KNITmuch Issue 13


In this issue...join us on an exciting journey with Charles Voth as he walks us through the process of designing a men’s sweater vest. Starting from necessary measurements and calculations to a steeked V-neck and embellishments it’s a process you’ll want to apply to future knitting designs. Also, check out Cindy O'Malley's features on testing out the characteristics of Penna and Odette yarns, making pullovers and other fun to wear accessories! Oh! It’s always so much fun!


a raspberry beret · wrap · cowls · socks · pullovers

* The many

ways of



* Combining

7 different

colors on

a knitted

sweater K, is to

Issue 13






* Consistency

in pattern


working in

the round

* Matching the

right pattern

with the

right yarn

* Designing

a men's

sweater vest

* Making a




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◦ ALL of the above!

KNITmuch K, is to




Carla A. Canonico


John De Fusco


A Needle Pulling Thread


John De Fusco, Carla A. Canonico, Contributors


Fiona Stevenson

Ravelry: fionastevensondesigns

Cindy O'Malley

Charles Voth

Cynthia MacDougall


Carla A. Canonico

Sondra Armas


Sondra Armas

Alejandro Araujo


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©2021 KNITmuch. All rights reserved. Issue 13.

ISSN 2368-5913.

No part of this publication may be reproduced without

written permission from the publisher.

All designs, patterns, and information in this magazine are

for private, non-commercial use only, and are copyrighted

material owned by their respective creators or owners.

Visit and download our free ebook:

Cynthia MacDougall's

Knitting Essentials!

2 KNITmuch | issue 13























Knit Together - The Many Ways of Measuring Yarn

Light and feathery Odette has the grace and elegance of a swan

Various swatches disclose the chameleon qualities of Odette yarn

The challenge of combining 7 different colors on a knitted sweater

The strength and beauty of Odette make a perfect pair of socks

Leftover yarn from the sweater makes a warm and cushy cowl

Textured washcloth in Cotton Supreme

Oodles of noodles with crisscrossed ribbing in Bella Chenille yarn

Not knit nupps nor knots: buds are the alternative stitch!

Taking Bamboo Pop yarn for a “bumpy” ride

Feathery soft knitting with Penna

Knitting swatches in keeping with an open and airy look

Consistency in pattern when working in the round

Combining Penna with another yarn makes for endless possibilities

Elegance when matching the right pattern with the right yarn

Designing a men’s sweater vest using Universal Yarn Colorburst

Which measurements matter in designing a men’s sweater vest?

Calculations for a men’s Colorburst sweater vest

Colorburst looks best with a steeked V-neck

Designing those just-right finishing touches on the Colorburst vest

Standard yarn weights, abbreviations and terms


KNITmuch | issue 13


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4 KNITmuch | issue 13



Can you feel the season turning?

Just yesterday a long standing heatwave ended,

and suddenly it feels more like fall. This can

only raise one question: Am I ready for the

colder months ahead? The answer is now on

my knitting needles! I'm very close to finishing

a cardi I'm knitting for myself that was inspired

by Cynthia MacDougall's extraordinary Tilted

Maple Leaf Henley from

Issue 55 of A Needle

Pulling Thread magazine.

It is a stunning piece,

but I'm very sure I

wouldn't wear a Henley

- it's just not my style.

But as knitters we have

such freedom to alter

and adapt the patterns

we want to knit into

I hope this letter

finds you

in good health.

garments we are sure to

wear. So, with pencil and

paper in hand, I checked the

numbers in the leaf chart

and in the cardi pattern to

find out that I could only

place the full leaf on the

back, since the cardi fronts

had too few stitches. I'm

okay with that. Cynthia did a

fantastic job in charting that leaf!

In this issue is a chance for you to learn how

patterns can be created and/or adapted to

your body type. See Charles Voth's feature on

designing a men's sweater vest and what to

know every step of the process. You'll use this

framework for other garments too in designing

for men and women. Also with Charles is a

chance to try five unique stitch patterns in

various yarns from Universal Yarn.

Check out Cindy O'Malley's features on testing

out the characteristics of Penna and Odette

yarns, making pullovers and other fun to wear


I'll be back in the next issue with a photo and

more comments on my version of the Tilted

Maple Leaf Henley/cardi, ready for the fall and

winter seasons!


follow me

KNITmuch | issue 13


Knit Together

with Cynthia MacDougall

The Many Ways of Measuring Yarn

Photo by Mike Guilbault.

Cynthia MacDougall

Canadian Guild of Knitters

PO Box 20262

Barrie, Ontario L4M 6E9


1.866.245.5648 (CGK-KNIT)


ravelry name: theloveofknit

6 KNITmuch | issue 13


beginning knitter recently

observed that the yarn for one

of her knitting patterns was

listed in yards and grams. She observed

that these are two different methods of

measurement and she asked me, “How

do you know if the weight the pattern

says will be enough to make a sweater?”

Both, yards (or meters) and grams (or

ounces) are systems of measurement.

Yards and meters are linear measures;

grams and ounces are measures of mass.

Used together, these two measures offer

clues about the third way to measure yarn:

thickness or grist. Grist is a broad enough

topic for another article, so, this article will

focus on linear and mass measurements.

So much about knitting is variable.

Yarn weight and yardage information

in patterns are usually estimated. A

difference in the tension, or gauge, will

impact the take-up of yarn, and affect

the amount of yarn needed to complete

the project. Adjustments for the wearer

– sleeve length, for example – may

require more or less yarn. Substituting

a different yarn than the one called for

by the pattern may change the amount

of yarn needed to complete a project.

Some of the information on ball bands

is estimated. In short, individual results

may vary.

Designers usually create patterns for one

size and make adjustments for other sizes

using a process called ‘grading.’ Unless the

knitter is making the size the designer

used to create the base size for the pattern,

both the grams and yardage of yarn given

in the pattern are estimates. Sometimes

a pattern will be test-knit in more than

one size, but, generally, the yarn amounts

are estimated by using mathematical

calculations based upon the amount of

yarn used to make the sample garment.

In most cases, the designer will overstate

the amount of yarn needed to make the

garment, to ensure the knitter has enough

yarn to finish the project. But, if a knitter’s

tension varies even as little as one-quarter

of a stitch over 4 inches/10cm, extra yarn

may be needed to finish the project.

Knowing the approximate yardage

of the yarn prescribed by the pattern

makes it easier to substitute yarn,

whether the substitution is due to

replacing a discontinued yarn or

one with a different fiber content.

Different fibers have different

masses. A pound of wool is larger

in mass than a pound of cotton

and 50 grams of wool has more

yardage than 50 grams of cotton in

most cases. So, if a pattern calls for 10

balls of a woollen yarn that has 200

meters per 50 gram ball the pattern

calls for a total of 2000 meters of

yarn. If the knitter wants to use a

cotton yarn that has 180 meters

per 50 gram ball, he or she can

deduce that two more balls of the

cotton yarn is needed to have at

least 2000 meters of yarn. (Ten

balls of the cotton yarn equals

1800 meters. Eleven balls has

1980 meters, which might be

enough to get by, but having

2160 meters on hand is better.)

Manufacturers are required

to cite the accurate weight of

the yarn. Yardage, however, is

optional, and when it is given,

it is usually estimated. Yardage

was rarely cited on ball bands

until the 1990s. Although it

is estimated, it is useful data,


Many parts of a knitting pattern – needle

sizes, sleeve length, and even some

details such as the placement of decreases

– can be considered guidelines rather

than rules. The quantity of yarn for the

pattern is one of those parts.

Knitting patterns are formulated on

the basis of real experience plus mathematical

estimates for quantities of

yarn, whether these are determined by

weight or length. Subtle differences in

tension make a difference in the finished

result. Yarn substitutions and yarn fiber

substitutions vary the amount of yarn

required. Patterns can – and should – be

adjusted to suit the wearer. Such adjustments

affect yarn requirements. The

yardage on the ball bands are estimates.

Each of these variables or a combination

of them impact the amount of yarn

actually needed to complete a project.

Whatever the reason, if there is any doubt

that there will be sufficient yarn for a

project, purchase an extra ball – or two.

Yarn shop staff often recommends this

and it is good advice, not a way to improve

the shop’s sales. Extra yarn can be used to

make a matching hat, scarf, mittens, or a

smaller project for a smaller recipient: a

baby sweater or dog coat. Inquire about

the yarn vendor’s return policy: some

suppliers will allow a refund or exchange

of unneeded yarn. If so, keep the receipt

in a safe place. Regardless of the supplier's

policy, the best policy for a knitter to

adopt is to ensure there is enough yarn on

hand to complete the project.


The Romance of Weights and Measures, Viking Press, 1960

Wikipedia - information about Bradford Count and Tex

Master Spinner’s Program Level 3 material, Olds College, AB

Keep Me Warm One Night, University of Toronto Press, 1972


Wool was sold in bags weighed

by mass, or weight. Both raw wool

and the finished yarn were sold by

weight. Other commodities, such

as cotton, were sold in the same

manner. The 1851 census for Upper

and Lower Canada notes that wool

was reported in pounds processed,

while woven fabric was cited in yards

produced. The manner in which the

raw materials were marketed appears

to have influenced the method for

marketing yarn.

Both British and metric mass measures

are based on a linear measurement.

The early British measure for mass

was based on a cubic handwidth. A

handwidth measures 3.96 in today’s

inch measurement. In this system,

the measure was the weight of the

amount of cool water that would fit

in a space of one handwidth wide,

by one handwidth long by one

handwidth high. The tankard was a

half measure, which was known as

the skale-weight. One hundred skaleweights

equaled a hundredweight.

Wool was sold at market by the

eighth- or half-hundredweight.

The metric measure for mass is also

based on a linear measurement, in

this case 10 centimeters. A litre is the

amount of water that fits in a space

10cm wide by 10cm long by 10cm

deep and it weighs one kilogram,

or 1000 grams. Coincidentally, 10cm

equals 3.937 inches, less than three

hundredths of an inch difference

from the dimension of the old

English measure!

About the time of the Industrial

Revolution, a system to measure

the fineness (or grist) of yarn was

introduced in England. This new

system, called the Bradford Count,

was based on the number of 560-

yard skeins of yarn that can be spun

from one pound of wool. The higher

the number, the finer (thinner) the

yarn: a yarn measuring 10s (s is the

abbreviation for the Bradford count

– presumably it represents skeins) is

thicker than a yarn measuring 30s: 30

skeins yields 16,800 yards per pound,

where 10 skeins only gives 5,600

yards per pound. By using length

and weight to determine thickness,

manufacturers could determine how

thick their finished cloth would be.

Despite this, yardage remained

unused in the realm of the knitter.

Even when published patterns began

to appear, yardage was overlooked

or omitted. (See Cynthia’s article about

Vintage Patterns in the Fall, 2010 issue of

A Needle Pulling Thread.)

In 1962, the International Organization

for Standardization (ISO) adopted the

Tex system as the ‘industry standard’

for measuring the thickness of threads

and yarns. Tex represents the number

of grams that 1,000 meters of yarn or

thread weighs. Thus, a yarn that has

200 meters per 100 grams would be

listed as 500 tex. With this system, the

higher a yarn’s tex number, the thicker

the yarn.

Nm is the metric answer to the

Bradford Count. It represents the

number of meters spun from a gram

of yarn. Knitters can use this system

to great advantage: by weighing out

one gram of yarn, then measuring

the length of it, the number of meters

per 100 grams or kilogram is a simple

matter of adding two or three zeros,

respectively. For example if one

gram of yarn is 4 meters long, 100

grams will be 400 meters long, and a

kilogram will have 4,000 meters. This

is useful when working with old yarns

that do not give yardages, or when

working with yarns such as handspun

or project leftovers that don’t have

any labels at all.

KNITmuch | issue 13



the cart to

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Welcome to Thoughtful Soles Series by Lorraine

Thompson! This is a zany collection of knitted sock

patterns to tickle your funny bone every time you

wear them.




HIGH Fiber






8 KNITmuch | issue 13


1" marking on the

cord & needles

for quick measuring

on the go!

All sizes are color coded

Available at

your local

yarn stores!



Light and feathery Odette has the

grace and elegance of a swan

Cindy O'Malley

Welcome to another exciting feature at KNITmuch,

where I’ll be knitting with Universal Yarn Odette.

Odette combines 61% superwash fine merino and

17% alpaca with 22% nylon for strength, creating

a chained yarn that’s light and lovely. This yarn is

perfect for sweaters and a multitude of accessories

with a light heather and feathery halo.

The name Odette is of French origin meaning

wealthy. You may also recognize the name as the

good or white swan in Swan Lake.

Odette is available in 10 different colors of which

I’ll be using 7 in this feature; Bordeaux, Rusted

Orange, Picholine, French Blue, Rose Villa, Winter

Wheat, and Gargoyle. The colors look intense when

coiled up in their skein, but in reality, each color is

very soft and muted. The intensity of each color

is only revealed in quantity. If you’re wondering

about Picholine, it’s an olive of French origin that is

primarily used as a cocktail olive, but also used for

making olive oil, which is an accurate description for

the color.

Each 1.75oz [50g] ball contains 241yds [220m],

which really speaks to the lightness of the fiber.

Chain construction means that the fibers are knitted

rather than spun, resembling a crochet chain. This

results in a puffy and airy strand that is filled in with

the feathery halo of the alpaca.

Rated as a Light, Odette is truly a chameleon when

it comes to gauge for projects. The recommended

gauge is 21-23 stitches over 4”[10cm] using a US

5 – 7 [3.75 – 4.5mm] knitting needle, and 18-20

stitches over 4”[10cm] using a US F-5[3.75 – 4.5mm]

crochet hook. Because of the open and airy chain

construction, it will puff out when knit at a more

open gauge, and compress beautifully when knit to

a very tight gauge.

Let’s take a close up look at an individual strand

of Odette. You can see the chain construction and

how the feathery halo of the alpaca fills in the gaps.

As with all blended fiber yarns, the most delicate

of the fibers dictates the laundry care, and Odette

is no exception. Hand wash and lay flat to dry will

keep your projects looking beautiful.

I have some interesting and diversified projects in

store for Odette!

A multi-colored sweater, (7 colors to be exact),

socks, (yes socks!) and a warm, funnel cowl are all

on the list.

Each of these projects will be knit at a different

gauge using different needles to show just how

much of a chameleon this yarn really is.

Odette is available in 10 different colors. L-R, Picholine, French Blue, Gargoyle,

Rusted Orange, Bordeaux, Rose Villa, and Winter Wheat are my color choices.

10 KNITmuch | issue 13

A close up look at an individual strand of Odette in Rusted Orange reveals the

openness of the chain construction filled in with the soft halo of the alpaca.

Various swatches disclose the

chameleon qualities of Odette yarn

I’m knitting some swatches, initially based on the

recommended gauge as discussed, but then playing

with various needle sizes to see how the yarn

reacts. My first project is a sweater where gauge

is extremely important. The recommended gauge

is 21-23 stitches over 4”[10cm] using a US 5 – 7

[3.75 – 4.5mm] knitting needle, and the sweater has

a gauge of 22sts and 26rows on US6[4.0mm] and

22sts and 23rows on US7[4.5mm] needles. Based

on that, I’ll start with the US 6 [4.0mm] and then use

the US 7 [4.5].

This yarn is extremely light and can get caught on

dry, rough hands, so make sure you use some hand

lotion. But I must say, it’s lovely to knit. I tend to use

very pointed needles. If my stitch isn’t true, it can

get caught in the links of the chain. Easily rectified,

but something to watch for, as the sooner you catch

it, the easier it is to correct.

1st Swatch – US 6 [4.0mm]

My first swatch yielded 22 sts and approximately 32

rows after blocking. I love the fabric it created, both

in drape and in color. The soft halo and heathered

tones of the Rusted Orange are beautiful. On to the


2nd Swatch – US 7 [4.5mm]

The second swatch yielded 21 sts and 30 rows after

blocking. The drape is still lovely and I’m happy

with both swatches. Even though the row count is

different from that which is called for by the sweater

pattern, I think it will work out fine.

Odette swatches L US 6 [4.0mm] R US 7 [4.5mm] yielded 22sts and 32R and

21sts and 30R.

Since my stitch count was right on the money as per

the yarn recommendations, I didn’t make a 4” x 4”

swatch using the US 5 [3.75mm] needle but did use

it during my experimental swatches.

My first experimental swatch was to determine

what needle size I would use for socks. I made 3

mini swatches, all in succession beginning with a

3.0mm needles, which doesn’t seem to have a US

equivalent, then a US 3[3.25mm], and lastly, a US

4 [3.5mm]. I ribbed a few rows before the stocking

stitch using each needle size in turn.

3rd Swatch Results

3.0mm – 8 sts = 1”, 10 rows = 1”

US 3 [3.25mm] – 7 sts = 1”, 9 rows = 1”

US 4 [3.5mm] – 6.75 sts = 1”, 8 rows = 1”

Photos by Cindy O'Malley

KNITmuch | issue 13


2 swatches knit in succession with various needle sizes. L – 3.0, US 3 [3.25mm]

and US 4 [3.5mm] in rib and stocking stitch. R – US 5 [3.75mm], US 6 [4.0mm],

US 7 [4.5mm] and US 8 [5.0mm] in garter stitch an open mesh.

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I’m truly amazed at how well the yarn performed

when knit at a tight gauge. By knitting the samples

in succession, you can really see the difference

between the needle sizes. I was expecting to use

the US 3 or 4 as my needles for the socks, but after

this exercise, I’ll be using the 3.0mm.

I had originally planned on making a shawl that

had open mesh between sections of garter stitch.

I changed my mind at the last minute, but more

about that later. For my fourth swatch, I took the

same approach as the sock swatch, but this time

I used four different needle sizes beginning with

a US 5 [3.75mm] and worked my way up to a US

8 [5.0mm]. Again, by doing the test swatches in

succession, you can really see the impact of the

different sized needles. The following results are

approximates, mainly due to the springiness of the

yarn on the open mesh work.

4th Swatch Results

US 5 [3.75mm] 22 sts = 4” garter, 11 sts = 2” mesh

US 6 [4.0mm] 22 sts = 4” garter, 11 sts = 2” mesh

US 7 [4.5mm] 20 sts = 4” garter, 10 sts = 2” mesh

US 8 [5mm] 19 sts = 4” garter, 9 sts = 2” mesh

This is when I started calling Odette a chameleon

when it comes to gauge. It looks great when

knit with the various needle sizes. Depending on

the project, Odette seems to adapt nicely to its

environment; hence chameleon.

I quite enjoyed knitting these swatches, which isn’t

something you hear a knitter say very often.

12 KNITmuch | issue 13

The challenge of combining

7 different colors

on a knitted sweater

I’m knitting the Olympia Pullover which is a

stranded sweater that calls for seven different colors.

When I first saw this free sweater pattern designed

by Melissa Leapman, who is one of my favorite

designers, I just had to make it. You can download

the free Olympia Pullover pattern.

Even though this pattern was designed for a

different yarn, the gauge of 22sts over 4” [10cm]

was the same that I was able to achieve yesterday

with Odette. The row gauge is quite different, but

for the most part, that should be okay since most

instructions say to work to x” before shaping. Where

I will likely need adjustments is in the sleeve cap as

row gauge may come into play.

This project presented a few challenges; the first

being the colors. When I selected the colors

from online samples, I had a plan in mind. When

I received the yarn, the colors presented very

differently. For example, Rose Villa looked to be

very “peachy”, but in reality, it’s an off-white with

peach undertones. It’s beautiful but changed my

thinking when I started putting colors together.

I have to admit, that the color sequence was my

biggest challenge and caused the most angst. I

second-guessed myself several times. If you recall

in the first chapter of this feature when I mentioned

that the color intensity changed when the

skein was unraveled, I decided to do the same. I

unraveled the seven colors and hung them up on

pegs outside in the natural light. This helped me to

finally decide on the sequence I would use, which

ended up being very close to my original thoughts.

Notice the 3rd color from the left; that’s Rose Villa in

natural light.

Olympia Pullover is a free pattern designed by

Melissa Leapman.

Odette yarn in Rosa Villa colorway,

photo sample of online color

KNITmuch | issue 13


Odette color choices L-R Winter Wheat, Bordeaux, Rose Villa, Rusted Orange,

Gargoyle, French Blue, Picholine are truly revealed in natural light.

Now that I finally decided on my color sequence,

I started in detail with the pattern only to notice

that there was some key information missing. The

gauge stated 22sts x 26 rows = 4” in St st using

smaller needles, however, it only called for US

7[4.5mm] needles. I made an assumption that the

smaller needle meant US 6[4.0mm] but wanted

confirmation. I sent a note to Melissa Leapman

via Ravelry and she responded within minutes to

confirm my assumption. I was very impressed that

she responded so quickly. I’ve written to designers

previously and had both good and not so good

results. Some never get back to you while some

others have sent a stock reply that didn’t answer

my question. Thank you, Melissa for backing

your designs. Take note however, the pattern link

provided above does not have the typo corrected.

My second challenge was the sizing. The Medium

finished measurement was 37 ½”, and the Large

41 ¾”. Normally, I would make a Medium, but I

wanted a little more ease than what the Medium

offered, however, the Large had too much ease for

my liking. If this was a fairly plain sweater, I would

add a few stitches when casting on to give the

finished measurement that I wanted, however, due

to the colorwork involved, I had no desire to try

and re-design it. The difference in sizes is 12sts, so

I decided to knit the Large using a smaller needle

making a tighter gauge, which should result in a

finished measurement around 39”. Perfect.

Off I go knitting the back of the sweater with

my choice of colors and needle size. Everything

is working out fine until I come to the armhole

shaping. It’s a little confusing in how it describes

to bind off x sts on each side. That line is in

the pattern twice, so I wasn’t sure if that was a

typo or if it meant to do it twice. Based on the

stitch count, I assumed twice but again, wanted

confirmation as the sleeves only asked for the bind

off once. Normally, I would expect them to be the

same. Melissa responded to my query right away

confirming that it should be done twice on the body.

Now I’m into the colorwork section, which is a lot

of fun to do. When it came time for the larger motif,

I counted in the number of decreases to mark my

starting point. Only I didn’t really mark it; I just put

a ruler marking the spot, and proceeded to knit.

Well, my ruler shifted on me and when I stopped to

admire my work a few rows in, I was dismayed. No

motif, just a mess. Back I went, recounted where I

should be starting and marked it with a pen. Much

better results. I’m not a colorwork specialist, but

have knitting friends that do intricate colorwork on

a regular basis. During one of our many Zoom calls,

I presented my approach to one of these experts

and she confirmed that I was doing the right thing.

It pays to ask an expert. It also pays to admire your

work often so that mistakes are caught early.

The colorwork section turned out beautifully. I

wasn’t sure if the muted colors would show up very

well, but they do and I’m pleased.

I’ve stated before that I prefer doing top down

sweaters as it’s much easier to size it appropriately,

especially in the sleeve length. You try it on and

stop knitting when it’s the desired length. Not so

with bottom up and knit in pieces. The pattern

calls for the sleeve being 18 ½” for all sizes before

shaping the sleeve cap. Well, I don’t believe

everyone has the same arm length so I measured

another sweater of mine and based it on that.

Glad I did. I have long arms for my height, but not

that long.

14 KNITmuch | issue 13

As mentioned earlier, I anticipated making

adjustments to the sleeve caps due to the difference

in row gauge. I originally calculated to decrease

every other row instead of every row. It turns out

that I miscalculated a wee bit and ended up with

sleeve caps that were too big for the armhole

opening of the body. I was also having a difficult

time matching up the colorwork when seaming

due to the difference in the bind off twice in the

body and once on the sleeves. I ended up taking

the caps back to the start of the decreases, binding

off twice to be the same as the body, and switched

to decreasing every row when I got down to 37 sts.

It worked. The pattern lined up and the sleeve cap

was the right size for the armhole.

Now for the finishing. My area is still in lockdown,

which means I can’t go to a store to select the right

zipper for the front opening. I’m very particular

about matching the zipper color to my work, so

online shopping was not an option. I decided to

do a slip stitch edge around the opening with the

intent to finish it off later. As it turns out, I like it the

way it is, so I may not do the zipper after all.

The Olympia Pullover is complete and I love the

heathered colors together. It’s very light and

comfortable to wear. It ended up being about 38¾”,

just shy of the original plan to end up with 39”.

So I’m calling this a success. There is a downside

to using seven colors; weaving in all the ends! I

foresee doing those during Zoom calls over the

next few days.

I hope you picked up a few tips in this feature. Next,

I take Odette in a totally different direction. I’ll be

making a pair of socks to match my new sweater,

which will illustrate the chameleon qualities of this

lovely, soft yarn.

The colorwork section of the Olympia Pullover with the 7 colors of Odette.

My completed Olympia Pullover using 7 different colors of Odette.

KNITmuch | issue 13


Odette in color Bordeaux is my choice for making

a pair of socks.

The strength and

beauty of Odette make

a perfect pair of socks

I love making toe up socks with

a short row heel for myself and

some of the other women in

the family. For the men, I usually

stick with top down and gusset

heel to leave them ample room

for their larger feet. During the

swatching exercise, I used a

3.0mm needle and, based on the

gauge, thought it would work for

socks. Truth be told, once the toe

was complete, I tried it on and

decided that it was too loose. So

I ripped it out and started again

with a US 2 [2.75mm] and was

much happier with the results.

Socks need to be knit at a very

tight gauge for wearability and I

want them to last. By the way, I’m

still wearing the first pair of socks

I made well over 20 years ago.

The toes are getting a little thin,

but still have some of leftover

yarn to re-knit them. I may just

do that for nostalgic reasons. It

goes to show how long hand knit

socks can last.

My version of toe up socks is a

little different than most patterns.

I start with Judy’s Magic Cast

On, like many toe up patterns

do, but the difference for me is

in the number of starting stitches

and the increase rounds. Most

sock patterns, whether they be

toe up or top down, typically

do the toe section by increasing

(or decreasing if top down) 4

16 KNITmuch | issue 13

stitches (2 on the bottom and 2

on the top) every other round.

I start with 6 stitches on each

needle and use 6 increases

every 3rd round. The number of

rounds ends up the same, but I

prefer this method as it makes a

rounder toe.

Judy’s Magic Cast On starting with 6 stitches on each

needle and increasing 6 stitches every 3rd round

Judy’s Magic Cast On for Toe

Up socks was invented by Judy

Becker. It’s brilliant and there are

tutorials available to demonstrate

the technique for both magic

loop and double pointed needles

(dpns). But like most knitting

techniques, others try it and

come up with variations that

make it even better. If you follow

Judy’s original instructions, you

have twisted stitches on one

needle. It’s easily rectified by

knitting into the back of these

stitches to right them, which

I’ve done for years. Then I came

across some YouTube videos

where people had perfected

the technique by loading each

needle from left to right. The

result; no twisted stitches. I’ve

since retrained myself to load

my needles left to right instead

of inside out. Like I said, it’s not a

big deal, but it’s a great example

of how this craft evolves.

How long should you make each

foot? The sock should stretch

over your foot, but the amount

of stretch depends upon how

you knit. If knit very tightly, it

won’t stretch as much as when

knit a little looser, or loose (don’t

want loose). Too much stretch

will affect the wearability as will

when knit too loose. I aim for ¾”

– 1” shorter than the actual foot

length. If you’re making socks

for yourself or someone you

have access to, you can measure

the length of the foot. If you’re

making socks for someone else

and ask “how long is your foot?”,

they’ll respond by saying they

wear a size 7.5 and 8 in boots.

Not very helpful. I use a website

(Softmoc) that has a conversion

chart for shoe sizes to inches

and centimeters for all ages and

genders. Shoe manufacturers

often vary in sizes, so the chart

serves as a guideline only to the

length of each recipient’s foot.

Socks don’t need to fit exactly

like a pair of comfortable shoes;

socks should be smaller so they

fit snugly on the person’s foot.

By referencing this chart, I have

a better feel for the targeted

finished length of the foot – I aim

for 1”, and no less than ¾” smaller

than the actual foot length.

The other consideration for

toe up socks is the cast off

technique. A conventional cast

off tends to be restrictive when

putting the sock on or off. The

solution is to use a stretchy cast

off method. I like to use Jeny’s

Surprising Stretchy Cast Off of

which there are many YouTube

videos available, however, I’ve

described the technique in the

pattern instructions. You’ll notice

in the instructions to do a Yarn

Round Needle (YRN) instead of

a regular Yarn Over (YO) for the

knit stitches. A regular YO tends

to make the cast off edge flair

out, while the YRN doesn’t.

Another technique of note is

picking up the wraps on the

short row heel when doing

the purl stitches. I use my right

needle to pick up the wraps

from the right side of the work

and place it on the left needle

in front of the stitch. When you

purl them together, the wrap

disappears on the right side. If

the wrap(s) is behind the stitch

on the left needle, it will be

visible when purled together with

the stitch.

This pattern is written for magic

loop. I gave up on dpn’s many

years ago after losing several

needles through the boards of

my back deck. Since switching

to magic loop, I’ve never looked

back. I call this pattern the Spiral

Toes Waffle Socks. The spiral toes

are based on my method for toe

increases, but the waffle stitch is

a great TV knitting technique for

socks, and looks spectacular with

the heathered, feathery look of


For the Spiral Toes Waffle

Socks, you will need:



• 2 skeins of Odette in color



• US 2 [2.75mm] circular needle

in 32” for magic loop, or

double pointed needles


• tapestry needle to sew in ends


32sts x 40 rows = 4”[10cm]

Sized to fit average woman’s foot,

easily adapted to make smaller or

larger by a multiple of 4 stitches.


K: knit

M1: make 1 st

P: purl

rem: remaining

st(s): stitch(es)

wandt: wrap and turn

YOP: yarn over purlwise

YRN: yarn round needle

Waffle Stitch Pattern

Rounds 1 and 2: *P2, K2; repeat

from * to end of round

Round 3 and 4: Knit

Spiral Toes Waffle Socks

Toe Instructions

Using Judy’s Magic Cast on, cast

on 12 sts (6 on each needle),

leaving a lengthy tail.

Round 1: Hold tail to secure the

first stitch, knit 1 round.

Round 2: Holding both working

and tail yarn, knit1 round

(12 sts on each needle).

Round 3: With the working yarn

only, knit each individual

stitch (12 sts on each


Round 4: *K4, M1, repeat from

* to end of round (6 sts

increased – 3 on each


Rounds 5 and 6: Knit.

Repeat Rounds 4 – 6 increasing

1 additional Knit stitch before

the M1 (eg, K5, K6, K7, etc.) until

there are 30 sts on each needle

(or desired number).

Foot Instructions

Rounds 1 and 2: *P2, K2; repeat

from * across the top

of the foot, and knit all

stitches on the sole of the


Rounds 3 and 4: Knit.

Repeat these 4 rounds until foot

measures 2” less than desired

length from the tip of the toe,

ending with a Row 2 on the top

of the foot, and ready to start

the heel.

Waffle stitch pattern looks spectacular with

Odette’s heathered and feathery appearance.

KNITmuch | issue 13


Spiral Toes Waffle Socks made with Odette Bordeaux

Short Row Heel Instructions

Working with heel stitches only, proceed with short

rows as follows:

Row 1: Knit across heel till 1 st rem, wandt.

Row 2: Purl across heel till 1 st rem, wandt.

Row 3: Knit across till 1 st before wrap, wandt.

Row 4: Purl across till 1 st before wrap, wandt.

Continue working in this fashion until 10 sts have been

wrapped on either side of the center 10 heel sts.

Row 21: Knit across to 1st wrapped st, pick up wrap and

knit together with the st, wandt the next st.

Row 22: Purl across to 1st wrapped st, pick up wrap

and purl together with the st, wandt the next st.

Row 23: Knit across to next wrapped st, pick up both

wraps and knit together with the st, wandt.

Row 24: Purl across to next wrapped st, pick up both

wraps and purl together with the st, wandt.

Continue working in this fashion until all wraps have

been picked up and worked on the left side of the heel.

There should still be 1 wrapped stitch on the right side

that has not been worked.

Pattern across top of foot stitches.

The 1st stitch on the heel has 2 wraps. Pick

up both wraps and knit together with the

st. Continue to knit across the heel sts to

complete the round.

Work 1 more round of pattern across the

top of the foot, and knit across the heel sts.

Leg Instructions

Proceed in pattern around all stitches until

desired length ending with a Round 4.

Cuff: *K1,P1; repeat till end of round and

desired length

Jeny’s Surprising Stretch Cast Off

K1, YOP, P1; Pull both K and YOP over P st;

1 st on right needle

*YRN, K1; Pull both st and YRN over K st

YOP, P1; Pull both st and YOP over P st

Repeat from * until all stitches have been



Weave in toe and cuff ends.

Who would have thought that a yarn rated

as Light could be knit to a fingering weight

gauge and look so lovely? Odette truly

is a chameleon when it comes to gauge.

The heathered appearance of the yarn is

perfect for the waffle stitch pattern. They

are cushy, soft and warm. I’ll be wearing

them regularly on my winter walks, and

take care when laundering to ensure that I

have them for years to come.

18 KNITmuch | issue 13

Leftover yarn from the sweater

makes a warm and cushy cowl

I had originally planned on using

Odette to make a popular free

shawl pattern available from

Ravelry, which is why I made

swatches of the mesh pattern.

After doing the color work on the

Olympia Pullover, I changed my

mind and decided to do some

more color work. I wear cowls a

lot during the winter and have

to give them up for laundering

now and then. As such, I needed

another one.

Leftover Odette after making the Olympia Pullover

This cowl is knit from the bottom

up, and decreases along the way

to make it narrower at the top. I

decided to start with Bordeaux

as there was more yarn left over

from both the sweater and the

sock projects than the other

colors. Gauge is not as important

for this project, but it will affect

the overall size. I decided to use

a US 6 [4.0mm] needle since

that’s what I’d used on the color

work section of the sweater and

was happy with the result.

How much of each color is

needed for this project is difficult

to say. I can tell you that I still had

left over yarn after completing

the cowl, just not as much. The

total weight of the cowl is 1.75oz

or 50 grams, which implies that it

used 241yds [220m] in total.

It’s best to use a stretchy cast on

and off so it can easily be pulled

over your head. The stretchy cast

on method I use most often is a

variation of the Long Tail cast on.

The difference is that I alternate

the position of the tail yarn

over my thumb for knit vs. purl

stitches. I use this method when

casting on stitches for top down

socks and it provides ample

stretch when putting them on or

off. For the cast off, I’ve included

instructions for Jeny’s Surprisingly

Stretchy Bind Off. It’s become a

favorite of mine.

For this project, I used:

finished measurements 22”

bottom circumference, 12”h, 14”

top circumference



• 4 Leftover colors of Odette in

Bordeaux (A), Winter Wheat

(B), Rusted Orange (C), and

Rose Villa (D)


• US 6 [4.0 mm] circular knitting

needles, 16” or 32” for Magic

Loop, or dpn’s


• tapestry needle to sew in ends


BOR: beginning of round



K2tog: knit two stitches together


PM:place marker

St(s):stitch or stitches

YOP: yarn over purlwise

YRN: yarn round needle

Funnel Shaped Cowl

With Color A, loosely cast on 136

sts, PM to denote BOR

Work 6 rounds in 2×2 ribbing (K2,


The Pattern

Knit 8 rounds.

Knit 8 rounds with colors A and B

as follows: *K2 A, K2 B, repeat to

end of round, drop A

With B, Knit 4 rounds.

Decrease round: *K15, K2tog,

repeat from * to end of round (8

sts dec 128sts)

Knit 3 more rounds.

Knit 8 rounds with colors B and C

as follows: *K2 B, K2 C, repeat to

end of round, drop B

With C, Knit 4 rounds.

Decrease round: *K14, K2tog,

repeat from * to end of round (8

sts dec 120sts)

Knit 3 more rounds.

Knit 8 rounds with colors C and D

as follows: *K2 C, K2 D, repeat to

end of round, drop C

KNITmuch | issue 13


With C, Knit 1 round.

Decrease round: *K13, K2tog,

repeat from * to end of round (8

sts dec 112sts)

Knit 4 more rounds.

Decrease round: *K26, K2tog,

repeat from * to end of round (4

sts dec 108 sts)

Knit 1 round.

Knit 8 rounds with colors D and A

as follows: *K2 D, K2 A, repeat to

end of round, drop D

With A, knit 1 round.

Decrease round: *K25, K2tog,

repeat from * to end of round (4

sts dec 104 sts)

With A, work 10 rounds of 2×2

ribbing (K2, P2).

Cast off using Jeny’s Surprising

Stretchy Cast Off.

Weave in ends.

Jeny’s Surprisingly Stretchy

Bind Off

K1, YRN, K1; Pull both st and YRN

over K st

YOP, P1; Pull both st and YOP

over P st (twice)

*YRN, K1; Pull both st and YRN

over K st (twice)

YOP, P1; Pull both st and YOP

over P st (twice)

Repeat from * until all stitches

have been worked.

I love the way the 4 colors work

together on this cowl. When

worn around the neck, it will

scrunch up but all 4 colors can

still be seen. I’m very pleased

with the end result and happy

that I could make good use of

the leftover yarn.

Knitting with Odette has been

an extremely pleasant and very

surprising experience. The way

this yarn adapts to different

gauges using various needle

sizes, what I refer to as the

chameleon factor, was very

surprising indeed. But also, the

yardage a single 1.75oz [50g]

skein yields. The way the yarn

puffs up when knit at a looser

gauge produces a light fabric

with a lovely drape. Originally,

I thought that the muted,

heathery colors of Odette may

not do the Olympia Pullover

justice, but I was wrong. They

are beautiful together.

Funnel Shaped Cowl made with left over Odette

yarn from the Olympia Pullover.

I hope this feature has

encouraged you to try new

or challenging projects. There

are so many techniques, stitch

patterns, and color work designs

available to us knitters. If you

haven’t tried it before, try it now.

There’s a wealth of knowledge

available at your fingertips; you

can call a friend, ask the designer,

reference an online tutorial, or

Google it to find a world of

YouTube videos to show you how.

Sounds a little like “Who Wants to

be a Millionaire”, doesn’t it?

I’ve really enjoyed working with

Universal Yarn Odette. Look for

me on Ravelry (castalot) to see

other projects I intend to make

with this yarn.

Until then, stay safe, be healthy,

and carry on knitting!

Ta-da!! The awesome ensemble featuring the

Olympia Pullover, Spiral Toes Waffle Socks, and

Leftover Funnel Cowl all knit with Odette.

Cindy O'Malley

20 KNITmuch | issue 13

don't miss these FREE

projects and tutorials online!

KNITmuch K, is to



Dressing up

the table for

the Tea Party


UY Uptown

Baby Sport


Hue +

Me will

always knit

up great



Knitting a

Mandala Baby DK

sweater from a







KNITmuch | issue 13


Textured washcloth

in Cotton Supreme

Charles Voth

Soft and sweet, Cotton Supreme is perfect for a facecloth.

Here at we

love to introduce you to new

yarns, but sometimes, it’s great

to rekindle our love for some

of the classics. We’ll look at the

harmony between some great

yarns and some completely new

textured stitches.

A few years ago, I knit a little

toddler sweater with Universal

Yarn Cotton Supreme, and

Cindy O’Malley knit a Tee with

the Waves version of this soft

cotton yarn, but in this feature, I

want to share a simple textured

knit pattern using Universal

Yarn Cotton Supreme to make

facecloths or even baby blankets.

This facecloth is a 2×2 ribbing with ridges in Cotton Supreme.

22 KNITmuch | issue 13

Photos by Charles Voth

Please consult the list of

abbreviations below if a term is

new to you.

Cast on 36 sts or a multiple of 4


Row 1 (WS): Purl across.

Row 2: With yarn in back, sl1

purlwise, wyib, sl1 knitwise,

k2, [k2, p2] across to last 4

sts, k4.

Row 3: With yarn in front, sl1

purlwise, wyif, sl1 knitwise,

k2, [k2, p2] across.

Row 4: Wyib, sl1 pwise, wyib, sl1

kwise, k2, [wyif, sl 2 pwise,

p2] across to last 4 sts, k4.

Row 5: Wyif, sl1 pwise, wyif,

sl1kwise, k2, [k2, wyib, sl 2

pwise] across to last 4 sts,

k2, p2.

Row 6: Wyib, sl1 pwise, wyib, sl1

kwise, k2, [p2, k2] across to

last 4 sts, k4.

Row 7: Wyif, sl1 pwise, wyif,

sl1kwise, k2, [p2, k2] across

to last 4 sts, k2, p2.

Row 8: Rep Row 6.

Row 9: Rep Row 7.

Row 10: Wyib, sl1 pwise, wyib,

slip 1 kwise, k2, [p2, wyif, sl2

pwise] across to last 4 sts,


Row 11: Wyif, sl1 pwise, wyif,

sl1kwise, k2, [wyib, sl2

pwise, k2] across to last 4

sts, k2, p2.

Row 12: Rep Row 2.

Row 13: Rep Row 3.

Rep Rows 2 to 13 until work is

square, ending with a RS row.

Last Row: Purl.

Bind off.


[ ]: repeat between square brackets as indicated

K: knit

Kwise: knitwise

P: purl

Pwise: purlwise

Rep: repeat(s/ed/ing)

Sl: slip

St(s): stitch(es)

Wyib: with yarn in back

Wyif: with yarn in front

Universal Yarn Cotton Supreme is so soft and comes in

several beautiful colors for all your knitting pleasures.

This is the wrong side of the facecloth.

The DK-weight cotton is perfect for next-to-the-skin use.

Learn how to knit crisscrossed ribbing in a new yarn. It’ll look completely

different than this Cotton Supreme version.

KNITmuch | issue 13


Oodles of noodles with crisscrossed

ribbing in Bella Chenille yarn

Let's look at Universal Yarn Bella

Chenille and the crisscrossed

ribbing stitch pattern. Bella

Chenille is a great yarn for

dramatic texture, as we saw a few

years ago when I taught you how

to knit bobbles without turning

the work, and the crisscross effect

doesn’t disappoint.

Please consult the abbreviations

below if need be.

The Crisscrossed ribbing

stitch pattern

Cast on a multiple of 4 stitches,

plus 5 more.

Knit 4 rows garter stitch.

Row 1: K2, [k1tbl, ktrwp1, k1,

ktrwp1] across to last 3 sts,

k1tbl, k2.

Row 2: P2, [p1tbl, wyif sl 1

dropping extra wraps, p1,

wyif sl 1 dropping extra

wraps] across to last 3 sts,

p1tbl, p2.

Row 3: K2, [k1tbl, sl 1, (k1, yo, k1)

all in next st, psso 3 sts just

made, sl 1] across to last 3

sts, k1tbl, k2.

Row 4: P2, [p1tbl, wyif, sl 1, p1, k1,

p1, psso 3 sts just made]

across to last 3 sts, p1tbl, p2.

Rep Rows 1 to 4 for pattern to

desired length.

Knit 4 rows garter stitch.

Bind off.

Oodles of noodles? Nope! It’s crisscrossed strands

of Bella Chenille yarn.

Bella Chenille is one of the best yarns around

for baby blankets, and the crisscrossed ribbing

makes it even more fun.


(k1, yo, k1): these stitches are all

worked into one stitch

K: Knit

K1tbl: knit 1 through back loop

Ktrwp1: knit 1 but wrap needle 3

times before lifting through stitch.

P1tbl: purl 1 through back loop

Psso: pass slipped stitch over

indicated number of stitches

Wyif: with yarn in front

Yo: yarn over

In the following video, I show you

how to work all the rows of this

crisscrossed ribbing pattern. I

used Cotton Supreme to film the

video because I had already cast

off the Bella Chenille swatch.

I hope you enjoy trying a

complete blanket out of

Universal Yarn Bella Chenille.

Not only does Bella Chenille work up into a soft blanket, it’s also super quick to knit.

24 KNITmuch | issue 13

If you like raised textures, these leaning bud stitches are fun to make.

Not knit nupps nor knots:

buds are the alternative stitch!

In this feature we revisit good yarn, friends, and look

at new textures in knitting, I would be remiss in not

including the Deluxe Superwash line. More than a

couple of years ago (this yarn does hold up as a

classic), I designed with the Deluxe Worsted Tweed

line. Much more recently I designed a modular

blanket and a sweater with the Deluxe Stripes line.

And only a couple of years ago, Cynthia MacDougall

highlighted many of the features of Deluxe DK and

Worsted solids. I want to share a nifty work-around

for creating nupps, even though a purist would say

“not even close!” Some might call these leaning bud

stitches bobbles, but they’re not quite raised enough

for that. Come along and let’s explore!

Teal is my all-time favorite color. I’m so lucky I was

able to knit this swatch with the Azure Heather color

of Deluxe DK Superwash. Without further ado, let’s

get right to the Leaning Bud Stitch itself, and then

we’ll incorporate it into the whole swatch, blanket,

sweater…whatever you wish to do. The Leaning Bud

stitch is worked over 3 rows and 3 stitches. The first

row sets up some elongated stitches, the 2nd row

creates the bud, and the 3rd row cinches it off and

stabilizes it in the surrounding stitches and rows.

KNITmuch | issue 13


The Leaning Bud stitches look different from every angle.

Lb-st (Leaning Bud stitch):

Slip next 3 sts of LH dropping

extra wraps and return to LH

needle, insert RH needle under

horizontal bar between 3rd and

4th sts on LH needle and knit up

a loop, drawing it across all three

stitches on LH needle and about

a cm further, wrap yarn around

RH needle clockwise, *Insert RH

needle between 3rd and 4th sts

(not below horizontal bar again)

on LH needle and knit up a

loop, drawing it across all three

stitches*, wrap yarn around RH

needle clockwise, rep btwn * *

(5 loops on RH needle), k3tog

through back loops, (6 sts made

from 3).

Maybe you would prefer to watch

how to do this from a video.


K: Knit

K4tog-tbl: Knit 4 stitches

together through their back


LH: Left hand

P: Purl

Pdbl (purl with double wrap):

Insert RH needle purlwise in next

st, wrap needle twice and purl

drawing both loops through.

Rep: Repeat(s/ed/ing)

RH: Right hand

St(s): Stitch(es)

[ ]: Repeat instructions between

square brackets as indicated

Leaning Bud Stitch

Cast on a multiple of 4 stitches,

plus 3.

Work 2 rows stockinette stitch.

Row 1: Knit.

Row 2: P3, [pdbl3, p1] across to

last 4 sts, p4.

Row 3: K5, [lb-st, k1] across to

last 2 sts, k2.

Row 4: P3, [p first 2 sts from lb-st,

k4tog-tbl, p1] across to last

4 sts, p4.

Row 5: Knit.

Row 6: P5, [pdbl3, p1] across to

last 2 sts, p2.

Row 7: K3, [lb-st, k1] across to

last 4 sts, k4.

Row 8: P5, [p first 2 sts from lb-st,

k4tog-tbl, p1] across to last

2 sts, p2.

Rep Rows 1 – 8 for pattern.

I hope you try this stitch in

your designs! Please share any

pictures with us!

The Leaning Bud stitch from the side

26 KNITmuch | issue 13

Taking Bamboo

Pop yarn for a

“bumpy” ride

Now let's knit the Bump Stitch with Bamboo Pop by

Universal Yarn. I wrote a series of KNITmuch blog

posts about good textures and projects to make

with Bamboo Pop, and Michelle Nussey wrote

about the antimicrobial and hypoallergenic qualities

of Bamboo Pop and shared some lovely stitch

patterns as well. This truly is one of our favorite

yarns at KNITmuch.

The Bump Stitch is a less conventional way to

make ribbing be more about columns of texture

than elasticity. If you have a project that needs a

decorative edge without the gather factor, this

Bump Stitch ribbing will be the right application.

BTW, how do you like my Knitter’s Pride Zing

needles?! They’re so smooth to knit with and they

come in Zing interchangeable circular needles and

Zing double pointed needles too!


Bump-st: Knit through back loop of next st but

leave on LH needle, wrap yarn around RH needle

clockwise, bringing yarn from back over RH needle

and return to back between two needle tips, knit

same st together with next stitch through back loops.

K: Knit

K1dbl (knit 1 double): Insert RH needle in next st,

wrap yarn around needle twice and knit up both

loops, slipping st of LH needle.

P: Purl

Prw1 (reverse wrap purl): Insert RH needle as if

to purl wrap yarn clockwise around RH needle tip,

finish purl as usual.

Rep: Repeat(s/ed/ing)

Sl: Slip

Sts: Stitch(es)

Wyib: with yarn in back

Wyif: with yarn in front

The name says it all. Textures truly pop with Bamboo Pop yarn.

Pattern Instructions

Cast on a multiple of 5, plus 2.

Row 1: Wyib, sl 1, k1, p1, k1dbl, p1, bump-st, [p1,

k1dbl, p1, bump-st] across to last 5 sts, p1,

k1dbl, p1, k2.

Row 2: Wyif, sl 1, p1, [k1, wyif sl 1, k1, prw1, k2tog-tbl]

across to last 5 sts, k1, wyif, sl 1, k1, p2.

Repeat 2 rows for pattern.

Let’s look at a video for some of the more intricate

tips on working this stitch easily.

Universal Yarn Bamboo Pop showcases this ribbing

pattern beautifully without compromising its stitch


We have one more textured stitch pattern to

introduce you to so keep reading!

The wrong side of this stitch pattern has its own share of bumps and twists.

The channels created in this ribbing with Bamboo Pop yarn are so appealing

to the eye.

KNITmuch | issue 13


Feathery soft knitting with Penna

Cindy O'Malley

Penna is available in 16 different colors. Rose Kiss,

Raspberry Tart, Mulberry, and Bordeaux are my

color choices for these projects.

Welcome! I’ll be knitting with Universal Yarn Penna.

Spun in Italy, Penna is a luxurious lace-weight blend

of 50% baby suri alpaca, 28% extra-fine merino,

and 22% nylon. It features a gorgeous halo that

adds an ethereal quality to any project. On its own,

Penna is best suited for garments and accessories

with a loose gauge. When held with another yarn,

the possibilities are endless.

Penna is available in 16 different colors of which I’ll

be using 4 in this feature: Rose Kiss, Raspberry Tart,

Mulberry, and Bordeaux.

Each .89 [25g] ball contains 186yds [170m]. This

really speaks to the lightness of the fiber, and I think

you’ll be surprised at how far a single ball goes in a

knitted project.

Penna is rated as a lace weight, meaning that it knits

at a recommended gauge of 22 – 24 sts and 36 –

38 rows over 4” [10cm] using a US Size 2 – 3 [2.75 –

3.25mm] knitting needle, or 22 – 24 sc and 24 – 26

rows with a US B/1 – D/3 [2.25 – 3.25mm] crochet

hook. When a fiber is this light with such a beautiful

halo, it begs to be knit at a very open gauge, which

means I won’t be paying much attention to the

recommended gauge in this feature. Instead, I’ll be

knitting at a very loose and airy gauge using much

larger needles.

As with all blended fiber yarns, the most delicate of

the fibers dictates the laundry care, and Penna is no

exception. Hand wash and lay flat to dry will keep

your projects looking beautiful.

28 KNITmuch | issue 13

A close up look at the individual strands reveals

the feathery appearance and halo of Penna.

The Suri (Photo of Hadstock NZ Cracka taken

by Ann Weir) – The Huacaya (Photo of Nevalea

Helen taken by Amanda Bethune)

A close view of the yarn exudes the feathery halo

– you can actually see how soft it is. Penna means

pen, quill, feather or plume; of which the latter two

perfectly describes this yarn.

You may be wondering what the difference is

between Alpaca and Suri Alpaca. According to

Moonacre Alpacas NZ . . .

“There are two types of alpacas: The “suri”, has no

crimp so the individual fibers wrap around each

other to form lustrous pencil locks that hang down

from the body, parting at the spine. They almost

look like dread locks. The fleece of the other type

of alpaca is called the “huacaya”, which has fleece

with waviness, “crimp”, that gives it a fluffy, Teddy

Bear-like appearance. You can see the difference

between the two in the picture below.”

We’ve all fallen in love with the Huacaya or Teddy

Bear Alpaca that we get to meet at fairs, but I can’t

say that I’ve ever seen a Suri Alpaca; something to

look forward to down the road at a fleece festival


I have some great, yet simple projects in store for

Penna. A tri-colored cowl, beret, and luxurious

stole are on the list. Even though it’s lace weight,

these are all projects that you can knit in a relatively

short time, so you may be able to get another gift

completed before Christmas.

Photos by Cindy O'Malley

Knitting swatches in keeping with an

open and airy look

I’m knitting some swatches, not based on the

recommended gauge as discussed, but using larger

needles to maintain an open and airy look to the

fabric. One of the projects I selected for this feature

is a cowl designed for this yarn using a needle size

of US 8 [5mm]. So that’s where I’ll begin.

This yarn is extremely light and feathery. Make

sure you use some hand lotion before knitting

with Penna. I discovered that it would get caught

on my dry, rough hands when knitting. I didn’t

realize they were that dry, but after a little hand

lotion, everything went smoothly, both literally, and

figuratively speaking.

Because my first project is a cowl, gauge isn’t really

that important. I just wanted to see what the fabric

would look like before I started knitting the finished

item. The recommended gauge for the cowl is 16

sts x 26 rows in seed stitch using a US 8 [5mm]

needle. My swatch measured in at the same. The

halo of the yarn fills in the loose stitches very nicely

creating a lovely texture and muted stitch definition.

I had plans to make a shawl with a lacy motif,

but after seeing how the halo muted the stitch

definition of the first swatch, I had some concerns

that it may not do the yarn, nor the pattern justice.

The pattern I had originally selected called for a

US 6 [4mm] needle with a recommended gauge

of 16 sts x 20 rows over 4” [10cm] in a lace pattern

using a lace weight yarn. I decided to use the same

needle size to see what I’d get and how it looked.

The resulting fabric was pretty, but the lace pattern

was not that desirable because of the muted

stitch definition. I also found it hard to read my

knitting to know what to do on each row. The

gauge I achieved is very difficult to ascertain. It’s

approximately 28 sts x 26 rows in the pattern I used,

but because the fabric is so open, I can make it

whatever gauge I want. As I mentioned previously,

gauge isn’t that important for a shawl, but good

to know for future reference. The yarn is lovely,

and the pattern is lovely, but they just don’t work

together. I need to rethink my shawl plans, but that’s

for another day.

As mentioned, when Penna is held together with

another yarn, the possibilities are endless. For

one of my projects, I intend to make a beret that

combines Wool Pop with Penna! For Wool Pop, I

discovered that using a US 6 [4mm] needle created

a lovely fabric with a gauge of 22 sts x 30 rows. For

my beret, I’d like the fabric to be denser than that

for a sweater, so I’ll use the US 6 [4mm] needle

combined with Penna to see what gauge I achieve.

There are so many other options when working with

a lace weight yarn such as this. I could keep making

swatches of different combinations just to see what

turns out.

Loosely knit swatch in seed stitch yielded 16 sts x

26 rows on a US 8 [5mm] needle.

Sample swatch before blocking of a lace stitch

using US 6 [4mm] needles. The stitch detail is

quite muted by the Penna halo.

Wool Pop combined with Penna on a US 6 [4mm]

needle resulted in a gauge of 19 sts x 26 rows

KNITmuch | issue 13


Consistency in pattern when working in the round

Rose Kiss, Raspberry Tart, and Mulberry are my color choices for Plume.

I'll be knitting a cowl that was designed for this yarn.

This is a great beginner project for those who are new

to knitting with lace, or new to knitting in general. It’s

worked in the round using 3 different colors of Penna.

I’ve selected Rose Kiss, Raspberry Tart, and Mulberry

as my color choices. It’s knit using a simple seed stitch.

The pattern is called Plume, which is so appropriately

named given one of the translations for Penna. Here’s

where you can download the free pattern for the

Plume cowl.

Plume calls for using 3 balls of Penna, in the colors of

your choice. It’s worked in the round on US 8 [5mm]

needles, in seed stitch (K1, P1), however, I did make a

couple of adjustments along the way.

The pattern instructs to use an even number of stitches.

I’ve learned from experience that you can see the jog

from the beginning and ending of the round when

working in pattern. It doesn’t show up so much when

working in stocking stitch but can be seen in seed stitch.

Plume calls for using 3 balls of Penna, in the

colors of your choice. It’s worked in the round

on US 8 [5mm] needles, in seed stitch (K1, P1),

however, I did make a couple of adjustments

along the way.

30 KNITmuch | issue 13

As such, I used an odd number of stitches for my

cast on; 125 instead of 124. I must admit, that you’d

be hard-pressed to see the jog with this yarn. The

muted stitch detail masks it, so consider this a tip for

future pattern projects when working in the round.

The pattern is very simple:

Rnd 1: *K1, p1; rep from * to end; when using an odd

number of stitches, you need one more k1.

Rnd 2: *P1, k1; rep from * to end; when using an odd

number of stitches, you need one more p1.

If you make it with an odd number of stitches, then

you consistently k1, p1 until the color change. It’s

that simple.

Speaking of color change, I decided to have a little

fun with it. Instead of “Break color A, change to

color B”, I joined color B (without breaking color A)

and proceeded as follows:

B: K1, slip 1 with yarn in front.

A: Slip 1, p1 with yarn in back.

I repeated these two rows 3 more times before

dropping color A and continuing with color B.

When it was time to change to color C, I did the

same process with B and C. It created a very

interesting color transition.

The end result is very pretty and makes for a light

and airy accessory. It’s also quite stretchy, which

allows you to double wrap it around your neck.

I was showing it off to some of my knitting pals

during a Zoom call, and double wrapped it. It

looked great, but after only a few moments, I had

to take it off because it was too warm for indoors.

That’s really good to know that it can be doubled

up for outside to keep you warm and unwound to

wear as a soft and lovely accessory when inside.

I was very surprised by how much yarn was still on

each ball. I weighed them and discovered that there

was 17g leftover, even with the extra rows that I put

in for the color change. Each color only used about

8g out of a 25g ball. This means you can easily

make 3 cowls out of the 3 balls, make it larger, or

double up the strands to make a chunkier version. If

a solid color is your preference, you could make this

cowl from 1 ball. I’d like to make another one using

double strands and a larger needle size; possibly a

US 10 [6mm] to keep it open and airy.

As mentioned previously, this is a great beginner

project for knitting with lace weight yarn, or if you’re

new to knitting. It knits up very quickly and looks

lovely, so perhaps you can get one more gift done

before Christmas.

My completed Plume cowl with slip stitch color transition

Double wrap Plume around your neck for added warmth.

KNITmuch | issue 13


Penna in color Raspberry Tart and Wool Pop in color Raisin are my choices for

the Raspberry Beret.

I’m making a Raspberry Beret, but not the kind

you’d find in a second-hand store. This one is made

with Penna in Raspberry Tart, combined with Wool

Pop in color Raisin.

The hat is made by holding a single strand of each

yarn together. It starts with the hat band using the

ribbed cable motif, joined to form a circle, and then

the stitches are picked up for the body and crown.

Increases are done with a yarn over on the first row;

then the yarn over is knit through the back loop on

the next row.

Based on the swatch I made in the previous article

about knitting swatches, I’m using a US 6 [4mm]

needle for the banding. I was originally thinking

that I would use that needle size for the entire hat

to keep the fabric dense, but discovered that it was

too dense and didn’t sit quite right for the body

and crown, so I changed to a US 7 [4.5mm].

The band is worked flat and joined at the ends

to make a circle. Joining can be accomplished

by grafting the two ends together, a 3 needle

bind off, or by sewing the cast on and off edges

together. If grafting or 3 needle bind off is your

preference, then you’ll need to do a provisional cast

on to start so that the live stitches can be picked

up from the beginning to be joined with the end

stitches. I opted for a 3 needle bind off, but any of

above methods will work. Whichever method you

choose, leave enough tail yarn to do the grafting or

seaming. This way, you won’t need to cut the yarn

when picking up the stitches for the crown.

Combining Penna

with another yarn

makes for endless


For this project, you will need:



• 1 ball of Penna in color Raspberry Tart

• 1 skein of Wool Pop in color Raisin


• US 6 [4mm] circular needle in 16” or 32” for

magic loop, or double pointed needles

• US 7 [4.5mm] circular needle in 16” or 32” for

magic loop, or double pointed needles

• cable needle


• 1 button with a shank

• tapestry needle to sew in ends and for grafting if

that is the chosen join method.


Sized to fit a 20” head.


18sts x 24 rows holding a strand of each yarn with a

US 7 [4.5mm] needle

32 KNITmuch | issue 13


BOR: beginning of round

dec: decrease

k: knit

k2tog knit 2: stitches together (1 st dec’d)

ktbl: knit through back loop

m: marker

p: purl

pm: place marker

RS: right side

sl: slip

st(s): stitch(es)

WS: wrong side

yo: yarn over

stitch definition

7×7 Left Cross Rib (LCR): Sl next 7 sts to cable

needle and hold in front, work the next 7 sts from

left needle in established rib pattern, work 7 sts

from cable needle in established rib pattern.


With US6 [4mm] needles, cast on 20 sts (provisional

cast on if using grafting or 3 needle bind off).

Set up rows:

1st row: K2, p2, [k1, p1] 3 times, [p1, k1] 3 times, p2, k2.

2nd row: P2, k2, [p1, k1] 3 times, [k1, p1] 3 times,

k2, p2.

Ribbed Cable Pattern

(worked over 20sts)

Row 1 (RS): K2, p1, 7×7 LCR, p1, k2.

WS Rows 2-10: p2, k1, [p1, k1] 3 times, [k1, p1] 3

times, k1, p2.

RS Rows 3-9: K2, p1, [k1, p1] 3 times, [p1, k1] 3 times,

p1, k2.

Rep Rows 1-10 for pattern.

Work 9 complete ribbed cable patterns, then work

rows 1 – 8.

Work should measure approximately 20” when


Cast off and join to cast on row, or optionally, pick

up stitches from provisional cast on and either graft

or 3 needle bind off to join ends.

Raspberry Beret Band in Penna and Wool Pop joined in the round.

A raspberry shank button is used to finish off the top of the beret.

KNITmuch | issue 13


The completed Raspberry Beret worn Parisian style

The Body and Crown

With smaller circular needles, pick

up and knit 90 stitches evenly

around the band. Place a marker

to denote the beginning of

round (BOR).

K1, p1 for 4 rows.

*(K2, yo) repeat from * to end

of round, change to larger size


*(K2, ktbl) repeat from * to end of

round. 135 sts

Knit 8 rows.

Purl 1 row.

Knit 1 row.

Purl 1 row.

Knit 2 rows.

Dec Row – (K13, k2tog) repeat to

end of round. 126 sts

34 KNITmuch | issue 13

Knit 2 rows.

Dec Row – (K12, k2tog) repeat to

end round. 117 sts

Knit 2 rows.

Dec Row – (K11, k2tog) repeat to

end of round. 108 sts

Knit 1 row.

Continue decreasing in this

fashion (Knit 1 less stitch before

K2tog) on every other row until 9

stitches remaining.

Cut yarn, draw through

remaining stitches, and secure;

be sure to leave enough yarn for

sewing on the button.

Recently, I helped a friend unpack

and set up a new yarn store. As I

was setting up the button display,

one rogue button rolled across

the floor. It was a shank button in

raspberry, so I just had to use it

on my beret.

My Raspberry Beret is complete.

The first time I tried it on, it was a

little snug, but after trying it on

a couple of times, it fit perfectly.

What I find fun about it, is that

you can wear it different ways. I

can pull it over my ears if needed

for warmth, but I prefer wearing

it Parisian style – especially with

my Plume cowl. Oui, oui!

By combining Penna with Wool

Pop, I get a lovely rich halo of

raspberry intermixed with the

durability and softness of Wool

Pop in Raisin color.

I’m really pleased with the end

result. By taking a motif from a

sweater pattern and combining

Penna and Wool Pop together, I

ended up with a unique design.

Every time I wear my Raspberry

Beret, I will think of that song.

Elegance when matching the right

pattern with the right yarn

I’m going back to single strand

knitting by making an elegant stole. I

originally planned on making a lace

shawl but learned from the swatch in

the second article, that the feathery

halo of Penna muted the stitch detail.

You can have a beautiful pattern,

and beautiful yarn, but if they just

don’t work together, you end up

with something less than beautiful.

Both yarn and time is expensive;

and we don’t want to waste either

one. I decided that the lace pattern

needed to be simple so I went back

to basics. What’s more basic than

a feather and fan motif, and when

you think about the yarn translation,

nothing could be more appropriate.

My color choice for this project is

Bordeaux, and since one of my favorite

beverages is wine, I was smitten.

Feather and fan is an easy pattern

to knit, but also easy to adjust in

size. You can make it bigger or

smaller by adding or subtracting

multiples of 12 stitches. What

surprised me when knitting this

project (actually, all 3 projects) is

how far a single ball went. If you

recall from Day 1, a 25g ball of

Penna contains 186 yds [170m]. It

doesn’t seem like a lot, yet it is. By

using larger needles and creating

an open and airy fabric, the yarn

extends beyond that of “gauge


Bordeaux is my color choice for this project.

Completed stole made with Penna in Bordeaux. The rich feathery halo

highlights the feather and fan motif.

KNITmuch | issue 13


For this project, I used:



• 3 balls of Penna in Bordeaux


• US 8 [5mm] knitting needles

• tapestry needle to sew in ends

• finished measurements: 16 ½” x 62” after blocking


K: knit

K2tog: knit two stitches together

P: purl

Sl: slip

St(s): stitch or stitches

Yo: yarn over

Feather and Fan Stole

Cast on 78 sts.

Row 1 – 5: Sl1, knit to end of row.

Row 6: Sl1, purl to last 3 sts, k3.

The Pattern

Row 1: Sl1, k2, k2tog 3 times, *(yo, k1) 6 times,

k2tog 6 times, repeat from * twice more, (yo,

k1) 6 times, k2tog 3 times, k3.

Row 2: Sl1, k2, Purl to last sts, k3.

Row 3: Sl1, k to end of row.

Row 4: Sl1, k2, p to last sts, k3.

Work rows 1 – 4 until work measures 59½” or

desired length, ending with either row 1 or 3.

With wrong side facing, work 4 knit rows

remembering to slip the first stitch on every row.

Cast off.

When knitting a lace motif, blocking is an important

element in finishing your project. Lace work doesn’t

reveal its true beauty until blocked, and sometimes

this requires “hard blocking”. Hard blocking means

to use blocking wires, (if you have them) and pins to

hold the fabric open while drying.

Hard blocking requires wires and pins to hold the

fabric open while drying.

36 KNITmuch | issue 13

The fabric must be soaked, not just sprayed with

water. After soaking in a non-rinse solution, Soak

or Eucalan, I roll it in a towel and squeeze out as

much water as I can. Then spread it out on blocking

mats, and insert blocking wires down each side, and

pins to hold everything in place. Blocking mats can

be purchased from your local yarn store, but mine

came from a garage sale. These are children’s play

mats, but they’re the same thing. It’s a dense foam

mat that you can piece together for size, and insert

pins as needed. It only took a couple of hours to

dry given the lightness of the fabric, and the fact

that the furnace is running now, but I left it for a day

before unpinning. The result is beautiful.

I had intended to embellish it with beads while

knitting, but the beads that I had were not the right

color. I purchased clear beads with a silver interior

with the intention of sewing them on later and

thought to myself – perfect; wine in a crystal glass.

Sewing them on later turned out to be a pain, so I

went without. Next time, I’ll get the right beads in

advance and knit them into it as I go. However, I’m

quite pleased with the result.

The ensemble features an elegant Feather and Fan stole, the feathery light

Plume cowl, and a Raspberry Beret that combines Penna with Wool Pop.

Lace knitting doesn’t reveal its true beauty until blocked.

The feather and fan motif is perfect for Penna. The

feathery soft halo of the yarn doesn’t fight with the

pattern. They compliment each other very nicely.

This is a beautiful yarn and a beautiful pattern,

and the results are beautiful. I see myself getting

all dressed up for New Year’s Eve, wearing my

Bordeaux stole, and sipping a glass of wine while

watching the 2020 countdown from the comfort of

my living room sofa!

I hope this feature has inspired ideas on using

lace weight yarns, either singly, doubled up, or in

combination with other yarns. It has mine. I have

quite a stash of lace weight yarn, and now I can’t

wait to get started on another project that can

make good use of them – not just good – beautiful

use of them.

I’ve really enjoyed working with Universal Yarn

Penna. It’s opened up possibilities for me and I love

the results that I achieved with both Penna and

Wool Pop.

Cindy O'Malley

KNITmuch | issue 13


Designing a men’s

sweater vest using

Universal Yarn


Charles Voth

Universal Yarn Colorburst

It’s been a while since I’ve designed and knit

something for myself. When I discovered Colorburst

by Universal Yarn in the summer 2020 and knit

the shawl with it, I thought this yarn would make a

perfect men’s sweater vest. As I explore Universal

Yarn Colorburst further, please join me in designing

your own vest using the general framework with

which I’ll provide you.

Get your notepad, pencil, knitting needles and Colorburst yarn, you’re

learning how to design your own vest!

Step 1

Swatch to your heart’s content! I have more than 10

stitch dictionaries and continuously find more and

more stitch patterns online as well. They all serve as

inspiration, but until I’ve used the yarn in swatches,

and seen how it knits, looks, and behaves, there’s

no deciding which stitch pattern I’ll use, or whether

I’ll stick with the basics like stockinette, garter stitch,

ribbing, or moss stitch.

By studying yarn behavior, I mean that I consider

aspects like thickness, drape, stitch definition, how

colors interact with each other and with the stitch

patterns, and how it washes up and blocks. I’d

encourage you to swatch at least 4 or 5 different

stitch patterns with Colorburst to see what needle

size you’d like to use to give the best drape and

texture. Keep ALL the notes you take, especially

gauge, but other notes and thoughts you’ve had

about the yarn, too.

In the swatch above, I like how the mock cable

looks, but the extended stitch double moss

stitch just doesn’t convince me because the yarn

untwisted and looked untidy. I also found that I like

a firmer stockinette panel, so I went down a needle

size for the stockinette rows.

Tuck stitch brocade using Universal Yarn Colorburst

This tuck stitch brocade looks lovely. I really like how

the diagonal lines that are in a different section of

the color sequence than the background stitches

stand out. I realized that I would need a wider panel

so that the self-striping bands would be narrower to

best take advantage of this stitch pattern, so I didn’t

select it for the vest, but I’ll share how to knit later.

Mock cable on this swatch didn’t hold its shape

38 KNITmuch | issue 13

Photos by Charles Voth

Which measurements matter in

designing a men’s sweater vest?

Step 2

The 2nd step of designing involves taking and

recording accurate measurements and determining

how much ease you want to build into your design.

I like my sweaters and vests to fit closer to my torso,

so I only add about 2” of ease to the chest and

tummy measurements. This leaves room for a t-shirt

or dress shirt to go underneath without bundling

up uncomfortably. Some guys like the big baggy

look, and for them you’ll need to add 4” to 6” of

ease to the chest and tummy measurements.

The most crucial measurement for a sweater

vest is the cross-back measurement. To get this

measurement, find the knobby shoulder bone at

the crest of your man’s shoulders and measure

across the back of the neck from one shoulder

to the other. If the wearer is in absentia, or if it’s

for you, can find a friend to measure your back,

then find a dress shirt he likes and that sits well

on his back and measure from between the two

sleeve seams across the back near the top. To this

measurement, you do not want to add any ease,

but if you want the shoulder straps to be narrow,

you can subtract between 1” to 3”. I wanted my

sweater vest shoulders to be substantial for warmth

over fashion. In the photo above, you can see that I

went with 19½”. If you’re going to work wide sleeve

opening edgings, you’ll need to also make the

shoulder straps slightly narrower to accommodate

the edge ribbing. I wanted the ribbing on my sleeve

openings to hug my shoulder, so I didn’t subtract

any width from my cross-back measurement.

The cross-back measurement is the most crucial

because it determines the point from which the

whole garment will drape downward.

Colorburst comes in many different palettes, any of which would serve for a

gentleman’s personal preference and panache.

Swatching is a must when designing your own men’s vest with any yarn.

With Colorburst, it’s all about the width of the stripes and the best textures.

KNITmuch | issue 13


The Earth and Sky colorway of Colorburst has two of my favorite colors, plum

and teal. It’s just the right amount of warmth for a winter’s day of reading.

These size US4 [3.5mm] needles were the perfect size for a tight 2×2 ribbing

on the hem and armhole edgings for this vest, but I did use size US5 for the

front, and size US6 for the back of the vest.

Take the chest measurement across the widest

section of the chest and upper back with the arms

up or use a t-shirt that isn’t loose on the wearer. If

you don’t have a form-fitting t-shirt, you can use

the loose shirt chest measurement, but you won’t

add additional ease, as that’s already built-in. If the

tummy measurement (taken at the belly button or

widest point just above or below the belly button) is

greater than the chest measurement, then you will

need to have zero ease added and use the belly

measurement as the chest measurement.

The next two important measurements to take are

the lengths. First determine if the wearer wants the

bottom hem to land just above his belt loops, just

below the belt loops, or longer; some men like

sweater vests to land mid-buttocks. Then, place

the measuring tape just beside the neck, at the

center of the shoulder where the seam should sit

and measure from there along the back to the

desired length.

Measure from the same point keeping the tape

right on the chest and tummy curves to the desired

length. If the front length is longer than the back

length (which is usually the case for men with

larger stomachs, then you need to go with the front

length, otherwise, use the back length.

When you’re all done, sketch out a schematic

diagram for the sweater vest and label the

measurements you have. For the chest

measurements with ease added in, divide in half

for the diagram. The width of the neck opening

will be between 8” and 10”, depending on how

thick or wide the back of the next is. The depth

of the armhole will usually be around 9 inches,

but for men with ample pectoral muscles and big

biceps, you could go as deep as 11” or 12”. I take the

circumference of the upper arm, add 4” for ease,

and then divide that total by 2 for the depth of the

arm opening from the initial bind-off at the under

arm to the first bind off at the shoulders. I start the

V-neck opening about 1½” above the beginning of

the armhole shaping.

Keep reading, I’ll show you how to calculate all

the numbers of rows and stitches for your design

and give you an example of two stitch patterns

you could work into part of the vest as a design

element. Universal Yarn Colorburst and my Karbonz

by Knitter’s Pride add excitement to this designing

adventure! Join me!

40 KNITmuch | issue 13

Calculations for a men’s

Colorburst sweater vest

Step 3 All the calculations

In the vest that I’m wearing in this photo, I

experimented with abstract and asymmetrical

textures and stitch patterns, because I wanted to

visually disrupt the stripes and be playful. But I

realize this isn’t everyone’s cup of tea, so for this

project I will lead you through working in plain

stockinette stitch. Friday, we’ll discuss what you

would need to do if you choose to use a different

stitch pattern say on the back of the vest, or just on

the front.

Colorburst yarn knits on average to 23 stitches and

29 rows per 4” on size US 5 [3.75mm] needles. It’s

a versatile yarn gauge-wise, so you could knit with

smaller needles to achieve a slightly firm fabric or

go up to even US 7 [4.5mm] needles for a lovely

drape that still isn’t lace-like. For this project, we’ll

stick with the gauge on the yarn label, though.

Colorburst comes in many different palettes,

any of which would serve for a gentleman’s

personal preference and panache.

Texture and cables disrupt the self-striping pattern knit from Colorburst Yarn.

This vest is worked in two pieces and seamed at

the shoulders and sides. A neckband and armhole

edgings are picked up and knit separately. I knit

these in a 2×2 ribbing, and did a waist band that

way as well, so I’ll show you how to calculate the

stitches for the chest measurement first and then

how to modify that number for the cast-on stitch

count and the ribbing.

When calculating stitches in knitting we use a few

basic mathematical equations, and I always use a

calculator and double or triple check all my work.

The stitch gauge of 23 sts over 4” will be key.

For my vest with a width of 22” for the back and

front, we need the same number of stitches to work

up the torso. We know that 23 stitches are worked

over 4”, but we need to know how many stitches

we’ll have for 22”. I draw a simple chart like this.

These measurements can be changed to make a custom fitting sweater vest for

a man in your life, or yourself.

KNITmuch | issue 13


I start with the number that I have on the diagram,

which is 22” and cross diagonally to the opposite

number, which is 23 and multiply these together, 22

x 23 = 506. Then I take this result and move to the

third and unused number, 4 in this case, and divide

4 into the larger number, 506 ÷ 4 = 126.5. I have

to round up or down because the result wasn’t a

whole number. Before I do that, I want to see how

a 2×2 ribbing would work with this number, as

the best 2×2 ribbing on a piece that will be sewn

to another similar half will consist of a multiple of

4, plus 2. 124 is a multiple of 4, plus 2 equals 126,

so I’m rounding down instead of rounding up to

127. In the 2020s the ribbing is not as gathered

or grippy as the ribbing that was customary on

sweaters from the mid to late 20th century, where

it was typical to decrease the waistband stitches by

10% or more and to use smaller needles. For my

vest, I did go down to size US4 [3.5mm] needles for

the ribbing, but I didn’t cast on 10% fewer stitches…

so we’ll stick with 126 stitches cast on US4 needles

and work ribbing as follows.

Row 1: K2, [p2, k2] across.

Row 2: P2, [k2, p2] across.

Repeat these 2 rows for the ribbing pattern.

I knit about 2¾” worth of 2×2 ribbing before

changing to stockinette, but you can do as you

wish. Then change to size US5 [3.75mm] needles for

the stockinette up the Back piece of the vest. Work

until the Back is 15” long. Now we need to do some

more calculations.

Those white stitches are placeholders to help guide me when I’m preparing

the steek on the V-neck of this sweater vest.

The cross-back measurement determines how

many stitches have to come off on each armhole

side. On the schematic, you’ll see that we need

to lose 2½” worth of stitches on each side, and

the armhole shaping is a curve. The diagrams are

always pictured as a neat curve, but in the knitting

it’s a little more angular. Once the ribbing is worked

in, the curved look shows up better.

So, I’ll use the same chart with different numbers

and my math formula ends up as: 23 x 1.25 ÷ 4.

This yields 7 stitches once I’ve rounded off. I take a

rough third of this number for my initial bind off, the

next rough third I decrease by ones every 2nd row,

and the remaining stitches I decrease by ones every

3rd row. If I were using a chunkier yarn or a finer

yarn, there would be a different way to achieve a

curved slope, but we’ll leave it at this for now.

Your instructions would read as follows.

Bind off 3 stitches at the beginning of the next 2

rows. Then decrease 1 stitch on each edge every

other row 2 times, and then decrease 1 stitch on

each edge every third row 2 times.

This would bring you down to 112 stitches for the


Work even in stockinette until the armhole depth

is 9”. Now we need to calculate the slope of the


The back of the neck is 8”, so using the same chart

above we do 23 x 8 ÷ 4. This yields 46 stitches. We

subtract 46 from 112 to get 66 stitches. We need

half of 66 on each side of the upper back for the

shoulders so we can use 33 sts. To create a slope,

I usually cast off ⅓ of the shoulder at a time. The

pattern would read.

Bind off 11 stitches at the beginning of the next 6

rows. Place remaining stitches on a holder for later.

The front is worked the same up to the beginning

of the V-neck, but we’ll see that next because I’d

also like to introduce you to steeking, and why I

used it on this sweater vest. Knowing how to design

your own vest is an exceptional experience, knitting

with Universal Yarn Colorburst and Knitter’s Pride

Karbonz is delightful.

42 KNITmuch | issue 13

Colorburst looks best with a steeked V-neck

Steeking the V-neck opening ensures that the stripes match on either side, which just brings out the best of this self-striping Colorburst yarn.

We’ll take a look at steeking and why I use it on

this design.

Because the center front has an even number of

stitches, about an inch before I start the armhole

shaping, I decreased a stitch near the center of the

front panel. It’s hidden by the cables that I have

crossing my front design, but if you’re working in

stockinette, you can decrease that stitch near one

of the edges where it won’t be visible to have an

even number of stitches, in this case 125 before the

armhole shaping, and 111 stitches after.

When I want to start the V-neck opening, I knit to

the center stitch (continuing the armhole shaping if

that’s not finished yet) and place it on a locking stich

marker. Then I cast on 6 stitches by adding reverse

cross yarn-over loops onto the RH needle, and

then finishing the row as established. Then I need to

calculate the rate of decreases to shape the sides of

the V-neck opening. Do not forget that these extra

6 stitches need a stitch marker before and after

them because they are worked straight, and any

shaping is worked outside of the pair stitch markers.

I chose to work a steek because then I’m

guaranteed that both sides of the V-neck opening

have symmetrical stripes. If I were to work one

side of the neck opening first and then the other,

first of all the stripes would be wider, and secondly,

there would be an abrupt transition when I joined

the yarn on the 2nd half. If I didn’t want an abrupt

change, I’d have to discard lengths of the yarn until

I got to the same color repeat and sequence as the

first half. All in all, too risky for my taste.

With a different yarn, I basted long stitches between the columns of stitches

where the stitch markers keep the steek stitches from being worked into the

neck shaping.

KNITmuch | issue 13


Each side of the V-neck is 4” wide, so I can simply

use my gauge of 23 stitches over 4” as the number

of decreases I need to work. However, if your neck

opening is wider than 8”, you’ll need to do the

same calculation as IN the last article, to figure out

how many stitches correspond to your width.

For me, this is when row gauge is valuable for the

first time in this particular project. Because I have

a whole Back and a lower Front panel done, I can

take my row gauge from these and have a more

accurate row gauge to use in my calculations than

a measly 4-inch square. The depth of my V-neck is

8¾” and my row gauge is 29 rows per 4”. I use the

same calculation, starting with the known amount

of 29 rows times the desired length, 8¾”, divided

by the gauge length, 4”. 29 × 8¾ ÷ 4 = 63 rows…I

want an even number, so I’ll round up to 64. In

addition, I have 6 rows that I need to use for the

shoulder shaping, and I’d rather have my neck

opening shaping done before I get to those last 6

rows, so I will use 58 rows to work my shaping.

The dilemma now is that I have 23 stitches I need to

decrease over 58 rows. If I decrease 1 stitch every

other row on each side of the neck opening, I’ll

be done in 46 rows and have 12 rows left to work

straight. That’s easy! If I don’t want a steep V-neck

opening, I could space out the decreases a little

more, so I’ll show you how I calculate that.

The following formula uses long division and a few

sums. This formula is amazingly simple and helps

solve the distribution of increases or decreases at all

different moments while you’re designing. I learned

it from the book Knitwear Design Workshop by

Shirley Paden. It‘s by far the most recent publication

that’s comprehensive and I’d recommend it to any

budding designer if you want to explore this more

than what we’re doing from this feature.

You take the smaller number (in this case the

number of decreases for the side of the V-neck)

and divide it into the larger number (the rows for

the V-neck depth) and you figure out the remainder

(R) instead of using decimal places. Then you

subtract the remainder from 23 to get another

number (11). At the top, you take the answer of

the division calculation and always add 1 to it and

write down that answer above the one that you did

below. Then you circle across the written work to

get these important numbers.

The right side and wrong side of the steek stitches are shown here with the

white yarn basted in to make the path for the sewn zigzag stitches.

44 KNITmuch | issue 13

The steek has been cut open and is not unraveling because of the sewn

zigzag stitches along the inner 4 steek stitches.

Now that you know the

frequency of the decreases,

you can space them out two

different ways. You can do the

first 11 decreases every other

row first (that’s 22 rows), and

then the next 12 decreases every

3rd row (that’s 36 rows). 22 +

36 is equal to 58…the depth of

the V-neck section of the vest.

Remember that these decreases

are worked on the outside of the

pair of stitch markers that keep

the center 6 steek stitches in

plain stockinette.

You can also alternate and

*decrease 1 st every 3rd row once;

then decrease 1 st every 2nd row

once; then rep from the * until

you’ve worked 23 decreases and

you’ll have reached 58 rows.

By decreasing for the neck, I have

removed 23 + 1 (center stitch

waiting on marker) + 23 stitches

from the center 111 of the front

panel. This leaves 32 stitches

on each side. I would bind off 11

stitches at the beginning of the

next 4 rows, then 10 stitches at

the beginning of the next 2 rows

for the shoulder shaping and

bind off the 6 steeking stitches at

the end. Then it’s time to prepare

the steek for cutting.

The walking foot on my sewing machine is ready to secure the steek stitches

with zigzag stitching.

Using a broken zigzag stitch on my sewing

machine and a walking foot, I stitched along

columns 2 and 3, and 4 and 5 of the steeked

stitches, leaving columns 1 and 6 untouched.

Then I simply cut between the 2 center columns

of steek stitches, which remain safe from

unraveling with the zigzag stitches.

If you don’t have a sewing machine, there

are ways to prepare steeks with crochet

stitches or hand-sewn stitches, and plenty

of online tutorials, so don’t let no machine

slow you down!

Colorburst yarn self-striping pattern stays

symmetrical with this steeked V-neck opening,

making it look great!

KNITmuch | issue 13


Designing those just-right finishing touches

on the Colorburst vest

Colorburst in the Earth and Sky colorway make the perfect sweater vest.

The self-striping Colorburst yarn effortlessly adds

interest to my vest so I can get creative on other

design elements. We’ll look at the ribbing edgings

for the V-neck and the armhole openings, and I’ll

share the instructions for the 3 different textured

stitches you’ve seen in my vest and the swatches

that didn’t make it into the vest.

To add the ribbing to the V-neck opening, we

need to know the length of the diagonal edge

and the number of rows that were used. In the

example we’ve been looking, we had 64 rows. The

diagonal measurement after I cut the steek open

and the shoulders for each side lay flat is 9”. In this

case, the row gauge may not match the diagonal

measurement because of the shaping.

I use the inches measurement to calculate how

many stitches to pick up for the 2×2 ribbing and I

use the row count to figure out how to distribute

the picking up of the stitches along the edge evenly.

The next important piece of information I need

is my gauge for the 2×2 ribbing. I knit mine with

slightly smaller needles, so when I measure my

ribbing gauge along the bottom of the vest I get

25 stitches across 4”. This means that for one edge

of the V-neck shaping I need 9 × 25 ÷ 4 = 56

stitches. In the end, I’ll pick up 56 stitches on each

side of the V-neck opening, add the 1 stitch on the

locking stitch marker, and the 46 stitches waiting on

a holder for the back of the neck for a grand total

of 159 stitches. This will work perfectly so that the

ribbing at the valley of the V-neck will allow me to

use double-decreases every other row so that the

center stitch travels up vertically. Now, I sew the

shoulder seams and get set to pick up stitches.

After carefully cutting the steek open for the V-neck, the ribbing can be applied.

46 KNITmuch | issue 13

Take the ribbing gauge from the waistband.

We need to figure out how to

distribute the picking up of

stitches for the ribbing along

the diagonal edge of the V-neck


• First, let’s do a little thinking

through of all this. There are

64 rows, and we need to

pick up 56 stitches, which

means that there are 8 extra

rows that we will need to skip

evenly across as we pick up.

• So 8 is our small number

and 64 is our big number. 8

divides into 64 evenly, so

we won’t need to use the

“magic” formula from last

article just yet.

• For the neck opening we need

to skip one row for every 8 we

pick up stitches along.

• Starting on the left edge of

the neck opening, I don’t want

the first or last row to be the

skipped one, so I will first pick

up and knit 4 stitches, then

skip 1.

• Then I’ll repeat [pick up a stitch

in each of next 7 rows, and skip

next row] 7 times, and I’ll have

3 rows remaining to pick up 1

stitch in each of them.

• Then I’ll add the stitch off the

locking marker, pick up 3 sts,

then [skip 1 rows, pick up 1

stitch in each of next 7 rows] 8

times, and finish with 4 more


• Finally, I’ll add the 4 stitches

across the back neck.

• My favorite technique for

picking up stitches is to use a

crochet hook that doesn’t have

a flat thumb rest or a thick

handle on it; these Knitter’s

Pride rosewood hooks are

sharp and perfect for this task.

Using sharp and straight Symfonie Rose hooks to pick up stitches makes my life so much easier.

You can load up the crochet hook with quite a few stitches before

transferring them off the tail end onto your knitting needle. I used

a size 4US [3.5mm] circular needle to work the ribbing around the

neck opening.

The final step for this sweater vest is to add the same 2×2 ribbing

edging to the armholes. The number of rows across which we need

to pick up stitches will most likely not be the same as that of the

neck opening, so we may need to use the “magic” formula to figure

out how to distribute the ribbing stitches evenly. Starting with the 3

stitches that are bound off at the start of the armhole shaping on both

front and back, we know we’ll need to pick up 6 stitches across that

area. Then the armhole depth is 9”. With the row gauge of 29 rows per

4 inches, we use the calculation, 9 × 29 ÷ 4, and that gives us 65 rows

to work across as well.

Use the crochet hook to draw up a loop in the end of each row and then slide them off onto the

knitting needles.

KNITmuch | issue 13


Unique Quilting Clever Clips are the perfect tool to ensure even seams when

joining the sides of the sweater vest.

I use my 2×2 ribbing gauge of 25 stitches per 4”

and the same 9” measurement to see how many

stitches I’ll need to pick up. 9 × 25 ÷ 4 = 56 stitches.

The total will be 56 + 56 + 6 (for the bound off

stitches) = 118. I don’t want my armhole ribbing

bands to stick out like wings, so I’ll actually decrease

the total number of stitches I need to pick up by

7%. That gives me approximately 109.74 stitches

to pick up. 2×2 ribbing requires a multiple of 4

stitches when knit in the round, so I’m going to

use 108 stitches in total. I still will need 6 across

those bound off stitches at the base of the opening,

108 – 6 = 102. So that will be 51 stitches on each

side. Now I need to know how many rows to skip

when I’m picking up 51 stitches along 65 rows: 65

– 51 = 14 rows to be skipped. It’s time to use that

“magic” formula to figure out how to distribute these

skipped rows evenly.

All done! I painted with texture while working up this vest, just trying out

something a little unconventional.

My armhole

ribbing set-up

row instructions

will read, “Join

yarn at seam

under arm, pick

up and knit 3

sts across bound off edge, working along edge of

armhole, *[sk next row, pick up a stitch in each of

next 3 rows, sk next row, pick up a stitch in each of

next 4 rows] 5 times, [sk next row, pick up a stitch in

each of next 4 rows] 4 times, now working from top

shoulder seam, rep from * once, pick up and knit 3

sts across bound of edge, join to work in the round.”

Total 108 sts. Work 2×2 ribbing for 4 rounds. Bind off

in 2×2 ribbing.

You’ll see in the photo above that I played around

with textured stitches in my version of the vest. This

was a lot of fun, but I realize that not everyone

would love this, so the instructions have all been for

a plain stockinette vest. If you’d like to experiment

with some of the textures I’ve shared, I’ll give you

instructions for them.

From left to right, the stitch patterns are called, Modified Seed Stitch, Crossed Rattan Stitch, and Tucked Brocade stitch.

48 KNITmuch | issue 13

I hope you share your custom

sweater vest designs modelled

by the men who received them.

Please ask any questions you

may have about particular

areas you design or knit with


And now, I’ll share the instructions

for these three stitch patterns.

Modified Seed Stitch

Special stitch

Wrapped stitch Insert RH needle

between first and second sts on

LH needle and knit up a loop,

place this loop on the LH needle

tip. Knit that loop together with

the first stitch through their back


Worked across an even number

of stitches

Row 1 (RS): Knit.

Row 2: [sl 1, p1] across.

Row 3: [k1, wrapped st] across.

Row 4: [p1, sl 1] across.

Row 5: [wrapped st, k1] across.

Repeat Rows 2-5 for pattern.

Crossed Rattan Stitch

Cast on a multiple of 2 stitches,

plus 3 for symmetry and edgings.

Special Stitches

Lift st Insert tip of RH needle

between 2nd and 3rd sts on LH

needle and knit up a loop and

extend it generously across the

gap towards the stitches on the

RH needle.

Reverse yarn over (rev-yo)

Bring yarn from back of work

over RH needle and return

between needle tips to the back

of the work.

K1tlb Knit 1 through back loop.

Left-leaning increase (llinc)

With LH needle tip lift loop of

yarn from 2 rows below first st on

RH needle and knit into this loop.

Set-up Row (WS): K2, [p1, k1]

across to last st, k1.

Row 1 (RS): K2, [lift st, rev-yo, k1]

across to last st, k1.

Row 2: K1, k2tog, [p2tog, k1tbl]

across to last 3 sts, p2tog,

llinc, k1.

Rep Rows 1 and 2 for pattern,

ending with a row 2.

Tucked Brocade Stitch

Special Stitch

4-row tuck stitch (4tk-st)

Counting horizontal strands

between first stitches on both

needle tips, count 4 down and

insert hook below all 4 horizontal

strands, yarn-over twice and knit

up stitch enough to reach the

current row.

Cast on an even number of

stitches, plus 6 for symmetry and


Set-up Rows

Knit 8 rows.

[Knit 1 row; purl 1 row] twice.

Row 1: K3, [4tk-st, k2] across to

last 3 sts, 4tk-st, k3.

Row 2: P3, [sl 1 st knitwise

releasing extra loop, p2]

across to last st, p1.

Row 3: K2, *insert RH needle as

if to knit 2 sts together, knit

but bring RH needle tip

up between the 2 sts and

only slip off first st, knit

next st on LH needle, pass

partially knit st over the

st just worked; rep from *

across to last 2 sts, k2.

Row 4: Purl.

Row 5: K2, [4tk-st, k2] across to

last 2 sts, 4tk-st, k2.

Row 6: P2, [sl 1 st knitwise

releasing extra loop, p2]


Row 7: K1, *insert RH needle as if

to knit 2 sts together, knit

but bring RH needle tip

up between the 2 sts and

only slip off first st, knit

next st on LH needle, pass

partially knit st over the

st just worked; rep from *

across to last st, k1.

Row 8: Purl.

Repeat Rows 1-8 for pattern.

Time flies when you’re having

fun knitting with self-striping

Colorburst yarn, Knitter’s Pride

Karbonz, and the very yummy

Knitter’s Pride rosewood crochet


Charles Voth

KNITmuch | issue 13








Rug Hooking



Saturday, October 16, 2021

9am to 5pm

Paris Fairgrounds, 139 Silver Street, Paris, Ontario N3L 3E7

Standards & Guidelines For Crochet and Knitting •

Standards & Guidelines For Crochet and Knitting •

Standard Yarn Weight System

Standards & Guidelines For Crochet and Knitting •

Standard abbreviations and terms

Categories of yarn, gauge ranges, Standard recommended Yarn Weight needle System and hook sizes

alt = alternate

approx = approximately


Yarn Weight

Yarn Weight System

beg = begin(ning)

Symbol &

BO= bind off


Categories of yarn, gauge ranges, and recommended needle CC = contrast and hook colorsizes

Categories of yarn, gauge ranges, and recommended needle and hook sizes


Yarn Weight

Type of

Yarns in


Symbol &




10 count

crochet thread

Knit Gauge

Type of Range* in Fingering, Sock,

Yarns in


Stockinette 10 count Fingering,


Category Stitch to crochet thread Baby

4 inches

Knit Gauge

Range* in Recommended

33–40** 27–32

Stockinette Needle in 1.5–2.25

Stitch to Metric Size




4 inches Range








Yarn Weight

Symbol &

Sport, Category

Names Baby














Type of

Fingering, Sock,


Yarns in DK, 10 count Worsted, Fingering, Chunky,



6 sts

23–26 21–24 16–20 12–15 BabyBulky,


7–11 Jumbo,

Category Light crochet thread Afghan, Baby Craft,


Worsted and




sts Roving sts Roving





Knit Gauge

Range* in

33–40** 27–32




3.25–3.75 Stitch to 3.75–4.5sts





4 mm


inches mm





1.6–1.4 mm

23–26 21–24

6 sts


12.75 mm

5.5–8 sts 7–11

8–12.75 sts






mm fewer



k3tog = knit 3 sts together (double right-leaning decrease)

Recommended Recommended

Needle in 1.5–2.25 2.25–3.25 3.25–3.75 3.75–4.5


4.5–5.5 5.5–8 m = marker

12.75 mm

Needle U.S. 000 to 1 1 to 3 3 to 5 5 to 7 7 to 9 9 to 11 11 to 17 12.75 mm


Needle in 1.5–2.25 2.25–3.25 3.25–3.75Metric Size 3.75–4.5 mm4.5–5.5

mm 5.5–8 mm8–12.75




mm m = meter(s)


Size Range



Metric Size





Range mm




m1 = Make 1 stitch: pick larger up the horizontal strand between 2 stitches



from front to back and knit it tbl (lifted increase)



MC = main color 17

Gauge*Ranges 32–42

6 sts


21–32 16–20 12–17 11–14



in Single


Needle U.S. 000 to 1 1 to 3 3 to 5 5 to 7 17

mm = millimetre(s)


7 to 9 9 to 11 11 to 17


oz = ounce(s)

Needle U.S. 000 to 1 1 to 3 sts 3 to 5 sts





Crochet to crochets**

Size Range 5 to 7 7 to 9 9 to 11 11 to 17



p = purl


Size Range


4 inch

p2tog = purl 2 sts tog (decrease)


patt = pattern



Gauge*Ranges 32–42

6 sts

Gauge*Ranges Recommended 32–42

21–32 16–20 12–17 15 mm 11–14

8–11 pfb = purl 7–9 into front and back of stitch (increase)

1.6–1.4 mm 2.25–3.25 3.5–4.5 in Single 4.5–5.5 double


9–15 6 sts


in Single Hook in Metric

21–32 16–20 12–17 11–14



8–11 sts 7–9 sts and sts


pm = place



Regular hook mm

Crochet mm to mm crochets**


mm and


Crochet to Size Range







psso = pass slipped stitch over



2.25 mm

4 inch


RS = right side

4 inch

rem = remain(ing)

Steel*** Steel***


2.25–3.25 3.5–4.5 4.5–5.5

6.5–9rev = reverse 15 mm

Recommended Recommended 6, 7, 8

Hook in Metric


15 mm


1.6–1.4 mm 2.25–3.25 3.5–4.5 4.5–5.5 Regular hook mm 6.5–9



Hook U.S. Size Regular B–1 to E–4 E–4 to 7 7 to I–9


1 ⁄2 mm 9–15


M-13 mm

mm rnd = round


Hook in Metric

Size Range




Regular hook mm


mm 2.25 mm



to M-13 mm

sc = single crochet larger

Size Range

to Q



K–10 1 ⁄2

larger larger

sl = slip

2.25 mm


skp = slip one st, knit next st, pass slipped st over knit st (dec)


ssk = slip, slip, knit: slip 2 sts knitwise, 1 at a time, insert left-hand needle


Recommended 6, 7, 8


into front of both


sts and knit them tog (left-leaning decrease)

* GUIDELINES ONLY: The above reflect the most commonly used gauges and needle or hook sizes for specific yarn categories.


Hook U.S. Size Regular B–1 to E–4 E–4 to 7 7 to I–9


1 ⁄2

Recommended 6, 7, 8



sssk = slip M-13 next three stitches individually, knitwise. Insert tip of left


** Lace weight yarns are usually knitted or crocheted on larger needles and hooks to create K–10 lacy, openwork patterns. Accordingly, a

Hook U.S. Size Regular B–1 to E–4 E–4 to 7

to M-13

to Q

gauge range is difficult to determine. Always follow Range 7 to I–9

the gauge stated hook to

1 ⁄2 M-13

needle from front to back into the fronts of these three stitches and


in your pattern.

K–10 1 ⁄2

to M-13

to Q

knit them together larger(double left-leaning decrease)



B–1K–10 1 ⁄2


*** Steel crochet hooks are sized differently from regular hooks--the higher the number, the smaller the hook, which is the reverse

st(s) = stitch(es)

of regular B–1 hook sizing.

St st = stocking stitch

tbl = through back loop

This Standards & Guidelines booklet and downloadable * GUIDELINES symbol artwork ONLY: The are above available reflect at:

the most commonly used gauges and needle or hook sizes for tog specific = together yarn categories.

* GUIDELINES ONLY: The above reflect the most commonly ** Lace used weight gauges

11 yarns and needle are usually or hook knitted sizes or for crocheted specific yarn on larger categories. needles and hooks to create lacy, openwork tr = treble patterns. crochet Accordingly, a

** Lace weight yarns are usually knitted or crocheted on larger gauge needles range is and difficult hooks to to determine. create lacy, Always openwork follow patterns. the gauge Accordingly, stated your a pattern. WS = wrong side


50range is


difficult to determine. | Always



13the gauge *** Steel stated crochet in your hooks pattern. are sized differently from regular hooks--the higher the number, the smaller yo the = hook, yarn which over is the reverse

*** Steel crochet hooks are sized differently from regular of hooks--the regular hook higher sizing. the number, the smaller the hook, which is the reverse

of regular hook sizing.

This Standards & Guidelines booklet and downloadable symbol artwork are available at:




ch = chain

cm = centimetre(s)

cn = cable needle

co = cast on

cont = continue, continuing

dc = double crochet

Chunky, dec = decrease(s), decreasing



Craft, dpn = double-pointed needle(s)

Roving Roving


foll = following

g = gram(s)

hdc = half double crochet

inc = increase(s), increasing

6 sts

12–15 in(s) = inch(es) 7–11


sts k = knit sts

kfandb or kfb = knit into fewerfront and back of st (increase)

ktbl = knit through the back loop

k2tog = knit 2 sts tog (right-leaning decrease)

rep = repeat

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