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CIIDT 2021

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CIIDT 2021




Abstract Book

DATE | 13 OCTOBER 2021

TIME | 9:00 AM TO 5:30 PM


CIIDT 2021


Pusat Teknologi Pengajaran dan Multimedia


Universiti Sains Malaysia,

11800 USM Penang,


Website: www.ptpm.usm.my

CIIDT 2021


Kagawa College


Silpakorn University

Department of Curriculum and Instruction


Multimedia University


Prince Songkla Universiti






CIIDT 2021


Ts. Dr. Jeya Amantha Kumar

Ts. Dr. Nur Azlina Mohamed Mokmin

Prof. Dr. Mona Masood


Pusat Teknologi Pengajaran dan Multimedia (PTPM), Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800

Gelugor, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

Tel: +604-653 3222 / 3224 / 3226

Fax: +604-653 2375

©Copyright PTPM 2021.

All right reserved. No part of this publication may be stored in a retrieval system, or

transmitted in any form or by means, electronic, mechanical, photocopy, recording, or

otherwise, without the prior permission in writing from the Director of Pusat Teknologi

Pengajaran dan Multimedia (PTPM), Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Gelugor, Pulau

Pinang, Malaysia. The individual work remains the intellectual properties of the


Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia e ISBN 978-967-2619-70-3

CIIDT 2021


Dear Colleagues and Friends,

Assalamualaikum and greetings from the Centre for Instructional Technology and

Multimedia, Universiti Sains Malaysia. It is with great pleasure that we welcome you to

the 2nd International Conference on Creativity and Innovation in Instructional Digital

Technology (CIIDT 2021). The aim of CIIDT2021 is to promote research and facilitate

the exchange of new ideas in Instructional Digital Technology through oral presentations

and distinguished keynote speeches by experts in the field such as Prof. Ts. Dr. Neo Mai

(Multimedia University) and Prof. Dr. Wan Mohd Fauzy Wan Ismail (Sultan Qaboos

University, Oman).

This year, we have participants from local and international researchers, experts, and

practitioners to share their ideas, findings, and research outcomes in various aspects

related to Instructional Digital Technology. We are also hosting an avenue for

postgraduate students from Prince of Songkla University, Thailand, and our own

postgraduate students to share their research work as a postgraduate colloquium. Such

opportunity is imperative in articulating their research topic while practicing their

presentation skills, and this has been possible due to the virtual nature of CIIDT 2021 due

to the pandemic. While the COVID-19 pandemic is, first and foremost, a health crisis

impacting higher education, we must use this experience to become better educational

providers. To support this aim, CIIDT offers the opportunity for us to discuss and share

our practice and strategies in this new normal. Therefore, this year, the theme “New

Normal in Instruction and Learning in Digital Age” was chosen, and we would like to

thank all participants at this conference for sharing your research that has made the goal

of this conference achievable.

Following, this conference would not have taken place without the support of Professor

Dato’ Dr. Faisal Rafiq Mahamd Adikan (Vice-Chancellor of USM) and Professor Wan

Ahmad Jaafar Wan Yahaya (Director of PTPM). I would also like to take this opportunity

to thank all committee members of CIIDT 2021 for their commitments and dedication.


CIIDT 2021

Without the endless effort and hard work of the conference secretary, publication team,

promotion and publicity team, website, technical and digital documentation team,

reviewers, treasurer, and secretariat CIIDT 2021 could not be a reality. Therefore, my

sincere thanks to each and every one of you who have helped throughout the preparation

of this conference and making it a success.

Please have a fruitful and valuable experience and enjoy the presentations.

Thank you.

Prof. Dr. Mona Masood

CIIDT 2021 Conference Chair

Deputy Director (Academic, Career &


Centre for Instructional Technology and



CIIDT 2021



Prof. Dr. Wan Ahmad Jaafar Wan Yahaya

Conference Chair

Prof. Dr. Mona Masood


Dr. Nurullizam Jamiat

Assistant Secretary

Mdm. Nur Haziqah Zulkipli


Dr. Siti Nazleen Abdul Rabu

Mdm. Awalia Hanif Burhanuddin


Prof. Dr. Mona Masood (Head)

Prof. Dr. Irfan Naufal Umar

Dr. Reem Baragash

Ts. Dr. Jeya Amantha Kumar

Ts. Dr. Nur Azlina Mohamed Mokmin


CIIDT 2021

Promotion and Publicity

Dr. Mariam Mohamad

Ts. Dr. Irwan Mahazir Ismail

Mr. Abd Haris Harun

Website, Technical and Digital Documentation

Mdm. Zunairah Mokhtar

Ms. Ayda Fatahiyah Abd Malek

Mr. Ridzawan Abdullah

Mr. Mohammad Faiz Isahak

Mr. Mohd Faizal Ishak

Mdm. Faizah Atan

Creative Media Production

AV Technical


Mdm. Mu’azzah Ismail

Master of ceremonies

Mr. Afiq Fahim Md Yusof


CIIDT 2021

Scientific Committee

Prof. Dr. Wan Ahmad Jaafar Wan Yahaya

Prof. Dr. Mona Masood

Dr. Chau Kien Tsong

Prof. Dr. Irfan Naufal Umar

Dr. Mariam Mohamad

Dr. Siti Nazleen Abdul Rabu

Dr. Tan Yun Yi

Dr. Nurullizam Jamiat

Ts. Dr. Jeya Amantha A/P David P. Kumar

Ts. Dr. Nur Azlina Mohamed Mokmin

Ts. Dr. Mageswaran A/L Sanmugam

Ts. Dr. Irwan Mahazir Ismail

Dr. Reem Sulaiman Baragash


CIIDT 2021

Table of Contents


Conference Chair Welcome

Committee Members

Scientific Committee




Extended Abstracts



Norazlinda Saad dan Surendran Sankaran




Surendran Sankaran dan Norazlinda Saad



Siti Sarah Ismail dan Muhammad Helmi Norman




Nurullizam Jamiat, Norazila Azmi and Chau Kien Tsong


J-Ho Siew Ching, Goh Eg Su and Wong Seng Yue



Azidah Abu Ziden, Adu Emmanuel Ifedayo and Aziah Binti Ismail




Wan Nor Ashiqin Wan Ali and Wan Ahmad Jaafar Wan Yahaya



Omar Abdullah Omar Altamimi, Mona Masood and Chau Kein Tsong


CIIDT 2021




Parameshvaran Varaman, Jeya Amantha Kumar and Siti Nazleen Abdul Rabu



Saidatul Ainoor Shaharim, Nor Asniza Ishak, Rozniza Zaharudin

and Wan Nasriha Wan Mohamed Salleh



Ling Wu, Kien Tsong Chau and Wan Ahmad Jaafar Wan Yahaya



Nur Yasmin Khairani Zakaria, Siti Nazleen Abdul Rabu and Amelia Abdullah



Chun Cao, Chau Kien Tsong and Mona Masood




Liang Hong and Siti Rohaida Mohamed Zainal



Fakhitah Ridzuan and Norehan Mokhtar




Siok Inn Tan and Kok Chian Tam


CIIDT 2021

Extended Abstract


CIIDT 2021



Norazlinda Saad 1 dan Surendran Sankaran 1

1Universiti Utara Malaysia


Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengenal pasti Kemahiran dan Kesediaan terhadap Topik e-

Keusahawanan dalam kalangan pelajar Sarjana Muda. Graduan yang dilahirkan di institusi

pendidikan tinggi perlu dibentuk dan dididik sebagai job creator serta bertindak lebih

entrepreneurial terhadap sumber pendanaan pendidikan tinggi untuk mengurangkan

kebergantungan kepada sumber kerajaan. Tujuan utama seseorang pelajar mendapat

pendidikan tinggi adalah untuk melayakkan mereka mendapat pekerjaan yang menjanjikan

masa hadapan yang baik sama ada sebagai seorang pekerja atau usahawan. Universiti sebagai

pusat keusahawanan perlu memainkan peranan yang besar dalam memupuk persekitaran e-

Keusahawanan. Kesediaan pelajar universiti terhadap e-Keusahawanan memainkan peranan

penting bagi seseorang pelajar untuk melibatkan diri dalam bidang e-keusahawanan. Kesediaan

pelajar terhadap topik e-Keusahawanan adalah orientasi mental seperti keinginan, hasrat dan

harapan pelajar yang dapat mempengaruhi pilihan bidang e-Keusahawanan. Kemahiran e-

Keusahawanan membantu pelajar untuk berusaha mempelajari sesuatu, sama ada melalui

pengalaman atau pembelajaran formal bagi membantu pelajar membina gelagat


Pendidikan Keusahawanan amat penting untuk memberi pendedahan kepada bidang e-

Keusahawanan dan anjakan minda daripada job seeker kepada job creator. Laporan

Pemantauan Keusahawanan Global (GEM, 2013) menunjukkan bahawa 41.8% masyarakat

Malaysia menganggap keusahawanan sebagai pilihan kerjaya yang baik. Menurut Perbadanan

Produktiviti Malaysia (MPC, 2015), majoriti IPT telah menjadikan pembangunan dan

pendidikan keusahawanan sebagai salah satu agenda utama dan petunjuk prestasi institusi

masing-masing. Dasar Keusahawanan Nasional dan Pelan Tindakan Keusahawanan IPT 2021-

2025 memberi impak yang positif terhadap kesediaan pelajar untuk menceburi bidang

keusahawanan. Hal ini dijelaskan lagi dengan kajian oleh Farhana (2013) yang mendapati

bidang keusahawanan dikatakan penting bagi melahirkan lebih ramai usahawan yang

mempunyai pengetahuan dan kemahiran dalam menjalani perniagaan.

Sejak tahun 2010 institusi pengajian tinggi yang menawarkan program pendidikan telah

diminta untuk mula bersedia menawarkan program secara pasaran terbuka (open market).

Maka satu inisiatif untuk melaksanakan program yang dapat mempersiap siagakan pelajar

program pendidikan perlu dilaksanakan bagi memastikan pelajar dapat pendedahan kepada

ilmu, kemahiran dan nilai tambah dalam bidang keusahawanan. Penerapan minda

keusahawanan dalam sistem pendidikan adalah penting untuk menghasilkan graduan menjadi

usahawan (Iklima Husna, Marry, Ahmad Shakani & Sharon, 2020). Dapatan kajian

menunjukkan tahap kesediaan pelajar Ijazah Sarjana Muda Pendidikan (ISMP) terhadap topik

e-Keusahawanan adalah tinggi. Dapatan kajian juga menunjukkan terdapat hubungan yang

signifikan dan positif antara kemahiran dan kesediaan terhadap topik e-Keusahawanan dalam

kalangan pelajar ISMP serta koefisien korelasi adalah tinggi.


CIIDT 2021


Kajian ini menggunakan pendekatan kuantitatif berbentuk korelasi. Populasi kajian ini adalah

pelajar ISMP. Teknik persampelan bertujuan digunakan untuk memilih sampel kajian. Seramai

148 orang pelajar telah terlibat sebagai sampel kajian. Soal selidik digunakan sebagai

instrumen utama dalam kajian ini. Borang soal selidik yang diadaptasi daripada Harris et al.

(2007) dan Mohd Noor et al. (2006) mengandungi 70 item. Instrumen kemahiran dan kesediaan

terhadap topik e-Keusahawanan mempunyai nilai pekali Cronbach alpha yang tinggi iaitu

masing-masing 0.89 dan 0.91. Data yang dikumpul dianalisis dengan menggunakan statistik

deskriptif (peratus & min) dan statistik inferensi (Korelasi).


Dapatan kajian ini menunjukkan bahawa daripada sejumlah 148 orang responden yang terlibat

dalam kajian ini didapati bahawa majoriti responden adalah terdiri daripada pelajar perempuan.

Taburan menunjukkan bahawa responden perempuan adalah seramai 115 orang (77.7%)

manakala lelaki hanya 33 orang (22.3%). Manakala, analisis deskriptif bagi variabel bersandar

iaitu tahap kesediaan pelajar ISMP terhadap topik e-Keusahawanan. Dapatan menunjukkan

bahawa tahap kesediaan pelajar ISMP terhadap topik e-Keusahawanan adalah tinggi. Min

keseluruhan yang diperolehi adalah 3.45 (sp= 0.83). Nilai minimum min Kesediaan Pelajar

ISMP terhadap toik e-Keusahawanan adalah 1.00, manakala nilai maksimumnya adalah 4.75.

Bagi variabel kemahiran mempunyai hubungan yang signifikan (r=.68, p=0.000) dengan

kesediaan terhadap topik e-Keusahawanan. Koefisien korelasi menunjukkan hubungan yang

tinggi (Hall, 2004) dan positif wujud antara kemahiran dan kesediaan terhadap topik e-

Keusahawanan. Norazlina (2011) menyatakan bahawa tahap kemahiran mempunyai hubungan

yang langsung dengan penglibatan dalam e-Keusahawanan. Hamzah, Mohammad, Narimah,

Norshahrizan dan Ku Amir (2009) dan Nor Aishah (2006) menyatakan bahawa tahap

kemahiran pelajar terhadap bidang e-keusahawanan akan menjadi penentu kepada kesediaan

dan penglibatan pelajar dalam bidang keusahawanan. Hal ini mengukuhkan dapatan bahawa

peningkatan kemahiran turut menyebabkan peningkatan dalam kesediaan terhadap topik e-



Situasi pandemik Covid-19 sebenarnya menjadi pencetus kepada kesediaan para pelajar dalam

menghadapi cabaran melibatkan diri dalam keusahawanan digital. Ledakan perubahan arus

teknologi yang berkaitan dengan Revolusi Industri 4.0 turut memaksa para pelajar

melengkapkan diri dengan kemahiran teknologi digital. Oleh itu, melalui program yang telah

dilaksanakan, dapatan kajian ini menjelaskan bahawa para pelajar perlu diberi lebih

pendedahan kepada aspek e-Keusahawanan supaya dapat meningkatkan kemahiran seterusnya

bersedia menceburi bidang e-Keusahawanan. Pihak universiti perlu mengadakan pelbagai

aktiviti, latihan, bengkel dan kursus-kursus secara berterusan untuk memberi pendedahan

kepada para pelajar tentang e-keusahawanan supaya dapat meningkatkan kesediaan terhadap

topik e-Keusahawanan. Apabila program-program keusahawanan begini dilaksanakan secara

menyeluruh, konsisten dan berterusan di peringkat pusat pengajian dan para pensyarah

memainkan peranan yang bersepadu dalam menggabungjlain elemen e-keusahawanan dalam

kursus-kursus ditambah dengan sokongan dan galakan daripada pusat keusahawanan universiti

dan KPT nescaya hasrat untuk melahirkan pelajar yang berdaya saing, holistik, seimbang dan

bercirikan keusahawanan sebagaimana dinyatakan dalam Dasar Keusahawanan Nasional dan

Pelan Tindakan Keusahawanan IPT 2021-2025 dapat dicapai dengan jayanya.


CIIDT 2021

Kata Kunci: Kemahiran, Kesediaan, e-Keusahawanan, Ijazah Sarjana Muda Pendidikan


Norazlina, Y. (2011). Tahap pengetahuan terhadap pendidikan keusahawanan dalam kalangan

usahawan di pertubuhan peladang kawasan Johor Bahru Timur. Tesis Sarjana Muda yang

tidak diterbitkan. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor.

Nor Aishah, B. (2006). Asas keusahawanan. Shah alam: Penerbit Fajar Bakti Sdn. Bhd.

Farhana, M. R. (2013). Pembudayaan keusahawanan ke arah mempengaruhi kecenderungan

menceburi bidang keusahawanan dalam kalangan bakal graduan di UTHM. Tesis Master

yang tidak diterbitkan. Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Johor.

Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM). (2013). Global entrepreneurship monitor 2013

Global Report. https://www.gemconsortium.org/report/gem-2013-global-report

Hall, R. J. (2004). Correlation coefficient estimator. http://bobhall.tamu.edu/ Correlation/.

Hamzah, Mohammad, Narimah, Norshahrizan, & Ku Amir. (2009). Tahap pengetahuan dan

minat pelajar Universiti Malaysia Perlis terhadap Bidang

Keusahawanan: satu tinjauan ke arah pembentukan teknousahawan University

Malaysia Perlis. Prosiding seminar Kebangsaan Pembangunan Keusahawanan 2009, 8-

9 Disember 2009.

Harris, M. L., Gibson, S. G., & Taylor, S. R. (2007). Examining the impact of small business

institute participation on entrepreneurial attitudes. Journal of Small Business Strategy, 18

(2), 57-75.

Iklima Husna, A. R., Marry, T. P., Ahmad Shakani, A., &, Sharon, T. P. S. (2020). Persepsi

pelajar terhadap pendidikan keusahawanan: kajian terhadap pelajar program


Malaysia Productivity Corporation (MPC). (2015). A study on entrepreneurship education in

higher learning institutions, Malaysia. Malaysia Productivity Corporation, Kuala


Mohd Noor, S., Jamal, A., & Badrudin, A.R. (2006). Pembangunan usahawan di sektor

perikanan. Laporan Akhir Projek Penyelidikan. Universiti Utara Malaysia, Kedah.

Corresponding author: Norazlinda Saad , Email : azlinda@uum.edu.my


Merakamkan ucapan ribuan terima kasih dan penghargaan kepada pihak Universiti Utara

Malaysia atas pembiayaan geran penyelidikan serta pihak Pusat Pengajian Pendidikan kerana

memberi sokongan dan kerjasama dalam menjalankan penyelidikan ini.


CIIDT 2021



Surendran Sankaran 1 dan Norazlinda Saad 1

1Universiti Utara Malaysia


Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengenal pasti hubungan antara Isi Kandungan LMS dengan

Pengurusan Pembelajaran Berasaskan Blended Learning dalam kalangan pelajar

Sarjana. Agenda Teknologi Maklumat Kebangsaan (NITA) (1996) telah dilancarkan dengan

memberi penekanan terhadap penggunaan e-pembelajaran. Blended Learning menjadi

alternatif terbaik setelah penggunaan e-pembelajaran sepenuhnya yang telah membangkitkan

beberapa isu termasuklah pelajar merasa keseorangan dan kurang kemahiran. Blended

Learning telah mewujudkan persekitaran pembelajaran yang mengandungi sifat-sifat

pembelajaran menerusi alam maya, kandungan atas talian, kolaboratif, penilaian dan rujukan

bahan atas talian. Ciri-ciri Blended Learning ialah peralihan daripada pembelajaran

berpusatkan pensyarah kepada pembelajaran berpusatkan pelajar, peningkatan interaksi antara

pelajar dan pensyarah, sesama pelajar, pelajar dan kandungan serta pelajar dan maklumat.

Pengurusan Pembelajaran Berasaskan Blended Learning merupakan gabungan efektif kaedah

penyampaian yang dapat memperkayakan persekitaran pembelajaran dan berfungsi untuk

menyokong gaya pembelajaran kendiri pelajar. Isi kandungan Learning Management System

(LMS) berkaitan dengan bahan pengajaran dan aktiviti yang disediakan adalah jelas dan mudah

difahami serta aktiviti yang disediakan menggalakkan proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran

yang aktif dan interaktif dengan menggunakan pelbagai Web 2.0 Tools dalam platform UUM

Online Learning.

Blended Learning merupakan gabungan efektif kaedah penyampaian yang dapat

memperkayakan persekitaran pembelajaran dan berfungsi untuk menyokong gaya

pembelajaran kendiri pelajar. Menurut Starr (2011), penggunaan Blended Learning yang baik

di dalam kelas membolehkan tenaga pengajar menyesuaikan pembelajaran dengan keperluan

pelajar malah dapat mengoptimumkan masa seterusnya memberikan pengajar lebih banyak

masa untuk projek-projek, bimbingan one-on-one, dan aktiviti yang lebih kreatif. Kelebihan

yang terdapat dalam pembelajaran bersemuka dan e-pembelajaran telah diterapkan dalam

Blended Learning bagi memastikan pembelajaran berjaya mencapai matlamat (Amrien Hamila

& Mohamed Amin, 2016). Izudin Syarif (2013) melaporkan bahawa berlaku peningkatan

motivasi dan prestasi hasil penerapan Blended Learning. Gecer dan Dag (2012) menyatakan

pelajar mengakui Blended Learning menyokong pembelajaran aktif dan penggunaan bahan

dalam talian adalah menarik. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan tahap Pengurusan Pembelajaran

Berasaskan Blended Learning berada pada tahap tinggi. Dapatan kajian ini juga menunjukkan

bahawa terdapat hubungan yang signifikan dan positif antara Isi Kandungan LMS dengan

Pengurusan Pembelajaran Berasaskan Blended Learning.


Kajian ini menggunakan pendekatan kuantitatif yang mengaplikasikan kaedah tinjauan.

Populasi kajian ini adalah pelajar Sarjana Pendidikan dan persampelan bertujuan telah

digunakan untuk memilih 105 orang pelajar Sarjana sebagai sampel kajian. Soal selidik

merupakan instrumen utama kajian ini. Item-item untuk soal selidik diadaptasi daripada Level

of Technology Integration (LoTi) (Moersh, 2001), dan Abdul Rasid dan Norhashimah

Shamsudin (2012). Item-item untuk soal selidik yang diadaptasi daripada kajian-kajian lepas


CIIDT 2021

mempunyai tahap kebolehpercayaan yang tinggi iaitu 0.85. Data yang dikumpul dianalisis

dengan menggunakan statistik deskriptif dan korelasi.


Sejumlah 105 orang pelajar Sarjana Pendidikan terlibat sebagai responden kajian ni. Dapatan

menunjukkan bahawa pelajar perempuan merupakan majoriti responden dalam kajian ini iaitu

sebanyak 69.5%. Manakala, didapati Pengurusan Pembelajaran Berasaskan Blended Learning

berada pada tahap tinggi kerana nilai skor min adalah 3.81. Skor min yang berada pada tahap

Pengurusan Pembelajaran Berasaskan Blended Learning sederhana adalah antara skor min 3.67

hingga 5.00. Dengan itu, Blended Learning dilihat mampu untuk memenuhi keperluan

pembelajaran kendiri pelajar dan menyumbang kepada pembelajaran bermakna. Situasi ini

mungkin disebabkan pelajar berkeyakinan untuk menguruskan pembelajaran dengan

menggunakan Blended Learning.

Manakala, didapati Dimensi Isi Kandungan LMS mempunyai hubungan yang signifikan

dengan Pengurusan Pembelajaran Berasaskan Blended Learning - Positif dan Sederhana

(Tafsiran Pekali Korelasi yang dicadangkan oleh Guildford (Hall, 2004)). Dapatan ini

menjelaskan bahawa bahan pengajaran yang mempunyai Isi Kandungan LMS yang sesuai juga

mempunyai tahap Pengurusan Pembelajaran Berasaskan Blended Learning yang tinggi.

Zakiah (2012) mendapati terdapat hubungan yang signifikan antara tahap penerimaan pelajar

dengan penggunaan Blended Learning untuk kursus FP101 iaitu kursus Asas Pengaturcaraan.

Dapatan kajian ini menjelaskan bahawa para pelajar berminat untuk mengikuti Pengurusan

Pembelajaran Berasaskan Blended Learning kerana kandungan jelas dan mudah difahami.


Blended Learning dilihat mempunyai potensi yang besar dalam bidang pendidikan.

Pengintegrasian di antara pembelajaran bersemuka dan e-pembelajaran memberi pelajar dan

guru lebih pilihan dalam proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran. Dapatan kajian jelas

menunjukkan bahawa kebanyakan pelajar tahu dan peka tentang konsep Blended Learning dan

menerima bentuk pembelajaran sebegini. Pelajar juga mengetahui kebaikan atau manfaat yang

mereka perolehi daripada Blended Learning berbanding kaedah konvensional. Dengan itu,

usaha yang berterusan perlu dilakukan bagi menggalakkan lagi pembangunan modul

pembelajaran yang berasaskan Blended Learning dengan memberi penekanan kepada kualiti

Isi Kandungan. Pihak pengurusan universiti perlu membentuk program pembangunan orientasi

kepada pelajar tentang kepentingan dan kelebihan menggunakan Blended Learning kepada

pengurusan pembelajaran pelajar. Pembinaan infrastruktur teknologi maklumat yang efektif

seperti penggunaan server yang baik, kepantasan melayari internet, kemudahan komputer dan

internet yang mencukupi dan kemudahan-kemudahan lain yang berkaitan ICT perlu


Kata Kunci: Isi Kandungan, LMS, Blended Learning, Pengurusan Pembelajaran


Amrien Hamila, M., & Mohamed Amin, E. (2016). Implementation of blended learning in

higher learning institutions: A review of literature. International Education Studies. 9.

41. 10.5539/ies.v9n3p41.

Gecer, A., & Dag, F. (2012). A blended learning experience. Educational Sciences: Theory

and Practice, 12(1), 438- 442.

Hall, R. J. (2004). Correlation coefficient estimator. http://bobhall.tamu.e du/Correlation/.


CIIDT 2021

Izudin Syarif. (2013). Pengaruh model Blended Learning terhadap motivasi dan prestas

i belajar siswa SMK. Jurnal Pendidikan Vokasi, 2(2).

Starr, L. (2011). Integrating technology in the classroom: It takes more than just having

computers. http://www.educationworld.com/ a_tech/tech/tech146.shtml

Zakiah Osman. (2012). Persepsi pelajar terhadap penggunaan bahan bantu mengajar

berasaskan multimedia interaktif dalam pengajaran. Kedah: Politeknik Sultan Abdul

Halim Muad’zam Shah, Jabatan Teknologi Maklumat dan Komunikasi.

Corresponding author: Surendran Sankaran, Email : surendran@uum.edu.my


Merakamkan ucapan ribuan terima kasih dan penghargaan kepada pihak Universiti Utara

Malaysia atas pembiayaan geran penyelidikan serta pihak Pusat Pengajian Pendidikan kerana

memberi sokongan dan kerjasama dalam menjalankan penyelidikan ini.


CIIDT 2021



Siti Sarah Ismail 1 dan Muhammad Helmi Norman 1

1Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia


Pembelajaran berpusatkan pelajar dalam proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran dapat meransang

minda kreatif pelajar dan memberikan pemahaman yang lebih mendalam terhadap

pembelajaran mereka berbanding penggunaan kaedah “chalk and talk”. Klip-klip video pendek

yang digabungkan menjadi sebuah filem lebih mudah diadaptasi ke dalam ruang pembelajaran

dalam talian, boleh digunakan untuk menggambarkan kandungan kursus, memperkenalkan

gambaran konsep dan teori, mampu menyediakan fokus budaya yang memberikan nilai hiburan

yang penting serta dapat meningkatkan penglibatan pelajar. Anjakan ke-7 dalam Pelan

Pembangunan Pendidikan Malaysia (PPPM) 2013-2025 menekankan pengintegrasian

teknologi maklumat dan komunikasi (ICT) dalam proses pembelajaran dan pengajaran (PdP)

supaya kualiti pendidikan negara dapat dipertingkatkan. Model pembelajaran multimedia

menggunakan filem sebagai bahan media merupakan salah satu pendekatan teknologi

pembelajaran yang telah banyak mempengaruhi corak pendidikan khususnya dalam tempoh

pandemik. Objektif kajian ini adalah untuk mengenalpasti sejauh manakah pembelajaran

berasaskan filem memberikan kesan terhadap sahsiah pelajar dalam kaedah pembelajaran

berpusatkan pelajar dan apakah kriteria sahsiah yang dijangka dapat mencapai objektif kajian

ini. Dalam kajian ini, responden diberi pilihan untuk memilih genre filem bermotifkan

pendidikan sebagai bahan tontonan dan haruslah mempunyai unsur-unsur pembelajaran yang

berkaitan dengan bidang pengajian. Berdasarkan analisis yang dijalankan menunjukkan

pembelajaran berasaskan filem menjadikan pelajar lelaki cenderung untuk meningkatkan

kefahaman mereka tentang perkara yang berkaitan dengan pengajaran dan pembelajaran

berbanding pelajar perempuan. Kajian ini memberikan implikasi penting ke atas sahsiah dan

keperibadian pelajar dalam menuntut ilmu pengetahuan di samping dapat melengkapkan proses

pembinaan jati diri sebagai pelajar yang mempunyai strategi pembelajaran kendiri, kerana

bahan media filem merupakan salah satu daripada pembekal maklumat utama serta mempunyai

pengaruh yang besar berikutan kedudukannya dalam membentuk agenda untuk mendidik,

memaklumkan, menggalak, mempengaruhi dan menghiburkan.


Kajian ini adalah berbentuk tinjauan menggunakan kaedah kuantitatif. Tatacara kutipan data

adalah secara dalam talian menggunakan borang soal selidik yang telah diedarkan melalui

media elektronik. Populasi kajian adalah seramai 72 orang pelajar institusi pengajian tinggi

awam di utara Malaysia. Seramai 60 orang responden telah terlibat dalam kaji selidik yang

dijalankan. Responden kajian terdiri daripada 15 orang pelajar lelaki dan 45 orang pelajar

perempuan. Instrumen kajian yang digunakan ialah set soalan soal selidik yang dibahagikan

kepada dua bahagian iaitu bahagian A; maklumat demografi responden dari aspek jantina,

umur, dan tahap pengajian, dan bahagian B; item-item yang dibina untuk menjawab persoalan

kajian. Item-item soal selidik diukur dengan menggunakan skala Likert 5 tahap. Data yang

diperolehi dianalisis menggunakan perisian Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS).

Analisis secara deskriptif dilakukan untuk menentukan min, sisihan piawai, kekerapan, peratus,

manakala analisis inferensi ujian-t digunakan untuk mengetahui perbezaan kesan ke atas

pelajar lelaki dan perempuan dalam kajian ini.


CIIDT 2021


Dapatan kajian menunjukkan bahawa pembelajaran berpusatkan pelajar menggunakan filem

memberikan kesan terhadap sahsiah pelajar pada tahap tinggi. Hasil dapatan kajian

menunjukkan bahawa item yang mempunyai nilai min paling tinggi ialah kesan “tingkatkan

kefahaman tentang perkara melibatkan pengajian” ke atas pelajar lelaki berbanding pelajar

perempuan dengan memberikan nilai min bagi lelaki (M=3.9333, SD=0.59362) berbanding

perempuan (M=3.6889, SD=0.87444). Pembelajaran berasaskan filem lebih memberikan kesan

kepada sahsiah pelajar lelaki untuk meningkatkan kefahaman mereka tentang perkara yang

melibatkan pengajaran dan pembelajaran berbanding dengan pelajar perempuan. Hasil analisis

ujian-t menunjukkan kesemua item sahsiah adalah tidak signifikan Ini adalah berdasarkan

perbezaan min yang agak besar. Nilai t bagi kesemua kesan gagal menolak hipotesis null.

Maka, tidak terdapat perbezaan yang signifikan antara pelajar lelaki dan perempuan dalam

menguji kriteria kesan daripada menonton filem dalam pembelajaran berpusatkan pelajar.

Dalam konteks kajian ini, pembentukan sahsiah seseorang pelajar itu adalah berdasarkan

kepada kandungan filem yang mempunyai nilai-nilai murni yang ditonton oleh pelajar. Hal ini

meberikan kesan dalam proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran di pelbagai peringkat, seterusnya

memberikan impak yang positif terhadap sahsiah pelajar itu sendiri.


Penggunaan teknologi dalam bidang pendidikan memberi kesan terus kepada perkembangan

kurikulum dan pedagogi pendidikan serta mampu menjadi pemangkin kepada proses

pengajaran dan pembelajaran yang lestari dalam menghasilkan persekitaran pembelajaran yang

lebih kondusif, terutama sewaktu tempoh pandemik. Dalam konteks pendidikan khususnya di

Malaysia, penggunaan media dan teknologi dalam pendidikan perlu diselaraskan bagi

menambah baik kaedah dan pendekatan yang sedia ada dalam mencapai proses pengajaran dan

pembelajaran yang lebih efektif, produktif, sistematik dan efisien.

Kata kunci: teknologi pendidikan, pembelajaran berpusatkan pelajar, sahsiah pelajar,

pembelajaran berasaskan filem, pandemik.


Norah M. N., Nurul Izzati H. & Radhiah A. R. (2013). The framework for learning using video

based on cognitive load theory among visual learners. Published in Proceedings of the 5 th

Conference on Engineering Education. pp. 15-20.

Mandalika, M., & Syahril, S. (2020). Pengembangan Media Pembelajaran Berbasis Video

Tutorial untuk Meningkatkan Efektifitas Pembelajaran pada Mata Kuliah Tata Rias

Pengantin Indonesia. INVOTEK: Jurnal Inovasi Vokasional Dan Teknologi, 20(1), 85-


Fatimah A.R. & Hasmadi H. (2019). Analisis perbezaan tahap persediaan guru terhadap

1Bestarinet dari aspek jantina, bangsa dan usia. International Journal of Humanities

Technology and Civilization (IJHTC) 6(1): 31-39

Hamzah M. & Yeop M.A. (2016). Frog VLE (persekitaran pembelajaran maya) dalam

pengajaran dan pembelajaran: Penerimaan dan kaedah pelaksanaannya. Journal of

Research, Policy & Practice of Teachers & Teacher Education 6(2):67-77

Ahmad, Shahrol Aman (2009). Pengajaran dan pembelajaran kursus pengurusan melalui

media filem. Seminar Antarabangsa Pendidikan ICT Bernuansa Islami, 19-20 Disember

2009, Banda Acheh, Indonesia.

Li, Y.W., Mai, N., & Tse-Kian, N. (2014). Impact of learner-centred teaching environment

with the use of multimedia-mediated learning modules in improving learning experience.

Jurnal Teknologi. 68(2), pp. 65-71.


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Ahmad, Shahrol Aman (2009). Pengajaran dan pembelajaran kursus pengurusan melalui

media filem. Seminar Antarabangsa Pendidikan ICT Bernuansa Islami, 19-20 Disember

2009, Banda Acheh, Indonesia.

Maria C.A., Samsilah R., & Tajularipin S. (2014). Strategi pengajaran pembelajaran di institusi

pengajian tinggi: Satu anjakan paradigma. Malaysian Education Dean Council Journal.

8, pp. 101-115.

Berk, R.A. (2009). Multimedia teaching with video clips: TV, movies, YouTube, and mtvU in

the college classroom. International Journal of Technology in Teaching and Learning.

5(1), pp. 1-21.

Zaleha binti Yaakob (2010). Pengaruh Keganasan Dalam Media Terhadap Tingkah Laku

Agresif Remaja. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

Thompson, K & Bordwell, D. (2003). Film Art: An Introduction. New York: McGraw Hill.

Corresponding author: Siti Sarah Ismail , Email : sarah.hj.ismail@gmail.com


CIIDT 2021



Nurullizam Jamiat 1 , Norazila Azmi 1 and Chau Kien Tsong 1

1Centre for Instructional Technology & Multimedia, Universiti Sains Malaysia


Learning Management Systems (LMS) is not new and was introduced in the late 1990s.

However, the implementation of LMS in higher education is on demand and boosted due to the

Covid-19 pandemic. In the early stages of LMS implementation, research was mostly

conducted to investigate users’ perceptions and acceptance towards LMS. With the rapid

evolving research discipline of learning analytics, the insights generated on LMS, and data

analysis are useful to optimize the implementation of LMS and improve learning outcomes.

According to Firat and Yuzer (2016), learning analytics trends showed that limited studies was

conducted on utilizing learning analytics and effects of students’ behavior in LMS on course

performance. These trends suggested that more studies on learning analytics using LMS should

be focusing on determining the effects of student’s LMS learning behaviours and academic

achievement. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between

students’ behavior and performance on LMS using learning analytics. The research objectives

of this study are to identify students’ online learning behavior on LMS, to investigate the

relationships between students’ online learning behavior and performance on LMS, and to

identify which students’ online learning behavior predict students’ performance.


This study is a correlational study, where data was gathered from LMS log through learning

analytics tool. In this study, students’ online behavior on LMS are defined based on the

literature review, which include login time on LMS, number of downloads, and interaction with

peers (Yu & Jo, 2014). On the other hand, students’ performance is their time spent in the

system, number of exercise that students performed, number of forums posted, and their final

course score (Duin & Than, 2020). Data were collected from 122 undergraduate students (36

male and 86 female) who took a 14-week course in a public university located at the north of



Descriptive analysis is used to answer research question 1: What are students’ online learning

behavior and performance on LMS? Results revealed that login frequency on LMS (M = 56.01,

SD = 36.08), number of downloads (M = 30.29, SD = 17.78), interactions with peers (M = 7.94,

SD = 7.60), time spent in the system (M = 25.58, SD = 15.35), number of exercise that students

performed (M = 6.60, SD = .54), and number of forums posted (M = 7.93, SD = 7.55). The

high mean for login frequency, number of downloads and time spent in the system indicated

that students did those on regular basis but varied widely among students. For research question

2: What is the relationship between students’ online learning behavior and performance on

LMS? The results showed that there is positive relationship between students online behavior

on LMS (login time on LMS, number of downloads, and interaction with peers) and their

performance (time spent in the system, number of exercise that students performed, number of

forums posted). However, the relationship between students’ online behavior on LMS was

insignificant on their final course score. In addition, multiple regression is used to address


CIIDT 2021

research question 3: Which students’ online learning behavior predict students’ performance?

The findings revealed that students’ online behavior on LMS (login time on LMS, number of

downloads, and interaction with peers) significantly predicted students’ performance (number

of exercise that students performed, and number of forums posted). This imply that these

students’ online behavior on LMS can help instructors to predict students’ performance and

provide meaningful feedback and interventions to students (Sung, Jin & Kim, 2016). This

results also reflect the benefits of regularly accessing course material and keeping pace with

the learning schedule would be helpful on students’ performance, which is in line with the

study conducted by You (2016).


The findings support the potential for early prediction of students’ performance based their

behavior on LMS and demonstrate the benefits of identifying significant indicators from LMS

data to facilitate successful online learning.

Keywords: Learning Management Systems, Learning Analytics, Students Online Behavior,

Students Performance


Duin, A. H., & Tham, J. (2020). The Current State of Analytics: Implications for Learning

Management System (LMS) Use in Writing Pedagogy. Computers and

Composition,55, 102544.

Firat, M., & Yuzer, T. V. (2016). Learning analytics: Assessment of mass data in distance

education. International Journal on New Trends in Education and Their Implications,

7(2), 51-63.

Sung, E., Jin, S. H., & Kim, Y. (2016). Learning activities and learning behaviors for learning

analytics in e-learning environments. Educational Technology International, 17(2), 175-


You, J. W. (2016). Identifying significant indicators using LMS data to predict course

achievement in online learning. The Internet and Higher Education, 29, 23-30.

You, J. W. (2015). Examining the effect of academic procrastination on achievement using

LMS data in e-learning. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 18(3), 64-74

Yu, T., & Jo, I. H. (2014, March). Educational technology approach toward learning analytics:

Relationship between student online behavior and learning performance in higher

education. In Proceedings of the fourth international conference on learning analytics

and knowledge (pp. 269-270).

Corresponding author: Nurullizam Jamiat, Email: nurullizamj@usm.my


CIIDT 2021


J-Ho Siew ching 1 , Goh Eg Su 2 and Wong Seng Yue 3

1 Department of Mathematics, Science, and Computers,Politeknik Balik Pulau, Malaysia.

2 School of Computing, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

3 Centre for Internship Training and Academic Enrichment (CITrA), University of Malaya,



Mathematics plays an essential role in our daily life (Awofala & Lawani, 2020), where the

teaching and learning process of mathematics has become a challenge to most mathematics

educators since 1980s (Bishop, 1985). The conventional teaching method of "chalk and talk"

was replaced by e-learning (Humayun 2020), where the internet emerged between

telecommunication and computers to access information technology (Bosamia & Patel 2016).

In this study, the pedagogical theory of “Differentiated Instruction” is applied into online

learning (Griful-Freixenet et al., 2020), by modifying materials of teaching methods into video,

to match with students’ abilities to make the learning process become interesting (Clements &

Sarama, 2021; Murtafiah et al., 2020), especially as a fundamental role in mathematics design

and development (Schwarts & Karsenty, 2020; Schoenfeld, 2017). Thus, the purposes of this

study include identifying students’ attitudes of online learning and determining the differences

of achievement scores between students taught with “Differentiated Instruction” and those

taught with conventional teaching methods. The evaluation of teaching style and challenges of

online learning are also discussed.


This study is done using experimental design. Group 1 is the controlled group, where students

were fully involved in a conventional face-to-face learning class for 14 weeks of learning

sessions, while Group 2 is the experimental group which was taught with the “Differentiated

Instruction” pedagogical method for 14 weeks of e-learning Three components of curriculum

were being transferred as three simple steps of interactive models which were the concepts of

(i) content, (ii) process, and (iii) product. Questionnaires on students’ attitudes and the

evaluation of teaching styles were based on a 5-points Likert scale. Final examination results

at the end of the semester were recorded to compare the levels of achievement among the two

groups of students.


Research findings showed that students from the experimental group had better results than the

students in the conventional teaching method group. The results are in line with other studies

which have proven that the application of “Differentiated Instruction” in mathematics subjects

gives good achievements (Awofala & Lawani, 2020; Schwarts & Karsenty, 2020); where the

role of the educator is more of a facilitator (Harmini & Effendi, 2018). Only 10% of the

students agreed that mathematics can be completed effectively by online classes, where they

were of the belief that face-to-face contact with lecturer is still necessary for learning

mathematics (M=4.47, SD=0.937). As for the students’ evaluation on teaching styles, all items’

mean scores were above 4.5 for both group 1 and group 2 students, which concluded that the

educators' teaching styles were a perfect match for the needs of both groups of students in this

study. The lack of direct communication between educators and students during online learning

(Grigoriev et al., 2021) made students prefer face-to-face class, besides having major problems

of signal availability/strength (83.3%), and high cost of monthly internet bills (30%).


CIIDT 2021


This research has proven that applying interactive video-based techniques towards the

application of “Differential Instruction” pedagogical theory during online classes results in

better achievements among students compared to those who were taught with conventional

teaching methods. The educator's pedagogical skill is far more important than mathematical

knowledge for teaching. However, future classes of Mathematical Computing should be done

by combining both conventional and online learning methods, so that the elements of studentcentred

learning, educational environment with interactions, and activities can fit the needs of

students. Training for educators is suggested by researchers to improve online learning as part

of new culture, social, and emotional recovery from the pandemic.

Keywords: Online learning, mathematics, education, face-to-face


Awofala, A. O., & Lawani, A. O. (2020). Increasing mathematics achievement of senior

secondary school students through differentiated instruction. Journal of Educational

Sciences, 4(1), 1-19. https://doi.org/10.31258/jes.4.1.p.1-19

Bishop, A. (1985). The social construction of meaning: A significant development for

mathematics education. For the learning of Mathematics, 5(1), 24-28.

Bosamia M., Patel A. (2016). An overview of cloud computing for e-learning with its key

benefits. International Journal of Information Sciences and Techniques, 6(1/2), 1-10.

https:// doi.org/10.5121/ijist.2016.6201

Clements, D. H., & Sarama, J. (2021). Learning and teaching early math: The learning

trajectories approach. Routledge.

Griful-Freixenet, J., Struyven, K., Vantieghem, W., & Gheyssens, E. (2020). Exploring the

interrelationship between Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and Differentiated

Instruction (DI): A systematic review. Educational Research Review, 29, 1-23.


Grigoriev, G. P., Beresnev, A. A., & Rudakova, O. A. (2021). Psychological readiness of a

modern lecturer for distance teaching. In SHS Web of Conferences (Vol. 113). EDP

Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1051/shsconf/202111300014

Harmini, T., & Effendi, L. (2018). The effect of the use of differentiated instruction-based

module on students’ learning motivation. Unnes Journal of Mathematics

Education, 7(3), 141-146.

Humayun, M. (2020). Blockchain-Based secure framework for e-learning during COVID-19.

Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 13(12), 1328-1341.


Murtafiah, W., Suwarno, S., & Lestari, N. D. S. (2020). Exploring the types of a material

presentation by teachers in mathematics learning during the COVID-19 pandemic.

In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 1663, No. 1, p. 012043). IOP Publishing.

Schoenfeld, A. H. (2017). Uses of video in understanding and improving mathematical

thinking and teaching. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 20(5), 415-432.


Schwarts, G., & Karsenty, R. (2020). “Can this happen only in Japan?”: Mathematics teachers

reflect on a videotaped lesson in a cross-cultural context. Journal of Mathematics

Teacher Education, 23(6), 527-554. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10857-019-09438-z

Yaniawati, P., Kariadinata, R., Sari, N., Pramiarsih, E., & Mariani, M. (2020). Integration of

e-learning for mathematics on resource-based learning: Increasing mathematical creative


CIIDT 2021

thinking and self-confidence. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in

Learning (iJET), 15(6), 60-78. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijet.v15i06.11915

Corresponding author: Siew Ching, J-Ho , Email : jhosc2015@gmail.com


CIIDT 2021



Azidah Abu Ziden 1 , Adu Emmanuel Ifedayo 2 and Aziah Binti Ismail 1

1 School of Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia

2 Bamidele Olumilua University of Education Science and Technology, Nigeria


A podcast consists of online video and audio resources while piracy is an act common to

podcast media hackers. In this 21 st century, the podcast is becoming a popular instructional

technology for teaching and learning activities in Nigerian schools due to increased concern

for health safety. In addition, this research addressed issues relating to podcast and piracy in

the light of available research evidence on media copyright matters in Nigeria. However, it is

evident in literature that the available literature evidence addressing podcast and piracy in

Nigeria is scarce.

Available research evidence revealed that the Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN) has

channelled efforts towards ensuring that podcast media is secured. For instance, there are

copyright organisations set up by the FGN to safeguard and monitor media resources like the

podcast. However, so much theoretical, and practical efforts had been put in place by FGN with

minimal impact on the reduction of media piracy in Nigeria.

Thus, there is a gap to fill in existing literature regarding podcasting activities and piracy in

Nigeria. For instance, previous research by Ifedayo et al (2019) had addressed issues related to

podcast software, without considering piracy matters in Nigeria. However, Ifedayo et al

(2019b) discussed issues regarding electricity and podcasting in Nigeria educational systems,

with limited consideration of piracy matters.

This research is significant to the developed country by creating more awareness about the

dangers inherent in podcast piracy so that quick intervention is introduced to combat the

menace. Also, it is imminent to protect podcasting resources from piracy in this pandemic

period that is characterised with the increased deployment of technologies for teaching and

learning. For instance, Harkness (2006) study revealed concerns about copyright matters in a

developed world context with recommendations for increased protection of podcasting

resources against piracy.


This research utilised visual methodology, which entails the introduction of artistic illustrations

as a form of research data evidence. This adaption of artistic illustrations was influenced by

literature evidence to ensure a critical approach is employed in this study. For instance, this

research adopted, and adapted visuals based on pure inspiration. This visual methodology was

utilised in capturing the essence of piracy in their natural habitat. Thus, the visual methodology

is a rendition of creative expertise based on manipulative skills and imaginative thinking

(Allen, 2009).


CIIDT 2021


This research finding showed that there is a high tendency for piracy-related activities in

Nigeria. The reason being that the perpetrators of piracy-related crime see it as a means of

survival. The piracy issue is among the several factors affecting podcasting activities in

Nigeria. Hence, the pirate world has become a cankerworm in the Nigerian media industry. For

instance, this study's findings revealed the manner of occurrence of this piracy menace in a

developing world scenario like Nigeria. Thus, this research result is consistent with Ifedayo et

al (2021) study that revealed numerous factors impacting podcast utilisation in Nigeria. Asua

et al (2021) study findings are consistent with this research based on increased concern for

piracy-related attacks in Nigeria.


This research addressed issues relating to podcasts and pirates in Nigeria. It is evident that

studies addressing podcasting activities and piracy in Nigeria are rare. However, the available

literature evidence showed that piracy is a menace to podcast media producers. Also, this

research showed that piracy frustrates the course of podcasting activities through illegal access

to media content without the consent of the producers. It was revealed from existing literature

that media pirate is very difficult to tackle in this digital age due to the skilled nature of

pirates. In addition, this research revealed that the Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN) had

created several organisations to tackle media piracy in the country. Notwithstanding, there are

inadequacies in the operations of these organisations, which limits the extent of resolving

problems associated with piracy in Nigeria. Hence, this study showed that so much had been

done theoretically with regards to addressing pirate issues and putting these theories into

practice has posed difficulties in Nigeria.

Keywords: Podcast, Media, Piracy, Discourse, Media


Allen, L. (2009). ‘Snapped’: researching the sexual cultures of schools using visual

methods. International journal of qualitative studies in education, 22(5), 549-561.

Asua, S. A., Ugwueze, M. I., & Onah, V. C. (2021). Piracy in the Gulf of Guinea: a threat to

the means of livelihood of artisanal fishers in South South region, Nigeria. Review of

African Political Economy, 1-10.

Harkness, S. S. J. (2006). Podcasting: a pocket full of power and intellectual property issues.

In annual meeting of the American political science association, Philadelphia, PA.

Ifedayo, A. E., Ziden, A. A., & Binti, A. (2019b). Conception of Electricity as Determinant

of Podcast Adoption in Nigeria Educational Systems.

Ifedayo, A.E., Ziden, A.A., & Ismail, A.B., (2019). The significance of a predictor of

awareness of podcast software in Nigeria higher education. International Journal of

Scientific & Technology Research, 8(12).

Ifedayo, A. E., Ziden, A. A., & Ismail, A. B. (2021). Mediating effect of behavioural

intention on podcast acceptance. Education and Information Technologies, 26(3), 2767-


Corresponding author: Adu Emmanuel Ifedayo, Email : adu.aklasco.ifedayo06@gmail.com


CIIDT 2021




Wan Nor Ashiqin Wan Ali 1,2 and Wan Ahmad Jaafar Wan Yahaya 2

1 Faculty of Applied and Human Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP) Perlis,


2 Centre for Instructional Technology and Multimedia, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang,



Recently, computational thinking (CT) skills have been widely debated among various

research studies which claimed that through CT, learners can build their knowledge and solve

problems using algorithmic, systematic, and logical thinking (Jocius et al., 2020; Tsai et al.,

2019). Unfortunately, there is limited instruments have been developed to measure the

students’ self-efficacy towards CT specifically among the university students. Thus, this study

was conducted to develop and validate the CT self-efficacy perception instrument namely

Computational Thinking Self-Efficacy (CTSe) survey. An online survey was conducted to

Malaysia Technical University Network (MTUN) which offered similar courses related to the

digital video production. The reliability of the CTSe was tested using Cronbach’s Alpha while

validity test was conducted using content validity index (CVI) through Lawshe CVR

Worksheet and followed by Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) respectively using SPSS

version 23. Findings from this study show that CTSe survey is significantly validated which

can practically being adopted or adapted by future research studies.


A validity testing was conducted via two types of testing which are content validity testing and

EFA. Three content experts are involved in the content validity testing which has been analysed

through CVI and EFA. All the validity and reliability testing were administered to 127

university students. There are three steps of EFA involved in this study (Pallant, 2011); i)

Evaluation of the data's eligibility, ii) Factor Extraction, and iii) Factor rotation using oblique

factor solutions and interpret the data. The CTSe instrument has multiple high loading marker

items that are above .80, thus it is suggested that a smaller sample size (100-150) can be utilised

(Tabachnick & Fidell, 2007). Based on the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) and Bartlett’s Test, the

KMO is .90 which is greater than .60 standard KMO value and the Bartlett’s test result show

p-value is.00 which is significantly below than .05 value. Researcher then proceeded to

determine components/factors to be extracted using Kaiser’s Criterion, Scree test and parallel

analysis. Based on the Kaiser’s criterion table, 10 components have been acknowledged to be

extracted for this instrument since there are 10 components have eigenvalue greater than 1.

However, considering 10 components for 49 items are quite a huge number for an instrument.

Thus, the Scree test and parallel analysis are needed to reduce the number of components.

Based on Figure 1, only components 1, 2, and 3 are retained because they explain and capture

much more variance than the remaining components.


CIIDT 2021

Figure 1

Result of the Scree Test

While, the results from the parallel analysis also supported the Scree plot’s results which to

remain three components. Hence, from the results of Kaiser’s criterion, Scree test, and parallel

analysis, we strongly recommend to retain three components/factors for our instrument. The

last step is researcher proceed with the factor rotation in order to interpret the data. Researcher

used the oblique factor solution using direct oblimin since the items are strongly correlated

with each other. From the direct oblimin rotation that we used, we found that the communalities

values for the whole items are greater than .3. These result means that all the items are fit well

with the other items in its component.


The item CVI (I-CVI) for CTSe is .88 which means that this instrument has high content

validity index and was significantly validated. From 60 items that have been validated through

CVI, 11 items are excluded due to low CVI values, and only 49 items are remained as CTSe

items. Then, those 49 items have been refined using PCA and were categorised under three

components which are Component/Factor 1: Algorithm Concepts, Component/Factor 2: CT

Comprehension, and Component/Factor 3: Use of Algorithms. All the components produced

high reliability value which are .93 for Algorithm Concepts with 17 items, .90 for CT

Comprehension with 16 items, and .93 for Use of Algorithms with 16 items while the total

value for all the items in those three components are .97 (see Table 2).

Table 2

Summary of CTSe Reliability Testing


Algorithm Concepts .93 17

CT Comprehension .90 16

Use of Algorithms .93 16

Overall .97 49

Cronbach's Alpha N of Items


As conclusion, this study demonstrated the validity and reliability of CTSe in a university

context. The validity of CTSe was conducted based on the CVI and EFA using PCA while the

reliability of CTSe was conducted using Cronbach’s Alpha. The original 60 items were

validated by three experts and only 49 items were retained. The validated CTSe instrument can

be used by future researchers when assessing the self-efficacy perception of computational


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thinking among university students or young adults. However, the researcher recommends

CTSe instrument to be adapted instead of being adopted by future research studies due to few

limitations of the study; i) The CTSe items are focused on the algorithmic thinking, ii) the

sample size is quite smaller, iii) the target groups and the research context are focusing on

Malaysia university students.

Keywords: Self-efficacy, exploratory factor analysis, principal component analysis,

computational thinking self-efficacy, algorithmic thinking


Jocius, R., Joshi, D., Dong, Y., Robinson, R., Catete, V., Barnes, T., Albert, J., Andrews, A.,

& Lytl, N. (2020). Code, connect, create: The 3c professional development model to

support computational thinking infusion. Annual Conference on Innovation and

Technology in Computer Science Education, ITiCSE, 971–977.


Pallant, J. (2011). SPSS Survival Manual (4th ed.). Allen & Unwin.

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using Multivariate Statistics (5th) Edition (5th

ed.). Pearson Education.

Tsai, M. J., Wang, C. Y., & Hsu, P. F. (2019). Developing the Computer Programming Self-

Efficacy Scale for Computer Literacy Education. Journal of Educational Computing

Research, 56(8), 1345–1360. https://doi.org/10.1177/0735633117746747

Corresponding author: Wan Nor Ashiqin Wan Ali, Email : wannorashiqin@gmail.com


CIIDT 2021



Omar Abdullah Omar Altamimi 1 , Mona Masood 1 and Chau Kein Tsong 1

1 Centre for Instructional Technology and Multimedia, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang,



Writing Anxiety is an issue that affects the quality of writing of many English-As-Foreign-

Learners (EFL) during the written assignments. Writing anxiety occurs when the students avoid

writing if they expect their writings to be evaluated or corrected (Hassan, 2001). The studies

showed that there is a correlation between the increased levels of Writing anxiety and the

reception of corrective feedback (Di Loreto & Mcdonough, 2014). In addition, writing anxiety

has negative effects on the students' performance and the quality of their writings (Amiri &

Saeedi, 2017; Cheng, 2004; Kim, 2006; Tsao et al, 2017). Moreover, writing anxiety affects

the students' attitudes towards writing negatively (Phillips, 1992) and the students' selfperception

of their proficiency (MacIntyre et al, 1997).

The mode of feedback delivery has a substantial effect on the writing anxiety levels of the

students. Corrective feedback can be provided to the students either traditionally (using pen

and paper) or electronically through corrections functions of the authoring tools. The research

showed that electronic feedback is more superior in reducing the students' anxiety than the

traditional methods (Abdullah et al., 2018; Ali et al., 2017; Chong, 2019). Moreover, the

students expressed their preference to receive electronic feedback when they were interviewed

about it. (Ene & Upton, 2018). However, there is still a need to further investigate the effect of

different types of electronic corrective feedback (Altamimi & Masood, 2021)

A corrective feedback method that has not been examined electronically is Error Logs. Error

Logs tables that are placed at the end of the assignment or in a separate paper. They contain a

list of the erroneous form or phrase and a grammatical explanation of the nature of the error.

They contain the error of the current assignment as well as the previous ones. This method was

explored traditionally (Evans, et al, 2010; Lalande, 1982). However, its effects were not tested

on the students' writing anxiety when using it electronically (Altamimi & Masood, 2021). The

current research will attempt to address this gap.


The current research was conducted to find the effect of using error logs in reducing the

students' writing anxiety. One hundred and thirty-two university students in a public university

in Yemen were divided to three groups; The first group received feedback in the form of

electronic indirect feedback only; the second group received electronic indirect corrective

feedback combined with electronic error logs (EICF & EEL), and a control group. To measure

the level of the students' writing anxiety, the Second Language Writing Anxiety Inventory by

Cheng (2004) was used. Because of the students' mother tongue (Arabic) the researcher used

a translated version of the questionnaire (Sabti et al, 2019). Before the beginning of the

treatment, all the participants responded to the questionnaire. Then, the same questionnaire was

administered after the treatment period.


The analysis of the results was conducted using the t-test to find the writing anxiety levels of

each group. The comparison of each group before and after the treatment is summarized in


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Table 1. There was a statistically significant decrease between from the pre-SLWAI scores (M

= 65.60, SD = 10.94) and post-SLWAI scores (M = 60.33, SD = 14.17), t (45) = 1.514, P >

0.135 (Two-tailed). The mean difference in the SLWAI scores was 5.28, with a 95%

confidence interval ranging between 1.24 to 9.33. The calculated eta squared is = 0.151.

Therefore, it can be concluded that the treatment received by the Electronic Indirect Corrective

Feedback with Electronic Error Logs (EICF & EEL) group has a large effect on reducing the

students' writing anxiety as measured by the SLWAI questionnaire. However, the other two

groups did not show any significant decrease in the anxiety levels.

Table 1

Comparison Between Both Group

Group M SD t df P-value

Control Group









1.60465 13.21100 0.796 42 0.430

2.50000 11.67458 1.514 49 0.135

5.28261 13.61970 2.631 45 0.012


The results of the experiment indicated that using a combination of Electronic Indirect

Corrective Feedback and Electronic Error Logs can be useful in reducing the writing anxiety

levels of the students. However, caution should be observed in generalizing the results for

several reasons. First, the study was conducted on students with relatively high proficiency

levels (University students). Therefore, more studies should be conducted on students with low

proficiency levels. Second, the students came from a specific linguistic background. All of

them speak Arabic as their mother tongue and from a homogenous cultural background.

Therefore, there is a need to conduct the same study with EFL students whose first language is

different from Arabic. Third, further research is still needed to investigate the reasons for the

reduced writing anxiety of the students.

Keywords: Writing Anxiety, EFL, Corrective Feedback, Error Logs.


Altamimi, O. A., & Masood, M. (2021). Teacher electronic written corrective feedback,

trends and future directions. Arab World English Journal, 12 (3) 308-

322. https://dx.doi.org/10.24093/awej/vol12no3.21

Amiri, M., & Saeedi, M. (2017). Relationship among writing apprehension, writing selfefficacy,

and Iranian EFL Learners’ Writing Performance. JSLTE, 6(2), 1– 26.

Abdullah, M. Y., Hussin, S., & Shakir, M. (2018). The effect of peers’ and teacher’s e-

feedback on writing anxiety level through CMC Applications. International Journal of

Emerging Technologies in Learning, 13(11), 196–207.


Ali, M., Kassem, M., & Kharja, A. (2017). Developing business writing skills and reducing

writing anxiety of EFL learners through Wikis. English Language Teaching, 10(3),

151–163. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v10n3p151


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Cheng, Y. (2004). A measure of second language writing anxiety : Scale development and

preliminary validation. Journal of Second Language Writing, 13(1), 313– 335.


Chong, S. W. (2019). College students’ perception of e-feedback: a grounded theory

perspective. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 44(7), 1090–1105.


Di Loreto, S., & McDonough, K. (2014). The relationship between instructor feedback and

ESL student anxiety. TESL Canada Journal, 31(1), 20.


Ene, E., & Upton, T. A. (2018). Synchronous and asynchronous teacher electronic

and learner uptake in ESL composition. Journal of Second Language Writing, 41(2), 1–13.


Evans, N. W., Hartshorn, K. J., McCollum, R. M., & Wolfersberger, M. (2010).

Contextualizing corrective feedback in second language writing pedagogy. Language

Teaching Research, 14(4), 445-463.

Hassan, B. A. (2001). The relationship of writing apprehension and self-esteem to the writing

quality and quantity of EFL university students. Mansoura Faculty of Education

Journal. Retrieved from http://eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED459671.pdf

Kim, K. J. (2006). Writing apprehension and writing achievement of Korean EFL College

Students. English Teaching, 61, 135–154.

Lalande, J. F. (1982). Reducing composition errors: An experiment. The Modern Language

Journal, 66(2), 140-149.

MacIntyre, P. D., Noels, K. A., & Clément, R. (1997). Biases in self‐ratings of second

language proficiency: The role of language anxiety. Language Learning, 47(2), 265–


Phillips, E. M. (1992). The effects of language anxiety on students’ oral test performance and

attitudes. The Modern Language Journal, 76(1), 14–26.

Sabti, A. A., Md Rashid, S., Nimehchisalem, V., & Darmi, R. (2019). The impact of writing

anxiety, writing achievement motivation, and writing self-efficacy on writing

performance: A correlational study of Iraqi tertiary EFL learners. SAGE Open, 9(4).


Tsao, J.-J., Tseng, W.-T., & Wang, C. (2017). The effects of writing anxiety and motivation

on EFL college students’ self-evaluative judgments of corrective feedback.

Psychological Reports, 120, 219–241.

Corresponding author: Omar Altamimi, email: omaraltamimi@student.usm.my


CIIDT 2021




Parameshvaran Varaman 1 , Jeya Amantha Kumar 1 and Siti Nazleen Abdul Rabu 3

1 Centre for Instructional Technology and Multimedia, Universiti Sains Malaysia


Educational robots (ER) have been used in numerous educational interventions as a

mathematical teaching aid, especially in primary schools. There are many empirical findings

indicating that primary school students have limited interest in learning mathematics using the

traditional method (Mazana et al., 2018). One of the problem encountered in teaching and

learning mathematics in primary schools is strategizing methods that promotes develop

mathematical knowledge and understanding through inquiry activities that replicates real

applications (Althauser, 2017; Saundarajan et al., 2020). Furthermore, lack of participation

and real-world application strategies in these traditional methods has caused students to view

mathematics as a paper-based subject without practical application (Chotimah et al., 2018).

This perception caused dropping of grades in examinations. Therefore, this study aims to

identify how educational robots influence students’ achievement and interest in learning



A total of 40 respondents (20 each for control and treatment group) from Year Five participated

in this study for learning the mathematical topic lines and angles, and the ER used is Rero-

Micro. The study used a quasi-experimental approach for duration of sixty minutes during

extracurricular activity. The content for the topic “lines & angles” where developed based on

Standard Curriculum Document Year 5 (Curriculum Development Centre, 2015). The

objective of the contents is recognizing right angles, acute angles and obtuse angles by

matching the angles accurately. The lesson plan for treatment group where designed based on

a hands-on approach where students need to work with robots while the lessons for control

group where design based on lecture method where power-point slides were used as a teaching

aid. To measure achievement, a pre-test and post-test were used while interest in learning

mathematics and attitude towards Rero-Micro were evaluated using a set of questionnaires.


Based on the findings analysed using SPSS Statistics 20 software, it was found that the ER

aided learning (M=47.47, S.D=9.18) performed almost same as power-point aided learning

(M=49.71, S.D=9.04) and the Mann-Whitney U test (U = 170, p = 0.42) for pre-test.

Subsequently, ER aided learning (M=69.74, S.D=9.11) performed better than power-point

aided learning (M=52.93, S.D=12.95), and the difference was significant based on Mann-

Whitney test at U= 63.5, p=0.01 in the post-test. Concurrently, as for interest in learning

mathematics, the ER group (M=3.53, S.D=0.59) showed more interest in learning the topic

than the traditional PowerPoint method (M=2.97, S.D=0.94) and the difference was significant

based on Mann-Whitney test at U= 3, p=0.02. The outcome of this study shows that ER can

positively contribute to improving primary students' achievement and interest in learning


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mathematics. Besides, majority of participants showed positive attitude toward mathematics

when using educational robots.


As for the conclusion, educational robots could improve teaching and learning mathematics

while improving student achievement. Furthermore, educational robots also could be an

appropriate medium to increase student interest and attract more students toward learning

mathematics. The integration of technology and engineering elements (Rero-Micro) in

mathematics is in line with Levenberg (2015), who states that interdisciplinary teaching not

only saves time but add a much wider view as well as develops several skills together among


Keywords: Educational robots, Rero-Micro, Mathematics education, primary mathematics,

interest & achievement


Althauser, K. L. (2017). The Emphasis of Inquiry Instructional Strategies: Impact on

Preservice Teachers’ Mathematics Efficacy. Journal of Education and Learning, 7(1),

53. https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v7n1p53

Chotimah, Siti, Bernard, M., & Wulandari, S. M. (2018). Contextual approach using VBA

learning media to improve students’ mathematical displacement and disposition ability.

Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 948(1). https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-


Curriculum Development Centre. (2015). Dokumen Standard Kurikilum dan Prestasi

Matematik Tahun lima.

Levenberg, I. (2015). “Literacy in Mathematics with “Mother Goose.” International Journal

of Learning and Development, 5(1), 27. https://doi.org/10.5296/ijld.v5i1.6919

Saundarajan, K., Osman, S., Daud, M. F., Abu, M. S., Pairan, M. R., & Kumar, J. A. (2020).

Learning algebra using augmented reality. International Journal of Emerging

Technologies in Learning, 15(16), 123–133. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijet.v15i16.10540

Corresponding author: Parameshvaran Varaman,

Email : parameshvaranvaraman@gmail.com


CIIDT 2021



Saidatul Ainoor Shaharim 1 , Nor Asniza Ishak 1 , Rozniza Zaharudin 1 and Wan Nasriha Wan

Mohamed Salleh 2

1 School of Educational Studies, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Georgetown, Pulau

Pinang, Malaysia

2 Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan

Idris, 35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia


The purpose of this study is to determine the needs and requirements for a Psycho-B’GREAT

module that integrates game-based learning and will be used by teachers to teach Chemical

Composition and Metabolism and Enzyme topics form four students. Psycho-B`GREAT is a

teaching and learning module that integrated with psychology, multiple intelligent and gamesbased



This study utilized a semi-structured interview method (Kallio,2016). A total of four biology

teachers from various schools in Penang were involved in this interview session. A sampling

selection technique was conducted by purposefully selecting respondents from homogeneous

groups who could provide diverse information (DiCicco‐Bloom & Crabtree, 2006). The

information was gathered and was analyzed using thematic analysis (Cormack,2018).


Five main themes were identified: the importance of the topics of the Chemical Composition

of Cells, and Metabolism and Enzymes, the challenge of the topics of the Chemical

Composition of Cells, and Metabolism and Enzymes, teaching strategy, the desire for

improvement; and technology. The findings of these five themes proved that there is a need for

the development of the Psycho-B`GREAT module.


Aside from the five selected themes, ideas and information gleaned from the conversations

with teachers will be useful in developing the module materials. In a subsequent stage, these

findings will be utilized to plan and construct the module. The Psycho-B’GREAT module has

great potential for improvement and can be used by biology teachers to trigger active and

entertaining biology teaching for form four students, according to the needs analysis.

Keywords: Mobile game-based learning, basic biology theme, psychology, multiple intelligent


Cormack, J., Postăvaru, G. I., & Basten, G. (2018). Analyzing Qualitative Minigroup Data

Using Thematic Analysis. SAGE Publications Ltd.


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DiCicco‐Bloom, B., & Crabtree, B. F. (2006). The qualitative research interview. Medical

education, 40(4), 314-321.

Kallio, H., Pietilä, A. M., Johnson, M., & Kangasniemi, M. (2016). Systematic methodological

review: developing a framework for a qualitative semi‐structured interview

guide. Journal of advanced nursing, 72(12), 2954-2965.

Corresponding author: Nor Asniza Ishak, Email : asnizaishak@usm.my


CIIDT 2021



Ling Wu 1 , Kien Tsong Chau 1 and Wan Ahmad Jaafar Wan Yahaya 1

1 Centre for Instructional Technology & Multimedia, Universiti Sains Malaysia


The immersion, interactivity and imagination of Virtual Reality (VR) technology can provide

users with a brand-new feeling (Coiffet & Burdea, 2003). Recently, an increasing number of

specialists and scholars have examined the efficiency of VR applications in a variety of

educational contexts. It seems to be that virtual learning environments have emerged as a

potential instructional tool (Maas & Hughes, 2020; Merchant et al, 2014; Radianti et al., 2020;

Bonner, 2018). It reforms and innovates the education (Freina & Ott, 2015; Burdea, 2015;

Radianti et al, 2020). A check on the Scopus database reveals a rapid increase in the number

of publications combining learning, education, or training with VR. Among these, the literature

on VR is often not split into higher education and basic education (Hew & Cheung, 2010;

Merchant et al, 2014). For basic education, its objective is to educate students in primary,

middle and senior high schools between the ages of 6 and 18. VR is not extensively employed

in basic education. We observe a delayed start in research. Therefore, we initiated relevant

research by first categorizing empirical studies of VR technology in the field of basic education

from 2001 to 2020, as follows:

a. The development trend and characteristics of using VR technology in basic education.

b. Disparities in instructional equipment while using VR technology in basic education.

c. The characteristics of teaching contents in basic education through the use of VR



The systems-type literature approach was used in this analysis:problem identification,

standard formulation, literature collection and retrieval, literature selection, data extraction,

research statistics, and writing the literature review (Evans, & Benefield, 2001). Firstly, the

database Scopus is the focus of this study, and the supplementary databases are JSTOR,

Elsevier, ERIC, IEEE, and SpringerLink, and the character search is carried out by keyword

combination. The subsequent step was more accurate deletion of these articles: (1) the articles

must be applied in the basic education stage (primary school, middle school and senior high

school), excluding special education, higher education, etc; (2) Articles must be empirical

research (qualitative, quantitative, mixed analysis, and design analysis), excluding articles of

review, conference and monograph. In accordance with the above basic selection principles,

Finally, 71 articles were identified.This analysis uses the literature codes to make quantitative

analysis and coding of all the selected basic educational VR literatures, which can be divided

into three perspectives: instructional overview, instructional equipment, and instructional



Among 71 empirical articles on basic education, the use of VR technology has reached two

peaks since 2001. The first peak was achieved in 2006, with VR semi-immersive learning

environments built on desktop computers. Secondly, with the continuous development of VR


CIIDT 2021

technology and the continuous reduction of facility costs, it reached the second peak in

2019.Quantitative research is the most common among the articles (43 articles). Researchers

mostly verified the effectiveness of VR teaching through group comparison and quantitative

statistical analysis. Secondly, qualitative research (18 articles), through individual interviews,

combined with video and audio.

In basic education, VR disciplines focus on three levels: social science, basic science, medicine

and health. Junior and primary schools will use VR technology in social science and health

education. VR experience relies on head-mounted display, computer, VR glasses and other

related facilities. From 2001 to 2009, VR was mainly semi-immersive VR based on desktop

computers, usually requiring projection equipment to present VR scenes. Between 2011 and

2020, VR glasses and head-mounted displays developed rapidly, gradually becoming

mainstream VR devices that support fully immersive virtual experiences. In VR learning,

guidance often includes digital guidance, teacher guidance, manual self-study and many other



In conclusion, with the improvement of technical equipment, the application research of VR

technology in the field of basic education has an obvious growth trend, and has a generally

positive impact on the instructional effect. However, due to the lack of instructional guidance,

unreasonable instructional methods and unitary research methods, the value of research results

in guiding the instructional practice of basic education is limited. We hope that researchers

need to conduct in-depth analysis of learners and instructional content before designing VR

instructional strategies, so as to select the most reasonable instructional strategies to maximize

VR instructional effects.

Keywords: VR, Basic education, empirical study, literature review


Bonner, E., & Reinders, H. (2018). Augmented and virtual reality in the language classroom:

Practical ideas. Teaching English with Technology, 18(3), 33-53.

Burdea, G. , & Coiffet, P. . (2003). Virtual reality technology. Presence, 12(6), 663-664.

Evans, J., & Benefield, P. (2001). Systematic reviews of educational research: does the medical

model fit?. British educational research journal, 27(5), 527-541.

Freina, L., & Ott, M. (2015). A literature review on immersive virtual reality in education: State

of the art and perspectives. The International Scientific Conference eLearning and

Software for Education, 1, 133.

Hew, K. F., & Cheung, W. S. (2010). Use of three‐dimensional (3‐D) immersive virtual worlds

in K‐12 and higher education settings: A review of the research. British journal of

educational technology, 41(1), 33-55.

Maas, M. J., & Hughes, J. M. (2020). Virtual, augmented and mixed reality in K–12 education:

A review of the literature. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 29(2), 231–249.


Merchant, Z., Goetz, E. T., Cifuentes, L., Keeney-Kennicutt, W., & Davis, T. J. (2014).

Effectiveness of virtual reality-based instruction on students’ learning outcomes in K-12

and higher education: A meta-analysis. Computers & Education, 70, 29–40.


Radianti, J., Majchrzak, T. A., Fromm, J., & Wohlgenannt, I. (2020). A systematic review of

immersive virtual reality applications for higher education: Design elements, lessons


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learned, and research agenda. Computers & Education, 147, 103778.


Corresponding author: Ling Wu, Email: wuling123@student.usm.my


CIIDT 2021



Nur Yasmin Khairani Zakaria, 1,2 Siti Nazleen Abdul Rabu 3 and Amelia Abdullah 2

1 Faculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

2 School of Educational Studies, Universiti Sains Malaysia 2

3 Centre for Instructional Technology & Multimedia, Universiti Sains Malaysia


In the new era of technology, a shift in human-machine relationships has risen and started to

impact the growth of economies, societies, and personal lives. One of the shifts has been

presented in the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4 th IR) is to implement a more digitalised,

automated and advancement of artificial intelligence or better known as Education 4.0.

Education 4.0 refers to the use of technology-enhanced tool for learning. This implementation

includes the use of gamification in classroom learning in the context of gamified learning


Language learners are constantly struggling with productive skills especially writing skills.

Despite of numerous teaching approaches and methods have been introduced, their ability to

write effectively is still unsatisfactory (Shams-Abadi & Ahmadi, 2015). Difficulties in writing

include problems related to planning, composing and revising the materials. Language learners

especially in higher institution are facing more difficulties in composing a piece of writing due

to inadequate content mastery, inability to retrieve appropriate resources for references and

anxiety towards writing activities (Seow, 2002; Alzahrani, 2016). Writing instructions in

language classroom are conducted in a conventional manner whereby the pedagogical aspects

of the instruction were carried out in a formal way. It is also asserted that learners knowledge

on writing skills highly affected their production of writing apart from their intrinsic

motivation (Wijekumar et al., 2019).

It is also noted that learning in a gamified context becomes more automatised as the learners

are the state of feeling a seamless sequence of responses with machine interactivity, perceiving

intrinsic enjoyment, loss of self-consciousness, and sensing self-reinforcing during network

navigation (Lu et al, 2009). In the context of writing instruction, it is crucial for the learners to

be highly autonomous without feeling anxious of the complexities of writing process. Learners’

anxiety towards the process of writing can hinder their ability to perform well and eventually

affect their motivation in learning. Therefore, it is crucial for language learners to learn the

language in the most comfortable and less-threatening manner (Paiz, 2014). In response to

current language learning situation particularly in mastering writing skills, this study aims to

discover the ESL learners’ performance after the implementation of game-based learning

instruction in a blended learning environment.


In this study, 33 undergraduates of Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL)

programme participated. These students enrolled for a 4-months (one academic semester)

course related to academic writing skills. The aforementioned course is a compulsory subject

of the Faculty of Education which is also a pre-requisite course of their final year project

dissertation. In assessing the students’ performance, single case experimental study was



CIIDT 2021


Analysis of students’ results was conducted using Kahoot scores analysis. Results displayed

were the manifestation of students’ achievement after the implementation of Kahoot as a tool

for language learning. Kahoot, the mobile game-based learning instruction has identified

multiple changes of learning growth of the students. The categories of students were identified

according to their learning improvement and decline of the scores. Through four months of the

course, five categories of students were identified and three types of learning growth were


An overview of students’ overall achievement is displayed in the table below after the

implementation of Kahoot as learning tool for game-based learning. The high scorer obtained

80% in the pretest and 95% in the posttest. An increase of time spent in answering question

was also noted from 4.789s to 7.537s. The increase of time spent for each question could be

due to the difficulty of topic presented. An increase in scores implies the students’ familiarity

and acceptance to the use of Kahoot as a learning tool after four months of Kahoot

implementation as a game-based learning tool. Categories of students that were discovered in

this study implied the changes of learning performance throughout the learning.


Kahoot is one of the most popular and acceptable tool for learning due to its usability and

feasibility. This type of learning tool becomes the tool that is highly accepted among students.

Features of gamification such as points, level and ranking motivate learners to be fully-engaged

in the learning session. The main objective of this study is to discover learners’ performance

after the implementation of Kahoot as a game-based learning tool. Analysis from the results

obtained revealed that there are three main categories of learners, namely low achiever,

moderate achiever and high achiever. Categorisation of learners was constructed according to

the scores in pretest. After the implementation of game-based learning in the classroom, it is

also noted that there were two types of learning performance which are declined learning

performance and improved learning performance.


This study was funded under the Universiti Sains Malaysia Short Term Grant


Keywords: Academic writing skills, English as a Second Language (ESL), game-based

learning, gamification, language learning,


Alzahrani, H. F. (2016). Teachers’ stated beliefs on coded unfocused corrective feedback in

EFL writing at Saudi University. TESOL International Journal, 11(1), 52-63.

Lu, Y., Zhou, T., & Wang, B. (2009). Exploring Chinese users’ acceptance of instant

messaging using the theory of planned behavior, the technology acceptance model, and

the flow theory. Computers in Human Behavior, 25(1), 29-39.

Paiz, Joshua, "Encouraging the Growth of OWLs Worldwide: Utilizing Intercultural Rhetoric

to Inform Best Practices" (2014). Purdue Writing Lab/Purdue OWL Graduate Student

Presentations. Paper 10. http://docs.lib.purdue.edu/writinglabgradpres/10

Seow, A. (2002). The Writing Process and the Process Writing. In J. C. Rhichards & W. A.

Renandya (Eds.), Methodology in Language Teaching: An Anthology of Current Practice

(pp. 315–320). New York: Cambridge University Press.


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Shams-Abadi, B. & Ahmadi, S. & Mehrdad, A. (2015). The Effect of Edmodo on EFL

Learners’ Writing Performance. International Journal of Educational Investigations, 2

(2). 88-97.

Wijekumar, K., Graham, S., Harris, K. R., Lei, P. W., Barkel, A., Aitken, A., ... & Houston, J.

(2019). The roles of writing knowledge, motivation, strategic behaviors, and skills in

predicting elementary students’ persuasive writing from source material. Reading and

Writing, 32(6), 1431-1457.

Corresponding author: Siti Nazleen Abdul Rabu , Email : snazleen@usm.my


CIIDT 2021



Chun Cao 1 , Chau Kien Tsong 1 and Mona Masood 1

1 Centre for Instructional Technology & Multimedia, Universiti Sains Malaysia


With the continuous development of Virtual Reality (VR) devices and equipment prices decline

gradually, people begin to use VR applications intensively. This implies people requires mutual

interaction and higher immersion VR applications more thatn before. We observe research

works on VR focuses on higher quality of application and technology (Korves & Loftus, 2000)

because higher quality of user interfaces design in VR affects the actual sense of immersion in

VR applications, and thus improve the quality of the key factors in the application . Facing

fierce competition in the computing technology market, how to use user interface design to

enhance user immersion has always been a critical component of developing VR applications

(Adams & Hannaford, 2002). However, there are few studies on the effect of user interface

design style on VR immersion, which merits further study and discussion. When “virtual

reality” and “user interface” keywords were combined, the WOS database examination

revealed that the number of publications increased year after year, indicating a solid rising

trend. This study will analyze and compare the user experience of Material Design System

(MDS)and Fluent Design System (FDS) UI design styles in VR applications using quantitative

and qualitative research methods, content analysis, questionnaire survey, and comparative

analysis (Korves & Loftus, 2000).

Quantitative methods and analysis are used to measure and understand the perception of users,

the impact of different design styles on user experience in the VR environment (Bruno &

Muzzupappa, 2010). In the digital age, both Microsoft Fluent Design System (FDS) and Virtual

Reality Application (VR) are emerging technologies. Microsoft created FDS, a design

language, in 2017. It is used to create user interactions and experiences for all Windows 10

devices and platforms. Light, Depth, Motion, Material, and Scale are the five core design

elements in FDS. On the other hand, VR highly emphasizes Sensory Immersion and

Interactivity as important factors affecting user experiences. The flat interface does not

adequately convey a sense of distance in a VR setting, but the FDS is better in terms of light

and layering. It incorporates some translucent effects and materials, making it more ideal for

VR. In this regard, FDS potentially helps VR to turn the experience analogous to an experience

called “single color static rectangle” to the experience of “break down the walls between person

and equipment”, and from 2D “Material” design effects to 3D “Fluent” design effect. With

richer animation, surface textures, and dynamic layers, users can have a clearer sense of “spatial

location”, and thereby enhance the immersive effects in VR applications.


In this study, quantitative and qualitative research methods were used to analyze and integrate

related literature. The SCOPUS database was used as the primary source for this study, with

additional data from WOS, BIOSIS, CSCD, DIIDW, KJD, MEDLINE, RSCI, and SCIELO.

The search was conducted using keyword combinations, with a sample size of approximately

40 high-quality Scopus Data articles. Six participants took part in this study, using display

Interface-based address evaluation (Sutcliffe et al., 2000) and a usability laboratory-style

assessment. Meanwhile, data were analysed using questionnaires and interviews for content

analysis and comparative analysis. In the context of VR, we compared the user experience

differences between FDS and MDS (Material Design Systems) (Hollerer et al., 1999).


CIIDT 2021


Using retrievals in the WOS database, TI= (Virtual * reality* or virtual reality Modeling *or

Visual reality* or Augment * reality*) AND TI=(Interaction design* or interface design* or

UI design* or user interface design* interfacial design* or page layout* or user Interface *),

we received search outcomes of 762 articles, and the publication of articles showed an overall

upward trend. The peak in 2019 indicates people are paying excessive attention to VR contents

and interaction. The cited frequency is also increasing each year, and 2020 reached the peak,

which represents that people are continuing in-depth research. Computer science, engineering,

instrumentation, and telecommunications are amongst the research areas for VR. The most

prevalent types of literature were patent meeting and article. Five participants indicated that

FDS could provide an increased sense of immersion and mutual interaction in the case

experiment, while one participant indicated that there was little difference between the two

styles. This further evidence that FDS had caused certain level of impact on the acceptance

experience in VR applications.


The research demonstrates that various UI design styles influence the level of immersion

experiences in VR. FDS significantly improves the sense of immersion in VR applications

when compared to the MDS (Material Design Systems). The findings of this study can be used

as countermeasures and suggestions for enhancing the sense of immersion and interaction in

VR applications, as well as for demonstrating how effectively FDS can be used to enhance the

sense of immersion and interaction, thereby assisting programmers in developing more

effective VR applications for users in the future.

Keywords: Virtual Reality, User Interface, Fluent Design System, Immersion, Interactivity.


Adams, R. J., & Hannaford, B. (2002). Control law design for haptic interfaces to virtual

reality. IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, 10(1), 3-13.


Bruno, F., & Muzzupappa, M. (2010). Product interface design: A participatory approach

based on virtual reality. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 68(5), 254-

269. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhcs.2009.12.004

Hollerer, T., Feiner, S., Terauchi, T., Rashid, G., & Hallaway, D. (1999). Exploring MARS:

developing indoor and outdoor user interfaces to a mobile augmented reality system.

Computers & Graphics, 23(6), 779-785. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0097-8493(99)00103-


Korves, B., & Loftus, M. (2000). Designing an immersive virtual reality interface for layout

planning. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 107(1-3), 425-430.


Sutcliffe, A., Ryan, M., Doubleday, A., & Springett, M. (2000). Model mismatch analysis:

towards a deeper explanation of users' usability problems. Behaviour & Information

Technology, 19(1), 43-55. https://doi.org/10.1080/014492900118786

Corresponding author: Chun Cao, email: caochun@student.usm.my


CIIDT 2021




Liang Hong 1 and Siti Rohaida Mohamed Zainal 1

1 School of Management, Universiti Sains Malaysia


Increasing the digital literacy of students in higher education is an important issue that need

to be discussed due to virtual education on digital literacy have hardly been integrated and

previous evidence is inconsistent. Globalization, e-students and e-courses increasing the

pressure for the higher education industry in Malaysia that it requires to adopt digital

opportunity initiatives (DOI) to enhance the digital literacy. Nowadays, The Covid-19

pandemic unexpectedly and suddenly forced institutions and education to switch to virtual

education. It has been recognized that education shall implement an extensive digitalization

to address the needs of the young generation and their digitally enhanced future. Previous

studies have shown that digital literacy skills have a positive influence of students' academic

performance. This paper aims to explore the E-learning and E-teaching as an opportunity to

foster students' digital literacy in the time of pandemic in order to support the digital teaching

and promote inclusive education in Malaysia. The results show that cultivating students'

digital literacy skills improves interactive teaching by switching the virtual education

strategies required in the digital environment to achieve inclusive education. Therefore, this

paper summarized relevant scholarly articles on enhancing E-teaching and E-learning to prove

that the adaptation of virtual education to promote students’ digital literacy.


The research methods applied in the study is systemic review aims to synthesize virtual

education literature that can impact on students’ digital literacy. The data was collected using

keywords and widely search keywords were used to draw academic papers that were primary

source. Reports, search engines, scholarly articles, scientific papers and other academic

publications are secondary sources of data used. To provide more specific literature insight,

we conduct the systematically search database include ResearchGate, Google Scholar,

Emerald, Taylor and Francis, Wiley online library, Science Direct, SAGE Premier, Scopus,

Springer Protocol and SSCI databases reaped 15 eligible studies in the last six years (2016-

2021). Also, we checked the first 100 hits per search term. Using the tables related to the

subtitles contained in the collected papers, the sources are analyzed and divided accordingly.

Besides, thematic and deductive approach was used as the analysis tool to build the research

theoretical understanding.


When searching for information through online, students learn how and where to effectively

search for information from different sources, which helps to build their background

knowledge. In the process of learning comprehensive information to obtain new knowledge

and share information with others, students gain the experience of building their own ability

and cultivating correct attitudes and opinions. The three structures are consistent with the

dimensions of digital literacy, which are technical, cognitive and social-emotional. For the

more, the personalised function in e-learning system can overcome the downside that the

features of students' inattention and lack of interpersonal interaction in traditional teaching.

Both learners and educators need to understand the importance of cultivating their digital


CIIDT 2021

literacy and have confidence in the media and different online platforms so that students and

teachers improve efficiency in online education.


The virtual education and new digital technology forces academicians and educators to shift

online learning and teaching. Our culture today has no longer literary and artistic but to acquire

technological and scientific knowledge. The contribution of the paper can be summed as

identifying ideas for adoption virtual education in an online world to develop students' digital

literacy by effectively integrating technology on online platforms and empirical support.

Therefore, digital literacy is one of the most important skills in today's competitive

environment. Therefore, governments and higher education institutions need to provide

technical and political support for teachers to successfully impart digital knowledge and skills

to improve students' digital literacy. The recommendation thus is for higher education industry

to continue to provide E-learning and E-teaching via on demand virtual learning regarding

digital literacy to prepare for post pandemic. Furthermore, the research findings suggest future

study continue to study digital literacy by adopt different methodology to find out the predictor

influence students' digital literacy and how digital literacy help students' learning outcomes.

Keywords: E-teaching, E-learning, Digital literacy, Covid19, Malaysia


Al-Okaily, M., Alqudah, H., Matar, A., Lutfi, A., & Taamneh, A. (2020). Dataset on the

Acceptance of e-learning System among Universities Students’ under the Covid-19

Pandemic Conditions. Data in brief, 32, 106176.

Alqurashi, E. (2019). Predicting student satisfaction and perceived learning within online

learning environments. Distance Education, 40(1), 133-148.

Anderson, T. (2011). Towards a theory of online learning. In T. Anderson (Ed.), The theory

and practice of online learning, 2, 45–74. Edmonton: Athabasca University Press.

Bao, W. (2020). Covid-19 and online teaching in higher education: A case study of Peking

University. Human Behavior and Emerging Technologies, 2(2), 113-115.

Bisht, R. K., Jasola, S., & Bisht, I. P. (2020). Acceptability and challenges of online higher

education in the era of Covid-19: a study of students’ perspective. Asian Education and

Development Studies.

Iivari, N., Sharma, S., & Ventä-Olkkonen, L. (2020). Digital transformation of everyday life–

How Covid-19 pandemic transformed the basic education of the young generation and

why information management research should care? International Journal of

Information Management, 55, 102183.

Panigrahi, R., Srivastava, P. R., & Sharma, D. (2018). Online learning: Adoption, continuance,

and learning outcome—A review of literature. International Journal of

Information Management, 43, 1-14.

Corresponding author: Liang Hong, email: Lianghong@student.usm.my


CIIDT 2021



Fakhitah Ridzuan 1 and Norehan Mokhtar 1

1Dental Simulation and Virtual Learning Research Excellence Consortium, Craniofacial and

Biomaterial Science Cluster, Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Universiti Sains

Malaysia, Bertam 13200, Penang, Malaysia


The education systems around the world are undergoing massive changes, as courses and

programs are designed in new ways and with new educational content. Since COVID-19 hit

the world, the trend of the clinical education system has changed. The shift from face-to-face

to online learning are facing difficulty, especially for dental and medical undergraduate

programs .Clinical posting is the most important part of the medical (Singh, 2020) and dental

curriculum (Cheng et al., 2021) as it requires feedback from the lecturers. It is all about learning

by doing, which includes history taking, the examination of the patient, coming to a differential

diagnosis after critical reasoning, maintaining good communication and professionalism

(Afonso et al., 2020; Singh, 2020). Since most of the recent publications only focus on the

theoretical knowledge delivery during the pandemic, therefore this review aims to identify the

challenges and steps taken by the universities from different countries to overcome problems

in clinical education .


The review was done on several established databases which are Scopus, Science Direct and

PubMed. The data was extracted and analysed to identify the challenges, solutions, and

opportunities in clinical education.


From the review, most of the universities had been closed and the clinical placement was

postponed (Al-Balas et al., 2020; Alsoufi et al., 2020). In the United States, the Association of

American Medical Colleges (AAMC) recommended a temporary suspension of all direct

patient contact responsibilities for the students (Everard & Schiel, 2021). This situation may

result in a gradual reduction in students’ clinical skills competence as they no longer have

access to patients. Therefore, various solutions have been done by the university to ensure

clinical education can be continued. E-learning may represent a suitable alternative to

traditional learning to deliver high-quality education (Al-Balas et al., 2020). However, 21.1%

agreed that e-learning could be used for clinical aspects (Alsoufi et al., 2020). Virtual

Resources was designed to replace a clinical simulation session for the physical examination

course. From the study, it can be seen that the virtual resources are effective for teaching basic

clinical skills (Afonso et al., 2020). However, the implication of virtual resources is still a

relatively limited learning experience (Kim et al., 2020).

Next, Telehealth involves the use of telecommunications and virtual technology to deliver

healthcare outside of the traditional brick and mortar healthcare facility. 67% strongly or

moderately agreed that telehealth and in-person patient encounters have similar educational

value (Mahabamunuge et al., 2021). In this review, the opportunity of implementing virtual

learning in education specifically for clinical simulation was also analysed. Innovative

technologies are needed to adhere to the challenge in delivering clinical training to the students


CIIDT 2021

and increase their knowledge and practical skills. The time for change is now, and there should

be a valid solution that can be implemented globally. COVID-19 is an opportunity for medical

and dental education to implement online or blending learning in clinical education. It has

accelerated the process which requires the students and educators to quickly adapt to and adopt

such changes. Virtual reality can be implemented as part of telehealth in clinical teaching. It

can provide an advanced communication interface, which enables more interactive session and

enhance the feeling of physical presence .


Initially, when COVID-19 hit the world, the university do not have any option aside to postpone

the clinical years. This shows that even though the technology in medical and dental education

is evolving, but clinical education is left behind. Online teaching and learning and simulationbased

tools are essential in ensuring continual clinical education, however, they may not

completely replace conventional clinical training. Regardless, the students and educators must

dare to change and get ready for the technology that may complement the skills in clinical

education .

Keywords: COVID-19; Clinical Education; Virtual Learning, Dental Education, Medical



Afonso, N., Kelekar, A., & Alangaden, A. (2020). “I Have a Cough”: An Interactive Virtual

Respiratory Case-Based Module. MedEdPORTAL : The Journal of Teaching and

Learning Resources, 16, 11058.

Al-Balas, M., Al-Balas, H. I., Jaber, H. M., Obeidat, K., Al-Balas, H., Aborajooh, E. A., Al-

Taher, R., & Al-Balas, B. (2020). Distance learning in clinical medical education amid

COVID-19 pandemic in Jordan: current situation, challenges, and perspectives. BMC

Medical Education, 20(1), 341.

Alsoufi, A., Alsuyihili, A., Msherghi, A., Elhadi, A., Atiyah, H., Ashini, A., Ashwieb, A.,

Ghula, M., Hasan, H. Ben, Abudabuos, S., Alameen, H., Abokhdhir, T., Anaiba, M.,

Nagib, T., Shuwayyah, A., Benothman, R., Arrefae, G., Alkhwayildi, A., Alhadi, A., …

Elhadi, M. (2020). Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on medical education: Medical

students’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding electronic learning. PLOS ONE,

15(11), e0242905.

Cheng, F. C., Wang, L. H., Chang, J. Y. F., Lin, T. C., Liu, T. H., Tsai, P. F., Chang, Y. T., &

Chiang, C. P. (2021). The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the dentist manpower in

Taiwan. Journal of Dental Sciences,

Everard, K. M., & Schiel, K. Z. (2021). Changes in Family Medicine Clerkship Teaching Due

to the COVID-19 Pandemic. Family Medicine, 53(4), 282–284.

Kim, J. W., Myung, S. J., Yoon, H. B., Moon, S. H., Ryu, H., & Yim, J.-J. (2020). How medical

education survives and evolves during COVID-19: Our experience and future direction.

PLOS ONE, 15(12), e0243958.

Mahabamunuge, J., Farmer, L., Pessolano, J., & Lakhi, N. (2021). Implementation and

Assessment of a Novel Telehealth Education Curriculum for Undergraduate Medical

Students. Journal of Advances in Medical Education & Professionalism, 9(3), 127.

Singh, A. (2020). The Impediment in Acquiring Clinical Skills by Medical Students during the

COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal of Nepal Medical Association, 59(233), 98–99.

Corresponding author: Norehan Mokhtar, Email : norehanmokhtar@usm.my


CIIDT 2021




Siok Inn Tan 1 and Kok Chian Tam 1

1 School of Social Sciences, Heriot-Watt University Malaysia


The study explores the opportunities and challenges of Responsive Blended Learning (RBL)

from the perspectives of academicians in Heriot-Watt University Malaysia. The outbreak of

COVID-19 has disrupted the teaching and learning environment in all parts of the world,

including Malaysia (Shahzad et al., 2020; Sundarasen, et al., 2020). As a result, the

academicians were forced to adopt the e-learning or blended environment for teaching and

learning. In response, the management of Heriot-Watt University has introduced the

Responsive Blended Learning (RBL) to all campuses, including Malaysia (Heriot-Watt

University, 2020). This RBL approach is designed specifically to enable the university to meet

the needs of students and staff operating as one global university (Heriot-Watt University,

2020). It is designed to combine active and supported virtual learning environment with

appropriate face-to-face learning opportunities. Besides, it also aims to respond to the dynamic

change of external environment. This approach enables students to proceed with their studies

alongside their peers, whatever pandemic-related restrictions are lifted or imposed in specific

contexts (Learning & Teaching Academy, 2020). Whilst blended learning is a familiar term in

describing the teaching and learning approach of blending face-to-face with online activities,

RBL is a new approach and yet to be explored. In addition, a successful implementation of

RBL emerged at delivery level. Thus, it is worth gathering and understanding the rich

experiences of academicians by adopting qualitative methodology in this study. The

development of RBL is viewed as a way forward for future teaching and learning to respond

to the changing environment. Therefore, the findings of this study would help in improving of

the implementation of RBL by providing a useful insight into the opportunities and challenges

of RBL from the perspectives of academicians.


This study adopts qualitative research that emphasises the individuals’ ‘lived experience’ as

well as fundamentally discovers the meanings of events, processes, and structures of their lives

by further connecting these meanings to the social world around them (Creswell & Creswell,

2018). The experience of the participants in this study were collected through semi-structured

face-to-face interviews. Purposive sampling was adopted in selecting participants in order

achieve in-depth understanding (Patton, 2002) on the understanding of RBL. A total of 10

Heriot-Watt University Malaysia’s academicians were interviewed. The interviews were

recorded, transcribed, and analysed using thematic coding.


The findings revealed five (5) themes in opportunities, which are: flexibility, learning

experience, student’s engagement, comprehensive learning model and assessments. On the

other hand, there are four (4) themes in challenges, which are class preparation, student’s

engagement, steep learning curve, and assessments. The participants responded that RBL

provides flexible approach to learning and teaching, that learning materials can easily make

available and accessible by students, and learning can take place in both offline and online. In

addition, RBL enables a more comprehensive learning model, and it improves student’s

learning experience and engagement. Academicians can explore various pedagogy and


CIIDT 2021

methods to enhance the teaching and learning model by blending ICT into face-to-face

classroom. In addition, RBL opens the doors to increasing contents of learning and improving

experience the academics and students at minimum costs. However, RBL is not always

perceived as a positive approach. The learning curve in adapting to RBL is steep, and the

preparation stage is time-consuming. The effectiveness of class delivery might be affected by

lack of social interaction in the RBL environment. Also, monitoring of student’s behaviors

during assessment is difficult. Hence, any strategy addressing the academician concerns likely

to be beneficial in the specific context. Availability of resources such as time and support will

help in dealing with the challenges.


Despite of the challenges, the RBL is seen as a better approach in teaching and learning,

especially for a global university. The ability to respond to environment has become the way

forward for future teaching and learning. However, the RBL approach is still at infancy stage

and requires further studies to understand its’ effectiveness. The findings of this study would

help in improving of the implementation of RBL by providing a useful insight into the

opportunities and challenges of RBL from the perspectives of academicians. The current study

was conducted in Heriot-Watt University Malaysia. Thus, it is possible that a study at other

campuses or at other higher education institutions may derive at different results. However,

this study unquestionably provides a useful insight into the opportunities and challenges of

RBL from the perspectives of academicians. It is suggested the future studies can explore the

views of students as the end users of RBL to ensure a boarder understanding of RBL.

Keywords: Responsive Blended Learning, Higher Education, Learning and Teaching


Creswell, J.W., & Creswell, J.D. (2018). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative and

Mixed Methods Approaches (5th edition). California: SAGE.

Heriot-Watt University. (2020, July 22). Deputy Principal (Learning and Teaching) Weekly

Update - Responsive Blended Learning.


Learning & Teaching Academy. (2020, July 22.) Responsive Blended Learning. Heriot-Watt

University. https://lta.hw.ac.uk/responsive-blended-learning /

Patton, M.Q. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods (3rd edition). California:


Shahzad, A., Hassan, R., Aremu, E.Y., Hussain A., & Lodhi, R.N. (2021). Effects of COVID-

19 in E-learning on Higher Education Institution Students: The Group Comparison

between Male and Female. Quality & Quantity, 55, 805-826.


Sundarasen, S., Chinna, K., Kamaludin, K., Nurunnabi, M., Baloch G.M., Khoshaim, H.B.,

Hossain, S.F.A., & Sukayt, A. (2020). Psychological Impact of COVID-19 and

Lockdown among University Students in Malaysia: Implications and Policy

Recommendations. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public

Health, 17(17), 6206. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176206

Corresponding author: Siok Inn Tan, Email: Siok_Inn.Tan@hw.ac.uk


CIIDT 2021







Centre for Instructional Technology and

Multimedia (CITM)

Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang,


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