMR)<br />

14 Dive New Zealand | Dive Pacific


Orakei School students searching for<br />

microplastics at Okahu Bay<br />

- Image credit Sophie Journee (EMR)<br />

marine environment.<br />

This year’s trip involved 34<br />

students and 29 guardians from<br />

25 schools from 7 regions of<br />

Aotearoa including Northland,<br />

Auckland, Taranaki, Gisborne,<br />

Wellington, Nelson and Rakiura<br />

(Stewart Island).<br />

Since 2001, EMR has snorkeled<br />

with 147,905 people and guided<br />

70,928 people at marine reserves<br />

all over Aotearoa-New Zealand.<br />

Te Papapa School students exploring Goat Island Marine Reserve<br />

- image credit Sophie Journee (EMR)<br />

EMR actively focuses on the<br />

restoration of marine ecosystems<br />

and, together with the Whitebait<br />

Connection, the restoration of<br />

catchments from the ‘Mountains<br />

to the Sea.’<br />

Mountains to Sea Conservation<br />

Trust-EMR was recently named<br />

Te Tohu Matua-Supreme Award<br />

winner of Northland Regional<br />

Council’s annual ‘Whakamānawa<br />

ā Taiao-Environmental Awards’.<br />

EMR was 1 of 47 entries received<br />

with their win announced at<br />

a ceremony attended by about<br />

200 people at Kerikeri’s Turner<br />

Centre on May 27th, adding to<br />

the programme’s wide ranging<br />

collection of awards, including<br />

the Wyland-Dive Pacific trophy<br />

presented to them by NZUA in<br />

2020.<br />

From left to right<br />

Ray Downing (EMR coordinator), Jean-Louis Ecochard (Mountains to Sea<br />

Conservation Trust - MTSCT trustee), Kim Jones (Poutokomanawa/Co-director),<br />

Samara Nicholas (Poutokomanawa/Co-director - EMR founder), Croatia Rudolph<br />

(EMR Taitamariki coordinator), Vince Kerr (MTSCT co-founder/advisor), Katrina<br />

Goddard (MTSCT trustee), Isabel Krauss (EMR coordinator), Olly Ball (MTSCT<br />

trustee)<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 15

Whispering<br />

Whale Sharks<br />

Here’s an unlikely story!<br />

Ex-pat kiwi Winston Cowie tells how two Whale Sharks<br />

showed up at his front door, literally, in a waterfront canal<br />

in Abu Dhabi, right next to the massive Aldar building.<br />

2020. What a year! The year the corona<br />

pandemic changed the world.<br />

In Abu Dhabi most residents and citizens<br />

stayed home for the summer, unusual in<br />

normal times given it can be up to 50 degrees<br />

C at times. People stayed in-doors and kept to<br />

themselves, their families, their bubbles.<br />

The weather soon changed. People began to<br />

venture outdoors, wearing masks, keeping a<br />

social distance. After such a long period with<br />

limited wider interaction, they seemed a little<br />

uncertain, cautious when interacting with<br />

others.<br />

Then, in the Al Raha community of Abu Dhabi,<br />

something wonderful happened. Our community<br />

was visited by the biggest fish in the sea,<br />

Whale Sharks. Not one, but two.<br />

Right on the inside of the Abu Dhabi archipelago,<br />

in the canal between Al Zeina and the<br />

iconic Aldar building, 200m from where I live,<br />

two whale sharks appeared as if by magic.<br />

This is rare indeed.<br />

Facebook pages lit up. The community flocked<br />

to the side of the canal to get a glimpse of these<br />

magnificent creatures with their characteristic<br />

brownish red and starry white spots.<br />

Whale sharks (Rhincodon<br />

Typus) are the largest of<br />

any fish. They are endangered,<br />

and while no robust population<br />

estimates are known, a best guess<br />

is 7,000 left in the wild. They can<br />

live 150 years, a gentle giant,<br />

filter feeding mostly on plankton,<br />

averaging at maturity around a<br />

whopping 8-9 metres long.<br />

And here in Abu Dhabi we had<br />

two! A juvenile male about 4<br />

metres estimated to be around<br />

10-15 years old, and a larger<br />

mature 6-7m male. Both followed<br />

the same route, swimming in a<br />

wide circle between two bridges –<br />

Al Zeina and Amwaj. They would<br />

swim close to the side of the<br />

canal, up one side, then when<br />

they reached the bridge, turn<br />

and head back down the other<br />

side until they reached the other<br />

bridge, again and again.<br />

Recognition?<br />

Imagine, you spend your whole<br />

life dreaming of an encounter<br />

with this endangered species,<br />

the largest fish in the sea, an<br />

16 Dive New Zealand | Dive Pacific

experience you need to travel to<br />

see 99.9% of the time – perhaps at<br />

Musandam or Damaniyat Islands<br />

in Oman, yet here they were in an<br />

Abu Dhabi canal.<br />

I was fortunate to have the<br />

opportunity to free dive with<br />

the younger creature for the<br />

purpose of monitoring its health.<br />

I would climb down the ladder<br />

into the canal and push myself<br />

back against the canal wall until<br />

it passed. I will never forget the<br />

first time – the whale shark was<br />

massive – it looked at me with<br />

fleeting interest then kept going. I<br />

filmed it all.<br />

After a while, as the days turned<br />

into seven weeks, I don’t think<br />

I was imagining it, the whale<br />

shark started to recognize me. I<br />

wore the same blue Environment<br />

Agency-Abu Dhabi issue polo<br />

every time I dived. In the second<br />

week he turned around after<br />

passing, and came back around.<br />

…He gently circled me five or six times, eyes open, trying to<br />

work out what this blue amphibian was…<br />

…We had successfully<br />

rescued two whale sharks.<br />

Or so we thought!…<br />

I let go of the ladder drifting<br />

out a little. He gently circled<br />

me five or six times, eyes open,<br />

trying to work out what this<br />

blue amphibian was. I stayed<br />

floating, motionless. Looking<br />

with wonder. Filming. Taking in<br />

the beauty of this magnificent<br />

creature.<br />

Fish hooks<br />

One thing I have noticed<br />

when diving over the years –<br />

whether seven-gilled sharks in<br />

Fiordland, New Zealand, Black<br />

tip Reef sharks off Fujairah, or<br />

Green turtles and Humpback<br />

dolphins off Butinah in Abu<br />

Dhabi – if you relax and are nonthreatening,<br />

sea creatures are<br />

just as interested and curious<br />

about you as you are about them.<br />

And sometimes they instigate<br />

interaction.<br />

At times the young whale shark<br />

would disappear for a few days.<br />

On one occasion he inadvertently<br />

picked up fishing gear, a couple of<br />

hooks and a sinker that became<br />

tangled on his fin. Seeing it,<br />

our team jumped in, free-dove<br />

underneath, checked the mouth –<br />

no hook – then we saw it stuck in<br />

his pectoral fin. We pulled it out<br />

untangling the other hooks and<br />

sinker from his fin. Big smiles all<br />

around. Socially distanced high<br />

fives.<br />

You can watch the rescue here:<br />

https://tinyurl.com/bv6r6zt4<br />

Another time, after disappearing<br />

for a week, he came back with<br />

another fish hook and plastic<br />

bag on his tail. It was dusk and<br />

we felt he was on his normal<br />

route so we started walking the<br />

5km journey alongside the canal.<br />

Every once and a while we would<br />

ask someone if they had seen<br />

the whale shark, and they would<br />

reply, “Yes, 10 minutes before”,<br />

“yes, five minutes before”. On<br />

it went. It was nearly dark and<br />

we had covered 4.5 km. We saw<br />

the swish of his tail ahead in the<br />

distance. We ran over and looked<br />

down. Indeed there was a plastic<br />

bag on his tail and a fish hook. We<br />

ran ahead and down the ladder<br />

waiting for him to pass, and as<br />

he did we gently grabbed onto<br />

his tail and pulled loose the hook<br />

and plastic bag. It came away free<br />

easily enough, and off our whale<br />

shark kept swimming.<br />

Losing weight<br />

After seven weeks the whale<br />

shark began spending most<br />

of his time around the Aldar<br />

HQ building. When freediving<br />

with him, and reviewing the<br />

footage, we noticed he had<br />

lost some weight. Through our<br />

Memorandum of Understanding<br />

on environmental cooperation<br />

and wildlife conservation with<br />

the National Aquarium – Abu<br />

Dhabi, and after consulting<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 17

experts around the world - all<br />

agreed he was indeed skinny. Our<br />

teams decided to feed him with<br />

krill to strengthen him up before<br />

we attempted a move back to the<br />

sea.<br />

Our whale shark was hungry.<br />

Seeing is believing. He gobbled<br />

down the balls of krill we<br />

fed him in front of Aldar HQ.<br />

What a marvelous community<br />

experience! A 4m whale shark<br />

being fed and eating krill right<br />

in front of you. It was indeed<br />

beautiful, and by this time he<br />

had a team of juvenile golden<br />

trevallies keeping him company.<br />

A whale shark, krill, golden<br />

trevallies, right there. Staring<br />

down his three foot wide mouth.<br />

Time to move on<br />

We fed the whale shark<br />

for a week before moving<br />

him. This was with a team<br />

of divers from the National<br />

Aquarium-Abu Dhabi and<br />

the Environment Agency<br />

Abu Dhabi and a support<br />

vessel provided by Abu<br />

Dhabi Marine. We took<br />

him a kilometre towards<br />

Samaliyah Island before<br />

he dove off into the deep.<br />

We felt good. We hadn’t<br />

touched him, and he had<br />

swum off on his own<br />

steam.<br />

In the week that followed<br />

there were sightings of<br />

a whale shark near the<br />

Corniche, in the Yas Island<br />

Channel, and then at Al<br />

Bahia Channel. Our EAD<br />

whale shark team went<br />

to investigate and found<br />

him in Al Bahia Canal mid<br />

morning, 15 km away.<br />

The same afternoon as<br />

we headed to Al Bahia to<br />

investigate we received<br />

a call from a member<br />

of the public saying our<br />

whale shark was back at Al Raha.<br />

We were amazed. That was<br />

the fastest 15 km ever swum,<br />

let alone by a whale shark. We<br />

checked on the shark at Al Raha.<br />

It was indeed our young male.<br />

…The whale shark could have been anywhere in the world<br />

by then yet there he was, back where we began in the exact<br />

place we first saw him. Maybe he was saying good bye…<br />

Back after a week away.<br />

There were some niggling doubts<br />

though. The next morning we<br />

headed to Al Bahia, just to be<br />

sure. We saw a whale shark right<br />

at the end of the canal and in the<br />

pre-dawn, slipped into the water.<br />

We got a big starry surprise. This<br />

was a different whale shark,<br />

a huge one, 6-7 metres long!<br />

Compared to our other one, he<br />

was big and thick and had a<br />

massive block of a head on him.<br />

And a distinctive scar on his<br />

head. He looked strong and in<br />

good condition.<br />

Trapped<br />

The Al Bahia Canal is a natural<br />

trap with a very narrow entrance<br />

that the water streams into at<br />

high tide; at low tide the entrance<br />

is very shallow. The whale shark<br />

was stuck in the canal. Once<br />

again, with our colleagues from<br />

the National Aquarium and Abu<br />

Dhabi Marine, at high tide we<br />

maneuvered him out of the canal<br />

and felt elated to see him swim<br />

off out of the canal into a larger<br />

canal that led out to sea. Round 2<br />

rescue. Halais. Finish.<br />

Back to the Aldar building.<br />

We recommenced feeding our<br />

younger whale shark, then made<br />

plans to take him on a stretcher<br />

the 20 km journey to the Arabian<br />

Gulf facing coast of Abu Dhabi.<br />

We fed him daily at 10:00am for<br />

four days with the move planned<br />

for the fifth day. The team turned<br />

up ready. He wasn’t anywhere to<br />

be seen.<br />

Then at 1130am, we were told he<br />

had shown up at the Aldar<br />

Building. The triumvirate<br />

of organizations<br />

assembled, were by now all<br />

well acquainted with each<br />

other: the Environment<br />

Agency-Abu Dhabi; the<br />

National Aquarium-Abu<br />

Dhabi Team; and Abu<br />

Dhabi Marine. We placed<br />

a stretcher in the water<br />

and persuaded him in with<br />

krill, closed the stretcher<br />

and towed him out to sea.<br />

The whale shark had a<br />

ready supply of oxygen on<br />

the stretcher, and every<br />

few minutes divers would<br />

check he was ok.<br />

Amazing rescue…<br />

What an amazing<br />

experience and really good<br />

team building! By dusk we<br />

had moved him all the way<br />

out, past Sheikh Khalifa<br />

Bridge which connects<br />

Abu Dhabi and Saadiyat<br />

Islands, and out past the<br />

Louvre. The 20 km journey<br />

took six hours. In the<br />

18 Dive New Zealand | Dive Pacific

growing dark, with no one watching we released<br />

the whale shark, hooting as he swam into the deep.<br />

Success! We had successfully rescued two whale<br />

sharks. Or so we thought!<br />

Or was it?<br />

The next morning we were notified from Al Bahia<br />

that our big male was back in the canal. Again! We<br />

headed there for a look. He seemed happy enough.<br />

For the next few mornings our team met at Al Bahia<br />

and checked on the big fellow. Though he seemed in<br />

really good condition it was clear he couldn’t swim<br />

out of the canal because of the strong current and<br />

shallow depth at low tide.<br />

Using the same technique as for the younger whale<br />

shark, we got the larger shark to swim onto our<br />

stretcher. A perfect fit. Then we towed him the 20<br />

km journey out into the Arabian Gulf. With plenty of<br />

sunlight this time we took him as far as we could go.<br />

And when we released him he began swimming so<br />

fast we couldn’t keep up.<br />

Yes, we had put a satellite tag on him. So where<br />

would he go?<br />

It was a funny feeling for the community and our<br />

team though. The most incredible seven week whale<br />

shark adventure was over. Or was it?<br />

We received a phone call a whale shark was back at<br />

Al Raha. We went to investigate. The whale shark<br />

could have been anywhere in the world by then,<br />

yet there he was, back where we began in the exact<br />

place we first saw him. Maybe he was saying good<br />

bye.<br />

tells us he is back out where he should be. In the<br />

middle of the Arabian Gulf where whale sharks are<br />

known to aggregate annually, well out of human<br />

sight.<br />

You can watch the Al Bahia Rescue here:<br />

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N_aa2ZcCzgk<br />

In a way I feel we have learned from these whale<br />

sharks. They taught us to value nature, to value<br />

community, and about the threats to the ocean from<br />

abandoned fishing gear and plastic.<br />

What an adventure! Whispering with whale sharks!<br />

In Abu Dhab!<br />

Will they come back next year? I did hear a whisper<br />

it would be nice if they did.<br />

……………………………………<br />

Winston Cowie is an award winning environmental<br />

policy manager, New Zealand author and film maker<br />

based in Abu Dhabi where he works as the Marine<br />

Policy Manager for the Environment Agency – Abu<br />

Dhabi. A fellow of the Royal Geographical Society,<br />

Winston has travelled to the seven continents<br />

and over 40 countries where he seeks to have a<br />

positive impact on nature and society through<br />

environmental policy, writing and film. He also<br />

has an interest in history having written the New<br />

Zealand Land Wars historical fiction series, and<br />

recently ‘Conquistador Puzzle Trail’ that proposes the<br />

Portuguese and Spanish voyaged to Australia and<br />

New Zealand pre-Tasman. (see Dive Pacific 172 &<br />

173)<br />

www.winstoncowie.com<br />

Satellite tags<br />

As for our Al Bahia Whale Shark, our satellite tag<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 19

Trouble in Paradise<br />

The ghost wrecks of the Pacific<br />

A worker cleans up oil spilled from the MV Wakashio<br />

By Dr Matt Carter, Research Director at the Major Projects Foundation<br />

Dr Carter is a marine archaeologist, and<br />

commercial and technical diver. He is Vice<br />

President of the Australasian Institute for<br />

Maritime Archaeology (AIMA), and New<br />

Zealand representative on the International<br />

Committee on Underwater Cultural Heritage<br />

(ICUCH) and a Fellow of the Explorers Club.<br />

To assess the risks from Potentially Polluting<br />

Wrecks (PPW) and implement strategies<br />

to deal with the issue is what the MPF<br />

based in Newcastle, Australia seeks to do.<br />

Its Research Director is Dr Matt Carter.<br />

He outlined the scale of the project to a<br />

spellbound audience at the NZUA AGM in<br />

July. Dive Pacific put some questions to him.<br />

How did the MPF come about?<br />

Why was it established, and how<br />

is it funded?<br />

MPF was established in 2018<br />

after Paul Adams, an Australian<br />

demolition and environmental<br />

expert, visited Chuuk Lagoon<br />

and saw oil slicks in the water<br />

around him after diving on the<br />

wrecks. Along with his wife<br />

Wilma Adams they set up MPF<br />

to act on the issue of polluting<br />

WWII wrecks which has largely<br />

been ignored in the Pacific.<br />

While MPF works in partnership<br />

with the Secretariat for the<br />

Pacific Regional Program (SPREP)<br />

and closely with national<br />

authorities, all funding to date<br />

is from donations and in-kind<br />

support.<br />

How many wrecks are there in the<br />

Pacific left from WWII?<br />

There are around 3,800 WWII<br />

wrecks in the Pacific including<br />

around 300 oil tankers<br />

Where are they located?<br />

These wrecks are concentrated<br />

in areas that suffered the<br />

heaviest fighting during the<br />

war. Our key areas of concern<br />

are Chuuk Lagoon, in the<br />

Federated States of Micronesia,<br />

the Marshall Islands including<br />

the Nuclear Fleet at Bikini Atoll<br />

World Heritage Site, Iron Bottom<br />

Sound in the Solomon Islands<br />

and the waters around Papua<br />

New Guinea.<br />

What are the threats they pose?<br />

Despite being underwater<br />

for at least 75 years marine<br />

pollution experts estimate that<br />

these wrecks still hold between<br />

20 Dive New Zealand | Dive Pacific

500 million and 4.5 billion<br />

litres of toxic fuel oil, not to<br />

mention millions of tonnes of<br />

unexploded ordnance. As they<br />

rust this oil is being released<br />

into the marine ecosystems,<br />

causing impacts to marine life<br />

and those who rely on it.<br />

in the region are becoming<br />

more powerful, increasing the<br />

likelihood that the wrecks will<br />

collapse and suddenly release<br />

the oil they still hold.<br />

Pacific was first recognised<br />

in the early 2000s with the<br />

Secretariat for the Pacific<br />

Regional Program (SPREP)<br />

developing a regional strategy<br />

to manage this threat.<br />

How long have we got before they<br />

start doing real damage?<br />

Dozens of these wrecks are<br />

already leaking, causing chronic<br />

poisoning in some of these<br />

ecosystems. Corrosion scientists<br />

have estimated the many WWII<br />

wrecks in the Pacific will begin<br />

collapsing between <strong>2021</strong> and<br />

2026! What makes matters<br />

worse is that due to climate<br />

change, tropical cyclones<br />

…many of the wrecks….will begin to undergo significant<br />

collapse in the next 10 to 15 years…<br />

When was the risk of these<br />

wrecks first recognised?<br />

The threat that potentially<br />

polluting wrecks pose to the<br />

Unfortunately, the strategy<br />

failed to gain the political or<br />

financial resources necessary to<br />

be enacted, and very little was<br />

MPF diver scanning a wreck<br />

to create a 3D model<br />

Photo Steve Trewavas<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 21

different Pacific countries with<br />

the highest concentration<br />

(19) in Chuuk lagoon in the<br />

Federated States of Micronesia.<br />

Photo Steve Trewavas Photo SPREP<br />

Current potentially polluting wrecks in the Pacific Ocean<br />

able to be done until MPF took<br />

up the mantle in 2018.<br />

Which countries are most<br />

affected?<br />

Federated States of Micronesia,<br />

the Marshall Islands, the<br />

Solomon Islands, Papua New<br />

Guinea, Palau and Australia.<br />

(also New Zealand with the<br />

Niagara)<br />

How are they involved with MPF’s<br />

work?<br />

We are working closely with<br />

the various authorities in<br />

these countries to co-develop<br />

projects that will not only be<br />

Potentially polluting wreck<br />

of the Palau<br />

effective in protecting marine<br />

ecosystems from PPW, but also<br />

build capacity within local<br />

communities to respond to the<br />

impending oil spills.<br />

How many of the wrecks are in<br />

imminent danger of structural<br />

collapse, and where are they<br />

located?<br />

From the 3,800 PPW our<br />

research has narrowed the list<br />

down to 53 ‘Category 1’ high<br />

risk wrecks which urgently<br />

require survey to gather<br />

information about their current<br />

condition. These wrecks are<br />

located in the waters of eight<br />

Any stand out examples of wrecks<br />

at high risk? And can these risks<br />

be quantified?<br />

One of the fortunate things with<br />

our mission is that we don’t<br />

have to reinvent the wheel<br />

and can use international best<br />

practice to quantify the risk that<br />

the wrecks pose. For this work<br />

we have followed the model<br />

developed by the UK Centre<br />

for Environment, Fisheries and<br />

Aquaculture Science (CEFAS)<br />

for the British Ministry of<br />

Defence. Using this system, we<br />

have multiple wrecks that are<br />

deemed high-risk in terms of<br />

the likelihood of them spilling<br />

oil, most notably the wrecks<br />

of Nagato and USS Saratoga in<br />

Bikini Atoll, and Fujisan Maru<br />

and Heian Maru (amongst<br />

others) in Chuuk Lagoon.<br />

What measures are taken<br />

in the process of drawing up<br />

management plans to address<br />

these risks?<br />

To effectively manage the oil<br />

pollution threat the wrecks<br />

pose, a combination of deskbased<br />

research and fieldwork is<br />

required to create management<br />

plans to mitigate and remediate<br />

them. We have made great<br />

progress with archival and<br />

various other research but with<br />

COVID have only managed one<br />

expedition to Chuuk to begin<br />

a survey of the wrecks. Once<br />

international borders reopen we<br />

will be in the water as soon as<br />

possible gathering the data we<br />

need.<br />

How are the risks surveyed,<br />

assessed and ranked?<br />

We can get a fair amount of<br />

information regarding the<br />

risk potential of these wrecks<br />

through historical sources to<br />

22 Dive New Zealand | Dive Pacific

answer questions such<br />

as how and when it<br />

sank, what volume<br />

of oil was it holding<br />

when it sank etc.<br />

However, this needs to<br />

be supplemented by<br />

up-to-date information<br />

regarding the current<br />

condition of the wreck,<br />

which can only be<br />

gained through getting<br />

eyes on it either with<br />

divers, or remotely<br />

operated vehicles.<br />

We take all this<br />

information and put it into the<br />

model developed by CEFAS to<br />

get our risk ranking.<br />

What research is being done to<br />

ensure there is comprehensive<br />

coverage of all the wrecks and<br />

…The very real threat<br />

was realised in 2001<br />

when the wreck of<br />

the US Navy oiler USS<br />

Mississinewa (1943–44)<br />

leaked 24,000 gallons of<br />

oil into Ulithi Lagoon in<br />

the Marshall Islands…<br />

their locations?<br />

Our database of the 3,800 WWII<br />

wrecks in the Pacific is based on<br />

decades of research compiled<br />

by historians, including by one<br />

of our Directors who taught<br />

himself to read Japanese so<br />

he could translate shipping<br />

records. With the wrecks<br />

continuing to corrode the<br />

biggest challenge is getting upto-date<br />

information regarding<br />

their current condition.<br />

Number of ‘Category 1’ potentially polluting wrecks identified to country (Major Projects Foundation, 2019).<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 23

Geared up with essential safety<br />

equipment<br />

What techniques are employed,<br />

how are divers deployed, and<br />

what technologies are used to<br />

assess the wrecks?<br />

The key aspect of assessing how<br />

much oil remains on board is<br />

through a hull integrity survey.<br />

For this work we use divers<br />

equipped with underwater<br />

cameras to scan all aspects of<br />

the wreck by taking thousands<br />

of photos and video. These<br />

photos are processed through<br />

3D modelling software called<br />

Agisoft Photoscan to create an<br />

accurate model of the exact<br />

condition of the wreck at that<br />

moment of time. By comparing<br />

these models with plans of the<br />

ship we can identify which fuel<br />

tanks are likely to be intact<br />

and make estimates about how<br />

much fuel may still remain on<br />

board.<br />

Is there a case study perhaps<br />

of a particular wreck where the<br />

approach and methods have been<br />

trialled?<br />

over four dives in which<br />

we took 7500 overlapping<br />

photographs to create a 3D<br />

model. This hull integrity<br />

survey revealed damage<br />

caused during the sinking<br />

of the vessel and also from<br />

more recent collapse. This<br />

information has proved<br />

critical in our assessment<br />

of risk of the Rio de Janeiro<br />

Maru and will shape the<br />

management of the wreck<br />

into the future.<br />

What are the next steps the<br />

MPF proposes to take?<br />

Our key goal is it to remove the<br />

threat these wrecks pose before<br />

they collapse. While removing<br />

the oil is the obvious solution,<br />

it is a complex operation<br />

requiring not only political<br />

support at the international,<br />

national and local level, but<br />

Matt Carter scanning a wreck<br />

also significant funding! While<br />

we work towards this goal we<br />

are also developing short-term<br />

strategies such as working<br />

with local authorities to create<br />

oil spill response plans to<br />

enable them to clean up the<br />

predicted oil spills as effectively<br />

as possible. There are a lot<br />

of steps involved in a project<br />

like this but with the support<br />

of likeminded people we are<br />

already making a difference and<br />

remain committed to the cause.<br />

To put it simply the cost of doing<br />

nothing is simply too much.<br />

If you’re interested in finding<br />

out more and how to support<br />

our mission please visit<br />

https://majorprojects.org.au/<br />

and drop us a line.<br />

One of our best examples<br />

comes from our 2019 survey of<br />

the Rio de Janeiro Maru in Chuuk<br />

Lagoon. This ship was launched<br />

in 1929 and 140 metres in<br />

length, and capable of carrying<br />

2052 tons of oil. During WWII<br />

the Rio de Janeiro Maru served<br />

as a submarine tender for the<br />

Imperial Japanese Navy before<br />

being sunk in Chuuk Lagoon in<br />

1944 by US aircraft. Our 2019<br />

survey of it was undertaken<br />

Photo Steve Trewavas<br />

24 Dive New Zealand | Dive Pacific

New shark species named<br />

Researchers from the Pacific<br />

Shark Research Centre in the<br />

US have named a new deep-sea<br />

catshark species found near<br />

Madagascar Apristurus manocheriani<br />

or Manocherian’s Catshark<br />

in honour of Greg Manocherian, a<br />

supporter of shark conservation<br />

and research. Lead author of a<br />

paper published in the Journal of<br />

the Ocean Science Foundation,<br />

David A. Ebert, said, “Sharks are a<br />

very diverse group and people do<br />

not realize that there are nearly<br />

536 species. The<br />

discovery of this<br />

new deep-sea<br />

species<br />

highlights how<br />

little we still know<br />

of the deep sea.”<br />

Catsharks belonging to the<br />

genus Apristurus have been<br />

found in almost all oceans,<br />

including the Arctic, but not the<br />

Antarctic, mostly at depths from<br />

about 200–2200 metres along<br />

Italian shark has ‘virgin birth’<br />

The female baby smoothhound<br />

shark (Mustelus mustelus) —<br />

known as Ispera, or “hope” in<br />

Maltese — was recently born at<br />

the Cala Gonone Aquarium in<br />

Sardinia to a mother that has<br />

spent the past decade sharing a<br />

tank with one other female and<br />

no males, Newsweek has reported.<br />

This rare phenomenon, known<br />

as parthenogenesis, is the result<br />

of females’ ability to self-fertilize<br />



slopes, seamounts,<br />

deep-sea ridges, and<br />

trenches.<br />

Call for new treaty to protect the high seas<br />

Negotiations for a United<br />

Nations treaty to protect<br />

marine biodiversity in areas<br />

beyond national jurisdiction,<br />

or BBNJ, areas also known as<br />

the high seas, are scheduled<br />

to conclude this year after a<br />

pause caused by the COVID-19<br />

pandemic, and Chile’s director for<br />

environment and ocean affairs<br />

says “it’s time to act.”<br />

Ambassador Waldemar Coutts<br />

responsibility is to ensure Chile<br />

keeps its environmental and<br />

their own eggs in<br />

extreme scenarios.<br />

Parthenogenesis<br />

has been observed<br />

in more than 80<br />

vertebrate species<br />

including sharks,<br />

fish and reptiles but<br />

this may be the first<br />

documented occurrence<br />

in a smoothhound<br />

shark.<br />

Ocean beneath controls what’s above<br />

Research published in<br />

Communications Earth and<br />

Environment suggests that<br />

processes below the ocean<br />

surface may be controlling what<br />

is happening above. Researchers<br />

found that the ratio of nitrogen<br />

and phosphorus introduced from<br />

the ocean subsurface controls the<br />

balance of those nutrients in the<br />

conservation commitments on<br />

its 4000 mile long coastline.<br />

He says the ocean is integral<br />

to humanity’s survival. “That’s<br />

what’s at stake if we don’t understand<br />

we no longer have time<br />

to continue talking,” he said.<br />

The treaty must hold countries<br />

responsible for its implementation,<br />

with technical compliance<br />

and scientific committees and a<br />

functional Secretariat. “We need<br />

a treaty that allows a real balance<br />

between conservation and<br />

sustainable use of the ocean.<br />

marine microorganisms--in this<br />

study, phytoplankton--that form<br />

the foundation of ocean health.<br />

“This is the first time that we’ve<br />

looked across a broad range<br />

of ocean regions and directly<br />

measured the balance of nutrients<br />

in ocean microorganisms,” said<br />

Mike Lomas, lead author on the<br />

A shark’s rare “virgin birth” in an Italian<br />

aquarium maybe the first of its kind,<br />

scientists say.<br />

That approach guarantees a<br />

healthy ocean for the future.”<br />

New MPA for Mexico<br />

The Mexican government has<br />

committed to creating a new fully<br />

protected marine area by banning<br />

all extractive activities within<br />

the perimeter of the Islas Marías<br />

Biosphere Reserve which covers<br />

6,413 square km. The Islas Marías<br />

archipelago contains some of the<br />

few remaining healthy reefs in<br />

any of Mexico’s MPAs in the Gulf<br />

of California.<br />

paper. “Now we can apply more<br />

realistic parameters based on<br />

what is actually driving marine<br />

dynamics to the computer models<br />

used to forecast ocean change.”<br />

Lomas hopes that this improved<br />

understanding of nutrients will<br />

better predict how oceans will<br />

respond to climate change.<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 25

How climate change is<br />

impacting our oceans now<br />

By Dr Christopher Cornwall<br />

Important marine ecosystems in New Zealand and the wider Pacific<br />

are at risk from the effects of human induced climate change with<br />

ocean warming and associated marine heatwaves causing periods<br />

of extreme temperature which are bringing about mass coral reef<br />

bleaching in tropical waters, and the death of kelp forests in seas such<br />

as around New Zealand.<br />

In addition to this, ocean acidification is changing seawater chemistry,<br />

making it harder for calcium carbonate forming organisms like corals,<br />

molluscs and calcifying algae to grow their skeletal material.<br />

Together, these two stressors – ocean warming and acidification - are<br />

altering both coral reef ecosystems and kelp forests globally, and they<br />

are predicted to cause further changes in the near future.<br />

Dr Cornwall testing coral and coralline algal<br />

responses to climate change stressors<br />

Heatwave impacts…<br />

Marine heatwaves have<br />

arguably the greatest impacts<br />

on nearshore marine ecosystems<br />

with both corals and kelps<br />

susceptible to them due to their<br />

unique physiologies. Both coral<br />

reefs and kelp forests form<br />

ecologically vital habitats in<br />

tropical and temperate latitudes<br />

respectively.<br />

…on coral reefs<br />

Reef forming corals are an<br />

animal host that contain a<br />

dinoflagellate symbiont in a<br />

delectate mutualism. Corals<br />

are acclimatised to their local<br />

temperature conditions, and<br />

when temperature anomalies<br />

are too extreme for too long,<br />

the symbiont is expelled. What<br />

remains is the “bleached”<br />

appearing coral skeleton, since<br />

the beautiful colours of most<br />

corals are the pigments of the<br />

symbionts. The proportion<br />

of corals that bleach during a<br />

marine heatwave are a function<br />

of marine heatwave duration and<br />

intensity. Without their symbionts,<br />

they can no longer gain<br />

their photosynthetic products (eg<br />

sugars).<br />

Forereef coral community, Ningaloo, Western Australia<br />

26 Dive New Zealand | Dive Pacific

Coral reef community, Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef,<br />

Queensland, Australia<br />

But some of these corals will<br />

survive, with the proportion of<br />

their survival again mostly a<br />

function of marine heatwave<br />

intensity and duration.<br />

…and on kelp<br />

Kelp are also sensitive to<br />

temperature anomalies, particularly<br />

at the warm-edge of their<br />

range (ie in the north of the<br />

Southern Hemisphere). Unlike<br />

corals, they contain their own<br />

photosynthetic pigments, and<br />

during intense and longer marine<br />

heatwaves kelps undergo physiological<br />

stress and die.<br />

Events like this have been<br />

recorded in Western Australia<br />

with the common kelp that also<br />

lives in New Zealand (Ecklonia<br />

radiata), disappearing, and largely<br />

yet to return to large swathes of<br />

coastline where it existed in 2011.<br />

Here in New Zealand both “true”<br />

giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera)<br />

and “bull kelp” (an unrelated<br />

large brown alga, Durvillaea spp.)<br />

were severely impacted during<br />

a 2017/2018 summer marine<br />

heatwave.<br />

Acidification impacts<br />

On top of marine heatwaves,<br />

ocean acidification has become<br />

problematic in some places in<br />

the world, reducing the ability<br />

to grow of species that form<br />

calcium carbonate skeletons.<br />

Ocean ‘acidification’ is actually<br />

the process of the Earth’s<br />

surface seawaters becoming<br />

less alkaline, not acidic, thereby<br />

reducing seawater pH. PH is the<br />

inverse log scale of the concentration<br />

of hydrogen ions, so a<br />

decrease in pH predicted by 2100,<br />

of ~0.3 units in New Zealand<br />

is equal to a ~150% increase in<br />

hydrogen ion concentrations.<br />

These excess hydrogen ions in<br />

seawater flow to where most<br />

marine organisms precipitate<br />

calcium carbonate (a process<br />

termed “calcification”), making<br />

calcification ore difficult. Surface<br />

ocean pH has already declined by<br />

0.1 units since the beginning of<br />

the industrial revolution.<br />

Ocean acidification is the absorption<br />

at the surface seawater of<br />

CO 2 produced by our burning of<br />

fossil fuels, and this has subtle<br />

but important impacts on both<br />

coral reefs and kelp forests.<br />

Coralline algae critical<br />

In coral reefs the obvious ramifications<br />

mean that the growth<br />

rates of reef-forming corals will<br />

slow. However, calcifying red<br />

seaweeds called coralline algae<br />

which live in both coral reefs<br />

and kelp forest ecosystems are<br />

crucial to both and are especially<br />

vulnerable to ocean acidification.<br />

They emit chemical cues<br />

in seawater that allow specific<br />

invertebrate larvae to sense the<br />

presence of reefs (both rocky and<br />

coral), enabling them to settle in<br />

the correct location for them.<br />

Both coral larvae, and the larvae<br />

of pāua and kina in New Zealand<br />

Te Herenga Waka | Victoria University of Wellington School of Biological Sciences and IRD staff<br />

working at high CO2 mangrove reef at Bourake, New Caledonia<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 27

ely on these coralline algae. At<br />

places with naturally elevated<br />

CO 2 , such as near volcanic<br />

venting regions, research has<br />

shown that reduced coralline<br />

algal cover, due to low pH, acts<br />

to severely limit the number of<br />

coral species that can recruit<br />

there.<br />

Not only that, coralline algae<br />

act as ‘glue’ holding coral reefs<br />

together, filling in the gaps<br />

between corals. They also form<br />

their own reefs, such as with<br />

Australia’s largest inshore reef,<br />

the 380 square km Montgomery<br />

reef.<br />

In temperate zones the algae<br />

form ‘veneers’ over rocky reefs<br />

reducing erosion and holding<br />

substrate together, and they can<br />

also form thick reefs of their<br />

own up to 10 m high such as in<br />

the Mediterranean and other<br />

locations. Therefore, if we lose<br />

coralline algae to ocean acidification<br />

we would also severely<br />

impact both coral reefs and kelp<br />

forests.<br />

Coral reef modelling<br />

at 183 locations<br />

Our recent research modelled<br />

the response of coral reef growth<br />

to the effects of combined<br />

ocean warming, acidification<br />

and marine heatwaves at 183<br />

different locations across the<br />

Pacific, Indian and Atlantic<br />

Red coral, near Bourake, New Caledonia<br />

Oceans.<br />

Each ‘coral’ reef is comprised of<br />

various taxa that have different<br />

sensitivities to the three climate<br />

change stressors, and these<br />

stressors will manifest at varying<br />

magnitudes depending on their<br />

geographic location.<br />

Worryingly, we predict that<br />

under worst case carbon dioxide<br />

emission scenarios, that climate<br />

change will halt the ability of all<br />

but a handful (6%) of coral reefs<br />

to grow over our lifetime.<br />

Under intermediate emissions<br />

scenarios, we expect coral reefs<br />

will still fare very poorly, and<br />

similar effects are predicted<br />

before the end of the century.<br />

Only under conservative<br />

emissions scenarios, where we<br />

rapidly halt our emissions and<br />

employ technology to draw down<br />

atmospheric CO 2 concentrations,<br />

will coral reefs continue to<br />

possibly resemble the same state<br />

as they do at present. For this<br />

scenario we predict ~60% of coral<br />

reefs will still be able to grow.<br />

But even under this scenario we<br />

predict an overall 77% drop in<br />

the growth rates of coral reefs.<br />

Keeping within this emissions<br />

scenario remains the greatest<br />

hope for our children and grandchildren<br />

to experience coral reefs<br />

in the ways I have been fortunate<br />

to do.<br />

Kelp forests are changing<br />

Kelp forests in New Zealand are<br />

also predicted to fare poorly. The<br />

same marine heatwaves and<br />

ocean acidification that threaten<br />

coral reefs have already altered<br />

our kelp forests.<br />

Coralline algal reef, Tallon | Jalan Island, Kimberley, Western Australia<br />

The strengthening of the East<br />

Australian current over the last<br />

70 years due to ocean warming<br />

has increased water temperatures<br />

here. It has also carried<br />

the larvae of the invasive black<br />

spine sea urchin from New South<br />

Wales to Tasmania, changing<br />

kelp forest ecosystems to sea<br />

urchin barrens on their east<br />

coast.<br />

This same sea urchin is now<br />

invading northern New Zealand;<br />

divers have noticed increases<br />

in these barrens in our offshore<br />

islands. But fortunately, in<br />

Australia research has shown<br />

28 Dive New Zealand | Dive Pacific

…to acidification in the<br />

short term…<br />

We found that species of corals<br />

and coralline algae that can<br />

resist ocean acidification did<br />

so via changes to their internal<br />

chemistry either to keep pH<br />

internally high, or to compensate<br />

for this by increasing their<br />

concentrations of calcium internally.<br />

However, the majority of<br />

species exposed to ocean acidification<br />

cannot do this; their<br />

internal pH drops, resulting in<br />

decreased growth rates.<br />

Coralline algae and yellowfoot pā ua (Haliotis australis) covered in<br />

coralline algae at Houghton Bay, Wellington<br />

that marine reserves with<br />

larger urchin predators, snapper<br />

and lobster, can prevent these<br />

barrens and this offers cause for<br />

some hope in New Zealand.<br />

Research into<br />

resistance?<br />

Ongoing research into the<br />

effects of ocean acidification<br />

by my group at Te Herenga<br />

Waka, Victoria University of<br />

Wellington’s School of Biological<br />

Sciences also provides some<br />

insights into how climate change<br />

will manifest, why it impacts<br />

these important species, and<br />

possibly ways they could resist it<br />

to some extent.<br />

In collaboration with researchers<br />

from the University of Western<br />

Australia, the Australian<br />

Research Council’s Centre of<br />

Excellence for Coral Reef research<br />

has revealed much of the needed<br />

information though many<br />

questions still remain.<br />

The next step was to identify<br />

whether species could gain these<br />

traits when exposed to ocean<br />

acidification for long durations.<br />

Unfortunately, over a 12 month<br />

experiment conducted in Moorea,<br />

French Polynesia, we found that<br />

corals and calcifying algae could<br />

not acclimate. What traits they<br />

were born with, they were stuck<br />

with.<br />

…over the longer term?<br />

But the effects of climate change<br />

will not simply manifest over one<br />

lifetime. Shorter lived species<br />

will potentially have multiple<br />

generations over which they<br />

could acclimatise, or even adapt<br />

Extensive coral bleaching of thermally resistant corals measured by ARC Centre of Excellence staff at Shell<br />

Island, Kimberley, Western Australia, Australia during the April 2016 mass bleaching event that devastated<br />

Australia’s coral reefs on both coasts<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 29

to its effects.<br />

To test whether exposure over<br />

multiple generations of species<br />

would garner greater resistance<br />

to the effects of climate change<br />

is impossible over the lifetime of<br />

one research project for corals.<br />

However, tropical coralline algae<br />

can have short generation times,<br />

allowing us for the first time,<br />

to assess whether a calcifying<br />

benthic species could gain tolerance<br />

to ocean acidification over<br />

multiple (2+) generations.<br />

Tolerance may increase<br />

slowly<br />

We found that over six generations<br />

of exposure to ocean<br />

acidification that coralline algae<br />

did slowly gain the ability to<br />

resist ocean acidification, an<br />

effect that persisted till the end<br />

of the experiment (8 generations),<br />

offering hope that select species<br />

might gain tolerance to different<br />

forms of climate change.<br />

However, for many longer-lived<br />

corals this still might not be<br />

possible.<br />

But the rapid impacts of marine<br />

heatwaves causing coral and kelp<br />

mortality would be difficult to<br />

acclimatise to.<br />

Ongoing work at Victoria University<br />

of Wellington continues to assess<br />

these impacts. We are monitoring<br />

change on Wellington’s south coast<br />

to detect if marine heatwaves or<br />

acidification causes range retractions<br />

or extinctions of seaweed<br />

species.<br />

Giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) canopy, Huriawa peninsula, Otago<br />

Dr Christopher Cornwall is<br />

Rutherford Discovery Fellow at<br />

Victoria University of Wellington’s<br />

School of Biological Sciences.<br />

Previously he has been Research<br />

Fellow/Lecturer at the University<br />

of Western Australia, Australia,<br />

and Research Fellow at the<br />

Institute for Marine and Antarctic<br />

Studies, University of Tasmania.<br />

He is also Associate Editor, NZ<br />

Journal of Botany, Academic Editor,<br />

PLOS ONE, and Associate Editor,<br />

Frontiers in Marine Science.<br />

Dr Cornwall<br />

was awarded<br />

this year the<br />

Prime Minister’s<br />

MacDiarmid<br />

Emerging<br />

Scientist Award<br />

($200K), and has<br />

shared awards<br />

for the Centre<br />

of Research Excellence, University<br />

Research Fund, the Rutherford<br />

Discovery Fellowship, the ARC<br />

DECRA and ARC Discovery.<br />

Christopher.cornwall@vuw.ac.nz<br />

At our coastal ecology laboratory,<br />

we are further assessing how coralline<br />

algae and Caulerpa seaweed,<br />

culturally important across the<br />

Pacific, responds to the combined<br />

impacts of heatwaves, warming,<br />

acidification and sediment inputs.<br />

We are also working with colleagues<br />

in New Caledonia, Hong Kong,<br />

Canada, France and the USA to<br />

identify traits that could allow<br />

future coral reef and kelp forest<br />

persistence, while also better<br />

understanding how climate change<br />

will manifest globally and in New<br />

Zealand.<br />

Coralline algal and common kelp (Ecklonia radiata) at Rottnest Island,<br />

Western Australia<br />

30 Dive New Zealand | Dive Pacific

dnz164<br />

Processes involved in net carbonate<br />

production and accretion on reefs<br />

Fig. 1. Processes involved in net carbonate production and accretion on reefs as well as<br />

the associated methods typically employed to measure this. +ve = positive contribution<br />

to accretion with solid lines; −ve = negative contribution with dashed lines. Processes in<br />

gray are not included in most carbonate budgets or here. Here, we project the effects of<br />

ocean acidification and warming on CCA and coral calcification, chemical components of<br />

bioerosion, and sediment dissolution. Only chemical components of bioerosion are included<br />

in hydrochemical measurements, while direct sediment production by bioeroders is also<br />

included here.<br />

400-year-old coral widest ever found<br />

in Great Barrier Reef<br />

Researchers have measured<br />

a piece of coral that’s<br />

the widest yet discovered in<br />

Australia’s Great Barrier Reef. The<br />

Indigenous Manbarra<br />

people, traditional<br />

custodians of the<br />

area, named it Muga<br />

dhambi (big coral),<br />

the widest and sixth<br />

tallest coral measured<br />

in the Great Barrier<br />

Reef. Researchers said<br />

it was between 21<br />

to 438 years old and<br />

measures nearly 6m<br />

tall and 10 m wide.<br />

The Great Barrier Reef<br />

covers about 133,000<br />

square miles. Muga dhambi is in<br />

very good health with 70% of it<br />

live coral.<br />

FREE<br />

PHONE<br />



SIMPLY<br />

AWESOME!<br />

0800 288 882<br />

www.diving.co.nz<br />

3-5 Rona Place, Tutukaka, Whangarei, SOUTH <strong>PACIFIC</strong><br />

www.dive-pacific.com 31

Overfishing: The issues<br />

By Coty Perry<br />

Overfishing and other fishing-related environmental issues are a real problem worldwide,<br />

writes US fisherman Coty Perry in a discussion on its social, economic and environmental<br />

threats. (the full article is here: https://yourbassguy.com/news/overfishing/<br />

The issue is important for anyone who uses fish as food. As the ocean goes, so goes<br />

the planet. All of us need to educate ourselves on what is driving overfishing, what the<br />

consequences are, and what meaningful steps we can take.<br />

Over three billion<br />

people around the<br />

world rely on fish as<br />

their primary source<br />

of protein with about<br />

12% of the world relying on fisheries in some form<br />

or another for their income. 90% of these are smallscale,<br />

using small nets or even rods, reels and lures<br />

not too different from the kind you probably use.<br />

As a recreational fisherman you are almost certainly<br />

not guilty of “overfishing.” This is an issue for the<br />

fishing industry trawling the ocean with massive<br />

nets.<br />

…30% of commercially fished waters<br />

are now classified as ‘overfished’…<br />

Still, overfishing is a rational reaction to increasing<br />

market demand for fish. Most people consume<br />

twice as much fish as they did 50 years ago, and<br />

caught in a net.<br />

While this is bad enough overfishing also includes:<br />

• Increased algae in the water causing increased<br />

ocean acidity.<br />

• Destruction of fishing communities: This is<br />

particularly true for island communities where<br />

fishing is often the primary source of protein as well<br />

as the main driver of its economy.<br />

• Tougher fishing for small vessels: Overfishing is<br />

mostly done by large vessels which makes it harder<br />

for the smaller ones.<br />

• Ghost fishing: Ghost fishing refers to abandoned<br />

man-made fishing gear left behind. An estimated<br />

25,000 nets float throughout the Northeast Atlantic,<br />

a death trap for all marine life.<br />

• Species near extinction: Many species of fish are<br />

being pushed close to extinction by overfishing, such<br />

as several species of cod, tuna, halibut and even<br />

lobster.<br />

• Bycatch not being sought by commercial<br />

fishermen is often caught in their nets as a<br />

byproduct. This possibility increases dramatically<br />

with overfishing.<br />

• Waste: Overfishing creates waste. 20% of all fish in<br />

the US is lost in the supply chain due to overfishing.<br />

In the Third World this rises to 30% due to a lack of<br />

freezing devices. Though more fish are being caught<br />

than ever, the waste is massive.<br />

• Mystery fish: Because of overfishing, a significant<br />

amount of fish for sale isn’t what it is labelled as. Eg<br />

Only 13% of the “red snapper” on the (US) market is<br />

actually red snapper.<br />

there are well over twice as many people on earth<br />

now than there were in 1960. A result is that 30%<br />

of commercially fished waters are now classified as<br />

“overfished”, meaning that available fishing waters<br />

are being depleted faster than they can be replaced.<br />

At best this means there are fewer fish next year<br />

than this year. At worst, it means a species of fish is<br />

no longer found in a specific area anymore. It runs<br />

hand-in-hand with wasteful forms of fishing that<br />

harvest not just the fish the trawler is looking for,<br />

but just about every other organism big enough to be<br />

Four causes for overfishing<br />

• Regulation that is difficult to enforce. Worst<br />

offenders have little regulation and no regulations<br />

apply in international waters.<br />

• Unreported fishing: Regulations can force many<br />

fisherman to fish “off the books”, especially true in<br />

developing nations.<br />

• Mobile processing when fish are processed before<br />

returning to port, canned or frozen while still out at<br />

sea. Canned fish is increasingly replacing fresh fish.<br />

• Subsidies: Subsidies for fishing don’t generally go<br />

to small fishers but to massive fuel intensive vessels.<br />

32 Dive New Zealand | Dive Pacific

Subsidies encourage overfishing<br />

because with them the more fish<br />

you catch, the more money you<br />

get.<br />

it takes at least 10kg of feed to<br />

produce, for example, 500 gm<br />

of tuna, making farmed fishing<br />

incredibly inefficient. Indeed, 37%<br />

Quotas, specifically the<br />

“individual transferable quota”<br />

scheme used by New Zealand<br />

and many other countries does<br />

According to the World Wildlife<br />

Fund, subsidies drive illegal<br />

fishing, which is closely tied<br />

with piracy, slavery and human<br />

trafficking. The University of<br />

British Columbia conducted a<br />

study that found that $22 billion<br />

(63% of all fishing subsidies)<br />

encouraged overfishing.<br />

…37% of all seafood globally is now fed to farmed<br />

fish, up dramatically from 7.7% in 1948…<br />

not seem to work as intended<br />

for a number of reasons. First,<br />

the quotas are transferable<br />

meaning small fishermen over<br />

time sell out their quota to large<br />

commercial operations rather<br />

than work it themselves, and<br />

we’re back to square one.<br />

More on subsidies<br />

The governments of the world<br />

give over $35 billion every year<br />

to fishermen, about 20% of the<br />

value of all the commercially<br />

caught fish in the world every<br />

year. These subsidies reduce costs<br />

for mega fishing companies, like<br />

paying fuel budgets, their gear<br />

and even the vessels themselves.<br />

They squeeze out their smaller<br />

competitors.<br />

The ‘advantages’ drive the<br />

mega fishing companies into<br />

unsustainable fishing practices,<br />

leading to depleted stocks, lower<br />

yields, and lower costs of fish at<br />

market which, while good for<br />

the consumer, makes it harder<br />

for smaller operations to turn a<br />

profit.<br />

…The governments of the<br />

world give out in subsidies<br />

over $35 billion every year to<br />

fishermen, about 20% of the<br />

value of all the commercially<br />

caught fish in the world<br />

every year…<br />

Fish farming?<br />

Crowding thousands of fish<br />

together in small areas away from<br />

their natural habitat turns out<br />

to have a number of detrimental<br />

effects. Waste products, can<br />

contaminate areas around fish<br />

farms. The farms often require<br />

lots of pesticides and drugs<br />

thanks to the high concentrations<br />

of fish and the parasites and<br />

diseases spread in them, and<br />

of all seafood globally is now fed<br />

to farmed fish, up dramatically<br />

from 7.7% in 1948.<br />

Which countries do it?<br />

The US is the only Western nation<br />

on a “shame list” referring to<br />

bluefin tuna and put out by Pew<br />

Charitable Trusts; the others are<br />

Japan, Taiwan, China, South Korea<br />

and Indonesia. In 2011 these six<br />

countries took 80% of the world’s<br />

bluefin tuna, collectively 111,482<br />

tonnes.<br />

When it comes to harmful<br />

subsidies the clear leader is<br />

China. A University of British<br />

Columbia study found China<br />

provided more in the way of<br />

harmful subsidies than any other<br />

: $US7.2 billion in 2018 or 21% of<br />

all global support.<br />

What doesn’t work…<br />

In many cases current regulations<br />

simply do not work. An extreme<br />

example: governments restricted<br />

fishing for certain forms of tuna<br />

for three days a year so the<br />

big fishing companies simply<br />

harvested as many fish in three<br />

days as they were previously<br />

getting in an entire year, leading<br />

to greater bycatch and waste.<br />

In general, quotas can be a<br />

source of waste. For example, a<br />

fishing operation is permitted<br />

a specific tonnage of fish of a<br />

specific species. But some of the<br />

catch is of higher quality, which<br />

incentivises the discard of lowerquality<br />

fish to be replenished<br />

in favour of higher-quality fish,<br />

thereby creating large amounts<br />

of waste. The discard can<br />

sometimes amount to 40% of the<br />

catch.<br />

…and what does work<br />

One alternative is called<br />

territorial use rights in fisheries<br />

management where individual<br />

fishers or collectives are granted<br />

long-term lease rights to fish<br />

specific areas. They won’t want<br />

to overfish the area because to<br />

do so would harm their future<br />

prospects, so they catch only<br />

as many fish as is sustainable.<br />

The fishers with rights are<br />

incentivised to preserve the<br />

fishing not just for the next year,<br />

but for ongoing generations. This<br />

model has been used successfully<br />

by Chile, and also Belize,<br />

Denmark and even the United<br />

States.<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 33

How much of our oceans are<br />

protected, and is it enough?<br />

By Dee Harris<br />

In the first of this series (Dive<br />

Pacific 176, Feb/March/ April<br />

<strong>2021</strong>) we discussed the value<br />

of marine reserves concluding<br />

they offer a great degree<br />

of protection and are the<br />

preferred route for restoring<br />

our oceans’ health. The<br />

definition applied for marine<br />

reserves is simple: “total<br />

protection from fishing and<br />

extraction.”<br />

Furthermore the experts<br />

believe that somewhere<br />

between 10% and 30% of our<br />

planet’s waters need this level<br />

of protection if we are to avert<br />

destructive climate change and<br />

wide spread extinction events.<br />

New Zealand has 44 marine<br />

reserves which amount to<br />

about 12% protection of our<br />

territorial waters. However, of<br />

this 11.51% is located in mega<br />

reserves in remote offshore<br />

areas such as the Kermadec<br />

Islands; only 0.0035% of marine<br />

reserves are situated on New<br />

Zealand’s coastline and these<br />

are made of up of a series of<br />

very small areas.<br />

In June this year the New<br />

Zealand government<br />

announced plans for a raft<br />

of changes for added marine<br />

protection including the<br />

creation of 18 new Marine<br />

Protected Areas in the Hauraki<br />

Gulf. The need for urgency was<br />

acknowledged.<br />

In this second article we<br />

examine broadly how other<br />

world nations are progressing<br />

their efforts to protect their<br />

oceanic responsibilities and<br />

facing up to some of the<br />

inherent challenges in doing so.<br />

First a reality check: most areas<br />

of the world’s marine reserves<br />

- those with total protection<br />

from fishing and extraction<br />

-are far from common. Most<br />

Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)<br />

allow ‘multiple’ uses which<br />

can include activities such as<br />

fishing by local communities,<br />

seasonal only protection, for<br />

example during spawning,<br />

and even deep-sea mineral<br />

extraction.<br />

Marine protection worldwide: a whirlwind assessment<br />

The Americas<br />

Let’s head first to The Americas.<br />

It seems Marine Reserves (MRs)<br />

in the United States make up<br />

only 7% of all their marine<br />

protected areas; the other 93%<br />

are Marine Protected Areas<br />

(MPAs). Of the total area designated<br />

with some form of<br />

marine protection, 94% consist<br />

of the 937,000 km2 Papahā<br />

naumokuākea Marine National<br />

Monument in Hawaii.<br />

Long-established and grandly<br />

funded organisations such as<br />

National Geographic, that reputedly<br />

lead scientific expeditions<br />

to identify ocean challenges, may<br />

give the perception that the US<br />

is a leader in marine protection.<br />

That appears not the case. For<br />

example the Trump administration<br />

opened 128 million acres of<br />

the Arctic and Atlantic oceans for<br />

oil and gas drilling, although this<br />

was countered more recently by<br />

President Biden who, seeking to<br />

undo the Alaskan expansion and<br />

other sensitive areas, has called<br />

for a halt to new oil and gas<br />

leases. He has also committed to<br />

what is referred to as the 30x30<br />

plan to conserve and restore 30%<br />

of the nation’s lands and waters<br />

by 2030.<br />

…The Pacific Ocean is a source of life for us.<br />

This is our contribution not only to our own<br />

wellbeing but also to humanity’s wellbeing…<br />

In comparison Canada’s commitment<br />

is made to look good<br />

though protected areas around<br />

its vast coastline may look to<br />

be just spotty patches. Canada’s<br />

Oceans Act claimed in 2019<br />

to have achieved the international<br />

target of 10% protection of<br />

marine and coastal areas with<br />

793,906 km2 or 13.81% of the<br />

country’s marine and coastal<br />

areas under protection, despite<br />

markedly differing levels of<br />

protection for each area.<br />

In Latin America Chile has<br />

made significant progress<br />

in recent years to protect its<br />

waters. Chile’s local communities<br />

have provided support as<br />

they have witnessed fish stocks<br />

decline, and replaced their<br />

reliance on them with marine<br />

based tourism. Chile’s<br />

model resembles New<br />

Zealand’s where two<br />

offshore areas: Rapa Nui<br />

(Easter Island), and the<br />

Juan Fernandez Islands<br />

(Robinson Crusoe) are large<br />

reserves with considerable<br />

protection, but there’s only 1%<br />

of marine reserves near the<br />

mainland coastline.<br />

Other South American countries<br />

have instituted varying degrees<br />

of protection but many are<br />

fraught with problems including<br />

illegal fishing, overfishing,<br />

pollution, and an inability to<br />

adequately enforce existing laws.<br />

34 Dive New Zealand | Dive Pacific

A feature of Ecuador, for<br />

example, which administers the<br />

Galapagos Islands is its weak<br />

governance, a major obstacle<br />

to achieving protection goals.<br />

In 2017 the Ecuadorian Navy<br />

seized a Chinese cargo vessel<br />

named Fu Yuan Yu Leng 999 in<br />

the Galapagos National Reserve<br />

Park to find 300 tonnes of fish<br />

including a protected species of<br />

shark. Ecuador allows sharks as<br />

incidental bycatch while insisting<br />

there is no shark fishing. But<br />

the price of shark fin is $US650<br />

/kilo, which can realise US$10<br />

million in one boat haul. The Fu<br />

Yuan incident created outrage<br />

on a world scale, yet it is likely<br />

to be only one vessel of many<br />

that happened to get caught. Low<br />

wages and other social inequities<br />

help prop up corrupt government<br />

that goes back centuries where<br />

key officials are bribed to turn a<br />

blind eye.<br />

Further issues in Central and<br />

South America revolve around<br />

the separation of powers<br />

between local, regional, and<br />

national authorities which is<br />

where things frequently get<br />

messy. Resources and funding<br />

needed to enforce laws are often<br />

inadequate, along with the 13<br />

million tonnes of plastic dumped<br />

in South American oceans each<br />

year, and untreated waste water<br />

piped straight into the seas off<br />

countries like Columbia and<br />

Peru.<br />

by the EU to achieve Good<br />

Environmental Status (GES) in EU<br />

waters by 2020. Most MPAs are<br />

in the Mediterranean where they<br />

are very small, and inadequately<br />

protected. The UK has its Marine<br />

Conservation Zones which are<br />

not as protected as those of the<br />

EU, instead aiming to protect<br />

rare and vulnerable species. All<br />

of Europe’s efforts though seem<br />

spread far too thinly for a region<br />

with an extremely high GDP and<br />

aspirations to be a first world<br />

leader.<br />

Asia<br />

One Asian initiative, the<br />

Northeast Asian Marine<br />

Protected Areas Network<br />

(NEAMPAN), is an organisation<br />

with very clear objectives<br />

around establishing a network of<br />

marine protected areas in China,<br />

Japan, the Republic of Korea,<br />

and the Russian Federation.<br />

And in addition, hundreds of<br />

diverse organisations appear<br />

to be working locally within<br />

individual countries as well as<br />

at the broader national level to<br />

achieve marine protection aims.<br />

Nevertheless it is difficult to see<br />

the shape of any overall plan<br />

that might demonstrate the vast<br />

region is anywhere along the<br />

way to achieving timely marine<br />

protection.<br />

Antarctica<br />

Antarctica is governed by an<br />

international body made up of<br />

24 member countries which also<br />

oversee the waters around it, in<br />

all a 962,0000 km2 protected area<br />

created in 2016, said to be twice<br />

…How much of your heart do you want to protect? … if we can<br />

make it happen, it can truly change the world, and help ensure the<br />

survival of … my favourite species; that would be us.…<br />

the size of Texas. It includes a<br />

large part of the Ross Sea where<br />

everything from penguins to<br />

whales are protected. A 2011<br />

study in the journal Biological<br />

Conservation said the Ross Sea<br />

was “the least altered marine<br />

ecosystem on Earth,” citing intact<br />

communities of Emperor and<br />

Adelie penguins, crabeater seals,<br />

orcas, and minke whales. Quite<br />

an achievement.<br />

Australia<br />

Closer to home, Australia, has<br />

the largest network of marine<br />

Africa<br />

Africa’s problems mirror those<br />

of South America where severe<br />

funding and resource constraints<br />

prevail. Coastal erosion, the<br />

impacts of climate change,<br />

ocean acidification, offshore<br />

developments, overfishing, and<br />

land-based pollution are some<br />

of the challenges. Offering hope<br />

is the type of excellent expertise<br />

developed by several African<br />

countries in land-based wildlife<br />

protection, skills and techniques<br />

that could well be transferred to<br />

marine park protection.<br />

Europe<br />

In Europe, the Marine Strategy<br />

Framework Directive was started<br />

Provided by The UN Environment World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-<br />

WCMC) and IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural<br />

Resources.<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 35

parks with 60 areas covering 3.1<br />

million km2. Roughly a third of<br />

Australia’s waters combine the<br />

Great Barrier Reef with a contiguous<br />

part of the Coral Sea to<br />

form one of the largest marine<br />

protected areas in the world.<br />

Australia’s marine policy looks in<br />

pretty good shape even though<br />

the vast majority of the areas<br />

protected are in MPAs not MRs.<br />

The Pacific<br />

Our Pacific Island neighbours<br />

deserve credit for allocating huge<br />

areas relative to their size to<br />

marine protection over the last<br />

15 years.<br />

In 2012 the Cook Islands, a nation<br />

of 20,000 people on 15 islands,<br />

created in 2012 one of the world’s<br />

largest marine parks covering<br />

nearly 1.1 million km2, bigger<br />

than France and Germany. Said<br />

the Cooks’ Prime Minister Henry<br />

Puna when launching the MPA:<br />

“The Pacific Ocean is a source<br />

of life for us. This is our contribution<br />

not only to our own<br />

wellbeing but also to humanity’s<br />

wellbeing.”<br />

New Caledonia also announced<br />

in 2012 the creation of a new<br />

marine protected area roughly<br />

half the size of India, covering 1.4<br />

million km2, and in 2008 the tiny<br />

Pacific Island nation of Kiribati<br />

launched the Pacific Oceanscape<br />

concept creating a 400,000 km2<br />

MPA.<br />

Perhaps it’s understandable that<br />

small island nations more fully<br />

understand the threats posed<br />

to them from climate change,<br />

including submersion of their<br />

islands as sea levels rise.<br />

The challenges<br />

What is proven is that true<br />

Marine Reserves sustain higher<br />

densities and variety of species<br />

than Marine Protected Areas, and<br />

that if designed and managed<br />

well, and enforced, bigger fish<br />

will have more offspring in<br />

Marine Reserves and demonstrate<br />

amazing recovery rates of<br />

species, which will in turn help<br />

fish catch.<br />

Second, it’s clear that it is far<br />

easier politically to establish<br />

huge MR’s or MPA’s in remote<br />

offshore areas far from population<br />

centres, and where fishing<br />

may be of less interest.<br />

In establishing protected areas<br />

such as these, and in the words<br />

of outspoken marine critic<br />

Russell Moffitt, we are “going<br />

after the low-lying fruit.” The<br />

hard work has yet to be done<br />

since, while the vast majority<br />

of marine protected areas are<br />

located near countries’ territorial<br />

waters, their area is individually<br />

and in aggregate is extremely<br />

small, and the issue about<br />

making them bigger requires<br />

co-operation, conflict resolution,<br />

and a lot of effort to get more of<br />

them created or added onto.<br />

…For the children of today,<br />

for tomorrow’s child: as never<br />

again, now is the time.…<br />

In addition to the MRs and<br />

MPAs established by individual<br />

nations, there are also international<br />

waters governed by the<br />

UN convention on the Law of<br />

the High Seas. Many of these<br />

so called ‘Donut Holes’ could<br />

become MR’s and enable far<br />

larger expanses of ocean catchment,<br />

but doing this also requires<br />

massive international agreement.<br />

The political ocean<br />

Indeed the preservation of<br />

species in our oceans is political.<br />

While the changes instituted<br />

by various nations and organisations<br />

is helpful and totally<br />

essential, the large-scale changes<br />

needed in the time-period available<br />

to save us requires political<br />

leadership and commitment.<br />

Unfortunately, this leadership<br />

is in extremely short supply,<br />

along with budget limitations,<br />

psycho-social attitudes, and<br />

public ignorance of the facts.<br />

Whereas new individual<br />

country policies certainly need<br />

to advance, there is also the<br />

need for co-operation between<br />

countries where the high seas<br />

present challenges of a different<br />

order than those for countrybased<br />

conservation.<br />

A complicating factor is that the<br />

time needed for each species to<br />

recover will differ. For instance<br />

the Blue Whale needs 8 years,<br />

Atlantic Cod 20 years, and the<br />

Loggerhead Sea Turtle 16-28<br />

years.<br />

Most of us, who don’t claim to be<br />

experts, may assume someone<br />

else is working on these issues,<br />

but many voices are needed to<br />

move things forward with the<br />

urgency needed since time is<br />

running out.<br />

The goal<br />

A decade ago the UN issued a<br />

goal to see 10% of our oceans<br />

protected by 2020. And by 2019,<br />

7% of our oceans had some<br />

form of formal protection. But<br />

most scientists and conservation<br />

groups such as Greenpeace<br />

believe 30% is the minimum<br />

needed.<br />

Further, in 2016 the renowned<br />

biologist E.O. Wilson introduced<br />

his idea of “half Earth,” arguing<br />

that protecting half the planet<br />

would save as many as 90% of<br />

imperilled species. He believes<br />

the problem is too large to be<br />

solved piecemeal. He proposed<br />

the solution should match the<br />

scale of the problem: that is,<br />

dedicate fully half the surface of<br />

the Earth to nature. Since man<br />

is only one of the 1.3 million<br />

identified species in the world it<br />

seems reasonable that 50% of our<br />

planet should be preserved for all<br />

the other creatures we share the<br />

planet with.<br />

It’s certain the more we aspire<br />

to, the more likely that we are to<br />

achieve a reasonable, sustainable<br />

area of protection. If we stick to<br />

a mere 10% goal, which we have<br />

had for the last 10 years, we will<br />

only ever achieve 1% of what is<br />

needed.<br />

In the first part of this series New<br />

Zealander Bill Ballantine was<br />

quoted that a basic human right<br />

of all children was to experience<br />

the rich range of natural life, and<br />

that we should make real efforts<br />

to arrange this.<br />

36 Dive New Zealand | Dive Pacific

Provided by The Marine Protection Atlas: mpatlas.org<br />

In a recent interview<br />

renowned American<br />

oceanographer and<br />

explorer Dr. Sylvia Earle,<br />

a kind of Jane Goodall for<br />

the oceans, said: “Some<br />

say 10%, some say 30%.<br />

You decide: how much of<br />

your heart do you want to<br />

protect? Whatever it is, a<br />

fraction of one percent is<br />

not enough.<br />

“My wish is a big wish,<br />

but if we can make it<br />

happen, it can truly<br />

change the world, and<br />

help ensure the survival<br />

of what actually - as it<br />

turns out - is my favourite<br />

species; that would<br />

be us. For the children<br />

of today, for tomorrow’s<br />

child: as never again, now<br />

is the time.”<br />

2.7% of global ocean area is in implemented and<br />

fully/highly protected zones<br />

3.7% is in implemented but less protected zones<br />

< 1% is in designated but unimplemented zones<br />

1.4% is in proposed/committed zones<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 37

Deep feelers by Laurent Ballesta, France,<br />

Highly commended<br />


UK’s Natural History Museum presents<br />

Wildlife Photographer of the Year<br />

A special selection of Highly Commended<br />

photographs has been released ahead of the<br />

opening of the UK’s Wildlife Photographer<br />

of the Year Awards at the Natural History<br />

Museum in London. Here’s five of them.<br />

Dive Pacific will present winners in our next<br />

edition.<br />

Now in its 57th year, the Wildlife<br />

Photographer of the Year Awards is the<br />

Museum’s showcase for the world’s best<br />

nature photography. This year’s competition<br />

attracted over 50,000 entries from professionals<br />

and amateurs across 95 countries.<br />

Overall winners will be announced via a<br />

virtual awards ceremony, streamed from<br />

the Natural History Museum on Tuesday<br />

12th October. Go to Instagram, Twitter or<br />

Facebook for live updates on the night. The<br />

exhibition of the images will open on October<br />

15th.<br />

The 2022 competition opens for entries<br />

on Monday 18 October and closes at on 9<br />

December <strong>2021</strong>. The competition is open to<br />

photographers of all ages, nationalities and<br />

levels. Find out more here.<br />

38 Dive New Zealand | Dive Pacific

Deep feelers by Laurent<br />

Ballesta, France, Highly<br />

commended<br />

In deep water off the French<br />

Mediterranean coast, among<br />

cold-water black coral, Laurent<br />

came across a vibrant community<br />

of thousands of narwhal<br />

shrimps. Their legs weren’t<br />

touching, but their exceptionally<br />

long, highly mobile<br />

outer antennae were. Research<br />

suggests that such contact is<br />

central to the shrimps’ social<br />

behaviour, in pairing and<br />

competition.<br />

In such deep water (78 m<br />

down), Laurent’s air supply<br />

included helium (to cut back<br />

on nitrogen absorbed), which<br />

enabled him to stay at depth<br />

longer and stalk the shrimps.<br />

Narwhal shrimps often burrow<br />

in mud or sand or hide among<br />

rocks or in caves in the day.<br />

They are also fished commercially<br />

and when shrimp-fishing<br />

involves bottom trawling over<br />

such deep-water locations, it<br />

destroys the slow growing coral<br />

forests as well as their communities.<br />

Nikon D5 + 15–30mm f2.8 lens at<br />

30mm; 1/40 sec at f20; ISO 1600;<br />

Seacam housing; Seacam strobes.<br />

Net loss by Audun<br />

Rikardsen, Norway, Highly<br />

commended<br />

In the wake of a fishing boat,<br />

a slick of dead and dying<br />

herrings covers the surface of<br />

the sea off the coast of Norway.<br />

The boat had caught too many<br />

fish, and when the encircling<br />

wall of the purse-seine net was<br />

closed and winched up, it broke,<br />

releasing tons of crushed and<br />

suffocated animals.<br />

Audun was on board a<br />

Norwegian coastguard vessel<br />

nearby, on a project to satellite<br />

tag killer whales. The whales<br />

follow the migrating herrings<br />

and are frequently found<br />

alongside fishing boats where<br />

they feed on fish that leak out<br />

of the nets. For the Norwegian<br />

coastguard the spectacle of<br />

carnage and waste was effectively<br />

a crime scene. Audun’s<br />

photographs became the visual<br />

evidence in a court case that<br />

resulted in a conviction and<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 39

The great swim by Buddhilini de Soyza, Sri Lanka/Australia Highly commended<br />

fine for the owner of the boat.<br />

Overfishing (See p 30) is one<br />

of the biggest threats to ocean<br />

ecosystems, and according to<br />

the UN Food and Agriculture<br />

Organization, more than 60%<br />

of fisheries today are either<br />

‘fully fished’ or collapsed><br />

Almost 30% are at their limit<br />

(‘overfished’). Norwegian<br />

spring-spawning herring – part<br />

of the Atlantic herring population<br />

complex – was in the 19th<br />

century the most commercially<br />

fished fish population in<br />

the North Atlantic, but by the<br />

end of the 1960s, it had been<br />

fished almost to extinction. The<br />

Atlantic herring came close to<br />

extinction. It took 20 years and<br />

a near ban on fishing to recover,<br />

though still vulnerable. The<br />

recovery has been followed by<br />

an increase in the number of<br />

their predators such as killer<br />

whales.<br />

Canon EOS-1D X Mark II + 14mm<br />

f2.8 lens; 1/320 sec at f13 (-0.33<br />

e/v); ISO 1600.<br />

The great swim by<br />

Buddhilini de Soyza, Sri<br />

Lanka/Australia<br />

Highly commended<br />

When the Tano Bora coalition<br />

of male cheetahs<br />

leapt into the raging Talek River<br />

in Kenya’s Maasai Mara, Dilini<br />

feared they would not make it.<br />

Unseasonable, relentless rain<br />

had caused the worst flooding<br />

local elders had ever known.<br />

Cheetahs are strong swimmers,<br />

and with the prospect of more<br />

prey on the other side of the<br />

river, they were determined.<br />

Dilini followed them for hours<br />

from the opposite bank as they<br />

searched for a crossing point.<br />

The Tano Bora (Maasai for<br />

‘magnificent five’) is an unusually<br />

large coalition, thought to<br />

comprise two pairs of brothers,<br />

joined later by a single male.<br />

Calmer stretches, perhaps with<br />

a greater risk of lurking crocodiles,<br />

were spurned. ‘Suddenly,<br />

the leader jumped in,’ she said.<br />

Against her expectations all five<br />

emerged onto the bank some<br />

100 m downstream and headed<br />

straight off to hunt.<br />

Canon EOS 5D Mark IV + 100–<br />

400mm f4.5–5.6 lens at 400mm;<br />

1/2000 sec at f5.6; ISO 640.<br />

40 Dive New Zealand | Dive Pacific

The gripping end by Wei Fu, Thailand,<br />

Highly commended<br />

Clutched in the coils of a golden tree snake,<br />

a red-spotted tokay gecko clamps onto its<br />

attacker’s head in a last attempt at defence.<br />

Named for their call, tokay geckos are up to 40<br />

cm long, feisty and have powerful jaws. But<br />

they are also a favourite prey of the golden<br />

tree snake which also hunts lizards, amphibians,<br />

birds and even bats; its one of five snakes<br />

that can ‘fly’, expanding its ribs and flattening<br />

its body to glide from branch to branch.<br />

Wei was photographing birds at a park near<br />

his home in Bangkok, Thailand, when he heard<br />

the loud croaking and hissing of the gecko<br />

being approached by the golden tree snake.<br />

Within minutes the snake had dislodged the<br />

gecko and squeezing it to death then began<br />

the laborious process of swallowing the gecko<br />

whole.<br />

Canon EOS 7 Mark II + Tamron SP 150–600mm<br />

f5–6.3 G2 lens; 1/800 sec at f7.1; ISO 1000.<br />

Toxic design by Gheorghe Popa, Romania<br />

Highly commended<br />

This eye-catching detail of a small river in the<br />

Geamana Valley, within Romania’s Apuseni<br />

Mountains, took Gheorghe by surprise though<br />

he had been visiting the region for several years<br />

using his drone to capture images of the valley’s<br />

ever changing patterns. But these designs,<br />

perhaps made sharp by recent heavy rain, are<br />

the result of an ugly truth.<br />

In the late 1970s, more<br />

than 400 families living<br />

in Geamana were forced<br />

to leave to make way for<br />

waste flowing from the<br />

nearby Rosia Poieni mine,<br />

a mine exploiting one of<br />

the largest deposits of<br />

copper ore and gold in<br />

Europe. The picturesque<br />

valley became a ‘tailings<br />

pond’ filled with an acidic<br />

cocktail, containing pyrite<br />

(fool’s gold), iron and other<br />

heavy metals, laced with<br />

cyanide which infiltrated<br />

the groundwater and<br />

threatened waterways more<br />

widely.<br />

The settlement was gradually engulfed with<br />

millions of tons of toxic waste, leaving just the<br />

old church tower protruding and the sludge still<br />

piling up.<br />

DJI Mavic 2 Pro + Hasselblad L1D-20c + 28mm f2.8<br />

lens; 1/60 sec at f11; ISO 100<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 41



Treasures found in 2200-year-old Egyptian<br />

‘Atlantis’ shipwreck<br />

Archaeologists have come across a<br />

2200-year-old shipwreck buried in the<br />

bottom of the Mediterranean sea, a military<br />

vessel found underneath the ancient city<br />

of Heracleion (also known as Thonis) which<br />

was destroyed by earthquakes in the second<br />

century BC.<br />

The 25m-long shipwreck was a common boat<br />

for navigating the Nile River.<br />

“[The ship sunk] as a result of the collapse<br />

of the temple and huge blocks falling on it<br />

during a devastating earthquake,” a statement<br />

from the Egyptian Ministry of Tourism<br />

and Antiquities said.<br />

“This discovery beautifully illustrates the presence<br />

of the Greek merchants who lived in that city,” the<br />

Ministry told Reuters.<br />

The city of Heracleion was said to be one<br />

of the most important trade centres in the<br />

Mediterranean before it disappeared into<br />

Decorative clay pots<br />

and oil lamps have<br />

also been found<br />

Treasures still being<br />

found at Egypt’s sunken city.<br />

Photo: The Hilti Foundation via Egyptian Ministry of Tourism and Antiques<br />

what is now the Bay of Aboukir. Situated off<br />

Egypt’s north coast the city was lost for four<br />

thousand years until divers stumbled upon its<br />

remains in 2000. In 2019, a temple discovered<br />

among its ruins led to it being known as the<br />

“Egyptian Atlantis”.<br />

Egyptian Atlantis in modern<br />

day Abu Qir Bay<br />

Photos: The Hilti Foundation via Egyptian Ministry of Tourism and Antiques<br />

42 Dive New Zealand | Dive Pacific

Wakatobi fixes ‘eyes on horizon’<br />



While awaiting the return of<br />

guests to the resort, Wakatobi is<br />

keeping ‘our eyes on the horizon,’<br />

and staying busy, maintaining<br />

reef patrols, and ensuring all<br />

staff get the jab against Covid-19.<br />

And recording the entire process<br />

on video to share with local<br />

media and post online.<br />

By mid-August, 95% of Wakatobi<br />

staff had received at least one<br />

dose of the vaccine.<br />

Reefs teeming with life<br />

Dive sites made unavailable<br />

for many years to allow for<br />

growth and regeneration have<br />

now returned to near-pristine<br />

status with fish life abundant,<br />

and Wakatobi’s dive boat fleet is<br />

ready to set sail as soon as guests<br />

arrive.<br />

Guests getting ready<br />

Many guests are making plans to<br />

visit though no date has yet been<br />

set for the resort’s re-opening.<br />

Photo by Didi Lotze<br />

Many guests have stayed in<br />

touch over throughout the<br />

Covid months, which makes the<br />

Wakatobi team very happy: “We<br />

love hearing from you, and can’t<br />

wait to tell you “we’re open,”<br />

Wakatobi will reopen as soon<br />

as possible, and their team is<br />

looking forward to seeing beloved<br />

guests and friends once again.<br />

Queensland Govt kills four dolphins<br />

The first major update to the Shark Culling<br />

Impact Tracker has revealed the State’s lethal<br />

shark nets and drumlines captured 139 marine<br />

animals along the Queensland coast in two months<br />

since May this year. 85 of them died.<br />

The Tracker was developed by Humane Society<br />

International Australia (HSIA) and the Australian<br />

Marine Conservation Society (AMCS) to spotlight<br />

the appalling government implemented shark<br />

killing practices.<br />

In the Tracker’s first two months of operation five<br />

dolphins were caught, four of which were killed.<br />

A further 11 sea turtles, nine rays, and 114 sharks<br />

were caught in the nets and drumlines. Three<br />

turtles and three rays died, while 75 sharks were<br />

killed. About half the sharks caught since 2001 by<br />

this barbarous practice pose little risk to humans<br />

since they are not aggressive species.<br />

Though installed ostensibly to keep swimmers<br />

safe, the nets and drumlines provide a false sense<br />

of security. In 2019 the State’s Administrative<br />

Appeals Tribunal found them ineffective for<br />

protecting swimmers from sharks. It reported<br />

shark culling had no impact on the risk of shark<br />

bite.<br />

Queensland’s Department of Agriculture and<br />

Fisheries has now begun to trial non-lethal alternatives<br />

with the expansion of drone trials to Far<br />

North Queensland after successes in Southern<br />

Queensland.<br />

Lawrence Chlebeck, a marine biologist for Humane<br />

Society International Australia, said, “We want to<br />

show everyone exactly what it costs to keep using these<br />

ineffective shark control measures. Even if an animal<br />

doesn’t die when it’s caught in a net or on a lethal<br />

drumline, they suffer immensely. Just because they are<br />

released, doesn’t mean they survive.”<br />

Dr Leonardo Guida, a shark scientist for the<br />

Australian Marine Conservation Society, said: “The<br />

sooner the Queensland Government transitions to fully<br />

non-lethal strategy the better it’ll be for beach-goers<br />

and the ocean alike.”<br />

For more visit:<br />

www.sharkchampions.org.au<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 43

Many older divers will fondly<br />

recall their early days of<br />

diving in a Moray wetsuit and<br />

spearfishing with a Moray<br />

speargun.<br />

The suits branded as Shark<br />

Skin, with its hard-wearing<br />

diamond patten nylon<br />

exterior skin became the<br />

go-to wetsuit for commercial<br />

divers and sport divers<br />

that appreciated wearing a<br />

suit that stood up to their<br />

groveling in holes searching<br />

for crayfish without falling<br />

apart!<br />

On 21st July family, past<br />

business acquaintances<br />

and a sprinkling of divers<br />

gathered in west Auckland<br />

to pay their respects. The<br />

divers present just wanted<br />

to show their gratitude to<br />

a man who had keep them<br />

snug and warm while diving<br />

and had built a brand that<br />

became internationally<br />

known. Moray products were also<br />

very dominant in the Australian<br />

market and made inroads into the<br />

huge US market.<br />

I had met Alf a few times over<br />

the years when publishing Dive<br />

Log/Dive New Zealand magazine,<br />

he was always the consummate<br />

gentleman with a cheeky twinkle<br />

in his eye.<br />

In Memory<br />

A diving industry’s<br />

trailblazer bids us farewell<br />

By Dave Moran<br />

Alf Dickenson<br />

24th <strong>Sept</strong>ember 1922 – 15th July <strong>2021</strong><br />

When we published the Centennial<br />

Issue Dec/Jan 2000 Issue # 55 he<br />

was one of the 19 faces of noted<br />

people who had contributed<br />

significantly to the sport of diving<br />

in New Zealand.<br />

L to R: John Hempstalk, Bill Wilderidge and Alf discussing production<br />

Rob LaHood the publisher and<br />

editor of New Zealand <strong>DIVE</strong><br />

magazine* published an article in<br />

1982 about Alf’s contribution to<br />

New Zealand diving.<br />

The opening paragraph: Aucklander<br />

Alf Dickenson is the man behind Moray<br />

Industries, one of New Zealand’s<br />

biggest and most successful wetsuit<br />

manufactures and dive equipment<br />

companies.<br />

When Alf turned 60 in <strong>Sept</strong>ember<br />

(1982) he looked back at almost 30<br />

years in the business and agreed it was<br />

time he took greater time off to do some<br />

ocean cursing and play a little more<br />

golf.<br />

Around 50 people<br />

were involved in the<br />

manufacturing of<br />

Moray water sports<br />

wetsuits: Water skiing,<br />

surfing, windsurfing<br />

and diving.<br />

In his early teens Alf<br />

started building crude<br />

sailing rafts made<br />

from firewood his<br />

father [ John Dickenson<br />

of Sydney, Australia<br />

who friends and family<br />

called “Dicko”] brought<br />

home from work and<br />

sails from sacking.<br />

Many an adventure<br />

was had with his<br />

mates in these very<br />

simple sailing rafts!<br />

He obtained some plans from the<br />

Auckland 8 O’clock Saturday Star<br />

newspaper to build a 3.5metre<br />

canoe. He covered it in Calico.<br />

Later, his father bought home some<br />

pieces of heavy canvas which Alf<br />

rigged up onto a mast and boom.<br />

He discovered the joy, satisfaction<br />

and pride of building things!<br />

Alf developed a love for the<br />

Moray Industries complex based in Devonport, Auckland in the 1980’s<br />

Alf’s original Auckland Underwater<br />

Spearfishing Club card<br />

44 Dive New Zealand | Dive Pacific

Spearfishing back in the day<br />

L to R: R. McCombe, Alf Dickenson , W. Denny & D. McKay<br />

Moray’s promotion in NZ <strong>DIVE</strong> magazine Vol.5, # 1, <strong>Nov</strong>ember 1982<br />

ocean. He joined the Auckland<br />

Underwater Spearfishing Club<br />

is 1955 just before the release of<br />

Jacques Cousteau’s Silent World - 15<br />

August 1956. This film created an<br />

explosion of people’s interest in<br />

the adventures to be had below<br />

the waves! The fledgling sport dive<br />

industry expanded at an amazing<br />

rate to meet the demand for gear.<br />

At this time Alf was in partnership<br />

with Keith Coubray running<br />

Auckland Automotive Engineering<br />

Company. Keith was a very skilled<br />

engineer and designer.<br />

They developed the Moray<br />

speargun so named because<br />

Alf though the nose of the gun<br />

reminded him of a Moray eel’s<br />

head! They also manufactured a<br />

diving regulator, marketed as Atlas<br />

Freeflow.<br />

With the increasing volumes of<br />

diving equipment being imported<br />

into New Zealand in the late 1960<br />

early 70s, Alf obtained the distributorship<br />

for international brands<br />

such as, Dacor, Oceanic, Cressi and<br />

other major brands. (in the 1980s<br />

Mares bought the Dacor’s business<br />

interests)<br />

One of Alf’s prodigies is Bill<br />

Wilderidge<br />

owner of<br />

Auckland<br />

based, Seaquel<br />

Wetsuits.<br />

Bill learnt<br />

the craft of<br />

manufacturing<br />

excellent<br />

wetsuits on the<br />

cutting floor of<br />

Moray Industries.<br />

The above is just a very small<br />

picture of Alf’s life. I saw a side of<br />

Alf that I was totally unaware of at<br />

his farewell.<br />

The following says it all:<br />

To have you as our Dad,<br />

Granddad and Great Grandad<br />

was cause enough for pride.<br />

No one could ever be your equal,<br />

however hard they tried.<br />

We’ve lost a MAN in a million<br />

and loved him to the end.<br />

We’ve lost four very precious<br />

things this day.<br />

Our Dad, Grandad, Great<br />

Grandad and our Friend.<br />

L to R: Alf Diskenson, John Hempstalk, Tony Gardiner, Bill Wilderidge,<br />

Ron Czerniak and Graeme Carrie - executive staff at Moray<br />

I guess you can confidently say, Alf<br />

was a VERY successful man.<br />

It was an honor to have known<br />

him.<br />

Note:<br />

• Special thanks to Alf’s granddaughter<br />

Teresa Scott and Rob<br />

LaHood the publisher and editor<br />

the New Zealand <strong>DIVE</strong> magazine for<br />

allowing me to gather information<br />

regarding Alf’s life.<br />

• New Zealand <strong>DIVE</strong> magazine<br />

Vol.5, #1 <strong>Nov</strong>ember 1982: Dive<br />

Personality: Alf Dickenson.<br />

• Spearfishing and freediving<br />

specialist shop, Ocean Hunter,<br />

based in Albany Auckland<br />

continues carrying the Moray<br />

wetsuit Brand.<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 45

In Memory<br />

A man who was instrumental in the<br />

development of diver training in New<br />

Zealand and the South Pacific<br />

Brian Sayer<br />

19th July 1940 – 28th May <strong>2021</strong><br />

By Dave Moran<br />

Where do you begin to try<br />

and convey to our readers<br />

what Brian and his wife Margaret<br />

achieved as a team.<br />

When I first had the crazy idea,<br />

with the support of my wife<br />

Petal of establishing a national<br />

dive magazine in early 1990s, we<br />

needed the support of the dive<br />

industry to place advertisements<br />

within the tabloid Newspaper<br />

style magazine. One of the first<br />

people I phoned was Brian Sayer.<br />

I can still recall that conversation.<br />

It went something like this.<br />

- Hi Brian I’m thinking of starting<br />

a FREE dive magazine based on<br />

the format of my good friend Barry<br />

Andrewartha’s Dive Log Australia<br />

which he publishes in Melbourne<br />

Australia. It will be delivered into<br />

every dive shop in New Zealand and<br />

divers can pick it up for free. Would<br />

you support the publication with<br />

advertising? He quickly replied,<br />

“Sure thing Dave”.<br />

That was the beginning of a very<br />

enjoyable relationship with Brian<br />

and Margaret.<br />

As we all know, we meet all<br />

kinds of people on our journey<br />

through life. Brian and Margret<br />

were a solid couple that had high<br />

standards in everything they did<br />

and they were well respected for<br />

that.<br />

I was flicking through some past<br />

magazines to help gather my<br />

thoughts and a Training News<br />

item jumped out at me from Issue<br />

#20. Feb/March 1994.<br />

Maybe Brian’s guiding hand was<br />

directing me.<br />

Top Service Award<br />

I thought this item says it all!<br />

Emergency Medical Planning Ltd<br />

proprietors Brian and Margaret<br />

Sayer of Mackaytown have won<br />

the Service category of the Thames<br />

Valley Coromandel Business<br />

Development Board’s Enterprise<br />

Award.<br />

Mr and Mrs Sayer established ‘The<br />

Academy’ in 1991 and since then<br />

have closely followed their Mission<br />

statement to provide high quality<br />

education and services in a totally<br />

professional environment.<br />

Their long term goal to be recognized<br />

as the best place nationally<br />

to gain all levels of training from<br />

beginner to instructor and post<br />

graduate levels both in recreational<br />

diver training and all levels of Medic<br />

first aid.<br />

Brian proudly showing off his beloved<br />

Suzuki GSXR1000. He and Margret had<br />

many touring adventures on this bike.<br />

Brian has had an amazing life.<br />

Through the 1960s, 70s and 80s<br />

he was into boating and sailingcrewed<br />

in several Bluewater<br />

races to Noumea. and Fiji,<br />

owned runabouts and in 1982<br />

took delivery of a 11 m sloop,<br />

Extravagance.<br />

He sailed to Niue in 1983 and set<br />

up Niue Adventures.<br />

He then went on to set up a<br />

diving operation in Vava’u Tonga<br />

– Dolphin Pacific Diving.<br />

Obtained numerous qualifications<br />

both for boating and diving.<br />

He visited the USA numerous<br />

times to achieve extensive PADI<br />

and Medic First aid qualifications.<br />

Brian and his 100% supporter<br />

Margaret’s influence on diver<br />

training in New Zealand was<br />

massive, especially during<br />

1980-1990 era. The quality of<br />

courses and systems they developed<br />

are still the benchmark<br />

today.<br />

He introduced the PADI diver<br />

training<br />

system to<br />

NZ instructors<br />

and<br />

was the<br />

Happy times, Margaret and Bryan<br />

enjoying the warmth of a sunny day<br />

Two ads from Issue #1 December 1990/January 1991<br />

of Dive Log New Zealand magazine<br />

46 Dive New Zealand | Dive Pacific

Top sections of double page promotional ads in Issue #50 February/March 1999<br />

examiner of all instructors both<br />

in NZ and throughout the Pacific<br />

Islands.<br />

When New Zealand Underwater<br />

Association (NZUA) obtained the<br />

franchise to run the PADI training<br />

system in NZ, Brian became<br />

their first PADI Course Director.<br />

He was the only PADI Instructor<br />

Examiner for four years.<br />

He established the first Private<br />

Training Establishment (PTE) The<br />

Academy in 1991. (In 2002 this<br />

became Academy of Diving Trust)<br />

He established the first tertiary<br />

Dive Diploma’s in NZ.<br />

He brought in Medic First Aid<br />

courses and standards from<br />

the USA establishing Emergency<br />

Medical Planning New Zealand<br />

Ltd. (EMP) His daughter, Rose<br />

and son-in-law Ross Drysdale<br />

still operate this very successful<br />

business.<br />

He was on the project team<br />

that created the Dive Industry<br />

Training Organization (ITO) in the<br />

mid 1990’s. He also assisted with<br />

the original NZQA unit standards<br />

in diving – with contemporaries<br />

such as Steve Mercer, Ken<br />

Greenfield and<br />

Colin Melrose.<br />

The above is just<br />

scratching the<br />

surface of what<br />

this amazing<br />

couple have<br />

achieved. To be<br />

frank it’s just<br />

mind boggling reading through<br />

Brian’s CV !<br />

The last time I saw Brian and<br />

Margaret was when they visited<br />

the Dive New Zealand magazine<br />

stand at the Auckland Boat Show.<br />

They both looked terrific and<br />

were enjoying life.<br />

Brian proudly showed me a<br />

picture of the motor bike he<br />

and Margaret were cruising on,<br />

visiting numerous locations<br />

throughout New Zealand. They<br />

both still had their adventurous<br />

spirit, good on them I thought-<br />

Wonderful people.<br />

Brian will be greatly missed.<br />

Note: Thanks to Margaret Sayer<br />

and her daughters, Rose, Robyn<br />

and son Kevin, son in-law Ross<br />

Drysdale (EMP) and Dan & Wendy<br />

Forsman (Academy of Diving<br />

Trust).<br />





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www.dive-pacific.com 47


49 years ago Wade Doak’s magazine Dive<br />

South Pacific Underwater Magazine ran a<br />

feature asking Is Conservation Necessary?<br />

We published the first part of that again in our<br />

last edition. In it Eddie Davidson questioned<br />

why spearfishers were being singled out while<br />

destructive commercial fishing practices<br />

escaped criticism.<br />

With Dave Moran<br />

Then came a response by Tony Ayling, MSc<br />

(Hons), a marine biologist and member of the<br />

Auckland Underwater Club at the time.<br />

He argued then that conservation was indeed<br />

very necessary, as follows:<br />

Conservation is necessary<br />

By Tony Ayling<br />

(First published in <strong>DIVE</strong> South<br />

Pacific Underwater Magazine<br />

1972 Vol 10 Number 4)<br />

Conservation sensibly<br />

applied need not be a<br />

frightening spectre. However<br />

much is done in the name of<br />

conservation that is not good<br />

conservation.<br />

Why is conservation necessary?<br />

Most divers realise that<br />

spearfishing, especially of reef<br />

fish population is a terrifically<br />

efficient way of killing fish<br />

and can be very damaging<br />

to fish stocks. The effect of<br />

these efficient killers – spearfishermen<br />

– is very noticeable<br />

in places like the Med,<br />

NSW and New Caledonia. In<br />

these areas reef fish or rock<br />

fish as they are often called<br />

are virtually decimated. It is<br />

obvious that something must<br />

be done to prevent a similar<br />

thing happening here in New<br />

Zealand.<br />

It is also important to establish<br />

how, why and where divers<br />

spear fish in NZ before you<br />

can establish a conservation<br />

oriented system. Most spearfishing<br />

and most diving of<br />

any sort is carried out from<br />

North Cape to East Cape and<br />

around the Wellington area.<br />

These then are the two areas<br />

that should be examined with<br />

conservation in mind.<br />

Fish are speared mainly for<br />

three different reasons. Firstly<br />

there is the diver who spears<br />

…It is no use thinking that NZ is immune and that what<br />

happened in the Med and NSW cannot happen here. It can<br />

and is happening here and something must be done to<br />

halt it…<br />

for the pot. He is generally the<br />

only one likely to spear fish<br />

using a lung. Fish speared are<br />

usually red moki in the north<br />

and Moki and Butterfish in<br />

the south. Next is the diver<br />

who spears for enjoyment.<br />

He almost invariably spears<br />

only using snorkel and limits<br />

himself to challenging fish<br />

such as kingfish and snapper.<br />

The next is the competition<br />

diver who spears entirely on<br />

snorkel and is after species<br />

likely to grow over three<br />

pounds. This diver is either<br />

practising for, or engaged in<br />

local or national competitions.<br />

Of three types of spearo (any<br />

diver may belong to different<br />

classes at different times) the<br />

pot diver probably accounts<br />

for the greatest weight of fish<br />

over the year. However, the<br />

fish are taken from over a wide<br />

area and put to good use. The<br />

weight of fish taken during<br />

all types of competitions is<br />

probably a very close second<br />

to the pot and is increasing<br />

rapidly every year as competitions<br />

become more competitive<br />

and more popular.<br />

Competitions usually affect<br />

only a few relatively small<br />

areas. It would seem, then, that<br />

conservation should be aimed<br />

mainly at competition spearing<br />

as it is in this field that the<br />

greatest wastage takes place.<br />

…Weed feeders and rock bottom feeders are limited to<br />

rocky coastal areas usually in water less than 100 feet and<br />

generally do not move large distances to recolonise new<br />

areas as snapper and possibly blue moki can…<br />

It is no use thinking that NZ<br />

is immune and that what<br />

happened in the Med and NSW<br />

cannot happen here. It can<br />

and is happening here and<br />

something must be done to<br />

halt it. Of the fish speared in<br />

competition any wandering<br />

fish such as snapper and<br />

perhaps blue moki and pelagic<br />

fish such as kingfish, trevalli,<br />

kahawai are immune to fishing<br />

48 Dive New Zealand | Dive Pacific

Thus, it is obvious that weed feeders and rock<br />

bottom feeders are limited to rocky coastal areas<br />

usually in water less than 100 feet and generally<br />

do not move large distances to recolonise new<br />

areas as snapper and possibly blue moki can.<br />

It seems that it is necessary to limit in some way<br />

the competition spearing of these weed and rocky<br />

bottom feeding fish – fish that at the present<br />

make up the bulk of fish speared in competitions.<br />

Lowering the weight limit so that it is easy to<br />

spear a fish that is over the limit and eliminating<br />

weight points for these reef fish would seem to<br />

me sensible ways of reducing the number of reef<br />

fish speared in competitions.<br />

Reef fish are not commercially exploitable as the<br />

total population numbers are too small and also<br />

they do not regenerate quickly enough.<br />

pressure. All the others such as red moki, marble<br />

fish, parore, drummer, John Dory etc are home<br />

ranging and once removed from an area only<br />

very slowly recolonise it. These are the reef fish<br />

or rock fish that have been removed from other<br />

regions in the world by spearfishing pressure.<br />

Looking at crays and paua as regards divers and<br />

conservation it is obvious that something must be<br />

done and, if possible, done without introducing<br />

new restrictions. It is also obvious that the diver<br />

who keeps within the rules and who takes a few<br />

crays, even a limit bag, for the pot for his and<br />

his friends’ use is not helping diminish our cray<br />

populations. Hence any reduction of these limits<br />

by the government is merely using divers as a<br />

scapegoat.<br />

The distribution of fish is usually governed by<br />

their feeding habits. Some fish are weed eaters,<br />

eg drummer, parore and butterfish and these<br />

three species usually prefer to feed on the<br />

narrow band of Carpophyllum-type seaweed that<br />

stretches from the surface down to a maximum<br />

of 20 to 30 feet. Hence these three species are<br />

generally found in and around this area.<br />

…The real reason for the reduction of cray numbers<br />

around our coasts is commercial fishing pressure whether<br />

legally by cray pots or illegally by cray pirates. And this is<br />

the crux of the matter…<br />

Most reef fish are bottom feeders and eat small<br />

shrimps, crabs and starfish from the rock<br />

bottom. These species are limited to rocky areas<br />

although they can stray a short distance over<br />

sand. Snapper and blue moki, besides living on<br />

small animals from rock bottoms, can also feed<br />

on animals that they scrape from sand and hence<br />

have a much larger area available for feeding<br />

from.<br />

Pelagic fish and plankton eating fish such as<br />

demoiselles, blue mao-mao and butterfly perch<br />

have a virtually unlimited supply of food as it is<br />

brought to them by ocean and coastal currents.<br />

The real reason for the reduction of cray numbers<br />

around our coasts is commercial fishing pressure<br />

whether legally by cray pots or illegally by cray<br />

pirates. And this is the crux of the matter. Any<br />

move by the government to cut out the taking of<br />

crays by divers altogether will have been brought<br />

upon us by the activities of a few pirates. We<br />

must bring pressure to bear amongst ourselves<br />

to stop these people who are<br />

out to make a fast buck at the<br />

expense of other divers.<br />

Anyway, enough of this, what<br />

about pauas? Pauas are limited<br />

to the upper 30 or so feet and<br />

it is very easy to clean them out completely. The<br />

number of divers licensed to take paua should<br />

be kept so low that the numbers of paua can be<br />

maintained at a reasonable level. Such a move is<br />

underway in NSW.<br />

It should be obvious to any thinking person that<br />

some measures of conservation are necessary<br />

if we are to maintain our underwater world in a<br />

state that gives the greatest pleasure to all divers<br />

whether they be ardent competition spearos, pot<br />

spearos, photographers, scientists or just like<br />

diving for the sake of diving.<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 49


By DAN World<br />

Diagnosing<br />

Decompression Illness<br />

Sinus barotrauma can be very unpleasant<br />

By Divers Alert Network’s Camilo Saraiva, M.D., M.B.A<br />

THE <strong>DIVE</strong>R<br />

A A 49-year-old female certified<br />

recreational scuba diver called<br />

the DAN Emergency Hotline<br />

from George Town, Grand<br />

Cayman, around noon on a<br />

February day. She was experiencing<br />

a sudden, intense and<br />

sharp abdominal and back pain<br />

that had started 12 hours after<br />

her last dive the previous day.<br />

That dive had been the third<br />

on a single-day series of mild,<br />

recreational, repetitive scuba<br />

dives on air with no mandatory<br />

decompression stops. She<br />

had had proper safety stops<br />

with the first two dives and<br />

maintained adequate surface<br />

intervals between all three<br />

dives.<br />

Her dives had been uneventful<br />

until the last one when she<br />

ran out of air after being at<br />

10 metres for approximately<br />

30 minutes. She had not been<br />

paying close attention to her<br />

air gauge and had to perform<br />

an emergency controlled ascent<br />

to the surface. Her buddy was<br />

too far away, so she ascended<br />

without assistance. The diver<br />

had likely started the dive<br />

with a half-empty cylinder by<br />

mistake.<br />


She denied having any other<br />

symptoms, including skin<br />

discolouration, limb or joint<br />

pain, or any perceivable neurological<br />

deficit. She had no<br />

relevant past medical history,<br />

hypertension or other cardiological<br />

or vascular diseases.<br />

Regarding the sudden onset of a<br />

severe pain 12 hours post dive,<br />

and a relatively long stay at a<br />

shallow depth before the last<br />

ascent, the diagnosis of decompression<br />

illness (DCI) was not<br />

the first choice, although it<br />

couldn’t be excluded. With<br />

limited information available,<br />

the acute abdomen and<br />

possible acute cardiac condition<br />

(heart attack) had to be<br />

excluded. The acute pain in the<br />

abdomen could be caused by<br />

the following:<br />

• An abdominal aortic<br />

aneurysm, which is an<br />

abnormal and dangerous<br />

dilatation of the main artery<br />

that takes blood to the entire<br />

lower half of the body and<br />

puts the person at risk of fatal<br />

internal bleeding if this artery<br />

ruptures<br />

• A gynaecological or urinary<br />

event such as a miscarriage or<br />

a severe urinary infection<br />

The DAN medic who took the<br />

call explained the possibility of<br />

DCI as well as the other conditions.<br />

The general recommendations<br />

for this diver were to<br />

seek further care at the closest<br />

hospital emergency room, and<br />

to hydrate and get oxygen in<br />

the meantime.<br />


At the local hospital she<br />

received an initial assessment,<br />

laboratory tests and a<br />

physical examination, with<br />

particular attention to neurological<br />

function. We do not<br />

know the extent of her abdominal<br />

examination. She had no<br />

positive findings except for the<br />

nonspecific abdominal pain.<br />

While not producing any new<br />

conclusive information, the<br />

examination and test results<br />

led the medical team to a<br />

clinical diagnosis of possible<br />

DCI. The hospital staff quickly<br />

moved her to the hospital’s<br />

hyperbaric chamber to start<br />

immediate treatment with a US<br />

Navy Treatment Table 6 recompression<br />

protocol.<br />

Her pain lessened during<br />

the chamber treatment but<br />

worsened immediately afterward.<br />

The hospital team<br />

reassessed the diver and found<br />

an abdominal rigidity upon<br />

palpation; imaging showed an<br />

intestinal obstruction.<br />


The diver had surgery to<br />

remove the small damaged part<br />

of her intestine. She recovered<br />

well and returned home a few<br />

days later. She had no significant<br />

repercussions that interfered<br />

with her general health or<br />

her return to scuba diving after<br />

an extended recovery period.<br />

In most cases, DCI has no<br />

specific and exclusive symptom<br />

and can be a diagnosis of exclusion.<br />

We first must rule out all<br />

50 Dive New Zealand | Dive Pacific

KEEPING <strong>DIVE</strong>RS SAFE<br />



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www.dive-pacific.com 51<br />

AsianDiver_Mag_210x275mm_Ad-1.indd 1<br />

2/4/19 2:27 PM

other possible causes, especially<br />

serious conditions that need other<br />

immediate intervention, before<br />

deciding to treat the diver with<br />

recompression in a hyperbaric<br />

chamber. The findings of a serious<br />

medical condition will change<br />

from its initial presentation, and<br />

symptoms and clinical conditions<br />

can change in a matter of hours,<br />

demanding a reassessment of the<br />

possible diagnoses and recommended<br />

treatments.<br />


That’s why, in the event of a<br />

suspected dive accident, divers<br />

should always go to the nearest medical facility<br />

and not directly to a hyperbaric chamber.<br />

Divers and hospital staff should keep in mind<br />

that divers can have other health problems not<br />

directly related to diving, as this case illustrates.<br />

The examination should be directed with<br />

usual clinical leads like symptoms, signs, and<br />

previous medical history. In the case of abdominal<br />

pain, an acute abdomen should always be<br />

excluded. This diver could have experienced this<br />

same obstruction and pain while hiking in the<br />

woods or working in an office. Fixating only on<br />

a dive-related diagnosis can, and has resulted<br />

in delays in obtaining a correct diagnosis and<br />

There are many possible causes for symptoms that are also<br />

attributable to decompression illness; a physician should rule<br />

those out before prescribing hyperbaric treatment.<br />

proper treatment.<br />


It is difficult to diagnose a patient over the<br />

phone, especially in cases of something that<br />

requires an evaluation to exclude a life-threatening<br />

possibility.<br />

If you call the DAN Emergency Hotline +1<br />

919 684-9111 (or 1800 088 200 in Australia),<br />

our medics can help you understand what is<br />

happening and assist you get the<br />

help that you need, wherever<br />

you are.<br />


GLOBAL <strong>DIVE</strong> SAFETY.<br />

+ 39 Years<br />

Divers Helping Divers<br />

+ 24/7<br />

Emergency Medical Services<br />

+ 150,000<br />

Emergency Calls Managed<br />

+ 2,000,000<br />

Members Served Worldwide<br />

Experience Matters.<br />

Join DAN<br />

DANAP.org<br />

DANAP.org<br />

For more diving health and<br />

safety articles DANinsider.org<br />

for weekly posts discussing<br />

recent incidents, and diving<br />

health and safety content.<br />

Visit: daninsider.org and follow<br />

us on Facebook by searching<br />

DAN World.<br />

Need more information?<br />

Send DAN World an email<br />

info@danap.org<br />

or call +61-3-9886 9166<br />

52 Dive New Zealand | Dive Pacific

Photography by Darryl Torckler<br />

Photography by Darryl Torckler<br />

Phone 0508 888 656 or +64 3 249 9005<br />

Email charters@fiordlandexpeditions.co.nz<br />

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Diving Fiordland!<br />

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www.dive-pacific.com 53<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 11


Magnetometer helps search for wrecks off South Africa<br />

Memories have huge staying power, but like dreams, they<br />

thrive in the dark, surviving for decades in the deep waters of<br />

our minds like shipwrecks on the sea bed – J.G. Ballard<br />

Amongst the right tools in the search for shipwrecks,<br />

magnetometers are a ‘must have’ for the serious explorer.<br />

Magnetometers detect variations in the Earth’s magnetic<br />

field caused by iron or other magnetized material such as<br />

brick or rock. While a side scan sonar detects only what is<br />

on the seabed surface, a magnetometer detects objects<br />

buried under the ground.<br />

A small dive club in Capetown, South Africa, The<br />

Wreckless Divers, currently uses JW Fishers’ Proton 5<br />

magnetometer for their important searches (facebook.<br />

com/wrecklessdivers). The group operates at depths up<br />

to 120m with some on rebreathers, and others relying on<br />

open circuit scuba.<br />

According to group founder,<br />

Bruce Henderson:<br />

“There is an enormous number<br />

of shipwrecks off our coast<br />

dating from the 1700’s. We<br />

are very keen to find the more<br />

interesting of these wrecks and<br />

dive on them. In particular, a<br />

German ‘merchant raider’ called<br />

“The Wolf” laid mines off Cape<br />

Town during World War I and<br />

sank at least 4 major merchant<br />

vessels. To date we have found<br />

an old fishing trawler and a<br />

whole bunch of magnetic rocky<br />

outcrops. But it’s been fun and we will persevere.”<br />

Bruce says when they ran into a bit of trouble when they<br />

first received the magnetometer they called the JW<br />

Fisher’s office and their top technical guy patiently<br />

took us through the set-up procedure. ”We were very<br />

soon up and running. This was amazing to be able to<br />

call up the JW Fisher’s team<br />

from Africa and have them<br />

so helpfully take us through<br />

the system.”<br />

Treasure detectors in the movies!<br />

There comes a time in every rightly constructed boys’ life when<br />

he has a raging desire to go somewhere and dig for hidden<br />

treasure – Mark Twain<br />

JW Fishers’ say their search equipment has been a part of<br />

numerous high-profile, treasure hunting films. Paul Walker<br />

and Jessica Alba used their Pulse 8X in Into the Blue and<br />

Matthew McConaughey and Kate Hudson went looking for<br />

gold on a sunken Spanish galleon in Fool’s Gold. JW Fishers<br />

has also featured on Rob Riggle Global Investigators and<br />

on The Curse of Oak Islands series.<br />

In 2012 James Delgado, then with the National Oceanic and<br />

Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) estimated there are a<br />

million shipwrecks underwater. “I would say the majority<br />

of them remain undiscovered,” he said. “We know more<br />

about the surface of the moon than what’s at the bottom<br />

of the sea.”<br />

Nelson Jacas is an avid user of the Pulse 8X underwater<br />

metal detector, and has journeyed across the globe<br />

locating antiquities. He has found a Viking ring, many 1700<br />

era coins, and a one-of-a-kind gold cross in England!<br />

University of Rhode Island’s Dr Bridget Buxton hit the<br />

payload in 2015 when her team found over 1,000 gold<br />

coins off the coast of Israel with their P8X system. Her<br />

adventures have yielded large cannons, anchors from lost<br />

ships, and a swivel gun from a 16th century shipwreck.<br />

On a famous 2,050-year-old Roman shipwreck at the Greek<br />

island of Antikythera, first discovered in 1900 by sponge<br />

divers, Greek diver Alexandros Sotiriou has discovered<br />

numerous artefacts including an intact table jug and a<br />

bronze rigging ring with the help of a JW Fishers Pulse 8X<br />

underwater Metal Detector.<br />

Perhaps the<br />

next big find<br />

could be a<br />

rookie diver<br />

searching the<br />

right place at<br />

the right time<br />

with the right<br />

equipment!<br />

54 Dive New Zealand | Dive Pacific


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www.dive-pacific.com 55


Hans Weichselbaum www.digital-image.co.nz<br />

Underwater photography: The basics<br />

We are all fascinated by the underwater world. So<br />

what does it take to capture the best sights there<br />

in photographs or even with video? In this article I<br />

summarise some basics to help get you started in<br />

what could become a great new hobby.<br />

First we’ll look at the necessary hardware,<br />

then we’ll examine the challenges of lighting<br />

imposed by underwater conditions, and<br />

finally some general tips before you dive into<br />

underwater photography (pun intended).<br />

Necessary hardware<br />

Your everyday camera might<br />

be weather-sealed and<br />

splash-proof but it won’t survive<br />

a dip in the ocean. The latest<br />

mobile phones are “waterproof/<br />

resistant” and can survive a dunk<br />

or two in the pool but if you are<br />

thinking of taking one for a dive<br />

you will need to protect it with a<br />

waterproof, floating phone case.<br />

There are various protective<br />

covers available for your existing<br />

camera. The cheapest ones look<br />

more like a strong plastic bag and<br />

cost around $90. Then there are<br />

tailor-made transparent housings<br />

for your point-and-shoot camera.<br />

They allow you to use virtually<br />

all the camera controls while<br />

diving (Image 1).<br />

But for DSLRs and high-quality<br />

full-frame mirrorless cameras<br />

you need a more sophisticated<br />

housing which can cost up to<br />

$2000 (Image 2). Most of these<br />

housings can be used down to a<br />

depths of 40 m.<br />

In addition to the camera<br />

housing you’ll probably want<br />

external strobes or lights, and<br />

if planning to shoot video, then<br />

a waterproof monitor will come<br />

in handy. Note that there are<br />

flat surface ports (Image 1)<br />

which give a zoomed in image<br />

(usually not ideal). In contrast,<br />

domed ports (Image 2) compensate<br />

for the refraction that being<br />

submerged in water gives.<br />

Image 2 Underwater<br />

housing for high-quality full-frame<br />

cameras (Canon EOS R5)<br />

Image 3 A dedicated underwater<br />

camera<br />

camera is one of the best-known<br />

(Image 3). With its special<br />

housing you can take it down to<br />

60 m. Image 3 shows the camera<br />

with one flash attachment, and<br />

a double flash adapter is also<br />

available.<br />

Light in underwater<br />

photography<br />

Photography is all about light<br />

and this applies just as much<br />

to underwater photography, but<br />

underwater we have the added<br />

problem of light colour.<br />

Water is about 800 times denser<br />

than air, and that makes for a<br />

…There are a couple of compact point-and-shoot cameras on<br />

the market you can take a few metres underwater, without<br />

special housings and especially ideal for snorkeling…<br />

Image 1 Underwater housing for<br />

Canon Powershot S110<br />

Another option is to get a camera<br />

specially designed for underwater<br />

photography. There are<br />

a couple of compact point-andshoot<br />

cameras on the market<br />

you can take a few metres<br />

underwater, without special<br />

housings and especially ideal for<br />

snorkeling.<br />

The SeaLife DC2000 underwater<br />

lot more interaction between<br />

photons and water molecules<br />

than in the air. In practical terms<br />

this means we lose a lot of light<br />

when we go underwater.<br />

But visible light is a small part of<br />

the electromagnetic spectrum<br />

(Image 4).<br />

The energy of electromagnetic<br />

56 Dive New Zealand | Dive Pacific


Hans Weichselbaum www.digital-image.co.nz<br />

Image 4 The electromagnetic spectrum<br />

waves increases at shorter<br />

wavelengths (from right to left) -<br />

think of high energy gamma and<br />

x-rays and the low energy radio<br />

waves. In the visible spectrum<br />

we also have the lower energy<br />

light waves on the right (red) and<br />

the higher energy waves on the<br />

left (blue) of the spectrum. The<br />

weaker part of the spectrum (red)<br />

is absorbed first by the water.<br />

but we need to add to the<br />

distance between camera<br />

and our object as well.<br />

As a general rule your<br />

object should be less than<br />

a metre away from your<br />

lens. When on land, we<br />

reach for the telephoto<br />

lens when we think of<br />

shooting animals; under<br />

water we mainly use<br />

…Water is about 800 times denser than air and that<br />

makes for a lot more interaction between photons and<br />

water molecules than in the air…<br />

Image 5 shows you how this<br />

works out in practice when we go<br />

underwater: red colours are lost<br />

at around 5 m, then we start to<br />

lose the orange and yellow part<br />

of the spectrum and at around<br />

60 m we are only left with blue<br />

colours (and it gets pretty dark!).<br />

You might have heard the rule:<br />

“avoid taking photos around<br />

midday.” Early morning or late<br />

afternoon light allows us the<br />

more attractive shots. But in<br />

the underwater world quite the<br />

reverse applies. The best time for<br />

underwater photography is when<br />

the sun is directly overhead,<br />

allowing us to capture the<br />

maximum amount of light.<br />

Not only do we lose warmer<br />

colours the deeper we go down,<br />

wide-angle and macro<br />

lenses.<br />

Because of the lack of<br />

warmer light colours when<br />

shooting with natural light,<br />

a flash is one of the most<br />

important accessories for underwater<br />

photography, or a permanent<br />

light source for filming.<br />

If you shoot with a compact<br />

camera, set the flash to ‘forced<br />

flash’, not automatic. You will<br />

also get the best results, and<br />

pleasing colours, when you set<br />

your camera to macro and get<br />

really close up to your subject.<br />

Of course you don’t keep to the 1<br />

m rule when shooting sharks or<br />

…The best time for underwater photography is when the<br />

sun is directly overhead…<br />

whales, or fellow divers. In fact,<br />

you can create beautiful natural<br />

Image 5 Light absorption under water<br />

light photography when your<br />

subjects show up as silhouettes<br />

(Image 6).<br />

Usually, the photographer will<br />

try to create an aesthetic balance<br />

between available sunlight and<br />

artificial light. If the object is<br />

more than about 30 cm away,<br />

the on-camera flash is likely to<br />

give you ‘backscatter’ caused by<br />

fine particles in the water. This<br />

will ruin your shots with lots of<br />

fine white dots against a dark<br />

background. The only remedy is<br />

to use an external strobe (or two),<br />

away from the axis of the camera<br />

lens.<br />

Important tips for<br />

starting out<br />

Underwater photography can get<br />

expensive so it pays to make the<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 57

Image 6 Silhouettes are very<br />

effective when natural light<br />

is restricted<br />

right decisions and take the right<br />

steps before you take the plunge.<br />

• When choosing a housing for<br />

your camera, pay special attention<br />

to the smallest parts: the<br />

O-rings and the special lubricant<br />

they require. Try out the<br />

housing, first without camera,<br />

in your bathtub and watch out<br />

for any bubbles (a bad sign!).<br />

• Your camera in the housing<br />

will feel very different so it is<br />

important to do some practicing<br />

on dry land to familiarise<br />

yourself with all the camera<br />

functions.<br />

Image 7 Try to get a head shot of your subject<br />

• You need to be fairly confident<br />

in your diving skills. Keep in<br />

mind you need at least one<br />

hand to hold the camera and<br />

often two hands to operate it<br />

properly. And your anxiety<br />

level when you step into the<br />

water can go up proportionally<br />

with the cost of the camera!<br />

• Try to get as close as possible<br />

to your objects. Fish are usually<br />

curious and not shy if you move<br />

slowly (Image 7 and 8).<br />

• Shoot in Raw format! There is<br />

only so much you can do with<br />

JPEG images. Most of your shots<br />

will need a boost in contrast<br />

and some colour correction.<br />

Tweaking the white balance is<br />

especially so much easier with<br />

Raw files.<br />

There are plenty of resources<br />

available on the internet to<br />

answer all your questions, but I<br />

hope that this brief introduction<br />

will encourage you to take your<br />

photography hobby to the next<br />

level.<br />

Image 8 The closer you get the better<br />

58 Dive New Zealand | Dive Pacific


Black coral<br />

~Antipathella fiordensis<br />

The spectacular black coral, Antipathella<br />

fiordensis, is a species of tree-like colonial<br />

coral endemic to the fiords of New Zealand.<br />

Black coral is actually white in appearance, the<br />

moniker black coming from the hard skeleton<br />

consisting of protein and chitin that lies underneath<br />

the living tissues. The living polyps that<br />

cover the skeleton are tiny, less than 1 cm in<br />

diameter, and these filter out the plankton<br />

from the water column, the same as sea pens,<br />

anemones and other coral relatives.<br />

By Paul Caiger<br />

Black corals are slow-growing and long-lived.<br />

Colonies live up to 300 years old! Being so old<br />

and delicate means they are very susceptible<br />

to disturbance; they stand little chance of<br />

surviving from anchors, pots and trawling. In<br />

recognition of this all black corals are fully<br />

protected by law under the 1953 Wildlife Act.<br />

Fortunately, the sheer-sided underwater walls of<br />

the fiords provide some natural protection – not really<br />

a suitable place to anchor or place fish pots.<br />

Another unique environmental condition of the<br />

fiords is their freshwater layer. Due to the steep<br />

mountainous terrain topside, and the gargantuan<br />

8m of annual rainfall, the tannin-stained freshwater<br />

running into the fiords creates a dark, brackish layer<br />

that simulates deep water. Consequently, a diver will<br />

encounter black coral living as shallow as four or five<br />

metres. Compare this to other regions of New Zealand,<br />

where other black corals are not found at recreational<br />

diving depths.<br />

These flexible “trees” can be up to 3m tall, and as such<br />

are quite a feature of the underwater environment,<br />

providing habitat and shelter for many other species.<br />

One of their common allies is the snake star<br />

Astrobranchion constrictum, which lives mutualistically<br />

on the coral. The black coral is more adept at<br />

catching plankton prey from the surrounding water<br />

than the snake star which benefits from it. In return,<br />

it is thought that the snake star cleans off mucous and<br />

prevents other organisms from settling and growing<br />

on the black coral.<br />

~Antipathella fiordensis<br />

1 The skeleton underneath the living tissue is black 6<br />

2 Covered in small 6-tentacled polyps less than 1<br />

cm in diameter<br />

7<br />

3 Does not contain zooanthellae like tropical corals<br />

8<br />

4 Protected by law since 1953<br />

5 . Lives in extremely shallow depths in Fiordland<br />

Becomes more common and shallower the<br />

further into the fiords you go<br />

The mutualistic snake star Astrobranchion<br />

constrictum lives in its branches<br />

Can live up to 300 years<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 59


Welcome Back to this Fun Underwater<br />

Photography Competition!<br />

By Dave Moran<br />

It is just fantastic to have this fun photographic<br />

competition up and running again after a long<br />

break due to Covid-19. It is also very encouraging<br />

to receive quite a few submissions. Sophie Fraser<br />

at Sea Tech has done a great job in advising you<br />

all that the Competition is BACK! A big thanks to<br />

you all for entering, appreciated.<br />

Most of the entries could be improved by all the<br />

elements that the judges have mentioned in the<br />

past.<br />

Framing the shot (image) with the Rule of Thirds*<br />

in mind.<br />

Sharp Focus.<br />

Lighting. Light is the added ingredient that lifts<br />

an image off the page! Many im-ages we have<br />

received over the years have suffered from<br />

poor lighting. All the winners in this issue’s<br />

Competition have lit their subject very well using<br />

strobes (flash) or a constant LED light source.<br />

Cropping the image to remove any distracting<br />

black spots or a very bright col-ours eg. A brightly-coloured<br />

sponge that drags the viewer’s eye<br />

away from the main subject within the image.<br />

Editing. Using editing programs such as<br />

Photoshop is totally OK to improve an image! For<br />

example, removing backscatter, cropping and<br />

adjusting colours etc.<br />

Two other elements that can present themselves<br />

on the day of your dive that can give you that<br />

magical winning edge:<br />

The Wow factor!<br />

It’s an image that when people view it, one<br />

of their immediate reactions is, “Wow that is<br />

amazing”. This could be an images of a large<br />

manta ray which divers have been seeing in<br />

northern waters of New Zealand (Poor Knights<br />

Island etc). Or a super sharp micro image of a<br />

cleaner shrimp doing some housework inside a<br />

fish’s gills! This is down to luck – but you increase<br />

your luck by diving more and practicing more.<br />

Originality<br />

This is a tricky element! Many of you will be<br />

thinking, there is hardly anything these days that<br />

has not been photographed – true!<br />

Before taking a shot, seriously consider different<br />

angles and adjusting your light-ing to create a<br />

different visual experience of a subject that has<br />

been photo-graphed many times before.<br />

To practice this skill, it’s best to start with<br />

subjects that are moving slowly or not at all. For<br />

example, crayfish, nudibranchs or scorpionfish.<br />

A good example is our <strong>Nov</strong>ice winner, Warrick<br />

Powrie’s nudibranch which we think is from the<br />

Eubranchidae family.<br />

*The Rule of Thirds is a common compositional<br />

technique that divides your frame into an equal,<br />

three-by-three grid with two horizontal lines and two<br />

vertical lines that intersect at four points. The Rule of<br />

Thirds places your subject on the left-third or rightthird<br />

of the frame, creating a pleasing composition.<br />

The team at Dive New Zealand/Dive Pacific<br />

magazines look forward to receiving your<br />

personal masterpieces.<br />

See: www.divenewzealand.com click on Photo<br />

Competition. It’s free to enter.<br />

You can view galleries of all the entries over<br />

www.seatech.co.nz/blogs/shades-of-colour-photo-competition<br />

Thanks for taking the time to enter!<br />

(N) Michelle Brunton<br />

(N) Warrick Powrie<br />

60 Dive New Zealand | Dive Pacific<br />

60 Dive New Zealand | Dive Pacific<br />

(A) Sarah Ford

‘Sun Burst Cuttle’; South Channel Fort, Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia. Canon EOS 5D Mk II, Nimar Housing,<br />

Canon 16–35mm lens, 2 x Ikelite DS161 strobes – f/7, 1/200, ISO-125<br />


N N N<br />

WINNER<br />

Advanced Category Winner:<br />

Congratulations David Haintz, Australia.<br />

David was exploring the waters surround South<br />

Chanell Port in Port Phillip Bay Victoria, Australia<br />

when he came across this stunning Cuttlefish.<br />

Judges’ comments:<br />

This image has action, showing a cuttlefish with<br />

all its food-grabbing arms stretched forward ready<br />

to pounce! Its body colours have been adjusted to<br />

blend in with the surrounding Eckionia kelp thus<br />

helping to camouflage its presence. The sunburst<br />

rays penetrating the water adds extra<br />

background lighting to this wide-angle<br />

image.<br />

The twin Ikelite strobes have delivered the vibrant<br />

colours of the kelp and Cuttle-fish – well done! A little<br />

backscatter can be seen in the rays of sunlight – but<br />

this minimal.<br />

Having the subject swimming left to right is always a<br />

bonus as western viewers eyes tend to subconsciously<br />

scan from left to right.<br />

David receives a Gift Voucher for NZ$100.<br />

(A) Alex Stammers<br />

(A) Mark Blomfield<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 61<br />

www.divenewzealand.com 61


Advanced Category Highly Commended:<br />

Congratulations Alex Stammers, New Zealand.<br />

Alex is a regular visitor to Goat Island Marine Reserve,<br />

just North of Auckland. It was established in 1975. The<br />

abundance of marine life there is a true window into<br />

what a healthy marine ecosystem can be.<br />

Alex knows before he gets in the water that he will<br />

be spoiled by the number of photographic subjects<br />

to choose from! His challenge is to photograph a<br />

subject differently than before. This time it was a large<br />

Snapper.<br />

Judges’ comments:<br />

To obtain this type of image takes a lot of technical<br />

skill and the specific type of camera/lens being used.<br />

• Alex’s very wide Tokina 10–17mm lens has allowed<br />

him to be very close to the snapper and still have the<br />

90% of the fish in the image.<br />

• Selecting a slow shutter speed in combination with<br />

rear synchronization* of the flash to deliver the<br />

blurring effect of movement!<br />

• By spinning the camera as he took the image Alex<br />

brought the snappers’ head into focus.<br />

We wondered how many times Alex has tried to obtain<br />

this result? Well done Alex!<br />

Rear-curtain sync is the opposite of front-curtain<br />

*<br />

flash, with the flash burst firing at the end of the<br />

exposure. It only starts to make a difference when<br />

used in conjunction with a slow shutter speed. This<br />

combination allows you to capture the subject in<br />

tack-sharp detail but also get some motion blur in the<br />

shot. This gives your image a sense of speed and is can<br />

be much more pleasing than the ‘frozen’ effect you get<br />

with normal flash.<br />

Dave receives a Gift Voucher for NZ$75.<br />


Highly<br />

Commended<br />

‘Snapper Spin’; Goat Island, Auckland. Nikon D800, Nauticam Housing,<br />

Tokina 10–17mm lens with Kenko 1.4x Teleconverter Fisheye, 2 x Inon Z-240 strobes.<br />

(N) Werner Truter<br />

(N) Konrad Richter<br />

62 Dive New Zealand | Dive Pacific

NOVICE<br />

N N N<br />

WINNER<br />

‘Nudibranch’; Bali, Indonesia. Canon Powershot G15, Ikelite housing, 2 x Bigblue Black Molly 2600 lumen video lights<br />

– f/8, 1/500, ISO-320.<br />

<strong>Nov</strong>ice Category Winner & Highly Commended:<br />

Congratulations, Warrick Powrie, New Zealand.<br />

This must be a pre-Covid-19 picture as it was taken in<br />

Bali, Indonesia.<br />

A wonderful nudibranch find amongst the masses of<br />

subjects that present themselves to be photographed<br />

in Bali’s abundant tropical marine environment.<br />

Well done, Warrick.<br />

Judges comments:<br />

This image definitely has that magical effect of making<br />

you take a second look – then a third and a fourth!<br />

This particular nudibranch which we think is from<br />

the Eubranchidae family is usually found clinging to a<br />

hydroid. We like how the arrow-like shapes created<br />

hydroid branches lead your eyes to the nudibranch.<br />

Interestingly, the internal ‘branches’ of its tentacles<br />

match the markings of the hydroid.<br />

The camera angle and lighting are excellent. The<br />

lighting was via a constant LED light, rather than a<br />

flash. Using a constant light source to light up your<br />

subject is a great way to photograph motionless or<br />

slow-moving subjects.<br />

Warwick receives a Gift Voucher for NZ$75.<br />

(N) Werner Truter<br />

(N) Michelle Brunton<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 63


NOVICE<br />

Highly<br />

Commended<br />

‘Here Piggy Piggy!’; Cuvier Island, Coromandel. Olympus E-M5 MkII, Ikelite housing, 1 x Ikelite DS51 strobe – f/4, 1/250, ISO-100.<br />

<strong>Nov</strong>ice Category Highly Commended:<br />

Congratulations Jack Abbott, New Zealand.<br />

Hanging, suspended in isolation 40kms off the East of<br />

Cape Colville at the Northern tip of the Coromandel<br />

Peninsula lies magical Cuvier Island. Renowned for its<br />

population of large Kingfish and Snapper as well as<br />

Boarfish. It’s a Bucket List destination for keen spearfishermen!<br />

Great that Jack was keen to take some pictures of the<br />

abundant reef fish that live in harmony with Cuvier<br />

Island’s resident fish population. Magical picture Jack!<br />

Judges comments:<br />

The joy of freedom when free diving is captured in this<br />

simple image. We really enjoyed the co-incidence of all<br />

the silver fish pointing right whilst the red one heads<br />

left.<br />

No expanding air bubbles to disturb this male red<br />

pigfish, allowing Jack to get fairly close with his<br />

12-50mm wide-angle lens.<br />

Our judges and<br />

the team at Dive<br />

New Zealand/Dive Pacific<br />

magazine look forward to<br />

receiving your masterpieces by<br />

October 20 for the December/<br />

February 2022 printed issue<br />

of the magazine.<br />

See: www.seatech.co.nz click<br />

on Photo Competition.<br />

Lighting is perhaps a little lacking – though with<br />

only one strobe, it’s well done. A good example of the<br />

camera/strobe’s TTL in action.<br />

Some minor cropping below the fish would help to<br />

lessen the urge for your eyes to be pulled to the bottom<br />

right corner of the image, but otherwise, Jack is spot on.<br />

Jack receives a Gift Voucher for NZ$75.<br />

Sea Tech is the official New Zealand distributor of Ikelite, Fantasea,<br />

Recsea, Inon, Bigblue, Nauticam and other leading brands of underwater<br />

photographic equipment.<br />

Visit: www.seatech.co.nz or for personal service email: info@seatech.co.nz<br />

64 Dive New Zealand | Dive Pacific<br />


A selection of notable photos entered for this edition's competition<br />

(A) Matt Ruglys<br />

(N) Michelle Brunton<br />

(A) David Haintz<br />

(N) Warrick Powrie<br />

(N) Werner Truter<br />

(A) Alex Stammers<br />

(N) David Forsyth<br />

(A) David Haintz<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 65<br />

www.divenewzealand.com 65

<strong>DIVE</strong> STORES / TRAVEL<br />

By region. To list your dive/sports stores contact Dive New Zealand for information.<br />

More information on Dive Stores, Clubs & Travel at www.DiveNewZealand.com<br />



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www.globaldive.net E: info@globaldive.net<br />

Book an ad space today!<br />

For Editorial or Classified ads call<br />

Colin Gestro<br />

Affinity Ads<br />

M: 027 256 8014<br />

colin@affinityads.com<br />

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wetsuits@seaquel.co.nz Tel: 09 443 2771<br />

DNZ163<br />


www.skipper.co.nz<br />

phone 09 533 4336<br />

66 Dive New Zealand | Dive Pacific

dnz164<br />

More information on Dive Stores, Clubs & Travel at www.DiveNewZealand.com<br />


FREE<br />

PHONE<br />



SIMPLY<br />

AWESOME!<br />

0800 288 882<br />

www.diving.co.nz<br />

3-5 Rona Place, Tutukaka, Whangarei, SOUTH <strong>PACIFIC</strong><br />

• New BAUER compressors<br />

• Late model, low hours,<br />

preowned BAUER<br />

compressors<br />

• Service, spare parts, oil<br />

and consumables<br />


General Marine Services<br />

65 & 90 Gaunt St, Westhaven,<br />

Auckland. Phone 09 309 6317<br />

www.generalmarine.co.nz<br />

sales@generalmarine.co.nz<br />

service@generalmarine.co.nz<br />


BAUER<br />

AGENTS<br />

Dive Zone Whitianga The Coromandel’s<br />

only PADI 5 Star IDC facility. PADI courses<br />

from Open Water to Instructor. Dive trips<br />

from boat, shore and kayak, to many<br />

amazing dive sites. Full gear service and<br />

extensive retail store. Open 7 days.<br />

10 Campbell Street, Whitianga 3510,<br />

P: 07-867 1580,<br />

E: info@divethecoromandel.co.nz<br />

www.divezonewhitianga.co.nz<br />

Cathedral Cove Dive & Snorkel, Hahei<br />

Beach PADI Dive Centre, situated at<br />

the base of Cathedral Cove, Coromandel<br />

Peninsula. Dive & Snorkeling Boat Trips,<br />

Quality PADI Diver Training – Hahei is<br />

perfect for the PADI eLearning – complete<br />

the theory classroom sessions before<br />

arriving in Hahei. Discover Scuba Diving,<br />

full sales, air fills, tank testing, rental gear.<br />

Pinnacles/Islands, Marine reserve or<br />

non-reserve diving option all within a short<br />

boat ride from Hahei Beach. Individuals and<br />

groups welcome.<br />

48 Hahei Beach Road P: 07 8663955 or<br />

NZ Free 0800 223483 M: 027 2713187<br />

E: ccdive@hahei.co.nz<br />

www.cathedralcovedive.co.nz<br />

Dive Zone Tauranga is Tauranga’s only<br />

PADI 5 Star Instructor Development<br />

Centre offering everything from Open<br />

Water courses to Specialty Instructor<br />

training. Gear sales for all scuba,<br />

spearfishing & snorkelling needs. Hire<br />

equipment, gear servicing, air fills, dive<br />

charters, cylinder testing and more! See<br />

us at 213 Cameron Road, Tauranga,<br />

P: (07) 578 4050<br />

E: info@divezonetauranga.co.nz<br />

www.divezonetauranga.co.nz<br />


Dive & Gas Gisborne's Mares and Atlantis dive<br />

gear stockist. A great product range, as well<br />

as other Scuba, spearfishing and snorkel gear.<br />

Plus we test and fill all Scuba Tanks.<br />

Kevin & Tracey Halverson,<br />

cnr Carnarvon St, and Childers Rd, Gisborne.<br />

P: 06 867 9662 E: diveandgas@gmail.com<br />


Dive Wellington Become a Padi Dive<br />

Instructor with our fulltime Diploma course.<br />

NZQA approved and eligible for student<br />

loans and allowances. Contact us for a<br />

course prospectus. Dive Wellington is an<br />

audited and approved sub contractor of<br />

Academy of Diving Trust<br />

E: dive@divewellington.co.nz<br />

P: 04 939 3483 www.divewellington.<br />

co.nz<br />

NZ Sea Adventures PADI 5 Star Instructor<br />

Development Centre – also TDI Technical diver<br />

training including CCR. Open 7 days. Dive<br />

courses – beginner to Instructor. Club dives and<br />

trips in NZ and overseas. Dive retail, fills, gear<br />

hire & servicing & cylinder testing.<br />

9 Marina View, Mana, Porirua.<br />

P: 04 233-8238 E: nzsa@scubadiving.co.nz<br />

www.scubadiving.co.nz<br />

Sales and Service of<br />

Breathing Air Compressors for<br />

Diving and Fire Fighting<br />

Supplier of<br />

-Genuine Bauer Spare Parts and<br />

Consumables<br />

-High Pressure Regulators<br />

-High Pressure Pumps<br />

-Customised Filling Panels<br />

-Nitrox Systems<br />

-Servicing and repair of all<br />

compressor brands – Bauer,<br />

Poseidon, Coltri, Brownie<br />

Bauer Kompressoren Agents for<br />

over 34 years<br />

High Pressure Equipment<br />

32 Parkway Drive, Mairangi Bay,<br />

Auckland, New Zealand<br />

PH 64 09 4440804<br />

info@highpressure.co.nz<br />

Dive & Ski HQ Wellington PADI dive<br />

courses – beginner to professional<br />

qualifications. Dive club with regular local,<br />

national & overseas trips. Wide range<br />

of diving/ spearfishing equipment and<br />

accessories. Equipment servicing/tank<br />

testing. Open 7 days.<br />

14 Waione St, Petone. New Zealand<br />

P: (04)568 5028 mob 0210369996<br />

www.diveski.co.nz E: diveskihq@xtra.co.nz<br />

snow ski and board rental available<br />

www.facebook.com/DiveSkiHQ<br />

Book an ad space today!<br />

For all advertising enquiries<br />

contact Colin Gestro -<br />

Affinity Ads<br />

colin@affinityads.com<br />

M: 027 256 8014<br />


www.dive-pacific.com 67

<strong>DIVE</strong> STORES / TRAVEL / PRODUCTS / SERVICES<br />


Go Dive Marlborough Specialist TDI<br />

technical diver training facility. Mixed gas,<br />

decompression and advanced wreck courses.<br />

Operate Lermontov Lodge (Port Gore) our base<br />

to diving one of the world’s biggest wrecks the<br />

Mikhail Lermontov. Weekly tours ex Picton from<br />

1–6 days. Direct flights from Wellington to Port<br />

Gore. We offer Inner Sounds Tours from Picton.<br />

South Island’s only SSI Dive Centre.<br />

www.godive.co.nz<br />

Freephone 0800 GO<strong>DIVE</strong><br />

Email info@godive.co.nz<br />

Dive HQ Christchurch 30 years industry<br />

experience, Christchurch’s only PADI 5<br />

Star Instructor Development Centre and<br />

Adventure Activities Certified for SCUBA<br />

diving and snorkelling. Busy retail store<br />

selling the world’s leading brands and<br />

offering PADI recreational and tertiary<br />

SCUBA qualifications. Full range of<br />

spearfishing equipment including breath<br />

hold courses. Quality gear hire, service<br />

centre, Enriched Air training and filling<br />

station, local and international dive and<br />

spearfishing trips.103 Durham St Sth.<br />

Sydenham, Christchurch.<br />

Freephone 0800-<strong>DIVE</strong>HQ.<br />

P: (03)379- 5804 www.divehqscuba.co.nz<br />

E: sales@divehqscuba.co.nz<br />

INTERNATIONAL <strong>DIVE</strong><br />



Pro Dive Cairns Offers the highest quality, best<br />

value PADI dive courses and 3-day liveaboard<br />

Outer Great Barrier Reef dive trips in Cairns. We<br />

have 16 exclusive dive sites across 4 different<br />

reefs to choose from and departures 6 days/<br />

week.<br />

Check out www.prodivecairns.com<br />

or call us on +617 4031 5255<br />

or E: info@prodivecairns.com<br />

Spirit of Freedom visits the remote dive<br />

destinations of Cod Hole, Ribbon Reefs, and<br />

Coral Sea. The 37m vessel offers spacious<br />

en-suite cabins, every comfort on board, and<br />

exceptional service. Marine encounters include<br />

the potato cod feed, Minke whales in season,<br />

and the shark dive at Osprey Reef.<br />

E: info@spiritoffreedom.com.au<br />

www.spiritoffreedom.com.au<br />

Tusa Dive Cairns local day dive operators<br />

with over 30 years experience diving the Great<br />

Barrier Reef. Tusa’s fast modern catamaran the<br />

Tusa 6 will visit two unique sites where you can<br />

enjoy up to three dives in the day. Tusa Dive<br />

also offer a great day out for snorkellers.<br />

P: 00617 4047 9100<br />

E: info@tusadive.com www.tusadive.com<br />

DNZ161<br />


Colin Gestro - Affinity Ads<br />

M: 027 256 8014<br />

HDS Australia-Pacific<br />

PO Box: 347 Dingley Village Victoria 3172,<br />

Australia. www.classicdiver.org<br />


Dive Aitutaki with Bubbles Below Explore<br />

Aitutaki’s underwater world with Bubbles Below.<br />

Only 40 minutes from mainland Rarotonga to<br />

the picturesque island of Aitutaki.PADI dive<br />

courses Beginner to Dive Master. Manned boats<br />

during dives! Safety and enjoyment paramount!<br />

‘Take only Memories & Leave only Bubbles Dive<br />

Safe, Dive Rite, Dive Bubbles Below!’<br />

www.diveaitutaki.com<br />

E: bubblesbelow@aitutaki.net.ck<br />

The Dive Centre – The Big Fish PADI 5-star<br />

dive operator. Services: intro/lagoon dives, dive<br />

trips twice a day, courses, retail and rental gear.<br />

2 boats, boats are manned with an instructor, 7<br />

days, night dives. Aroa Beach by the Rarotongan<br />

Resort.<br />

P: 682 20238 or 682 55238<br />

E: info@thedivecentre-rarotonga.com<br />

www.thedivecentre-rarotonga.com<br />

dnz164<br />

68 Dive New Zealand | Dive Pacific

More information on Dive Stores, Clubs & Travel at www.DiveNewZealand.com<br />

FIJI<br />

Subsurface Fiji Visit Fiji for fun, relaxing<br />

tropical diving. Subsurface Fiji PADI 5-Star<br />

Dive shops are located in the beautiful<br />

Mamanuca Islands, offering daily trips and<br />

courses to some of the best dive spots<br />

in Fiji. Subsurface provides full diving<br />

services from Musket Cove, Plantation,<br />

Malolo, Likuliku, Tropica, Lomani, Funky<br />

Fish, Namotu, Tavarua, Wadigi & Navini<br />

Island Resorts.<br />

E: info@subsurfacefiji.com<br />

www.subsurfacefiji.com<br />

Captain Cook Cruises Reef Endeavour and<br />

Tivua Island are 5 star PADI operations –<br />

Discover Scuba – Scuba Dive – Open water dive<br />

– Advance Wreck Dive, MV Raiyawa at Tivua<br />

Island. Fiji P: +679 6701 823<br />

E: fiji@captaincookcruisesfiji.com<br />

www.captaincookcruisesfiji.com<br />

Mantaray Island Resort Yasawa Islands –<br />

Fiji – Over 40 dive sites ; vibrant reefs, stunning<br />

coral gardens, caves, swim throughs, wall<br />

dives, drop offs, shark dives, turtles, and a<br />

stunning house reef. Fiji’s only accredited<br />

free-diving school, Mantaray swimming May–<br />

Oct. Small group diving in a safe and enjoyable<br />

environment visit us at<br />

www.mantarayisland.com<br />

Volivoli Beach Resort offers you relaxed,<br />

unspoilt white sandy beaches in a spectacular<br />

part of Fiji. Ra Divers operates from the resort<br />

giving you a water wonderland on the worlds<br />

best soft coral dive sites. The Fiji Siren is a<br />

livaboard boat offering you 7 and 10 night dive<br />

packages. www.volivoli.com<br />

E: info@volivoli.com P: +679 9920942<br />


Raiders Hotel and Dive Wreck and Reef<br />

diving, Accommodation, Bar and dining,<br />

Snorkelling Hiking and more. Located 1 hour<br />

from Honiara on the waterfront of the historic<br />

Tulagi harbour. Dive - Discover – Relax. www.<br />

raidershotel.com<br />

E: raidershotel@solomon.com.sb<br />

P: +677 7594185 / 7938017<br />

SIDE Dive Munda – Dive the unexplored<br />

Experience Magical Munda at Agnes Gateway<br />

Hotel. Award winning service and pristine<br />

diving. SSI Instructor Training Centre. WWII<br />

wrecks, caves and reefs – untouched and<br />

unspoilt.<br />

www.divemunda.com<br />

divemunda@dive-solomon.com<br />

Find us on Twitter, Facebook & Instagram<br />

SIDE TAKA Dive See more of the Solomon<br />

Islands by liveaboard! Save $700 on a 7<br />

night booking on board MV Taka: 7 Nights<br />

Accommodation; 3 gourmet meals daily; 24<br />

Dives – sharks, WWII wrecks, manta rays, night<br />

dives; Round trip airport transfers. Conditions<br />

apply. For more information or to make a<br />

reservations:<br />

E: book@dive-solomon.com<br />

Tulagi Dive Solomon Islands An underwater<br />

paradise for marine life and explore the many<br />

ships and aircraft wrecks at the famous Iron<br />

Bottom Sound. We offer the PADI and TDI<br />

courses. P: (+677) 25700<br />

www.tulagidive.com dive@tulagidive.com<br />


INDEX<br />

DAN 51& 52<br />

Dive Pacific subs ad OBC<br />

Dive Tutukā kā 31<br />

Dive Zone 1<br />

Fiordland Expeditions 53<br />

Travelandco<br />

At travel&co (previously Dive Fish Snow<br />

Holidays) we’ve been crafting tailor-made<br />

active travel trips and experiences for over 30<br />

years. On the Our seafront team of downtown active travel Port experts Vila. share<br />

your passion for adventure and can help<br />

• Certified dives • Snorkel Tours • Training to<br />

book an exceptional active travel experience<br />

Instructor Level • Full gear hire available •<br />

that goes beyond the ordinary. From wreck<br />

Very or reef friendly, diving, professional learning to dive, & experienced to liveaboard<br />

adventures local Instructors - for insider & Dive tips Masters. on the best dive<br />

20 locations dive sites and (10 to tailormade 20 minutes) diving including experiences<br />

5 wrecks<br />

(including let your active 4 engine travel QANTAS journey Sandringham start with flying us.<br />

boat P: 09 and 479 1502210 year old Toll sailing free ship NZ: Star 0800 of Russia) 555 035<br />

E: enquire@travelandco.nz<br />

Temp 24-28°c. Viz 10m to<br />

www.travelandco.nz/dive<br />

40m. Free pickup from<br />

Resorts in town.<br />


P: +678 27518 or email:<br />

CRUISE dive@bigbluevanuatu.com<br />


fish • hunt www.bigbluevanuatu.com<br />

• dive • cruise<br />

Fish, Hunt, Dive For Cruise your safety aboard Vanuatu the fully has<br />

refurbished MV recompression Cindy Hardy. Fiordland facilities. or<br />

Stewart Island, our scenic cruises will provide<br />

you with a once in a lifetime experience.<br />

Everything is provided regardless of how<br />

short or long your time on board with us is.<br />

Cruise options available on our website.<br />

www.cruisefiordland.com<br />

info@cruisefiordland.com<br />

+6421 088 14530<br />

(DNZ156)<br />


Nautilus Watersports Vanuatu’s longest<br />

running dive operation in Port Vila with 30+<br />

years’ experience. Nautilus offers 4 dives a day<br />

(double dive both morning and afternoon). We<br />

also offer PADI course from Discover Scuba<br />

right through to Dive Master. For dive groups we<br />

can also offer diving/accommodation packages.<br />

P: Peter or Leanne +678 22 398<br />

www.nautilus.com.vu<br />

E: nautilus@vanuatu.com.vu<br />

<strong>DIVE</strong> HOLIDAY<br />

Outer Gulf Charters<br />

One hour north of Auckland CBD<br />

Providing divers with the ultimate diving day<br />

out with diver lift, fast/comfortable travel, hot<br />

water shower, and all the tea and coffee you<br />

want.<br />

Recommended On the seafront Dive downtown Sites: Goat Port Island Vila. Marine<br />

Reserve, Mokohinau Islands, Great/Little<br />

• Certified dives • Snorkel Tours • Training to<br />

Barrier, Sail Rock/Hen & Chickens in style. Trip<br />

Instructor Level • Full gear hire available •<br />

schedule and info<br />

Very www.outergulfcharters.co.nz<br />

friendly, professional & experienced<br />

or phone local Instructors Julie 021 & 827 Dive 855 Masters.<br />

20 dive sites (10 to 20 minutes) including 5 wrecks<br />

(including 4 engine QANTAS Sandringham flying<br />

boat and 150 year old sailing ship Star of Russia)<br />

Temp 24-28°c. Viz 10m to<br />

40m. Free pickup from<br />

Resorts in town.<br />

P: +678 27518 or email:<br />

dive@bigbluevanuatu.com<br />

www.bigbluevanuatu.com<br />

Lust4Rust & For Shock&Awe your safety Vanuatu 9 has<br />

recompression facilities.<br />

Rescuefish<br />

IFC<br />

Saltaway 47<br />

SeaTech 49<br />

Northland Dive 8<br />


On the seafront downtown Port Vila.<br />

• Certified dives • Snorkel Tours • Training to<br />

Instructor Level • Full gear hire available •<br />

Very friendly, professional & experienced<br />

local Instructors & Dive Masters.<br />

20 dive sites (10 to 20 minutes) including 5 wrecks<br />

(including 4 engine QANTAS Sandringham flying<br />

boat and 150 year old sailing ship Star of Russia)<br />

Temp 24-28°c. Viz 10m to<br />

40m. Free pickup from<br />

Resorts in town.<br />

P: +678 27518 or email:<br />

dive@bigbluevanuatu.com<br />

www.bigbluevanuatu.com<br />

For your safety Vanuatu has<br />

recompression facilities.<br />


Available for talks to dive clubs etc. You<br />

can find full details on these speakers/<br />

lectures at<br />

www.DiveNewZealand.co.nz/dive-in-nz/<br />

dive-shops/<br />

Terry Brailsford Wreck diving for gold &<br />

treasure. Incl the Rothschild jewellery, search for<br />

General Grant.<br />

P: 0274 958816 E: theadmiral@xtra.co.nz<br />

Tony Howell History and entertainment with lots<br />

of rare historical photos and illustrations – 12<br />

powerpoints in total. 45 mins –1 hr each.<br />

Contact me for topics. 04 233-8238,<br />

www.scubadiving.co.nz<br />

tony@scubadiving.co.nz<br />

Darren Shields Spearfishing titles, uw cameraman,<br />

author. Motivating/compelling/innovative/<br />

inspiring/entertaining P: 09-4794231, 021839118,<br />

E: darren@wettie.co.nz<br />

On the seafront downtown Port Vila.<br />

• Certified dives • Snorkel Tours • Training to<br />

Jamie Instructor Obern Level Technical • Full gear instructor/cave hire available diver, •<br />

20+ years exp. globally. Photos/video: uw caves<br />

Very friendly, professional & experienced<br />

in Mexico, USA, UK, NZ, Australia. Techdive NZ/<br />

local Instructors & Dive Masters.<br />

GUE NZ instructor. P: 021 614 023,<br />

20 sites (10 to 20 minutes) including 5 wrecks<br />

www.techdivenz.com jamie@techdivenz.com<br />

(including 4 engine QANTAS Sandringham flying<br />

Dave boat Moran and 150 Ching year old Dynasty sailing porcelain ship Star of from Russia) the<br />

Tek Sing. Dive New Temp Zealand 24-28°c. P: 09-521 Viz 10m 0684, to<br />

E: divenz@DiveNewZealand.co.nz<br />

40m. Free pickup from<br />

Resorts in town.<br />

Samara Nicholas M.O.N.Z Programme<br />

P: +678 27518 or email:<br />

Director: Experiencing Marine Reserves – Te<br />

Kura Moana: samara@emr.org.nz<br />

dive@bigbluevanuatu.com<br />

www.emr.org.nz www.facebook.com/emr.mtsct<br />

www.bigbluevanuatu.com<br />

P: 09 4338205 or 0210362019 For your safety (field Vanuatu only) has<br />

recompression facilities.<br />

Lydia Green, Founder & Project Manager<br />

Manta Watch Aotearoa. With the latest on NZ’s<br />

manta ray populations.<br />

E: mantawatchzealand@gmail.com<br />

P: 022 467 1093<br />

www.dive-pacific.com 69

N E W Z E A L A N D ’ S O N L Y D I V E M A G A Z I N E<br />

N E W Z E A L A N D ’ S O N L Y D I V E M A G A Z I N E<br />

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OR GIFT <strong>DIVE</strong> <strong>PACIFIC</strong> TO A FRIEND!<br />

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N E W Z E A L A N D ’ S O N L Y D I V E M A G A Z I N E<br />

P A C I F I C<br />

N E W Z E A L A N D ’ S O N L Y D I V E M A G A Z I N E<br />

P A C I F I C<br />

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