08.01.2022 Views

Workforce Development Legislation and Practice Literature Review, Maryland, 2007-2017

This document attempts to create an overview of the literature around the legislative and political dynamics around workforce development theory and practice in Maryland through the years 2007 through 2017. This period includes three different gubernatorial regimes, three presidents, a massive shift in federal workforce development policy, and the largest economic contraction in the United States since the great recession. While the tumultuous circumstances this time period encompasses adds an additional layer of complexity to an already diverse state workforce environment, over time general trends can be observed and evaluated

This document attempts to create an overview of the literature around the legislative and political dynamics around workforce development theory and practice in Maryland through the years 2007 through 2017. This period includes three different gubernatorial regimes, three presidents, a massive shift in federal workforce development policy, and the largest economic contraction in the United States since the great recession. While the tumultuous circumstances this time period encompasses adds an additional layer of complexity to an already diverse state workforce environment, over time general trends can be observed and evaluated

SHOW MORE
SHOW LESS

You also want an ePaper? Increase the reach of your titles

YUMPU automatically turns print PDFs into web optimized ePapers that Google loves.

Workforce Development Legislation and Practice Literature Review

Maryland, 2007-2017

Prepared By: Lawrence Grandpre,

Director of Research, Leaders of a Beautiful Struggle

The state of Maryland is sometimes referred to as “America in miniature”, a reference to the

diversity of geographic and human environments. That geographic diversity creates a variety of

working environments, and that combined with the turbulent economic and political shifts over the

past decade, make the states workforce development landscape almost as complex as its physical

landscape.

This document attempts to create an overview of the literature around the legislative and political

dynamics around workforce development theory and practice in Maryland through the years 2007

through 2017. This period includes three different gubernatorial regimes, three presidents, a

massive shift in federal workforce development policy, and the largest economic contraction in the

United States since the great recession. While the tumultuous circumstances this time period

encompasses adds an additional layer of complexity to an already diverse state workforce

environment, over time general trends can be observed and evaluated.

Methodology

Legislative records were gathered for legislation coded as related to “job training” in the Maryland

general assembly database for the years 2007- through 2017. This data was cross-referenced with

literature related to Maryland’s workforce development efforts from a variety of sources, including

government documents at the state, local and federal levels, non-profit organizations in the state

of Maryland, and national workforce development related non-profits. An expansive view of

workforce development was applied, including literature and legislation designed to remove

barriers from employment, but the focus was centered on efforts to train, educate or provided

professional certificates for Marylanders, especially those with barriers to employment.

Overview (Background information, 2007-2008)

Maryland, a state of approximately 5,775,000 residents, has a total non-farm workforce of

2,729,000 as of 2017. 1 This has increased from 2,546,000 in 2007. 2 An analysis of reference to

the Governor’s Workforce Investment Board (soon to be renamed the governor's workforce

development board or GWDB) State Workforce Indicators from 2008 gives an overview of the

1

“Maryland Seasonally Adjusted CES Data.” Current Employment Statistics (CES) - Workforce Information & Performance,

State of Maryland- Department of Labor, Licensing & Regulation, 2017, www.dllr.state.md.us/lmi/ces/.

2

“MARYLAND AT A GLANCE.” Maryland Employment - Workforce, 8 Nov. 2017,

msa.maryland.gov/msa/mdmanual/01glance/economy/html/labor.html.

4151 Park Heights Avenue, Suite 207, Baltimore, MD 21215 • www.lbsbaltimore.com • (410) 374-7683


state’s workforce environment in 2007. The report outlines some of the foundational dynamics

around workforce development in Maryland over the past decade. The report outlines some of the

relative advantages Maryland has had as a state when it comes to workforce development. As of

2006, the workforce participation rate, a figure which measures the percentage of working-age

persons (typically 16-64) either employed or looking for employment, was 78.4%, four points

higher than the national average and the 11th highest in the nation. The report goes on to outline

some of the dynamics which might contribute to this fact, including the states above average

percentage of workers with at least a bachelor's degree, 35% versus the national average of 27%.

15% of Maryland’s workers are foreign-born and Maryland’s foreign-born population has a higher

ratio of educated immigrants (43% having a bachelor's degree versus 34% nationally). Maryland’s

workforce diversification is also on display, with double-digit growth in aerospace industries and

biotechnology over 2002-2006 displacing the state’s loss in manufacturing employment.

The report outlines issues related to workforce development in Maryland which future legislation

would attempt to address. According to the report, many of the educated non-native born

individuals in the state have been found to be working in low skilled jobs not commensurate with

their educational attainment. The report also outlines projected workforce needs from 2007 to

2014, including a projected 5.6% growth in home health aides. The report also notes completions

of apprenticeships fell 18% from 2005-2007. The report raises concerns about an aging workforce

in the state, with multiple industries (including educational services, public administration, and

manufacturing) reporting over 20% of the workforce over the age of 55. Finally, while the report

notes growth statewide, it shows concern about the state losing population to lower cost states like

Pennsylvania and unequal distribution of opportunity between the I-95 corridor and the state’s

more rural counties.

The legislation from 2007 reflects some of the concerns laid out in the report. Under newly elected

governor O'Malley, several bond bills were granted for workforce development related projects to

Anne Arundel County, including the Opportunity Builders program and the Mount Olive

Community Life Center. Additionally, the 2007 legislation on transit services for low-income

individuals can be read within the context of allowing workers to more easily access jobs. The

literature from this time continues to focus on addressing the perceived “demographic time bomb”

which is baby boomers aging out of the state’s workforce, with the Governor's workforce

investment board producing a 2-page report outlining the challenges which come with an aging

workforce, including issues of losing institutional knowledge. 3

In 2008, with the onset of the great recession, and development of the O'Malley administration,

the state’s legislative priorities around workforce development reflect a focus on technology and

streamlining and/or reorganizing existing workforce development engines. SB203 attempts to

consolidate the educational functions within state correctional facilities within one agency for

better efficiency, while HB 704 attempts to create workforce development in correctional facilities

3

“Maryland's Aging Workforce.” Archive, About the Governor's Workforce Development Board (GWDB), 1 July 2016,

gwib.maryland.gov/pub/pubarchive.shtml.

4151 Park Heights Avenue, Suite 207, Baltimore, MD 21215 • www.lbsbaltimore.com • (410) 374-7683


for construction to be done on correctional facilities. While the previous term’s bond bills focused

on construction oriented workforce programs, in 2008 Prince George’s County's Suitland

Technology Center was slated to receive a $100,000 bond for its facilities. Moreover, the governor

begins to outline his “Bio 2020” initiative, a framework for the state to invest in its biotechnology

sector through tax breaks and the construction of new facilities through the governor’s budget. 4

2009

In 2009, the impact of Maryland’s proximity to Washington D.C. plays out in the literature in

many ways. First, as the GWIB’s report on “Untapped Workforce” states:

“Maryland has a demonstrated need for additional sources of labor. Despite the

recent downturn in the national and world economy, Maryland enjoys a relatively

healthy, diverse economy, largely dependent on the availability of a highly skilled

and educated workforce. Even with this downturn, several forces are merging to

create much greater pressure on workforce availability, and tighten the supply of

workers in Maryland including 1.) impending baby-boomer retirements; 2.) a

limited supply of replacement workers, 3.) demographics changes within the state

and 4.) the job growth expected as a result of the Base Re-Alignment and Closure

(BRAC).” 5

The report relay’s that Maryland’s proximity to relatively stable federal government jobs helped

buffer it in some ways from the impacts of the great recession, so much so that the report would

show concern about a tightening labor force as opposed to an expected focus on retraining

employees. Additionally, with the passage of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act,

the literature comments on how Maryland might effectively utilize the funds allocated in the

federal act for workforce development. The Job Opportunities Task Force published issue brief,

explaining how the federal legislation impacted the workforce development landscape

statewide.

“The Workforce Investment Act (WIA) is the primary national funding stream for

workforce development, including employment services through One-Step

Centers and hard-skill training funds. In recent years, WIA funds have been

declining, making it difficult for states to provide a broad range of services and

meet increasing demand. The Recovery Act will provide Maryland with an

additional $29 million in WIA formula grants. 5 Most of this money will be passed

through to local workforce investment boards, though 15% can be used for

4

Balog, Jason E. “Balog's Biotech Dissecting O'Malley's Bio 2020 Initiative.” The Frederick News-Post, Myron W. Randall Jr.,

11 Mar. 2016, www.fredericknewspost.com/archive/balog-s-biotech-dissecting-o-malley-s-bio-initiative/article_969d8f56-46ae-

543a-ba61-b1b08f27deb2.html.

5

“Untapped Workforce Committee.” Publications - Governor's Workforce Development Board, 1 July 2016,

gwib.maryland.gov/pub/pdf/untappedreport.pdf.

4151 Park Heights Avenue, Suite 207, Baltimore, MD 21215 • www.lbsbaltimore.com • (410) 374-7683


statewide programs.” 6

The brief goes on to argue that, while these workforce funds can be spent on administrative costs,

the bulk of these funds should be spent specifically on the job training. 7 While the funds could not

be spent until the 2010 fiscal year (and thus legislation around administering the fund isn’t passed

until 2010, the 2009 session does include meaningful steps toward increase job training, including

HB268, which focuses specifically on getting individuals receiving welfare to receiving training

on green jobs and construction, as well as HB 644, which creates a state apprenticeship training

program to be housed in the state's Department of Labor, Licensing, and Regulation (DLLR).

Perhaps not surprisingly, the GWIB had its most prolific year when it comes to producing

publications, with nearly as many reports and briefs in 2009 as 2008, 2010 and 2011 combined. It

published a letter from then GWIB chair Bill Robertson and co-chair Eric Seleznow sets out

various “recommendations” to the governors and the heads of local workforce investment boards

on how to spend some of the $35 million dollars in federal workforce development dollars the state

would receive (slightly more than what the JOTF brief estimated). The letter states that, while not

intended to be a “all-encompassing set of policy directives”, the governor advised localities to use

these funds to continue in pursuit of the objectives previously laid out by the administration; green

jobs, post-secondary education, and connecting with job creators to train new employees and “upskilling”

those already trained. 8 The GWIB in 2009 to produce reports on the state of workforce

development many of the state’s most prominent fields, energy, youth employment, construction,

Information technology, and biotechnology. 9 This reflected the impetus of Governor's STEM task

force, which advocated for an increased focus on alignment with higher education institutions and

STEM job creators to meet the states latent STEM workforce needs. 10

2010

In 2010, the state begins to climb out of the job declines which marked the height of the great

recession and continued to focus on targeted workforce development. There continued to be

developments in the state promotion of higher education workforce development. The governor

continued to fund his “Bio 2020” initiative through the budget, and the Community College of

Baltimore County received a federal grant to develop health information technology training,

focusing on six specific positions:

1. “Management Redesign Specialist

6

“The Facts on the Federal Recovery Act: The Impact on Low-Wage Marylanders & Principles for Implementation.” Issue

Briefs, Job Opportunity Task Force, 23 Mar. 2009, jotf.org/Portals/0/JOTF%20Issue%20Brief%20-

%20Facts%20on%20the%20Federal%20Recovery%20Act[.pdf.

7

ibid

8 “Policy Framework for Implementing the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009: Maryland's Workforce

Priorities (P.” Publications, gwib.maryland.gov/pub/pdf/arrapolicyguide.pdf.

9

“Maryland’s Energy Industry Workforce Report: Preparing Today’s Workers for Tomorrow’s Opportunities.” Publications,

Governor's Workforce Development Board, 1 July 2016, gwib.maryland.gov/pub/pdf/energyworkforce.pdf.

10

“Investing in STEM to Secure Maryland’s Future.” The Maryland Business Roundtable, www.mbrt.org/wpcontent/uploads/2009/stem-task-force-report.pdf.

4151 Park Heights Avenue, Suite 207, Baltimore, MD 21215 • www.lbsbaltimore.com • (410) 374-7683


2. Clinician/Practitioner Consultant

3. Implementation Support Specialist

4. Implementation Manager

5. Technical/Software Support Staff

6. Trainer” 11

Despite the continued focus on higher skilled workforce development, one of the clearest

articulates of direction in workforce development was a focus on middle-skill jobs. In March the

National Skills Coalition published a report called Maryland’s Forgotten Middle-Skill Jobs, which

denotes a potential gap in Maryland’s workforce development strategy in that, while the state had

success in promoting highly educated worker development, 42% of future job growth was to come

in “middle skill” jobs, which require post-secondary education (certificates or associate's degrees)

but not a full four year degree. The GWIB passed a motion which denoted the institutional

commitments to the campaign, including:

● Adopting an S2C Maryland campaign led by the Governor;

● Appointing the GWIB to serve as the advisory board to provide oversight of, and advocacy

for, the S2CMaryland campaign; and

● Encouraging every working Marylander to develop a career pathway that includes

at least two years of education or training past high school – leading to a

technical credential, industry certification, or one’s first year of college. 12

The Governor’s Workforce Investment Board produces a report which denotes the gradual change

in the job market throughout the year, the transition to net job growth in July 2010 after losing over

150,000 seasonally adjusted jobs in the first 8 months of the year. 13 The report shows some of the

long-term gaps in workforce development outlined in the National Skills Coalition report and

previous reports, including denoting the flat/ declining number of internships completed in the

state from 2007-2010 (around 1000 per year mostly in construction linked trades). 14 Job

Opportunities Task Force did a joint report with Associated Black Charities called Expanding

Baltimore's Black Middle Class advocating for increased financial aid for remedial and vocational

training via state financial aid, citing Washington’s I-BEST program as a model. 15

Perhaps because of the status of this year as an election year, the legislative output related to

workforce development is lower this year compared to previous years, with only 3 bills coded as

11

“Maryland’s Health Information Technology Workforce Task Force Report and Findings.” Publications, Governor's

Workforce Development Board, 1 July 2016, gwib.maryland.gov/board/bdmeet/june162010hcitsum.pdf.

12

“Governor’s Workforce Investment Board - 2009 Annual Report.” Annual Reports, - Governor's Workforce Development

Board (GWDB), 2017, gwib.maryland.gov/lib/pdf/annualreport2009.pdf.

13

“Maryland’s Workforce Indicators: 2010.” Publications, Governor's Workforce Investment Board (GWIB), 1 July 2016,

gwib.maryland.gov/pub/pdf/gwibindicators2010.pdf.

14

ibid

15

“Expanding Black Baltimore's Middle Class- Workforce Strategies for Advancing Prosperity.” Issue Briefs, Job Opportunity

Task Force/Associated Black Charities, June 2010, jotf.org/Publications/IssueBriefs/tabid/68/Default.aspx.

4151 Park Heights Avenue, Suite 207, Baltimore, MD 21215 • www.lbsbaltimore.com • (410) 374-7683


elated to “job training” passed.

2011

2011 can be seen as a year where, fresh off of re-election, the O’Malley administration sought to

refine its approach by adding more detail and definition to previously existing programs and

respond to development on the federal level. With the impending implementation of the Affordable

Care Act, Maryland received federal support for workforce planning, which it used to create its

Health Care 2020 plan. The GWIB received a $150,000 to plan for the state to effectively expand

its health care capacity in the face of an impending increase in healthcare demand. Two of their

short-term recommendation relate directly to traditional “workforce development programs”:

1. Revisit Maryland Loan Assistance - Repayment Program Funding- Providing financial

assistance incentives through a state-funded loan assistance repayment program for

physicians with an interest in primary care; expanding loan repayment programs

beyond physicians to other health care professional students; exploring the use of

licensure fees as additional sources of funding for these programs.

2. Comprehensive Workforce Planning. Expanding the focus of healthcare workforce

needs assessments beyond specific categories of health professionals or geographic

areas; provide data on the numbers, types and diversity of health professionals

currently employed, where they are employed, and in what roles and what types of

activities they perform; provide data on the numbers, types and diversity of health

professional students in the educational pipeline, including allied health training

programs. 16

This push toward workforce development makes its way into general assembly legislation, as HB

807 sought to create a personal training fund for health care workers.

Beyond the specific focus on healthcare workforce development, the state’s legislative and

executive branches both sought to deepen its work on previously outline workforce objectives. The

executive branch put a more clear and definitive frame on its Skills2Compete initiative creating a

goal of increasing Maryland’s skills 20% by 2012. 17 The report goes into in-depth detail about how

the different stakeholders in the post-secondary employment training space can achieve this goal,

outlining a variety of strategies, ranging from targeting specific demographic groups such as

veterans to the disabled to improved data collection and promotion of existing programs. 18

16

“Preparing Maryland's Workforce for Reform: Healthcare 2020 Report.” Publications, Governor's Workforce Investment

Board (GWIB), 1 July 2016, gwib.maryland.gov/pub/healthreformcare2020.pdf.

17 Unruh, Rachel, and Eric Seleznow. “Beyond Degrees-Lessons Learned from Skills2Compete-Maryland.” National Skills

Coalition, 1 Aug. 2011, www.nationalskillscoalition.org/resources/publications/file/NSC_BeyondDegrees_2011-08-FINAL-

WEB.pdf.

18 ibid

4151 Park Heights Avenue, Suite 207, Baltimore, MD 21215 • www.lbsbaltimore.com • (410) 374-7683


Figure 1- Skills2Compete Interagency

Workforce Committee. The wheel depicts the

Skills2Compete initiative as a hub for connecting the variety of agencies which impacts workforce development.

Source- National Skills Initiative Beyond Degrees Report 19

19 ibid

4151 Park Heights Avenue, Suite 207, Baltimore, MD 21215 • www.lbsbaltimore.com • (410) 374-7683


Figure 2- Enrollments and Completions in Maryland’s Workforce Development System- Sample input and outputs of

the Skills2Compete-Maryland Plan- Source- National Skills Coalition Beyond Degrees Report

Two of the focuses outlined in the Beyond Degrees report are reflected in legislation which passed in the

2011 session. HB 81 relates directly to workforce training and education for veterans, focusing on tracking

them into construction jobs, while HB 104 created tuition waivers for individuals with disabilities to take

vocational training at community colleges. The legislature also passed HB 757, which empowered the

GWIB to establish an advisory committee on the development of educational programs to aid unemployed

state residents.

2012

2012 appears to be less active years in workforce development legislation and research, yet nevertheless,

important events which helped shaped future actions can be observed. The only two bills coded in the

Maryland General Assembly legislative database as relevant to job training are both related to construction

workforce development; HB 457 is related to capital transit workforce training and HB 493 focuses on

creating a task force to study workforce development for construction apprenticeships. A report from The

Maryland Center for Construction Education and Innovation (MCCEI) helps to elucidate why these efforts

may have been deemed necessary.

The MCCEI report, done in conjunction with Sage Policy Group, Inc. and Regional Economic Studies

Institute, (RESI) of Towson University, published a report called The Critical Path, which was the

culmination of over a year of interviews with 30 companies throughout the state of Maryland around their

hiring practices, attritions rates, and perceived developing trends in the state’s construction area which,

according to the report, was still struggling to recover from the great recession, with construction sector

unemployment reaching a high of 27.1% in February 2012. 20 The report notes that 70% of the employees

20

“The Critical Path: Positioning Maryland as an Innovation Leader in the Global Construction Industry.” Board Meeting

Schedule and Materials, Governor's Workforce Development Board, 20 Mar. 2013, gwib.maryland.gov/board/bdmeet/.

4151 Park Heights Avenue, Suite 207, Baltimore, MD 21215 • www.lbsbaltimore.com • (410) 374-7683


hired for the firm's surveys came from out of state construction programs, and over 40% of the companies

surveyed expected 20-40% of their workforce to retire before 2020. 21

The report concludes by giving six policy recommendations for improving workforce readiness for

construction careers, the most notable of which being the creation or expansion of construction education

programs at Maryland four-year colleges, with over 65% of those surveyed saying they support the

creation of this program to help perceived unmet need in the construction workforce pipelines, a lack of

specifically skilled craftspeople with field experience and knowledge of computer programs used in

construction. 22 There also were recommendations around the need for an internship pipeline for a

construction job, the creation of a new, elite construction management program at a Maryland university

(the existing programs are at the University of Maryland-Eastern Shore and Morgan State University) and

an outreach campaign to bring in traditionally underrepresented groups into the construction field.

In addition to construction, the literature shows a continued focus on medical sector workforce

development. The Council for Adult and Experiential Learning produced a report entitled “Innovation in

Maryland Nursing Education to Meet Anticipated Demand” which essentially outlines recommendations

around workforce development for the state’s healthcare industry given the great recession (which eased

some of the demand on the states medical workforce by causing some of the state’s older medical

employees to delay retirement) and the rollout of the affordable care act, which would continue to put

upward demand pressure on the states medical infrastructure. 23 The addition to general recommendations

around increasing race/gender diversity in the state disproportionately white and female nursing

workforce, it gives note specific examples of innovation such as a Montgomery College program in

Montgomery County which is designed to transition foreign-trained nurses and military medics/corpsmen

into the nursing profession. 24

On a national level, In The Center for the Study of Social Policy produced a report called Results Based

Public Policy Strategies for Promoting Workforce Strategies for Reintegrating Ex-Offenders, which cites

Maryland’s work in creating Green Jobs opportunities for the formerly incarcerated and locating “onestop”

job centers in Baltimore neighborhoods where they reach returning citizens as useful strategies for

21

Ibid

22

Ibid

23

Cael. “Innovation in Maryland Nursing Education to Meet Anticipated Demand.” Public Policy-Publication, Council for Adult

and Experiential Learning, 2012, cta-service-cms2.hubspot.com/ctas/v2/public/cs/c/?cta_guid=af4f5c64-7edb-4030-bec9-

2f65b43df106&placement_guid=be58634e-5b14-4a4e-ba31-

a6f65a5ecbbb&portal_id=617695&redirect_url=APefjpHUaMWVwkSz73q53d1PhLcpy3iVvvmCMbco-

KZPNPaFv7X7Wyie98PAKl0QhPHxPKdGW1aCQ5tR9SBzj8Pl9xQuw-8JxPgne2Ij2fHeKNBwYCQhqYsPfp8evLP-

VGF_T0liHhE2Uz62REJ0aTOrt0LBvvDwqjR0zJHkyu98AD_o8CBgoaVekNpB6bRfF_2GtkSJpoOOll1U_4brVeQmcM8NVYt

CHdex-_Oq2QVBKOl5bfDAD-

4&hsutk=c7a000001d761e0d13a8016263ca2c90&canon=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cael.org%2Fpublic-policypublication&click=6f2acb19-7481-4022-b79f-5bbfa40cdc34&utm_referrer=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cael.org%2Fworkforceand-economic-development%2Fpublications%3FhsCtaTracking%3Dd03430b5-440e-4ee1-98ce-ae6f62609c33%7C418c940a-

9911-46b4-967d-f61debed49a1&pageId=4015083498.

24

ibid

4151 Park Heights Avenue, Suite 207, Baltimore, MD 21215 • www.lbsbaltimore.com • (410) 374-7683


eintegrating returning citizens into the workforce. 25

2013

2013 saw the continued development of the state’s policy architecture around workforce development

which can be seen as the work of previous years beginning to culminate in change. HB0227 created the

Employment Advancement Right Now (EARN) program. Through it, industries engage in a competitive

process where they present proposals for collaborative workforce development efforts. The program is

designed to prioritize data-driven approaches to expanding the skilled workforce to meet the needs of the

industry. Additionally, many of the bills passed related to expanding educational opportunity to

traditionally excluded demographics, including HB0698, which create a workgroup to study its

entrepreneurial opportunities for individuals who have had experience with the criminal justice system,

HB1012 which established conditional tuition waivers for individuals who have had experience with the

foster care system for state schools.

The literature from this year supports the idea that 2013 was a year for taking stock and reflecting on

experience. The Job Opportunities Tasks Force (JOTF) produced two documents attempting to expand

workforce development and legislative advocacy conversations. First, JOTF published a report relaying

the lessons they have learned engaging in legislative advocacy on behalf of individuals with criminal

records. The report, entitled Advocating for the Successful Reentry of Individuals with Criminal Records,

attempts to outline some of the strategies and lessons from the experience JOTF had over the course of

years advocating for policy change to increase access to workforce development and employment

opportunity for returning citizens. 26 This is a rare report in the literature which attempts to give some

“how to” advice for institutions seeking to engage in legislative advocacy for people with criminal records,

and the report seeks to give examples related to strategy, building coalitions, choosing the scope of your

policy reforms (discussing the relative merits of the “low hanging fruit” approach versus the “going bold”

approach) and even the relative value of making “unlikely allies” and using state fiscal impact as a

mechanism to generate support for a particular policy. One example of an advocacy strategy relating to

increasing support for workforce development involves a discussion around expanding the conversation

around SNAP benefits to individuals convicted of drug offenses:

“Many states remain in fiscal crisis and proposals that increase revenue or reduce

expenditures are likely to capture the attention of the administration and legislators. Like

many states, Maryland opted to ban SNAP benefits (food stamps) for single people and

noncustodial parents with drug convictions. Previous attempts to change this policy based

on the need for food assistance were ineffective, but the governor’s office became

interested when JOTF, in 2005, explained that lifting the ban would make Maryland

25

“Results Based Public Policy Strategies for Promoting Workforce Strategies for Reintegrating Ex-Offenders.” Papers, Center

for the Study of Social Policy, Apr. 2012, www.cssp.org/policy/papers/Promoting-Workforce-Strategies-for-Reintegrating-Ex-

Offenders.pdf.

26

“Advocating for the Successful Reentry of Individuals with Criminal Records: Lessons Learned from Maryland.” Latest

Publications, Job Opportunity Task Force- Prepared for the Annie E. Casey Foundation, Nov. 2013,

jotf.org/Portals/0/jotf/publications/JOTF%20Lessons%20Learned%20FINAL.pdf.

4151 Park Heights Avenue, Suite 207, Baltimore, MD 21215 • www.lbsbaltimore.com • (410) 374-7683


eligible for millions of dollars in Food Stamps Employment and Training program

funds.” 27

The document goes on to discuss the importance centering impacting individuals in advocacy and

discussing the racialized impact of criminal justice policy on workforce development.

The second report, entitled “Obstacles & Opportunities: The Workforce Development Landscape in

Prince George’s County, Maryland”, is one of the first looks in the literature at workforce development

from a local/regional perspective. The report gives statistical breakdowns of current and projected future

workforce data for the county, which reveals that despite the counties, relative affluence (with the presence

of relatively stable federal and local government jobs) the county has serious issues with unemployment

and mass incarceration separating residents from the workforce. 28 Additionally, the report elucidates how

some of the fundamental dynamics of the economy are impacting the earning potential of PG County

residents, with the data showing the disproportionate amount of projected future job growth is

concentrated in lower waged service economy jobs. The report is rare in the literature in that it specifically

focuses on an under-discussed element of the states workforce development infrastructure, the local

workforce development boards. While every county has a distinct workforce development entity which

implements workforce development programming at a county level. The JOTF report is one of the first in

the literature which takes local workforce development as a topic of inquiry, identifying their leadership

structure, programming, funding sources and some of the organizations who have received workforce

development grants from the local board. A brief sample from the report shows the detail the report gives

on the workings of this as to now under-discussed workforce development entity.

“In 2011, Maryland Nonprofits released a report finding that Prince George’s County

government makes only minimal local investment in health and human services. The county

relies heavily on federal and state funding. The same holds true for workforce development,

where services through the county One-Stops rely almost exclusively on federal WIA funds.

PGC-WSD does not receive general fund support from the county…

In addition to [Summer Youth Enrichment Programming] SYEP, the county supports

workforce development through grants to local nonprofits. The county granted about half

a million dollars to local nonprofits that provide at least some workforce services in FY

2013. Some grant recipients have an explicit focus on employment – such as the Training

Source and the CASA de Maryland Prince George’s Welcome Center – while others

received general support for a range of services, of which employment assistance is only

one.” 29

27

ibid

28

“Obstacles & Opportunities: The Workforce Development Landscape in Prince George's County, Maryland.” Latest

Publications, Job Opportunity Task Force, Sept. 2013,

jotf.org/Portals/0/jotf/publications/JOTF%20Lessons%20Learned%20FINAL.pdf.

29

ibid

4151 Park Heights Avenue, Suite 207, Baltimore, MD 21215 • www.lbsbaltimore.com • (410) 374-7683


The report goes on to detail the over half million dollars the county disseminated to workforce-related

programming in the county, with the activities funded ranging from office training to youth to “soft skills”

work for vulnerable populations, including the homeless and victims of domestic violence.

2014

The 2013 JOTF finding that local workforce investment boards depend on federal government funding

would prove relevant in 2014, as the Obama administration set out to revamp the federal workforce

development infrastructure, causing states across the country, including Maryland, to scramble to

understand how their state workforce systems would be impacted.

Much of the thinking behind the State of Maryland’s response to this federal legislation is documented on

GWIB’s website, which chronicles some of the conversations state workforce development officials were

having at the time. A report from the National Association of Workforce, which was included in the notes

for the Governor’s Workforce Investment Board’s September meeting, details some of the key difference

between the previous law, the Workforce Investment Act (WIA) and the 2014 legislation which replaced

it, the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA). While the report goes into granular detail

about the specific differences between the two laws, in a nutshell the WIOA appears to condition increased

flexibility in how local workforce development boards can use money (shifting it between different

buckets without the previously needed waivers) and fundraise (empowering local workforce development

board to get non-government grants and donations as 501c3s) in exchange for increased application of

performance metrics and make federal funding conditional upon showing satisfactory performance. 30 The

GWIB also posted a list of over 50 questions related to the new law that their organization wanted to

address. Grouped into 10 categories, the list attempts to isolate questions about how the state may most

effectively transition from the current WIA regime to the incoming WIOA law and was lumped into the

following areas:

“A. Governance

B. Performance Accountability

C. One-Stop System / Wagner-Peyser

D. Eligible Training Provider List (State Only)

E. Adult and Dislocated Worker Formula Programs

F. Youth Program

G. Adult Ed/Literacy

H. Voc Rehab

I. Admin Provisions – Waivers

J. Miscellaneous” 31

30

Copus, Josh, et al. “The Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) ‘Driving Innovation, Collaboration, and

Performance.’” Publications, National Association of Workforce Boards (NAWB), 28 Mar. 2016, nawb.org/publications.asp.

31

“Board Meeting Schedule and Materials-2014.” Board Information, Governor's Workforce Development Board, 15 June 2015,

www.mdworkforce.com/board/bdmeet/sept172014wioatool.pdf.

4151 Park Heights Avenue, Suite 207, Baltimore, MD 21215 • www.lbsbaltimore.com • (410) 374-7683


While the process of interrogating the changes demanded by the WIOA began in 2014, it is a process

which continues throughout the time period examined.

While the WIOA would dominate the GWIB’s conversations around workforce development, the

legislative work related to workforce development picked up substantially in 2014 from a relative lull in

2013. The Department of Legislative services released its report on apprenticeships in the state, arguing

that there is substantial workforce needs being unmet by the states limited system of apprenticeships and

argues for tax credits for employers who create internships and increased oversight and curriculum

development for the states youth internships efforts. 32 The impact of the continual push toward internships

can be seen in SB0054, which sought to increased coordination between the states labor-related

bureaucracy and its internship development organizations. Additionally, the state continued to pass

legislation around the education-related job training, passing HB1164, creating a workgroup on how to

implement statewide PARCC testing, and HB 0811, which creates a summer career academy pilot

program. Finally, the state passed HB0856, creating a workgroup to study how best to advance workforce

development for community health workers.

2015

In 2015, the discussion around implementation of the WIOA continued, but under new circumstances

locally. With a new governor, the workforce investment board was largely reconstituted under governor

Larry Hogan, with a new executive director Francis Chaney II. The GWIB minutes show that in March

2015 the roundtable discussed a report entitled “Putting WIOA to Work: An Action Plan for CEOs To

Leverage the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act”. The report includes conversations around

opportunities presented by the bill for businesses to leverage the WIOA, including gaining representation

on local workforce boards and integrating their workforce needs with community colleges. 33 While the

report came out in 2014, it helped shape the 2015 debate around the continued implementation of the

WIOA. Additionally, the GWIB website links to a U.S. Department of Labor document, a Training

Employment Guidance Letter on the implementation on WIOA. In an attempt to guide states on

implementation of WIOA, most of which the provisions kicked in July 2015, the document gives states

outlines on changing board composition, transitioning into new forms of youth programming, and

addressing new federal law conflicting with existing state law (with the document noting that federal law

takes precedence). 34 Finally, the GWIB had a rare “policy issuance” where it laid directive for local

workforce management boards on how to implement new requirements from WIOA. While many of the

32

“TASK FORCE TO STUDY ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT & APPRENTICESHIPS- FINAL REPORT.” Maryland Task

Force to Study Economic Development & Apprenticeships, Maryland Department of Legislative Services, Website Updated -

Published February 2014- Website Updated - 25 Sept. 2015,

msa.maryland.gov/msa/mdmanual/26excom/defunct/html/13economicdev.html.

33

“Putting WIOA to Work: An Action Plan for CEOs to Leverage the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act.” An Action

Plan for CEOs to Leverage the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, Business Roundtable, 18 Sept. 2014,

www.businessroundtable.org/resources/putting-wioa-work.

34

WU, PORTIA. “TRAINING AND EMPLOYMENT GUIDANCE LETTER No. 19-14.” TRAINING AND EMPLOYMENT

GUIDANCE LETTER No. 19-14, Employment & Training Administration (ETA) - U.S. Department of Labor, United States

Department of Labor, 19 Feb. 2015, wdr.doleta.gov/directives/corr_doc.cfm?docn=7353.

4151 Park Heights Avenue, Suite 207, Baltimore, MD 21215 • www.lbsbaltimore.com • (410) 374-7683


directives from the GWIB cite the WIOA, some appear to be the board attempting to lay down “best

practices” for the local boards to follow. One interesting area elucidated by this policy issuance is around

the composition of local workforce boards, which states that while it is mandatory to have a certain

representative from particular organizations on the board, local workforce management boards may opt

to include representatives from:

“A community-based organization that has demonstrated experience and expertise in

addressing the employment, training or education needs of individuals with barriers to

employment…”

Or

“An organization that demonstrated experience and expertise in addressing the

employment,

training, or education needs of WIOA eligible youth, including representatives of

organizations that serve out-of-school youth.” 35

As well as the development of the state’s legislative efforts to expand its diversity in its workforce

repertoire. With a newly elected governor, the legislature continued to advance a workforce agenda which

targeted specific demographics. The state received its report on Community Health Workers, which it

commissioned in 2015. In it, concerns are relayed around a variety of issues around the state of community

health worker training, including the importance of local cultural knowledge for different groups who

have difficulty accessing health services. 36 In a deviation from standard practice, the state passed various

employment licensing regulations, relating to midwifery and barbering, in a state attempt to set standards

for the industry. This push for licensing and certification legislation also extended to mental health

professionals, with HB0805 stating that applicants for a therapist license can be asked to submit proof of

mental or physical competence. Continuing on the issue of licensure, the state legislature also passed

HB0846, designed in this case to facilitate former armed forces members in the acquisition of commercial

truck driver’s licenses.

While much of the literature from this year can be seen as influencing WIOA implementation or state law,

two important reports which fit neither category were published in 2015. The first, a report published by

Associated Black Charities, in association with the Greater Baltimore Committee, on middle-skill STEM

jobs. While science, technology, engineering, and math are often seen as higher skills jobs, there are a

bevy of opportunities in the STEM field which don’t require advanced degrees, but professional

certification and specific skills, the report seeks to find ways to create job training pipelines to give a

wider swath of individuals’ access to the opportunities. Finally, the state government produced its first

report on the state of the previously existing EARN internship program, stating that after a year of planning

and a year of implementation the program was successful at both training existing employees and bringing

new employees into the workforce. The report citing that, in 40 programs which had received EARN

35

“GWIB POLICY ISSUANCE 2015-01-Maryland’s Local Workforce Development Boards under WIOA.” Policy Issuances,

Governor's Workforce Development Board (GWDB), 1 July 2015, mdworkforce.com/policy/gwibpi1-15.pdf.

36

“Workgroup on Workforce Development for Community Health Workers- Final Report.” Maryland Department of Health and

Mental Hygiene, Workgroup on Workforce Development for Community Health Workers, June 2015,

insurance.maryland.gov/Documents/newscenter/legislativeinformation/workgroup-on-workforce-development-for-communityhealth-workers-dhmh-and-mia-june-2015.pdf.

4151 Park Heights Avenue, Suite 207, Baltimore, MD 21215 • www.lbsbaltimore.com • (410) 374-7683


grants, over 1,500 previously employed individuals receiving new credentials and 644 individuals (or 78%

of those who went through apprenticeship training) obtained employment. 37

2016

In 2016, the logistics of Maryland’s WIOA implementation began to be revealed, and there is a bevy of

literature related to the state of Maryland's implementation of the bill. The now renamed Governor’s

Workforce Development Board produced a new policy issuance to denote how resources might be shared

between different organizations involved in workforce development and the mechanisms of accountability

involved. 38 As part of the development of the state-wide WIOA strategy, local workforce development

boards published their own individual plans for how their jurisdiction would comply with the new law. 39

These reports can span for hundreds of pages and include a lot of technical details, but nonetheless a

general tendency throughout the documents of citing WIOA and attempting to outline general plans for

compliance from the local development boards. Additionally, the GWDB issued an annual report on the

state of statewide workforce development which showed a shift in style and focuses on how the

organization portrayed itself to the public. While previous reports read more like advertisements for the

organization and its partners, this report reads more like a research document, attempting to quantify

projected growth in key sectors and advocate for expanding the frame for workforce development. 40 It

also reveals a bevy of new members added to the board, a move which perhaps can be read as related to

a new gubernatorial regime attempting to put their stamp on this institution. Finally, the Job Opportunity

Task Force produced a report entitled Connecting Baltimore's Youth to Opportunity, focused on analyzing

the current landscape for youth opportunity in Baltimore and observes that:

“Baltimore has built a reasonably large infrastructure of organizations that serve

opportunity

youth, but collectively, these organizations have not been able to connect a large portion

of

Baltimore’s opportunity youth to careers.”

Using the term “opportunity youth” denotes the population aged 16-24 whom typically experience barriers

to education or employment. The report notes that Baltimore’s population of “opportunity youth” is one

of the highest in the country, and requires targeted workforce development to address the myriad of factors

which are barriers to employment, including labor market dynamics, experience with the criminal justice

37

“EARN Maryland - 2015 Annual Report to the Maryland General Assembly.” Resources - EARN Maryland, Division of

Workforce Development and Adult Learning- A Subsection of the Department of Labor, Licensing and Regulation (DLLR), Dec.

2015, dllr.state.md.us/earn/earnannrep2015.pdf.

38

“POLICY ISSUANCE 2016-09- WIOA Memoranda of Understanding & Resource Sharing Agreements.” Policy Issuances,

Governor's Workforce Development Board (GWDB), 27 Sept. 2016, www.dllr.maryland.gov/employment/mpi/mpi9-16.pdf.

39

“Local Area Workforce Plans (WIOA).” Workforce Development & Adult Learning, Department of Labor, Licensing and

Regulation, 2016, dllr.state.md.us/wdplan/wioalocalplans.shtml.

40

“Developing Maryland's Futures- Annual Report 2016.” Annual Reports, Governor's Workforce Development Board (GWDB),

2016, mdworkforce.com/lib/pdf/annualreport2016.pdf.

4151 Park Heights Avenue, Suite 207, Baltimore, MD 21215 • www.lbsbaltimore.com • (410) 374-7683


system, and trauma. 41 After noting that workforce development for youth is often more expensive and

complex than workforce development for adults and that adult-centric programs are failing to adequately

meet the needs of youth, the report goes on to list 7 recommendations based upon observed “best

practices” in the field, the most notable of which is using WIOA funding to create youth specific industry

based workforce development programming, noting that changes in the federal law allow up a $3,000,000

increase in funding for youth-centric workforce programming. Finally, in July 2016, the state issued its

comprehensive state WIOA compliance plan. At over 300 pages, it is an attempt to synthesize the local

WIOA plans into a document which expresses the state’s priorities around WIOA under governor Hogan,

and includes an overview of the state’s demographics and employment data, and goes on to outline

performance objectives for the state’s workforce performance and the budgets available for different

aspects of the plan. 42

2016 also included the largest amount of job training related state legislation of any year within the

research window. SB0098 is a largely technical bill designed to update obsolete references in old law to

the WIA and replace them with references to the WIOA. Besides that, most of the laws sought to either

establish new programs or to build upon existing infrastructure. HB 1488 sought to create a Maryland

Corp, creating a vehicle for young people to be paid for engaging for different forms of public services

including wetlands restoration efforts. Similarly, HB 1162 sought to create a pilot program for foster youth

summer internships. The state passed three bills to further its legal infrastructure around apprenticeships,

HB0676 requiring Maryland Apprenticeship and Training Council to give a yearly report to the General

Assembly. SB0092 moved the Youth Apprenticeship Advisory Committee from the Division of Labor

and Industry inside the DLLR to the Division of Workforce Development and Adult Learning and

requiring the membership of the Council and its consultants to reflect the geographic, racial, ethnic,

cultural, and gender diversity of the State. Also, HB0290, establishing the Apprenticeship Career Training

in Our Neighborhoods (ACTION) Program designed to set up a state entity to encourage employers to

hire specified apprentices and to help employers offset costs associated with hiring apprentices through a

grant program. In an attempt to address minority entrepreneurial opportunity as a function of workforce

development, HB0788 moved responsibility for maintaining the Small Business Reserve Program to the

Governor's Office of Minority Affairs from the Department of General Services. In one of the unique

forces of workforce-related legislation recorded, HB1494, which gives income tax credits for community

health workers who live in "areas of the State with health care workforce shortages". Finally, SB1005, the

Justice Reinvestment Act passed a mixture of expungement and re-sentencing provisions to eliminate

potential barriers to employment, but moreover set up a commission to attempt to reinvest money saved

from incarcerating fewer people into programs for returning citizens, including potential workforce

development. Indeed, the bill states that among the individuals on the coordinating council who will make

decisions on how to reinvest the money the state saves is mandated for two of the slots to go to individuals

with:

41

“Connecting Baltimore's Opportunity Youth to Careers.” Latest Publications, Job Opportunity Task Force, Feb. 2016,

jotf.org/Portals/0/Connecting%20Baltimore%20Opportunity%20Youth%20to%20Careers_022316.pdf.

42

“Maryland Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act State Plan.” Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA)

Resource Page - Workforce Development & Adult Learning, Governor's Workforce Development Board (GWDB), July 2016,

www.dllr.maryland.gov/wdplan/wdstateplan.pdf.

4151 Park Heights Avenue, Suite 207, Baltimore, MD 21215 • www.lbsbaltimore.com • (410) 374-7683


a high

And

“direct experience teaching inmates in academic programs intended to achieve the goal of

school diploma or general educational development certification.”

“A representative of an organization whose mission is to develop and advocate for

policies and programs to increase the skills, job opportunities, and incomes of low–

skill, low–income workers and job seekers”. 43

While this list is not exhaustive, it demonstrates the breadth of the legislative efforts taken to engage

questions around workforce development in just one year in the General Assembly.

2017

2017 sees a lull in the literature but continued the themes of WIOA implementation focus and broader

analysis of the state’s economy. The JOTF did a joint report with a variety of regional workforce

development entities, including the greater Washington Workforce Development Collaborative,

comparing Maryland’s WIOA implementation plan to other regional entities (The District of Columbia

and Virginia). While the state earned high marks for its EARN program, the report asked for the program

to be expanded and asked for more specificity on the state’s plan for youth, returning citizens (including

statewide ban the box) and increased child care for WIOA. 44 Additionally, the Governor's Workforce

Development Board posted two policy issuances, one on the provisions for the American Job Centers 45

and another for outlining the governance of local workforce development boards. 46 Finally, a coalition of

organizations, including the Maryland Department of Commerce and the Economic Alliance of Greater

Baltimore produced a map of cybersecurity assets throughout the state and seeks to promote the state as a

center of technological innovation. 47 Finally, the national skills coalition on December 18 of 2017

published a report entitled “Middle-Skill Credentials and Immigrant Workers: Maryland’s Untapped

Assets”. The report restates previous observations that Maryland’s foreign-born workforce is more skilled

43

“Practitioner Guide to SB1005.” Governor's Office of Crime Control & Prevention in Maryland, Maryland Justice

Reinvestment Coordinating Council, Jan. 2017,

www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=5&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjt8L_Kwp7aAhWpdN8K

HS7qDFIQFghfMAQ&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.harcobar.org%2Fsite%2Fwp-content%2Fuploads%2F2017%2F09%2FMD-

Practitioners-Guide-FINAL.pdf&usg=AOvVaw1jLzh5DmfOpx9fmU4Z-3eB.

44

Duncombe, Chris, et al. “MAXIMIZING WIOA’S POTENTIAL: A Regional Analysis of the State Plans of Maryland,

Virginia, and Washington, DC.” Latest Publications, The Commonwealth Institute for Fiscal Analysis ¡ DC Appleseed DC Fiscal

Policy Institute ¡ Job Opportunities Task Force Maryland Center on Economic Policy- Sponsored by Greater Washington

Workforce Development Collaborative, Mar. 2017, www.workingpoorfamilies.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Maryland-

WIOA_full-report_final_web-copy.pdf.

45

“POLICY ISSUANCE 2017-02-Maryland American Job Center Certification Policy.” Policy Issuances - Governor's

Workforce Development Board (GWDB), 14 Aug. 2017, mdworkforce.com/policy/gwibpi2-17.doc.

46

“POLICY ISSUANCE 2017-01 - Local Workforce Development Board Certification Policy.” Policy Issuances, Governor's

Workforce Development Board (GWDB), 1 July 2017, mdworkforce.com/policy/gwibpi1-17.pdf.

47

“Maryland Cybersecurity Asset Map.” Story Map Series, Economic Alliance of Greater Baltimore- Maryland Department of

Commerce, 2017, eagb.maps.arcgis.com/apps/MapSeries/index.html?appid=f1480443ee5d4fbabd710890431a5af4.

4151 Park Heights Avenue, Suite 207, Baltimore, MD 21215 • www.lbsbaltimore.com • (410) 374-7683


than the national average, and promotes the economic contributions of these higher educated immigrants

while also arguing that, for the state to maximize the potential of this demographic, it must expand its

work around increasing middle-skill education to its non-native workforce. 48

In 2017, the state appeared to take steps forward defining the institutions which will take the lead for its

future when it comes to workforce development. The state passed two more bills relating to

apprenticeships. The first, HB0810, was a technical bill designed to designate the Division of Workforce

Development and Adult Learning is the designated State Apprenticeship Agency under federal law. The

second, HB0467, was a more substantive bill designed to create a more robust infrastructure in the state

of internships. The bill dubbed the Providing Our Workers Education and Readiness (POWER) -

Apprenticeship Act, created a requirement that construction projects receiving state dollars either use

apprentices who have come through the DLLR registered apprenticeship program or in lieu of this pay

money the state apprenticeship fund or some other registered apprenticeship program. The bill stands out

in the literature for being one of the few workforces relate bill which places a mandate on employers and,

perhaps related to this fact, which passed not with unanimous or near unanimous support, as many of the

bill analyzed in the literature, but on a party-line vote in the house and senate. HB1275 focused on creating

better information flow to veterans about services, including those related to integrating them into the

civilian workforce. HB1595 sought to begin to the process of revamping Baltimore City Community

College, requiring the chairmen of the board to be appointed by the state legislative chairs and authorizing

a study of the challenges and assets related to the institution. Finally, the state passed SB317, Requiring

the Governor to appropriate at least $1,000,000 each fiscal year for the Partnership for Workforce Quality

Program and establishing the More Jobs for Marylanders Program in the Department of Commerce to

provide manufacturing business entities tax credits.

Insights

After evaluating the literature around workforce development in Baltimore, some preliminary conclusions

can be made. First, while state legislation was the initial frame of the research, it is clear that the legal

infrastructure of the state’s workforce development efforts is deeply embedded into the executive branch,

local workforce development boards, and even the federal government, with the WIOA being a critical

funding source for the states workforce development programming. While the state appears to be

developing its apprenticeship infrastructure, and has even received independent recognition for their work

here compared to other entities in the region, the fact that it took multiple years of continuous legislative

efforts on this issue of apprenticeships shows just how difficult it is to steer the ship of workforce

development from the state legislature. However, there appear to be potential strategic points of influence

within the state workforce bureaucracy which could be open to influence, including local workforce

development boards (which may be more open to some forms of community participation under WIOA)

and even entities like the justice reinvestment coordinating council. In many ways, the state government

appears sandwiched between the federal government and the “on the ground” local workforce

48

“Middle-Skill Credentials and Immigrant Workers: Maryland’s Untapped Assets.” State Policy - In the States -Maryland -

Publications, National Skills Coalition, 18 Dec. 2017, nationalskillscoalition.org/resources/publications/file/Middle-Skill-

Credentials-and-Immigrant-Workers-Marylands-Untapped-Assets-1.pdf.

4151 Park Heights Avenue, Suite 207, Baltimore, MD 21215 • www.lbsbaltimore.com • (410) 374-7683


development boards, with the GWDB being one of the few entities able to span across all these levels.

The literature reveals the importance of adopting a holistic view of the states workforce efforts in order to

properly understand how workforce development functions.

The literature also reveals some of the limitations of the state’s current efforts around workforce

development. While the efforts appear to be in a period of flux given the continued implementation of the

new federal law, the literature reveals that certain aspects of how workforce developments appear to

happen in practice are difficult to discern from the literature. In the only directly comparative document

in the literature, the joint report done comparing regional WIOA implementation plans, a constant refrain

noted throughout the report was that, while Maryland’s plan was generally given credit for being solid, is

was also noted for being relatively vague, lacking specific are critical areas in implementation. Indeed,

some of the essential information about how workforce development boards operate in practice,

information for example related to the curriculum used in workforce development programming, and

participant evaluations of their experience in workforce development programs, was beyond the scope of

this literature review and largely unavailable in this time period.

Correcting this lack of information becomes especially critical when the literature around Maryland

workforce development is analyzed from a racial equity standpoint. While there is a consistent discussion

of including marginalized populations and those excluded from traditional pipelines to employment, the

vast majority of the literature fails to address the root causes behind the exclusion of vulnerable

populations from the workforce. With notable exceptions, the literature fails to ask fundamental questions

about racial equity. This is perhaps most clearly exemplified by the GWIB’s list of questions discussion

around WIOA implementation. While the institution presented over 50 very specific questions about the

transition in federal law with 10 distinct subgroups, questions specific to the law's impact from an equity

perspective are notable in their absence. When the literature is examined from an equity perspective,

efforts which appear to be perfectly rational and perhaps even progressive are questionable in terms of

their equity impact. For example, when the state legislature expands licensure requirements to barber

services, this appears to be another opportunity for workforce development, with services being deployed

to get individuals certified in their fields. Yet growing bodies of equity-based literature around licensure

regimes show that in many cases these licensure regimes create a bottleneck where individuals are forced

to go through lengthy and potentially expensive training programs for employment opportunities where

the very need for licensure is questionable, a burden found to disproportionately impact people of color. 49

As such, the Skills2Compete initiatives focus on middle-skill jobs where professional licensure rather

than a four-year degree may need to analyzed more deeply to ensure that the licensure regimes themselves

are not barriers to employment. Additionally, one of the recommendations of MCCEI report, around the

development of a new construction management program at a Maryland university, risks duplicating

existing programs at one of the state’s historically Black colleges, a practice which is against state law

49

Rodriguez, Michelle Natividad, and Beth Avery. “Unlicensed & Untapped: Removing Barriers to State Occupational Licenses

for People with Records.” Report, National Employment Law Project, 26 Apr. 2016, www.nelp.org/publication/unlicenseduntapped-removing-barriers-state-occupational-licenses/.

4151 Park Heights Avenue, Suite 207, Baltimore, MD 21215 • www.lbsbaltimore.com • (410) 374-7683


and was deemed an unconstitutional violation of the state’s mandate to support these schools. 50

A recent addition to the literature gives some insight into what one equity approach to workforce

development might look like. The Annie E Casey foundation produced a report entitled Reshaping

Workforce Development in Baltimore, which brought together a team of young, black consultants together

to interview youth and research ways to better connect black youth with the workforce. While the state

has increasingly deferred to employers to design the workforce development programming, the reports

premise of starting from the bottom-up, with the people who would be serviced by the program, led to

some unique insights. The young people surveyed showed an intense interest in entrepreneurship, as the

report notes:

crave

free

to

a life

“Many teens and young adults —more than a third of those the consultants interviewed —

entrepreneurship and resources to build businesses that benefit their communities, and that

them from the discriminatory practices, policies and workplace cultures that participants

reported facing in traditional employment settings. For them, a career is not only a means

escape financial woes, but to create an opportunity for the people around them and build

free from violence and poverty.” 51

While the MCCEI report advocated for an advertising campaign to change the perception of construction

work, the Casey report advocated for a campaign to change the perception of youth worker among

employers, as young people constantly felt they were being perceived as unreliable employees. The

report’s analysis argues that the scope of workforce development services may need to address the needs

of the most vulnerable, concluding:

“Youth and young adults face a multitude of barriers — including unreliable

transportation, mental health and substance abuse issues and unstable housing

arrangements — that hinder their participation in workforce development programs.

50

Douglas-Gabriel, Danielle. “Courts Side with Maryland HBCUs in Long-Standing Case over Disparities in State Higher

Education.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 9 Nov. 2017, www.washingtonpost.com/news/gradepoint/wp/2017/11/09/courts-side-with-maryland-hbcus-in-longstanding-case-over-disparities-in-state-highereducation/?utm_term=.78baaf053e1c.

51

“Reshaping Workforce Development in Baltimore.” Resources, The Annie E. Casey Foundation, 3 Jan. 2018,

www.aecf.org/resources/reshaping-workforce-development-in-baltimore/.

4151 Park Heights Avenue, Suite 207, Baltimore, MD 21215 • www.lbsbaltimore.com • (410) 374-7683


Providers can help mitigate these challenges by intentionally partnering with other

community-based organizations to ensure young people can access housing, child care,

transportation, legal, financial coaching and other related services in addition to job

training.” 52

By revealing that the barriers to employment are also barriers to access to workforce development

programs themselves, the Casey report reveals that an equity lens may be essential not just ethically for

workforce development to be done fairly, but from a pragmatic standpoint, essential to workforce

development programs very success.

While the Casey report is specific to youth in Baltimore, the methodology represented is useful when

theorizing potential interventions to how workforce development is conceived statewide. Its method of

centering on impacted communities, viewing them as experts in their own conditions and designing

interventions based on their feedback is critical to an equity-based workforce development policy and

practice. With turmoil at a federal government level, continued rollout of federal legislation like WIOA

and statewide legislation like the justice reinvestment act, the landscape for workforce development in

Maryland is perpetually shifting, but by centering equity and a vision of progressive policymaking, the

state can help ensure a successful development of opportunity despite an uncertain future.

Works Cited

“Advocating for the Successful Reentry of Individuals with Criminal Records: Lessons Learned from

Maryland.” Latest Publications, Job Opportunity Task Force- Prepared for the Annie E. Casey Foundation,

Nov. 2013, www.jotf.org/Portals/0/jotf/publications/JOTF%20Lessons%20Learned%20FINAL.pdf

Balog, Jason E. “Balog's Biotech Dissecting O'Malley's Bio 2020 Initiative.” The Frederick News-Post,

Myron W. Randall Jr., 11 Mar. 2016, www.fredericknewspost.com/archive/balog-s-biotech-dissecting-omalley-s-bio-initiative/article_969d8f56-46ae-543a-ba61-b1b08f27deb2.html

“Board Meeting Schedule and Materials-2014.” Board Information, Governor's Workforce Development

Board, 15 June 2015, www.mdworkforce.com/board/bdmeet/sept172014wioatool.pdf

52

ibid

4151 Park Heights Avenue, Suite 207, Baltimore, MD 21215 • www.lbsbaltimore.com • (410) 374-7683


Cael. “Innovation in Maryland Nursing Education to Meet Anticipated Demand.” Public Policy-Publication,

Council for Adult and Experiential Learning, 2012, www.cta-service-

cms2.hubspot.com/ctas/v2/public/cs/c/?cta_guid=af4f5c64-7edb-4030-bec9-

2f65b43df106&placement_guid=be58634e-5b14-4a4e-ba31-

a6f65a5ecbbb&portal_id=617695&redirect_url=APefjpHUaMWVwkSz73q53d1PhLcpy3iVvvmCMbco-

KZPNPaFv7X7Wyie98PAKl0QhPHxPKdGW1aCQ5tR9SBzj8Pl9xQuw-

8JxPgne2Ij2fHeKNBwYCQhqYsPfp8evLP-

VGF_T0liHhE2Uz62REJ0aTOrt0LBvvDwqjR0zJHkyu98AD_o8CBgoaVekNpB6bRfF_2GtkSJpoOOll1U

_4brVeQmcM8NVYtCHdex-_Oq2QVBKOl5bfDAD-

4&hsutk=c7a000001d761e0d13a8016263ca2c90&canon=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cael.org%2Fpublic-

policy-publication&click=6f2acb19-7481-4022-b79f-

5bbfa40cdc34&utm_referrer=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cael.org%2Fworkforce-and-economicdevelopment%2Fpublications%3FhsCtaTracking%3Dd03430b5-440e-4ee1-98ceae6f62609c33%7C418c940a-9911-46b4-967d-f61debed49a1&pageId=4015083498

“Connecting Baltimore's Opportunity Youth to Careers.” Latest Publications, Job Opportunity Task Force,

Feb. 2016,

www.jotf.org/Portals/0/Connecting%20Baltimore%20Opportunity%20Youth%20to%20Careers_022316.p

df

Copus, Josh, et al. “The Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) ‘Driving Innovation,

Collaboration, and Performance.’” Publications, National Association of Workforce Boards (NAWB), 28

Mar. 2016, www.nawb.org/publications.asp

“The Critical Path: Positioning Maryland as an Innovation Leader in the Global Construction Industry.”

Board Meeting Schedule and Materials, Governor's Workforce Development Board, 20 Mar. 2013,

www.gwib.maryland.gov/board/bdmeet/

4151 Park Heights Avenue, Suite 207, Baltimore, MD 21215 • www.lbsbaltimore.com • (410) 374-7683


“Developing Maryland's Futures- Annual Report 2016.” Annual Reports, Governor's Workforce

Development Board (GWDB), 2016, www.mdworkforce.com/lib/pdf/annualreport2016.pdf

“EARN Maryland - 2015 Annual Report to the Maryland General Assembly.” Resources - EARN Maryland,

Division of Workforce Development and Adult Learning- A Sub Section of the Department of Labor,

Licensing, and Regulation, Dec. 2015, www.dllr.state.md.us/earn/earnannrep2015.pdf

“Expanding Black Baltimore's Middle Class - Workforce Strategies for Advancing Prosperity. Issue Briefs,

Job Opportunity Task Force/Associated Black Charities, June 2010,

www.jotf.org/Publications/IssueBriefs/tabid/68/Default.aspx

Douglas-Gabriel, Danielle. “Courts Side with Maryland HBCUs in Long-Standing Case over Disparities in

State Higher Education.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 9 Nov. 2017,

www.washingtonpost.com/news/grade-point/wp/2017/11/09/courts-side-with-maryland-hbcus-inlongstanding-case-over-disparities-in-state-higher-education/?utm_term=.78baaf053e1c

Duncombe, Chris, et al. “MAXIMIZING WIOA’S POTENTIAL: A Regional Analysis of the State Plans of

Maryland, Virginia, and Washington, DC.” Latest Publications, The Commonwealth Institute for Fiscal

Analysis ¡ DC Appleseed DC Fiscal Policy Institute ¡ Job Opportunities Task Force Maryland Center on

Economic Policy- Sponsored by Greater Washington Workforce Development Collaborative, Mar. 2017,

www.workingpoorfamilies.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Maryland-WIOA_full-report_final_webcopy.pdf

“The Facts on the Federal Recovery Act: The Impact on Low-Wage Marylanders & Principles for

Implementation.” Issue Briefs, Job Opportunity Task Force, 23 Mar. 2009,

www.jotf.org/Portals/0/JOTF%20Issue%20Brief%20-

%20Facts%20on%20the%20Federal%20Recovery%20Act[.pdf

4151 Park Heights Avenue, Suite 207, Baltimore, MD 21215 • www.lbsbaltimore.com • (410) 374-7683


“Governor’s Workforce Investment Board - 2009 Annual Report.” Annual Reports, - Governor's Workforce

Development Board (GWDB), 2017, www.gwib.maryland.gov/lib/pdf/annualreport2009.pdf

“GWIB POLICY ISSUANCE 2015-01-Maryland’s Local Workforce Development Boards Under WIOA.”

Policy Issuances, Governor's Workforce Development Board (GWDB), 1 July 2015,

www.mdworkforce.com/policy/gwibpi1-15.pdf

“Investing in STEM to Secure Maryland’s Future.” The Maryland Business Roundtable, www.mbrt.org/wpcontent/uploads/2009/stem-task-force-report.pdf

“Local Area Workforce Plans (WIOA).” Workforce Development & Adult Learning, Department of Labor,

Licensing and Regulation, 2016, www.dllr.state.md.us/wdplan/wioalocalplans.shtml

“MARYLAND AT A GLANCE.” Maryland Employment - Workforce, 8 Nov. 2017,

www.msa.maryland.gov/msa/mdmanual/01glance/economy/html/labor.html

“Maryland Budget Request Includes $43M for BIO 2020 Initiative.” SSTI Digest, State Science &

Technology Institute, 2016, www.ssti.org/blog/maryland-budget-request-includes-43m-bio-2020-initiative

“Maryland Cybersecurity Asset Map.” Story Map Series, Economic Alliance of Greater Baltimore Maryland

Department of Commerce, 2017,

http://eagb.maps.arcgis.com/apps/MapSeries/index.html?appid=f1480443ee5d4fbabd710890431a5af4

“Maryland’s Energy Industry Workforce Report: Preparing Today’s Workers for Tomorrow’s

Opportunities.” Publications, Governor's Workforce Development Board, 1 July 2016,

www.gwib.maryland.gov/pub/pdf/energyworkforce.pdf

4151 Park Heights Avenue, Suite 207, Baltimore, MD 21215 • www.lbsbaltimore.com • (410) 374-7683


“Maryland Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act State Plan.” Workforce Innovation and Opportunity

Act (WIOA) Resource Page - Workforce Development & Adult Learning, Governor's Workforce

Development Board (GWDB), July 2016, www.dllr.maryland.gov/wdplan/wdstateplan.pdf

“Maryland's Aging Workforce.” Archive, About the Governor's Workforce Development Board (GWDB), 1

July 2016, www.gwib.maryland.gov/pub/pubarchive.shtml

“Maryland’s Health Information Technology Workforce Task Force Report and Findings.” Publications ,

Governor's Workforce Development Board, 1 July 2016,

www.gwib.maryland.gov/board/bdmeet/june162010hcitsum.pdf

“Maryland’s Workforce Indicators: 2010.” Publications, Governor's Workforce Investment Board (GWIB),

1 July 2016, www.gwib.maryland.gov/pub/pdf/gwibindicators2010.pdf

“Middle-Skill Credentials and Immigrant Workers: Maryland’s Untapped Assets.” State Policy - In the

States -Maryland - Publications, National Skills Coalition, 18 Dec. 2017,

www.nationalskillscoalition.org/resources/publications/file/Middle-Skill-Credentials-and-Immigrant-

Workers-Marylands-Untapped-Assets-1.pdf

“Obstacles & Opportunities: The Workforce Development Landscape in Prince George's County,

Maryland.” Latest Publications, Job Opportunity Task Force, Sept. 2013,

www.jotf.org/Portals/0/jotf/publications/JOTF%20Lessons%20Learned%20FINAL.pdf

“Policy Framework for Implementing the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009:

Maryland's Workforce Priorities.” Publications, Governor's Workforce Investment Board (GWIB) (for

Pda/Handhelds), 1 July 2016, www.gwib.maryland.gov/pub/

“POLICY ISSUANCE 2016-09- WIOA Memoranda of Understanding & Resource Sharing Agreements.”

Policy Issuances, Governor's Workforce Development Board (GWDB), 27 Sept. 2016,

www.dllr.maryland.gov/employment/mpi/mpi9-16.pdf

4151 Park Heights Avenue, Suite 207, Baltimore, MD 21215 • www.lbsbaltimore.com • (410) 374-7683


“POLICY ISSUANCE 2017-01 - Local Workforce Development Board Certification Policy.” Policy

Issuances, Governor's Workforce Development Board (GWDB), 1 July 2017,

www.mdworkforce.com/policy/gwibpi1-17.pdf

“POLICY ISSUANCE 2017-02-Maryland American Job Center Certification Policy.” Policy Issuances -

Governor's Workforce Development Board (GWDB), 14 Aug. 2017,

www.mdworkforce.com/policy/gwibpi2-17.doc

“Practitioner Guide to SB1005.” Governor's Office of Crime Control & Prevention in Maryland, Maryland

Justice Reinvestment Coordinating Council, Jan. 2017,

www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=5&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjt8L

_Kwp7aAhWpdN8KHS7qDFIQFghfMAQ&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.harcobar.org%2Fsite%2Fwp-

content%2Fuploads%2F2017%2F09%2FMD-Practitioners-Guide-

FINAL.pdf&usg=AOvVaw1jLzh5DmfOpx9fmU4Z-3eB

“Preparing Maryland's Workforce for Reform: Healthcare 2020 Report.” Publications, Governor's

Workforce Investment Board (GWIB), 1 July 2016, gwib.maryland.gov/pub/healthreformcare2020.pdf.

“Putting WIOA to Work: An Action Plan for CEOs To Leverage the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity

Act.” An Action Plan for CEOs To Leverage the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, Business

Roundtable, 18 Sept. 2014, www.businessroundtable.org/resources/putting-wioa-work

“Reshaping Workforce Development in Baltimore.” Resources, The Annie E. Casey Foundation, 3 Jan.

2018, www.aecf.org/resources/reshaping-workforce-development-in-baltimore/

“Results Based Public Policy Strategies for Promoting Workforce Strategies for Reintegrating Ex-

Offenders.” Papers, Center for the Study of Social Policy, Apr. 2012,

www.cssp.org/policy/papers/Promoting-Workforce-Strategies-for-Reintegrating-Ex-Offenders.pdf

4151 Park Heights Avenue, Suite 207, Baltimore, MD 21215 • www.lbsbaltimore.com • (410) 374-7683


Rodriguez, Michelle Natividad, and Beth Avery. “Unlicensed & Untapped: Removing Barriers to State

Occupational Licenses for People with Records.” Report, National Employment Law Project, 26 Apr. 2016,

www.nelp.org/publication/unlicensed-untapped-removing-barriers-state-occupational-licenses/

“Stem Middle-Skilled Career Pathways in the Baltimore Region.” REPORTS, Associated Black Charities,

2015, www.abc-md.org/s/STEM-Study-2_v8.pdf

“Task Force To Study Economic Development and Apprenticeships Report.” Maryland Task Force to Study

Economic Development & Apprenticeships, Maryland Department of Legislative Services, 25 Sept. 2015,

www.msa.maryland.gov/msa/mdmanual/26excom/defunct/html/13economicdev.html

“Untapped Workforce Committee.” Publications - Governor's Workforce Development Board, 1 July 2016,

www.gwib.maryland.gov/pub/pdf/untappedreport.pdf

Unruh, Rachel, and Eric Seleznow. “Beyond Degrees-Lessons Learned from Skills2Compete-Maryland.”

National Skills Coalition, 1 Aug. 2011,

www.nationalskillscoalition.org/resources/publications/file/NSC_BeyondDegrees_2011-08-FINAL-

WEB.pdf

“Workgroup on Workforce Development for Community Health Workers- Final Report.” Maryland

Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, Workgroup on Workforce Development for Community Health

Workers, June 2015,

www.insurance.maryland.gov/Documents/newscenter/legislativeinformation/workgroup-on-workforcedevelopment-for-community-health-workers-dhmh-and-mia-june-2015.pdf

Wu, Portia. “Training and Employment Guidance Letter No. 27-14.” TRAINING AND EMPLOYMENT

GUIDANCE LETTER No. 27-14, Employment & Training Administration (ETA) - U.S. Department of Labor,

United States Department of Labor, 19 Feb. 2015,

https://wdr.doleta.gov/directives/corr_doc.cfm?DOCN=7158

4151 Park Heights Avenue, Suite 207, Baltimore, MD 21215 • www.lbsbaltimore.com • (410) 374-7683

Hooray! Your file is uploaded and ready to be published.

Saved successfully!

Ooh no, something went wrong!