SUSTAINABLE BUS 2021-9

vadoetornoedizioni

A few highlights:
- VDV Vice President Werner Overkamp outlining future of public transport and energy transition in Germany
- A view on future developments on the global bus market
- Bus Back Better scheme in the UK: where are we standing / where are we headed to
- Battery leasing options and financial tools to speed up the transition?
- Isuzu Novociti Volt: under the lens!
- Solaris Urbino hydrogen: fuel cell economy in Bolzano
- MAN Lion’s City E. Finally on the road!
- Full hybrid buses. A comparison between Iveco Urbanway hybrid, Scania Citywide LE hybrid, Solaris Urbino hybrid, Volvo 7900 S-Charge

Sustainable

US

VADO E TORNO EDIZIONI

www.vadoetorno.com - ISSN 0042

Poste Italiane s.p.a.

Sped. in a. p. - D.L. 353/2003

(conv. in L. 27/02/2004 n° 46)

art. 1, comma 1, LO/MI

AUTOBUS SUPPLEMENT

SEPTEMBER 2021

THE LION

ROARS SILENTLY

OUTLOOKS

Batteries: sharing

risks to speed up

the revolution

IN THE SPOTLIGHT

Isuzu, the 8-meter

e-bus is ready for

narrow city centers

COMPARISONS

Full hybrid buses.

A crucial role in the

transition to ZE


Sustainable

BUS

CONTENTS

SUSTAINABLE-BUS.COM SEPTEMBER 2021

4

POST-IT

VDL thinks ‘electrically’.

New generation Citea unveiled

6

TECHNO

Hitachi ABB Power Grids,

charging partner in Sweden

4

28

10

12

SUSTAINABLE BUS TOUR

Next step: 14th October.

With hydrogen in mind

INTERVIEWS

Werner Overkamp, VDV (Germany):

«1,000 new e-buses expected yearly»

16

20

24

OUTLOOKS

A global picture of the bus market.

Geography, trends, drivelines

Bus Back Better in the UK.

PTOs and industry ahead of the game

Batteries and financing models:

should operators bear the risks?

12

28

32

36

40

42

43

44

45

IN THE SPOTLIGHT

Isuzu Novociti Volt

For narrow city centers, with torque

Solaris Urbino 12 hydrogen

SASA Bolzano has clear ideas

MAN Lion’s City 12 E

Finally on European roads!

COMPARISON

Full hybrid buses

Paving the way to zero emissions

Iveco Urbanway Hybrid

Silently docking and departing

Scania Citywide Hybrid

The most powerful

Solaris Urbino 12 Hybrid

Downsizing on the series hybrid

Volvo 7900 S-Charge

Updated and renewed in 2019

46

PORTFOLIO

All the electric buses

on the European market

42

3


POST-IT

VDL CITEA NEW GENERATION UNVEILED

New Generation on its way

«RANGE OF 500 TO 600 KM DURING THE BUS’ ENTIRE LIFESPAN»

The new city bus range launched by VDL before the summer

is the result of a new concept entirely developed around

the electric driveline. For the first time, it will house batteries

in the floor. The first vehicles are going to be deployed in

Lahti, Finland. VDL states an impressive range: «All vehicles

cover a distance of 500 to 600 kilometres. Even in bad weather

conditions (-15 degrees Celsius), the Citea can still drive 250

kilometres 100% electrically». A battery capacity of 490 kWh

is possible on a 12.2-metre VDL Citea.

The first vehicle are expected to be delivered in early 2022,

with series production to begin within 2021. By the end of

next year all the models of the range are said to be available.

For this new generation of electric city buses, VDL Bus &

Coach has developed a composite sidewall that consists of

a single piece. The vehicle will be 15% lighter than the

current range.

The new Citea will be built in four length variants: 12.2 metres

(Low Floor and Low Entry), 13.5 metres (LE), 14.9 metres

(LE) and 18.1 metres (LF). The 13.5-metre version has two axles

and can compete with a three-axle unit in terms of seating capacity,

the manufacturer says.

The rst vehicles are expected to be

delivered in early 2022, with series

production to begin within 2021.

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TECHNO

HITACHI ABB POWER GRIDS AWARDED A CONTRACT IN SWEDEN

Charging fleets, digitally

GRID-EMOTION FLEET SOLUTION FOR SVEALANDSTRAFIKEN

PREMIERE

Urbino 9 LE electric

The Grid-eMotion Fleet charging infrastructure system by Hitachi

ABB Power Grids (which is set to become Hitachi Energy since October

2021) has been chosen to provide energy to the electric bus eet

operated by Svealandstraken in Swedish Västerås, where a batch

of 10 to 17 e-buses from Volvo is set to be delivered during 2021.

The Zurich-based company, sponsor of the Sustainable Bus Tour

2021, has also reached an agreement with the British startup Arrival.

With the launch of the Grid-eMotion Fleet system, last year, Hitachi

ABB Power Grids is targeting the market of large-scale public transport

and commercial eets of electric vehicles. And the portfolio

features a ash charging solutions formerly (and widely) known as

TOSA (now: Grid-eMotion Flash).

The order commissioned in Sweden includes innovative charging

infrastructure connected to the grid and a digital control system to

monitor eet charging.

The Grid-eMotion Fleet charging solution will provide Svealandstra-

ken with a scalable and exible solution to expand their electric bus

eet in Västerås for today’s generations and those to come. Thanks to its

modularity the Grid-eMotion Fleet innovative charging solution is relatively

easy to transfer to another location for a new bus depot in Västerås in the

future, the company says.

Hitachi ABB Power Grids portfolio

features features also a ash charging

solutions formerly known as TOSA

(now: Grid-eMotion Flash).

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SUSTAINABLE BUS TOUR

14TH OCTOBER AT 3 PM CEST: ‘HYDROGEN BUSES, THEIR TIME IS... NOW?’

Hydrogen buses in spotlight

MAY’S WEBINAR GATHERED OVER 1,100 VIEWERS

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10

It’s decades that hydrogen technology is thought to be ‘ten

years ahead’. Now things are changing. Building an hydrogen

ecosystem is among the missions of the ‘Next generation

EU’ plans drafted by the main European countries. German’s

National Hydrogen Strategy provides for a 8 billion euros

investment in 62 EU-backed hydrogen projects. Buses have

been involved in fuel cell pilots ahead of time, before the

battery-electric frenzy led to a massive - temporary - abandonment

of H2. Which is currently being resumed with a refreshed

perspective: some ten years ago, fuel cell technology

was promoted as a solution for urban buses, while nowadays

there is general agreement on FCVs as a future alternative to

ICE for medium and long-range travel, from suburban routes

to long distance transport. Anyhow, there is room for Class I

fuel cell buses as well.

Over 1,200 H2 buses in EU by 1,200

The Net Zero Scenario outlined by Bloomberg New Energy

Finance in its Electric Vehicles Outlook 2021 reads: «Hydrogen

fuel cell vehicles are 10% of medium and heavy commercial

trucks on the road in 2050, some 16% of municipal buses, and

less than 1% of the passenger vehicle fleet».

Today there are over 120 hydrogen buses operating in Europe,

with

plans to reach

over 1,200

by 2025. So,

which is the

market potential

for fuel

cell buses?

How to deal

with the infrastructural

aspects? Is

this technology

going to

find its place

in the urban

environment

Hydrogen buses

Their time is... now?

or mostly

in intercity

routes? The

opportunities,

challenges

and outlooks

related to fuel

cell bus

adoption will

be put under

the spotlight

at the second

and last webinar of the Sustainable Bus Tour 2021, which will

be live broadcasted on 14th October at 3 p.m. CEST, entitled:

‘Hydrogen buses. Their time is... now?’. The initiative, promoted

and organized by Sustainable Bus, leverages on the mobility

partnership of Transdev and Keolis and on the involvement of

a wide series of public transport and industry players. The first

webinar, focusing on the topic of charging fleets of e-buses,

was broadcasted on the 6th of May. It gathered 1,649 registrations

and over 1,000 single viewers.

A webinar, a whole chain represented

The incoming webinar will be featuring, as panelists, Bart

Kraaijvanger, Manager Zero Emission Programs at Transdev

Netherlands; Thomas Fontaine, Managing Director at Keolis

Dijon; Petra Piffer, General Manager at SASA Bolzano; Wolfgang

Reitmeier, Head of Electromobility at VDV. The Fuel

Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking (FCH JU) will be delivering

a speech through the Executive Director Bart Biebuyck,

and also UITP, through the Clean Bus Europe Platform project,

will be part of the event. The industry

session will see the participation

of leading fuel cell modules provider

Ballard Power Systems and e-motor

supplier Siemens CV, hydrogen fuel

tanks manufacturer Worthington Industries,

bus builder CaetanoBus, telematics

company ViriCiti. Long story short:

a whole chain represented.

Webinar - 14th October 2021 3pm CEST

Partner Sponsor tour Mobility partners

Extra strength for buses

UITP, Transdev, Keolis, SASA Bolzano

and VDV will be delivering a contribution

during the operators’ session. The

webinar will be introduced by FCH JU

Executive Director Bart Biebuyck. Click

on the picture to sign up!

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INTERVIEW

CLIMATE SAVERS

«Times in which public transport was of minor importance are over

now». Take VDV Vice President’s word for it. 1,000 e-buses are expected

to be rolled out yearly in Germany in the coming years. Many challenges

are to be addressed, beginning with the financial ones

Something is happening

in the European largest

bus market. It looks

like the German electric

bus market switched gear in

2020. We discussed with Werner

Overkamp, Vice President of the

VDV (the Association of German

Transport Companies) and

Chairman of the Board of Management

of the Division Bus,

which are the expectations of

public transport companies in

such a moment, how is the sector

reacting to EU mandate for zero

emission vehicles and related

(undeniable) nancial issues, an

outlook on the future of the sector.

German e-bus market is speeding

up: 16 e-bus registrations in

2017, 51 in 2018, 104 in 2019.

Germany has been slower than

other countries to scale up: with

357 ZE bus registrations (10%

share in Class I), 2020 reached

WERNER OVERKAMP, VDV VICE PRESIDENT

the highest level to date. According

to PwC, plans are already

known for a further 3,089 e-buses

by the middle of the decade.

Should we say that the energy

transition process has started

in German bus sector?

«Yes, the transition to climatically

neutral buses has accelerated

fast in Germany. On the

German roads we now have

over 500 battery-electric buses,

1,500 hybrid buses and over 50

fuel cell buses. PTOs have also

applied for nancial support for

another 1,400 electric buses, of

which some have already been

granted. We expect that 1,000

new electric buses will be put

into operation each year in the

coming years, which represents

a considerable effort on the part

of the sector».

Dealing with e-buses and energy

transition implies changes

in the structure of public

transport companies. How

are VDV associates changing,

in terms of organization and

skills, to get ready?

«The realization of an electric

bus eet is not only a question

about vehicles. To begin with,

the public transport company

has to decide whether it wants to

operate battery-electric buses or

hydrogen-powered buses. This

decision has far-reaching consequences

for the conversion of

the depot. It has also to be ensured

that both diesel buses and

electric buses can be operated in

parallel for some years. Then,

the new kind of propulsion gives

rise to many questions. Is the depot

big enough? Are the power

connections sufciently dimen-

sioned? How long will diesel

buses and electric buses have to

be operated in parallel? Is the

staff qualied for the new buses?

Which new safety precautions

have to be observed? And last,

but not least: when will the electric

buses be delivered?».

In June 2020, with regards to

fuel cell bus adoption, VDV

released that «the number of

manufacturers of hydrogenpowered

buses is still very

small and many system components

are not yet fully developed».

Do you see any signals

that the situation is changing?

«Meanwhile, the situation has

improved a little. The Federal

Government and some German

states actively support the development

of a hydrogen relling

infrastructure. They use public

transport as a rst mover and

hydrogen purchaser. Being an

industrial country and a vehicle

building land rich in tradition,

we would be happy if the German

industry would broaden its

range of offers. We are very con-

dent in this respect».

Main German bus builders

are also well-established internal

combustion engines manufacturers.

It may have been a

brake so far to the deployment

of e-buses in the country...

«Through the years and decades

diesel buses got more effective,

low-emission and environmentally

friendly than private cars,

which is also the case today

with an average degree of occupation

of the bus. Combustion

engines are also valuable

in the new times because they

can be powered by synthetic gas

or bio fuels. The combustion

engine is unbeaten on long routes.

Anyhow, environmentally

friendly propulsions are an element

in the mobility transition

in Germany, which is in turn the

condition for effective climate

protection. As far as I see it, the

German manufacturers are not

going to miss this opportunity».

In many cases, with the transition

to e-buses, public transport

companies are more

looking for partners than just

for supplier. Which requests

you feel to make at industry

players?

«The transition of the complete

operating concept from the

present diesel bus concept to an

electric bus concept can only be

realized if depots, workshops, infrastructures

and operating systems

are adapted accordingly.

German public transport companies

do not employ so many

project managers that they can

realize this transition, which is

also characterized by intensive

developments. Therefore, the

total transition and an overall

concept are often required in

calls for tenders. In the next few

years, the new operating concepts

will get fully established

and new operating routines will

be realized, which will anew modify

the partnership».

«In Germany, public transport companies have applied for financial

support for another 1,400 electric buses, of which some have already

been granted. We expect that 1,000 new electric buses will be put

into operation each year in the coming years, which represent

a considerable effort for the sector»

«New kind of propulsion gives rise to many questions. Is the depot

big enough? Are the power connections sufficiently dimensioned?

How long will diesel buses and electric buses have to be

operated in parallel? Is the staff qualified for the new buses?

Which new safety precautions have to be observed?»

Which tools do you think the

industry could be providing

in order to lower the upfront

costs required by bus electrication?

There is much talking

about battery leasing and

project nancing...

«On the basis of our assessment,

we believe that life cycle

costs of battery buses can reach

the level of diesel buses. However,

the investment costs in the

infrastructure cannot be split

without increasing the operating

costs. At present, Germany relies

on public nancial support. Leasing

models are much more

expensive than direct nancing

due to the good creditworthiness

of the public transport companies».

Do you think gas-powered

applications (CNG-LNG) or

biofuels can play a role in the

energy transition process of

public transport?

«Being a sector association, we

are open to all technologies.

Being the VDV Vice President,

I believe that it is advantageous

with many different technologies,

which are systematically

developed. It is obvious that

the battery-electric bus is in the

lead at present, but this was not

the case only a few years ago.

Nevertheless, it is not possible

12

13


14

to make a general recommendation.

Depending on the local

availability of hydrogen or bio

fuel and the topography of the

routes, these technologies have

their advantages and areas of

operation. However, in Germany

it is the general opinion

that bio fuels should not be used

if it would be produced on the

account of foodstuffs».

According to many, with e-

buses we’ll witness an increase

in the average age of the

eets (the TCO of an electric

bus is today calculated to be

the same as a diesel bus on a

timeline of 15-20 years). How

do you see this scenario?

«When electric buses dominate

the eet, it might be so that these

buses can be operated for a

longer time and thus at lower

operating costs because they

have fewer and less complicated

drive components. However,

this assumption is made with

many unknown factors. Thus,

we do not know how many components,

for example batteries,

with which are not so familiar

yet, and for example the HVAC

system interact with one another

and how these components will

be affected in daily operation».

The emergence of macro trends

such as digitalization and

energy transition are already,

according to many, bringing

towards a concentration of

public transport services in

the hands of larger companies.

Then there are EU regulations

which made mandatory

the calling for tender for

public transport services. Finally,

Covid put much pressure

on PTOs balance sheets. Do

you think these circumstances

will end up bringing a push

towards large companies getting

a larger share of the market?

«It depends. In Germany we

have the special economic system

of municipal companies

and the possibility of direct

award of services. This makes it

possible for the cities and municipalities

to protect and support

their own medium-sized enterprises.

It is always necessary to

«The requirements for digitalization and electric mobility are too much

for some public transport companies. There will be a market shakeout.

Times in which public transport was of minor importance are over.

PTOs are in a position to improve their offers because they take

on the role of climate saver in the mobility sector»

stand up to the innovation pressure.

The VDV tries to coordinate

strategies and processes and

to inform the PTOs how they

can meet these requirements.

However, we assume that the requirements

for digitalization and

electric mobility are too much

for some public transport companies.

There will be a market

shakeout. We may not forget something

an important thing...».

Please...

«For decades it had been politically

required that PTOs should

increase their cost-effectiveness.

To put it bluntly, public transport

had to be free of charge. These

times in which public transport

was of minor importance are

over now: on the one hand, the

companies now have to be in a

position to improve their offers

both qualitatively and quantitatively

because they take on the

role of climate saver in the mobility

sector. On the other hand,

the expectations on the public

transport companies are rising:

more and better digital information

and tickets, more on-demand

transport in the outskirts

of the cities or in the country,

more integration with car/bike

sharing, higher reliability, more

safety/security and more cleanliness.

The tasks of the public

transport companies and the requirements

from authorities and

customers increase. These facts

are not without consequences».

CHARGE,

OPERATE,

MAINTAIN

YOUR

BUS

FLEET

tenix.eu

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Lønningsvegen 47

5258 Blomsterdalen

Norway


OUTLOOKS

16

Knibb, Gormezano and

Partners (KGP) is a specialist

automotive consultancy

focused on powertrain

technology in the

Commercial Vehicle (3.5t

GVW+) and Non-Road Mobile

Machinery segments.

Here on Sustainable

Bus Magazine we host a

contribution by the Senior

Consultant Commercial

Vehicles Paris Kiernan.

MAJOR TRENDS IN THE GLOBAL ELECTRIC BUS MARKET

A GLOBAL

PERSPECTIVE

Major trends in the global bus market, e-mobility,

hybridisation and the issue of powertrain. China

dominates, other markets are growing up. Natural

gas takes a share in the intercity segment

The global bus market was paralysed

in 2020 as the outbreak of Covid

caused a stand still for public transport:

global production volumes fell

32%. A recovery is underway as eet utilisation

improves across most regions, albeit

from very low levels. The longer term impact

on the bus industry is unknown: working

from home is expected to stay; there is still

uncertainty regarding when consumers will

feel comfortable travelling in a close proximity.

The issue of air quality issues will drive

electric bus adoption.

Volumes are taken from KGP’s Global

Commercial Vehicle Powertrain Forecast

(GCVPTF) published quarterly in partnership

with LMC Automotive which assesses

Truck and Bus production over 6T by OEM,

fuel, emissions compliance and electrication

type.

China currently dominates the e-bus market,

generating 95% of production, with over

65% of the city bus eet being NEV (New

Energy Vehicles). Other markets around the

world are starting to intensify e-bus orders:

major cities in South America keep adding to

their e-bus eets - largest outside China; European

companies and cities are pledging to

purchase ZE buses only; India has improved

e-bus orders through FAME II.

THE GLOBAL BUS MARKET

Bus production by type (000s)

Source: KGP LMC Global Commercial Vehicle Powertrain Forecast

GCVPTF Quarter 2 2021

Electric bus adoption is concentrated in the

city bus market. This can be seen in Europe,

where less than 1% of electric buses are in

end use applications outside of cities. Within

these other segments, natural gas has higher

uptake than city buses and there is an expectation

other alternative fuelled powertrains

will enter the market to address the issues of

charging time and costly larger battery packs

required for these longer ranged regional

buses.

E-buses between China and West

The North American bus market differs in

general to Europe, with the latter highly populated

with transit buses while in America the

focus is on school buses. Although electric

bus adoption is lagging in North America,

with the change in government and aggressive

policies in California, growth of electric

buses is expected to take off in the next couple

years, especially due to the favourable

conditions of battery-electric applications in

the school bus market (less mileage requires

a smaller battery pack; known routes and

times; overnight charging).

Although globally hybridisation has not

taken off – the technology continues to

play a key role in reducing European bus

emissions. In particular, strong demand has

been generated for the mild hybrid system

which uses a 48V system

and supercaps to assist

the engine during acceleration

and recuperates

energy through braking,

thus reducing CO2 emissions

by around 8.5%.

Mercedes-Benz replaced

its full hybrid option with

a 48V mild hybrid bus in

2017, and MAN launched

its mild hybrid bus adding

the EfcientHybrid

system to the city bus

model. Solaris announced

a mild hybrid concept towards

the end of 2020.

Electrication, hybridisation

and alternative fuels

are analysed in detail

in KGPs xEV Module

which includes a forecast

of 3 xEV scenarios. KGP

have collaborated with

ACT to provide POWER

UP: Global Commercial

Electric Vehicle Markets

to 2050.

There are vast number

THE COUNT OF MODELS

Count of models

Source: KGP LMC Global Commercial Vehicle xEV

Model Database May 2021

VOLUMES SET TO GROW

CV production by segment (000s)

Source: KGP LMC Global Commercial Vehicle

Powertrain Forecast GCVPTF Quarter 2 2021

of bus models available globally, however,

over 50% are Chinese manufactured (Chinese

models added for the top 80% based on

volume), although the global leading OEMs

started series production of their electric bus

options over the last couple of years – MAN,

for instance, began series production of its

electric Lion’s City E in Poland at the end

of 2020. The Chinese buses are unlikely to

be used in developed markets due to a lack

of specication required (i.e. motor power,

durability). An improvement of motor power

and battery capacity is expected over the

17


18

OUTLOOKS

IS THERE ROOM FOR H2-ICE SOLUTIONS?

Hydrogen Internal Combuson

Engines (H2-ICE) are being evaluated

by many European CV

manufacturers, and other global

players, as a potenal decarbonizaon

route for heavy vehicles.

Although city buses are likely to

go to electric, those with more

challenging routes (extra-urban

buses and inter-city or touring

coaches) could benet from a

H2-ICE soluon.

In most operang condions

the very low NOx emissions and

parculates could be reduced

well below Euro VI levels with a

small SCR system and lter similar

to a gasoline parculate lter

(GPF). Such applicaons would

be using exisng truck and bus

plaorms with convenonal

transmission and axles, with

addion of H2 tanks. Benets?

Cost savings in R&D, simplied

aertreatment and use of exisng

vehicle plaorms. Disadvantages

include lower specic

power compared to diesel, the

lack of green hydrogen supply

and infrastructure in the short/

medium term, and lower overall

energy efficiency compared to a

baery bus.

As to launch of these engines

we see many current development

programs being launched

to validate the potenal of H2-

ICE, with MAN apparently closest

to market with its engines,

at least for the CV segment. In

the Non-Road powertrain segment

Deutz announced it would

enter the market in 2024, with

its H2-ICE for staonary applicaons,

and others including

Cummins and Scania have made

their inial plans public. The

bale between BEV and alterna-

ves seems to be far from clear,

although each side has its own

compelling arguments, it really

depends on how quickly the

energy system can be expanded

in the shi to renewables, and

how the economics evolve for

different applicaons.

Alex Woodrow, KGP Managing

Director

E-bus adoption is concentrated

in the city bus market.

In Europe less than 1% of

electric buses are in end

use applications outside of

cities. Within these segments,

natural gas has higher

uptake and there is an

expectation other alternative

fuelled powertrains will enter

the market.

The uptake of e-axles will

depend on OEMs decision

to source electric powertrains

in-house. Currently

Tier 1 suppliers including

Allison, Bosch, Dana, Meritor

and ZF supply e-axles

to various OEMs, with

Daimler/Detroit Diesel beginning

production of its

own e-axle in 2021. Within

the bus segment, although

space constraints are

less of an issue compared

to the truck segment. KGP

expects the majority share

of electric bus powertrains

to be e-axles by 2030 with

most being outsourced

from Tier 1s.

next 5 years not only due to increase models

in developed economies but also as adoption

of electric bus models goes beyond applications

within cities and requires increased

ranges. Adding to this, a change in the whole

powertrain platform is expected with number

of electric axles (e-axles) launched during

the last 18 months.

E-axles integrate the electric motor, power

electronics and rear differential in a single

module. The integrated system results in

reduced weight, more space (packaging),

improve efciency whilst the modularity reduces

costs. However, they can lack optimisation

limiting gearing options for specic

congurations and may incur higher maintenance

and repair costs. The uptake of e-axles

will depend on OEMs decision to source

electric powertrains in-house. Currently Tier

1 suppliers including Allison, Bosch, Dana,

Meritor and ZF supply e-axles

to various OEMs, with Daimler/Detroit

Diesel beginning

production of its own e-axle in

2021. Within the bus segment,

although space constraints are

less of an issue in some applications

compared to the truck

segment, there is the benet of

lower torque requirements and

tandem axles are not required.

KGP therefore expects the majority

share of electric bus powertrains

to be e-axles by 2030

with most being outsourced

from Tier 1s.

Paris Kiernan

The Royal League

Movement by Perfection

in ventilation, control and drive technology

Finally clean and noise-reduced through the city

90 % less noise, 90% efficiency and 0% emissions.

ZAwheel – The gearless electric in wheel hub

motor for buses in cities and airports, municipal

commercial vehicles and underground mining.

The electric motor serving people and the environment. With

the highest drive efficiency of around 90 % from the battery

to the wheel. Outstanding total operating costs, easy to

service and low-maintenance. Installing the ZAwheel in new

or current vehicles enables municipalities and operators to

budget flexibly. automotive@ziehl-abegg.com

Recipient of international environmental and

innovation awards.

The Royal League in ventilation, control and drive technology


OUTLOOKS

Interact Analysis is a

market research rm with

a specic department for

truck, bus and off-highway

electrication. Here on

Sustainable Bus Magazine

we host a contribution

from the Senior Research

Director Alastair Hayeld.

CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES IN THE UK’S E-BUS MARKET

A REAL BUS REVOLUTION?

Bus Back Better initiative pledges to introduce

4,000 new ZE buses to the country’s roads. Goal:

net zero by 2050. PTOs are setting roadmaps for

the transition, and UK industry is moving ahead

The UK’s bus market is in poor

shape. It has been in decline

since 2010 when the UK government

introduced a severe cut

in bus funding by scaling back the Bus

Service Operators Grant – a fuel subsidy

which had been worth around £500m to

the industry annually.

As indicated by the graph, the subsequent

downward trend in new bus and coach

registrations was severe. During the rst

quarter of 2010 there were over 2,500 registrations,

decreasing to little over 1,000

in the rst quarter of 2021. The severe fall

in the market was exacerbated during and

after 2020 by COVID-19, and the subsequent

combination of a fall in ticket sales

and a lack of government support.

Perhaps you would think that the picture

would look a little better if we split the

market by bus type? You would be wrong.

The Society for Motor Manufacturers and

Traders (SMMT) reports that single deck

buses and coaches have suffered the most

with double deckers and minibuses not

far behind.

Funding in Europe

Bus funding models in many other European

countries are far more comprehensive

and effective. Sweden, Germany, and

Denmark in particular are devoting significant

funding to the electric bus market.

According to data from Transport and

Environment (T&E) regarding 2019 registrations,

Denmark leads the way, having

the most zero-emission buses on European

roads, 78% of which are electric. Luxembourg

and the Netherlands are close

runners up, with around 66% of their

new bus registrations being zero emission

A DECREASE 10 YEARS LONG

The UK bus and coach market from 2010 to 2021

Source: Interact Analysis

vehicles. And the situation in Germany

is similar, with the German government

pumping €1.25 billion into electric buses

between now and 2024.

While the UK bus market has taken a

hammering from the COVID-19 pandemic,

and while there is no sign yet of

a clear recovery, the sheer

exibility of buses does

theoretically mean that the

sector could get back on its

feet relatively quickly, and

without too great a cost.

There is cause for hope,

then, in the government’s recently

announced Bus Back

Better initiative, which will

provide £3bn of new funding

to improve the UK’s bus

services and which pledges

to introduce 4,000 new electric

or hydrogen buses to the

country’s roads. All this is

part of the UK government’s wider aim

of achieving net zero by 2050. And UK

bus operators have invested over £1.3bn

in cleaner buses over the past 5 years.

Some government funding has already

been forthcoming. For example, Northern

Ireland-based bus manufacturer Wrightbus

has been awarded £11.2m in government

funding to support the development

of hydrogen powered buses.

However, Bus Back Better has come

in for some criticism. Although Prime

Minister Boris Johnson says he wants to

encourage people to use public transport

by introducing daily fare caps and new

exible services, his policy has been accused

of ‘lacking ambition’. And critics

suggest that the strategy lacks the kind of

guaranteed national funding that is needed

to get the sector up and running again

whilst also creating greener eets. One

Local Government Association transport

spokesperson has stated that «The government

should plug the £700m annual

funding gap that local governments faced

before the pandemic».

Operators ahead of the game

The government has promised to end the

20

21


OUTLOOKS

First Bus has announced

that they will not be buying

any new diesel buses after

2022 and has committed to

having a zero emission eet

by 2035. Stagecoach targets

a zero-emissions bus eet

by 2035. Meanwhile, Tom

Stables, Managing Director

at National Express, says

that «The National Express

bus eet will be zero emission

by 2030»

Helping meet clean air and

climate goals with proven

electric vehicle technology

Electric drive solutions

gettozero.com

MANUFACTURING IS WAY AHEAD

While UK manufacturing in general has been well known for its signicant

decline since the Thatcher era, when it comes to sustainable

bus manufacturing there is actually a lot going on. Arrival – a UK

manufacturer with a manufacturing strategy based around micro

factories and mobile robots – is a parcularly excing example. The

company has signed a deal with the UK’s First Group for their rst

road trial during the autumn of this year. This will be a litmus test:

will UK bus companies want to work with a new vendor? Will Arrival

even sll be around in 10 years’ me?

On top of this, the partnership of BYD with UK manufacturer Alexander

Dennis has taken the UK’s biggest ever order for electric buses

– and is delivering 195 vehicles to Transport for London (TfL). This

order has been placed in pursuit of the primary aim of sasfying

London mayor Sadiq Khan’s plan for all TfL buses to operate with

zero emissions by 2037.

Furthermore, since the UK bus manufacturer Wrightbus was saved

from administraon by the UK’s Jo Bamford (of the JCB dynasty),

the company has launched the world’s rst hydrogen double decker.

Overall, it seems that UK manufacturers are largely beyond cricism:

these companies are working relessly to make the UK’s transport

services both greener and cleaner with the collecve aim of achieving

net-zero by 2050 at the latest.

A.H.

sale of new diesel buses, but the deadline

date is still in consultation. However,

some UK bus operators are getting ahead

of the game. First Bus has announced

that they will not be buying any new diesel

buses after 2022 and has committed

to having a zero emission eet by 2035.

Similarly, Stagecoach has also announced

that they are targeting a zero-emissions

bus eet by 2035. Meanwhile, a partnership

between battery manufacturer BYD

and bus manufacturer Alexander Dennis

has supplied National Express with the

rst of 29 electric double decker buses,

and Tom Stables, Managing Director at

National Express, says that «The National

Express bus eet will be zero emission by

2030». Alastair Hayeld

22


OUTLOOKS

BATTERY: THE ROLE OF OPERATORS AND INDUSTRY PLAYERS

SHARING RISKS

Do public transport operators really have to bear

the technological as well as the economic risk of the

climate crisis? Batteries are well suited for leasing

or pay-per-use business models

THE AUTHORS

Claudius Jehle is CEO of

volytica diagnostics GmbH.

The company has the

mission of «providing an

easy-to-integrate battery

remote monitoring and

diagnostics solution to enable

a sustainable mobility

future». He cooperates with

Sustainable Bus on a series

of knowledge articles on a

series of topics around Li-

Ion Batteries.

Volkmar Mohs is Business

Development Manager at

CHG-MERIDIAN.

1% - that’s the estimated maximal

market share of piston-engine

propelled passenger transport aircraft

in the western world in 2020.

Some 60 years ago the amount was 100%

- a virtually full transition towards the socalled

jet engine. The foundation for that

transition was laid in the 1960s by Rolls

Royce, now and then an engine producer

– but not by inventing the technology. It

already existed as a remnant from the 2nd

World War’s technological arms race. No

- Rolls Royce took the bold step of assuming

virtually all of the customers’ operational

risks for this new, high-investment,

exotic and, in the eyes of potential users,

unproven technology by simply not selling

the engines. Pointing to the strengths

of jet engines, namely lower maintenance

and operating costs and higher power, they

instead leased the units for a usage-based

fee, including all replacement, service and

maintenance costs, in a business model

they coined ‘Power by the Hour’. The service

has remained unchanged ever since.

Rolls-Royce, as the authority on the technology

and its further development, thus

took the investment and operator risk off

the shoulders of technically inexperienced

customers, thus securing the success story

of a new type of propulsion system.

What about the e-bus market?

Next to enabling a sustainable and green

future mobility, battery-driven e-mobility

promises radically reduced operational

costs, lower maintenance, higher uptime

and lower emissions. However, the market

share in Europe in 2020 in the e-bus public

transport sector was at a modest c. 6%,

with the vast majority of the eet still being

diesel-driven. These numbers cannot be

generally attributed to a lack on the supply

side (delivery problems set aside): virtually

every Western bus manufacturer has electric

busses in their portfolios, and in China

there are more than 400,000 e-busses on

the road. The principal technology is there,

but high investment costs, reservations

towards uptime, operational tness, maintenance

as well as conservative warranty

times and traditionally diesel-tuned tendering

processes do not promote a rapid market

penetration towards complete eets of

this promising technology.

A chicken-and-egg problem

As a matter of fact, many of the outlined

advantages are promises and yet must prove

their full potential at scale. And here is

the chicken-and-egg problem: much higher

investment costs for e-buses compared to

traditional vehicles and the promise of lower

cost-of-ownership today often result

in very conservative and reluctant procurement

and tendering policies, making the

market for the cheaper technologies at the

lower end of the quality and lifetime. This

again results in ‘bad press’, fostering the

reservedness, triggering an unjust vicious

circle. Is it justied to blame eet operators

and politics for not taking the risk alone?

To come closer to achieving the climate targets,

a switch to e-mobility is also essential

in public transport. But does this mean that

transportation authorities have to bear the

full risk investment risk and even sometimes

serve as beta testers? Is it justied in

this context to privatize prots and socialize

economic risks from the rollout?

24

25


OUTLOOKS

WILL TUMBLING

BATTERY PRICES

SOLVE THE PROBLEM?

The prices for baery systems in

the commercial vehicle sector are

falling annually - in some cases

even by double-digit percentages.

However, for various reasons,

it is unlikely that the same economies

of scale and kWh prices will

be achieved in commercial applicaons

as in the automove sector.

For years now, the hunger for

range in e-vehicles has contributed

to the fact that service life, robustness

and stability are increasingly

being exchanged for higher

energy density. Especially in the

case of NMC, the trend is toward

Ni-rich cathodes (oen referred

to as “>811”), which pushes the

energy density closer to the theorecal

limit, but has for years led to

ever shorter standard service lives.

Promising press releases about

new developments of high energy

densies and stability at low price

are chasing each other, and some

technologies show so far unknown

potenals - but the fact remains:

the releases promise a lot, but the

very high lifeme, robustness and

24/h performance requirements

of CV applicaons will have to

take a back seat to the quite different,

high volume passenger car

requirements, so a technological

crossroad is to be expected. As

an aside, 1% energy consumpon

savings through efficiency improvements,

usage opmizaon,

or beer SOC determinaon will

likely be much cheaper and locally

developable than a 1% increase in

baery energy density.

The parallels between e-mobility and jet

engines are striking and comparable distribution

business models have been discussed

and, in fact, already been shown.

The Renault Zoe, for example, was already

offered with a battery rental at its market

launch, as the manufacturer did not yet

have any reliable values for cycle stability

and practicality of the batteries. Even

today, storage rental is still common. And

similar models are also standard for industrial

applications such as forklifts powered

by Li-ion batteries.

Battery rental in public transport?

However, there are also various differences

at a closer glance. Certainly, the peculiarities

of the widespread tendering regulations

and policies generally give new business

models a hard time. But analyzing the value

structure of an electric bus, 30-50% of

the purchase price is for the battery, which

in turn is the sole and dominating degrading

part. The battery value chain is complex,

and other than with jet engines, the

battery system manufacturer and thus, also

the vehicle manufacturers, are not the producer

of the actual degrading part: the cells.

As value goes along with the degrading

quality, which itself is extremely complex,

manifold and overtly susceptible to the operation

proles, it is not easy to identify the

very entity to assume a responsibility comparable

to the courageous move of Rolls

Royce 60 years ago.

But what the experience of the last 10 years

of commercial vehicle electrication through

systematic eld data evaluation shows:

the actual degradation of battery systems is

practically always 10%, sometimes even

up to 50%, lower than design and warranty

conditions makes one expect – without systematic

usage prole optimizations, whose

potentials are again expected to be signi-

cant! Cell life expectations are longer than

this technology is actually used in bus operations.

Typical battery life estimates and

thus performance guarantees are based on

worst-case scenarios, i.e. on the most extreme

expected usage prole. Since the electrochemical

systems react so differently to

the usage prole (temperature and current,

but especially the state-of-charge window),

the actual usage is ultimately decisive. For

various Li-ion cells, expected lifetime can

be increased by over 300% (yes, 15 years

instead of 5 years) by adjusting the operating

prole accordingly. So, despite the

increased complexity due to global value

chains and electrochemical degradation,

batteries are generally very well suited for

leasing, pay-per-use or other modern business

models.

Rolls Royce had full transparency by very

early investing in monitoring and, as soon

as connectivity allowed, remote diagnostics

of their engines. This was instrumental

in convincing nancing bodies such as

shareholders, banks and insurances to back

this success story, but also to offer a just-intime

replacement and full service based on

predictive maintenance.

Digitalization is key

Today, digitalization and connectivity will

also help to reduce intransparency all along

The technology is there,

but high investment costs,

reservations towards uptime,

operational tness,

maintenance as well as

conservative warranty times

and traditionally diesel-tuned

tendering processes

do not promote a

rapid market penetration

of e-buses.

the value chain in e-mobility by enabling

an independent quality assessment and diagnosis.

This will mitigate and reduce the

reservations towards longterm quality of

the decisive battery step-by-step. Although

there are technological, political, procurement

and structural differences between

Rolls Royce ‘Power by the Hour’ example

and public transport, the principal setup

and situation is surprisingly similar. Business

models where the operational and

performance risks move away from the

operators towards the technology providers,

OEMs and producers would facilitate

a breakthrough.

New players, new solutions

New players are already challenging the

traditional OEMs with such solutions. The

Lithuanian manufacturer Dancer claims

«Electric transportation without the starting

costs» by providing both vehicles

and infrastructure in a pay-per-use model,

specically addressing the outlined pain.

In the truck market, the Swedish company

Volta Trucks plans to offer what they call

a ‘Truck as a Service’ offer, and Proterra

from the US offer a variety of nancing solutions,

from Municipal Capital Lease over

operating lease to battery lease.

The actual degradation of

battery systems is practically

always 10%, sometimes

even up to 50%, lower

than design and warranty

conditions makes one

expect. Typical battery

life estimates and thus

performance guarantees

are based on worst-case

scenarios. For various Liion

cells, expected lifetime

can be increased by over

300% (yes, 15 years instead

of 5 years) by adjusting

the operating prole accordingly.

So, batteries are

generally very well suited

for leasing, pay-per-use or

other modern

business models.

Given the huge nancial opportunities arising

from TCO optimization of the expensive

batteries, also independent players and

consortia will jump in. France-based NEoT

«nances the energy transition» and already

today provides several electric commercial

vehicles to European eet operators,

and technology managing companies are

extending their nancing and pay-per-use

portfolio from smaller battery-powered assets

towards e-mobililty. Traditional OEMs

will follow. None of these models will work

without a consequent, independent and seamless

tracking of battery quality, yielding

quality and residual value transparency to

all stakeholders, as the Rolls Royce examples

has demonstrated.

By enabling such transparency of battery

quality, another positive side effect will

come into play. Not only will that improve

a more fair and sustainable ‘rst life’, but

substantiate a reasonable risk management

for the so-called 2nd life applications, so

that veteran batteries can nd an economical

retirement life in less-stressful stationary

applications, such as buffer batteries in

tram and e-bus charging substations – the

GUW+1 in Hanover, Germany, is a prominent

example.

Claudius Jehle

Volkmar Mohs

26 27


IN THE SPOTLIGHT

ISUZU NOVOCITI VOLT

TORQUE

IS NOT

In the picture, the Isuzu

Novociti Volt. The Turkish

8-meter e-bus was

showcased at Busworld

2019 and has recently

been on a European

roadshow.

MISSING

Novociti Volt marks the entry

of the Turkish player in

the 8-meter electric bus

market. Torque and battery

capacity are top-notch.

Internal space and brightness

are satisfying too

As a matter of fact, the market of 8-meter

electric buses hasn’t yet taken off, due

to the impact of the battery cost (higher

than in the 12-meter segment, compared

to their diesel counterparts) and the lack of competition.

A similar situation as the 6-meter e-bus

eld, that we addressed on the last Sustainable

Bus magazine with a dedicated report. But that’s

set to change, as the niche of the 8-meter buses

is expected to move towards the electric perimeter,

also by virtue of its downtown-friendly role.

At Busworld 2019, Isuzu unveiled the Novociti

Volt, now ready for the European market. Interior

brightness, power and ease of maintenance

are strong points indeed. The rival to beat? Right

now, we may say Rampini, which denitely plays

a leading role in the segment of the 8-meter electric

buses.

Bound to the city centers

The Isuzu Novociti Volt is designed for city centres.

Derivatives aside, the manufacturers with

this size in the e-mobility portfolio are quite a

few. There is the aforementioned Rampini and

other Turkey-based Karsan. There is nally

(nearly) Solaris, which has announced the digital

launch of a new 8.9-meter bus scheduled for

30th September.

The Turkish model ts into a market niche that

is very important for European countries, and

especially for the historical city centers in the

28

29


IN THE SPOTLIGHT

The Novociti Volt is

equipped with the Sumo

MD developed by TM4. A

brand that is part of Dana

Group, a renowed U.S.

group with a turnover of

$10 billion. The motor,

the same one adopted

by Karsan on the Atak

Electric, develops a

maximum power of 255

kW and a peak torque of

2,355 Nm.

THE POWERTRAIN

Brand TM4 (Dana Incorporated)

Model

Sumo MD HV2200-6P

Type

Central / PMI

Output max kW 255

Output cont. kW 190

Torque peak Nm 2,355

Torque cont. Nm 990

Speed RPM 3,700

Voltage range V 600

Inverter

CO200

Battery supplier

CATL

Battery formula

LFP

Battery capacity kWh 211 / 269

southern part of the continent, made up

of vehicles that t perfectly into narrow

urban grids. Many historical city centers

are bound to become zero emission only

zones. The mileage is that of a shuttle

vehicle as well as on-demand services.

The Novociti Volt hosts up to 48 passengers

(43 on the version with the greates

battery capacity), 21 of whom are seated.

They nd room on a vehicle that is

almost 8,000 millimetres long (7,957,

to be precise). The width of 2,463 millimetres

stands out, i.e. 40 millimetres

below the maximum permitted gauge.

The wheelbase is particularly contained:

only 4,259 millimetres. A measure that

allows great manoeuvrability.

Like a heavy truck

The modern design is appreciated. Special

attention was paid to the front and

rear lights and to the ‘covers’ of the battery

and air conditioning systems placed

on the rooftop. The large side windows

provide light and enhance the livability

of the interior. Roof spoilers give a

modern and high-tech ‘touch’ to the

bus design.

Let’s get on board. Entrance is facilitated

by the low oor. We are talking

about an actual low oor with a couple

of steps placed in the rear, by the veseat

row, thus hiding the small amount

of space required by the electric motor.

The cantilever seats simplify the cleaning

procedures of the passenger compartment.

The brightness at the rear,

with the large window made possible

by the arrangement of the entire bat-

tery pack on the roof, is truly remarkable.

Here, the oor is covered with

non-slip material.

The beating heart of the Novociti Volt

is the Sumo MD developed by TM4.

A brand that is part of Dana Group, a

renowed U.S. group with a turnover of

$10 billion. The motor, the same one

adopted by Karsan on the Atak Electric,

develops a maximum power of 255 kW

and a peak torque of 2,355 Nm. Quite

an impressive gure, close to that of the

13-litre diesel engines that power heavy

trucks...

Such a torque (constant over the entire

RPM range) ensures acceleration and

reactivity, that result in safety and relia-

THE ID CARD

Length 7,957

Width 2,463

Height mm 3,250

Wheelbase mm 4,259

Overhang front/rear mm 1,947 / 1,752

Seats n 21

Total passenger capacity n 48

bility in city trafc.

The battery modules are supplied by

CATL, the world’s largest battery manufacturer,

while the formula is the socalled

LFP, monopolist on the Chinese

market, where about 98 percent of the

world’s electric buses are concentrated.

There are two options in terms of capacity:

211 or 269 kWh, being the latter

a considerable amount, close to the

300 kWh that are now the standard on

12-meter models. The competitors on

the same midibus segment currently do

not exceed 200 kWh. What about the

charging technologies? Strictly by cable,

in two modes: AC (22 kW of power,

up to 8 hours for a full charge) or DC

(150 kW power, which makes a couple

of hours sufcient).

What about safety?

The main structure is made of a single

body coated by cataphoresis. The

front and rear suspensions are anged

to the bearing structure. Both of them

are featured by two air bellows and two

hydraulic shock absorbers. The kneeling

system is also present. The disc brakes

are operated by a double pneumatic system

and feature ABS, EBS and ESP.

Still talking about safety, it is worth

mentioning the possibility of adding the

motor compartment re detection system

and the self-extinguishing system.

For some operators, it might be convenient

to include parking sensors as well

as rear, front, interior or exterior cameras

as well as driver recognition and

blind spot detection systems.

30

31


IN THE SPOTLIGHT

SOLARIS URBINO 12 HYDROGEN

A COUPLE

AHEAD

In the picture, one of

the 12 Solaris Urbino

12 hydrogen delivered

in Bolzano. SASA has

already 5 Citaro fuel cell in

operation

since 2013

OF TIME

SASA Bolzano presented

a fleet of 12 Solaris fuel

cell buses that projects the

operator among the fuell

cell European leaders. The

hydrogen tanks on the roof

allow a range of 350 km

In Bolzano (Italy) a batch of 12 fuel cell buses

was inaugurated this spring, projecting the South

Tyrolean city into the ‘olympus’ of European

leaders for hydrogen applied to public transport.

Already ve hydrogen Citaro are in service since

2013 as part of the European CHIC project. The new

delivery brings the H2 ‘representation’ in the eet to

17. Ahead of Bolzano, in the old continent, there is

only the alliance between the German cities of Cologne

and Wuppertal. Which, jointly, have signed orders

for 40 Van Hool and, subsequently, 25 Urbino.

A niche in the niche, that of the hydrogen bus, back

from 47 European deliveries in 2020 against over two

thousand battery-powered buses (15 percent of urban

registrations).

The kickoff of the fuel cell bus market

Within the European projects JIVE 1 and 2 (which

also include the South Tyrolean contract) there are 300

nanced vehicles, 200 of which are being delivered

between this year and the beginning of 2022. Current

projects speak of over 1,200 hydrogen buses in Europe

by 2025, starting with less than 150 in service at the

end of 2020. A commercially viable technology? Not

yet, if it is true that all purchases are now supported by

European funds. A market destined to grow? Certainly

yes, judging by the investments in hydrogen development

announced by more than one EU state and by the

prospects that see fuel cells as a primary alternative to

diesel in the intercity and long-distance sectors.

Let’s take a small step back. The UITP 2019 sum-

32

33


IN THE SPOTLIGHT

The heart of the Solaris

Urbino hydrogen is the 70

kW FCmove-Hd fuel cell

module manufactured by

the Canadian Ballard Power

Systems. It represents

the 8th generation of the

FCmove range and brings

with it a reduction in volume

and weight compared to the

previous model in terms of

40 and 35 % respectively.

THE POWERTRAIN

Brand

ZF

Model

AxTrax

Type In-wheel motors - Asynchronous

Output max kW 250

Output cont. kW 174

Torque peak Nm 22,000

Torque cont. Nm -

Speed rpm 2 x 11,000

Cooling

Liquid

Voltage range V 650

Weight kg 1,250

Battery formula

LTO

Battery capacity kWh 29.2

mit can be referred to as the moment of

‘resurrection’ of hydrogen solutions for

public transport, which were the object of

great attention a decade ago, before the battery-electric

‘wave’. In advance of the massive

strategies launched between 2020 and

2021 by various European countries with

billions of euros (France and Germany in

the rst place), more than one product novelty

came out at the Swedish fair. With Solaris

at the forefront. A manufacturer not new

to the game of anticipating market trends

(see Urbino Electric launched at the IAA in

Hanover in 2012).

A dialogue between forerunners

Solaris is a forerunner, Bolzano is a forerunner.

SASA was the rst European company

to secure a contract for the Polish product.

A maximum of 85 passengers can be welcomed

on board of the Urbino 12 hydrogen

delivered to Bolzano. 25 seats are available

in the conguration chosen by SASA, which

features three double doors (you can also opt

for the two-door version).

The internal lighting is full LED. The air conditioning

is controlled by the Konvekta UL

500 CO2 system, characterized by the use of

CO2 refrigerant and heat pump. The system

uses the residual heat of the fuel cell to heat

the passenger compartment. Noteworthy

is the cockpit, which is entirely digital and

equipped with touchscreen technology, as

usual in the new generation Solaris buses.

The hydrogen Urbino has a structure substantially

similar to that of the battery-electric

version. A crucial difference: the hydrogen

tanks on the roof and the fuel cell module.

Drive system? The ZF AxTrax, in the case

of the hydrogen vehicle, is the only choice.

The size of the storage modules also distinguishes

the hydrogen-powered Urbino from

the battery-powered one. While the battery-electric

bus features average capacities

over 250 kWh by now (with a maximum of

550 on the articulated vehicle equipped with

High Energy+ batteries), less than 30 kWh

are mounted on the fuel cell Urbino (29.2 to

be more exact) in the name of the LTO formula,

the one designed for in-line recharging

by virtue of its accentuated maximum

charging power (226 W/kg against 85 W/kg

for High Energy and 132 W/kg for the new

THE ID CARD

Length/width/height mm 12,000 / 2,550 / 3,3000

Wheelbase mm 5,9000

Overhang front/rear mm 2,700 / 3,4000

Seats / capacity n 25 / 855

Internal length mm 10,3500

Internal width mm 2,4300

Width doors mm 1,300 – 1,330 – 1,3300

Distance entrance - ground mm 3200

Internal height mm 2,300 – 2,180 – 2,2800

Axles load front/rear kg 7,245 / 12,0000

High Energy+). Although, in this case, depot

charging takes place only in plug-in mode

via the socket located in the shadow of the

tailgate, which allows a power between 30

and 100 kW. After all, here the battery’s task

is no longer to allow the entirety of the daily

service, but rather to act as an intermediate

storage system between the fuel cell and the

electric motor. In fact, the battery is powered

by the fuel cell and regenerative braking dur-

ing service.

It remains possible, in case of malfunctions

or specic needs, to opt for battery-only operation,

to activate which the workshop technicians

or the driver must perform a specic

procedure.

The real heart of the Solaris Urbino hydrogen

is the 70 kW FCmove-Hd fuel cell module

manufactured by the Canadian Ballard

Power Systems, the world’s leading player

in the supply of fuel cells for heavy commercial

vehicles, also thanks to collaborations

with Van Hool and with the UK-based

Wrightbus. Presented at Busworld in 2019,

the system represents the eighth generation

of the FCmove range and, according to data

mentioned by Ballard itself, brings with it a

reduction in volume and weight compared to

the previous model in terms of 40 and 35 percent

respectively. The system can start up at

temperatures down to -25 degrees Celsius. A

feature that will prove important in the harsh

South Tyrolean winters...

Five hydrogen tanks mounted on the roof,

and located longitudinally above the vehicle

rst axle, ensure a capacity of 312 liters each,

i.e. 1,560 liters totally, equal to approximately

37 kg. The equivalence to keep in mind

is the following: at room temperature, a kilo

of hydrogen corresponds to 42 liters (the operating

pressure is about 350 bar). Refueling

follows a rate of 6 kg per minute: the time

necessary to ll up the tank is just over six

minutes. Which, of course, also depends on

the technological level of the refueling system.

The rell nozzle is located on the right

side, close to the front door.

34

35


IN THE SPOTLIGHT

MAN LION’S CITY 12 E

NOW

THE LION

In the picture, the MAN

Lion’s City 12 E. It is

currently available in two

sizes: 12 and 18 metres, as

for the most popular diesel

and CNG models of the new

Lion’s City range.

IS MUTE

Highest battery capacity

and central motor manufactured

within Volkswagen

group. The interiors do not

change compared to the

traditional model. Mileage

is among the strengths

The MAN Lion’s City E is currently available

in two sizes: twelve and eighteen

metres, as for the most popular diesel

and CNG models of the new Lion’s City

range, from which the e-buses inherit most of

the manufacturing solutions.

MAN’s project is based on the choice of the highest

battery capacity. Batteries are of the NMC

(lithium ion) type and assembled in six or eight

modules of 80 kWh each, depending on the

length of the bus. It is thus possible to ensure

travel distances compatible with most of the

operating needs, thanks to a single daily charging

‘shift’ via plug-in cable (CCS2 standard).

In-line charging, on the other hand, is currently

not a possibility offered by the German

group. Among the future developments already

announced, however, there are a smaller battery

pack and a pantograph for charging. Rudi

Kuchta, head of the bus business unit at MAN

Truck & Bus, pointed out in an interview with

Sustainable Bus: «Our perspective is to have an

inverted or roof-mounted pantograph as an additional

option for charging in the depot but not

within the opportunity standard».

The e-powertrain challenge

Let’s now focus our attention on the vehicle currently

available. Among the various mindsets

- which prefer on the one hand the electrified

axle and on the other hand the ‘central’ motor

36

37


IN THE SPOTLIGHT

Among the future developments

there are a

smaller battery pack and

pantograph-charging. Rudi

Kuchta, MAN head of the

bus business unit, pointed

out: «Our perspective

is to have an inverted or

roof-mounted pantograph

as an additional option for

charging in the depot but

not within the opportunity

standard».

THE POWERTRAIN

Brand

Scania/MAN

Model

MG4115-1

Type

Central / PMI

Output max kW 240

Output cont. kW 160

Torque peak Nm 2,100

Torque cont. Nm 1,300

Battery formula

NMC

Battery capacity kWh 480

Cell provider

LG

with traditional portal axle - MAN has

turned to the latter solution. The permanent

magnet synchronous motor

has been designed and built within the

Volkswagen group and is also mounted

on some of the company’s trucks. It develops

a continuous power of about 160

kW and a peak of 240, with a torque

of 2,100 Nm. Downstream the motor

there is a gearbox unit with a ratio of

1:595, to which is added the differential

gearbox of 1:5.12. As already mentioned,

the portal axle is the traditional ZF

AV133, ‘anchored’ to the chassis with

two pairs of overlapping arms. It works

in tandem with PCV self-adaptive shock

absorbers that can handle the increased

roof load. When steering, however, drivers

would feel a clear difference with

a traditional bus, as the outward inclination

is quite evident, but this occurs

mainly with the vehicle empty and in

any case without triggering any roll.

An in-house developed motor

The driveline makes it possible to

reach a maximum speed of 83 km/h.

While driving, the left indicator on the

dashboard, instead of the tachometer

typical of the ICE version, provides

continuous information on traction, optimization

of the acceleration and energy

recovery during braking.

The load-bearing structure differs from

the other Lion’s City buses in some

reinforcements near the doors, the rear

header and the wheel arches. They are

still compliant with the ECE R66 regulation

on rollover resistance even with

more than 3 tons of batteries on the

roof. The roof itself is pre-assembled in

one piece, a key feature of the fourth

generation of the range.

Air conditioning in the passenger compartment

is provided by a 26 kW Eberspaecher

central unit with integrated

electric compressor, powered by high

voltage. The driver’s seat also benefits

from an Aurora front box with separate

7.3 kW evaporator, equipped with an air

quality sensor and capable of automatically

activating recirculation or intake

from outside. The heating of the passenger

compartment is made possible

partly by the heat pump of the roof unit

and partly by three high-voltage heaters

that distribute the water in traditional

THE ID CARD

Length/width/height mm 12,200 / 2,550 / 3,3200

Wheelbase mm 6,0055

Overhang front/rear mm 2,775 / 3,4055

Seats / capacity n 31 / 755

Width doors mm 950 - 9500

Internal height mm 2,4277

Front axle

MAN VOS-08-B-011

Rear axle

MAN HU-1330-B-000

wall-mounted convection heaters.

The passenger compartment is quite

bright and spacious, even though the

width of the corridor is conditioned by

the number of seats (more than thirty).

Seats and partitions are all cantilever,

then without anchorage to the floor,

for the benefit of better cleanability

and longer life of the floorboards and

upholstery.

The final considerations deal with the

bus capacity, which exceeds eighty passengers

only with a registration limit

mass of 19.5 tons, a value allowed in

almost all the EU countries.

38

39


COMPARISONS

FULL HYBRID BUSES

Full hybrid buses

are equipped with an

electric motor powered

by a group of storage

system (not necessarily

capacitors) charged

during braking and by

an internal combustion

engine, often downsized.

A BRIDGE TO ZE?

1,647 in 2018, 2,024 in 2019 and 2,733 in

2020 (+35%). A rise mainly due, frankly

speaking, to the spread of mild hybrids (we

reported on this technology on the September

2020 issue), which are characterized by

the absence of full electric mode. Full hybrid

models are the protagonists of the following

comparison.

Full hybrid buses are equipped with an electric

motor powered by a group of storage

system (not necessarily capacitors) which

is charged during braking and by an internal

combustion engine, often downsized, which

may contribute directly to the motion (parallel

hybrid) or only to the power supply and

battery charging (serial hybrid). Among full

hybrids we can also include the so-called

‘plug-in hybrids’, although such a technology

is not that widespread among buses. It

used to be offered by Volvo, but it was abandoned

with the launch of the S-Charge range

in 2019. Now ADL offers it thanks to BAE

System technology. In short, these vehicles

are equipped with an additional power outlet

that makes it possible to pre-charge the

batteries before the operation, making the

motion in electric mode even longer. The

aws? Higher purchase cost and lower passenger

capacity (given the additional weight

of the batteries). However, only the latter

OVER 12M...

LET’S GO HYBRID

Today, plug-in hybrid bus technology

plays a leading role in the transition

towards electric mobility carried

out by the Flemish operator De

Lijn, for which VDL has designed an

ad hoc concept. De Lijn has today

over 500 hybrid buses in operation.

As the company plans to offer only

zero emissions operations in the city

centers by 2025 and to complete

the conversion to ZE buses by 2035,

plug-in hybrid buses (De Lijn calls

them ‘e-hybrids’) are called to play

a crucial role. 44 units have been

ordered in 2021, and their purchase

goes along with the conversion of

280 hybrid buses (already belonging

to De Lijn’s fleet) into e-hybrids with

an electric range of up to 100 km.

The company has an additional need

for 166 articulated e-hybrids in order

to accelerate the phase out of

the Euro III buses.

Mainly, De Lijn is turning to hybrid

technology concerning articulated

buses. General Director Ann

Schoubs stated in June 2021 that

«At this moment, the market cannot

supply us with articulated electric

buses with sufficient zero-emission

range to meet our network requirements.

As articulated buses represent

a significant part of our fleet,

De Lijn is keen to introduce a greener

solution for this bus type in order

to improve air quality soonest».

Hybrid bus market is growing in Europe (also due to

mild hybrid models). Full hybrids are part of many

PTO’s transitions plans. Focus on Iveco, Scania, Solaris

and Volvo 12-meter vehicles

Those who had experienced the rst

generation of hybrid buses, about

twenty years ago, might probably

remember their low reliability, either

for the complexity of the project, for the

frailty of the equipment, or for the unavailability

and/or cost of spare parts.

Technological evolution and R&D on alternative

drives are now re-proposing the

mixed thermal/electric traction under a

brand-new perspective, although many consider

the hybrid bus only a ‘bridge’ to full

electric or rather an additional step on the

way to fuel cell bus deployment. However,

it is undeniable that at a time of economic

uncertainty and full of question marks about

what the bus of the future should be, the hybrid

concept is now an actual option indeed,

fully sustainable in terms of upfront cost and

signicantly more exible as for operation.

Let’s have a look at the market gures:

according to the consulting rm Chatrou -

CME Solutions and focusing on the Class

I segment, registrations of hybrid buses in

Western Europe have experienced four years

of remarkable growth: 1,332 vehicles in

2017 (down from 1,429 the previous year),

FOUR COMPETITORS IN A STRATEGIC SEGMENT

Iveco Bus Scania Solaris Volvo

Urbanway Hybrid Citywide LE hybrid Hybrid 7900 S-Charge

Length mm 12,000 11,985 12,000 12,134

Width mm 2,500 2,550 2,550 2,550

Height mm 3,291 3,360 3,100 3,280

Wheelbase mm 6,120 6,000 5,900 5,945

Overhang front / rear mm 2,710 / 3,170 2,645 / 3,340 2,700 / 3,400 2,704 / 3,485

Technology Parallel hybrid Parallel hybrid Series hybrid Parallel hybrid

ICE model Iveco Tector 7 Scania DC09 Cummins B4.5E6D210H Volvo D5K240

ICE cylinders / displacement l 6 / 6.7 5 / 9.3 4 / 4.5 4 / 5.1

ICE output kW 210 235 151 179

ICE torque Nm 1,000 1,600 - 918

Electric motor output max / cont. kW 195 / 120 130 / - 120 (145 as generator) 110 / 30

Electric motor torque max / cont. Nm 2,134 / 1,524 1030 / - - 800 / 400

Front axle Iveco RI75U - ZF RL82EC Volvo RFS-L

Rear axle ZF AV133 - ZF AV133 ZF AV133

Electric mode Yes Yes Yes Yes

Passenger capacity n 102 99 96 -

40

41


COMPARISONS

IVECO URBANWAY HYBRID

SCANIA CITYWIDE HYBRID

THE URBAN WAY

Instead of the gearbox there is a 120 kW electric

motor coupled to the 140 kW generator that

powers the ultracaps. It ensures a 40 percent

reduction in consumption

LOW ENTRY ONLY

Available only low entry version, it features a 147-

kW electric motor. The 12-speed transmission is

well suit also for suburban routes. Fuel savings? 20

to 25 % (unthinkable figures for a mild hybrid)

Conceptually very similar

to the Solaris serial hybrid

(which we will discuss later),

the Urbanway Hybrid is based

almost entirely on the Iveco city bus

platform, including the 6.7-liter Tector

engine in its 286-hp version.

The engine is placed in the same longitudinal

position of the diesel Urbanway,

while the electric motor replaces the gearbox.

The motor has no mechanical coupling

to the internal combustion engine.

The latter is instead connected to the 140

kW generator capable of powering the

0.82 kWh EDLC ultracaps with 200 kW

starting power. By means of two IGBT

power control units, the ultracaps manage

traction and the supply of on-board systems.

The electric ‘Arrive & Go’ function is activated

automatically when decelerating

below 20 km/h and allows the vehicle to

continue driving in zero emissions mode

until it stops or even without stopping.

Departing in ZE mode

When departing from bus stops, the

bus is able to proceed in ‘ZE mode’ for

about thirty meters. Then, the generator

manages the restart of the internal

combustion engine. Such an operation

mode is supposed to reduce carbon dioxide

emissions by 33 percent and fuel

consumption by up to 40 percent compared

to the Urbanway diesel, according

to figures released by the manufacturer

itself.

So far, the Iveco hybrid bus is employed

in several municipalities, such

as Brussels and Milan, with about 120

units on the road. In the Belgian (and

European) capital, an agreement for as

many as 141 vehicles was signed by

STIB-MIVB in 2018 and concerns articulated

models.

Although it was launched more than

ve years ago, Scania’s hybrid bus

has so far achieved quite low sales

volumes, perhaps because it is only

available in the low entry conguration,

which, in some markets, still arouses little

interest. In Germany, the very rst Scania

hybrid bus eet started operations in early

2020 under Regionalverkehr Erzgebirge

(RVE)’s livery. In the meanwhile, the Swedish

brand is nally ready to enter the market

of battery-electric buses, with the Citywide

BEV.

Back to the hybrid, it features lithium-ion

batteries and a parallel drive system where

the permanent magnet synchronous electric

motor delivering 130 kW is fully capable of

handling the entire motion at low speeds, in

addition to the start&stop function.

Scania telematics to monitor savings

The transmission is ensured by the automated

12-speed Scania Opticruise gearbox,

to which the electric motor is directly connected,

performing the so-called ‘hybrid

eco-roll’ function. The latter autonomously

manages to switch on and off the internal

combustion engine as needed. The traditional

9-litre diesel engine, which stands out

for being quite oversized on this application

compared to competitors, is then connected

to the gearbox coupling housing, with a

remarkable 235 kW output that allows it to

be used even at high speeds, where electric

power is no longer convenient.

The 24V power supply is also provided by

the battery pack via a 7.5 kW 650/24 VDC

converter, making alternators unnecessary.

In the case of the above mentioned German

eet, all the ve vehicles are equipped with

Scania telematics to monitor consumption

and savings at all times. Tests carried out

with SORT cycles seem to suggest fuel savings

between 20 and 25 percent, quite unthinkable

gures for a mild hybrid.

42

43


COMPARISONS

SOLARIS URBINO HYBRID

VOLVO 7900 S-CHARGE

DOWNSIZING!

Derived from the low entry diesel version, Solaris’

full hybrid bus features a 120-kW asynchronous

motor, while the Cummins engine delivers 151 kW.

Fuel savings? Estimated at 20 percent

UPDATED

The 7900 S-Charge was launched in 2019 and has

replaced the 7900 Hybrid. The plug-in hybrid is not

available anymore. The bus can run on electricity

for 1 km and up to 50 km/h

As further proof of the exibility

shown by the Polish manufacturer,

Solaris’ portfolio includes

also the Urbino full hybrid, derived

from the Urbino low oor. Since it is

based on serial hybrid technology, it uses

only the asynchronous electric motor for

traction, with a continuous power of 120

kilowatts (145 as generator).

Batteries or supercaps

In May 2021 the Polish bus builder got an

order for 30 vehicles from TMB Barcelona.

Depending on the customer’s requirements

and the service it is called to cover, the

traction batteries can be lithium-ion ones

or rather made with groups of supercapacitors

(all the latest orders are based on the

ultracaps, anyway). Batteries are charged

both by the bus decelerations and braking

and by the Cummins 4.5-liter (6.7 on the

articulated) internal combustion engine,

capable of delivering 151 kilowatts (220

on the 18-meter) once it is automatically

restarted immediately after the departure

from the stops. The additional 11.5-kW

electric motor acts as alternator as well as

starter motor.

The main advantage is therefore the Arrive

& Go mode associated with pure electric

starting, where normally the highest fuel

consumption (and therefore the peak of

carbon dioxide emissions) is recorded. This

function allows to turn off the bus engine

upon approach of a bus stop, and it turns the

engine on again when the vehicle sets off.

While in the Arrive & Go mode, the vehicles

may use the Acoustic Vehicle Alert

System (AVAS), which generates warning

sounds to alert pedestrians to the presence

of a vehicle with an electric drive.

At the end of the day, savings in consumption

are estimated at least 20 percent in

every condition, with peaks of over 30

percent.

Volvo Buses full hybrid model

range includes today a 12-metre

conguration under the name of

Volvo 7900 S-Charge and the articulated

bus Volvo 7900 S-Charge Articulated

(on the data sheet also a 10.6-meter

version is mentioned, being the shortest

size a result of a shorter wheelbase). It is

available also as bare chassis, the Volvo

B5L S-Charge, to be nalized as a single or

double decker. The new vehicle, launched

at Busworld in 2019, has replaced the 7900

Hybrid, while the Volvo 7900 Electric Hybrid

is not for sale anymore.

Electric propulsion can be used at speeds

of up to 50 km/h compared to the previous

20 km/h. Depending on climate and topography,

the Volvo S-Charge can run on electricity

for up to 1 km at a time.

The battery pack has a capacity of 8.9 kWh

and are charged via the energy that is generated

through brake energy recapturing.

Zero emissions in selected zones

The upgrade of Volvo hybrid bus range

also includes improved connectivity and

Volvo’s system for geo-fencing, Volvo

Zone Management, which makes it possible

for the operator to program the bus

so that it automatically switches to electric

propulsion within selected areas and has

its speed regulated without driver intervention.

It is also possible to dene zones

for sustained self-charging, to ensure emission-free

operation in an upcoming zero-emission

zone. Volvo S-Charge models

can be driven on electricity before arriving

at bus stops, while at a standstill for boarding

and exiting, and when leaving the bus

stop.

According to Volvo Buses’ own gures,

the 7900 S-Charge enables a reduction of

the carbon footprint by up to 40% compared

to an equivalent diesel buses. The

S-Charge can also drive on biofuel.

44

45


PORTFOLIO

ALL THE ELECTRIC BUS MODELS ON THE EUROPEAN MARKETS.

BATTERY-ELECTRIC / HYBRID / FUEL CELL / IMC TROLLEYBUSES

ADL

Enviro400 (mild hybrid)

Length mm 10,500 / 10,900

Passenger capacity n. 87

Electric motor / output kW ADL/14

Battery type

supercap

Battery capacity max kWh 1

Diesel engine CumminsB6.7

kW 187

Enviro400H (full hybrid)

Length mm 10,500 / 10,900

Passenger capacity n. 87

Electric motor / output kW BAE/195

Battery type

ultracap

Battery capacity max kWh 1

Diesel engine CumminsB4.5

kW 157

Aptis

Length mm 12,000

Passenger capacity n. 95

Motor / output kW Alstom / 180

Battery type Forsee Power / NMC

Battery capacity max kWh 350

Charging technology plug-in/SRS

BOLLORÉ

Blueblus 6

Length mm 5,460

Passenger seats n. 22

Motor type / kW Central / 50-90

Battery type

LMP

Battery capacity max kWh 111

Charging technology plug-in

Sileo S10/S12

Length mm 10,000 / 12,000

Passenger capacity n. 90

Motor / kW ZF AxTrax / 250

Battery type

LFP

Battery capacity max kWh 230

Charging technology plug-in

Sileo S18/S25

Length mm 18,000 / 25,000

Passenger capacity n. 136 / 210

Motor / kW 2 x ZF AxTrax / 500

Battery type

LFP

Battery capacity max kWh 346/452

Charging technology plug-in

BYD

Enviro400HR

(plug-in hybrid)

Length mm 10,500 / 10,900

Passenger capacity n. 87

Electric motor / output kW BAE/195

Battery type

NMC

Battery capacity max kWh 32

Diesel engine CumminsB4.5

kW 157

ALSTOM

Blueblus 12

Length mm 12,000

Passenger capacity n. 109

Motor type / kW Central / 160

Battery type

LMP

Battery capacity max kWh 272

Charging technology plug-in

BOZANKAYA

Midibus 8.7

Length mm 8,700

Passenger seats n. 22

Motor / output kW BYD / 90x2

Battery type

BYD / LFP

Battery capacity max kWh -

Charging technology plug-in

46

12-18 eBus

Length mm 12,200 / 18,250

Passenger seats n. -

Motor / output kW BYD / 150x2

Battery type

BYD / LFP

Battery capacity max kWh -

Charging technology plug-in


PORTFOLIO

ALL THE ELECTRIC BUS MODELS ON THE EUROPEAN MARKETS.

BATTERY-ELECTRIC / HYBRID / FUEL CELL / IMC TROLLEYBUSES

ADL

Enviro400 (mild hybrid)

Length mm 10,500 / 10,900

Passenger capacity n. 87

Electric motor / output kW ADL/14

Battery type

supercap

Battery capacity max kWh 1

Diesel engine CumminsB6.7

kW 187

Enviro400H (full hybrid)

Length mm 10,500 / 10,900

Passenger capacity n. 87

Electric motor / output kW BAE/195

Battery type

ultracap

Battery capacity max kWh 1

Diesel engine CumminsB4.5

kW 157

Aptis

Length mm 12,000

Passenger capacity n. 95

Motor / output kW Alstom / 180

Battery type Forsee Power / NMC

Battery capacity max kWh 350

Charging technology plug-in/SRS

BOLLORÉ

Blueblus 6

Length mm 5,460

Passenger seats n. 22

Motor type / kW Central / 50-90

Battery type

LMP

Battery capacity max kWh 111

Charging technology plug-in

Sileo S10/S12

Length mm 10,000 / 12,000

Passenger capacity n. 90

Motor / kW ZF AxTrax / 250

Battery type

LFP

Battery capacity max kWh 230

Charging technology plug-in

Sileo S18/S25

Length mm 18,000 / 25,000

Passenger capacity n. 136 / 210

Motor / kW 2 x ZF AxTrax / 500

Battery type

LFP

Battery capacity max kWh 346/452

Charging technology plug-in

BYD

Enviro400HR

(plug-in hybrid)

Length mm 10,500 / 10,900

Passenger capacity n. 87

Electric motor / output kW BAE/195

Battery type

NMC

Battery capacity max kWh 32

Diesel engine CumminsB4.5

kW 157

ALSTOM

Blueblus 12

Length mm 12,000

Passenger capacity n. 109

Motor type / kW Central / 160

Battery type

LMP

Battery capacity max kWh 272

Charging technology plug-in

BOZANKAYA

Midibus 8.7

Length mm 8,700

Passenger seats n. 22

Motor / output kW BYD / 90x2

Battery type

BYD / LFP

Battery capacity max kWh -

Charging technology plug-in

46

12-18 eBus

Length mm 12,200 / 18,250

Passenger seats n. -

Motor / output kW BYD / 150x2

Battery type

BYD / LFP

Battery capacity max kWh -

Charging technology plug-in


PORTFOLIO

ALL THE ELECTRIC BUS MODELS ON THE EUROPEAN MARKETS.

BATTERY-ELECTRIC / HYBRID / FUEL CELL / IMC TROLLEYBUSES

lighTram 19/25 DC

Length mm 18,750 / 24,750

Passenger capacity n. 155 / 224

Motor / kW TSA / -

Battery type -

Battery capacity max kWh 45

Charging technology pantograph

HEULIEZ

GX 137C Elec

Length mm 9,510

Passenger capacity n. 69

Motor / kW BAE Systems / 160

Battery type Forsee Power NMC

Battery capacity max kWh 245

Charging technology plug-in

GX 137L Elec

Length mm 10,700

Passenger capacity n. 90

Motor / kW BAE Systems / 160

Battery type Forsee Power NMC

Battery capacity max kWh 350

Charging technology plug-in

E-WAY Full Electric 9.5

Length mm 9,510

Passenger seats n. 16

Motor / kW BAE Systems /160

Battery type

NMC

Battery capacity max kWh 210

Charging technology plug-in

E-WAY Full Electric 12

Length mm 12,060

Passenger seats n. 24/26

Motor type / kW Synchr. / 190

Battery type

LTO/NMC

Battery capacity max kWh 385/88

Charging technology plug-in / pant.

E-WAY Full Electric 18

Length mm 17,970

Passenger seats n. 42

Motor type / kW Synchr. / 190

Battery type

LTO

Battery capacity max kWh 250

Charging technology plug-in / pant.

IRIZAR E-MOBILITY

ie bus 10,8/12

Length mm 10,850 / 12,160

Passenger capacity n. 76 / 95

Motor / output kW Irizar / 180

Battery type

Lithium-ion

Battery capacity max kWh 350

Charging technology plug-in/pant.

ie bus 15/18

Length mm 14,980 / 18,730

Passenger capacity n. 105 / 155

Motor / kW Irizar / 235

Battery type

Lithium-ion

Battery capacity max kWh 525

Charging technology plug-in/pant.

MANAGE ALL YOUR BUSES AND

CHARGERS IN ONE PLATFORM

GX 337 Elec

Length mm 11,860

Passenger capacity n. 100

Motor / kW BAE Systems / 190

Battery Forsee Power LTO / NMC

Battery capacity max kWh 88 / 350

Charging technology plug-in / pant.

GX 437 Elec

Length mm 17,970

Passenger seats n. 17

Motor / kW BAE Systems / 200

Battery Forsee Power LTO/NMC

Battery capacity max kWh 350

Charging technology plug-in / pant.

Crealis In-Motion-Charging

Length mm 18,559

Passenger seats n. 35

Motor / kW - / 250

Battery type

LMP

Battery capacity max kWh -

Charging technology IMC

ie tram 12/18

Length mm 12,165 / 18,730

Passenger capacity n. 99 / 155

Motor / kW Irizar / 190-235

Battery type

Lithium-ion

Battery capacity max kWh 350/525

Charging technology plug-in/pant.

Trusted by leading operators

IVECO BUS

ISUZU

Urbanway Hybrid 12/18

Length mm 12,000 / 17,910

Passenger seats n. 36/49

Motor / kW BAE / 140 - 200

Battery type

NMC

Battery capacity max kWh 32

Diesel engine Tector 7 235 kW

Go to

www.viriciti.com

50


PORTFOLIO

ALL THE ELECTRIC BUS MODELS ON THE EUROPEAN MARKETS.

BATTERY-ELECTRIC / HYBRID / FUEL CELL / IMC TROLLEYBUSES

Citivolt 12

Length mm 12,000

Passenger seats n. 90

Motor / kW Siemens / 230

Battery type

Lithium-ion

Battery capacity max kWh 351

Charging technology plug-in

KARSAN

Pev 10/12

Length mm 10,500/11,980

Passenger n. -/-

Motor / kW -/-

Battery type

LFP

Battery capacity max kWh 326/350

Charging technology plug-in

Lion’s City 12*/18* hybrid

Length mm 12,185/18,060

Passenger capacity n. 101/140

Electric motor / kW MAN/12

Battery type -

Battery capacity max kWh -

Diesel engine/kW MAN D15/243-265

*available with CNG engine

MERCEDES

Jest Electric

Length mm 5,845

Passenger capacity n. 25

Motor / kW BMW / 125

Battery type BMW / Lithium-ion

Battery capacity max kWh 88

Charging technology plug-in

E10/12 Hybrid

Length mm 10,500/12,200

Passenger capacity n. 66/83

Electric motor Green Control System

Battery type -

Battery capacity max kWh -

Diesel engine/kW Cummins / 290

MAN

eCitaro 12/18

Length mm 12,135 / 18,125

Passenger capacity n. 80* / 136*

Motor / kW ZF AxTrax / 250

Battery type Akasol / NMC

Battery capacity max kWh 292 / 292

Charging technology plug-in

*with max battery capacity

Atak Electric

Length mm 8,315

Passenger capacity n. 52

Motor / kW TM4 / 230

Battery type BMW / Lithium-ion

Battery capacity max kWh 220

Charging technology plug-in

KING LONG

Lion’s City E 12/18

Length mm 12,185 / 18,060

Passenger capacity n. 85 / 120

Motor / kW Traton / 270 - 540

Battery type

Lithium-ion

Battery capacity max kWh 480/640

Charging technology plug-in

Citaro Hybrid 12*/18*

Length mm 12,185 / 18,060

Passenger n. 101 / 140

Electric motor type -

Battery type -

Battery capacity max kWh -

Diesel engine type/kW OM 936/300

*available with CNG engine

OTOKAR

52


PORTFOLIO

ALL THE ELECTRIC BUS MODELS ON THE EUROPEAN MARKETS.

BATTERY-ELECTRIC / HYBRID / FUEL CELL / IMC TROLLEYBUSES

e-Kent C

Length mm 12,000

Passenger capacity n. 95

Motor / kW ZF AxTrax / 250

Battery type Webasto / NMC

Battery capacity max kWh 280

Charging technology plug-in

RAFAKO

E-bus

Length mm 8,400

Passenger capacity n. 65

Motor / kW PM / 140

Battery type

LTO / NMC

Battery capacity max kWh 61 / 144

Charging technology plug-in

RAMPINI

Businova Electric

Length mm 9,530 / 10,550 / 12,000

Passenger capacity n. 60 to 106

Motor / kW TM4 / 250

Battery type

Safra / LFP

Battery capacity max kWh 132

Charging technology 80 to 350 kWh

Businova Fuel Cell

Length mm 10,550 / 12,000

Passenger capacity n. 65 to 96

Motor / kW TM4 / 250

Fuel cell module / kW Symbio / 30

Battery Safra / LFP / 132 kWh

Businova Hybrid

Length mm 9,530 / 10,550 / 12,000

Passenger seats n. 60 to 106

Electric motor / kW TM4 / 250

Diesel engine 80 kW / 3,5l

Battery type

Safra / LFP

Battery capacity kWh 132

SCANIA

SOLARIS

Urbino electric 8.9/12

Length mm 8,900 / 12,000

Passenger seats max n. 24/38

Motor ZF AxTrax-TSA / 250-160

Battery type

LTO / NMC

Battery cap. kWh 150 - 203 / 300 - 395

Charging technology plug-in/pant.

Urbino electric 18/24

Length mm 18,000 / 24,700

Passenger seats max n. 48 / 69

Motor

ZF AxTrax / TSA

Battery type

LTO / NMC

Battery capacity kWh 203/350/553

Charging technology plug-in/pant.

E60/E80

Length mm 6,110 / 7,790

Passenger capacity n. 35/46

Motor / kW

Siemens/122

Battery type Rampini / -

Battery capacity max kWh 170/200

Charging technology plug-in

SAFRA

Citywide BEV

Length mm 12,000

Passenger capacity n. 80

Motor / kW PM / 300

Battery type

Lithium ion

Battery capacity max kWh 250

Charging tech. plug-in / pant.

Urbino 12 hydrogen

Length mm 12,000

Passenger seats max n. 37

Motor / kW ZF AxTrax / 250

Fuel cell module

Ballard

Fuel cell module power kW 70

Battery High Power / 30 kWh

Hydrogen capacity kg 5 x 37,5

54

Citywide Hybrid

Length mm 12,005 / 14,900

Passenger seats max n. 37 / 49

Electric motor output kW 150

Diesel eng./hp Scania DC09/280-320

Battery type -

Battery capacity kWh -


PORTFOLIO

ALL THE ELECTRIC BUS MODELS ON THE EUROPEAN MARKETS.

BATTERY-ELECTRIC / HYBRID / FUEL CELL / IMC TROLLEYBUSES

PORTFOLIO

ALL THE ELECTRIC BUS MODELS ON THE EUROPEAN MARKETS.

BATTERY-ELECTRIC / HYBRID / FUEL CELL / IMC TROLLEYBUSES

Urbino hybrid 12/18

Length mm 12,000 / 18,000

Seated max n. 37 / 49

Electric motor / kW central/120-200

Diesel engine / hp Cummins / 120

Battery type

Supercap

Battery capacity kWh 0.82

Trollino

Length mm 12,000/18,000/24,000

Passenger seats max n. 39/53/69

Motor / kW TSA-Skoda / 160-250

Battery type

Solaris LTO

Battery capacity kWh 30-90

Charging technologies Pant. / IMC

TEMSA

MD9 electriCITY

Length mm 9,496

Passenger seats n. 26

Motor / kW

TM4/250

Battery type

NMC

Battery capacity max kWh 200

Charging technology plug-in

VAN HOOL

A330 Fuel Cell 6W

Length mm 11,995

Passenger capacity n. 78

Motor type 1/kW Siemens PEM2016/ 160

Motor type 2/kW Siemens PEM2016/ 210

Fuel cell Ballard FC Velocity HD 85

Battery capacity max kWh 24 / 36

Hydrogen capacity l/kg 1,600/ 38.5

Fuel Cell 8W

Length mm 13,155

Passenger seats n. 41

Motor / kW Siemens PEM2022/210

Fuel cell Ballard FC Velocity HD 85 - 100

Battery capacity max kWh 24 / 36

Hydrogen capacity l/kg 1.600 / 38.5

A309 diesel-hybrid

Length mm 9,990

Passenger seats n. 21

Electric motor Siemens 1DB2016B06

Battery supplier

Actia

Battery capacity max kWh 24

Diesel engine/kW Cummins ISB 4,5/157

Exqui.City18 diesel-hybrid

Length mm 18,610

Passenger capacity n. 42

Motor type 1/kW Siemens PEM2016/ 160

Motor type 2/kW Siemens PEM2022/ 210

Battery supplier

Actia

Battery capacity max kWh 24 / 36

Diesel eng./kW Cummins ISB 6.7/209

Exqui.City24 diesel-hybrid

Length mm 23,820

Passenger capacity n. 61

Electric motor / kW Siemens PEM/ 2x160

Battery supplier

Actia

Battery capacity max kWh 2x24/36

Diesel eng./kW Cummins ISB 6.7/209

Exqui.City24 CNG-hybrid

Length mm 23,820

Passenger capacity n. 60

Electric motor/kW Siemens PEM/2x160

Battery supplier

Actia

Battery capacity max kWh 36

Engine / kW FPT CNG / 221

VDL

Citea SLF-120 Electric

Length mm 12,456

Passenger capacity n. 55

Motor/kW Siemens 1DB2016/160

Battery type -

Battery capacity standard kWh 216

Charging technology plug-in/pant.

Citea SLE-120/129 Electric

Length mm 12,000 / 12,900

Passenger capacity n. 80 / 75

Motor/kW Siemens 1DB2016/160

Battery type -

Battery capacity standard kWh 216

Charging technology plug-in/pant.

Citea LLE-99/115 Electric

Length mm 9,950 / 11,500

Passenger capacity n. 62 / 65

Motor/kW Siemens 1DB2016/160

Battery type -

Battery capacity standard kWh 216

Charging technology plug-in/pant.

Citea SLFA-180/181/187 Elec.

Length mm 18,000 / 18,150 / 18,750

Passenger capacity n. 130/130/125

Motor/kW Siemens 1DB2022/240

Battery type -

Battery capacity standard kWh 216

Charging technology plug-in/pant.

VOLVO

A new breath in your city

7900 Electric

Length mm 12,000

Passenger capacity n. 98

Motor / kW Volvo / 200

Battery type

Lithium-ion

Battery capacity kWh 150/200/250

Charging technology plug-in/pant.

www.otokareurope.com

Avenue Electron

Length mm 12,095

Passenger n. -

Motor / kW TM4 / 250

Battery type

NMC

Battery capacity max kWh 150

Charging technology plug-in

Exqui.City 18 Fuel Cell

Length mm 18,230

Passenger capacity n. 125

Motor type 1/kW Siemens PEM2016/ 160

Motor type 2/kW Siemens PEM2022/ 210

Fuel cell Ballard FC Velocity HD 100

Battery capacity max kWh 36

Hydrogen capacity l/kg 1,600 / 38.5

Exqui.City18 Trolley

Length mm 18,610

Passenger seats n. 41

Motor type/kW 2x Kiepe TSA TMF/160

Battery type

Kiepe

Battery capacity max kWh 2x15

Pantograph

Kiepe

Exqui.City24 Trolley

Length mm 23,820

Passenger seats n. 51

Motor type/kW 2xKiepe TSA TMF/160

Battery type

Kiepe

Battery capacity max kWh 2x20

Pantograph

Kiepe

100% Electric

Zero Emission

Zero noise pollution

56

57


PORTFOLIO

SUPPLEMENT

Mobility, smart city

Culture, technology and market of

low and zero emission buses

Established 1991

Editor in chief

Stefano Agnellini

Managing editor

Riccardo Schiavo

Editorial staff

Fabio Butturi, Ornella Cavalli,

Fabrizio Dalle Nogare, Cristina Scuteri,

Alberto Gimmelli

7900 Electric Articulated

Length mm 18,000/ 18,700

Passenger capacity n. 150

Motor / kW Volvo / 2 x 200

Battery type

Lithium-ion

Battery capacity kWh 250/300

Charging technology plug-in/pant.

7900 Hybrid Articulated

Length mm 18,000 / 18,700

Passenger capacity n. 100 / 154

Electric motor / kW Volvo / 130

Battery type

Lithium-ion

Battery capacity max kWh 8/9

Charging Oppcharge / CCS

Diesel engine/hp Volvo D5/240

Layout & graphics

Marco Zanusso (manager)

Editorial management

Fabio Zammaretti

Printing

Industrie Grache RGM srl,

Rozzano (Mi)

Milano City Court Authorization

n. 860 – December 18th 1987 National

Press Register n. 4596 – April 20th 1994

Poste Italiane Inc. – Mail subscription

D.L. 353/2003 (mod. in L. 27/02/2004 n°

46) Art. 1, subsection 1, LO/MI

YUTONG

VADO E TORNO

EDIZIONI

MANAGEMENT

ADMINISTRATION

via Brembo 27 - 20139 Milano.

Tel. 02/55230950

Website

www.sustainable-bus.com

ADVERTISING

7900 Electric Hybrid

Length mm 12,000

Passenger capacity n. 98

Electric motor / kW Volvo / 200

Battery type

Lithium-ion

Battery capacity max kWh 19

Charging technology Oppcharge

Diesel engine/hp Volvo D5/240

E12

Length mm 12,170

Passenger capacity n. 73

Motor/kW Yutong YTM280-CV9-H/350

Battery supplier

CATL

Battery capacity max kWh 422

Charging technology plug-in

Management

via Brembo 27

20139 Milano

tel. 02 55230950

e-mail: pubblicita@vadoetornoedizioni.it

Head of Sales

Luca Brusegani

Sales agents

Roberto Menchinelli (Roma)

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Vado e Torno Edizioni srl,

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E-Mail

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Copyright 2021 Vado e Torno Edizioni

©️Voith GmbH & Co. KGaA

Atomium – Unit cell of an -iron crystal magnified

165 billion times. TSA’s Electric Motor – Minimized to

fit any eco-friendly and sustainable e-bus.

On the ROAD. Innovative traction motors for electric buses.

A steady and reliable heartbeat in electric buses, commercial vehicles and rolling stock: We have been moving

millions of people and goods around the world for more than 60 years. As an independent manufacturer of

electromechanical drives for rail and road transport vehicles, we know how electric mobility works. Our solutions

implement mobility needs and requests in a sustainable, economic and convenient way.

INNOVATIVE. INDEPENDENT. IMPASSIONED.

BEWIRB DICH

JETZT HIER!

58

7900 Hybrid

Length mm 10,600/12,000

Passenger capacity n. 90

Electric motor / kW Volvo / 110

Battery type

Lithium-ion

Battery capacity max kWh 9

Diesel engine/hp Volvo D5/240

Yutong ICe12 (coach)

Length mm 12,465

Passenger capacity n. 49/59

Motor/kW Yutong TZ368XSYTB38/350

Battery type

CATL

Battery capacity max kWh 422

Charging technology plug-in

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