08.01.2022 Views

Workforce Development Legislation and Practice Literature Review, Maryland, 2007-2017

This document attempts to create an overview of the literature around the legislative and political dynamics around workforce development theory and practice in Maryland through the years 2007 through 2017. This period includes three different gubernatorial regimes, three presidents, a massive shift in federal workforce development policy, and the largest economic contraction in the United States since the great recession. While the tumultuous circumstances this time period encompasses adds an additional layer of complexity to an already diverse state workforce environment, over time general trends can be observed and evaluated

This document attempts to create an overview of the literature around the legislative and political dynamics around workforce development theory and practice in Maryland through the years 2007 through 2017. This period includes three different gubernatorial regimes, three presidents, a massive shift in federal workforce development policy, and the largest economic contraction in the United States since the great recession. While the tumultuous circumstances this time period encompasses adds an additional layer of complexity to an already diverse state workforce environment, over time general trends can be observed and evaluated

SHOW MORE
SHOW LESS

You also want an ePaper? Increase the reach of your titles

YUMPU automatically turns print PDFs into web optimized ePapers that Google loves.

<strong>Workforce</strong> <strong>Development</strong> <strong>Legislation</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>Practice</strong> <strong>Literature</strong> <strong>Review</strong><br />

Maryl<strong>and</strong>, <strong>2007</strong>-<strong>2017</strong><br />

Prepared By: Lawrence Gr<strong>and</strong>pre,<br />

Director of Research, Leaders of a Beautiful Struggle<br />

The state of Maryl<strong>and</strong> is sometimes referred to as “America in miniature”, a reference to the<br />

diversity of geographic <strong>and</strong> human environments. That geographic diversity creates a variety of<br />

working environments, <strong>and</strong> that combined with the turbulent economic <strong>and</strong> political shifts over the<br />

past decade, make the states workforce development l<strong>and</strong>scape almost as complex as its physical<br />

l<strong>and</strong>scape.<br />

This document attempts to create an overview of the literature around the legislative <strong>and</strong> political<br />

dynamics around workforce development theory <strong>and</strong> practice in Maryl<strong>and</strong> through the years <strong>2007</strong><br />

through <strong>2017</strong>. This period includes three different gubernatorial regimes, three presidents, a<br />

massive shift in federal workforce development policy, <strong>and</strong> the largest economic contraction in the<br />

United States since the great recession. While the tumultuous circumstances this time period<br />

encompasses adds an additional layer of complexity to an already diverse state workforce<br />

environment, over time general trends can be observed <strong>and</strong> evaluated.<br />

Methodology<br />

Legislative records were gathered for legislation coded as related to “job training” in the Maryl<strong>and</strong><br />

general assembly database for the years <strong>2007</strong>- through <strong>2017</strong>. This data was cross-referenced with<br />

literature related to Maryl<strong>and</strong>’s workforce development efforts from a variety of sources, including<br />

government documents at the state, local <strong>and</strong> federal levels, non-profit organizations in the state<br />

of Maryl<strong>and</strong>, <strong>and</strong> national workforce development related non-profits. An expansive view of<br />

workforce development was applied, including literature <strong>and</strong> legislation designed to remove<br />

barriers from employment, but the focus was centered on efforts to train, educate or provided<br />

professional certificates for Maryl<strong>and</strong>ers, especially those with barriers to employment.<br />

Overview (Background information, <strong>2007</strong>-2008)<br />

Maryl<strong>and</strong>, a state of approximately 5,775,000 residents, has a total non-farm workforce of<br />

2,729,000 as of <strong>2017</strong>. 1 This has increased from 2,546,000 in <strong>2007</strong>. 2 An analysis of reference to<br />

the Governor’s <strong>Workforce</strong> Investment Board (soon to be renamed the governor's workforce<br />

development board or GWDB) State <strong>Workforce</strong> Indicators from 2008 gives an overview of the<br />

1<br />

“Maryl<strong>and</strong> Seasonally Adjusted CES Data.” Current Employment Statistics (CES) - <strong>Workforce</strong> Information & Performance,<br />

State of Maryl<strong>and</strong>- Department of Labor, Licensing & Regulation, <strong>2017</strong>, www.dllr.state.md.us/lmi/ces/.<br />

2<br />

“MARYLAND AT A GLANCE.” Maryl<strong>and</strong> Employment - <strong>Workforce</strong>, 8 Nov. <strong>2017</strong>,<br />

msa.maryl<strong>and</strong>.gov/msa/mdmanual/01glance/economy/html/labor.html.<br />

4151 Park Heights Avenue, Suite 207, Baltimore, MD 21215 • www.lbsbaltimore.com • (410) 374-7683


state’s workforce environment in <strong>2007</strong>. The report outlines some of the foundational dynamics<br />

around workforce development in Maryl<strong>and</strong> over the past decade. The report outlines some of the<br />

relative advantages Maryl<strong>and</strong> has had as a state when it comes to workforce development. As of<br />

2006, the workforce participation rate, a figure which measures the percentage of working-age<br />

persons (typically 16-64) either employed or looking for employment, was 78.4%, four points<br />

higher than the national average <strong>and</strong> the 11th highest in the nation. The report goes on to outline<br />

some of the dynamics which might contribute to this fact, including the states above average<br />

percentage of workers with at least a bachelor's degree, 35% versus the national average of 27%.<br />

15% of Maryl<strong>and</strong>’s workers are foreign-born <strong>and</strong> Maryl<strong>and</strong>’s foreign-born population has a higher<br />

ratio of educated immigrants (43% having a bachelor's degree versus 34% nationally). Maryl<strong>and</strong>’s<br />

workforce diversification is also on display, with double-digit growth in aerospace industries <strong>and</strong><br />

biotechnology over 2002-2006 displacing the state’s loss in manufacturing employment.<br />

The report outlines issues related to workforce development in Maryl<strong>and</strong> which future legislation<br />

would attempt to address. According to the report, many of the educated non-native born<br />

individuals in the state have been found to be working in low skilled jobs not commensurate with<br />

their educational attainment. The report also outlines projected workforce needs from <strong>2007</strong> to<br />

2014, including a projected 5.6% growth in home health aides. The report also notes completions<br />

of apprenticeships fell 18% from 2005-<strong>2007</strong>. The report raises concerns about an aging workforce<br />

in the state, with multiple industries (including educational services, public administration, <strong>and</strong><br />

manufacturing) reporting over 20% of the workforce over the age of 55. Finally, while the report<br />

notes growth statewide, it shows concern about the state losing population to lower cost states like<br />

Pennsylvania <strong>and</strong> unequal distribution of opportunity between the I-95 corridor <strong>and</strong> the state’s<br />

more rural counties.<br />

The legislation from <strong>2007</strong> reflects some of the concerns laid out in the report. Under newly elected<br />

governor O'Malley, several bond bills were granted for workforce development related projects to<br />

Anne Arundel County, including the Opportunity Builders program <strong>and</strong> the Mount Olive<br />

Community Life Center. Additionally, the <strong>2007</strong> legislation on transit services for low-income<br />

individuals can be read within the context of allowing workers to more easily access jobs. The<br />

literature from this time continues to focus on addressing the perceived “demographic time bomb”<br />

which is baby boomers aging out of the state’s workforce, with the Governor's workforce<br />

investment board producing a 2-page report outlining the challenges which come with an aging<br />

workforce, including issues of losing institutional knowledge. 3<br />

In 2008, with the onset of the great recession, <strong>and</strong> development of the O'Malley administration,<br />

the state’s legislative priorities around workforce development reflect a focus on technology <strong>and</strong><br />

streamlining <strong>and</strong>/or reorganizing existing workforce development engines. SB203 attempts to<br />

consolidate the educational functions within state correctional facilities within one agency for<br />

better efficiency, while HB 704 attempts to create workforce development in correctional facilities<br />

3<br />

“Maryl<strong>and</strong>'s Aging <strong>Workforce</strong>.” Archive, About the Governor's <strong>Workforce</strong> <strong>Development</strong> Board (GWDB), 1 July 2016,<br />

gwib.maryl<strong>and</strong>.gov/pub/pubarchive.shtml.<br />

4151 Park Heights Avenue, Suite 207, Baltimore, MD 21215 • www.lbsbaltimore.com • (410) 374-7683


for construction to be done on correctional facilities. While the previous term’s bond bills focused<br />

on construction oriented workforce programs, in 2008 Prince George’s County's Suitl<strong>and</strong><br />

Technology Center was slated to receive a $100,000 bond for its facilities. Moreover, the governor<br />

begins to outline his “Bio 2020” initiative, a framework for the state to invest in its biotechnology<br />

sector through tax breaks <strong>and</strong> the construction of new facilities through the governor’s budget. 4<br />

2009<br />

In 2009, the impact of Maryl<strong>and</strong>’s proximity to Washington D.C. plays out in the literature in<br />

many ways. First, as the GWIB’s report on “Untapped <strong>Workforce</strong>” states:<br />

“Maryl<strong>and</strong> has a demonstrated need for additional sources of labor. Despite the<br />

recent downturn in the national <strong>and</strong> world economy, Maryl<strong>and</strong> enjoys a relatively<br />

healthy, diverse economy, largely dependent on the availability of a highly skilled<br />

<strong>and</strong> educated workforce. Even with this downturn, several forces are merging to<br />

create much greater pressure on workforce availability, <strong>and</strong> tighten the supply of<br />

workers in Maryl<strong>and</strong> including 1.) impending baby-boomer retirements; 2.) a<br />

limited supply of replacement workers, 3.) demographics changes within the state<br />

<strong>and</strong> 4.) the job growth expected as a result of the Base Re-Alignment <strong>and</strong> Closure<br />

(BRAC).” 5<br />

The report relay’s that Maryl<strong>and</strong>’s proximity to relatively stable federal government jobs helped<br />

buffer it in some ways from the impacts of the great recession, so much so that the report would<br />

show concern about a tightening labor force as opposed to an expected focus on retraining<br />

employees. Additionally, with the passage of the American Recovery <strong>and</strong> Reinvestment Act,<br />

the literature comments on how Maryl<strong>and</strong> might effectively utilize the funds allocated in the<br />

federal act for workforce development. The Job Opportunities Task Force published issue brief,<br />

explaining how the federal legislation impacted the workforce development l<strong>and</strong>scape<br />

statewide.<br />

“The <strong>Workforce</strong> Investment Act (WIA) is the primary national funding stream for<br />

workforce development, including employment services through One-Step<br />

Centers <strong>and</strong> hard-skill training funds. In recent years, WIA funds have been<br />

declining, making it difficult for states to provide a broad range of services <strong>and</strong><br />

meet increasing dem<strong>and</strong>. The Recovery Act will provide Maryl<strong>and</strong> with an<br />

additional $29 million in WIA formula grants. 5 Most of this money will be passed<br />

through to local workforce investment boards, though 15% can be used for<br />

4<br />

Balog, Jason E. “Balog's Biotech Dissecting O'Malley's Bio 2020 Initiative.” The Frederick News-Post, Myron W. R<strong>and</strong>all Jr.,<br />

11 Mar. 2016, www.fredericknewspost.com/archive/balog-s-biotech-dissecting-o-malley-s-bio-initiative/article_969d8f56-46ae-<br />

543a-ba61-b1b08f27deb2.html.<br />

5<br />

“Untapped <strong>Workforce</strong> Committee.” Publications - Governor's <strong>Workforce</strong> <strong>Development</strong> Board, 1 July 2016,<br />

gwib.maryl<strong>and</strong>.gov/pub/pdf/untappedreport.pdf.<br />

4151 Park Heights Avenue, Suite 207, Baltimore, MD 21215 • www.lbsbaltimore.com • (410) 374-7683


statewide programs.” 6<br />

The brief goes on to argue that, while these workforce funds can be spent on administrative costs,<br />

the bulk of these funds should be spent specifically on the job training. 7 While the funds could not<br />

be spent until the 2010 fiscal year (<strong>and</strong> thus legislation around administering the fund isn’t passed<br />

until 2010, the 2009 session does include meaningful steps toward increase job training, including<br />

HB268, which focuses specifically on getting individuals receiving welfare to receiving training<br />

on green jobs <strong>and</strong> construction, as well as HB 644, which creates a state apprenticeship training<br />

program to be housed in the state's Department of Labor, Licensing, <strong>and</strong> Regulation (DLLR).<br />

Perhaps not surprisingly, the GWIB had its most prolific year when it comes to producing<br />

publications, with nearly as many reports <strong>and</strong> briefs in 2009 as 2008, 2010 <strong>and</strong> 2011 combined. It<br />

published a letter from then GWIB chair Bill Robertson <strong>and</strong> co-chair Eric Seleznow sets out<br />

various “recommendations” to the governors <strong>and</strong> the heads of local workforce investment boards<br />

on how to spend some of the $35 million dollars in federal workforce development dollars the state<br />

would receive (slightly more than what the JOTF brief estimated). The letter states that, while not<br />

intended to be a “all-encompassing set of policy directives”, the governor advised localities to use<br />

these funds to continue in pursuit of the objectives previously laid out by the administration; green<br />

jobs, post-secondary education, <strong>and</strong> connecting with job creators to train new employees <strong>and</strong> “upskilling”<br />

those already trained. 8 The GWIB in 2009 to produce reports on the state of workforce<br />

development many of the state’s most prominent fields, energy, youth employment, construction,<br />

Information technology, <strong>and</strong> biotechnology. 9 This reflected the impetus of Governor's STEM task<br />

force, which advocated for an increased focus on alignment with higher education institutions <strong>and</strong><br />

STEM job creators to meet the states latent STEM workforce needs. 10<br />

2010<br />

In 2010, the state begins to climb out of the job declines which marked the height of the great<br />

recession <strong>and</strong> continued to focus on targeted workforce development. There continued to be<br />

developments in the state promotion of higher education workforce development. The governor<br />

continued to fund his “Bio 2020” initiative through the budget, <strong>and</strong> the Community College of<br />

Baltimore County received a federal grant to develop health information technology training,<br />

focusing on six specific positions:<br />

1. “Management Redesign Specialist<br />

6<br />

“The Facts on the Federal Recovery Act: The Impact on Low-Wage Maryl<strong>and</strong>ers & Principles for Implementation.” Issue<br />

Briefs, Job Opportunity Task Force, 23 Mar. 2009, jotf.org/Portals/0/JOTF%20Issue%20Brief%20-<br />

%20Facts%20on%20the%20Federal%20Recovery%20Act[.pdf.<br />

7<br />

ibid<br />

8 “Policy Framework for Implementing the American Recovery <strong>and</strong> Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009: Maryl<strong>and</strong>'s <strong>Workforce</strong><br />

Priorities (P.” Publications, gwib.maryl<strong>and</strong>.gov/pub/pdf/arrapolicyguide.pdf.<br />

9<br />

“Maryl<strong>and</strong>’s Energy Industry <strong>Workforce</strong> Report: Preparing Today’s Workers for Tomorrow’s Opportunities.” Publications,<br />

Governor's <strong>Workforce</strong> <strong>Development</strong> Board, 1 July 2016, gwib.maryl<strong>and</strong>.gov/pub/pdf/energyworkforce.pdf.<br />

10<br />

“Investing in STEM to Secure Maryl<strong>and</strong>’s Future.” The Maryl<strong>and</strong> Business Roundtable, www.mbrt.org/wpcontent/uploads/2009/stem-task-force-report.pdf.<br />

4151 Park Heights Avenue, Suite 207, Baltimore, MD 21215 • www.lbsbaltimore.com • (410) 374-7683


2. Clinician/Practitioner Consultant<br />

3. Implementation Support Specialist<br />

4. Implementation Manager<br />

5. Technical/Software Support Staff<br />

6. Trainer” 11<br />

Despite the continued focus on higher skilled workforce development, one of the clearest<br />

articulates of direction in workforce development was a focus on middle-skill jobs. In March the<br />

National Skills Coalition published a report called Maryl<strong>and</strong>’s Forgotten Middle-Skill Jobs, which<br />

denotes a potential gap in Maryl<strong>and</strong>’s workforce development strategy in that, while the state had<br />

success in promoting highly educated worker development, 42% of future job growth was to come<br />

in “middle skill” jobs, which require post-secondary education (certificates or associate's degrees)<br />

but not a full four year degree. The GWIB passed a motion which denoted the institutional<br />

commitments to the campaign, including:<br />

● Adopting an S2C Maryl<strong>and</strong> campaign led by the Governor;<br />

● Appointing the GWIB to serve as the advisory board to provide oversight of, <strong>and</strong> advocacy<br />

for, the S2CMaryl<strong>and</strong> campaign; <strong>and</strong><br />

● Encouraging every working Maryl<strong>and</strong>er to develop a career pathway that includes<br />

at least two years of education or training past high school – leading to a<br />

technical credential, industry certification, or one’s first year of college. 12<br />

The Governor’s <strong>Workforce</strong> Investment Board produces a report which denotes the gradual change<br />

in the job market throughout the year, the transition to net job growth in July 2010 after losing over<br />

150,000 seasonally adjusted jobs in the first 8 months of the year. 13 The report shows some of the<br />

long-term gaps in workforce development outlined in the National Skills Coalition report <strong>and</strong><br />

previous reports, including denoting the flat/ declining number of internships completed in the<br />

state from <strong>2007</strong>-2010 (around 1000 per year mostly in construction linked trades). 14 Job<br />

Opportunities Task Force did a joint report with Associated Black Charities called Exp<strong>and</strong>ing<br />

Baltimore's Black Middle Class advocating for increased financial aid for remedial <strong>and</strong> vocational<br />

training via state financial aid, citing Washington’s I-BEST program as a model. 15<br />

Perhaps because of the status of this year as an election year, the legislative output related to<br />

workforce development is lower this year compared to previous years, with only 3 bills coded as<br />

11<br />

“Maryl<strong>and</strong>’s Health Information Technology <strong>Workforce</strong> Task Force Report <strong>and</strong> Findings.” Publications, Governor's<br />

<strong>Workforce</strong> <strong>Development</strong> Board, 1 July 2016, gwib.maryl<strong>and</strong>.gov/board/bdmeet/june162010hcitsum.pdf.<br />

12<br />

“Governor’s <strong>Workforce</strong> Investment Board - 2009 Annual Report.” Annual Reports, - Governor's <strong>Workforce</strong> <strong>Development</strong><br />

Board (GWDB), <strong>2017</strong>, gwib.maryl<strong>and</strong>.gov/lib/pdf/annualreport2009.pdf.<br />

13<br />

“Maryl<strong>and</strong>’s <strong>Workforce</strong> Indicators: 2010.” Publications, Governor's <strong>Workforce</strong> Investment Board (GWIB), 1 July 2016,<br />

gwib.maryl<strong>and</strong>.gov/pub/pdf/gwibindicators2010.pdf.<br />

14<br />

ibid<br />

15<br />

“Exp<strong>and</strong>ing Black Baltimore's Middle Class- <strong>Workforce</strong> Strategies for Advancing Prosperity.” Issue Briefs, Job Opportunity<br />

Task Force/Associated Black Charities, June 2010, jotf.org/Publications/IssueBriefs/tabid/68/Default.aspx.<br />

4151 Park Heights Avenue, Suite 207, Baltimore, MD 21215 • www.lbsbaltimore.com • (410) 374-7683


elated to “job training” passed.<br />

2011<br />

2011 can be seen as a year where, fresh off of re-election, the O’Malley administration sought to<br />

refine its approach by adding more detail <strong>and</strong> definition to previously existing programs <strong>and</strong><br />

respond to development on the federal level. With the impending implementation of the Affordable<br />

Care Act, Maryl<strong>and</strong> received federal support for workforce planning, which it used to create its<br />

Health Care 2020 plan. The GWIB received a $150,000 to plan for the state to effectively exp<strong>and</strong><br />

its health care capacity in the face of an impending increase in healthcare dem<strong>and</strong>. Two of their<br />

short-term recommendation relate directly to traditional “workforce development programs”:<br />

1. Revisit Maryl<strong>and</strong> Loan Assistance - Repayment Program Funding- Providing financial<br />

assistance incentives through a state-funded loan assistance repayment program for<br />

physicians with an interest in primary care; exp<strong>and</strong>ing loan repayment programs<br />

beyond physicians to other health care professional students; exploring the use of<br />

licensure fees as additional sources of funding for these programs.<br />

2. Comprehensive <strong>Workforce</strong> Planning. Exp<strong>and</strong>ing the focus of healthcare workforce<br />

needs assessments beyond specific categories of health professionals or geographic<br />

areas; provide data on the numbers, types <strong>and</strong> diversity of health professionals<br />

currently employed, where they are employed, <strong>and</strong> in what roles <strong>and</strong> what types of<br />

activities they perform; provide data on the numbers, types <strong>and</strong> diversity of health<br />

professional students in the educational pipeline, including allied health training<br />

programs. 16<br />

This push toward workforce development makes its way into general assembly legislation, as HB<br />

807 sought to create a personal training fund for health care workers.<br />

Beyond the specific focus on healthcare workforce development, the state’s legislative <strong>and</strong><br />

executive branches both sought to deepen its work on previously outline workforce objectives. The<br />

executive branch put a more clear <strong>and</strong> definitive frame on its Skills2Compete initiative creating a<br />

goal of increasing Maryl<strong>and</strong>’s skills 20% by 2012. 17 The report goes into in-depth detail about how<br />

the different stakeholders in the post-secondary employment training space can achieve this goal,<br />

outlining a variety of strategies, ranging from targeting specific demographic groups such as<br />

veterans to the disabled to improved data collection <strong>and</strong> promotion of existing programs. 18<br />

16<br />

“Preparing Maryl<strong>and</strong>'s <strong>Workforce</strong> for Reform: Healthcare 2020 Report.” Publications, Governor's <strong>Workforce</strong> Investment<br />

Board (GWIB), 1 July 2016, gwib.maryl<strong>and</strong>.gov/pub/healthreformcare2020.pdf.<br />

17 Unruh, Rachel, <strong>and</strong> Eric Seleznow. “Beyond Degrees-Lessons Learned from Skills2Compete-Maryl<strong>and</strong>.” National Skills<br />

Coalition, 1 Aug. 2011, www.nationalskillscoalition.org/resources/publications/file/NSC_BeyondDegrees_2011-08-FINAL-<br />

WEB.pdf.<br />

18 ibid<br />

4151 Park Heights Avenue, Suite 207, Baltimore, MD 21215 • www.lbsbaltimore.com • (410) 374-7683


Figure 1- Skills2Compete Interagency<br />

<strong>Workforce</strong> Committee. The wheel depicts the<br />

Skills2Compete initiative as a hub for connecting the variety of agencies which impacts workforce development.<br />

Source- National Skills Initiative Beyond Degrees Report 19<br />

19 ibid<br />

4151 Park Heights Avenue, Suite 207, Baltimore, MD 21215 • www.lbsbaltimore.com • (410) 374-7683


Figure 2- Enrollments <strong>and</strong> Completions in Maryl<strong>and</strong>’s <strong>Workforce</strong> <strong>Development</strong> System- Sample input <strong>and</strong> outputs of<br />

the Skills2Compete-Maryl<strong>and</strong> Plan- Source- National Skills Coalition Beyond Degrees Report<br />

Two of the focuses outlined in the Beyond Degrees report are reflected in legislation which passed in the<br />

2011 session. HB 81 relates directly to workforce training <strong>and</strong> education for veterans, focusing on tracking<br />

them into construction jobs, while HB 104 created tuition waivers for individuals with disabilities to take<br />

vocational training at community colleges. The legislature also passed HB 757, which empowered the<br />

GWIB to establish an advisory committee on the development of educational programs to aid unemployed<br />

state residents.<br />

2012<br />

2012 appears to be less active years in workforce development legislation <strong>and</strong> research, yet nevertheless,<br />

important events which helped shaped future actions can be observed. The only two bills coded in the<br />

Maryl<strong>and</strong> General Assembly legislative database as relevant to job training are both related to construction<br />

workforce development; HB 457 is related to capital transit workforce training <strong>and</strong> HB 493 focuses on<br />

creating a task force to study workforce development for construction apprenticeships. A report from The<br />

Maryl<strong>and</strong> Center for Construction Education <strong>and</strong> Innovation (MCCEI) helps to elucidate why these efforts<br />

may have been deemed necessary.<br />

The MCCEI report, done in conjunction with Sage Policy Group, Inc. <strong>and</strong> Regional Economic Studies<br />

Institute, (RESI) of Towson University, published a report called The Critical Path, which was the<br />

culmination of over a year of interviews with 30 companies throughout the state of Maryl<strong>and</strong> around their<br />

hiring practices, attritions rates, <strong>and</strong> perceived developing trends in the state’s construction area which,<br />

according to the report, was still struggling to recover from the great recession, with construction sector<br />

unemployment reaching a high of 27.1% in February 2012. 20 The report notes that 70% of the employees<br />

20<br />

“The Critical Path: Positioning Maryl<strong>and</strong> as an Innovation Leader in the Global Construction Industry.” Board Meeting<br />

Schedule <strong>and</strong> Materials, Governor's <strong>Workforce</strong> <strong>Development</strong> Board, 20 Mar. 2013, gwib.maryl<strong>and</strong>.gov/board/bdmeet/.<br />

4151 Park Heights Avenue, Suite 207, Baltimore, MD 21215 • www.lbsbaltimore.com • (410) 374-7683


hired for the firm's surveys came from out of state construction programs, <strong>and</strong> over 40% of the companies<br />

surveyed expected 20-40% of their workforce to retire before 2020. 21<br />

The report concludes by giving six policy recommendations for improving workforce readiness for<br />

construction careers, the most notable of which being the creation or expansion of construction education<br />

programs at Maryl<strong>and</strong> four-year colleges, with over 65% of those surveyed saying they support the<br />

creation of this program to help perceived unmet need in the construction workforce pipelines, a lack of<br />

specifically skilled craftspeople with field experience <strong>and</strong> knowledge of computer programs used in<br />

construction. 22 There also were recommendations around the need for an internship pipeline for a<br />

construction job, the creation of a new, elite construction management program at a Maryl<strong>and</strong> university<br />

(the existing programs are at the University of Maryl<strong>and</strong>-Eastern Shore <strong>and</strong> Morgan State University) <strong>and</strong><br />

an outreach campaign to bring in traditionally underrepresented groups into the construction field.<br />

In addition to construction, the literature shows a continued focus on medical sector workforce<br />

development. The Council for Adult <strong>and</strong> Experiential Learning produced a report entitled “Innovation in<br />

Maryl<strong>and</strong> Nursing Education to Meet Anticipated Dem<strong>and</strong>” which essentially outlines recommendations<br />

around workforce development for the state’s healthcare industry given the great recession (which eased<br />

some of the dem<strong>and</strong> on the states medical workforce by causing some of the state’s older medical<br />

employees to delay retirement) <strong>and</strong> the rollout of the affordable care act, which would continue to put<br />

upward dem<strong>and</strong> pressure on the states medical infrastructure. 23 The addition to general recommendations<br />

around increasing race/gender diversity in the state disproportionately white <strong>and</strong> female nursing<br />

workforce, it gives note specific examples of innovation such as a Montgomery College program in<br />

Montgomery County which is designed to transition foreign-trained nurses <strong>and</strong> military medics/corpsmen<br />

into the nursing profession. 24<br />

On a national level, In The Center for the Study of Social Policy produced a report called Results Based<br />

Public Policy Strategies for Promoting <strong>Workforce</strong> Strategies for Reintegrating Ex-Offenders, which cites<br />

Maryl<strong>and</strong>’s work in creating Green Jobs opportunities for the formerly incarcerated <strong>and</strong> locating “onestop”<br />

job centers in Baltimore neighborhoods where they reach returning citizens as useful strategies for<br />

21<br />

Ibid<br />

22<br />

Ibid<br />

23<br />

Cael. “Innovation in Maryl<strong>and</strong> Nursing Education to Meet Anticipated Dem<strong>and</strong>.” Public Policy-Publication, Council for Adult<br />

<strong>and</strong> Experiential Learning, 2012, cta-service-cms2.hubspot.com/ctas/v2/public/cs/c/?cta_guid=af4f5c64-7edb-4030-bec9-<br />

2f65b43df106&placement_guid=be58634e-5b14-4a4e-ba31-<br />

a6f65a5ecbbb&portal_id=617695&redirect_url=APefjpHUaMWVwkSz73q53d1PhLcpy3iVvvmCMbco-<br />

KZPNPaFv7X7Wyie98PAKl0QhPHxPKdGW1aCQ5tR9SBzj8Pl9xQuw-8JxPgne2Ij2fHeKNBwYCQhqYsPfp8evLP-<br />

VGF_T0liHhE2Uz62REJ0aTOrt0LBvvDwqjR0zJHkyu98AD_o8CBgoaVekNpB6bRfF_2GtkSJpoOOll1U_4brVeQmcM8NVYt<br />

CHdex-_Oq2QVBKOl5bfDAD-<br />

4&hsutk=c7a000001d761e0d13a8016263ca2c90&canon=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cael.org%2Fpublic-policypublication&click=6f2acb19-7481-4022-b79f-5bbfa40cdc34&utm_referrer=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cael.org%2Fworkforce<strong>and</strong>-economic-development%2Fpublications%3FhsCtaTracking%3Dd03430b5-440e-4ee1-98ce-ae6f62609c33%7C418c940a-<br />

9911-46b4-967d-f61debed49a1&pageId=4015083498.<br />

24<br />

ibid<br />

4151 Park Heights Avenue, Suite 207, Baltimore, MD 21215 • www.lbsbaltimore.com • (410) 374-7683


eintegrating returning citizens into the workforce. 25<br />

2013<br />

2013 saw the continued development of the state’s policy architecture around workforce development<br />

which can be seen as the work of previous years beginning to culminate in change. HB0227 created the<br />

Employment Advancement Right Now (EARN) program. Through it, industries engage in a competitive<br />

process where they present proposals for collaborative workforce development efforts. The program is<br />

designed to prioritize data-driven approaches to exp<strong>and</strong>ing the skilled workforce to meet the needs of the<br />

industry. Additionally, many of the bills passed related to exp<strong>and</strong>ing educational opportunity to<br />

traditionally excluded demographics, including HB0698, which create a workgroup to study its<br />

entrepreneurial opportunities for individuals who have had experience with the criminal justice system,<br />

HB1012 which established conditional tuition waivers for individuals who have had experience with the<br />

foster care system for state schools.<br />

The literature from this year supports the idea that 2013 was a year for taking stock <strong>and</strong> reflecting on<br />

experience. The Job Opportunities Tasks Force (JOTF) produced two documents attempting to exp<strong>and</strong><br />

workforce development <strong>and</strong> legislative advocacy conversations. First, JOTF published a report relaying<br />

the lessons they have learned engaging in legislative advocacy on behalf of individuals with criminal<br />

records. The report, entitled Advocating for the Successful Reentry of Individuals with Criminal Records,<br />

attempts to outline some of the strategies <strong>and</strong> lessons from the experience JOTF had over the course of<br />

years advocating for policy change to increase access to workforce development <strong>and</strong> employment<br />

opportunity for returning citizens. 26 This is a rare report in the literature which attempts to give some<br />

“how to” advice for institutions seeking to engage in legislative advocacy for people with criminal records,<br />

<strong>and</strong> the report seeks to give examples related to strategy, building coalitions, choosing the scope of your<br />

policy reforms (discussing the relative merits of the “low hanging fruit” approach versus the “going bold”<br />

approach) <strong>and</strong> even the relative value of making “unlikely allies” <strong>and</strong> using state fiscal impact as a<br />

mechanism to generate support for a particular policy. One example of an advocacy strategy relating to<br />

increasing support for workforce development involves a discussion around exp<strong>and</strong>ing the conversation<br />

around SNAP benefits to individuals convicted of drug offenses:<br />

“Many states remain in fiscal crisis <strong>and</strong> proposals that increase revenue or reduce<br />

expenditures are likely to capture the attention of the administration <strong>and</strong> legislators. Like<br />

many states, Maryl<strong>and</strong> opted to ban SNAP benefits (food stamps) for single people <strong>and</strong><br />

noncustodial parents with drug convictions. Previous attempts to change this policy based<br />

on the need for food assistance were ineffective, but the governor’s office became<br />

interested when JOTF, in 2005, explained that lifting the ban would make Maryl<strong>and</strong><br />

25<br />

“Results Based Public Policy Strategies for Promoting <strong>Workforce</strong> Strategies for Reintegrating Ex-Offenders.” Papers, Center<br />

for the Study of Social Policy, Apr. 2012, www.cssp.org/policy/papers/Promoting-<strong>Workforce</strong>-Strategies-for-Reintegrating-Ex-<br />

Offenders.pdf.<br />

26<br />

“Advocating for the Successful Reentry of Individuals with Criminal Records: Lessons Learned from Maryl<strong>and</strong>.” Latest<br />

Publications, Job Opportunity Task Force- Prepared for the Annie E. Casey Foundation, Nov. 2013,<br />

jotf.org/Portals/0/jotf/publications/JOTF%20Lessons%20Learned%20FINAL.pdf.<br />

4151 Park Heights Avenue, Suite 207, Baltimore, MD 21215 • www.lbsbaltimore.com • (410) 374-7683


eligible for millions of dollars in Food Stamps Employment <strong>and</strong> Training program<br />

funds.” 27<br />

The document goes on to discuss the importance centering impacting individuals in advocacy <strong>and</strong><br />

discussing the racialized impact of criminal justice policy on workforce development.<br />

The second report, entitled “Obstacles & Opportunities: The <strong>Workforce</strong> <strong>Development</strong> L<strong>and</strong>scape in<br />

Prince George’s County, Maryl<strong>and</strong>”, is one of the first looks in the literature at workforce development<br />

from a local/regional perspective. The report gives statistical breakdowns of current <strong>and</strong> projected future<br />

workforce data for the county, which reveals that despite the counties, relative affluence (with the presence<br />

of relatively stable federal <strong>and</strong> local government jobs) the county has serious issues with unemployment<br />

<strong>and</strong> mass incarceration separating residents from the workforce. 28 Additionally, the report elucidates how<br />

some of the fundamental dynamics of the economy are impacting the earning potential of PG County<br />

residents, with the data showing the disproportionate amount of projected future job growth is<br />

concentrated in lower waged service economy jobs. The report is rare in the literature in that it specifically<br />

focuses on an under-discussed element of the states workforce development infrastructure, the local<br />

workforce development boards. While every county has a distinct workforce development entity which<br />

implements workforce development programming at a county level. The JOTF report is one of the first in<br />

the literature which takes local workforce development as a topic of inquiry, identifying their leadership<br />

structure, programming, funding sources <strong>and</strong> some of the organizations who have received workforce<br />

development grants from the local board. A brief sample from the report shows the detail the report gives<br />

on the workings of this as to now under-discussed workforce development entity.<br />

“In 2011, Maryl<strong>and</strong> Nonprofits released a report finding that Prince George’s County<br />

government makes only minimal local investment in health <strong>and</strong> human services. The county<br />

relies heavily on federal <strong>and</strong> state funding. The same holds true for workforce development,<br />

where services through the county One-Stops rely almost exclusively on federal WIA funds.<br />

PGC-WSD does not receive general fund support from the county…<br />

In addition to [Summer Youth Enrichment Programming] SYEP, the county supports<br />

workforce development through grants to local nonprofits. The county granted about half<br />

a million dollars to local nonprofits that provide at least some workforce services in FY<br />

2013. Some grant recipients have an explicit focus on employment – such as the Training<br />

Source <strong>and</strong> the CASA de Maryl<strong>and</strong> Prince George’s Welcome Center – while others<br />

received general support for a range of services, of which employment assistance is only<br />

one.” 29<br />

27<br />

ibid<br />

28<br />

“Obstacles & Opportunities: The <strong>Workforce</strong> <strong>Development</strong> L<strong>and</strong>scape in Prince George's County, Maryl<strong>and</strong>.” Latest<br />

Publications, Job Opportunity Task Force, Sept. 2013,<br />

jotf.org/Portals/0/jotf/publications/JOTF%20Lessons%20Learned%20FINAL.pdf.<br />

29<br />

ibid<br />

4151 Park Heights Avenue, Suite 207, Baltimore, MD 21215 • www.lbsbaltimore.com • (410) 374-7683


The report goes on to detail the over half million dollars the county disseminated to workforce-related<br />

programming in the county, with the activities funded ranging from office training to youth to “soft skills”<br />

work for vulnerable populations, including the homeless <strong>and</strong> victims of domestic violence.<br />

2014<br />

The 2013 JOTF finding that local workforce investment boards depend on federal government funding<br />

would prove relevant in 2014, as the Obama administration set out to revamp the federal workforce<br />

development infrastructure, causing states across the country, including Maryl<strong>and</strong>, to scramble to<br />

underst<strong>and</strong> how their state workforce systems would be impacted.<br />

Much of the thinking behind the State of Maryl<strong>and</strong>’s response to this federal legislation is documented on<br />

GWIB’s website, which chronicles some of the conversations state workforce development officials were<br />

having at the time. A report from the National Association of <strong>Workforce</strong>, which was included in the notes<br />

for the Governor’s <strong>Workforce</strong> Investment Board’s September meeting, details some of the key difference<br />

between the previous law, the <strong>Workforce</strong> Investment Act (WIA) <strong>and</strong> the 2014 legislation which replaced<br />

it, the <strong>Workforce</strong> Innovation <strong>and</strong> Opportunity Act (WIOA). While the report goes into granular detail<br />

about the specific differences between the two laws, in a nutshell the WIOA appears to condition increased<br />

flexibility in how local workforce development boards can use money (shifting it between different<br />

buckets without the previously needed waivers) <strong>and</strong> fundraise (empowering local workforce development<br />

board to get non-government grants <strong>and</strong> donations as 501c3s) in exchange for increased application of<br />

performance metrics <strong>and</strong> make federal funding conditional upon showing satisfactory performance. 30 The<br />

GWIB also posted a list of over 50 questions related to the new law that their organization wanted to<br />

address. Grouped into 10 categories, the list attempts to isolate questions about how the state may most<br />

effectively transition from the current WIA regime to the incoming WIOA law <strong>and</strong> was lumped into the<br />

following areas:<br />

“A. Governance<br />

B. Performance Accountability<br />

C. One-Stop System / Wagner-Peyser<br />

D. Eligible Training Provider List (State Only)<br />

E. Adult <strong>and</strong> Dislocated Worker Formula Programs<br />

F. Youth Program<br />

G. Adult Ed/Literacy<br />

H. Voc Rehab<br />

I. Admin Provisions – Waivers<br />

J. Miscellaneous” 31<br />

30<br />

Copus, Josh, et al. “The <strong>Workforce</strong> Innovation <strong>and</strong> Opportunity Act (WIOA) ‘Driving Innovation, Collaboration, <strong>and</strong><br />

Performance.’” Publications, National Association of <strong>Workforce</strong> Boards (NAWB), 28 Mar. 2016, nawb.org/publications.asp.<br />

31<br />

“Board Meeting Schedule <strong>and</strong> Materials-2014.” Board Information, Governor's <strong>Workforce</strong> <strong>Development</strong> Board, 15 June 2015,<br />

www.mdworkforce.com/board/bdmeet/sept172014wioatool.pdf.<br />

4151 Park Heights Avenue, Suite 207, Baltimore, MD 21215 • www.lbsbaltimore.com • (410) 374-7683


While the process of interrogating the changes dem<strong>and</strong>ed by the WIOA began in 2014, it is a process<br />

which continues throughout the time period examined.<br />

While the WIOA would dominate the GWIB’s conversations around workforce development, the<br />

legislative work related to workforce development picked up substantially in 2014 from a relative lull in<br />

2013. The Department of Legislative services released its report on apprenticeships in the state, arguing<br />

that there is substantial workforce needs being unmet by the states limited system of apprenticeships <strong>and</strong><br />

argues for tax credits for employers who create internships <strong>and</strong> increased oversight <strong>and</strong> curriculum<br />

development for the states youth internships efforts. 32 The impact of the continual push toward internships<br />

can be seen in SB0054, which sought to increased coordination between the states labor-related<br />

bureaucracy <strong>and</strong> its internship development organizations. Additionally, the state continued to pass<br />

legislation around the education-related job training, passing HB1164, creating a workgroup on how to<br />

implement statewide PARCC testing, <strong>and</strong> HB 0811, which creates a summer career academy pilot<br />

program. Finally, the state passed HB0856, creating a workgroup to study how best to advance workforce<br />

development for community health workers.<br />

2015<br />

In 2015, the discussion around implementation of the WIOA continued, but under new circumstances<br />

locally. With a new governor, the workforce investment board was largely reconstituted under governor<br />

Larry Hogan, with a new executive director Francis Chaney II. The GWIB minutes show that in March<br />

2015 the roundtable discussed a report entitled “Putting WIOA to Work: An Action Plan for CEOs To<br />

Leverage the <strong>Workforce</strong> Innovation <strong>and</strong> Opportunity Act”. The report includes conversations around<br />

opportunities presented by the bill for businesses to leverage the WIOA, including gaining representation<br />

on local workforce boards <strong>and</strong> integrating their workforce needs with community colleges. 33 While the<br />

report came out in 2014, it helped shape the 2015 debate around the continued implementation of the<br />

WIOA. Additionally, the GWIB website links to a U.S. Department of Labor document, a Training<br />

Employment Guidance Letter on the implementation on WIOA. In an attempt to guide states on<br />

implementation of WIOA, most of which the provisions kicked in July 2015, the document gives states<br />

outlines on changing board composition, transitioning into new forms of youth programming, <strong>and</strong><br />

addressing new federal law conflicting with existing state law (with the document noting that federal law<br />

takes precedence). 34 Finally, the GWIB had a rare “policy issuance” where it laid directive for local<br />

workforce management boards on how to implement new requirements from WIOA. While many of the<br />

32<br />

“TASK FORCE TO STUDY ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT & APPRENTICESHIPS- FINAL REPORT.” Maryl<strong>and</strong> Task<br />

Force to Study Economic <strong>Development</strong> & Apprenticeships, Maryl<strong>and</strong> Department of Legislative Services, Website Updated -<br />

Published February 2014- Website Updated - 25 Sept. 2015,<br />

msa.maryl<strong>and</strong>.gov/msa/mdmanual/26excom/defunct/html/13economicdev.html.<br />

33<br />

“Putting WIOA to Work: An Action Plan for CEOs to Leverage the <strong>Workforce</strong> Innovation <strong>and</strong> Opportunity Act.” An Action<br />

Plan for CEOs to Leverage the <strong>Workforce</strong> Innovation <strong>and</strong> Opportunity Act, Business Roundtable, 18 Sept. 2014,<br />

www.businessroundtable.org/resources/putting-wioa-work.<br />

34<br />

WU, PORTIA. “TRAINING AND EMPLOYMENT GUIDANCE LETTER No. 19-14.” TRAINING AND EMPLOYMENT<br />

GUIDANCE LETTER No. 19-14, Employment & Training Administration (ETA) - U.S. Department of Labor, United States<br />

Department of Labor, 19 Feb. 2015, wdr.doleta.gov/directives/corr_doc.cfm?docn=7353.<br />

4151 Park Heights Avenue, Suite 207, Baltimore, MD 21215 • www.lbsbaltimore.com • (410) 374-7683


directives from the GWIB cite the WIOA, some appear to be the board attempting to lay down “best<br />

practices” for the local boards to follow. One interesting area elucidated by this policy issuance is around<br />

the composition of local workforce boards, which states that while it is m<strong>and</strong>atory to have a certain<br />

representative from particular organizations on the board, local workforce management boards may opt<br />

to include representatives from:<br />

“A community-based organization that has demonstrated experience <strong>and</strong> expertise in<br />

addressing the employment, training or education needs of individuals with barriers to<br />

employment…”<br />

Or<br />

“An organization that demonstrated experience <strong>and</strong> expertise in addressing the<br />

employment,<br />

training, or education needs of WIOA eligible youth, including representatives of<br />

organizations that serve out-of-school youth.” 35<br />

As well as the development of the state’s legislative efforts to exp<strong>and</strong> its diversity in its workforce<br />

repertoire. With a newly elected governor, the legislature continued to advance a workforce agenda which<br />

targeted specific demographics. The state received its report on Community Health Workers, which it<br />

commissioned in 2015. In it, concerns are relayed around a variety of issues around the state of community<br />

health worker training, including the importance of local cultural knowledge for different groups who<br />

have difficulty accessing health services. 36 In a deviation from st<strong>and</strong>ard practice, the state passed various<br />

employment licensing regulations, relating to midwifery <strong>and</strong> barbering, in a state attempt to set st<strong>and</strong>ards<br />

for the industry. This push for licensing <strong>and</strong> certification legislation also extended to mental health<br />

professionals, with HB0805 stating that applicants for a therapist license can be asked to submit proof of<br />

mental or physical competence. Continuing on the issue of licensure, the state legislature also passed<br />

HB0846, designed in this case to facilitate former armed forces members in the acquisition of commercial<br />

truck driver’s licenses.<br />

While much of the literature from this year can be seen as influencing WIOA implementation or state law,<br />

two important reports which fit neither category were published in 2015. The first, a report published by<br />

Associated Black Charities, in association with the Greater Baltimore Committee, on middle-skill STEM<br />

jobs. While science, technology, engineering, <strong>and</strong> math are often seen as higher skills jobs, there are a<br />

bevy of opportunities in the STEM field which don’t require advanced degrees, but professional<br />

certification <strong>and</strong> specific skills, the report seeks to find ways to create job training pipelines to give a<br />

wider swath of individuals’ access to the opportunities. Finally, the state government produced its first<br />

report on the state of the previously existing EARN internship program, stating that after a year of planning<br />

<strong>and</strong> a year of implementation the program was successful at both training existing employees <strong>and</strong> bringing<br />

new employees into the workforce. The report citing that, in 40 programs which had received EARN<br />

35<br />

“GWIB POLICY ISSUANCE 2015-01-Maryl<strong>and</strong>’s Local <strong>Workforce</strong> <strong>Development</strong> Boards under WIOA.” Policy Issuances,<br />

Governor's <strong>Workforce</strong> <strong>Development</strong> Board (GWDB), 1 July 2015, mdworkforce.com/policy/gwibpi1-15.pdf.<br />

36<br />

“Workgroup on <strong>Workforce</strong> <strong>Development</strong> for Community Health Workers- Final Report.” Maryl<strong>and</strong> Department of Health <strong>and</strong><br />

Mental Hygiene, Workgroup on <strong>Workforce</strong> <strong>Development</strong> for Community Health Workers, June 2015,<br />

insurance.maryl<strong>and</strong>.gov/Documents/newscenter/legislativeinformation/workgroup-on-workforce-development-for-communityhealth-workers-dhmh-<strong>and</strong>-mia-june-2015.pdf.<br />

4151 Park Heights Avenue, Suite 207, Baltimore, MD 21215 • www.lbsbaltimore.com • (410) 374-7683


grants, over 1,500 previously employed individuals receiving new credentials <strong>and</strong> 644 individuals (or 78%<br />

of those who went through apprenticeship training) obtained employment. 37<br />

2016<br />

In 2016, the logistics of Maryl<strong>and</strong>’s WIOA implementation began to be revealed, <strong>and</strong> there is a bevy of<br />

literature related to the state of Maryl<strong>and</strong>'s implementation of the bill. The now renamed Governor’s<br />

<strong>Workforce</strong> <strong>Development</strong> Board produced a new policy issuance to denote how resources might be shared<br />

between different organizations involved in workforce development <strong>and</strong> the mechanisms of accountability<br />

involved. 38 As part of the development of the state-wide WIOA strategy, local workforce development<br />

boards published their own individual plans for how their jurisdiction would comply with the new law. 39<br />

These reports can span for hundreds of pages <strong>and</strong> include a lot of technical details, but nonetheless a<br />

general tendency throughout the documents of citing WIOA <strong>and</strong> attempting to outline general plans for<br />

compliance from the local development boards. Additionally, the GWDB issued an annual report on the<br />

state of statewide workforce development which showed a shift in style <strong>and</strong> focuses on how the<br />

organization portrayed itself to the public. While previous reports read more like advertisements for the<br />

organization <strong>and</strong> its partners, this report reads more like a research document, attempting to quantify<br />

projected growth in key sectors <strong>and</strong> advocate for exp<strong>and</strong>ing the frame for workforce development. 40 It<br />

also reveals a bevy of new members added to the board, a move which perhaps can be read as related to<br />

a new gubernatorial regime attempting to put their stamp on this institution. Finally, the Job Opportunity<br />

Task Force produced a report entitled Connecting Baltimore's Youth to Opportunity, focused on analyzing<br />

the current l<strong>and</strong>scape for youth opportunity in Baltimore <strong>and</strong> observes that:<br />

“Baltimore has built a reasonably large infrastructure of organizations that serve<br />

opportunity<br />

youth, but collectively, these organizations have not been able to connect a large portion<br />

of<br />

Baltimore’s opportunity youth to careers.”<br />

Using the term “opportunity youth” denotes the population aged 16-24 whom typically experience barriers<br />

to education or employment. The report notes that Baltimore’s population of “opportunity youth” is one<br />

of the highest in the country, <strong>and</strong> requires targeted workforce development to address the myriad of factors<br />

which are barriers to employment, including labor market dynamics, experience with the criminal justice<br />

37<br />

“EARN Maryl<strong>and</strong> - 2015 Annual Report to the Maryl<strong>and</strong> General Assembly.” Resources - EARN Maryl<strong>and</strong>, Division of<br />

<strong>Workforce</strong> <strong>Development</strong> <strong>and</strong> Adult Learning- A Subsection of the Department of Labor, Licensing <strong>and</strong> Regulation (DLLR), Dec.<br />

2015, dllr.state.md.us/earn/earnannrep2015.pdf.<br />

38<br />

“POLICY ISSUANCE 2016-09- WIOA Memor<strong>and</strong>a of Underst<strong>and</strong>ing & Resource Sharing Agreements.” Policy Issuances,<br />

Governor's <strong>Workforce</strong> <strong>Development</strong> Board (GWDB), 27 Sept. 2016, www.dllr.maryl<strong>and</strong>.gov/employment/mpi/mpi9-16.pdf.<br />

39<br />

“Local Area <strong>Workforce</strong> Plans (WIOA).” <strong>Workforce</strong> <strong>Development</strong> & Adult Learning, Department of Labor, Licensing <strong>and</strong><br />

Regulation, 2016, dllr.state.md.us/wdplan/wioalocalplans.shtml.<br />

40<br />

“Developing Maryl<strong>and</strong>'s Futures- Annual Report 2016.” Annual Reports, Governor's <strong>Workforce</strong> <strong>Development</strong> Board (GWDB),<br />

2016, mdworkforce.com/lib/pdf/annualreport2016.pdf.<br />

4151 Park Heights Avenue, Suite 207, Baltimore, MD 21215 • www.lbsbaltimore.com • (410) 374-7683


system, <strong>and</strong> trauma. 41 After noting that workforce development for youth is often more expensive <strong>and</strong><br />

complex than workforce development for adults <strong>and</strong> that adult-centric programs are failing to adequately<br />

meet the needs of youth, the report goes on to list 7 recommendations based upon observed “best<br />

practices” in the field, the most notable of which is using WIOA funding to create youth specific industry<br />

based workforce development programming, noting that changes in the federal law allow up a $3,000,000<br />

increase in funding for youth-centric workforce programming. Finally, in July 2016, the state issued its<br />

comprehensive state WIOA compliance plan. At over 300 pages, it is an attempt to synthesize the local<br />

WIOA plans into a document which expresses the state’s priorities around WIOA under governor Hogan,<br />

<strong>and</strong> includes an overview of the state’s demographics <strong>and</strong> employment data, <strong>and</strong> goes on to outline<br />

performance objectives for the state’s workforce performance <strong>and</strong> the budgets available for different<br />

aspects of the plan. 42<br />

2016 also included the largest amount of job training related state legislation of any year within the<br />

research window. SB0098 is a largely technical bill designed to update obsolete references in old law to<br />

the WIA <strong>and</strong> replace them with references to the WIOA. Besides that, most of the laws sought to either<br />

establish new programs or to build upon existing infrastructure. HB 1488 sought to create a Maryl<strong>and</strong><br />

Corp, creating a vehicle for young people to be paid for engaging for different forms of public services<br />

including wetl<strong>and</strong>s restoration efforts. Similarly, HB 1162 sought to create a pilot program for foster youth<br />

summer internships. The state passed three bills to further its legal infrastructure around apprenticeships,<br />

HB0676 requiring Maryl<strong>and</strong> Apprenticeship <strong>and</strong> Training Council to give a yearly report to the General<br />

Assembly. SB0092 moved the Youth Apprenticeship Advisory Committee from the Division of Labor<br />

<strong>and</strong> Industry inside the DLLR to the Division of <strong>Workforce</strong> <strong>Development</strong> <strong>and</strong> Adult Learning <strong>and</strong><br />

requiring the membership of the Council <strong>and</strong> its consultants to reflect the geographic, racial, ethnic,<br />

cultural, <strong>and</strong> gender diversity of the State. Also, HB0290, establishing the Apprenticeship Career Training<br />

in Our Neighborhoods (ACTION) Program designed to set up a state entity to encourage employers to<br />

hire specified apprentices <strong>and</strong> to help employers offset costs associated with hiring apprentices through a<br />

grant program. In an attempt to address minority entrepreneurial opportunity as a function of workforce<br />

development, HB0788 moved responsibility for maintaining the Small Business Reserve Program to the<br />

Governor's Office of Minority Affairs from the Department of General Services. In one of the unique<br />

forces of workforce-related legislation recorded, HB1494, which gives income tax credits for community<br />

health workers who live in "areas of the State with health care workforce shortages". Finally, SB1005, the<br />

Justice Reinvestment Act passed a mixture of expungement <strong>and</strong> re-sentencing provisions to eliminate<br />

potential barriers to employment, but moreover set up a commission to attempt to reinvest money saved<br />

from incarcerating fewer people into programs for returning citizens, including potential workforce<br />

development. Indeed, the bill states that among the individuals on the coordinating council who will make<br />

decisions on how to reinvest the money the state saves is m<strong>and</strong>ated for two of the slots to go to individuals<br />

with:<br />

41<br />

“Connecting Baltimore's Opportunity Youth to Careers.” Latest Publications, Job Opportunity Task Force, Feb. 2016,<br />

jotf.org/Portals/0/Connecting%20Baltimore%20Opportunity%20Youth%20to%20Careers_022316.pdf.<br />

42<br />

“Maryl<strong>and</strong> <strong>Workforce</strong> Innovation <strong>and</strong> Opportunity Act State Plan.” <strong>Workforce</strong> Innovation <strong>and</strong> Opportunity Act (WIOA)<br />

Resource Page - <strong>Workforce</strong> <strong>Development</strong> & Adult Learning, Governor's <strong>Workforce</strong> <strong>Development</strong> Board (GWDB), July 2016,<br />

www.dllr.maryl<strong>and</strong>.gov/wdplan/wdstateplan.pdf.<br />

4151 Park Heights Avenue, Suite 207, Baltimore, MD 21215 • www.lbsbaltimore.com • (410) 374-7683


a high<br />

And<br />

“direct experience teaching inmates in academic programs intended to achieve the goal of<br />

school diploma or general educational development certification.”<br />

“A representative of an organization whose mission is to develop <strong>and</strong> advocate for<br />

policies <strong>and</strong> programs to increase the skills, job opportunities, <strong>and</strong> incomes of low–<br />

skill, low–income workers <strong>and</strong> job seekers”. 43<br />

While this list is not exhaustive, it demonstrates the breadth of the legislative efforts taken to engage<br />

questions around workforce development in just one year in the General Assembly.<br />

<strong>2017</strong><br />

<strong>2017</strong> sees a lull in the literature but continued the themes of WIOA implementation focus <strong>and</strong> broader<br />

analysis of the state’s economy. The JOTF did a joint report with a variety of regional workforce<br />

development entities, including the greater Washington <strong>Workforce</strong> <strong>Development</strong> Collaborative,<br />

comparing Maryl<strong>and</strong>’s WIOA implementation plan to other regional entities (The District of Columbia<br />

<strong>and</strong> Virginia). While the state earned high marks for its EARN program, the report asked for the program<br />

to be exp<strong>and</strong>ed <strong>and</strong> asked for more specificity on the state’s plan for youth, returning citizens (including<br />

statewide ban the box) <strong>and</strong> increased child care for WIOA. 44 Additionally, the Governor's <strong>Workforce</strong><br />

<strong>Development</strong> Board posted two policy issuances, one on the provisions for the American Job Centers 45<br />

<strong>and</strong> another for outlining the governance of local workforce development boards. 46 Finally, a coalition of<br />

organizations, including the Maryl<strong>and</strong> Department of Commerce <strong>and</strong> the Economic Alliance of Greater<br />

Baltimore produced a map of cybersecurity assets throughout the state <strong>and</strong> seeks to promote the state as a<br />

center of technological innovation. 47 Finally, the national skills coalition on December 18 of <strong>2017</strong><br />

published a report entitled “Middle-Skill Credentials <strong>and</strong> Immigrant Workers: Maryl<strong>and</strong>’s Untapped<br />

Assets”. The report restates previous observations that Maryl<strong>and</strong>’s foreign-born workforce is more skilled<br />

43<br />

“Practitioner Guide to SB1005.” Governor's Office of Crime Control & Prevention in Maryl<strong>and</strong>, Maryl<strong>and</strong> Justice<br />

Reinvestment Coordinating Council, Jan. <strong>2017</strong>,<br />

www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=5&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjt8L_Kwp7aAhWpdN8K<br />

HS7qDFIQFghfMAQ&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.harcobar.org%2Fsite%2Fwp-content%2Fuploads%2F<strong>2017</strong>%2F09%2FMD-<br />

Practitioners-Guide-FINAL.pdf&usg=AOvVaw1jLzh5DmfOpx9fmU4Z-3eB.<br />

44<br />

Duncombe, Chris, et al. “MAXIMIZING WIOA’S POTENTIAL: A Regional Analysis of the State Plans of Maryl<strong>and</strong>,<br />

Virginia, <strong>and</strong> Washington, DC.” Latest Publications, The Commonwealth Institute for Fiscal Analysis ¡ DC Appleseed DC Fiscal<br />

Policy Institute ¡ Job Opportunities Task Force Maryl<strong>and</strong> Center on Economic Policy- Sponsored by Greater Washington<br />

<strong>Workforce</strong> <strong>Development</strong> Collaborative, Mar. <strong>2017</strong>, www.workingpoorfamilies.org/wp-content/uploads/<strong>2017</strong>/04/Maryl<strong>and</strong>-<br />

WIOA_full-report_final_web-copy.pdf.<br />

45<br />

“POLICY ISSUANCE <strong>2017</strong>-02-Maryl<strong>and</strong> American Job Center Certification Policy.” Policy Issuances - Governor's<br />

<strong>Workforce</strong> <strong>Development</strong> Board (GWDB), 14 Aug. <strong>2017</strong>, mdworkforce.com/policy/gwibpi2-17.doc.<br />

46<br />

“POLICY ISSUANCE <strong>2017</strong>-01 - Local <strong>Workforce</strong> <strong>Development</strong> Board Certification Policy.” Policy Issuances, Governor's<br />

<strong>Workforce</strong> <strong>Development</strong> Board (GWDB), 1 July <strong>2017</strong>, mdworkforce.com/policy/gwibpi1-17.pdf.<br />

47<br />

“Maryl<strong>and</strong> Cybersecurity Asset Map.” Story Map Series, Economic Alliance of Greater Baltimore- Maryl<strong>and</strong> Department of<br />

Commerce, <strong>2017</strong>, eagb.maps.arcgis.com/apps/MapSeries/index.html?appid=f1480443ee5d4fbabd710890431a5af4.<br />

4151 Park Heights Avenue, Suite 207, Baltimore, MD 21215 • www.lbsbaltimore.com • (410) 374-7683


than the national average, <strong>and</strong> promotes the economic contributions of these higher educated immigrants<br />

while also arguing that, for the state to maximize the potential of this demographic, it must exp<strong>and</strong> its<br />

work around increasing middle-skill education to its non-native workforce. 48<br />

In <strong>2017</strong>, the state appeared to take steps forward defining the institutions which will take the lead for its<br />

future when it comes to workforce development. The state passed two more bills relating to<br />

apprenticeships. The first, HB0810, was a technical bill designed to designate the Division of <strong>Workforce</strong><br />

<strong>Development</strong> <strong>and</strong> Adult Learning is the designated State Apprenticeship Agency under federal law. The<br />

second, HB0467, was a more substantive bill designed to create a more robust infrastructure in the state<br />

of internships. The bill dubbed the Providing Our Workers Education <strong>and</strong> Readiness (POWER) -<br />

Apprenticeship Act, created a requirement that construction projects receiving state dollars either use<br />

apprentices who have come through the DLLR registered apprenticeship program or in lieu of this pay<br />

money the state apprenticeship fund or some other registered apprenticeship program. The bill st<strong>and</strong>s out<br />

in the literature for being one of the few workforces relate bill which places a m<strong>and</strong>ate on employers <strong>and</strong>,<br />

perhaps related to this fact, which passed not with unanimous or near unanimous support, as many of the<br />

bill analyzed in the literature, but on a party-line vote in the house <strong>and</strong> senate. HB1275 focused on creating<br />

better information flow to veterans about services, including those related to integrating them into the<br />

civilian workforce. HB1595 sought to begin to the process of revamping Baltimore City Community<br />

College, requiring the chairmen of the board to be appointed by the state legislative chairs <strong>and</strong> authorizing<br />

a study of the challenges <strong>and</strong> assets related to the institution. Finally, the state passed SB317, Requiring<br />

the Governor to appropriate at least $1,000,000 each fiscal year for the Partnership for <strong>Workforce</strong> Quality<br />

Program <strong>and</strong> establishing the More Jobs for Maryl<strong>and</strong>ers Program in the Department of Commerce to<br />

provide manufacturing business entities tax credits.<br />

Insights<br />

After evaluating the literature around workforce development in Baltimore, some preliminary conclusions<br />

can be made. First, while state legislation was the initial frame of the research, it is clear that the legal<br />

infrastructure of the state’s workforce development efforts is deeply embedded into the executive branch,<br />

local workforce development boards, <strong>and</strong> even the federal government, with the WIOA being a critical<br />

funding source for the states workforce development programming. While the state appears to be<br />

developing its apprenticeship infrastructure, <strong>and</strong> has even received independent recognition for their work<br />

here compared to other entities in the region, the fact that it took multiple years of continuous legislative<br />

efforts on this issue of apprenticeships shows just how difficult it is to steer the ship of workforce<br />

development from the state legislature. However, there appear to be potential strategic points of influence<br />

within the state workforce bureaucracy which could be open to influence, including local workforce<br />

development boards (which may be more open to some forms of community participation under WIOA)<br />

<strong>and</strong> even entities like the justice reinvestment coordinating council. In many ways, the state government<br />

appears s<strong>and</strong>wiched between the federal government <strong>and</strong> the “on the ground” local workforce<br />

48<br />

“Middle-Skill Credentials <strong>and</strong> Immigrant Workers: Maryl<strong>and</strong>’s Untapped Assets.” State Policy - In the States -Maryl<strong>and</strong> -<br />

Publications, National Skills Coalition, 18 Dec. <strong>2017</strong>, nationalskillscoalition.org/resources/publications/file/Middle-Skill-<br />

Credentials-<strong>and</strong>-Immigrant-Workers-Maryl<strong>and</strong>s-Untapped-Assets-1.pdf.<br />

4151 Park Heights Avenue, Suite 207, Baltimore, MD 21215 • www.lbsbaltimore.com • (410) 374-7683


development boards, with the GWDB being one of the few entities able to span across all these levels.<br />

The literature reveals the importance of adopting a holistic view of the states workforce efforts in order to<br />

properly underst<strong>and</strong> how workforce development functions.<br />

The literature also reveals some of the limitations of the state’s current efforts around workforce<br />

development. While the efforts appear to be in a period of flux given the continued implementation of the<br />

new federal law, the literature reveals that certain aspects of how workforce developments appear to<br />

happen in practice are difficult to discern from the literature. In the only directly comparative document<br />

in the literature, the joint report done comparing regional WIOA implementation plans, a constant refrain<br />

noted throughout the report was that, while Maryl<strong>and</strong>’s plan was generally given credit for being solid, is<br />

was also noted for being relatively vague, lacking specific are critical areas in implementation. Indeed,<br />

some of the essential information about how workforce development boards operate in practice,<br />

information for example related to the curriculum used in workforce development programming, <strong>and</strong><br />

participant evaluations of their experience in workforce development programs, was beyond the scope of<br />

this literature review <strong>and</strong> largely unavailable in this time period.<br />

Correcting this lack of information becomes especially critical when the literature around Maryl<strong>and</strong><br />

workforce development is analyzed from a racial equity st<strong>and</strong>point. While there is a consistent discussion<br />

of including marginalized populations <strong>and</strong> those excluded from traditional pipelines to employment, the<br />

vast majority of the literature fails to address the root causes behind the exclusion of vulnerable<br />

populations from the workforce. With notable exceptions, the literature fails to ask fundamental questions<br />

about racial equity. This is perhaps most clearly exemplified by the GWIB’s list of questions discussion<br />

around WIOA implementation. While the institution presented over 50 very specific questions about the<br />

transition in federal law with 10 distinct subgroups, questions specific to the law's impact from an equity<br />

perspective are notable in their absence. When the literature is examined from an equity perspective,<br />

efforts which appear to be perfectly rational <strong>and</strong> perhaps even progressive are questionable in terms of<br />

their equity impact. For example, when the state legislature exp<strong>and</strong>s licensure requirements to barber<br />

services, this appears to be another opportunity for workforce development, with services being deployed<br />

to get individuals certified in their fields. Yet growing bodies of equity-based literature around licensure<br />

regimes show that in many cases these licensure regimes create a bottleneck where individuals are forced<br />

to go through lengthy <strong>and</strong> potentially expensive training programs for employment opportunities where<br />

the very need for licensure is questionable, a burden found to disproportionately impact people of color. 49<br />

As such, the Skills2Compete initiatives focus on middle-skill jobs where professional licensure rather<br />

than a four-year degree may need to analyzed more deeply to ensure that the licensure regimes themselves<br />

are not barriers to employment. Additionally, one of the recommendations of MCCEI report, around the<br />

development of a new construction management program at a Maryl<strong>and</strong> university, risks duplicating<br />

existing programs at one of the state’s historically Black colleges, a practice which is against state law<br />

49<br />

Rodriguez, Michelle Natividad, <strong>and</strong> Beth Avery. “Unlicensed & Untapped: Removing Barriers to State Occupational Licenses<br />

for People with Records.” Report, National Employment Law Project, 26 Apr. 2016, www.nelp.org/publication/unlicenseduntapped-removing-barriers-state-occupational-licenses/.<br />

4151 Park Heights Avenue, Suite 207, Baltimore, MD 21215 • www.lbsbaltimore.com • (410) 374-7683


<strong>and</strong> was deemed an unconstitutional violation of the state’s m<strong>and</strong>ate to support these schools. 50<br />

A recent addition to the literature gives some insight into what one equity approach to workforce<br />

development might look like. The Annie E Casey foundation produced a report entitled Reshaping<br />

<strong>Workforce</strong> <strong>Development</strong> in Baltimore, which brought together a team of young, black consultants together<br />

to interview youth <strong>and</strong> research ways to better connect black youth with the workforce. While the state<br />

has increasingly deferred to employers to design the workforce development programming, the reports<br />

premise of starting from the bottom-up, with the people who would be serviced by the program, led to<br />

some unique insights. The young people surveyed showed an intense interest in entrepreneurship, as the<br />

report notes:<br />

crave<br />

free<br />

to<br />

a life<br />

“Many teens <strong>and</strong> young adults —more than a third of those the consultants interviewed —<br />

entrepreneurship <strong>and</strong> resources to build businesses that benefit their communities, <strong>and</strong> that<br />

them from the discriminatory practices, policies <strong>and</strong> workplace cultures that participants<br />

reported facing in traditional employment settings. For them, a career is not only a means<br />

escape financial woes, but to create an opportunity for the people around them <strong>and</strong> build<br />

free from violence <strong>and</strong> poverty.” 51<br />

While the MCCEI report advocated for an advertising campaign to change the perception of construction<br />

work, the Casey report advocated for a campaign to change the perception of youth worker among<br />

employers, as young people constantly felt they were being perceived as unreliable employees. The<br />

report’s analysis argues that the scope of workforce development services may need to address the needs<br />

of the most vulnerable, concluding:<br />

“Youth <strong>and</strong> young adults face a multitude of barriers — including unreliable<br />

transportation, mental health <strong>and</strong> substance abuse issues <strong>and</strong> unstable housing<br />

arrangements — that hinder their participation in workforce development programs.<br />

50<br />

Douglas-Gabriel, Danielle. “Courts Side with Maryl<strong>and</strong> HBCUs in Long-St<strong>and</strong>ing Case over Disparities in State Higher<br />

Education.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 9 Nov. <strong>2017</strong>, www.washingtonpost.com/news/gradepoint/wp/<strong>2017</strong>/11/09/courts-side-with-maryl<strong>and</strong>-hbcus-in-longst<strong>and</strong>ing-case-over-disparities-in-state-highereducation/?utm_term=.78baaf053e1c.<br />

51<br />

“Reshaping <strong>Workforce</strong> <strong>Development</strong> in Baltimore.” Resources, The Annie E. Casey Foundation, 3 Jan. 2018,<br />

www.aecf.org/resources/reshaping-workforce-development-in-baltimore/.<br />

4151 Park Heights Avenue, Suite 207, Baltimore, MD 21215 • www.lbsbaltimore.com • (410) 374-7683


Providers can help mitigate these challenges by intentionally partnering with other<br />

community-based organizations to ensure young people can access housing, child care,<br />

transportation, legal, financial coaching <strong>and</strong> other related services in addition to job<br />

training.” 52<br />

By revealing that the barriers to employment are also barriers to access to workforce development<br />

programs themselves, the Casey report reveals that an equity lens may be essential not just ethically for<br />

workforce development to be done fairly, but from a pragmatic st<strong>and</strong>point, essential to workforce<br />

development programs very success.<br />

While the Casey report is specific to youth in Baltimore, the methodology represented is useful when<br />

theorizing potential interventions to how workforce development is conceived statewide. Its method of<br />

centering on impacted communities, viewing them as experts in their own conditions <strong>and</strong> designing<br />

interventions based on their feedback is critical to an equity-based workforce development policy <strong>and</strong><br />

practice. With turmoil at a federal government level, continued rollout of federal legislation like WIOA<br />

<strong>and</strong> statewide legislation like the justice reinvestment act, the l<strong>and</strong>scape for workforce development in<br />

Maryl<strong>and</strong> is perpetually shifting, but by centering equity <strong>and</strong> a vision of progressive policymaking, the<br />

state can help ensure a successful development of opportunity despite an uncertain future.<br />

Works Cited<br />

“Advocating for the Successful Reentry of Individuals with Criminal Records: Lessons Learned from<br />

Maryl<strong>and</strong>.” Latest Publications, Job Opportunity Task Force- Prepared for the Annie E. Casey Foundation,<br />

Nov. 2013, www.jotf.org/Portals/0/jotf/publications/JOTF%20Lessons%20Learned%20FINAL.pdf<br />

Balog, Jason E. “Balog's Biotech Dissecting O'Malley's Bio 2020 Initiative.” The Frederick News-Post,<br />

Myron W. R<strong>and</strong>all Jr., 11 Mar. 2016, www.fredericknewspost.com/archive/balog-s-biotech-dissecting-omalley-s-bio-initiative/article_969d8f56-46ae-543a-ba61-b1b08f27deb2.html<br />

“Board Meeting Schedule <strong>and</strong> Materials-2014.” Board Information, Governor's <strong>Workforce</strong> <strong>Development</strong><br />

Board, 15 June 2015, www.mdworkforce.com/board/bdmeet/sept172014wioatool.pdf<br />

52<br />

ibid<br />

4151 Park Heights Avenue, Suite 207, Baltimore, MD 21215 • www.lbsbaltimore.com • (410) 374-7683


Cael. “Innovation in Maryl<strong>and</strong> Nursing Education to Meet Anticipated Dem<strong>and</strong>.” Public Policy-Publication,<br />

Council for Adult <strong>and</strong> Experiential Learning, 2012, www.cta-service-<br />

cms2.hubspot.com/ctas/v2/public/cs/c/?cta_guid=af4f5c64-7edb-4030-bec9-<br />

2f65b43df106&placement_guid=be58634e-5b14-4a4e-ba31-<br />

a6f65a5ecbbb&portal_id=617695&redirect_url=APefjpHUaMWVwkSz73q53d1PhLcpy3iVvvmCMbco-<br />

KZPNPaFv7X7Wyie98PAKl0QhPHxPKdGW1aCQ5tR9SBzj8Pl9xQuw-<br />

8JxPgne2Ij2fHeKNBwYCQhqYsPfp8evLP-<br />

VGF_T0liHhE2Uz62REJ0aTOrt0LBvvDwqjR0zJHkyu98AD_o8CBgoaVekNpB6bRfF_2GtkSJpoOOll1U<br />

_4brVeQmcM8NVYtCHdex-_Oq2QVBKOl5bfDAD-<br />

4&hsutk=c7a000001d761e0d13a8016263ca2c90&canon=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cael.org%2Fpublic-<br />

policy-publication&click=6f2acb19-7481-4022-b79f-<br />

5bbfa40cdc34&utm_referrer=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cael.org%2Fworkforce-<strong>and</strong>-economicdevelopment%2Fpublications%3FhsCtaTracking%3Dd03430b5-440e-4ee1-98ceae6f62609c33%7C418c940a-9911-46b4-967d-f61debed49a1&pageId=4015083498<br />

“Connecting Baltimore's Opportunity Youth to Careers.” Latest Publications, Job Opportunity Task Force,<br />

Feb. 2016,<br />

www.jotf.org/Portals/0/Connecting%20Baltimore%20Opportunity%20Youth%20to%20Careers_022316.p<br />

df<br />

Copus, Josh, et al. “The <strong>Workforce</strong> Innovation <strong>and</strong> Opportunity Act (WIOA) ‘Driving Innovation,<br />

Collaboration, <strong>and</strong> Performance.’” Publications, National Association of <strong>Workforce</strong> Boards (NAWB), 28<br />

Mar. 2016, www.nawb.org/publications.asp<br />

“The Critical Path: Positioning Maryl<strong>and</strong> as an Innovation Leader in the Global Construction Industry.”<br />

Board Meeting Schedule <strong>and</strong> Materials, Governor's <strong>Workforce</strong> <strong>Development</strong> Board, 20 Mar. 2013,<br />

www.gwib.maryl<strong>and</strong>.gov/board/bdmeet/<br />

4151 Park Heights Avenue, Suite 207, Baltimore, MD 21215 • www.lbsbaltimore.com • (410) 374-7683


“Developing Maryl<strong>and</strong>'s Futures- Annual Report 2016.” Annual Reports, Governor's <strong>Workforce</strong><br />

<strong>Development</strong> Board (GWDB), 2016, www.mdworkforce.com/lib/pdf/annualreport2016.pdf<br />

“EARN Maryl<strong>and</strong> - 2015 Annual Report to the Maryl<strong>and</strong> General Assembly.” Resources - EARN Maryl<strong>and</strong>,<br />

Division of <strong>Workforce</strong> <strong>Development</strong> <strong>and</strong> Adult Learning- A Sub Section of the Department of Labor,<br />

Licensing, <strong>and</strong> Regulation, Dec. 2015, www.dllr.state.md.us/earn/earnannrep2015.pdf<br />

“Exp<strong>and</strong>ing Black Baltimore's Middle Class - <strong>Workforce</strong> Strategies for Advancing Prosperity. Issue Briefs,<br />

Job Opportunity Task Force/Associated Black Charities, June 2010,<br />

www.jotf.org/Publications/IssueBriefs/tabid/68/Default.aspx<br />

Douglas-Gabriel, Danielle. “Courts Side with Maryl<strong>and</strong> HBCUs in Long-St<strong>and</strong>ing Case over Disparities in<br />

State Higher Education.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 9 Nov. <strong>2017</strong>,<br />

www.washingtonpost.com/news/grade-point/wp/<strong>2017</strong>/11/09/courts-side-with-maryl<strong>and</strong>-hbcus-inlongst<strong>and</strong>ing-case-over-disparities-in-state-higher-education/?utm_term=.78baaf053e1c<br />

Duncombe, Chris, et al. “MAXIMIZING WIOA’S POTENTIAL: A Regional Analysis of the State Plans of<br />

Maryl<strong>and</strong>, Virginia, <strong>and</strong> Washington, DC.” Latest Publications, The Commonwealth Institute for Fiscal<br />

Analysis ¡ DC Appleseed DC Fiscal Policy Institute ¡ Job Opportunities Task Force Maryl<strong>and</strong> Center on<br />

Economic Policy- Sponsored by Greater Washington <strong>Workforce</strong> <strong>Development</strong> Collaborative, Mar. <strong>2017</strong>,<br />

www.workingpoorfamilies.org/wp-content/uploads/<strong>2017</strong>/04/Maryl<strong>and</strong>-WIOA_full-report_final_webcopy.pdf<br />

“The Facts on the Federal Recovery Act: The Impact on Low-Wage Maryl<strong>and</strong>ers & Principles for<br />

Implementation.” Issue Briefs, Job Opportunity Task Force, 23 Mar. 2009,<br />

www.jotf.org/Portals/0/JOTF%20Issue%20Brief%20-<br />

%20Facts%20on%20the%20Federal%20Recovery%20Act[.pdf<br />

4151 Park Heights Avenue, Suite 207, Baltimore, MD 21215 • www.lbsbaltimore.com • (410) 374-7683


“Governor’s <strong>Workforce</strong> Investment Board - 2009 Annual Report.” Annual Reports, - Governor's <strong>Workforce</strong><br />

<strong>Development</strong> Board (GWDB), <strong>2017</strong>, www.gwib.maryl<strong>and</strong>.gov/lib/pdf/annualreport2009.pdf<br />

“GWIB POLICY ISSUANCE 2015-01-Maryl<strong>and</strong>’s Local <strong>Workforce</strong> <strong>Development</strong> Boards Under WIOA.”<br />

Policy Issuances, Governor's <strong>Workforce</strong> <strong>Development</strong> Board (GWDB), 1 July 2015,<br />

www.mdworkforce.com/policy/gwibpi1-15.pdf<br />

“Investing in STEM to Secure Maryl<strong>and</strong>’s Future.” The Maryl<strong>and</strong> Business Roundtable, www.mbrt.org/wpcontent/uploads/2009/stem-task-force-report.pdf<br />

“Local Area <strong>Workforce</strong> Plans (WIOA).” <strong>Workforce</strong> <strong>Development</strong> & Adult Learning, Department of Labor,<br />

Licensing <strong>and</strong> Regulation, 2016, www.dllr.state.md.us/wdplan/wioalocalplans.shtml<br />

“MARYLAND AT A GLANCE.” Maryl<strong>and</strong> Employment - <strong>Workforce</strong>, 8 Nov. <strong>2017</strong>,<br />

www.msa.maryl<strong>and</strong>.gov/msa/mdmanual/01glance/economy/html/labor.html<br />

“Maryl<strong>and</strong> Budget Request Includes $43M for BIO 2020 Initiative.” SSTI Digest, State Science &<br />

Technology Institute, 2016, www.ssti.org/blog/maryl<strong>and</strong>-budget-request-includes-43m-bio-2020-initiative<br />

“Maryl<strong>and</strong> Cybersecurity Asset Map.” Story Map Series, Economic Alliance of Greater Baltimore Maryl<strong>and</strong><br />

Department of Commerce, <strong>2017</strong>,<br />

http://eagb.maps.arcgis.com/apps/MapSeries/index.html?appid=f1480443ee5d4fbabd710890431a5af4<br />

“Maryl<strong>and</strong>’s Energy Industry <strong>Workforce</strong> Report: Preparing Today’s Workers for Tomorrow’s<br />

Opportunities.” Publications, Governor's <strong>Workforce</strong> <strong>Development</strong> Board, 1 July 2016,<br />

www.gwib.maryl<strong>and</strong>.gov/pub/pdf/energyworkforce.pdf<br />

4151 Park Heights Avenue, Suite 207, Baltimore, MD 21215 • www.lbsbaltimore.com • (410) 374-7683


“Maryl<strong>and</strong> <strong>Workforce</strong> Innovation <strong>and</strong> Opportunity Act State Plan.” <strong>Workforce</strong> Innovation <strong>and</strong> Opportunity<br />

Act (WIOA) Resource Page - <strong>Workforce</strong> <strong>Development</strong> & Adult Learning, Governor's <strong>Workforce</strong><br />

<strong>Development</strong> Board (GWDB), July 2016, www.dllr.maryl<strong>and</strong>.gov/wdplan/wdstateplan.pdf<br />

“Maryl<strong>and</strong>'s Aging <strong>Workforce</strong>.” Archive, About the Governor's <strong>Workforce</strong> <strong>Development</strong> Board (GWDB), 1<br />

July 2016, www.gwib.maryl<strong>and</strong>.gov/pub/pubarchive.shtml<br />

“Maryl<strong>and</strong>’s Health Information Technology <strong>Workforce</strong> Task Force Report <strong>and</strong> Findings.” Publications ,<br />

Governor's <strong>Workforce</strong> <strong>Development</strong> Board, 1 July 2016,<br />

www.gwib.maryl<strong>and</strong>.gov/board/bdmeet/june162010hcitsum.pdf<br />

“Maryl<strong>and</strong>’s <strong>Workforce</strong> Indicators: 2010.” Publications, Governor's <strong>Workforce</strong> Investment Board (GWIB),<br />

1 July 2016, www.gwib.maryl<strong>and</strong>.gov/pub/pdf/gwibindicators2010.pdf<br />

“Middle-Skill Credentials <strong>and</strong> Immigrant Workers: Maryl<strong>and</strong>’s Untapped Assets.” State Policy - In the<br />

States -Maryl<strong>and</strong> - Publications, National Skills Coalition, 18 Dec. <strong>2017</strong>,<br />

www.nationalskillscoalition.org/resources/publications/file/Middle-Skill-Credentials-<strong>and</strong>-Immigrant-<br />

Workers-Maryl<strong>and</strong>s-Untapped-Assets-1.pdf<br />

“Obstacles & Opportunities: The <strong>Workforce</strong> <strong>Development</strong> L<strong>and</strong>scape in Prince George's County,<br />

Maryl<strong>and</strong>.” Latest Publications, Job Opportunity Task Force, Sept. 2013,<br />

www.jotf.org/Portals/0/jotf/publications/JOTF%20Lessons%20Learned%20FINAL.pdf<br />

“Policy Framework for Implementing the American Recovery <strong>and</strong> Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009:<br />

Maryl<strong>and</strong>'s <strong>Workforce</strong> Priorities.” Publications, Governor's <strong>Workforce</strong> Investment Board (GWIB) (for<br />

Pda/H<strong>and</strong>helds), 1 July 2016, www.gwib.maryl<strong>and</strong>.gov/pub/<br />

“POLICY ISSUANCE 2016-09- WIOA Memor<strong>and</strong>a of Underst<strong>and</strong>ing & Resource Sharing Agreements.”<br />

Policy Issuances, Governor's <strong>Workforce</strong> <strong>Development</strong> Board (GWDB), 27 Sept. 2016,<br />

www.dllr.maryl<strong>and</strong>.gov/employment/mpi/mpi9-16.pdf<br />

4151 Park Heights Avenue, Suite 207, Baltimore, MD 21215 • www.lbsbaltimore.com • (410) 374-7683


“POLICY ISSUANCE <strong>2017</strong>-01 - Local <strong>Workforce</strong> <strong>Development</strong> Board Certification Policy.” Policy<br />

Issuances, Governor's <strong>Workforce</strong> <strong>Development</strong> Board (GWDB), 1 July <strong>2017</strong>,<br />

www.mdworkforce.com/policy/gwibpi1-17.pdf<br />

“POLICY ISSUANCE <strong>2017</strong>-02-Maryl<strong>and</strong> American Job Center Certification Policy.” Policy Issuances -<br />

Governor's <strong>Workforce</strong> <strong>Development</strong> Board (GWDB), 14 Aug. <strong>2017</strong>,<br />

www.mdworkforce.com/policy/gwibpi2-17.doc<br />

“Practitioner Guide to SB1005.” Governor's Office of Crime Control & Prevention in Maryl<strong>and</strong>, Maryl<strong>and</strong><br />

Justice Reinvestment Coordinating Council, Jan. <strong>2017</strong>,<br />

www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=5&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjt8L<br />

_Kwp7aAhWpdN8KHS7qDFIQFghfMAQ&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.harcobar.org%2Fsite%2Fwp-<br />

content%2Fuploads%2F<strong>2017</strong>%2F09%2FMD-Practitioners-Guide-<br />

FINAL.pdf&usg=AOvVaw1jLzh5DmfOpx9fmU4Z-3eB<br />

“Preparing Maryl<strong>and</strong>'s <strong>Workforce</strong> for Reform: Healthcare 2020 Report.” Publications, Governor's<br />

<strong>Workforce</strong> Investment Board (GWIB), 1 July 2016, gwib.maryl<strong>and</strong>.gov/pub/healthreformcare2020.pdf.<br />

“Putting WIOA to Work: An Action Plan for CEOs To Leverage the <strong>Workforce</strong> Innovation <strong>and</strong> Opportunity<br />

Act.” An Action Plan for CEOs To Leverage the <strong>Workforce</strong> Innovation <strong>and</strong> Opportunity Act, Business<br />

Roundtable, 18 Sept. 2014, www.businessroundtable.org/resources/putting-wioa-work<br />

“Reshaping <strong>Workforce</strong> <strong>Development</strong> in Baltimore.” Resources, The Annie E. Casey Foundation, 3 Jan.<br />

2018, www.aecf.org/resources/reshaping-workforce-development-in-baltimore/<br />

“Results Based Public Policy Strategies for Promoting <strong>Workforce</strong> Strategies for Reintegrating Ex-<br />

Offenders.” Papers, Center for the Study of Social Policy, Apr. 2012,<br />

www.cssp.org/policy/papers/Promoting-<strong>Workforce</strong>-Strategies-for-Reintegrating-Ex-Offenders.pdf<br />

4151 Park Heights Avenue, Suite 207, Baltimore, MD 21215 • www.lbsbaltimore.com • (410) 374-7683


Rodriguez, Michelle Natividad, <strong>and</strong> Beth Avery. “Unlicensed & Untapped: Removing Barriers to State<br />

Occupational Licenses for People with Records.” Report, National Employment Law Project, 26 Apr. 2016,<br />

www.nelp.org/publication/unlicensed-untapped-removing-barriers-state-occupational-licenses/<br />

“Stem Middle-Skilled Career Pathways in the Baltimore Region.” REPORTS, Associated Black Charities,<br />

2015, www.abc-md.org/s/STEM-Study-2_v8.pdf<br />

“Task Force To Study Economic <strong>Development</strong> <strong>and</strong> Apprenticeships Report.” Maryl<strong>and</strong> Task Force to Study<br />

Economic <strong>Development</strong> & Apprenticeships, Maryl<strong>and</strong> Department of Legislative Services, 25 Sept. 2015,<br />

www.msa.maryl<strong>and</strong>.gov/msa/mdmanual/26excom/defunct/html/13economicdev.html<br />

“Untapped <strong>Workforce</strong> Committee.” Publications - Governor's <strong>Workforce</strong> <strong>Development</strong> Board, 1 July 2016,<br />

www.gwib.maryl<strong>and</strong>.gov/pub/pdf/untappedreport.pdf<br />

Unruh, Rachel, <strong>and</strong> Eric Seleznow. “Beyond Degrees-Lessons Learned from Skills2Compete-Maryl<strong>and</strong>.”<br />

National Skills Coalition, 1 Aug. 2011,<br />

www.nationalskillscoalition.org/resources/publications/file/NSC_BeyondDegrees_2011-08-FINAL-<br />

WEB.pdf<br />

“Workgroup on <strong>Workforce</strong> <strong>Development</strong> for Community Health Workers- Final Report.” Maryl<strong>and</strong><br />

Department of Health <strong>and</strong> Mental Hygiene, Workgroup on <strong>Workforce</strong> <strong>Development</strong> for Community Health<br />

Workers, June 2015,<br />

www.insurance.maryl<strong>and</strong>.gov/Documents/newscenter/legislativeinformation/workgroup-on-workforcedevelopment-for-community-health-workers-dhmh-<strong>and</strong>-mia-june-2015.pdf<br />

Wu, Portia. “Training <strong>and</strong> Employment Guidance Letter No. 27-14.” TRAINING AND EMPLOYMENT<br />

GUIDANCE LETTER No. 27-14, Employment & Training Administration (ETA) - U.S. Department of Labor,<br />

United States Department of Labor, 19 Feb. 2015,<br />

https://wdr.doleta.gov/directives/corr_doc.cfm?DOCN=7158<br />

4151 Park Heights Avenue, Suite 207, Baltimore, MD 21215 • www.lbsbaltimore.com • (410) 374-7683

Hooray! Your file is uploaded and ready to be published.

Saved successfully!

Ooh no, something went wrong!