The Pelican News January 2022

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Pelican News

Vol. 78 | No. 1

January 2022


Quarterly newsletter written for the 66,076 nurses in Louisiana

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From Your President

From Your President Page 1

Executive Director’s Message Page 2

Stronger Together

District News Pages 3-5

In Their Own Words Pages 6-7

LANPAC Pages 8-9

LSNA Legislative Wrap up and What’s Next Page 10

The Louisiana Action Coalition’s

2022 Nurse Leader Institute Page 11

Stop the Bleed Page 12

Microaggression: What does it really

mean in Nursing Practice? Page 13

An Ethic of Justice Viewed through

the Lens of an Ethic of Care: How Nurse

Leaders May Combat Workplace Bullying Pages 14-15

If there is one thing

we have learned over

the past two years, it’s

that we are stronger


During 2021, the

second Year of the

Nurse, nurses continued

to inspire the world.

We at LSNA want you

to know that we see

how much we have

Ecoee Rooney faced as a nation, a

Louisianian, and as a

nurse and we admire you! With the support of

LCMC, LSNA is providing each member with a

unique 2022 LSNA President’s pin as a gift of

gratitude and recognition for your membership

and dedication to your professional nursing

association. In 2022, LSNA is calling all

Louisiana Nurses to unite with other nurses

and ignite your passion for your profession.

Please wear your pin with pride!

More than anything, we at LSNA want

you to know that we are thinking about you,

working hard for you, and we thank you for

the many ways you have supported each

other, your patients, and your communities.

In 2021, the Louisiana State Nurses

Association spent a lot of energy focused

on magnifying the voice of our members

through promoting our resolutions process

to identify our priorities as an organization.

Members submitted five resolutions which

were all adopted at our Membership

Assembly in April. The four areas of focus

from these resolutions are the promotion

of COVID-19 vaccination along with the

promotion of evidence-based, scientifically

backed information for the public; a

focus on diversity, equity, and inclusion

in the profession of nursing to address

the large gaps in BIPOC people entering

the profession of nursing in our state; and

workplace violence.

To these ends, each author participates

in work within the organization to move

these priorities forward. Dr. Ahnyel Burke

and Dr. Leanne Fowler are leading a group

of healthcare practitioners, including other

nurses, to make recommendations on

legislative actions to address workplace

violence in healthcare. Please see a complete

article on legislative action by LSNA on

page 10 with Dr. Ahnyel Burke’s legislative

update. Resolution authors are collaborating

on strategy soon to create a Diversity,

Equity, and Inclusion Task Force to pull in

authors of the two resolutions passed during

Membership Assembly addressing this

theme. Task Force activities will kick off in

January 2022. The Task Force on Vaccination

has worked toward their resolution

goals through promoting the sharing of

scientifically based, accurate vaccination

information through all LSNA media.

Additionally, LSNA laid the groundwork

in December 2021 to assemble leaders

of nursing regulatory and professional

organizations, healthcare organizations,

academia, and legislated task forces to

culminate in a summit this Fall to address

the future of our profession and removing

barriers to entering the profession.

The future of nursing is brighter because

you are in it. Let this year be the year of

healing, strengthening, and overcoming

so that we can move forward together to

transform the future of nursing. Let’s Unite

and Ignite!

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Page 2 • Pelican News January, February, March 2022

Executive Director’s Message

Thea Ducrow

The Louisiana State

Nurses Association made

great strides advocating

for and serving nurses in

2021. Most significantly, the

2021 Membership Assembly

brought new leadership

and new focus areas. In

2022 and beyond, LSNA

will: promote the voice of

nursing through health

policy and advocacy, focus

on diversity, equity, and

inclusion to strengthen Louisiana, seek meaningful

engagement of nurses to address practice barriers,

and provide member-focused professional


The last two years have been incomprehensively

hard for Louisiana nurses. LSNA is committed to

doing all we can to support nurses across the state.

Louisiana nurses prove time and again that they have

a heart of service not just for their patients but for

each other. We want to celebrate all nurses who are

persevering and building others up.

We look forward to a new year filled with promise.

543 Spanish Town Road | Baton Rouge, LA 70802

P: 225-605-3090 | F: 225-381-0163

LNF Board of Trustees

President................................................................................ Denise Danna

Vice-President......................................................................Chad Sullivan

Treasurer..........................................................................Barbara Morvant

Secretary............................................................................. Barbara McGill

Trustee..........................................................................Cynthia Prestholdt

Trustee.....................................................................Ahnyel Jones-Burkes

Trustee...................................................................................Ecoee Rooney

Trustee............................................................................... Benita Chatmon

Trustee.....................................................................................Chad Sullivan

LSNA Board of Directors

Recruiting all RN’s

New Base Pay Rates

Eastern LA

Mental Health System

Call (225) 634-4303

for more info

Louisiana School

Nurse Organization

(Affiliate of NASN)

Through our specialized, evidence-based

practice, we autonomously strive to protect

and promote student health, facilitate optimal

development, and advance academic success.

Join LSNO today and help us forge the future

of our profession @

The largest publicly founded

Mental Health System in Louisiana

Leading the way in Mental Health Care!

1451 Fern Circle

(318) 232-8892


Executive Board

President...............................................................................Ecoee Rooney

President-Elect.............................................................. Benita Chatmon

Secretary..............................................................................Brandi Borden

Treasurer........................................................................... Denise Hancock

Transition into Practice....................................................Austin Nelson

Director of

Clinical Practice, Health Policy.....................Ahnyel Jones-Burkes

Membership, Recruitment, & Retention...............Shelley Upshaw

Nursing Leadership &

Professional Development.............................................. Ken Cochran

Organizational Advancement..........................Lxchelle Arceneaux

Non-Voting Board Members

Immediate Past-President....................................... Georgia Johnson

LASN President.............................................................Christina Hebert

LANPAC.........................................................................Patricia La Brosse

LNF........................................................................................... Denise Danna

District Presidents

Alexandria..........................................................................Debra Hickman

Baton Rouge.................................................................... Yvonne Pellerin

Northshore..................................................................... Georgia Johnson

Lafayette................................................................................... Elsie Meaux

Lake Charles............................................................ Peggy Hershberger

Monroe................................................................................... Debra Walker

New Orleans....................................................................... Kendra Barrier

Ruston................................................................................... Kathy Roberts

Winnfield......................................................................................... VACANT

Shreveport................................................................................ Lisa Wilhite

Tangipahoa............................................................................. Laura Lucky

Bayou........................................................................ Renata Schexnaydre

Feliciana............................................................................. Yvonne Pellerin



Executive Director

Thea Ducrow, Ph.D. |

Nurse Lead Planner

Kim Cheramie

Administrative Assistant

Tiara Battieste |

Head of Finance Committee

Denise Hancock, PhD, RN, LCCE

Article Submission

Submission Deadlines for 2021 Editions of the Pelican

March 1, June 1, September 1 and December 1, 2021

(submissions by end of the business day)

We appreciate your continued cooperation in adhering to the

submission guidelines so we can ensure the Pelican remains

a professional, highly regarded publication and resource for

all professional nurses in Louisiana. LSNA looks forward to

hearing from you and if you know of anyone who would like to

submit an article please forward this information to them.


• Send all submissions to

• Subject line: Pelican News Submission: Name of Article

• All submissions are subject to editing by the LSNA Executive


• Only electronic submissions are accepted and they must be

an attachment to an email (Microsoft Word only).

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depicted. Names must be complete and submitted at time of


• Pictures cannot be embedded in article; submit with the

article but in a separate format (png,.tif, .jpg)

• LSNA reserves the right to pull or edit any article / news

submission for space and availability and/ or deadlines.

• If requested, notification will be given to authors once the

final draft of the Pelican has been submitted

• LSNA does not accept monetary payment for articles

• Any submissions after the deadline will be considered for the

following issue

Please email with all inquiries regarding the

Pelican News.


For advertising rates and information, please contact Arthur L. Davis

Publishing Agency, Inc., PO Box 216, Cedar Falls, Iowa 50613, (800) 626-

4081, sales@aldpub. LSNA and the Arthur L. Davis Publishing Agency, Inc.

reserve the right to reject any advertisement. Responsibility for errors in

advertising is limited to corrections in the next issue or refund of price of


Acceptance of advertising does not imply endorsement or approval by the

Louisiana State Nurses Association of products advertised, the advertisers,

or the claims made. Rejection of an advertisement does not imply a product

offered for advertising is without merit, or that the manufacturer lacks

integrity, or that this association disapproves of the product or its use.

LSNA and the Arthur L. Davis Publishing Agency, Inc. shall not be held liable

for any consequences resulting from purchase or use of an advertiser’s

product. Articles appearing in this publication express the opinions of

the authors; they do not necessarily reflect views of the staff, board, or

membership of LSNA or those of the national or local associations.

Louisiana Pelican News is published quarterly every January, April, July

and October and is the official publication of the Louisiana State Nurses

Association, a constituent member of the American Nurses Association.

January, February, March 2022 Pelican News • Page 3

District News

District IV News

Elsie Meaux

Elsie Meaux, RN, BSN, MHA

President, District IV

District 4 has been

enjoying the cooler

temperatures and continuing

to be active in our Acadiana

district. We were proud

to start off the fall with

nine nurses from our area

nominated for Nightingale

Awards. Congratulations

to Dr. Deedra Harrington

who won for Outstanding

Clinical Educator. A Watch

Party was held by the

district and we had four of

our nominees attend with their family members. The

evening included great food, drinks, and comradery as

we viewed the award announcements. Congratulations

to all of our nominees including district members

Shelia Pritchett, Iris Malone, Karen Wyble and

Miguel Jolivette.

We were proud to distribute “special goodie bags”

from the Louisiana Nurses Foundation to some very

special nurses. The bags with Cereve Lotion and

headbands were given to the nursing faculty of ULL

and SLCC. We wanted to thank them for their support

in keeping students focused and their volunteer

efforts in the community during the Covid crisis. They

are preparing our future nurses and we are grateful of

their contributions.

Our October meeting was well attended as our

speakers discussed Nursing Advocacy and how nurses

can make a difference. Our speakers were Dr. Jennifer

Lemoine and Dr. Kyle Lavergne, co- chairs of the of the

LSNA members attended the Acadiana

Black Nurses Association program

District 4 Nightingale nominees were

honored at Watch Party

Louisiana Association of Nurse Practitioners (LANP)

Health Policy committee. Dr. Ahnyel Jones-Burke,

LSNA Director of Health Policy & Advocacy also

attended on Zoom and gave additional input. We were

honored to have LSNA President, Dr. Ecoee Rooney

attend our meeting and she presented the awards won

by the District at the Membership Assembly earlier

this year. They included Outstanding Community

Involvement by a District, Outstanding District

President and LSNA Fellow for Elsie Meaux.

The Acadiana Black Nurses Association invited

members of District 4 to attend their first “in person”

meeting since Covid on November 17th. Several

members attended the presentation by Dr. David Allie

from Cardiovascular Institute of the South discussing

Cardiovascular Disease & the African American


To join our Team,

apply @



District IV News continued on page 4

Lake Charles Memorial Health System

is hiring experienced RNs.

Flexible Options & Schedules Available.

Experienced Registered Nurses - ED, ICU, Med Surg & Tele

• $75/hour-In house contract

• 12-week contract, no benefits

• $20K Sign-On Bonus for FT Employee (2 Yr Commitment)

• Critical Care Differential for ICU, NICU and ED

Experienced Registered Nurses - Cath Lab/OR

• $75/hour plus call pay

• 12-week contract, no benefits

• $30K Sign-On Bonus, $20k Retention Bonus for FT Employee

(3 Yr Commitment)

• Critical Care Differential for Cath Lab

Experienced Registered Nurses - In House Float

• $80 per hour

• 12-week contract, no benefits

• $20k Sign-On Bonus for FT Employee (2 Yr Commitment)


Page 4 • Pelican News January, February, March 2022

District News

District IV News continued from page 3

We had several of our members attend the annual

LANPAC meeting on November 29th by Zoom.

Congratulations to our district members Patricia

Labrosse who was re-elected as chair person and

Elsie Meaux who was elected to the Nominations

committee. We look forward to working the LANPAC

to increase the presence and influence of nursing in our

legislative processes.

We have scheduled our next Community Blood

Drive co-sponsored with the Cajun Navy for Saturday,

December 18th in conjunction with the Farmer’s

Market at Moncus Park. It is a critical time for blood

shortages and we look forward to being able to

help supply the Gift of Life. We are kicking off our

nomination process for the 22nd Annual Acadiana

Celebrates Nursing Awards program in December

and will honor 25 nurses in our May banquet. We are

looking forward to a new year and being a continued

voice for nursing in our community.

Gracie Breaux receives gives to distribute to

Nursing instructors

Helen Hurst & Robin Beacon from

ULL accept LNF gifts

Dr. Ecoee Rooney presents Outstanding Community

Involvement award to Elsie Meaux & Shelia Pritchett

October District meeting speakers,

Dr. Jennifer Lemoine & Dr. Kyle Lavergne

Roger Rholdon & Maria Dyson

receive their gift bags

January, February, March 2022 Pelican News • Page 5

District News

New Orleans District Nurses Association, Region VII

Dr. Kendra M. Barrier

President, NODNA

Dr. Kendra M. Barrier

President, NODNA


NODNA has open positions

for: President-Elect, Secretary,

Director of Events / Student

Nurses Night, and Director of

Organizational Advancement.

Anyone interested, please

contact Kim Guilbeau, Director

of Membership, Recruitment,

and Retention.


Nightingale Award Winners

- Demetrius J. Porche, Inducted into Hall of Fame

Nightingale Award Nominees:

- Ahnyel Burkes, Outstanding Community

Achievement by a Registered Nurse

- Jennifer Couvillon, Nurse Administrator of the


- Leanne Fowler, Advance Practice Registered

Nurse of the Year

- Mary Kelly, Nursing Administrator of the Year

- Nanci Zhang, Outstanding Community

Achievement by a Registered Nurse

NODNA Programming

Nurse Nikki Greenaway, BA, MSN, APRN, FNP-C,

IBCLC, presented Going Off Script and Making a

Difference. October 13, 2021

Deborah Grimes, RN, JD, MSHQS, presented

on Diversity and Inclusion: The Business Case.

November 10, 2021

NODNA Member Presentations

Barrier, K. Education and Scholarship: Diversity,

Equity, and Inclusion Tool Kit AACN Diversity

Symposium Mobilize and Strategize: Implementing

DEI in Academic Nursing November 2021

Barrier, K. In Your Opinion; Benefits of Diversity,

Equity, and Inclusion; Core Vocabulary; Privilege for

Sale LSUHNO SON Staff Council Retreat November


Barrier, K. Education and Scholarship: Diversity,

Equity, and Inclusion Tool Kit LSUHNO SON Faculty

Organization November 2021

Fowler, L. Standards for Quality Nurse

Practitioner Education, Draft of the 6th Edition

LACANE Meeting New Orleans, LA October 2021

Fowler, L. The Link Between Oral Health and

Systemic Diseases in Older Adults SELAHEC/

LSUHNO SON NCPD Series November 2021

Fowler, L. & Thomas, N. The Essentials: Core

Competencies for Professional Nursing Education

LCMS Health System University Medical Center

New Orleans, LA November 2021

Fowler, L. Health equity: Practicing cultural

humility. LA Association of Nurse Practitioners

Annual Conference September 2021

Fowler, L. 12 lead ECG interpretation for acute

and chronic disease management (Workshop).

LA Association of Nurse Practitioners Annual

Conference September 2021.

Fowler, L. & Nunn, M. Basic radiograph

interpretation-Chest and musculoskeletal.

LA Association of Nurse Practitioners Annual

Conference September 2021.

Manning, J. Medical marijuana and cannabinoid

use-APRN considerations. LA Association of Nurse

Practitioners Annual Conference Alexandria, LA.

September 2021.

Manning, J. Preparing the next generation

of APRN leaders through leadership skill

development. LA Association of Nurse

Practitioners Annual Conference Alexandria, LA.

September 2021.

Manning, J. Town hall (panelist). National

Association of Clinical Nurse Specialists Webinar

Series. September 2021.

Manning, J. The intersection of the essentials

and CNS competencies with the three spheres

of impact. National Association of Clinical Nurse

Specialists Fall Summit. October 2021.

Manning, J. AACN organizational leadership

network business meeting. American Association

of Colleges of Nursing Organizational Leadership

Conference. October 2021.

Story, C. Pediatric orthopedic handson

exam and splinting for the primary care

provider. National Association of Pediatric Nurse

Practitioners Reconnect and Rediscover. October


Vaughan, J. Empowering the Equity if Latinx

Nursing Students, Texas Nurses Association Nurse

Empowerment Talk Series. November 2021.

Vaughan, J. Underrepresented Hispanic nursing

students and empowering political advocacy.

University of Texas at Arlington Guest Lecture

NURS 6382 Health Care Policy. October 2021.

NODNA Member Posters

Giarratano, G. Community perspectives of perinatal

mental health needs. Marce’ of North America

International Virtual Conference. October 2021.


NODNA has several exciting programs coming

up. We welcome all members to join us in fun

engaging social events by attending the meetings

and programs. Our meetings and programs are all via

Zoom so attending meetings and programs may be

done from the relaxing environment of your home.

Please visit and follow

us on Facebook, Instagram, LinkedIn, and Twitter for

programming updates. NODNA provides nurses an

opportunity to earn CE Credit and network with other

nurses throughout the New Orleans Metro Area.

I would like to thank each nurse for their

membership, as our membership continues to grow.

The Board of Directors and I want our members to

know that each member is in our daily thoughts,

knowing that our members will remain resilient as they

continue to face daily challenges during the pandemic

and drastic weather changes. I also know that your

families, employers, and communities appreciate

everything you do. Lastly, NODNA encourages our

members to educate themselves about the COVID

vaccine, share the facts about the vaccine with your

community, so people are able to make informed

vaccine decisions based on evidence and not myths.

Vaccine information is located on the LA Department

of Health (LDH): and

the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC):

Thank you for your support. All the best,

Kendra M. Barrier, PhD, MSN, RN, CNE

President, New Orleans District Nurses Association

Life is Not Always

Picture Perfect

Emotional Support for Parents

Text 225-424-1533

Page 6 • Pelican News January, February, March 2022

In Their Own Words

What the COVID-19 Pandemic taught us: Nurses lived experiences

Edited by

Karen Loden, MN, RN (ret)

BRDNA member

This is the first in a series of articles on the Louisiana

nurses’ responses to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Pandemics are not new

The literature has a plethora of recorded

documents on the pandemics that have plagued

civilization. Historically, pandemics have occurred

every 40-50 years; but recently, they have been

occurring more frequently. Here in the United States

the Spanish Flu pandemic of 1918, flu epidemics

of 1958, 1968 and 2009 are the most recent

ones. These have been attributed to population

growth, increased trade, increased travel, speed of

communications and ease of international travel.

Improvements in sanitation, food supply, clean water

and higher standard of living in many countries have

not stopped the spread of pathologic organisms that

cause pandemics.

The Spanish Flu pandemic of 1918-19 would be the

one most recall. Over 600,000 Americans died in that

pandemic. There were many factors as to why this was

so lethal. Viral research was in its infancy, and antiviral

drugs unheard of. There were some vaccines, but not

for the H1N1 virus. It was not until many years later that

the Spanish flu virus was identified as H1NI from tissue

samples from autopsies of World War I soldiers and

exhumation of bodies frozen in permafrost in northern


Physicians could diagnose the problem based

mostly on physical assessment, but were powerless

to treat it and prevent it. Many physicians recognized

this influenza as something much different than the

influenza illnesses seen previously. Some thought this

was a new plague.

There were no antibiotics to treat the secondary

pneumonia, no ICUs, no such thing as Adult

Respiratory Distress Syndrome, no ventilators, and very

little supplemental oxygen. There were three factors

that influenced the outcome of the pandemic: political,

social and care of the sick.

In reviewing the literature, nursing care was the

most commonly identified reason so many survived the


The American Nurses Association was there for the

nurses during the Spanish Flu Pandemic

Nurses from all over the United States were asking

for advice. Many of them worked in the community

setting or private duty. They recognized the need for

their services, but needed to know the appropriate way

to meet the needs of their patients. The Committee on

Admirative Measures for Relief in New York published

a summary of measures that should be taken during

the pandemic. (Foley, 1919) These were published

in the American Journal of Nursing in 1918. The

American Nurses Association stood with nurses in this

pandemic offering support for their work, by providing

information on the influenza and practice standards.

Some of the recommendations were mandatory

reporting of all cases, identifying resources both

human and material, centralizing resources, and using

newspapers and radio to ask for volunteers.

Unfortunately, World War I was still raging in 1917

and did not end until November 1918. Many nurses and

doctors were in military service at the time. Reading

their notes on how this influenza killed so many young

men, and nurses as well, is heartbreaking. If anything is

to be learned from this, it is the local, state and federal

agencies were not prepared for the first and second

waves of this pandemic.

Year of the Nurse and Midwife

Fast forward to 2019. The international nursing

community was preparing to celebrate the Year of the

Nurse and Midwife to start in January 2020. Worldwide

events were planned to celebrate nurses and

Midwives contribution to health care. The Baton Rouge

District Nurses Association (BRDNA) scheduled events

culminating in the annual Celebrate Nursing Banquet in

May 2020.

In January COVID 19 was identified

and CDC officials did not

recommend any mitigation

processes because they felt at the

time that it did not pose a serious

threat to the American public.

Everything quickly changed with the

international number of people dying from the

coronavirus infection. In February a public health

emergency was declared. By March 2020, our world

became one of mask wearing, physical distancing,

handwashing, shortage of personal protective

equipment, lockdown of all non-essential services, and

a surge of critical ill infectious patients into hospitals.

International travel was limited.

Louisiana nurses were there providing care to

the very sick. The information on this virus changed

rapidly from hour to hour. Vaccines had not yet been

developed to fight this lethal killer, but did became

available in December 2020 for a very limited


The following are comments written by our nurses

on how they adjusted to the vast number of Covid

patients, not just in the hospital but in the community.

Apply today at

January, February, March 2022 Pelican News • Page 7

Lena Hooper BSN, RN Emergency Department

Manager Ochsner Baton Rouge wrote:

It’s difficult to put into words what the

pandemic has changed over the last year and

half. At first, we were researching everything

we could regarding PPE, airborne precautions,

spike proteins etc. We were writing protocols and

performing drills, making videos to educate on

donning and doffing PPE. Our team was moving

right along with every change which occurred

minute to minute. I started sending daily COVID

email huddles to the team because as soon as we

thought we learned the most current information,

it changed, sometimes before I could hit send.

Our team has given everything of themselves

and even a little more as many now struggle with

the ‘after’ COVID feelings of ‘waiting for the shoe

to drop.’ If we needed resiliency prior to COVID,

we need it even more now and it’s become a

challenge for some of our team to adjust to this

‘normal.’ They live in a constant state of fight

or flight and stress levels are higher now than

pre COVID. What our leadership team has seen

since the emergence of COVID are people who

have so much to offer the medical field but the

fear of COVID has driven quite a few in different

directions, away from emergency medicine, away

from the bedside. The emergency department is

the front door to the world that needs our skills

and compassion to guide them through their

illnesses, regardless of what that may be. We

have heard phrases such as “new normal” or “this

too shall pass,” but will it? I think that everyone

in the medical field, regardless of role, fears the

potential of the next surge. This is where we

are now. This is the world we live in. My hope,

and the hope of this leadership team, is that

our emergency department team knows the

importance of each and every one of them and

that they are truly appreciated.

Sharai Neal, BSN, RN, Baton Rouge General

Medical Center explained her experiences:

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a major

impact on the lives of people all over the world.

When I became a nurse, I never imagined I would

be faced with such challenges as the ones we

have overcome and the ones we are still facing

today. While navigating the pandemic as a

nurse, mentor, unit educator, wife and mother

has definitely presented numerous challenges,

I was overcome with a sense of guilt as I had

not directly cared for COVID patients in a way

that my friends and coworkers had. The specific

unit I work on was considered a “clean unit” for

majority of the pandemic. We occasionally had

taken care of COVID patients but transferred

them to the “COVID unit” as soon as their COVID

diagnosis was confirmed. Although we were

considered a “clean unit” the risk was still there.

That time was a very isolating time. I was afraid

that I would contract COVID and bring it home to

my family.

My grandmother had been helping care for our

two-year-old, at the time. When the pandemic

started, we knew this would be a challenge. My

husband and I still had to work. Our jobs put

us at a high risk of contracting COVID. Who

would watch our child? How could we ask our

families to watch our little one, when they would

be essentially be put at risk? Our parents and

siblings really stepped up to help us out. We

would be separated from our little one for days

at a time. I have never had such anxiety as I did

navigating and worrying about the health risk I

posed on my own family.

As the educator of my unit, we were

responsible for educating staff on the proper

PPE to wear. The recommendations changed

hourly at times. Although our unit was

considered a clean unit, we were not testing

everyone on admission. We would have those

patients that they would later test and find out,

they were positive. It became very frustrating

when one moment we were wearing N95’s then

surgical masks were sufficient and then the

recommendation changed to N95’s again. No

one really knew how this was being transmitted

or the best way to protect ourselves. I do believe

that our organization handled this the best way

they could; like I said no one really knew anything

about this. That’s the weird thing about life in a

pandemic, as frustrating as it is, you do the best

you can with what you got.

During the height of the pandemic the ICUs

were overrun with COVID patients. Which meant

a higher acuity of patients that were brought out

to the floor. With the nursing shortage before the

pandemic, matters only got worse. The nurseto-patient

ratios did not reflect the acuity of the

patients, but how could they when we already

were short nursing staff. As nurses we just find a

way to make it work. We are seeing the effects of

that now. Nurses are burnt out.

From this pandemic my practice as a nurse

hasn’t changed much. I still care for my patients

as I did before the pandemic. I do believe that

more education is needed from the perspective

of how to navigate a pandemic. How can we

better prepare staff mentally and emotionally?

The unknowns of the disease will remain but how

do we prepare mentally and emotionally? I also

believe that standard of care should differ when

in crisis mode. Yes, quality care to our patients

should never be compromised however in crisis

situations something has to give.

Cindy Schneider, MSN, RN, WOCN Assistant

Professor Franciscan Missionaries of Our Lady

University Baton Rouge explained the impact the

pandemic had on students and nursing education:

If I have learned anything it is to teach and

yes role model self-care for the students who

will be our professionals of the future. Change

has been more a constant than ever before. We

have had to be flexible with in person versus

virtual attendance. We have adjusted schedules

and changed locations, monitored student and

faculty exposures, and listened to students

struggle with their family circumstances which

don’t always support the rigor of a nursing

education program. Students have dealt with

anxiety, social media and its promotion of

mistrust, a loss of social support during lockdown

and their own reactions to an unprecedented

pandemic. These are young people still learning

about adult responsibilities and what it means

to be part of our complex healthcare system.

Some have event taken on jobs that place their

own health and the health of their families at

risk. And still, they keep on going. In many

other professional education programs young

people could be tempted to give it up, put their

education on hold, climb into a hole or worse yet

use any number of poor coping mechanisms that

are reaching crisis levels, like the use of drugs

and alcohol. May they be this strong as health

care continues to change in the future, as the

nursing shortage escalates and as our population


The ANA steps up to help working nurses

In keeping with the tradition of adapting to

changes in society and healthcare, ANA has

a COVID 19 Resource Center (https://www. that provides the

most up-to-date information on the virus: how

to practice safely, addressing ethical issues and

understanding the coronavirus. (Grant, Sept.2021)

The American Nurses Foundation (the Foundation)


also stepped in and gave $2.6 million to the Nurses

House. This provided financial assistance to more

than 2,000 nurses in 45 states. The Foundation

is addressing the mental health and well-being of

nurses. (Grant, Nov.2021)


• In-house training with career


• Tuition reimbursement program

• Affordable benefits including

major medical, dental, vision,

and retirement

• Family oriented workplace with

flexible schedules

• Great work family atmosphere

• Competitive wages

• Great opportunity to gain

experience in all facets of


Apply: • 337-738-9420

What have we learned?

In reviewing the literature, both current and past,

we have seen our shortcomings in addressing the

response to this pandemic. Local, state and federal

agencies were not prepared for what this pandemic

brought to us. (Curtin, 2021) We were not ready

for all the supply shortages, the immense inflow of

critically ill patients, the fast spreading of such a

lethal virus, and the effect the long working hours

and patient deaths had on the mental health of


Now is the time for us, as nurses, to be proactive

to ensure when the next pandemic occurs (and it

is “when” not “if” that will happen), we are ready.

Like the nurses from 1918, we will not give up, we

will continue to care for our patients and we will

be involved politically to safeguard the health of

American citizens.

Special thanks to Lena Hooper, Sharai Neal and

Cindy Schneider for submitting their comments.

Deadline for your submission on what you have

learned from the Pandemic is Feb. 1, 2022.


Curtin, L. (2121) Covid-19 exposed our deficiencies. American

Nurse Journal, 16(11), 56.

Foley, EL. (1919) Administrative Measures for the Relief

of Epidemic Conditions, with Special Reference to

influenza. Accessed on line 10.4.21 Https://journals.lww.


Grant, EJ. (2021) 125 years of Progress. American Nurse

Journal, 16(9),14.

Grant, EJ. (2021) Foundation for the Future. American Nurse

Journal, 16(11), 13


Barry, JM. (2017) How the horrific 1918 flu spread across

America. Smithsonian Magazine. Accessed on line



Duffy,TP. (2011) The Flexner Report-100 years later. Yale J

Biol Med., 84(3): 269-276.

Hall, S. (2020) Stories from the 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic

from Ethnographic Collections. Accessed on line


Mostaccio, K. (2021) Nurses were crucial during the 1918 flue

pandemic. Accessed on line 9.30.21. https://peforg/


Robinson, KR. (1990). The role of Nursing in the Influenza

Epidemic of 1918-1919. Nurs Forum, 25(2), 19-25.

Robinson, KR. (2021). Comparing the Spanish Flu and

COVID-19 pandemic: Lessons to carry forward. Nurs

Forum, 56:350-357.

Scolly, M. What we Can Learn from 1918 Influenza Diaries.

Accessed on line 8.21.21. https://www.smithsonianmag.


Spinney, L (2017) how the 1918 flu pandemic revolutionized

Public Health. Accessed on line 8.25.21 https://

Page 8 • Pelican News January, February, March 2022


2021 Legislative Elections and

LANPAC Annual Meeting

Patricia A. La Brosse, PMHCNS-BC

LANPAC Chairperson

Greetings from your Louisiana Nurses Political

Action Committee. During the 2021 Louisiana Fall

elections, with no incumbents seeking re-election,

there were eight candidates running for three

legislative seats: Five candidates for House of

Representatives: Charles Henry Bradford, Adrian

Fisher, and Alicia “Cocoa” McCoy Calvin—16th

District; From 102nd District were Delisha Boyd and

Jordan Bridges. There were three candidates for

27th State Senatorial District: Dustin Granger, Jacob

“Jake” Shaheen, and Jeremy Stein.

A five-item questionnaire addressing nursing

faculty and workforce shortage; removal of

barriers to practice; supporting workplace violence

prevention legislation; challenges facing Louisiana’s

healthcare system; and “why should Louisiana

registered nurses vote for you?” was sent to all

candidates. We had a 60% return rate, and with the

anticipation of no clear winner, a decision was made

to hold possible campaign contributions until runoff

elections. However, the votes in the November 13,

2021, election results showed the winners to be:

Adrian Fisher, Delisha Boyd, and Jeremy Stine. At

the 2021 Annual Meeting, the voting contributors

in attendance approved a change in the campaign

contribution process thereby allowing contributions

after elections.

Additional election activities included “Our

Voices, Our Vote” on the LANPAC FaceBook

page encouraging voter registration and voting

in elections. Information regarding current LSNA

Health Policy initiatives are also posted on the

LANPAC page.

LANPAC participated in the 2021 LSNA

Advocacy Day which included a professional

video featuring Dr. Tamara White, LANPAC Vice-

Chairperson, providing education about the

importance of having a nurses political action

committee in our state. Collaboration with LSNA

Health Policy initiatives included actively supporting

HB495 aimed at increasing care in our state

by removal of barriers to practice. This bill was

withdrawn. In addition, LANPAC supported HCR121

seeking the Louisiana Department of Health to

convene a task force to address workplace violence,

which passed.

The 2021 Annual Meeting was held via ZOOM

on Monday, November 29. Along with regular

business, including election of Board of Trustee

members and nominating committee members.

LSNA Director of Health Policy and Advocacy, Dr.

Ahnyel Jones-Burkes addressed the group with a

lively presentation entitled “LSNA Legislative Wrap

Up and What’s Next.” She brought exciting energy

throughout her session, and engaged the audience

in brainstorming ideas addressing increasing

nursing involvement in the political process.

Annual Board of Trustee elections were held

for those terms expiring in 2021: Chairperson,

Trustee-at-Large, and three Nominating Committee

members. In 2020 the Vice-Chairperson,

Secretary/Treasurer, and three Nominating

Committee members were elected. There are

two appointed Board of Trustee positions: one

from the Louisiana State Nurses Association and

one from the Louisiana Association of Student

Nurses. At this writing, both are vacant, awaiting

new appointments from those organizations. Your

current LANPAC Board of Trustees are:

Patricia A. La Brosse,

Chairperson – This is

Patricia’s second term as

Chairperson. She has been a

psychiatric-mental health

advanced practice registered

nurse for over 30 years. Her

background includes direct

patient care, various

administrative roles, nursing

educator, researcher, author,

consultant, and presenter at

local, state, national and global conferences.

Currently Patricia provides outpatient behavioral

health services at Ochsner University Hospital and

Clinics. in Lafayette, LA. She is a member of several

nursing organizations, having served in multiple

January, February, March 2022 Pelican News • Page 9


leadership roles. Her service to the LSNA Board of Directors spans 16 years in a

myriad of positions, including President.

Tamara M. White, Vice Chairperson – Tamara is a

Registered Nurse with over 13 years clinical experience,

and recently completed her Doctor of Nursing Practice

from Chamberlain College. She is a Licensed Nursing

Facility Administrator and has vast knowledge and

experience in the long term and skilled nursing settings.

She currently serves as a practical nursing instructor

and provides independent clinical consulting through

her company, Pillar Healthcare Consultants, for multiple

home and community-based programs and specialty


Lisa M. Deaton, Secretary/Treasurer – Lisa has been a

registered nurse for 45 years, and holds a B.S. in Nursing

as a graduate of Southeastern Louisiana University in

Hammond, LA. She is currently retired from practice, but

has remained engaged in nursing by actively serving on

the LA Action Coalition Core Leadership Team and on

the LANPAC Board of Trustees for the last six years. She

was Health Policy Chair for LSNA 2006-2014 and has

served on the Board of Directors for the Baton Rouge

District Nurses Association for the last three years,

including serving as Past President. This is her second

term as LANPAC Secretary/Treasurer.

Ivory Rosenthal, Member-at-Large – Ivory filled the

unexpired Member-at-Large term, and now is elected

for a second term. She obtained her Bachelor of

Science in Nursing from Grambling State University in

2004, and later obtained her Master’s in Public/

Community Health Nursing from LSU Health Sciences

Center in New Orleans in 2010. She currently works as a

Healthcare consultant with Rosenthal Consulting

Solutions, LLC. Ivory is an active health advocate in her

local community. She serves on the Grambling State

University School of Nursing Advisory Board,

Shreveport Healthy Communities Coalition; Louisiana

Action Coalition Regional Action Committee; and President of Pearls of

Humanity Foundation. In her spare time, she enjoys reading and gardening.

Olivia H. Giles, Nominating Committee – Olivia is the

Associate Director for Patient Care Services at Overton

Brooks VA Medical Center. She received her Bachelor of

Science in Nursing from Northwestern State University

in Natchitoches, Louisiana, and her Master of Science in

Nursing and Doctor of Nursing Practice from Loyola

University in New Orleans, LA. Dr. Giles received a

Master of Science in Nursing Education from Research

College of Nursing in Kansas City, MO, and has been a

Registered Nurse for 19 years. Prior to becoming a

Registered Nurse, she practiced as a Licensed Practical

Nurse for approximately two years. She has served in

numerous leadership roles throughout her career such as Nurse Supervisor,

Nurse Manager, Chief Nurse, and Director of Nursing. She is the Chairwoman of

the Diversity and Inclusion Committee for the Louisiana American College of

Healthcare Executives (LA ACHE) as well as a board member and as Chair of

the VA ACHE Regents Advisory Council’s Diversity and Inclusion


Elsie Meaux, Nominating Committee – Elsie has been a

nurse for 44 years having recently retired from full time

duties. She has been a member of Louisiana State

Nurses Association for over 25 years both in the Baton

Rouge and Lafayette districts. She was on state

legislative committee for several years in 80’s. Elsie has

served as President of the Lafayette District in 1990’s,

and is currently on a second term as District President.

She has served as Treasurer of LANPAC for two years

and as Chair of the LSNA Nominations Committee in

2021. She was inducted as a LSNA Fellow &

Outstanding District President in 2021.

Carolyn Cox, Nominating Committee – Carolyn has

been a registered nurse for 47 years, having completed

her Diploma Program at Charity Hospital School of

Nursing in New Orleans. She began working in the

Charity Hospital Accident Room as a staff nurse, and

grew her managerial skills in several leadership roles.

She moved to Houma, and worked in several managerial

and House Supervisor roles at Chabert Medical Center

until her retirement in 2007. Carolyn has been a

member of the Louisiana State Nurses Association for

28 years, and has served as Election Teller and Head

Teller for multiple LSNA Bi-Annual Conventions. She is

an active member of the Bayou District Nurses Association, having served on

their Nominating Committee several times. Having realized the importance of

nursing voices at the Legislature, she has been active, financial supporter of

LANPAC for over 10 years.

The willingness of the Board of Trustees to agree to engage in the work

is evidence of their commitment to the work ahead this year. Along with

supporting the LSNA Health Policy strategies, we will be engaged in activities

to provide state legislative candidate information to the voters of Louisiana. To

grow our outreach efforts, we need financial support. A well-funded political

action committee will help show strength in numbers and a commitment to

engage in the political process. Contributions are voluntary and may be made

by nurses and friends of nursing. All amounts are welcome, and any amount of

$50.00 or more qualifies the donor as a voting contributor of LANPAC. Along

with donations at, we are excited to report that we

now have a PayPal option for contributions. The account is under lanpac1986@ Be certain to choose the friends and family option. Join our

efforts to help grow our ranks, maintain a political presence, advocate for the

patients we have chosen to serve, and better represent our profession. For

additional information, please contact Patricia La Brosse, PMHCNS-BC, LANPAC

Chairperson, at or (337) 344-4987. Your voice is needed!!!

“If I were to remain silent, I would be guilty of complicity”—Albert Einstein

Page 10 • Pelican News January, February, March 2022

LSNA Legislative Wrap up and What’s Next

Ahnyel Burkes, DNP, RN-BC

Director of Health Policy and Advocacy

Louisiana State Nurses Association

I would like to begin by saying thank you, nurses

for your membership, involvement and passion for

our profession! Our collective voice as nurses is


Please review some of our successes in our

efforts to magnify the voice of nurses from the

2021 Louisiana Legislative Session:

• We partnered with Representative Dustin

Miller, numerous healthcare associations

and government entities to bring forth a

Workplace Violence Resolution (HCR 121).


and requests the La. Department of Health

to convene a healthcare workplace violence

task force to advance the priorities expressed

in HCR No. 60 of the 2019 R.S.. This will

build upon the work we participated in

2019 with (HCR 60) concerning workplace

violence recommendations. HCR 121 passed

without opposition. Workplace Violence

and improving the work environment for

healthcare professionals continues to be a

top priority for the Louisiana State Nurses

Association. Currently six nurses (four LSNA

members) serve on this task force: Dr. Ahnyel

Burkes (Chair), Dr. Leanne Fowler (Co-Chair),

Dr. Karen Lyon, Dr. Bronwyn Doyle, Latrice

Mallard, and Laura Poole.

• We partnered with Representative Owens

to add a nurse to HCR 87. HCR 87 HEALTH/

DISEASE CONTROL: Creates the Louisiana

Kidney Disease Prevention and Education

Task Force. This legislation was passed in

2020 and a nurse was included. The nurse

that was named to this taskforce is Blythe


• We partnered with Representative Duplessis

to add a nurse to HCR 105. HCR 105 MENTAL

HEALTH: Establishes the Louisiana Maternal

Mental Health Task Force for the purposes

of advancing education and treatment and

improving services relating to maternal

mental health. The nurse named to this

taskforce is Gloria Giarratano, PhD, APRN,


• Nurses and supporters of nurses sent over

6000 letters to Legislators in support of

HB495 authored by Representative Barry

Ivey. HB495 NURSES: Allows full practice

authority for advanced practice registered

nurses. As nurses, recognizing the shortage

of primary care in Louisiana and the need for

improved primary care to keep our patients

well to reduce emergency department visits

and hospital stays. For more information

on this topic, as we continue to advocate

for improved access to care, go to www. We continue to

collaborate with Louisiana Association of

Nurse Practitioners and other statewide

nursing organizations to move forward our


• We advocated to add a nurse to the newly

formed COVID-19 Youth Advisory Board on


• We participated in ANA’s Hill Day and

communicated to Federal Legislators the

importance of:

○ Future Advancement of Academic Nursing

(FAAN) Act (S.246/H.R. 851)

■ This legislation would invest $1 billion

into nursing schools, including schools

in Medically Underserved Communities,

Health Professional Shortage Areas, and

Minority Serving Institutions.

○ Dr. Lorna Breen Health Care Provider

Protection Act (H.R. 1667)

■ This bill establishes grants and requires

other activities to improve mental and

behavioral health and prevent burnout

among health care providers.

○ CONNECT for Health Act (S. 1512/H.R.


■ This legislation would continue the

expanded use of telehealth services to

deliver cost effective and efficient care

to patients.

I would like to extend a special thank you to the

LSNA Health Policy Committee for their continued

support and work on these efforts:

• Justin Fontenot

• Karen Wyble

• Roxanne Williams-Alexander

• Terrie Sterling

• Georgia Johnson

• Ali Klentzman

• Lisa Deaton

• Patricia LaBrosse

• Ona Carson Robbins

• Ecoee Rooney

• Andrea Jones

• Emily Ashworth

The 2022 Legislative Session will convene on

3/14/2021 and adjourn on 6/6/2022.

During the 2022 Sessions LSNA will focus on:

• Full Practice Authority

• Workplace Violence Prevention

• Mental Health Support for Healthcare


• Workforce Development

• Nursing Representation on Governmental

Task Forces and Committees

Please stay tuned for more Health Policy and

Advocacy educational opportunities. Also this

is a great time to introduce yourself to your local

legislative representative. Lastly, if you are not a

member of the Louisiana State Nurses Association,

please join us. We are the voice for nurses in

Louisiana and want to hear from you.

January, February, March 2022 Pelican News • Page 11

The Louisiana

Action Coalition’s

2022 Nurse

Leader Institute

Designed for current and

emerging nurse leaders.

Embassy Suites,

4914 Constitution Ave.,

Baton Rouge

March 21 – 25, 2022

Submitted by: Lisa Deaton, BSN, RN

The COVID-19 pandemic revealed the challenges

nurses face every day and added significant new

opportunities while illuminating the value of nursing.

As a result, the health care environment is changing

rapidly. Registered nurses are at the heart of today’s

health care operation. This unique environment

requires nurse leaders to lead, innovate, inspire, and

drive transformation. The Nurse Leader Institute

(NLI) was created to provide nurse leaders with the

tools needed to be successful.

The NLI is a five-day, intensive program designed

to develop long-lasting, effective leadership skills.

Whether it is human resource issues, customer service

concerns, implementation of quality and patient safety

initiatives, budget analysis, cost-saving mandates or

building influence as a leader, participants will gain new

perspectives and solutions for the difficult challenges

faced daily. Learn from exemplary Louisiana nurses

during this five-day collaborative program and gain

new perspectives for your nursing career!

Individuals completing the NLI are also eligible to

participate in a nine par-month mentorship program.

Nurse leaders are matched with expert mentors as

well as an experienced nurse leader in their area of

practice/interest. Those nurse leaders successfully

completing both the NLI, and the mentorship

program will be recognized as LAC/NLI Fellows.

This activity has been approved by the Louisiana

State Nurses Association for 35.25 contact

hours. The Louisiana State Nurses Association is

accredited as an approver of continuing nursing

education by the American Nurses Credentialing

Center’s Commission on Accreditation.

More information on the course content and how

to register for the Institute is available at this link:

For any questions, regarding the NLI, please email

Chad A. Sullivan, RN, JD

Keogh, Cox & Wilson, LTD.

Baton Rouge, LA • 225-383-3796

Offering Disciplinary Defense

to Registered Nurses


Page 12 • Pelican News January, February, March 2022

Do you know how to save a life when faced with

uncontrollable external bleeding? Was that part

of your nursing curriculum? Have you sat in on

a refresher to ensure that if asked to render aid in

the first few seconds following a significant injury

your knowledge and skills are up to date? Do you

know how to go beyond direct pressure, pressure

points, elevation to wound packing and tourniquet

use – and when that is needed? If not, no worries.

You can find the information that you need by

going to there you will

find plenty of information from the American

College of Surgeons highlighting the need for the

class, giving a synopsis of the history of course

development, links to equipment, etc. On that

site, there is a link to a video, that is included here, After watching

the video, arranging a quick skills review is simple.

Text or email Deb Spann @ 225-456-2803 or You can also reach out

to your Regional Coordinator for the Louisiana

Emergency Response Network in person, or by

using the contact us feature at

That is all there is to getting yourself properly

updated and in position to stop the number one

cause of death secondary to trauma, uncontrolled

blood loss.

Once you are updated and understand the value

of teaching bystanders to recognize and respond to

life-threatening hemorrhage, please consider bringing

the class to your community. Nurses are among those

considered to be qualified to be a Stop the Bleed

Instructor. There is no cost to complete the process

of becoming an instructor and with LERN there are

training kits available throughout the state to use in

the community. In addition, the Louisiana Emergency

Nurses Association is committed to this initiative and

has also purchased training kits to support education

throughout our state. If you are not comfortable

teaching the skills and concepts, open the door for

someone that is. Make the connection, make the

suggestion, make the effort. We really never know,

the life saved might be our own.

Free to Nurses

can point you right to that

perfect NURSING JOB!

Privacy Assured

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E-mailed Job Leads

January, February, March 2022 Pelican News • Page 13

Microaggression: What does it really mean in Nursing Practice?

Antionella “Shelley” Upshaw, PhD, RN, CNE

Director - Membership,

Recruitment and Retention Committee,

Louisiana State Nurses Association

Assistant Professor

As we continue the global conversation on race,

racism, and other forms of oppression, it is critical

that we in the nursing profession understand how we

individually contribute to the divisive environment.

Microaggression is one contributing factor in the

dismantling of racism often overlooked and ignored

on a daily basis in nursing practice. It is subtle, quick,

and easy to mistake as common conversation in the

South and often taken for granted. As a nurse educator

and practitioner for over twenty years, I am deeply

saddened and feel the pain experienced by some of

the conversations and words that are shared with new

and student nurses at the end of a shift, semester, or

clinical rotation. These statements stay with individual

nurses forever and leave them feeling devalued,

demeaned and not worthy of inclusion.

Racism impacts patients, their families, colleagues

and often contributes to the health inequities and

disparities in our health care system. The Centers

for Disease Control (CDC) has identified racism as a

“serious threat to the public’s health” and warns of

the physical and mental health dangers to individuals

(2021, para. 1). The stressors of racism can lead to the

body’s sustained level of inflammation and chronic

illness (Taylor, 2019). Dismantling systemic racism

seems to be a trending topic often discussed by

those in leadership positions but rarely analyzed

through self-reflection. Unfortunately, our daily subtle

prejudicial insults and negative conversations aimed

primarily at people of color, females, different sexual

orientations, and poor citizens are often ignored and

overlooked when we meet in isolation or in common

affinity groups. The American Nurses Association

(ANA) in their 2018 Revised Position Statement, The

Nurse’s Role in Addressing Discrimination: Protecting

and Promoting Inclusive Strategies in Practice

Settings, Policy, and Advocacy, call to recognize

that “impartiality begins at the level of the individual

nurse and should occur within every health care

organization” (p. 1).

According to Dr. Derald Wang Sue (2007),

microaggressions are “brief and commonplace daily

verbal, behavioral and environmental indignities,

whether intentional or unintentional, that communicate

hostile, derogatory, or negative racial slights and

insults to the target person or group” (p. 271).

Microaggressions can be learned, unconscious and

seep through our thoughts and behaviors despite our

calls for justice, equity, diversity, and inclusion.

Microaggressions can surface without truly being

aware of its existence, ideological formation, and

connection to racist behaviors. As we prepare this next

generation of nurses, it is critical that we understand

the definition of microaggression, subtle examples, and

then make an effort to begin having conversations that

dismantle these statements and behaviors.

The following outlines three types of


Microassaults are defined as “an explicit racial

derogation characterized primarily by a verbal or

nonverbal attack meant to hurt the intended victim

through name-calling, avoidant behavior, or purposeful

discriminatory actions (Sue, p. 274). This form of

microaggression is sometimes referred to as “old

fashioned” racism, generally expressed in private

situations. For example, “Stop acting like an angry

black woman” or “Why do I get a dumb Black Nurse”

(Ehie, et al., 2021, p. 132).

Microinsults are defined as “communications that

convey rudeness and insensitivity and demean a

person’s racial heritage or identity. This could include

subtle snubs, like, “I believe the most qualified nurse

should get the job, regardless of race” or gender.

This microaggressive behavior implies the individual

of color is not qualified and most likely received

the job through affirmative action or some quota

program and not because of qualifications (Ehie, et

al., 2021). Another example often expressed in passing

conversations that I personally have heard might be “I

would never attend that school or university or If you

attend that college or work at that institution, we will

never hire you.”

Microinvalidations are defined as “Communications

that exclude, negate, or nullify the psychological

thoughts, feelings, or experiential reality of a person of

color.” For example, when an individual of color is told,

“I don’t see color” or “All Lives Matter.” This negates

the experience of being a racial or cultural being.”

When a person of color shares an experience and a

White friend might say, “Don’t be so sensitive” or “I

didn’t notice/see or hear that.” The racial experience

is negated, and the feeling is diminished (Ehie, et al.,

2021, p. 132).

Other common microaggression statements I have

personally heard from nurses and student nurses may


• Senior nurse speaking over a younger nurse

• Being asked to touch your hair

• Being told you are “well-spoken” for a Black or

Latino nurse

• Comments about your religion worded as a joke

• A disability written in an evaluation as it is making

it difficult or placing a burden for colleagues or

other nurses

Let’s begin to have an open and honest dialogue

in safe settings that include all nurses or one that

resembles our current national demographics. We

can start by:

• Not placing the responsibility of educating

yourself on the history of race and ethnicity on

the nurse of color.

• Establishing and encouraging institutional

engagement in the form of a diversity, equity,

and inclusion committee. Allow this committee

to take the lead in engaging nurses and creating

safe settings to have conversations.

• Seeking out webinars, conferences, or trainings

to develop skills to disrupt microaggression and

raise awareness (Ehie, et al., 2021)

• Standing up to these comments, ask for a

one-on-one meeting to discuss, hold our

colleagues accountable and communicate that

these words “make me feel uncomfortable” or

“can you explain what you mean” (Ehie, et al.,

2021, p. 135).

If we truly want to increase the nurse workforce and

include diversity, we have to start now. Our new nurses

need to know that we hear you, we are concerned, and

we will make a concerted effort to dismantle racism,

one nurse at a time.


The American Nurses Association (ANA). (2018). The

Nurse’s Role in Addressing Discrimination: Protecting

and Promoting Inclusive Strategies in Practice

Settings, Policy, and Advocacy. Retrieved from https://


Centers for Disease Control (CDC). (2021). Minority Health

and Health Equity. Racism and Health. Retrieved from


Ehie, O., Muse, I., Hill, L., & Bastien, A. (2021). Professionalism:

microaggression in the healthcare setting. Current

Opinion Anesthesiology, 34, 131-136.

Sue D., Capodilupo C., Torino G., Bucceri, J., Holder, A., Nadal,

K., & Esquilin, M. (2007). Racial microaggressions in

everyday life: implications for clinical practice. America

Psychologist, 62 (4):271-286. Retrieved from https://doi.


Taylor, J. (2019). Racism, Inequality, and Health Care for

African Americans. The Century Foundation Report.

Retrieved from

Antionella “Shelley” Upshaw PhD, RN, CNE is

an assistant professor at Southern University and

A&M College in the School of Nursing. She has

been a registered nurse for over 20 years with a

clinical background in medical surgical, oncology,

case management, hospice, and home health. Dr.

Upshaw is currently serving as LSNA’s Director

of Membership, Recruitment, and Retention

Committee and also co-chairs the Alliance of

Nurses for Healthy Environments (ANHE) Justice,

Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion (JEDI) committee.

She is currently working with her colleagues

at ANHE to develop and implement webinars,

trainings and courses that bring awareness and

dismantle racism.




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Page 14 • Pelican News January, February, March 2022

An Ethic of Justice Viewed through the Lens of an Ethic of Care:

How Nurse Leaders May Combat Workplace Bullying

Gloria Matthews, DNP, RN, CNL, CDE

University of Oklahoma Medical Center

Valerie Eschiti, PhD, RN, AHN-BC, CHTP, CTN-A

University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center

Fran & Earl Ziegler College of Nursing,

Lawton Campus

Reprinted with permission from

Oklahoma Nurse May 2021 issue

The purpose of this paper is to present

integration of two ethical approaches to combat

workplace bullying within a clinical setting

from an advance nursing practice leadership

perspective. A description of ethic of care

and ethic of justice is presented and critically

appraised as it relates to managing workplace

bullying. The importance of the application of the

ethic of justice through the lens of the ethic of

care will be elucidated.

Description and Application to Workplace Bullying

A failure of nursing leadership to address

workplace bullying demonstrates a lack of

compassion and organizational injustice. Bullying is

the repeated and persistent, abusive mistreatment

by one or more perpetrators towards one or more

victims that is marked by threatening, humiliating

or intimidating conduct, work interference, or

verbal abuse (Fink-Samnick, 2018). Bullying is a

systemic problem and reflects behavior patterns

and surreptitious characteristics of a culture of

violence that contributes to various expressions and

manifestations of violence within an organization

(Smit & Scherman, 2016). The Joint Commission

(2008) notes that intimidating and disruptive

behaviors contribute to medical errors, poor patient

and staff satisfaction, staff turnover and poor

collaborative work environments.

Ethic of Care

The ethic of care is a moral approach

characterized by contextual, holistic empathy and

is based on caring, strengthening and maintaining

interpersonal relationships. It emphasizes the

importance of insight gained from being open

and receptive to the realities and needs of others

(Simola, 2003). The ethic of care aligns with the

authentic, servant and transformational leaders

who put followers’ interests above their own and

influence followers through building relationships,

developing a collective vision, and attending to

the needs and growth of their followers (Groves &

LaRocca, 2011).

Most occurrences of bullying are learned

behaviors directed by reactions to stress and

organizational norms and, therefore, can be

unlearned (Berry et al, 2016). Leaders guided by

an ethic of care model take decisive action when

confronted with behaviors that do not adhere

to expected conduct. In combating workplace

bullying, effective leaders are proficient in

communication and competent in coaching, staff

development, maintaining high standards of

conduct, and fostering an environment of trust and

mutual respect (Parker, Harrington, Smith, Sellers,

and Millenbach, 2016).

Bullying is an attempt to intimidate and gain

power over someone else. Structural empowerment

is an effective technique to mitigate the effects and

incidents of bullying (Lachman, 2014). Effective

nurse empowerment can be obtained through

shared governance to minimize power imbalances

and enhance shared responsibility and transparency

in decision making (Berry et al, 2016; Parker et al,


Skill development is an important weapon in the

battle against bullying. Strategies such as cognitive

rehearsal, skills-based training, and role-playing

have been successful in raising staff awareness and

combating bullying (Balevre, Balevre, & Chesire,

2018; Parker et al., 2016).

Normative leadership models such as

transformational, servant and authentic leadership

constructively address the bullying by modeling an

ethic of care perspective and seeking to facilitate

followers’ self-actualization. The assumption is that

ethical leadership styles promote social cohesion,

professionalism, and empowerment (Webster,


Ethic of Justice

The ethic of justice is a moral approach that

is characterized by justice, fairness, reciprocity

and the protection of individual rights. Individuals

demonstrate impartiality and the ability to reason

abstractly through the application of formal,

logical and impartial rules (Simola, 2003). The

ethic of justice aligns with the transactional leader

who influences followers by control, reward and

corrective transactions (Groves & LaRocca, 2011).

Structural empowerment is gained through

establishment of an ethical infrastructure that

reinforces ethical principles and behavioral

expectations of members of the organization

(Einarsen, Mykletun, Einarsen, Skogstad, &

Salin, 2017). Aligned with the ethic of justice,

organizations establish standardized policies,

procedures and documents such as codes of ethics,

procedures for handling complaints and zero

tolerance policies (Einarsen et al., 2017).

Hutchinson (2009) posits that rather than

focusing on the individual, leaders should direct

corrective measures towards the act of bullying

itself and gain insight into work group and

organizational factors that enable the behavior. The

focus is on reintegration and restoration of social

relationships within the context of a supportive

January, February, March 2022 Pelican News • Page 15

group, such as a restorative circle, where the

attention is placed on repairing harm rather than

blame and punishment.

Reflection on Integration of Ethical Approaches

It is important for leaders to integrate the two

ethical perspectives by distributing justice within a

caring framework (Sorbello, 2008). Organizations

and leaders must clarify and communicate that

bullying is unacceptable. If corrective actions

fail, termination is an acceptable consequence to

continued behavior (Lee et al., 2014). At times,

leaders must implement corrective actions

and uphold values and policies set forth by the

organization, but it is in the delivery and intent that

determines a caring leader.


Combating bullying requires a multidimensional

approach. By establishing a relationship-based ethics

of care perspective, along with visible organizationalbased

regulatory sanctions in communication and

ethic of justice, organizations can create and sustain a

respectful working environment for the prevention of

workplace bullying. The integration of the divergent

ethical perspectives of an ethic of care and an ethic

of justice provides an environment of collegiality,

transparency and support for improved patientrelated

and nurse-related outcomes.


Balevre, S. M., Balevre, P. S., & Chesire, D. J. (2018). Nursing

professional development anti-bullying project. Journal

for Nurses in Professional Development, 34(5), 277-282.

Berry, P. A., Gillespie, G. L., Fisher, B. S., & Gormley, D. K.

(2016). Recognizing, confronting, and eliminating

workplace bullying. Workplace Health & Safety, 64(7),


Einarsen, K., Mykletun, R. J., Einarsen, S. V., Skogstad, A., &

Salin, D. (2017). Ethical infrastructure and successful

handling of workplace bullying. Nordic Journal

of Working Life Studies, 7(1), 37–54. https://doi.


Fink-Samnick, E. (2018). The new age of bullying

and violence in health care: part 4: managing

organizational cultures and beyond. Professional Case

Management, 23(6), 294–306.


Groves, K., & LaRocca, M. (2011). An empirical study of

leader ethical values, transformational and transactional

leadership, and follower attitudes toward corporate

social responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics, 103(4),


Hutchinson, M. (2009). Restorative approaches to

workplace bullying: Educating nurses towards shared

responsibility. Contemporary Nurse, 32(1–2), 147–155.

Lachman, V. D. (2014). Ethical issues in the disruptive

behaviors of incivility, bullying, and horizontal/lateral

violence. Medsurg Nursing, 23(1), 56-60.

Parker, K. M., Harrington, A., Smith, C. M., Sellers, K. F., &

Millenbach, L. (2016). Creating a nurse-led culture to

minimize horizontal violence in the acute care setting:

A multi-interventional approach. Journal for Nurses in

Professional Development, 32(2), 56-63. https://doi.


Simola, S. (2003). Ethics of justice and care in corporate

crisis management. Journal of Business Ethics, 46(4),


Smit, B., & Scherman, V. (2016). A case for

relational leadership and an ethics of care for

counteracting bullying at schools. South African

Journal of Education, 36(4), 1-9. http://www.


Sorbello, B. (2008). The nurse administrator as caring

person: A synoptic analysis applying caring

philosophy, Ray’s ethical theory of existential

authenticity, the ethic of justice, and the ethic of care.

International Journal of Human Caring, 12(1), 44-49.


The Joint Commission. (2008). Behaviors that undermine a

culture of safety. (Sentinel Event Alert, Issue 40). http:// /18/SEA_40.pdf

Webster, M. (2016). Challenging workplace bullying: the

role of social work leadership integrity. Ethics & Social

Welfare, 10(4), 316–332.


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