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RIC 2022 Souvenir Book

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Table of Contents

Message from Director 01

Message from Dean of Academic Affairs 03

Message from Dean (IISI) 05

Message from Chairman, SAB 07

Message from Chairperson, IITG-TIC 09

Message from Faculty Conveners, Research Conclave 11

Message from Faculty Conveners, Industrial Conclave 13

Message from Student Team 15

About Indian Institute of Technology 21

About Students’ Academic Board 23

About IIT Guwahati Research Park 25

About IITG-TIC 27

About NewGen IEDC 27

About Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 29

Reminiscence: A Glimpse of Previous Edition 31

Our Sponsors and Partners 33

Connaissance: Lecture Series 35

Discutir: Panel Discussion 55

Atelier: Workshop 61

Hackathon: Thinkers and Makers 65

Emprendimiento: Start-up Fund Rising 69

Innovation EXHIBIT: Product Display 73

IndSol: Industrial Problem Presentation 75


Tech Talk: Technical Product and Solution Presentation 77

Scientifiques: Oral, Poster, Model and 3MT Presentations 79

Abstracts of Oral Presentations 81

Abstracts of Poster Presentations 221

Abstracts of Three Minutes Thesis Presentations 309

Abstracts of Model Presentations 369

Team Research and Industrial Conclave 2022 395


MESSAGE FROM DIRECTOR

Welcome to the first ever Research and industry conclave at IIT Guwahati to enhance industry academia

collaboration. Featuring among the top 50 research institutes in the world, IIT Guwahati has a global

rank of 41 in the category of the QS World University rankings 2022 and a national rank of 2 in the

Citation per faculty criteria. IIT Guwahati is well known for its cutting-edge research activities and

active involvement in the dissemination of technologies. It has ~ 2000 publications per year with

excellent publication index of publication per faculty. In last five years more than 200 patents from the

institute were filed.

As one of the top research institute, IIT Guwahati was organizing a Research Conclave since

2016. Like academics and research, interaction with industry is vital for any academic institute. To

enhance industrial interaction IIT Guwahati established a separate Dean’s office for industrial

Interactions and Special Initiatives (II&SI) in May 2020. Probably in recent times, we are the first

institute to have such separate Dean’s office for industrial interaction.

In continuing our effort to boost industrial interactions for the first time the industrial

interaction and entrepreneurial events are included with research conclave and we are organizing

‘Research and Industrial Conclave (RIC) - Integration 2022. This is truly an Amalgamation of

Academia, Industry & Start-ups. Research & Industrial Conclave (RIC) is an event jointly organized

by IIT Guwahati & IIT Guwahati Research Park. IIT Guwahati Research Park is a society/ Section-8

Company envisioned as a high energy workspace that provides space for industry-academia

collaboration to encourage innovative thinking where faculty, student and industrial personnel meet,

interact and work on the industrial problems. It will also be the first ever Industrial Conclave at IIT

Guwahati to enhance Industry-Academia collaboration. For first time Start-up India, IIT Guwahati

Technology Incubation Center, industries such as Numaligarh Refinery Limited (NRL), industrial

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 1


organizations such Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce & Industry (FICCI), Automotive Skill

Development Council are partnering with us to organize the Research & Industrial Conclave (RIC).

RIC 2022 will be an unparalleled opportunity for researchers and industry persons,

entrepreneurs to present their original work, share their knowledge, build networks, and raise funds for

the start-ups. RIC 2022 will provide a platform for students, innovators, entrepreneurs to showcase

concepts and ideas to investors and industries. It will also inspire and encourage young minds towards

research and innovation. Distinguished academicians and professionals from India and abroad will

grace the occasion and interact with the participants. RIC 2022 aspires to be a virtual platform for the

exchange of knowledge and ideas for the benefit of the broader society.

A 2013 recipient of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics, Prof. Lars Peter Hansen, David

Rockefeller Distinguished Service Professor of economics at the University of Chicago will deliver the

inaugural address. Prof. Ramgopal Rao, former Director IIT Delhi, Prof. Kushal Konwar Sarma, the

elephant doctor of Assam, who was awarded the Padma Shri in the field of medicine in 2020, Prof.

Anil Kumar Gupta, Former professor of IIMA, who works with grassroots inventors, Dr. Bhupati Kr.

Das, Retd. MD of Numaligarh Refinery Limited and founder MD of Bharat Oman Refinery Limited

are some of the prominent speakers.

I congratulate the entire RIC team and wish the event a grand success. I am eagerly looking

forward to the discussions and new ideas. May this conclave add immense value to unending pursuit

of excellence in research, innovation, entrepreneurial and industrial interactions not only to IIT

Guwahati but to the entire north east.

Prof. T G Sitharam, PhD (Waterloo, Canada), FASCE,FICE(UK),D.Ge.,Honorary Fellow of

IGS,FISET,FISES

Director, IIT Guwahati


Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati

Guwahati 781039, India

Prof. Chitralekha Mahanta

Dean of Academic Affairs and

Professor,

Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering

Phone : + 91-361-258 2081

Fax : + 91-361-269 0762

E-mail : doaa@iitg.ac.in,

chitra@iitg.ac.in

Web : http://www.iitg.ac.in/acad

MESSGAE FROM DEAN ON ACADEMIC AFFAIRS

I am immensely delighted to welcome distinguished academicians, acclaimed industry experts, young

researchers, and emerging entrepreneurs to the upcoming Research and Industrial Conclave (RIC)

INTEGRATION 2022. The Students’ Academic Board and IITGuwahati Research Park have worked

in tandem to create a unified platform where researchers, industry experts and budding entrepreneurs

can exchange knowledge, combine ideas, and collaborate to create holistic solutions for issues that

plague our times. As novel solutions and disruptive ideas are often the products of transdisciplinary

collaborations, RIC 2022 provides a unique opportunity to fuel such collaborations between industry

and academia. This year, we are fortunate to have a galaxy of illustrious resource persons from various

fields and a diverse group of budding scholars as participants. It is an invaluable opportunity for

participants to interact with acclaimed academicians and professionals from the fields of science,

technology and social sciences.

This edition of the Research and Industrial Conclave to be held from 20th to 23rd January 2022 will

undoubtedly be a new chapter in IITGuwahati’s sustained efforts towards the advancement of scientific

research and its applications.

I extend my best wishes to the organizers for grand success of the event.

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 3



MESSGAE FROM DEAN (IISI)

I welcome all the participants, partners, sponsors for the Research and Industrial Conclave Integration

2022. IIT Guwahati Research Park is cheerful join with Student Academic Board the organizer of the

annual Research Conclave of IIT Guwahati to organize the first ever Research and Industrial Conclave

Integration 2022.

Academic Institutions and Industries play vital role in any nation success. Bridging the gap between

the academic institutions and industry is crucial for the achievement. In this line to bring to the academia

and industry much closer annual research conclave and the first industrial conclave are integrated to

organize as Research and Industrial Conclave Integration 2022. It is first ever conclave of its kind with

6 new events are added as part of industrial and entrepreneur related activity.

After the establishment of office of Industrial Interactions and Special Initiatives, we have taken several

measure to enrich the industrial interactions, innovations and entrepreneurial activities at IIT Guwahati.

They led to steep increase in patent filing, technology transfers and companies joining our Research

Park for collaborative work etc. I am sure this conclave will also help to boost our activities further.

It is also my duty to acknowledge the participants, speakers and jury members. I also thank North

Eastern Council (NEC), Numaligarh Refinery Limited (NRL), Canara Bank and other for their support.

I am indeed fortunate to work closely with amazing faculty colleagues, enthusiastic student team

headed by Ankan, Subhash, Sparsh and others as part of the organizing team.

G. Krishnamoorthy

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 5



Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 7



Prof. R Ganesh Narayanan, Chairperson, IITG- Technology Incubation Centre

In our rapidly changing world, rigorous scientific research is imperative to understand, explain and

manoeuvre nature for the benefit of humankind. As one of India’s leading research and innovation

institutes, IIT Guwahati is committed to fostering innovative research, interdisciplinary collaborations,

and industrial applications of scientific knowledge. As a step ahead in this direction, I am glad to note

that the Research and Industrial Conclave INTEGRATION 2022 will be held between 20th and 23rd

January 2022. The Students’ Academic Board and IITG Research Park have put in commendable

efforts to design a conclave that brings together scholars, industry leaders, R&D experts, acclaimed

academicians, startups, incubate companies and budding entrepreneurs so as to ignite productive

discussions and interactions. Technology Incubation Centre and NEWGEN IEDC are also actively

participating in the event by organizing entrepreneurship development program (EDP) along with

collaborators.

Through various events including thesis presentations, workshops, EDP, start-up pitching, and lectures,

RIC 2022 promotes interdisciplinary collaboration in an era where research becomes more and more

specialized. I am certain that the outcomes of this endeavour will not only benefit the scientific

community, but also the budding entrepreneurs and startup community. I congratulate the organizing

team, and hearty welcome to all participants and resource persons to the most awaited Conclave.

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 9



MESSAGE FROM FACULTY CONVENER & CO-CONVENERS

We have noticed more than 500 registrations across multiple events of Research and Industry Conclave

2022. We would like to thank everyone for exhibiting interest in the event. We would like to thank the

relentless efforts of IIT Guwahati student and faculty community and other participating institutions,

who made this event possible. We appreciate and congratulate all the participants for their interest. We

also appreciate the sponsors for their great support of our event.

Dr. Nelson Muthu

Faculty Convener

Dr. Selvaraju Narayanasamy

Faculty Co-Convener

Dr. Pratul Chandra Kalita

Faculty Co-Convener

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 11



MESSAGE FROM FACULTY CONVENER & CO-CONVENERS, INDUSTRIAL

CONCLACE

IIT Guwahati leads in research and academics through the excellent contributions of its faculty and

students. Research Conclave is a student-centric platform for the presentation and exchange of ideas

with researchers and academicians. A special initiative to include industry participation promises to

take Research Conclave 2022 to greater heights.

The Students' Academic board leads the activities of the research conclave. This Year, the Students'

Academic Board and IIT Guwahati Research Park is collaborating to organise Research & Industrial

Conclave 2022. IIT Guwahati Research Park will coordinate the events specific to industry

engagement. The industry conclave will introduce students, research scholars, and faculty to the

industry's perspective through close interaction, which will be a significant highlight of this conclave.

Further, we look forward to students utilizing this opportunity by presenting their ideas and innovations

to leaders in academia and industry and hope that some of the ideas will receive support to convert

them into patents and products.

We are honoured to have eminent speakers from academia and industry and all the stakeholders of this

conclave, including distinguished resource persons, participants, and the jury. We warmly welcome

each one of you to this conclave.

The effort placed by the organising team is noteworthy and commendable. We highly

appreciate the efforts of the entire team.

Dr. V. Vijaya Saradhi

Treasurer

Prof. Karuna Kalita

Faculty Co-convener

Dr. Bithiah Grace Jaganathan

Faculty Co-convener

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 13



MESSAGE FROM STUDENT TEAM

As IIT Guwahati scales new heights in academia, we are truly honoured and delighted to welcome you

to the Research and Industrial Conclave - INTEGRATION 2022. The organizing team of RIC 2022

extends a heartfelt welcome to all invitees and participants who are set to engage in inventive scientific

discourse from 20th to 23rd January 2022.

As the world continues to battle COVID-19, scientific innovation has become a powerful tool in our

journey towards survival and recovery. Dedicated collaborations among universities, production firms,

and governments on a global scale has enabled the development of lifesaving equipment and vaccines.

Now more than ever, the world recognizes the importance of applied research and entrepreneurial will

in tackling emerging problems on a global scale.

For over two and a half decades, our institute has been a pioneer in state-of-the-art scientific

advancements. With over 2000 research publications per year, IIT Guwahati is placed 41st globally in

research citations per faculty by QS world rankings. In an endeavour to encourage this academic zeal

further, the Students’ Academic Board and IITG Research Park have joined hands to organize the sixth

edition of the Conclave. Under the tag of Research Conclave, the past five editions of the event have

witnessed a participation of over 10,000 scholars and professionals who engaged in productive

academic discussions and presentations. This year, the Conclave has curated a set of nine events,

including thesis and model presentations, immersive workshops, interactive lectures, tech talks, and

start-up concept pitching and fundraising. Over the course of four days, participants will receive the

invaluable opportunity to interact with distinguished academicians, industry leaders, and experts under

various specializations. Among the illustrious resource persons who will grace the event, we have

Nobel laureate Prof. Lars Hansen as the chief guest and inaugural speaker. We eagerly await a copious

exchange of ideas, resources, and knowledge over a span of four days.

We have received an - number of registrations, and overwhelming support from within and beyond the

IITG community. As we prepare to host you all during RIC 2022, we would like to thank everyone

from IIT Guwahati who stood with us and made this event possible. We extend our gratitude to all our

sponsors. Thanks, and congratulations to all participants who have ensured their presence at this mostawaited

Conclave. Finally, we extend our wishes to the future organizing team of RIC, who will

undoubtedly scale the event to new heights.

Mr. Subhash Pratap

General Secretary, SAB

Mr. Ankan Hazra

Student Convener

Mr. Imran Hussain

Student Co-Convener (PG)

Mr. Aakif Akhtar

Student Co-Convener (UG)

Mr. Jayant Jaiswal

Joint Secretary, SAB

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 15







About Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati

Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, the sixth member of the IIT fraternity, was established in

1994. The academic programme of IIT Guwahati commenced in 1995. At present the Institute has

eleven departments and three inter-disciplinary academic centres covering all the major engineering,

science and humanities disciplines, offering BTech, BDes, MA, MDes, MTech, MSc and PhD

programmes. Within a short period of time, IIT Guwahati has been able to build up world class

infrastructure for carrying out advanced research and has been equipped with state-of-the-art scientific

and engineering instruments. Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati’s campus is on a sprawling 285

hectares plot of land on the north bank of the river Brahmaputra around 20 kms. from the heart of the

city. With the majestic Brahmaputra on one side, and with hills and vast open spaces on others, the

campus provides an ideal setting for learning. Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, the sixth

member of the IIT fraternity, was established in 1994. IIT Guwahati was established in 1994 by an act

of parliament and its academic programme commenced in 1995. Indian Institute of Technology

Guwahati’s campus is on a sprawling 285 hectares plot of land on the north bank of the river

Brahmaputra. With the majestic Brahmaputra on one side, and with hills and vast open spaces on others,

the campus provides an ideal setting for learning. IIT Guwahati has been symbolised as one of most

effervescent Institutes across the world by several major ranking associations. The hardship of students,

devotion of quality research, contributions of renowned alumni, dedication and untold effort of the

teachers and staff (teaching and non-teaching), and the vision of the administration was influential in

these achievements. Worldwide, the ranking of IIT Guwahati was 451–460 in the QS World University

Ranking of 2015 and 89 in the QS Asian University Rankings of 2012. In India, among engineering

academies, it was ranked 10 by India Today in 2012, 8 by Outlook India in 2012 and 7 by Dataquest in

2011. In the Mint Government Colleges survey of 2009 it was ranked 6. In 2014, IIT Guwahati has

been ranked 87 in 100 Top Global Universities under 50 Years by the Times Higher Education World

University Rankings, bringing India into the list for the very first time. In 2015, IIT Guwahati has been

ranked 50 by BRICS ranking. In 2016, IIT-Guwahati ranked 14th among 20 institutions classed as the

World’s Best Small Universities in the latest Times Higher Education (THE) rankings of 2016.

According to recent statistics, IIT Guwahati has around 6000 students, 425 staff and 375 faculty. IIT

Guwahati is now 17 Convocations old, has over 7000 alumni, and has graduated over 475 Ph.D.

students. Over the years, more than 250 companies/organisations have participated in the student

placements.

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 21



About Students’ Academic Board

Students' Academic Board (SAB), IIT Guwahati, is a student body for all academic-related issues of

IIT Guwahati students. The SAB is intended as a student forum that will strive to redress the academic

problems and concerns of the entire student community of IIT Guwahati. It is a link unit between the

students and the administration and is responsible for redirecting the Academic issues of the students

to the appropriate administrative authority. Besides addressing academic problems and concerns of the

students' community, SAB conducts different events and activities throughout the year. SAB organizes

events like Research Conclave, Foreign and regional language courses, workshops, etc. SAB also

conducts Peer Assisted Learning (PAL) program by Research Scholar for BTech first-year student to

improve their academic performance.

• Through its website and Facebook page, the SAB strives to enlighten the student community

regarding the institutes' ordinances, such that students can gain the best out of the system.

• Throughout the year, the Students' Academic Board conducts various events to inculcate the

spirit of academic excellence and innovation, and to help newcomers adjust and progress in

this institute.

• Issues such as Branch Change, Internships, Exchange Programs, Fellowship/Scholarship

Schemes etc. remains the underlying topics on which we try to bolster the student community

so as to achieve positive results in a methodical way and thus succeed in bringing laurels to our

Alma mater

• The SAB conducts periodic sessions to interact with the Student Community and undertake

timely dissemination of important information.

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 23



About IIT Guwahati Research Park

The research park at IIT Guwahati is the first park to be set up in NE India approved by The Ministry

of Human Resource & Development.

IITG is one of the most scenic campuses in the whole of India with the research park located adjacent

to it. The mission is to create a world–class ecosystem for fostering leading edge innovation in the

country.

The vision is to promote the advancement of technology-based innovators, entrepreneurs and small &

large companies through customised space, shared equipment, incubation, mentorship and funding.

Industries can set up their offices at IIT Guwahati Research Park to carry R&D activities and this will

allow them to be part of a vibrant community and gain access to R&D professionals, students and stateof-the-art

R&D. Partnering with the park will enable industries to access the laboratories, high-end

equipment and other resources at IITG.

Honorable Prime Minister, Sri Narendra Modi in “Mann Ki Baat ” on 22 August, 2020 mentioned about

IIT Guwahati Research Park the large quantities of affordable COVID-19 diagnostic kits developed at

IIT Guwahati Research Park.

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 25



About IIT Guwahati TIC

IITG-TIC is registered as a Society and its goal is to encourage entrepreneurial initiatives amongst the

faculty and alumni of the IITG community in particular and other State or Central Government

Technical Institutions of the North East. It is an opportunity to explore and implement the innovative

ideas into a commercially viable product through technology startup companies. This centre facilitates

interdisciplinary research with special emphasis on development and innovation of high-growthknowledge-based-business

and nurtures the indigenous products with innovative hardware/embedded

designs. Technical support, business mentoring and soft loan facility subject to availability are the key

services of this centre. Spreading across an area of approximately 4000 square meters within the

Technology Complex of IIT Guwahati, IITG-TIC has the adequate infrastructure for this endeavour.

IITG-TIC is also one of the Business Incubators approved and recognized by the Ministry of Micro,

Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME), Govt. of India. IITG-TIC is governed by a Governing Body

under the Chairmanship of the Director of IIT Guwahati. A Management Council directs and

administers the smooth functioning of the IITG-TIC. Recently, few incubates have developed

technologies relevant to covid and such contributions are much appreciated.

About NewGen IEDC

New Generation Innovation and Entrepreneurship Development Centre (NewGen IEDC) is the

programme launched by National Science and Technology Entrepreneurship Development Board

(NSTEDB), Department of Science & Technology (DST), Government of India. NewGen IEDC aims

to inculcate the spirit of innovation and entrepreneurship amongst the young students, encourage and

support start-up creation through guidance, mentorship and support. The programme will be

implemented in academic institutions. Students will be encouraged to take up innovative projects with

possibility of commercialization.

NewGen IEDC helps to spread the message of entrepreneurship and create culture for that at IIT

Guwahati. The presence of NewGen IEDCs would create a vibrant entrepreneurial culture amongst the

students. IEDC will strive hard to convert Job-Seekers to Job Generators through the entrepreneurial

route.

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 27



About Research & Industrial Conclave:

Integration 2022

The first ever industrial conclave of its own kind to enhance industry-academia collaboration is

organized at IIT Guwahati. Since 2015, Research conclave is organized to nurture young minds towards

research, innovation and entrepreneurship by Students’ Academic Board (SAB). This time, IIT

Guwahati Research Park and SAB along with IITG-TIC institutes the Research & Industrial Conclave

(RIC) - INTEGRATION 2022. It is aimed at providing an exclusive platform for students, young

innovators, entrepreneurs, industry experts, professionals, academicians, policy makers, investors and

exhibitors to exchange innovative ideas, knowledge base, showcasing product/ services to rejuvenate

various research and development opportunities under one roof with a special focus on northeastern

states. Moreover, the conclave will also include dedicated networking schedules, mentoring sessions

and showcasing of innovations that will provide new entrepreneurs and students investment

opportunities for product development and scaling-up.

Objectives of RIC 2022:

• Showcase the ongoing research activities of research group from different institutions across

the country

• Connecting industry and academia to exchange their problems and solutions

• Providing a platform for students, innovators, entrepreneur to showcase concepts and ideas to

investors, and industries

• Inspiring and encouraging young minds towards research and innovation

Features of RIC 2022:

SCIENTIFIQUE: Oral,

Poster, 3 Minutes

Presentation

ATELIER: Workshop &

Hands-on Session

CONNAISSANCE: Lecture

series by Academicians &

Industrialists

DISCUTIR:

Panel Discussion

EMPRENDIMIENTO:

Start Up Fund Rising

HACKATHON:

Thinkers and Makers

INDSOL:

Industrial Problem

Presentation

TECH TALK:

Technical Product and

Solution Presentation

INNOVATION EXHIBIT:

Product Display

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 29



Reminiscence: A Glimpse of Previous Edition

A Glimpse

• Showcased various research activities

undergoing in different departments

within IIT Guwahati through posters,

lectures, presentations and lab visits.

• Active participation from institutes all

across North-East India.

• Overwhelming response and positive

feedback from academic community

and industries.

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 31


32 Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022


Our Sponsors & Partners

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 33





Connaissance: Lecture Series

Eminent Speakers or Research & Industrial

Conclave 2022

Prof. Lars Peter Hansen

Professor, University of Chicago

Dr. Bhupati Kr. Das

Former Managing Director

Numaligarh Refinery Ltd

Prof. Kushal Konwar Sarma

Professor, College of Veterinary

Science, AAU

Prof. Ramgopal Rao

Director, IIT Delhi

Prof. Anil Kumar Gupta

Professor, Kurukshetra University.

Prof. Subimal Gosh

Professor, IIT Bombay

Dr. Manas Katua

Assistant Professor, IIT Guwahati

Prof. Suman Chakraborty

Professor, IIT Kharagpur

Dr. Diganta Barman

Sr. Scientist NESAC, ISRO

Dr. Harshad Sonawane Prof. Venkat Venkatsubramanian

Head R&D activities, Dr Kalam Professor, Columbia University, New

Center for Innovation

York

Dr. Arunansu Sil

Assistant Professor, IIT Guwahati

Prof Saurabh Basu

Professor, IIT Guwahati

Dr. Abhishek Kumar

Assistant Professor, IIT Guwahati

Prof. Shreepad Karmalkar

Professor, IIT Madras

Prof. Nilanjan Chatterjee

Professor, Johns Hopkins University

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 37


Connaissance: Lecture Series

Prof. Swaroop Nandan Bora

Professor, IIT Guwahati

Dr. Satya Kumar Vankayala

IISc Bangalore

Dr. Vikram Vishal

Associate Professor IIT Bombay

Prof. Debraj Ghosh

IISc Bangalore

Prof. Laura U. Marks

Professor at Simon Fraser University

Dr. Siddhartha Singha

Assistant Professor, IIT Guwahati

Dr. Shraman Goswami

Principal Engineer at Honeywell

Technology Solutions

Prof. Kazunari Domen

Professor, University of Tokyo

Prof. Partha Sarathi Mandal

Professor, IIT Guwahati

Dr. Chandan Karfa

Associate Professor, IIT Guwahati

Prof. Sudipta De

Professor, Jadavpur University

Prof. Arunava Sen

Professor, Planning Unit,

Indian Statistical Institute

Dr. Rajendra Prasad Shukla

Postdoctoral researcher, University of

Twente

Dr. Ranajit Sai

Visiting professor,

CeNSE, IISc, Bengaluru.

38 Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022


Connaissance: Lecture Series

Summary of Talks

Prof. Lars Peter Hansen

Professor, University of Chicago

20 Jan 2022, 2:00 PM

About the Speaker:

Lars Peter Hansen is a leading expert in economic dynamics who works at the forefront of economic thinking

and modeling, drawing approaches from macroeconomics, finance, and statistics. He is a recipient of

the 2013 Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel.

Hansen has made fundamental advances in our understanding of how economic agents cope with changing

and risky environments. He has contributed to the development of statistical methods designed to explore

the interconnections between macroeconomic indicators and assets in financial markets. These methods are

widely used in empirical research in financial economics today.

The Nobel Prize recognizes this work, which has been used to test theories and models that have shaped our

modern understanding of asset pricing. His recent research explores how to quantify intertemporal riskreturn

tradeoffs and ways to model economic behavior when consumers and investors struggle with

uncertainty about the future. Improving models that measure risk and uncertainty have important

implications for financial markets, fiscal policy, and the macroeconomy.

His early research in econometrics was aimed at developing time series statistical methods to investigate

one part of an economic model without having to fully specify and estimate all of the model ingredients.

The applications he explored with several coauthors, such as Kenneth J. Singleton, Scott F. Richard, Robert

Hodrick, and Ravi Jagannathan, included systems that are rich enough to support models of asset valuation

and to identify and clarify empirical puzzles, where real-world financial and economic data were at odds

with prevailing academic models.

Hansen’s recent work focuses on uncertainty and its relationship to long run risks in the macroeconomy. He

explores how models that incorporate ambiguities, beliefs, and skepticism of consumers and investors can

explain economic and financial data and reveal the long-term consequences of policy options. Hansen,

Thomas J. Sargent, and their coauthors have recently developed methods for modeling economic decisionmaking

in environments in which uncertainty is hard to quantify. They explore the consequences for models

with financial markets and characterize environments in which the beliefs of economic actors are fragile.

In addition to the Nobel prize, Hansen has also received many other awards and honors. Hansen won the

2010 BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Award in the Economics, Finance and Management “for

making fundamental contributions to our understanding of how economic actors cope with risky and

changing environments.” He also received the CME Group-MSRI Prize in Innovative Quantitative

Applications in 2008 and the Erwin Plein Nemmers Prize in Economics from Northwestern University in

2006. In 1984, he and Kenneth J. Singleton were awarded the Frisch Medal from the Econometric Society

for their paper, “Generalized Instrumental Variables Estimation of Nonlinear Rational Expectations

Models.”

Hansen is a fellow of the National Academy of Sciences and the American Finance Association. He also is

a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and past president of the Econometric Society.

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 39


Connaissance: Lecture Series

Prof. V.Ramgopal Rao

Professor, IIT Delhi

21 Jan 2022, 12:00 PM

About the Speaker:

Prof. V. Ramgopal Rao is the Director, IIT Delhi. Before joining IIT Delhi as the Director in April 2016, Dr Rao

served as a P. K. Kelkar Chair Professor for Nanotechnology in the Department of Electrical Engineering and as

the Chief Investigator for the Centre of Excellence in Nanoelectronics project at IIT Bombay. Dr Rao has over

480 research publications in the area of nano-scale devices & Nanoelectronics and is an inventor on 49 patents

and patent applications, which include 18 issued US patents. Thirteen of his patents have been licensed to

industries for commercialization. Prof. Rao is a co-founder of two deep technology startups at IIT Bombay

(Nanosniff & Soilsens) which are developing products of relevance to society. Dr Rao is a Fellow of IEEE, a

Fellow of the Indian National Academy of Engineering, the Indian Academy of Sciences, the National Academy

of Sciences, and the Indian National Science Academy.

Prof. Rao's research and leadership contributions have been recognized with over 30 awards and honours in the

country and abroad. He is a recipient of three honorary doctorates. The recognitions Prof. Rao received include

the Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize in Engineering Sciences, Infosys Prize, IEEE EDS Education Award,

Excellence in Research awards from IIT Bombay, DAE and DRDO, Swarnajayanti Fellowship award from the

Department of Science & Technology, IBM Faculty Award, Best Research Award from the Intel Asia Academic

Forum, Techno-Visionary award from the Indian Semiconductor Association, J.C.Bose National Fellowship

among many others. Prof. Rao was an Editor for the IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices during 2003-2012

for the CMOS Devices and Technology area and currently serves on the Editorial Advisory Board of ACS Nano

Letters, a leading international journal in the area of Nanotechnology. He is a Distinguished Lecturer at, IEEE

Electron Devices Society and interacts closely with many semiconductor industries both in India and abroad.

Talk Abstract:

“Connecting Academic R&D with Product Requirements, a need for an Atmanirbar Bharat”

With the advent of on-demand education and digital disruption, and with the emphasis of Govt. of India for

building an AtmaNirbhar Bharat, there is a need for Indian higher educational institutions (HEIs) to reinvent

themselves. Institutions such as IITs are expected to lead this transformation for the country. For this to happen,

Indian HEIs need to focus on “3Is – Interdisciplinary Research, Industry Connect & Internationalization”, the

three pillars needed for taking our institutions to the global standards. In this talk, we will highlight on the

following basic principles for making our institutions contribute to the nation’s Atmanirbhar Bharat mission.

• Multi-disciplinary in their educational offerings

• Locally Engaged & globally networked.

• Having innovation and entrepreneurship as major drivers

• A demonstrator for conversion of knowledge to wealth & a diversified financial structure

• Student-centric and a flexible curriculum tightly integrated with out-of-class learning

• Having a major chunk of the curriculum dedicated to social sciences, ethics, leadership skills, creativity

etc.

• Having a diverse set of faculty with a large chunk of faculty as Joint & Professors-of-Practice drawing

their remuneration from more than one source

• Hubs for industrial R&D with corporates engaging academia on a collaborative relationship model rather

than on a transactional model

40 Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022


Connaissance: Lecture Series

Dr. Bhupati Kr. Das

Formerly Managing Director, Numaligarh Refinery

21 Jan 2022, 2:00 PM

About the Speaker:

Formerly Managing Director of Numaligarh Refinery Ltd and subsequently also of Bharat Oman Refineries Ltd,

a multinational company, Dr Das presently works as an independent consultant, coach and trainer. He had also

served a tenure of two years as Emeritus Professor of Dibrugarh State University and as Adviser of Leadership

Centre of Assam Administrative Staff College. He is an acclaimed poet and writes in English. Presently he lives

in Guwahati along with his wife, Snigdha whereas his two sons, Abhinab and Shantanu, are chasing their own

dreams, Abhinab working in BCPL, Dibrugarh, Assam and Shantanu in Microsoft, Seattle, USA.

Talk Abstract:

“Fostering industry-academia collaborative synergy: Prospects and challenges”

The relationship between university and industry should be interactive, continuous and systemized and it should

ideally be sealed through MOUs with expectations and obligations clearly defined for such collaboration to be

impactful, says Dr. Bhupati Kumar Das in this paper. Dr Das deals with the nuances and the importance of

industry academia interface mechanics in the context of present day fiercely competitive world where India, with

its demographic dividend, has to equip itself to take a leading role in the emerging world dynamics and emphasises

that the earlier we get ready with systems, structures and processes of industry-academia collaboration, the better.

He divides his discourse in five sections – Section I deals with the context; Section II deals with present state of

industry-academia collaboration, summing up saying, ‘some solace but not good enough; Section III analyses the

road-blocks and legacies in the context of industry-academia collaboration; Section IV suggests way forward and

pathways to make industry-academia collaboration successful and impactful and Section V gives the concluding

remarks ending with a word of caution saying while we set up systems and processes for continuous and

interactive collaboration between industry and academia, we must also put in place a strong ethics and regulatory

framework to ensure collaboration taking place on ethical and legitimate edifice.

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 41


Connaissance: Lecture Series

Prof. Laura Marks

Professor, Simon Fraser University

21 Jan 2022, 4:00 PM

About the Speaker:

Laura U. Marks is a Grant Strate University professor at Simon Fraser University and is working on media art

and philosophy with an intercultural focus, and on small-footprint media. She is writing books such as Hanan al-

Cinema: Affections for the Moving Image, Enfolding-Unfolding Aesthetics: From Your Body to the Cosmos.

Marks is also a curator and has developed exhibitions of Arab cinema. Her recent publications are A Survey of

ICT Engineering Research Confirms Streaming Media’s Carbon Footprint, A World Where Flowers Reign,

Bandwidth Imperialism and Small-File Media.

Prof. Shreepad Karmalkar

Professor, IIT Delhi

21 Jan 2022, 4:00 PM

About the Speaker:

Shreepad Karmalkar is a Professor of Electrical Engineering at IIT Madras. He has held visiting research /

teaching assignments at several US universities, namely, University of California, Santa Barbara, Rensselaer

Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York and University of South Carolina, Columbia, USA. He has authored

numerous articles in journals, conferences and books, and has been awarded three patents in the areas of

semiconductor device modeling and process development. His recent work is on modeling and simulation of

power devices, nano-devices, GaN HEMTs and solar cells. He has received the 2006 Vikram Sarabhai Award for

research and a 2007 IBM Faculty Award for research and teaching.

42 Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022


Connaissance: Lecture Series

Dr. Satya Kumar Vankalaya

Professor, IISC Bangalore

21 Jan 2022, 4:00 PM

About the Speaker:

Satya Kumar Vankayala is currently in the Department of Electrical and Communication Engineering, Indian

Institute of Science, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India. His recent publications are A Framework for Exploiting Hard

and Soft LLRs for Low Complexity Decoding in VRAN Systems, Continual Learning-Based Channel Estimation

for 5G Millimeter-Wave Systems, Analysis of downlink NOMA in full duplex-half duplex mixed cell PPP system

with interference. He is currently working on a project Linear prediction for speech signals, Optimal power

allocation policies for low powered wireless communication systems, Efficient low complexity power allocation

policies for wireless communication systems guaranteeing QoS.

Talk Abstract:

Log-likelihood ratio (LLR) computations are an integral part of the communication decoder design. Soft

decoding, the most accurate method of computing LLR, is computationally very expensive. Industries are thus

using approximations that are designed keeping in mind the hardware complexity involved in the optimization

process. In this paper, we propose a neural network-based computation scheme that is trained to mimic

the performance of soft decoding with high accuracy. Besides training, we further reduce the computational

complexity by disabling the weak edges in the neural network and by approximating the activation function. The

degree to which the weak connections are disabled varies according to the quality of service (QoS) and QoS class

identifier (QCI) tables. Our scheme thus offers a three-fold benefit to a firm in terms of commercialization: the

design of a near-optimal low-complex LLR computation scheme that performs well in a 5G setting that demand

high speed and accuracy, implementability using state of-the-art technologies, and the flexibility of design on the

basis of the QoS requirements of the customer application.

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 43


Connaissance: Lecture Series

Prof. Kazunari Domen

Professor, University of Tokyo

21 Jan 2022, 4:00 PM

About the Speaker:

Kazunari Domen received B.S. (1976), M.S. (1979), and PhD (1982) honors in chemistry from the University of

Tokyo. Dr Domen joined Chemical Resources Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology in 1982 as Assistant

Professor and was subsequently promoted to Associate Professor in 1990 and Professor in 1996. Moving to the

University of Tokyo as Professor in 2004, and Cross appointment with Shinshu University as Special Contract

Professor in 2017. University Professor of the University of Tokyo in 2019. He has published more than 800

original and review papers and the h-index is about 130. His research interests now include heterogeneous

catalysis and materials chemistry, with a particular focus on surface chemical reaction dynamics, photocatalysis,

solid acid catalysis, and mesoporous materials.

Talk Abstract:

“Particulate water splitting photocatalysts for large scale solar hydrogen production”

The production of green hydrogen in large quantities and at low cost is a matter of urgency. Water splitting

reactions using particulate photocatalysts have the potential to solve this problem. In this talk, I will introduce

some specific water splitting photocatalysts and the challenge of making them large in area.

Prof. Nilanjan Chaterjee

Johns Hopkins University

22 Jan 2022

About the Speaker:

Nilanjan Chatterjee is a Bloomberg Distinguished Professor of Biostatistics and Genetic Epidemiology at Johns

Hopkins University, with appointments in the Department of Biostatistics in the Bloomberg School of Public

Health and in the Department of Oncology in the Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center in the Johns

Hopkins School of Medicine. He was formerly the chief of the Biostatistics Branch of the National Cancer

Institute's Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics. He is is known for his work in quantitative genetics,

cancer research, big data, statistical methodology, genomics, gene-environment interaction, genetic association

and genome-wide association studies.

44 Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022


Connaissance: Lecture Series

Prof. Suman Chakraborty

IIT, Kharagpur

22 Jan 2022

About the Speaker:

Suman Chakraborty is a professor in the Mechanical Engineering department of the Indian Institute of

Technology Kharagpur, India, and Sir J. C. Bose National Fellow. Currently, he is the Dean of Sponsored

Research and Industrial Consultancy at the same Institute. [1] He was also formerly the Head, School of Medical

Science and Technology (April 2015 to March 2019) and the Indian National Academy of Engineering Chair

Professor (2014–16). Chakraborty's notable research contributions in microfluidics, nanofluidics and

miniaturization include roughness-induced slippery flow in hydrophobic nanochannels in contrary to a

presumably obvious stick, massive augmentation of electrically driven pumping in hydrophobic nanochannels,

capillary-driven spreading of liquid water on atomistically designed hydrophobic surfaces, programmable

electrical modulation of droplets in directions misaligned with the electric field, generating controlled

microbubbles and droplets on a spinning disc, reversing the thermally-driven motion of extremely tiny droplets –

defying common scientific intuitions in all cases. He has also led his own start-up company to effectively translate

his research into the design of medical products. The objective of his company is to bring out novel devices for

low-cost medical diagnostics and foster a healthy life for all those who have been deprived of even the basic

amenities and facilities of primary healthcare over the years.

Talk Abstract:

“Affordable Diagnostic Technologies for the Underserved”

The ongoing pandemic has exposed the challenges due to the non-availability of diagnostic technologies that are

accurate yet low cost, accessible, user-friendly and amenable to massive manufacturing scale-up and

parallelization. The availability of such an easy-to-use and reasonably sensitive detection method for communitylevel

testing holds the potential of capturing the commonly missed cases of early infection and asymptomatic

disease presentation and reducing the opportunity for community-level transmission. Such compelling needs,

along with other prevailing public health challenges, have triggered very active research towards developing novel

diagnostic technologies that essentially offer an amalgamated approach with a trade-off between the scientific

standards of high-end laboratory-based tests with the elegance of common rapid tests. This paradigm appears to

be the future of diagnostics, targeting specific public health measures towards catering for the underserved, with

no distinction between consumers having expected variabilities in the economic barrier, and in the process

'democratize' disease diagnostics with no differential treatment of the rich and the poor.

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 45


Connaissance: Lecture Series

Dr. Harshad Sonavane

Dr. Kalam Centre of Innovation

22 Jan 2022

About the Speaker:

Dr Harshad Sonawane has specialization in Dynamics of Machine Tools, Machining Composites, Alternate

materials for machine tools, Noise and Vibration, Machining of Automotive and Aerospace Alloys, Analytical

modelling of machining processes, DFSS. He has worked both on industry and academic research projects.

During his master and doctorate course, he had worked on a project sponsored by the Aeronautical Research

Development Board (ARDB) Govt. of India. Presently he has been Heading R&D activities at Dr Kalam Center

for Innovation, Bharat Fritz Werner Ltd., a leading Machine tools manufacturer in India. He has been working

on a Research Committee Board Member for a project sponsored by PSA (Principle Scientific Advisor) to the

Government of India since 2016.

Talk Abstract:

“The Role of Mechanical Engineer in the Development of Machine Tools”

This talk will be encouraging Mechanical Engineering students to see machine tools as a new realm for bringing

innovation. The history of machine tools goes back to the 18th Century from hand-driven tools to the present

efficient, IoT-enabled, smart, CNC machines. Nevertheless, a machine tool doesn't seem to be as innovative as

the current automobile. The efficient cutting mechanics, which is the sole purpose of machine tools, is still a topic

of research for many machine tools builders. Therefore, a significant opportunity is available for Mechanical

Engineers to leverage innovations in machine tools. Various sub-domains of research have been highlighted in

this talk wherein the Mechanical engineers can add value to the existing machine tool industries. The speaker has

included practical research examples with which the machine tool performance quality can be further enhanced.

Perhaps, this talk will help motivate Mechanical engineers to select the specific courses, electives, additional

skills towards serving as a researcher/innovator in machine tools industries.

46 Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022


Connaissance: Lecture Series

Dr. Vikram Vishal

IIT, Mumbai

22 Jan 2022

About the Speaker:

Dr Vikram Vishal is Associate Professor, Department of Earth Sciences at IIT Bombay, Adjunct Senior Lecturer

at Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University, Australia and Associate Faculty Interdisciplinary

Programme in Climate Studies, IIT Bombay. He is Recipient of National Award – 2012 & 2017. His research

interests are Reservoir Geomechanics, Unconventional Petrophysics, Carbon Sequestration, Engineering

Geology. His recent journal papers are A systematic capacity assessment and classification of geologic CO2

storage systems in India, International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, Understanding initial opportunities

and key challenges for CCUS deployment in India at scale, Resources, Conservation and Recycling.

Talk Abstract:

“Geologic carbon sequestration as a pathway to net-zero emissions”

India’s energy and climate goals can be addressed in sync through the inclusion of carbon capture, utilization and

storage (CCUS) in its national plan to achieve the 10 trillion economies sustainably in this decade. The five-point

‘Panchamrit’ nectar elements commitment by India to achieve net-zero emissions by 2070, as declared by Prime

Minister at Glasgow at COP26 will require large-scale decarbonization of the industrial sectors in India. Large

point sources of emissions such as power plants, petroleum refineries, fertilizer, cement, steel industries, etc. are

plentiful and widely distributed throughout the country. Effective identification and mapping of these industrial

sources, formation of clusters, and scientific-technological impetus for deployment will be key to India’s

commitments to CO2 mitigation. This work discusses various dimensions of CCUS, its relevance to India, and

the scale of carbon sequestration in different geological sinks in the country.

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 47


Connaissance: Lecture Series

Prof. Debraj Ghosh

Dept of Civil, IISC

22 Jan 2022

About the Speaker:

Debraj Ghosh is currently in department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru, Karnataka,

India. His research interests are Computational mechanics, Stochastic finite elements, Probabilistic methods,

Domain decomposition techniques, Parallel computing. His recent journals are Adaptive reduced order modeling

for nonlinear dynamical systems through a new a posteriori error estimator : Application to uncertainty

quantification, Failure probability estimation of linear time varying systems by progressive refinement of reduced

order models. He is also reviewer of: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, Journal of

Computational Physics, Mathematical Reviews, Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics, SIAM Journal on

Scientific Computing, Shock and Vibration, Computational Mechanics, Journal of Sound and Vibration,

Mechanics of Advanced Materials and Structures.

Dr. Abhishek Kumar

Dept of Civil, IITG

22 Jan 2022

About the Speaker:

Abhishek Kumar is an assistant professor at, Department of Civil Engineering at IIT Guwahati. His research areas

are Seismic Hazard of Urban centres, Seismic Hazard of Nuclear Power Plants, Ground Motion Simulation,

Liquefaction Assessment, Site Response Analysis, Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW), Subsoil

investigation and Geotechnical Testing, Soil Dynamics, Dynamics Testing on Pile, Ground Improvement, Deep

Excavations. He has worked on the project “Propagation path characterization and determination of in-situ slips

along different active faults in the Shillong plateau”.

Talk Abstract:

“An introduction to in-house developed methodologies for seismic source characterization and inverse

ground response analysis at IITG”

In order to understand the regional seismic hazard, it is important to highlight ongoing seismic activity controlling

the ground motion characteristics of the probable earthquake (EQ) scenarios. With the Government of India’s

initiative of “Collective Efforts Inclusive Growth”, numerous large infrastructural projects are in progress in

different parts of the country including Northeast India (NEI). NEI is interwoven between two active plate

boundaries along with regional complex tectonics. As a result, NEI experiences frequent moderate to major EQs

48 Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022


Connaissance: Lecture Series

and at times even great EQs. While the Indian standard puts the entire NEI in seismic zone V, the actual seismic

activity across NEI is quite varying. In addition, rupture characteristics, past EQ distribution, rate of movement,

geology etc. also show significant variation across NEI. As per a recent finding from IIT Guwahati, NEI consists

of 12 seismic source zones and not just one. Each of these source zones ensures that seismic activity within

identified source zone is constant. These findings can be very helpful in the assessment of regional seismic hazard

of NEI or its part by taking the relative contribution of each of the identified seismic sources. Dynamic soils

properties are other important inputs that are required while quantifying local site effect. As a matter of fact, most

of the numerical approaches in understanding local site effects are based on dynamic soil properties that were

developed for other parts of the globe and not for the site of interest. In such a case, whether the outcomes will

be site-specific, is a question of further debate. In another work, an inverse ground response methodology has

been developed by IITG. This methodology utilized ground motion records at various depths to determine

dynamic soil properties of in-situ soil. Collectively, based on the above-developed source characterization and

inverse ground response methodologies, one can assess more realistic information of probable EQ scenario. In

addition, corresponding ground motions at any site of interest, for an EQ safe design can also be obtained

Prof. Kushal Konwar Sarma

College of Veterinary Sciences

22 Jan 2022

About the Speaker:

Kushal Konwar Sarma is an Indian Veterinarian from Assam. Famous as the elephant doctor of Assam, Sarma

was awarded the Padma Shri in the field of medicine in 2020. He had worked tirelessly to treat animals, mostly

elephants. He has tamed 139 captive rogue jumbos. He has also tamed around 100 wild elephants for treatment

and translocation. On average, he treats or tames 750-800 elephants a year.

Prof. Anil Kumar Gupta

Kurukshetra University

22 Jan 2022

About the Speaker:

Anil Kumar Gupta is an Indian scholar in the area of grassroots innovations. He is the founder of the Honey Bee

Network. He was a professor at the Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad. He held an executive vice-chair

at the National Innovation Foundation, where he is a member of its governing board now. He is also a fellow of

the World Academy of Art and Science. He was awarded the Padma Shri in 2004 for his contributions to

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 49


Connaissance: Lecture Series

management education. He is seen as a pioneer in the field of grassroots innovations, in which his contribution

includes documenting people's knowledge with the help of teams of volunteers spread across India.

Prof. Subimal Ghosh

Dept of Civil, IIT Bombay

22 Jan 2022

About the Speaker:

Subimal Ghosh is Institute Chair Professor, Department of Civil Engineering as well as Convener,

Interdisciplinary Program in Climate Studies at Indian Institute of Technology Bombay. His research interests

are Hydro-Climatology and Hydrology. He is currently working on a project Pine-Oak Ecosystem: Interactions

with Water Climate funded by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change. He has memberships at

the American Geophysical Union, Indian Science Congress Association, Associate of Indian National Academy

of Engineers, National Academy of Science (India), Institute of Engineers (India), Indian National Science

Academy, Indian Society for Hydraulics.

Talk Abstract:

“Global and Regional Climate Change and Improving Climate Services”

The increased Green House Gas (GHG) emissions due to anthropogenic activities have resulted in unprecedented

warming around the Globe with an increase of severe climate extremes globally and locally. First, we will

understand the global and regional changes in climate and extremes due to anthropogenic activities. The

adaptation solution lies with improved climate services. The weather, medium-range and Extended Range

Predictions (ERP) have made significant improvements over the recent decades. However, their applications by

the stakeholders have not increased proportionately. Such limited use of forecast is due to uncertainty and a spatial

mismatch in scales between the model grids and farms. Here, we develop a chance-constrained optimization

framework for farm-scale irrigation water management planning for a single week to multiple weeks in advance.

The degrading model performance with time and the related uncertainty is addressed by generating large

ensembles using weather generators. Working with grape farmers in India has revealed that such advance planning

could save water by 3-25% at a farm scale without losing yield, compared with the existing approach requiring

near real-time decisions. Moreover, the co-development of such irrigation tools with farmers increases the use

and usability of S2S predictions. We will also demonstrate how does the improved flood forecasting system help

in planning evacuation.

50 Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022


Connaissance: Lecture Series

Prof. Venkat Venkatsubramaniam

Columbia University, New York

22 Jan 2022

About the Speaker:

Professor Venkat Venkatasubramanian is Samuel Ruben-Peter G. Viele Professor of Engineering in the

Department of Chemical Engineering, Professor of Computer Science (Affiliate), and Professor of Industrial

Engineering and Operations Research (Affiliate) at Columbia University. He earned his Ph. D. in Chemical

Engineering at Cornell, M.S. in Physics at Vanderbilt, and B. Tech. in Chemical Engineering at the University of

Madras, India. He taught at Purdue University for many years before returning to Columbia in 2011.

Venkat is a complex-dynamical-systems theorist interested in developing mathematical models of their structure,

function, and behaviour from fundamental conceptual principles. His natural tendency is to conduct curiositydriven

research in a style that might be considered impressionistic, emphasizing conceptual issues over mere

techniques. He strives to create a simplified but essentially correct model of reality to gain fundamental insights.

Venkat's research interests are diverse, ranging from AI to systems engineering to theoretical physics to

economics, but are generally focused on the theme of understanding complexity and emergent behaviour in

different domains.

Venkat received the Norris Shreve Award for Outstanding Teaching in Chemical Engineering, thrice, at Purdue

University. He won the Computing in Chemical Engineering Award from AIChE and is a Fellow of AIChE. In

2011, the College of Engineering at Purdue University recognized his contributions with the Research Excellence

Award. In 2020, Venkat was recognized with a Distinguished Alumni Award from A. C. College of Technology.

From 2009-19, he served as Editor, Computers and Chemical Engineering. His recent book, How Much Inequality

is Fair? Mathematical Principles of a Moral, Optimal, and Stable Capitalist Society, was published in 2017. Three

of his papers are among the ten most-cited papers in the 43-year history of Computers & Chemical Engineering.

According to Stanford Citations Impact Study, Venkat is in the top 0.14% worldwide in chemical engineering

(industrial engineering and automation category). Venkat’s other interests include comparative theology, classical

music, and cricket.

Talk Abstract:

“First-principles-based Artificial Intelligence: Combining Symbolic and Numeric AI”

The dramatic progress of machine learning (ML) in applications such as computer vision, game playing, and

natural language processing has many scientists and engineers excited about the potential opportunities in

traditional science and engineering domains. However, there is an essential difference between applying ML in

these applications versus physiochemical (and biological) domains. The latter is governed by fundamental laws

of physics and chemistry (and biology), which is typically not the case in the former. Thus, while purely datadriven

machine learning has its immediate uses, the long-term success of artificial intelligence (AI) in scientific

and engineering domains, I believe, would depend on leveraging first-principles knowledge effectively. This

requires the careful integration of symbolic AI (i.e., knowledge-based reasoning framework) with numeric AI

(i.e., machine learning). Although in the current excitement about machine learning, many seem to have forgotten

the impressive progress made in the 1980s and 1990s in symbolic AI, those advances would play an important

role in the future as we develop first-principles-based hybrid-AI models for applications in science and

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 51


Connaissance: Lecture Series

engineering. The exciting and intellectually challenging problems lie in developing such conceptual frameworks

as mechanism-based causal explanations, domain-specific knowledge discovery engines, and analytical theories

of emergence. I this talk, I discuss these challenges and opportunities going forward.

Dr. Manas Khatua

Dept of CSE, IIT Guwahati

22 Jan 2022

About the Speaker:

Manas Khatua is assistant professor, Department of CSE at IIT Guwahati. His research areas are Internet of

Things, Wireless Networks, Sensor Networks. He is working on research project "Adaptive Cell Scheduling

Function of 6TiSCH Network for Efficient Data Communication in Industrial IoT". "Adaptive Control Packet

Broadcasting Scheme for Faster 6TiSCH Network Bootstrapping ", "IEEE Internet of Things Journal” are his

recent published works. Security, TinyML for IoT, Cloud and Edge Computing, Cyber Physical Systems.

Talk Abstract:

“Global and Regional Climate Change and Improving Climate Services”

The increased Green House Gas (GHG) emissions due to anthropogenic activities have resulted in unprecedented

warming around the Globe with an increase of severe climate extremes globally and locally. First, we will

understand the global and regional changes in climate and extremes due to anthropogenic activities. The

adaptation solution lies with improved climate services. The weather, medium-range and Extended Range

Predictions (ERP) have made significant improvements over the recent decades. However, their applications by

the stakeholders have not increased proportionately. Such limited use of forecast is due to uncertainty and a spatial

mismatch in scales between the model grids and farms. Here, we develop a chance-constrained optimization

framework for farm-scale irrigation water management planning for a single week to multiple weeks in advance.

The degrading model performance with time and the related uncertainty is addressed by generating large

ensembles using weather generators. Working with grape farmers in India has revealed that such advance planning

could save water by 3-25% at a farm scale without losing yield, compared with the existing approach requiring

near real-time decisions. Moreover, the co-development of such irrigation tools with farmers increases the use

and usability of S2S predictions. We will also demonstrate how does the improved flood forecasting system help

in planning evacuation.

52 Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022


Connaissance: Lecture Series

Dr. Chandan Karfa

Dept of CSE, IIT Guwahati

22 Jan 2022

About the Speaker:

Dr Chandan Karfa pursued his B-tech from the University of Kalyani, West Bengal, in Information Technology.

Then completed his masters as well as his PhD from IIT Kharagpur in computer science and engineering.

he then continued his path in research as a senior R&D engineer in Synopsys from September 2011 – July 2016.

He then joined IIT Guwahati in August 2016 and continues his journey with us and along with it, he worked as a

visiting researcher at new-york university from May – July 2019.

He worked on many projects as principal investigator, some of them are Formal Verification of Optimizing

Transformations of Programs and Optimizations for FPGAs, Formal Verification of Optimizing Transformations

of Programs etc.

During his long journey in the field of research, he was rewarded with many achievements. He was

awarded Qualcomm Faculty Award 2021, Innovative Student Projects Award 2013 (Doctoral Level) from

the Indian National Academy of Engineering (INAE), TechInventor Award 2013 from India Electronics and

Semiconductor Association (IESA). Are one of his achievements.

Talk Abstract:

“Role of CSE in Semiconductor Industries”

We are in the era of the semiconductor revolution. We are carrying a billion transistors in our pocket. How is this

revolution possible? Is the Integrated circuit (IC) development job of only hardware engineers? How crucial is

the role played by the computer scientists? In this talk, I will discuss the role of CSE in the IC development

process. The needs of electronic design automation (EDA) and the software used in such steps will be discussed

at a very high level. I will also cover the basic steps of the IC development process. I will conclude the talk with

a discussion on how machine learning and EDA can help each other.

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 53





Discutir: Panel Discussion

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 57


Discutir: Panel Discussion

58 Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022


Discutir: Panel Discussion

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 59





Atelier: Workshop

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 63


Atelier: Workshop

64 Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022




Hackathon: Thinkers and Makers

Problem Statement: How to manage to contain COVID-19 in an

academic residential campus in the event of outbreak?

Imagine that you are residing in a campus like IIT Guwahati where there are stakeholders like Residents

(in hostels/quarters), CRT (COVID Response Team), Medical Units (like hospitals, doctors, nurses

etc.), Isolation Facilities, and any other relevant units. The challenge is to design and develop a Web

based Desktop/Mobile enabled COVID-19 management system in the event of an outbreak.

You should use only the open-sources tools, packages, library. You are free to imagine and

incorporate any realistic scenario, and provide the best possible management solution.

Guidelines for the team:

1. You can form a team of up to 4 members to address the problem.

2. The participation for the event/hackathon is free of cost for students of IIT Guwahati.

3. You should properly define the scenario for which you are developing the system in a word /

excel/pdf file and include it in the zip file of your solution.

4. You are free to assume any realistic scenario for your problem.

5. You should define the stakeholders of your system who would be the primary players. For ex: CRT,

Hospitals, Doctors, Nurses, Students, Faculties, Project staff, Workers, Staff, Mess, shops etc. No of

Doctors, students etc.

6. You are free to assume more or less stakeholders as per your convenience for problem definition

and solving.

7. You should provide the list of software/tools/libraries/OS/browser for running your system,

installation guidelines, and user’s manual.

8. You should use open-source tools/libraries/software/os for solving the problem.

9. You should archive your codes in tar/zip file, with the name .tar.gz or .zip, and submit to through the

google form attached in the given mail by 23:59Hrs, 19/01/2021.

10. You should provide the complete installation guidelines of your system.

11. If in case you use a database, you will also have to provide the script to create the database structure

/ instructions to install/activate/upload the database.

12. If you have your data ready for testing, provide that also.

13. On installing the system newly, the system should be a blank system. I.e. any preloaded data shall

not be there and we shall have a option to upload the data to the system for testing.

14. Organizer will install your system on local machines. The submitted solution should be in running

condition to be considered for evaluation. 1

5. In the event of difficulties in installation, you will be required to extend help to the installation team.

16. Top 10 submissions will be awarded certificates.

17. The winner team will be awarded with a cash prize.

18. The winner team shall give License to Dean, II&SI, IIT Guwahati for free of cost usage.

HINT: Your system should work as a client-server mode. The system should be able to installed in a

server machine, and users should be able to access the system from a client machine through a Web

browser or a mobile application.

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 67





Emprendimiento: Startup Fund Rising

Emprendimiento: Startup Fund Rising

A platform to help and encourage Startups to present their start-up ideas, showcase, network,

collaborate to raise necessary funds to launch or upscale their enterprise. Startups will also have the

platform to pitch to the audience of the Conclave to find cofounders, early employees, interns etc. they

will also be allowed to generate revenue in the form of Crowd Funding.

A program to be supported by mentorship starting from Ideation through Proof of Concept to Business

Plan Stage for enabling them to join the startup eco system to be conducted at IIT Guwahati Research

Park.

Idea to Proof of Concept, Business Modelling, Product and Service Development, Prototyping, Market

Connect, Seed and Scale Up Funding supported by mentorship starting from Ideation through Proof of

Concept to Business Plan Stage for enabling them to join the startup eco system to be conducted at IIT

Guwahati Research Park

The applications for the startup ideas will be segregated and evaluated by a committee consisting of

faculties and industrialist based on sectors/fields and shortlist top 100 ideas. Interested shortlisted

applicant shall be provided Entrepreneurship Development Program free of cost. The top 5 shortlisted

ideas will be rewarded with prize.

Those who are interested only in Entrepreneurship Development Program shall have to register and pay

for the program.

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 71










Abstract for Oral Presentation



Scientifique: Oral

Agro and Rural Technology

SUSTAINABLE BUILDING DEVELOPMENT FOR SLUM

DWELLERS

A. Agniprabha Roy 1, * , B. Sansaptak De 2 ,

1

Department of Agro and Rural Technogy, IIT Guwahati, India

2

Centre for Engineering, New York University

* Corresponding author e-mail: sansaptak.iem@gmail.com

The unprecedented growth of industrialization and urbanization has triggered the rise of slum

housing in the contemporary world. According to the UN-Habitat report of 2015-16, around a

billion people in the world live in slum conditions today. Providing access to improved housing

through sustainable slum development is a major global challenge. In this paper, we have pitched

our idea to design and build a fully functional and furnished house with provisions for kitchen and

toilet for a family of four to six at a low price albeit with upgraded living standards for slum

dwellers. In lieu of the recent schemes under “Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs”,“ HOSUING

FOR ALL–By 2026”, a total of 83.63 lakhs houses were sanctioned which accounted to a total of

Rs 495838 crores of money to be invested. A complete study was made on the prevailing conditions

that existed in different parts of India and a separate new modified design of the housing model

with related dimensions were done in 3D modelling software. The design of the house encompasses

distinctive features including moveable structural blocks, natural light and cooling effect,

environmentally sustainable aquaponic farming, and rainwater harvesting provisions. The old

bamboo material (Bambusabalcooa) with a new composite which had both the properties of water

resistant and termite repellant.The project idea was based on comprehensive technical research

keeping in view the requirements for decent living conditions in conjunction with low affordability

of low-income communities and to reduce consumption of energy and promote usage of renewable

resources and rainwater harvesting. The implementation of the proposed project will not only

provide a sustainable living abode to the slum dwellers but also a dignified life and redefined

identity that can turn the page of the history of slum dwelling in this planet.

Fig. 1. The Exterior structure of House

Fig 2. The Roofing Material

Efficacy of river bed material in vermifiltration

Ankit Kumar a , Anshul Kumar a , Meena Khwairakpam a

a

School of agro and rural technology,

Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati (IITG),

Guwahati, Assam, India

Decentralized wastewater treatment systems (DEWATs) provides on-site wastewater treatment

facility is a perquisite of time as urban development aggravated water demand and surge in

wastewater generation. One such technique where earthworms and microorganism’s symbiotic

action treats the wastewater, known as vermifiltration is a decentralized treatment process which is

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capable of treating different types of wastewater. It is a process which is advantageous as it produces

no sludge and odor thus establishing an example of zero liquid discharge (ZLD). This study is

intended to compare a geofilter and vermifilter. An indigenous reactor set up with gravels, medium

size gravels as supporting layer and river bed as medium layer was used. Also, vermigratings as

active layer where earthworms will stay in vermifilter was made. For evaluating its efficiency, a

study of 30 days will be carried on to test the effluent and effluent will be used for fertigation. Water

will be pumped with HLR of 1 m 3 / m 2 /d to both the reactors with earthworm density of 10000/m 2 .

Expected outcomes from this study will be a pollutant and pathogen free water, which will be

essential for reuse in agriculture as well as in aquaculture over and above that it produces

vermicompost which can be further utilized as organic fertilizer. This study hence will stablish a

potential alternative to conventional wastewater treatment system.

Keywords

Vermifiltration, Zero liquid discharge, Wastewater treatment, Earthworms, Decentralize

wastewater treatment

Establishment of clonal micropropagation of Indian black rice (Oryza

sativa L.) through in vitro technique

Arabindu Debbarma 1 and Rakhi Chaturvedi 1,2 *

1

Center for Rural Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati-781039, Assam, India

2

Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati

Guwahati-781039, Assam, India

*Email: rakhi_chaturvedi@iitg.ac.in

Abstract

An efficient clonal propagation system was established for Indian black rice variety using meristem

as an explant. The meristem explants were excised to one centimetre from one-week-old seedling

grown in vitro on half strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. The explants were cultured on

MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) to induce

shoot development from axillary buds. An efficient rate of shoot multiplication with an average

number of 4.7±1.8 shoots was observed at higher concentration of BAP. The MS basal medium

devoid of any growth regulator was used as control. Only single shoot development from axillary

bud was observed in control. The cultures were also grown in liquid medium for comparative

analysis. Compare to semisolid medium, liquid cultures showed higher rate of shoot multiplication

where an average of 12.8±1.7 shoots were obtained per culture. The future study will focus on

response of different plant growth regulators for shoot multiplication and clonal fidelity assessment

to check genetic variation in the clonal propagated plants.

Keywords: Black rice, Meristem, Murashige

Rheological Study of Wheat Flour Substituted with Manipur’s Black

Rice (Chakhao)

Bandita Bagchi Banerjee 1,* & Sandeep Janghu 2

1,2

NIFTEM-T, Ministry of Food Processing Technology, Govt. of India, Guwahati-LO

*

Corresponding author email: banditabagchibanerjee@gmail.com

Northeast India beholds some of the most nutritious and functional cereals which are used by the

natives as replenishment diet. Amongst such kinds is black rice of Manipur locally known as

Chakhao. Inspite of having some of the most desired nutritional attributes, these cereals are not into

the mainstream agriculture. Black rice is rich in antioxidants, anthocyanins, fibers (Bhuvaneswari

et al. 2020) and beneficial in reducing blood sugar levels and cholesterols (Kumar and Murali

2020). It is in the traditional cuisine for products like porridge and sweets. Rheological

standardization on percentage substitution of conventional wheat flour with black rice will

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enumerate the best percentage substitution pertaining to rheological property. Products from the

optimized flour, propose to be functional food products offering increased venture opportunities for

the people of the region. In the present study, wheat flour was substituted at 0%, 10%, 20% and

30% with Chakhao flour and the dough evaluated on its rheological properties viz. maximum

overpressure needed to inflate the dough bubble (P), length of the average curve from start of

inflation until rupture of the dough bubble (L), swelling index (G), deformation energy (W),

configuration ratio (P/L), Elasticity index (Ie), Minimum of first derivative (Dmin.), Maximum of

first derivative (Dmax), and Strain hardening index (SH), as measured in Alveograph of Chopin

technologies. The substituted flours were also subjected to analysis in Mixolab Model IC201-J for

rheological properties such as mixing stability (min), protein weakening, starch gelatinization,

amylolytic activity and starch gelling. Of all the attributes, it was observed that P value was

indicative of baking quality (Jodal and Larsen, 2021) and recorded lowest (89 mm H 2O) for flour

with 20% substitution inferring dough tenacity and lesser resistance to deformation. However, the

recorded deformation energy (W) value (105 J) indicates easy rupture of dough bubble at 20%

substitution. The 30% substituted flour showed acceptable P value of 90 mm H 2O and W value of

118J. Hence, it can make its way to the baking industry as seconded by data on L and G values

which are 62mm and 17.5 respectively, maximum amongst all substitution levels. Though the C5

value from Mixo lab reading is recorded highest for 30% substitution indicating starch

retrogradation and hardening in cakes, etc. (Kahraman et al. 2008), the substitution percentage yet

be concluded to be the best, and employed for other baked products such as biscuits, etc considering

the high nutritional richness brought in by black rice.

Keywords: black rice, flour, rheology, substitution, products

References

1) Bhuvaneswari S, Gopala Krishnan S, Bollinedi H, Saha S, Ellur RK, Vinod KK, Singh IM,

Prakash N, Bhowmick PK, Nagarajan M, Singh NK and Singh AK (2020) Genetic Architecture

and Anthocyanin Profiling of Aromatic Rice From Manipur Reveals Divergence of Chakhao

Landraces. Frontiers in Genetics. 11:570731.

2) Murali RD and Kumar N (2020) Black Rice: A Novel Ingredient in Food Processing. Journal of

Nutrition and Food Sciences 10:771

3) Jødal AS and Larsen KL (2021) Investigation of the relationships between the alveograph

parameters. Scientific Reports 11(1):5349

4) Kahraman K, Sakıyan O, Ozturk S, Koksel H, Sumnu G and Dubat A (2008) Utilization

of Mixolab to predict the suitability of flours in terms of cake quality. European Food

Research and Technology 227:565–570

Biological treatment of invasive weed Climbing Hempweed using twostage

composting technology

Heena Kauser and Meena Khwairakpam

School of Agro and Rural Technology, IIT Guwahati

Emailid: heena176154002@iitg.ac.in

India is home to 11 of the world's 100 most invasive plant species, with the majority of them

invading protected areas. These terrestrial weeds have a number of negative effects on the

socioeconomic aspects of the environment. Climbing Hempweed is a dreadful weed that wreaks

havoc on agricultural output. It contains toxic compounds that are harmful to the natural ecosystem

and have a negative impact on the environment's economic and aesthetic aspects. This research

demonstrates the treatment and management of this plant using a two-stage composting technique.

Traditional vermicomposting takes 45-60 days to mature, whereas rotary drum composting only

takes 25-30 days. Even though vermicomposting takes longer time, the end product is of higher

quality than compost. Using an in-vessel technique to pre-degrade the substrate prior to

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vermicomposting, the time required can be reduced by 20-30 days. In the current study, Esenia

fetida, Eudrilus euginae, and Perionyx ceylanensis were used to select the best earthworm species

for low mortality and high-quality compost. Furthermore, E. fetida generated vermicompost with

3.24 % total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), 12.87 g/kg total phosphorus (TP), and 22.08 g/kg potassium.

To validate the vermicompost produced product, a phytotoxicity assay was performed on Vigna

radiata and Allium cepa.

Keywords: Climbing Hempweed; Earthworm species; Rotary drum composting; Toxicity

assessment; Vermicomposting;

Effect of branching of starch on Amylolytic hydrolysis: kinetic

modelling exploration of human starch digestion

Amey Mindewar, Esha Bala, Siddhartha Singha*

School of Agro and Rural Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati, Assam

∗ Corresponding author: siddharthafp@iitg.ac.in

Starch digestion is an essential step in the human digestive system. Amylase including

amyloglucosidase system degrades the starch component of the food matrix to not only liberate

energy but also facilitate bio-accessibility of the other precursor molecules. Starch present in the

food has its own complexity in terms of structure and reactivity with non-starch components that

regulates their enzymatic digestion. Therefore, understanding degradation of different starch

molecules helps explaining the role of starches in calorie contribution, role in health and using them

in food processing. The present study was conducted to understand effect of starch structure

(precisely branching) on its in vitro digestion by amylase and amyloglucosidase system. The

experimental work done by Xuewen et al. was taken to create appropriate model and simulate to

understand the enzyme kinetics. Eight starch samples with varying degrees of branching were

prepared enzymatically and used for digestion to maltose by pancreatic alpha-amylase and

amyloglucosidase mixture. For all the starch samples, the reaction order and specific reaction rate

(k) were found by the differential method of reaction kinetics. The correlation was examined

between (k) and degree branching (DP) of the starch substrates with the help of the origin

sowftware. All the starch samples followed first order of reaction except potato granules (i.e.,

n=0.3). A moderate negative correlation (r= -0.70) was obtained between k and DP. For the amylase

activity of potato starch, the absorbance value at 540 nm, fits the Michaelis–Menten equation

model.

Protein and fat content improvement by commercial whole soybean

Fermentation: case studies from North East India

Neha Jha, Siddhratha Singha*

School of Agro and Rural Technology, IIT Guwahati

*Email: siddharthafp@iitg.ac.in

Abstract

The study investigated some of the physical and nutritional properties of whole grain soybean

(Glycine max) products available in North East India. North East India is characterized by a diverse

population with different ethnic background and has their own methods of fermenting food

materials to enhance their shelf life, taste, and nutrition. It was found that fermented soybean

contained mixed microbial populations because of the lack of sterility and the use of natural

fermentation and also differences in processing techniques. The samples were collected from:

‘Arunachal Pradesh (AP)’, ‘Guwahati (L)’, ‘Manipur (M)’, ‘Nagaland (N)’ and ‘Kalimpong (K)’.

The soaked and boiled commercial soybean sample was taken as the control ‘C’. The water extract

obtained from the samples including the control (C) showed the pH range from 6 for sample ‘K’ to

8 for ‘L’. The moisture content ranged between 50 % for ‘AP’ and ‘N’ to 70 % for ‘M’. The total

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protein ranged between 42.65% (N) and 49.7 % (L). The crude fat ranged from 25.4 % for (AP) to

21.6 % for (M). Ash content was maximum for (L) i.e.2.69 % while minimum for (M) i.e. 1.33 %.

Sample ‘M’ had higher solubilized components suggesting a better digestibility and absorption of

nutritional components when ingested. The products ‘M’ and ‘N’ had a strong aroma which is

appetizing for the people indigenous to that specific region while ‘K’ had a light aroma. From the

results, we can conclude that the differences in physical properties, microstructure and nutritional

aspects of the traditional fermented soybean might result from the differences in seed variety,

fermenting time, techniques and fermenting agents. This ethnic knowledge of fermenting whole

grain soybean product can be further harnessed to produce a consistent quality, safe and

nutritionally better product for global consumption.

Keywords: Soybean, fermentation, Natural, Microbes, Ethnic, Nutrition.

Multi-tissues secondary metabolite analysis in neem plant (Azadirachta

indica) as a potential source of agro-chemical

Rajendra Adak 1 and Rakhi Chaturvedi 1,2 *

1

School of Agro and Rural Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati,

Guwahati-781039, Assam, INDIA

2

Department of Biosciences & Bioengineering,

Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati-781039, Assam, INDIA

*E-mail: rakhi_chaturvedi@iitg.ac.in

Abstract

Excessive uses of synthetic insecticides have been elevated in post green revolution era for crop

protection and post-harvest losses of edible crops. Commercially available synthetic insecticides

are persistent for longer duration in nature, contaminates agricultural field, air/ground/surface

water, and causes extinction of non-targeted beneficial organisms. Under such circumstances,

finding some naturally available bio-insecticides will be highly fruitful. Azadirachtin is highly

acknowledged bio-insecticides available in neem plant (Azadirachta indica). Molecular and

structural complexity hinders in the chemical synthesis of azadirachtin in the laboratory. To address

such limitations, comparative analysis of azadirachtin content has been performed among different

tissues of neem plant, such as leaf, bark, stem, flower, root and seed. Samples were harvested from

3-years-old neem plants from the experimental garden at IIT Guwahati. The samples were dried in

oven at 30±2°C temperature. Optimum separation and purification of azadirachtin was achieved by

high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Gradual increase of azadirachtin content was

observed from leaves (1.37±0.05 mg/gm), bark (2.36±0.04 mg/gm), stem (3.13±0.07 mg/gm),

flower (4.69±0.13 mg/gm), root (5.6±0.06 mg/gm) and seed (7.11±0.0.01 mg/gm). With this route

highest azadirachtin content was obtained from seed and least azadirachtin content from leaves. In

conclusion this study has screened tissue specific azadirachtin content in neem plant and that tissue

would be a unique source for higher metabolites extraction and commercialization.

Key words- Azadirachtin, agro-chemical, insecticide, metabolite, HPLC.

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A comparative analysis of physical properties of Chakhao Amubi and

Chakhao Poreiton

Authors: Rubeka Idrishi 1* , Siddhartha Singha 2 , Latha Rangan 3

1

Research scholar (PMRF), School of Agro and Rural Technology

2

Assistant Professor, School of Agro and Rural Technology

3

Professor, Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering

1,2,3

Indian Institute of Technology- Guwahati (IITG) Assam, 781039- India

*Corresponding author, email id: rubeka1995@iitg.ac.in

Abstract

Rice has been one of the most consumed staple grains in almost every diet. In many countries

dependence and demands of rice-based food has not been met by the domestic rice consumption,

therefore it is a necessary requirement to meet the demands of the domestic rice by food

diversification. Pigmented rice is primarily consumed in Asian countries especially in China,

Indonesia and Korea. The pigments found are primarily found in black, deep purple and red colour,

of which the intensity may differ with the type of cultivar as some deep red and purple may also

appear black due to its intensity. Black Rice (Oryza sativa L), is widely popular in Asia due to its

pigment, flavour and aroma, its chemical composition and volatility is still being studied by many

countries. Black rice is found to be advantageous as compared to white rice due to its high

anthocyanin, protein, vitamin and mineral content which varies with different cultivar and the area

it is produced in. Since last few decades, there is huge rise globally in population quitting or

decreasing the white rice-based diet and inclining towards other carbohydrate sources, which

requires least changes to dietary habits, cuisines and cooking practices.

In India, Manipur Black rice has been GI tagged in 2020 for its quality and organic production. The

two prime varieties which are found in Manipur are Chakhao Poreiton and Chakhao Amubi. The

colour of Chakhao Amubi is reddish brown to dark brown whereas the colour of Chakhao poreiton

rice is intense (more in black). Both of the varieties differ in their physicochemical properties and

in this study the physical properties of both the varieties have been determined and compared with

each other in order to draw some significant conclusions regarding their properties which is used

as a determination criterion for studying their bulk storage, cooking quality, processing and various

other physicochemical characterization.

Keywords

Black rice, Chakhao, Manipur, Functional Food, Pigmented Rice

A comparative study on starch digestibility, glycemic index and resistant

starch of black rice and high yielding polished rice verities

C, Shashi Kumar, Siddhartha Singha, Sudip Mitra

School of Agro and Rural Technology,

Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam-781039

E-mail; shash176154102@iitg.ac.in

Abstract

Carbohydrates are a major source of energy in the human diet. In recent years, obesity and diabetes

are the foremost common problem of humans. Currently, the consumption of a whole grain diet has

been gaining attention due to its health benefits like type-II diabetes, cancer, and gastrointestinal

disorders. Whole grains cereals are a unique source of nutrients and bioactive active compounds.

Rice is one of the ideal food for dietary intervention because it is a staple food for half the world’s

population. Black rice is traditionally grown in North-East India and it is rich in anthocyanin and

phytochemicals. Due to various geographical conditions doesn’t grow in other parts of the country.

Hence, the aim of the experiment is a comparative study on starch digestibility, glycemic index,

and resistant starch of Black rice and High yielding polished rice verities. The rate of starch

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digestion of cooked rice is complete or near-complete upon consumption, but the rate of digestion

is influenced by intrinsic food properties and extrinsic influences. In this investigation, in vitro

digestion is carried out for black rice and high-yielding rice verities. It helps to understand the effect

of processing on starch digestibility and it can provide information to food manufacturers to

regulate starch digestibility of existing rice varieties.

Keywords: starch digestibility; resistant starch; glycemic index; hydrolysis index

In vitro mass multiplication of Phyllanthus sp. using nodal segment as an

explant

Tapas Das 1 and Rakhi Chaturvedi 1,2 *

1

School of Agro and Rural Technology,

Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati-781039, Assam, INDIA

2

Department of Biosciences & Bioengineering,

Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati-781039, Assam, INDIA

*E-mail: rakhi_chaturvedi@iitg.ac.in

Abstract

Phyllanthus sp. belongs to the family Phyllanthaceae, is an important medicinal plant, popularly

known for its hepatoprotective and antiviral activities since ancient times. This plant is rich source

of various medicinal metabolites, such as phyllanthin, hypophyllanthin etc. Phyllanthus sp. plants

are very prone to pathogenic attack, which hinders consistent supply of plant material in

downstream processing. To satisfy the growing demand and the vast need for pharmaceutical

industries, attaining enhanced production of the metabolite compounds has been targeted. To

address such limitations, the present study aimed to generate large scale propagation of in vitro

plants for commercialization. An in vitro protocol has been established for mass multiplication of

Phyllanthus sp. using nodal segment as an explant in various media combinations. Murashige-

Skoog (MS) basal media supplemented with various concentration of cytokinin has been used in

this experiment. Based on our experimental outcomes, it has been shown that, kinetin (6-

furfurylaminopurine) at 1µM concentration was found most suitable for in vitro multiplication.

Furthermore, in vitro grown plant has been transferred in root development medium in half strength

MS, along with various concentration of IBA (indole-3-butyric acid). Rooting was achieved (80%)

of the micro shoot at 0.5µM concentration of IBA among various concentration of auxin tested.

Regenerated plants were successfully acclimatized and about 90% of the plantlets were survived

under ex vitro conditions. In conclusion, a simple in vitro mass multiplication method has been

described of Phyllanthus sp. that can fulfil the requirement of disease free plantlets for agroindustrial

purpose.

Keywords- Hepatoprotective, micropropagation, Phyllanthus, phyllanthin, Phyllanthaceae

Comparative study of thermal properties of different form stable

composite phase change materials for their candidacy in passive cooling

of buildings

Urbashi Bordoloi 1, * , Dr. Pankaj Kalita 2

1

School of Agro and Rural Technology, IIT Guwahati, India

2

School of Energy Science and Engineering, IIT Guwahati, India

*

Corresponding author e-mail: urbashi@iitg.ac.in

To meet the demand for thermal comfort in a building, adequate space heating and cooling provision

is needed, resulting in constant rising energy costs and harmful emissions to the environment. It is

predicted that room AC penetration will increase both for urban and rural sectors in developing

countries [1]. In this regard, developing renewable, affordable and passive solutions for building

thermal comfort is highly encouraged. Organic phase change materials (PCM) can be a good option

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as a passive solution as they are chemically inert, nontoxic, melt in human comfort range, noncorrosive.

To enhance the leakage stability and thermal performance of organic PCMs,

biocomposite PCMs are developed with porous biochar as a supporting matrix [2]. In this work, the

biochars are derived from three abundant and waste biomass, namely, water hyacinth (WH),

Thevetia peruviana (TP) and sugarcane bagasse (SCB). Organic PCM (OM35) of melting

temperature 35 o C is selected for the study. As the study of thermal properties for PCM is a critical

design parameter for use in building, comparative analyses of the developed biocomposite PCMs

have been carried out. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results showed that the thermal

stability of the biocomposite PCMs is higher than that of the original PCM. The lowest thermal

degradation can be observed with TP PCM with a mass loss of 54.60%, whereas the mass loss for

OM35 is 99.98%. The Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) results confirmed that the meting

point and heat of fusion for all the biocomposite PCMs are lower than the original PCM. The

melting point temperature is 31-32 o C for all the composites, which is very suitable for maintaining

thermal comfort in buildings in tropical countries like India.

References

[1] P. Finch, “Action plan,” Archit. Rev., no. 1396, pp. 20–21, 2013, doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-

5116-3_17.

[2] D. Das, U. Bordoloi, H. H. Muigai, and P. Kalita, “A novel form stable PCM based bio

composite material for solar thermal energy storage applications,” J. Energy Storage, vol. 30, no.

December 2019, p. 101403, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.est.2020.101403.

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Biosciences & Bioengineering

Computational analysis reveals similarities and differences between

SCLC subtypes

Abhay Singh 2 , Parth Desai 3 , Maalavika Pillai 1 , Nilay Agarwal 1 , Nobu Takahashi 3,4 , Anish Thomas 3 , Mohit

Kumar Jolly 1

1

Centre for BioSystems Science and Engineering,

Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India

2

Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering,

Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati, India

3

Developmental Therapeutics Branch,

Center for Cancer Research, NCI, NIH, Bethesda, USA

4

Department of Medical Oncology,

National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan

*

anish.thomas@nih.gov (A.T.), mkjolly@iisc.ac.in (M.K.J.)

Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a neuroendocrine malignancy with dismal survival rates. Previous

studies have revealed inter and intra tumoral heterogeneity of SCLC driven by neuroendocrine

differentiation and multiple gene expression signatures have been proposed to classify the distinct

SCLC molecular subtypes However, few questions remain unanswered: a) how many SCLC

subtypes exist? b) how similar or different are these subtypes?, c) which gene list(s) can be used to

identify those specific subtypes? Here, we show that irrespective of the three gene sets (33 genes,

50 genes, 105 genes) proposed in different studies to classify SCLC into different subtypes, the

markers of phenotypic heterogeneity in SCLC form a “teams” like pattern of co-expressed modules.

Moreover, the 105 gene set could classify SCLC cell lines into five clusters, three of which can be

distinctly mapped to the SCLC-A, SCLC-N and SCLC-Y subtypes. Intriguingly, we noticed a high

degree of similarity in the transcriptional landscape of two non-neuroendocrine subtypes: SCLC-Y

and SCLC-I*, as well as in their enrichment of EMT. Thus, our analysis elucidates the landscape

of phenotypic heterogeneity enabling diverse SCLC subtypes.

Keywords: SCLC, Neuroendocrine, Phenotypic heterogeneity, ASCL1, NEUROD1, POU2F3,

YAP1, EMT

Fig. 1. Existence of distinct groups of genes associated with phenotypic heterogeneity in SCLC

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Fig. 2. SCLC cell lines exhibit enrichment of distinct subtypes

References

Gay, CM et al. (2021). Patterns of transcription factor programs and immune pathway activation

define four major subtypes of SCLC with distinct therapeutic vulnerabilities. Cancer Cell 39, 346-

360.E7.

Groves, SM, Ireland, A, Liu, Q, Simmons, AJ, Lau, K, Iams, WT, Tyson, D, Lovly, CM, Oliver,

TG, and Quaranta, V (2021). Cancer Hallmarks Define a Continuum of Plastic Cell States between

Small Cell Lung Cancer Archetypes. BioRxiv, 427865.

Owonikoko, TK et al. (2021). YAP1 Expression in SCLC Defines a Distinct Subtype With T-cell–

Inflamed Phenotype. J Thorac Oncol 16, 464–476.

Zhang, W et al. (2018). Small cell lung cancer tumors and preclinical models display heterogeneity

of neuroendocrine phenotypes. Transl Lung Cancer Res 7, 32–49.

Role of Piezo1 in mechanobiology of MSCs

Amit Sharma 1, * , Jina Bhattacharyya 2 , and Bithiah Grace Jaganathan 1

1

Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, IIT Guwahati

2

Department of Hematology, GMCH

*

Corresponding author e-mail: amit.2015@iitg.ac.in

Piezo1 is one of the mechanically activated ion channels which has recently gained attention as a

critical regulator of bone formation. Mesenchymal stem cells are multipotent progenitor cells

capable of differentiating into osteogenic and adipogenic lineage and play a role in bone

homeostasis by maintaining the pool of osteoblasts. Yoda1 was identified as a chemical activator

of Piezo1 and shown to increase osteogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Subsequently,

Yoda1-induced Piezo1 activation has also been shown to increase migration and calcium

mineralization in dental-pulp MSCs. We aimed at delineating the role of Piezo1 in cellular functions

of bone-marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) with the help of its chemical agonist Yoda1 and

antagonist Dooku1. We found that Yoda1 induced activation of Piezo1 in primary BM-MSCs which

resulted in an elongated spindle-shaped morphology accompanied with reduction in their

proliferation (0.6X, p=0.02) and migration rate (0.2X, p<0.01). Yoda1 treatment also resulted in

2.4-fold reduction (p<0.0001) in the clonogenicity of MSCs measured by colony formation assay.

Interestingly, we found that pretreatment of BM-MSCs with Yoda1 inhibits osteogenic as well as

adipogenic differentiation marked by significant decrease in Alizarin Red S and Oil Red O staining.

This inhibition was more pronounced when BM-MSCs were treated continuously during the

differentiation. Integrins are known to mediate the migration and differentiation potential of MSCs

and Yoda1 treatment was found to reduce the surface expression of CD29 (0.6X, p<0.001) and

CD90 (0.5X, p<0.01), whereas the expression of CD44, CD49E and CD49F were unaffected.

Piezo1 activation has been reported to activate ERK phosphorylation in different cell types. Our

western blotting analysis revealed that treatment with Yoda1 results in transient activation of ERK

in BM-MSCs which returns to its pre-activation state within 12 hours of treatment. Wnt/β-catenin

signaling has been implicated in mediating the effects of Piezo1 on osteogenic commitment of

osteoblasts. However, we did not find any significant effect of Yoda1 treatment on the expression

of β-catenin in BM-MSCs. The reduction in proliferation of Yoda1-treated MSCs was reflected in

downregulation of cell cyclin genes such as CCNB1 (fold change:0.7, p=0.0052), CCNE1 (fold

change: 0.85), CCNE2 (fold change: 0.5), and upregulation of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1A

(fold change: 2.4, p=0.009), although no significant difference was observed in expression of

CCND1, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and TP53. Yoda1-treated MSCs also showed

up-regulation of stemness related genes OCT4A (fold change: 2.24, p=0.019), NANOG (fold

change= 2.2, p=0.029) and SOX2 (fold change= 3, p=0.04) in all the samples (N=4). Notch

signaling is known to inhibit osteogenesis in MSCs. We found an upregulation of NOTCH1 (fold

change= 2.3, p=0.011) and DNER (fold change= 2.1), but downregulation of NOTCH3 (fold

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change= 0.57), without any impact on NOTCH2 expression upon Yoda1 treatment. In agreement

with the reduction in osteogenesis, Yoda1 treatment resulted in upregulation of inhibitor of

differentiation genes ID2 (fold change= 2.4, p=0.013) and ID4 (fold change= 1.7) with a

concomitant downregulation of osteogenic markers ALP (0.37X, p=0.0013). However, there was a

donor-dependent variation in the effect of Yoda1 treatment on expression of RUNX2 and OCN

(Osteocalcin). Interestingly, there was an increase in expression of adipogenic marker PPARG (fold

change= 2.7, p=0.013) in Yoda1-treated MSCs. Additionally, Yoda1 treatment increased

mitochondrial ROS (fold change= 1.5, p=0.004) which can also inhibit the osteo-differentiation of

BM-MSCs. Dooku1 could abrogate Yoda1-induced Ca2+ flux in BM-MSCs but did not show any

significant effect in any functional assay or gene expression analysis. However, silencing of Piezo1

in BM-MSCs could rescue the migration speed and differentiation capacity of Yoda1 treated cells.

Our results suggest that Piezo1 has differential role and Yoda1-induced Piezo1 activation induces

quiescence and inhibits differentiation in undifferentiated MSCs. There is a requirement of effective

chemical antagonists against Piezo1 to further elucidate the specificity and mechanism involved in

agonist induced Piezo1 activation.

Phosphorylation-Induced Conformational Dynamics and Inhibition of

Janus Kinase 1 by Suppressors of Cytokine Signaling 1

Md Fulbabu Sk, and Parimal Kar*

Department of Biosciences and Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Khandwa

Road, Indore-453552, Madhya Pradesh, India

Abstract

The dysfunction of the JAK/STAT (Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription)

pathway consequences several pathophysiological conditions, including autoimmune disorders.

The negative feedback regulators of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway, suppressors of cytokine

signaling (SOCS), act as a natural inhibitor of JAK and inhibit the aberrant activity. SOCS1 is the

most potent member of the SOCS family, whose KIR (kinase inhibitory region) targets the

substrate-binding groove of JAK with high affinity and blocks the phosphorylation of JAK kinases.

Overall, we performed an aggregate of 13 µs MD simulations on the activation loop's three

different phosphorylation (double and singles) states. Results from our simulations show

that the single Tyr 1034 phosphorylation could stabilize the JAK1/SOCS1 complex as well

as the flexible activation segment. The phosphate-binding loop (P-loop) shows

conformational variability at dual and single phosphorylated states. The principal

component analysis and protein structure network analysis reveal that the different

phosphorylation states and SOCS1 binding induce intermediated inactive conformations of

JAK1, which could be a better target for future JAK1 selective drug design. The structural

protein network analysis suggests that the com-pY1034 system is stabilized due to higher values of

network hubs than the other two complex systems. Moreover, the binding free energy

calculations suggested that pTyr 1034 states show a higher affinity toward SOCS1 than the

dual and pTyr 1035 states. We believe that the mechanistic understanding of JAK1/SOCS1

complexation will aid future studies related to peptide inhibitors based on SOCS1.

Keywords: JAK/STAT, SOCS1, phosphorylation, conformational dynamics, molecular dynamics,

*Corresponding author; E-mail: parimal@iiti.ac.in; Phone: +91 731 660 3261

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Identification and validation of specific diagnostic marker from the

malaria kinome to develop a rapid and effective approach for malaria

diagnosis

M. Rajendra Prasad 1 and Vishal Trivedi *

Malaria Research Group, Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, IIT Guwahati, Guwahati, Assam,

India-781039

*vtrivedi@iitg.ac.in

ABSTRACT

Every year, between 200 and 300 million cases of malaria are reported, resulting in the deaths of

around 400,000 individuals around the world. P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae, and P.

knowlesi are the most prevalent species that cause malaria in humans. P. falciparum infection causes

severe complicated malaria, which is responsible for more than 90% of morbidity and mortality.

Failure to diagnose the disease quickly and precisely is one of the key factors contributing to the

high number of cases and deaths. The "gold standard" diagnostic approach for malaria diagnosis is

light microscopy, which is the most popular and widely utilized. However, it suffers from various

limitations such as the difficulty in detecting parasites at sub-microscopic levels and the need for

highly trained personal to distinguish between different species. As a result, attempts have been

made to create Rapid Antigen Tests (RATs) and PCR methods for species identification and to

detect parasites at the genomic level. Target antigens such as Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich

protein2 (PfHRP2), Plasmodium falciparum-specific parasite lactate dehydrogenase (Pf-pLDH),

Pv-pLDH for Plasmodium vivax, and pan LDH or aldolase for the other four Plasmodium species

are currently used in quick diagnostic procedures. But these targets have a number of issues, which

includes gene deletion in the case of PfHRP2, false-positive results in the case of pLDH, and low

expression levels in the case of aldolases. As a result, we looked into a group of kinases known as

FIKK (Phe-Ile-Lys-Lys), which are found in the apicomplexan group and have no similarity with

human kinases and thus could be used as biomarkers. The FIKK kinases are reported to be greatly

expanded in P. falciparum, which has 21 of them, whereas most other Plasmodium species only

have one copy of the gene. From our initial studies, we have identified the non-homologous

sequence from the whole genomic sequence (including introns) of individual FIKK kinases that

would help us to differentiate between species using specific primers in PCR. In addition, the highly

antigenic regions of the FIKKs are being exploited to produce an antibody-based rapid diagnostic

kit with improved sensitivity and faster detection. These quick and effective diagnostic approaches

based on the FIKK kinases would be ideal to solve the current limitations in low-income and

developing nations with higher rates of malaria-related mortality and resource-constrained

situations.

Keywords: Death, FIKK, malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, PCR, Rapid Antigen Test.

EEG based dynamic connectomes for brain functionality analysis

Mangesh Ramaji Kose 1 , Mitul Kumar Ahirwal 2 , Mithilesh Atulkar 3

National Institute of Technology Raipur(C.G.), India 1,3

Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal(M.P.), India 2

mangeshkose@gmail.com 1 , ahirwalmitul@gmail.com 2 , matulkar.mca@nitrr.ac.in 3

The brain is considered the most complicated organ in the human body, consisting of billions of

interconnected neurons[1]. The group of neurons having similar functional properties are regarded

as an individual functional region of the brain. A human brain consists of multiple functional areas

that interact to generate a cognitive activity[3]. The interaction between functional regions can be

modelled using the connectomes/brain connectivity network (BCN)/ brain connectivity

graph[4][5]. This study focused on functional connectivity of the brain, which refers to the

statistical connection between the discrete functional regions of the brain. The functional

connectivity is measured using electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. The motive of this study is to

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characterize the changes in the connectivity pattern of the BCN corresponding to schizophrenia

patients and healthy controls with respect to time. The EEG signal from diseased and healthy

subjects is segmented using a sliding window approach with and without overlapping. The weighted

brain functional brain connectivity network is constructed from each segment using coherence as a

connectivity measure. The difference in the connectivity pattern of BCN corresponding to the

diseased and healthy subject at particular point in time is analysed using an advanced network

descriptor called ordinal patterns.

The motivation for the application of ordinal patterns on BCN comes from the diffusion model of

communication, which is reported to be effective for the analysis of brain networks [3], [6]. The

sequence of weighted edges in the path of information flow has an ordinal relationship in the

diffusion model of communication for brain network analysis[7]. Therefore, the network signifier

that considers weight and the ordinal relationship between edges can more precisely represent the

network. The ordinal patterns are mined from the set of BCN corresponding to the diseased and

healthy subjects. The ordinal patterns that occur frequently in the BCN of diseased and healthy

subjects are identified by calculating frequency ratio for each ordinal pattern. Further, the

discriminative ordinal patterns for diseased and healthy subjects are identified by calculating the

ratio score for frequent ordinal patterns. The discriminative ordinal patterns characterize the

topology of the BCN for diseased and healthy subject. The discriminative patterns corresponding

to the BCN from each segment of a complete signal represents the dynamics of the connectivity

patterns with respect to time. The discriminative patterns are further used to extract features from

BCN to perform automated disease diagnosis using machine learning algorithms.

Index terms: - EEG, brain connectivity network, ordinal patterns, k-nearest neighbours, support

vector machine, random forest.

References: -

[1] M. K. Ahirwal and M. R. Kose, “Emotion Recognition System based on EEG signal: A

Comparative Study of Different Features and Classifiers,” in 2018 Second International Conference

on Computing Methodologies and Communication (ICCMC), Feb. 2018, pp. 472–476. doi:

10.1109/ICCMC.2018.8488044.

[2] P. M. Rossini et al., “Methods for analysis of brain connectivity: An IFCN-sponsored

review,” Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 130, no. 10, pp. 1833–1858, Oct. 2019, doi:

10.1016/j.clinph.2019.06.006.

[3] A. Fornito, A. Zalesky, and E. Bullmore, “An Introduction to Brain Networks,” in

Fundamentals of Brain Network Analysis, Elsevier, 2016, pp. 1–35. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-

407908-3.00001-7.

[4] M. K. Ahirwal and M. R. Kose, “Audio-visual stimulation based emotion classification by

correlated EEG channels,” Health and Technology, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 7–23, Jan. 2020, doi:

10.1007/s12553-019-00394-5.

[5] F. v. Farahani, W. Karwowski, and N. R. Lighthall, “Application of graph theory for

identifying connectivity patterns in human brain networks: A systematic review,” Frontiers in

Neuroscience, vol. 13, no. JUN. Frontiers Media S.A., ss2019. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2019.00585.

[6] J. Goni et al., “Resting-brain functional connectivity predicted by analytic measures of

network communication,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 111, no. 2, pp.

833–838, Jan. 2014, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1315529111.

[7] D. Zhang, J. Huang, B. Jie, J. Du, L. Tu, and M. Liu, “Ordinal Pattern: A New Descriptor

for Brain Connectivity Networks,” IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, vol. 37, no. 7, pp.

1711–1722, Jul. 2018, doi: 10.1109/TMI.2018.2798500.

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Characterizing the dual targeting and function of the peroxisomal

protein Pex30

Nayan Moni Deori, Terence Infant W L and Shirisha Nagotu

Organelle Biology and Cellular Ageing Lab

Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, IIT Guwahati

Guwahati-781039, Assam, India

Peroxisomes are single membrane-bound dynamic organelles whose number and function may vary

according to the need of the cell. Peroxisomes interact with other surrounding organelles like

mitochondria, lipid droplet, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) etc in order to optimize their multiple

cellular functions. Pex30 is a peroxisomal protein that resides in the ER and associates with

peroxisomes to regulate peroxisome biogenesis. Our study aims to understand the importance of

this dual localization of Pex30 and for this we have constructed Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

expressing Pex30-GFP and GFP-Pex30. Fluorescence microscopy revealed an interesting

difference in phenotype and localization pattern for both the fusion proteins. To understand the

observed differences in phenotype and localization, we constructed systematic truncations of the

protein. Each of these truncations showed a distinct phenotype and localization to peroxisome and

ER. Further to understand the role of post translational modifications (PTMs) in targeting and

function of the protein, Pex30 was purified and subjected to mass spectrometry analysis to identify

the residues that undergo phosphorylation. The significance of phosphorylation status of Pex30 and

its contribution in localization and function of the protein was then studied by modification of the

phosphorylated sites to non-phosphorylatable and phosphomimetic mutant variants. Microscopy

analysis revealed that the mutant variant did not exhibit alteration in localization of Pex30 to

peroxisomes and ER; whereas a reduced number of peroxisomes was observed in cells expressing

phosphomimetic mutations in peroxisome inducing conditions.

Dual arrows of virus and malaria parasite on the host dart:

Could the co-infection hit hard?

Omkar Indari * , Hem Chandra Jha

1

Infection Bioengineering Group, Department of Biosciences and Biomedical Engineering, IIT Indore, India

*Corresponding author

author e-mail: phd1701171018@iiti.ac.in

Malaria is one of the major health concerns and is responsible for more than 200 million cases per

year for the last many decades. The disease is prevailing in the population from ancient times and

yet many aspects regarding it are under-explored like the outcome of its coinfection with other

pathogens. During malaria, a co-infection of viral pathogens could be neglected and aid in disease

severity. Looking into the malaria viral coinfection research, some studies have put forward malaria

responsible for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation inside the body. The two pathogens together

lead to Burkitt lymphoma, but their association is still vaguely explored. Although the EBV resides

commonly in B cells, it has the potency to infect different body cells including blood-brain barrier

endothelial cells (ECs). We hypothesize that during malaria-mediated EBV reactivation, the virus

may infect blood-brain barrier ECs. This can further cause endothelial activation, inflammation

causing modulation of nearby cells, and subsequent increased RBC sequestration. This can hence

assist in the development of cerebral malaria pathology. We are currently utilizing in vitro

techniques, to delve into our hypothesis. Notably, we recently have discovered that EBV can infect

ECs leading to endothelial activation. The secretions from this infection modulate cells generally

present in the endothelial microenvironment specifically astrocytes, microglia, neurons, and ECs

themselves. Further, the scenario leads to enhancing the RBC adhesion on ECs. We are now trying

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to explore the prospects concerning the changes in host response concerning this co-infection. The

recent pandemic has affected malaria-endemic regions as well. This alarmingly put forward various

questions regarding malaria coinfection with the pandemic responsible virus, SARS-CoV-2. We

explored the clinical reports, to decipher the changes occurring in the host during this novel

coinfection scenario. Surprisingly, the coinfection with SARS-CoV-2 during malaria may

accelerate the disease severity. As earlier trials have suggested the deteriorating effect of cerebral

malaria its use in coinfection scenarios needs more investigation. For efficient therapy and

treatment, malaria and its viral coinfections scenario require more exploration at experimental and

clinical levels worldwide.

An efficient cellulase enzyme enriches the toolbox of biomass conversion

and bioethanol production

Parmeshwar Vitthal Gavande 1 *, Priyanka Nath 1 , Krishan Kumar 1 , Nazneen Ahmed 1 , Carlos M.G.A. Fontes 2

and Arun Goyal 1

1 Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Carbohydrate Enzyme Biotechnology Laboratory,

Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati, Assam.

2 NZYTech – Genes & Enzymes, Estrada do Paço do Lumiar, Campus do Lumiar, Edifício E -R/C, 1649-

038 Lisbon, Portugal.

*Corresponding Author, Email: parmeshw@iitg.ac.in

A Cellulase enzyme hydrolysing lignocellulosic biomasses efficiently is the need of hour to cater

the renewable energy sector. The gene named RfGH5_4, encoding an endoglucanase of glycoside

hydrolase family 5 from R. flavefaciens FD-1 v3 was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli

BL21(DE3) cells and purified to homogeneity. RfGH5_4, a 41 kDa protein showed maximum

activity at pH 5.5 and 55℃. It was stable between pH 5.0-8.0, retaining 85% activity and between

5℃-45℃, retaining 75% activity, after 60 min. RfGH5_4 displayed maximum activity (U/mg)

against barley β-D-glucan (665) followed by carboxymethyl cellulose (450), xyloglucan (343),

konjac-glucomannan (285), Phosphoric Acid Swollen Cellulose-PASC (86), beechwood-xylan

(21.7) and carob-galactomannan (16), thereby displaying the multi-functionality. The catalytic

efficiency (mL.mg -1 s -1 ) of RfGH5_4 against carboxymethyl cellulose (145.9) and konjac

glucomannan (528.9) was recorded to be significantly greater. K + and Li + ions significantly

enhanced RfGH5_4 activity, whereas Ca 2+ drastically impaired. The melting temperature (T m) of

RfGH5_4 was 70℃, that was unaffected by EDTA or EGTA, indicating the absence of inherent

divalent metal ions in the RfGH5_4 structure. The TLC and MALDI-TOF-MS analyses of RfGH5_4

treated hydrolysates of cellulosic and hemicellulosic polysaccharides displayed oligosaccharides of

degree of polymerization (DP) between DP2-DP11. These results established RfGH5_4 as an endoacting

and efficient multi-functional endoglucanase from R. flavefaciens FD-1 v3. RfGH5_4 was

found to be a processive endoglucanase, initially hydrolysing the cellulose into cellotetraose

followed by persistent release of cellotriose and cellobiose. RfGH5_4 yielded remarkable amount

of TRS (mg/g) from alkali pre-treated biomass of cotton (27), sugarcane bagasse (38), sorghum

(62) and finger millet (85) in a 48 h saccharification. The multifunctionality and greater hydrolysis

efficiency on lignocellulose makes RfGH5_4 a potential endoglucanase for lignocellulose

deconstruction for bioethanol production and other biotechnological applications in prebiotics,

paper, food and feed industry.

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Fig. 1. Function of RfGH5_4 in a nutshell.

Assessing relevance of Gastric cancer cell lines as tumor models and

identifying important miRNAs involved in EMT metastasis pathway

Shreya Taluja 1 and Perumal Jayaraj 2*

1 Department of Biochemistry, Sri Venkateswara College, University of Delhi, India

2

Department of Zoology, Sri Venkateswara College, University of Delhi, India

* Corresponding Author

Contact: 1220003@svc.edu.du.ac.in

Cancer cell lines are human-cancer derived in-vitro cell models that continue to divide and

proliferate under controlled laboratory conditions. They are widely used in medical research to

study the biochemistry of tumor cells and to test the efficacy of therapeutics. Despite their extensive

application, significant differences in genetic and transcriptomic expression exist between cell lines

and tumor cells, owing to high levels of dysregulation and dysfunction in malignancies. For

example, there are significant transcriptional expression differences between breast cancer cell lines

and tumors due to absence of stromal and immune components in-vitro. The purpose of this study

was to identify the relevance of gastric cancer cell line in conducting gastric tumor research, and to

identify potentially actionable genes and miRNAs associated with the Epithelial Mesenchymal

Transition (EMT) pathway involved in metastasis.

Using a two-tiered bioinformatics based approach, firstly, a comparison between the tumor and the

gastric cancer cell line was performed using functional genomics data available in the literature to

identify the common Differentially Expressed Genes (DEGs). It was followed by pathway

enrichment analysis and miRNA network analysis of the obtained genes. The unbiased study

revealed overexpression of two DEGs in both gastric cancer cell line and tumor samples - ACTN1

and COL1A1. Interestingly, both of these genes were found to be involved in the EMT pathway,

which causes accelerated metastasis in gastric cancer, owing to the effects of two virulence genes

of the gastric cancer-causing bacteria, Helicobacter pylori- cagA and vacA. Further, the survival

analysis of the two genes, ACTN1 and COL1A1, revealed their key role in gastric cancer severity,

evident by regressed survival rate of gastric cancer patients. A total of eight miRNAs relevant to

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COL1A1 and ACTN1 were identified. Our findings indicate that significant differences exist in the

upregulated and downregulated genes, between gastric cancer cell lines and tumor samples,

revealing potentially actionable genes and miRNAs which may be explored in their potential as

clinically plausible drug targets. The data obtained may be used to study the underlying EMT

pathway involved in progression and the development of gastric cancer insinuated by Helicobacter

pylori in the commensal host.

Keywords- Gastric cancer, Metastasis, Helicobacter pylori, Cancer cell lines, Bioinformatics

Exploiting the unique interaction between the Newcastle disease virus

and the malaria parasite for novel therapeutic interventions against

malaria

Siddharth Neog 1, Sachin Kumar 2, Vishal Trivedi 1*

1,2,1* Dept of Biosciences and Bioengineering, IIT Guwahati, Amingaon, Guwahati, India

1*vtrivedi@iitg.ac.in

ABSTRACT

Malaria is regarded as a leading cause of severe public health and economic burden in the modern

world, with about 200 million cases recorded each year. During their digenetic life-cycle, the

plasmodium species that cause malaria exhibit multiple developmental stages and have evolved

efficient evasion strategies to achieve drug resistance. In response to the parasite's growing

resistance to the frontline antimalarials including ACTs, new treatment strategies must be

developed. Since the last decade, various viral platforms have shown promise in the treatment,

targeted delivery, and development of vaccines for a variety of human diseases, including cancer.

In this context, we investigated the novel interaction between the Newcastle disease virus and the

malaria parasite. The pathophysiology aspects of malaria and NDV co-infection are poorly

understood. However, the literature demonstrates that both Plasmodium and NDV engage and

initiate cell entry or invasion through similar Protein: ligand interactions. NDV utilizes sialic acidrich

glycoproteins of the host cells to bind and initiate viral entry through its HN and F receptors.

The malaria parasite employs its EBLs (Erythrocyte Binding Ligands) for high-affinity interactions

with sialic acid moieties of Glycophorin A and C, expressed on the erythrocyte’s surface, to invade

the cell via the sialic acid-dependent invasion pathway. This possible interaction of NDV with the

vessel of the malaria parasite is unique to the virus unlike others currently in study or trials. It

provides an opportunity to target engineered virus particles directly to the malaria-infected

erythrocytes causing the perturbation of the Plasmodium erythrocytic cycle. As a result, we

investigated the prospect of establishing a novel viral vector platform for targeted delivery, along

with elucidating the molecular mechanism of NDV-Plasmodium interaction. The virus is also

ideal for the application since it is known to induce minimal pathogenesis in people, resulting in

relatively mild flu-like symptoms or conjunctivitis. The study also seeks to provide new

experimental and conceptual insights for using NDV or similar viruses to treat other infectious

diseases.

Keywords: Malaria, NDV, targeted delivery, viral vectors

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Investigating the Maturation of CRISPR RNA in an atypical CRISPR-

Cas System

Sunanda Chhetry*, B. Anand

Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati

CRISPR-Cas system is an adaptive immune system in prokaryotes that limits the genomic invasion

of mobile genetic elements. Operationally, CRISPR-Cas system consists of three stages, namely,

CRISPR adaptation wherein the phage-derived DNA is specifically acquired into the CRISPR

locus. This is followed by CRISPR maturation in which the CRISPR array of repeats and variable

spacer sequences are transcribed to produce the pre-crRNA, which undergoes processing by Cas

nuclease to become a mature CRISPR RNA (crRNA). During the recurrent invasion, crRNA guides

the CRISPR machinery to target the foreign DNA and this is called as interference. Based on the

composition and architecture of the Cas effector complex, this system is divided into two major

classes, namely, Class 1 and Class 2, which are further divided into various subtypes. Type I-G − a

newly identified CRISPR variant− possesses many interesting domain combinations. Among these,

we noted that Csb2 is a fusion of Cas5 and Cas6. We investigated the role of Csb2 in crRNA

maturation and its interplay with Cas7 homolog called Csb1. Our work establishes an unusual

interaction between Csb1 and Csb2 during CRISPR RNA maturation that is crucial for CRISPR

based DNA targeting in type I-G system.

CRISPR/Cas9 and iPSC Biobanking in Neurodegenerative Disease

Modelling

Tirthankar Sen 1 , Rajkumar P Thummer 1, *

1

Laboratory for Stem Cell Engineering and Regenerative Medicine (SCERM), Department of BSBE, IIT

Guwahati, India.

*

Corresponding author e-mail: rthu@iitg.ac.in

Traditional disease modelling applications rely on the procurement of patient-derived cell lines

expressing the relevant disease phenotype. This is a problem for neurodegenerative disease

modelling applications since brain tissue is one of the most inaccessible tissue systems in the human

body. Furthermore, procurement of such tissue requires invasive biopsies which are often untenable

due to their inherent risk. In order to avoid these issues, researchers often source tissue samples

from cadavers. This solution, however, has its own problems as cadaver-derived samples are more

likely to represent the terminal stages of a complex disease process. Clinically translatable insights

related to the overall disease etiology as well as the pathophysiological idiosyncrasies of specific

disease stages therefore may get obfuscated.

With the advent of induced Pluripotent Stem Cells(iPSCs), direct access to diseased patient tissue

samples have been rendered unnecessary. iPSCs are a special type of artificially generated stem

cells that can differentiate into cell types affiliated to all three germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm

and endoderm). A wide variety of easily accessible patient-derived cell lines sourced via noninvasive

or minimally invasive routes can be reprogrammed with an appropriate combination of

reprogramming factors to give rise to iPSCs. They can subsequently be differentiated to any

required cell type using the right combination of growth factors and other chemical components.

iPSCs can therefore allow researchers to recapitulate the pathological markers of almost any

complex disease process with minimal risk to the patient. Moreover, since iPSCs can be

differentiated into any cell fate, the impacts of one or multiple genetic mutations across different

cell types can also be effectively interrogated without substantial incremental effort.

Although iPSCs offer significant improvements in disease modelling applications, patient-derived,

mutation-bearing cell lines need to be isolated for reprogramming into iPSCs. Thus, physical access

to patient-derived tissue is mandatory for any research project involving iPSC-based disease

modelling. This requirement can impose significant constraints during modelling multifactorial

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Biosciences & Bioengineering

(significantly modulated by a combination of genetic and environmental factors) neurodegenerative

diseases like Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. This is because tissue samples from a large and diverse

cohort of patients demonstrating a significant degree of genetic heterogeneity would be required to

effectively model the disease. Requirements like these involve a significant degree of logistical

challenges which can limit scientific progress. This limitation is expunged by CRISPR/Cas9-iPSCbased

neurodegenerative disease models.

The CRISPR/Cas9 platform enables researchers to seamlessly target and introduce precise

modifications in the genomic DNA of a huge assortment of human cell lines including iPSCs, thus

imparting the capability to introduce or correct mutations, as desired. A target cell line can be

reprogrammed into an iPSC, genome-edited and subsequently differentiated into the desired cell

line. Using this system, healthy iPSC lines as well as iPSC lines bearing non-desired mutations can

be seamlessly edited to generate the relevant disease models. This confers an unprecedented level

of flexibility and robustness in a variety of neurodegenerative disease modelling applications.

An iPSC generation pipeline is a complex, resource-intensive and time-consuming process.

Generation and validation of a research-grade iPSC line is estimated to cost in the vicinity of

$10,000–$25,000. Furthermore, successful completion of all the steps involved in the iPSC

generation process can require up to nine months. CRISPR/Cas9-based genome edited researchgrade

iPSC lines incur even higher expenses and time requirements due to the additional processing

and QA/QC steps involved. In addition to the time required to generate iPSC lines it can take an

additional six months to produce iPSC derivatives from them. Establishing clinical-grade iPSC

lines, which have even more stringent requirements, can cost up to $80,000. Therefore, it is in the

best interests of all the stakeholders involved in such projects that the established iPSC lines are

maximally utilized. Central repositories of such established cell lines, i.e., iPSC biobanks, serve

this role very adeptly.

This review will outline how CRISPR/Cas9, iPSCs and the iPSC biobanking infrastructures are

accelerating neurodegenerative disease research and taking us closer to a cure for debilitating

neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s Disease, Parkinson’s Disease and many more.

Fig. 1. Summary of the applications of CRISPR/Cas9 and iPSC Biobanking in Neurodegenerative

Disease Modelling

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Optimisation of multicomponent inorganic salt composition as draw

solute for preparation of concentrated tea extract using forward osmosis

process

Ananya Bardhan 1, * , Senthilmurugan Subbiah 1 , and Kaustubha Mohanty 1

1

Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati, Assam

*

Corresponding author e-mail: anany176107102@iitg.ac.in

Concentration of liquid food is an essential unit operation in food and beverage processing

industries. Forward osmosis (FO) has been identified as an interesting alternative of the

conventional thermal processes. Using FO process, a concentrated solution with high solid contents

can be obtained at ambient operating condition. Reverse solute flux (RSF) is one the major

drawback of FO process, limiting the commercial application of this process. In food and beverage

processing industries optimized balance between forward and RSF needs to be established. For the

preparation of liquid food concentrate, the RSF can result in altered taste, which may eventually

reduce consumer acceptability. The objective of this work is to identify an appropriate food-grade

multicomponent draw solute composition with enhanced permeate flux and reduced RSF. In this

study, based on the osmotic properties of selected mixed-salt solutions of magnesium chloride

(MgCl 2 ), sodium chloride (NaCl), sodium sulphate (Na 2 SO 4 ), and potassium chloride (KCl) were

investigated. Based on the osmotic properties, three different compositions of DS were identified.

The selected composition of the multicomponent DS were also evaluated on basis of their FO

performance in terms of permeate flux (J w, L m −2 h −1 ), RSF (J s , g m −2 h −1 ), and specific salt flux

(g L −1 ). Compared to salts with monovalent ions (such as NaCl and KCl) divalent ions salts (such

as MgCl 2 , and Na 2 SO 4 ) the RSF is expected to reduce due to their larger hydrated radius. The

performance of the optimised multicomponent DS were compared with single-salt DS at same

osmotic pressure. The results of the conducted on lab-scale experimental studies revealed that

compared to single salt DS, the identified multicomponent DS were able to provide nearby permeate

flux with significantly reduced RSF.

Effect of vibration on dewetting of thin polymer films for technological

applications

*Aniruddha Deb 1 , Partho Sarathi Gooh Pattader 1,2

1 Department of Chemical Engineering, IIT Guwahati, Assam-781039

2 Centre for Nanotechnology, IIT Guwahati, Assam-781039

*

Corresponding author e-mail: aniruddha.deb@iitg.ac.in

We have experimentally investigated the solvent induced dewetting characteristics of thin polymer

films in the presence of mechanical vibration. The effect of sinusoidal vibration on the solvent

induced dewetting of polystyrene thin films of various thicknesses was studied. It was observed

that the presence of vibration enhances the kinetics of the dewetting compare to the classical solvent

induced dewetting. Reorganization of the assembly of molecules using dewetting is a well-known

phenomenon. Technological applications of functional materials require a robust range of control

over size dependent chemical and physical properties including spatial arrangement of molecules

over a substrate. Dewetting causes the rupture of thin films that in turn form an ensemble of

separated islands of polymer having micro to nano scale dimension. The physics behind the

conventional thermal or solvent induced dewetting is well established. Disjoining Pressure arising

from the interaction of the confining interfaces of the thin film induces the initiation and growth of

circular holes. The rims surrounding the holes gradually merge due to the growth of the holes and

form voronoi tessalation like structure by the narrow polymer ribbons. These ribbons disintegrate

due to Rayleigh Plateau instability and form droplets having characteristic length scale. The

presence of vibration induces an extra pressure along with disjoining pressure that results in faster

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kinetics of the dewetting. A theoretical analysis of acoustic vibration induced dewetting was

presented earlier by Schäffer et. al. 1 Here we experimentally attempted to characterize the evolution

of the dewetted morphology and also the effect of vibration parameters on the final morphology of

the dewetted structures.

Keywords: Vibration, Disjoining Pressure, Thin film instability, Dewetting.

Reference:

1. Schäffer, E. & Steiner, U. Acoustic instabilities in thin polymer films. Eur. Phys. J. E 8,

347–351 (2002).

Impact of Lewis Base addition on Propene selectivity during Propane

oxidative dehydrogenation over Ni doped Ceria nanorods

Anoop P Pushkar 1* , Dr. Jithin John Varghese 1

1

Department of Chemical Engineering, IIT Madras, India

*

Corresponding author e-mail: ch18d200@smail.iitm.ac.in

Propane oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) is a potential alternative for the conventional cracking

processes, as it is an exothermic and a direct process for obtaining propene. Ni doped ceria

nanorods, predominantly exposing (110) surface exhibit good surface reducibility properties and

are promising propane ODH catalysts, provided the overoxidation of products is controlled. One of

the ways of achieving this is by Lewis Base addition to the reaction system, which enhance

desorption of propane ODH products i.e., propene and acetone. Using plane-wave based periodic

Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations, this work aims at understanding the role of

hydroxyls (OH - ) in improving propene selectivity of a typical propane ODH over Ce 0.83Ni 0.17O 1.83

(110) surfaces. The Ab-initio thermodynamic studies confirmed the stability of hydroxyls over

Ce 0.83Ni 0.17O 1.83 (110) surfaces up to a temperature of 870 K and existence of 1 ML hydroxylated

surface at typical Propane ODH conditions. With increase in hydroxyl coverage, the desorption of

propene and acetone was enhanced and also their overoxidation was less favoured. Analyses

showed that this was due to induced lateral repulsive interaction and hyperconjugation effects by

hydroxyls. The adsorbed hydroxyl atoms proved to be better hydrogen abstractors with propane C-

H activation energy barrier of 1.1 eV, which was 0.3 eV lower than that by surface lattice oxygen

and adsorbed oxygen atoms (E a= 1.4 eV). At high hydroxyl coverages (> 0.83 ML), propene

formation was found to be more favourable than acetone, as at these conditions hydroxyl atoms are

the active centres for propene formation while surface lattice oxygen atoms are the active centres

for acetone formation. This predicts improved propene selectivity at high hydroxyl coverages.

Hence this work highlights the importance and applicability of surface hydroxylation as an efficient

pre-treatment strategy for Ni doped ceria nanorods to make them more selective towards propene

formation during propane ODH.

Effect of high-pressure on oil-shale pyrolysis kinetics and product

composition

Bhargav Baruah 1 , and Pankaj Tiwari 1*

1

Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam, India

*

Corresponding author e-mail: pankaj.tiwari@iitg.ac.in

The current work presents a comprehensive study on non-isothermal- high-pressure pyrolysis

kinetics of oil shale and the influence of pressure on product yield and composition. High-pressure

thermogravimetric analyses of the oil shale samples were carried out from 30 to 900°C, at heating

rates of 5, 10, 15, and 20°Cmin -1 , under isobaric pressure values of 5, 10, 20, and 30 bar using a

well-controlled high-pressure thermogravimetric analyzer (HP-TGA). The organic matter

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decomposition zone identified from HP-TGA data was considered for determination of kinetic

parameters. Under pressurized condition, oil shale exhibited mean activation energy values ranging

from 341 kJmol -1 to 451 kJmol -1 . The possible decomposition mechanisms were identified as D3

diffusion model followed by the Second-order reaction model and A3 Avrami Eroffev nucleation

model as the decomposition progressed and products formed. Further, the lab-scale pyrolysis

experimental matrix was designed based on HP-TGA data, and the products obtained were

characterized for compositional analysis. The percentage of hydrogen (H 2), carbon dioxide (CO 2),

and carbon monoxide (CO) decreased dramatically with the increase of pyrolysis pressure. With

increase in pyrolysis pressure, the derived pyrolytic oils showed a decrease in specific density from

879 to 831 gm/cm 3 , and carbon number from C 38 to C 22. 1 H Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)

analysis of the pyrolytic oil indicated a reduction in total aromatic content due to coking of

aromatics, and subsequent increase in the percentage of aliphatics and alkanes due to cracking of

straight-chain moieties. The octane number of obtained pyrolytic oils ranged from 83 to 88. The

results obtained suggest that the choice of high-pressure pyrolysis (temperature-pressure

combination) system may help in controlling the product distribution and compositions.

Table 1. Identification of molecular weight, total aromatic content and research octane number for

oil samples obtained at different pyrolysis pressure.

Parameters 1 bar 5 bar 10 bar 20 bar 30 bar

Total group molecular 1489+0. 1432+0.1 1373+0. 1292+0.4 1198+0.2

weight of sample 6

5

(gm/mol)

Total group molecular 335+0.5 240+0.5 187+0.6 143+0.6 117+0.5

weight of aromatic

compounds (gm/mol)

Total aromatic content 22+0.4 16+0.7 13+0.3 11+0.6 9+0.2

(wt %)

Research octane 83+0.05 84+0.5 86+0.05 86+0.2 88.+0.05

number

Fig. 1. (a) Cumulative yield of hydrocarbons based on boiling point of compounds. (b) Fractional

distribution of distillates at different pyrolysis pressure.

Reference

Baruah, B.; Tiwari, P., Effect of High Pressure on Nonisothermal Pyrolysis Kinetics of Oil Shale

and Product Yield. Energy & Fuels 2020, 34, (12), 15855.

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Corrosion Performance of Anhydride-cured Epoxidized Dehydrated

Castor oil (EDCO) containing organically modified Zinc Oxide (ZnO)

Nanoparticles

D. Maity 1 , A. Sabnis 1, *

1

Department of Polymer and Surface Engineering, ICT Mumbai, India

*

Corresponding author e-mail: as.sabnis@ictmumbai.edu.in

A bio-based vegetable oil, Dehydrated Castor oil (DCO), was epoxidized with peracid and cured

with methyltetrahydrophthalic anhydride (MTHPA) in presence of tertiary amine accelerator, 1-

methyl imidazole (1-MI). Epoxidized Dehydrated Castor oil (EDCO) was produced in an in-situ

biphasic chemical reaction system, in which hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2) was reacted with Formic

acid (HCOOH) in the aqueous phase to generate organic performic acid (HCOOOH) that migrated

to the organic phase and reacted with dehydrated castor oil (DCO). This synthesized EDCO was

characterized by Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Proton Nuclear Magnetic

Resonance Spectroscopy ( 1 H-NMR). Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle was synthesized by

precipitation method and modified organically with (3-Glycidyloxypropyl) trimethoxysilane

(GPTMS) by sol-gel method. The surface treatment of ZnO nanoparticles was confirmed by particle

size analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-Ray Diffraction

Spectroscopy (XRD). This GPTMS-ZnO was added in EDCO with various concentrations (0,1,2

& 3 wt%) to increase the anticorrosion activity. The nano-composite coatings prepared were

evaluated for their mechanical and chemical performances. The anticorrosive performance was

evaluated by salt spray test.

Keywords: Anticorrosion, Dehydrated Castor Oil, Epoxidation, Peracid, Zinc Oxide, GPTMS.

References:

Fig 1. Synthesis of Epoxidized Dehydrated Castor Oil (EDCO)

Govedarica, O. et al. (2018) ‘Optimization of the epoxidation of linseed oil using response surface

methodology’, Chemical Industry and Chemical Engineering Quarterly, 24(4), pp. 357–368. doi:

10.2298/CICEQ171012008G.

Kathalewar, M., Sabnis, A. and Waghoo, G. (2013) ‘Effect of incorporation of surface treated zinc

oxide on non-isocyanate polyurethane based nano-composite coatings’, Progress in Organic

Coatings. Elsevier B.V., 76(9), pp. 1215–1229. doi: 10.1016/j.porgcoat.2013.03.027.

Musik, M. and Milchert, E. (2017) ‘Selective epoxidation of sesame oil with peracetic acid’,

Molecular Catalysis. Elsevier B.V., 433, pp. 170–174. doi: 10.1016/j.mcat.2017.02.012.

Petrović, Z. S. et al. (2002) ‘Epoxidation of soybean oil in toluene with peroxoacetic and

peroxoformic acids - Kinetics and side reactions’, European Journal of Lipid Science and

Technology, 104(5), pp. 293–299. doi: 10.1002/1438-9312(200205)104:5<293::AID-

EJLT293>3.0.CO;2-W.

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Preparation and Testing of Pd60Cu40/Al2O3 Membrane for Production of

Ultra-Pure Hydrogen in Membrane Separator for Low-Temperature

Application

Keshav Kumar 1 , Amit Kumar 1 , and Rajesh K Upadhyay 2, *

1

Department of Chemical Engineering, IIT Guwahati, India

2

Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, IIT (BHU) Varanasi, India

*Corresponding Author E-mail: rku.che@iitbhu.ac.in

Hydrogen is the next-generation clean energy carrier that contains the highest energy-to-weight

ratio with nearly three times that of gasoline and diesel. But the purification of hydrogen with the

presently available technologies like pressure swing adsorption (PSA), temperature swing

adsorption (TSA), and cryogenic distillation are not economically viable due to its energy-intensive

equipment and low hydrogen purification efficiency. Here comes the role of membrane technology

with an edge over others due to its continuous operation flexibility, producing ultra-pure hydrogen,

and can be clubbed with the simultaneous reaction-separation operation to enhance the overall

efficiency of the process. Hydrogen purification with dense Pd-alloy-based membrane is widely

reported due to its chemical and thermal stability with high hydrogen selective permeance. A dense

Pd membrane allows only H 2 to pass through its lattice via the Solution Diffusion Mechanism. But

the pure Pd membrane suffers the critical problem of hydrogen embrittlement at a lower temperature

(<573K) due to its phase change from alpha to beta which ultimately leads to the failure of the Pdlayer.

To overcome this challenge Pd membrane can be alloyed with other metals (like Ag, Cu, Pt,

etc.) which not only improves its operating temperature range (till 273K) but also enhance its

permeance and selectivity toward hydrogen. Among alloying metals, Cu finds its position as the

best contender due to its highest H 2 permeance and low-cost membrane because of its high weight

ratio [1]. These membranes have immense application in the low-temperature endothermic steam

reforming reaction of alcohols for hydrogen production. The most crucial challenge is the

preparation of thin and still dense membranes to achieve high H 2 purity and permeance.

Among several techniques of membrane preparation, electroless plating (ELP) is widely used for

Pd-alloy membrane preparation. In the current work, an improved ELP technique is used where the

metal salt solution is kept in the bath outside the porous alumina support, and the hydrazine-based

reducing agent is kept inside. The metal is reduced inside the pores of the support which in turn

brings off easy and quick densification of the membrane [2]. The final layer was deposited over the

support using the ELP technique to get a catalytically active support surface for hydrogen

adsorption. The metal composition was controlled by tuning the hydrazine concentration. A molar

flux of 0.03-0.1 mol.m -2 . s -1 (Fig.1. (a)), permeance of 0.24-0.79x10 -3 mol.m -2 . s -1 . Pa -0.5 , H 2/N 2 ideal

selectivity of more than 1000, and activation energy of 8.02 kJ.mol -1 (Fig.1. (b)) were achieved at

ΔP = 100kPa and temperature range of 373K-673K in the case of Pd (60 wt. %)/Cu (40 wt. %)/

Al 2O 3 membrane prepared with a thickness of 5.13μm (measured gravimetrically). Long-term lowtemperature

thermal stability of the membrane under pure hydrogen environment at 100kPa and

423K was also performed where no change in the membrane permeance was observed till 20hrs of

testing. Further, the effect of mixture gases (N 2, CO 2, CH 4, and CO) over the hydrogen permeance

in a baffle-assisted membrane separator was also studied to enhance hydrogen recovery at low

temperature breaking the concentration polarization barrier of other gases.

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Fig. 1. (a) Hydrogen flux as a function of the difference of the square root of the hydrogen partial

pressure at various temperatures (b) Arrhenius plot of ln[H 2 permeance] Vs 1/RT to calculate the

activation energy of the PdCu membrane.

References:

[1] X. Pan, M. Kilgus, A. Goldbach, Low-temperature H2 and N2 transport through thin

Pd66Cu34Hx layers, Catal. Today. 104 (2005) 225–230.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cattod.2005.03.049.

[2] R. Sanz, J.A. Calles, D. Alique, L. Furones, New synthesis method of Pd membranes over

tubular PSS supports via “pore-plating” for hydrogen separation processes, Int. J. Hydrogen

Energy. 37 (2012) 18476–18485. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2012.09.084.

Catalytic Hydrogenolysis of Alkali Lignin to Monomeric Phenols

M. Midhun Kumar 1, * , and R. Vinu 1

1 Department of Chemical Engineering and

National Center for Combustion Research and Development,

Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai – 600036, India.

*

Corresponding author e-mail:ch17d001@smail.iitm.ac.in

Lignin is a branched and amorphous aromatic biopolymer which abundantly available in nature.

Lignin is connected with various C-O-C aryl ether (α-O-4, β-O-4, 4-O-5), and C-C (β-5, β-β and

5-5) bonds having

p-hydroxyphenyl(H-unit), Guaiacyl (G-unit) and Syringol(S-unit) as monomer units. However,

majority of lignin is generating from pulp and paper industries i.e., 50 million tons per year.

Valorization of lignin to monomeric phenols is attracting to scientific world. 2% Pd-metal oxides

(5% ZrO 2, 5% WOx, 5% MoO 3) supported on activated biochar (ABC) catalysts were employed

for hydrogenolysis of lignin to monomeric phenols. Wetness impregnation methodology adopted

to incorporate metals onto the ABC, and characterized extensively using various analytical

techniques. Addition of secondary metal caused the changes in the catalyst surface properties such

as acidity, Pd metal particle size and dispersion. The selectivity to C9 monomeric phenols followed

the trend: 2Pd-5Mo/ABC (57.3%) > 2Pd-5Zr/ABC (49.2%) > 2Pd-5W/ABC (45%) > 2Pd/ABC

(42.9%). The maximum C9 phenolic monomer yield achieved in this study was ~ 22 wt%. The

fractional conversion of lignin was 67–69% with Pd-metal oxide catalysts. The presence of Mo in

the catalyst inhibited the hydrogenation of aliphatic Cα = Cβ in lignin and led to the formation of

t-isoeugenol, while the presence of W and Zr resulted in selective formation of the hydrogenated

product, propyl guaiacol. Using model compounds, it is proved that the formation of propyl

guaiacol is via hydrogenation of t-isoeugenol, and not through dehydroxylation of propanol

guaiacol. The dehydroxylation activity of the catalysts is attributed to the higher Lewis acidity and

electropositive nature of the metals. A notable carbon atom economy of 47–50% towards total

phenolic monomers was achieved with 2Pd/ ABC, 2Pd-5Mo/ABC and 2Pd-5Zr/ABC catalysts.

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The effect of the phase of zirconia supported Ru-Cu catalyst is prepared for catalytic transfer

hydrogenolysis (CTH) to produce simple guaiacols as dominant products from alkali lignin. ZrO 2

is prepared using a precipitation method and calcined different temperatures; various combinations

with fixed nominal loading of Ru (1 wt. %) and Cu (5 wt. %) were prepared. As-prepared catalyst

characterized extensively using multiple techniques for crystallinity and purity, acidity, thermal

stability, surface area and pore size distribution, chemical oxidation state on the surface. XRD

showed that increase in calcination temperature changed from non-crystalline to crystalline. Ru and

Cu supported on ZrO 2-800 had a strong metal-support interaction (SMSI) due to electron transfer

revealed through XPS analysis. Among others, Ru-Cu/ZrO 2-800 showed excellent catalytic activity

towards a higher yield of guaiacol, 4-methyl guaiacol, and 4-ethyl guaiacol. Under the optimal

conditions, 270 ⁰C and 3 h, total monomer (32.4 wt. %), guaiacol (12.7 wt. %), 4-methyl guaiacol

(8.0 wt. %), and 4-ethyl guaiacol (6.2 wt. %) yield maximally. Effect of reaction temperature, time

on total and individual monomers yield were also investigated. ZrO 2-800 had changed the catalyst

activity tremendously by virtue of strong metal-support interaction (SMSI) with Ru-Cu. Synergistic

effect between Ru, Cu, and crystalline zirconia made accomplished towards hydrogenation,

catalyzed C α=C β (C-C) bond, and demethylation reactions to produce guaiacol as the major product.

The role of computational modelling in cardiovascular medicine

Mudrika Singhal* and Raghvendra Gupta

Department of Chemical Engineering, IIT Guwahati, India

*

Corresponding author e-mail: mudrikasinghal@iitg.ac.in

Cardiovascular diseases are one of the major burdens on the healthcare system globally. With recent

advancements in technology, the approach of medicine is shifting from experience to evidence

based which can be closely linked to the concept of ‘patient-specific modelling’ (Claridge, J.A. &

Fabian, T.C. 2005). It involves the computational modelling of particular patient’s data and further

studying the physiological changes and factors causing them. The complex biomechanical

behaviour in several cardiovascular diseases can be well understood with the use of personalized

computational models. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is beneficial in designing and

optimizing medical devices such as heart valves and pumps because these devices when implanted,

interact at implantation sites and affect the treatment outcomes (Vardhan, M. & Randles, A. 2021).

The work focuses on studying the hemodynamic behaviour via CFD simulations in a model of aorta

dividing into the right and left coronary arteries obtained from an opensource software package

SimVascular (https://simvascular.github.io/clinicalCase3.html#references). The model is

further imported into ANSYS Fluent, for performing the CFD simulations. Blood is considered to

be a Newtonian and incompressible fluid. Pulsatile velocity profile is implemented at the inlet and

the outlet is monitored by the resistance boundary condition which accounts for the resistance

offered by the downstream vasculature (Madhavan, S. & Kemmerling, E. 2018). Time averaged

parameters such as time averaged wall shear stress (TAWSS), oscillatory shear index (OSI) and

relative residence time (RRT) have been examined. It can be observed from figure 1 that, TAWSS

is found to be low near bifurcations and they serve as a possible site for plaque formation, which is

well in accordance with the literature. CFD simulations also offer the advantage of calculation of

parameters such as Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR), in a less invasive manner contrary to the

conventional FFR measurement technique (Pantos, I. & Katritsis, D. 2014).

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Fig 1. TAWSS Contour

References:

Claridge, J.A., & Fabian, T.C. 2005. History and development of evidence-based medicine. World

Journal of Surgery. 29(5): 547-553.

Madhavan, S. & Kemmerling, E. 2018. The effect of inlet and outlet boundary conditions in imagebased

CFD modelling of aortic flow. Biomedical Engineering Online.

Pantos, I. & Katritsis, D. 2014. Fractional flow reserve derived from coronary imaging and

computational fluid dynamics. Interventional Cardiology Review. 9(3): 145-150.

Vardhan, M. & Randles, A. 2021. Applications of Physics based flow models in cardiovascular

medicine: Current practices and challenges. Biophysics Reviews.

Thermophysical Characterization of Dihydrolevoglucosenone based

Nanofluid and its Evaluation as a Novel Heat Transfer Media for Solar

Desalination System

Nipu Kumar Das a , Papu Kumar Naik a , Pyarimohan Dehury, Suryasarathi Bose 2 and Tamal Banerjee a,*

1

Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam-781039, India

2

Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560012, India

*

Corresponding author

E-mail address: tamalb@iitg.ac.in (Prof. T. Banerjee)

Tel.: (+91)-361-2582266; Fax: (+91)-361-2582291

Abstract

The current work reports Cyrene or Dihydrolevoglucosenone as a new potential bio-organic thermal

media with excellent heat transfer characteristics. Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) with

volume fractions (0.0016 and 0.0032) were added to enhance the heat transfer capacity of the base

fluid, i.e., Cyrene. Initially, FETEM, FESEM and XRD were performed to characterized MWCNT.

Thereafter, thermophysical properties density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and specific heat

capacity were reported in the temperature range of 30-85°C for both base fluid and nanofluids. The

measured values were then compared with a commercial heat transfer fluid within the temperature

range of 30-85°C. While the thermal conductivity and specific heat of nanofluid were found to

increase with temperature, on the contrary, density and viscosity were found to decrease with

temperature. The stability of the nanofluid was further analyzed by visual observation, microscopic

analysis, and through measurement of zeta potential. Thereafter, forced convection experiments

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were performed in a circular tube section under laminar conditions to measure the local heat transfer

coefficient and temperature profiles. The Nusselt number for both base fluid and nanofluid were

conducted for both base fluid and the corresponding nanofluid. It was observed that the nanofluid

possessing 0.0032 volume fraction of MWCNT-Cyrene nanofluid at N Re =1881 gave the highest

heat transfer coefficient.

Synthesis of reforming catalyst for membrane reformer and its

suitability for proton exchange membrane fuel cell

Punampriya Borgohain a , Pankaj Tiwari a , Rajesh Kumar Upadhyay b

a

Department of Chemical Engineering, IIT Guwahati, Assam-781039, India

b

Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, IIT (BHU) Varanasi, U.P.-221005, India

*

Corresponding author e-mail: rku.che@iitbhu.ac.in

Ultra-pure hydrogen can be use as a feeding fuel in Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell to

generate energy for portable applications. However, storage of hydrogen is a major issue. Hence,

on-board generation of hydrogen from suitable sources is a key issue. Amongst the available

sources, methanol is considered as an optimal choice due to its high H/C ratio, no C/C ratio, low

tendency for soot formation and easy storage at room temperature. Hydrogen can be effectively

generated from methanol through steam reforming, which is an endothermic reaction. However,

formation of CO and relatively high temperature requirement (250-350 °C) of steam reforming of

methanol possess main challenge as PEM fuel cell is operated at relatively low temperature below

100 °C [1]. Further, catalyst deactivation is another concern, which is more significant at high

temperature. Therefore, the primary aim of the present study is to reduce the existing temperature

requirements and still achieve complete methanol conversion. Lower temperature should essentially

minimize the occurrence of CO as by-products. Further, sufficient methanol conversion at lower

temperature (100-180 °C) will also minimize the energy required for the reaction and will also

reduce the start-up time of PEM fuel cell. Therefore, a low temperature and high hydrogen-selective

catalyst are vital for direct integration of MSR with fuel cell [2]. In current work, the performance

of different copper-based catalysts, in presence of Ga and Fe promoter are compared. The catalytic

activity testing was performed for different weight hourly space velocity (WHSV= 1-10 hr -1 ),

temperature range (200-350°C), pressure range (1-5 bar) and different steam to methanol molar

ratio 1 to 5. The product gases were analyzed through gas chromatography. The physicochemical

properties of the prepared catalyst were tested by Brunauer Teller Emmett (BET), X-ray Diffraction

(XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron microscopy (FESEM), Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX),

High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM).

Fig. 1. Surface area characterization of the prepared catalysts and CO selectivity at different temperature for

the prepared catalyst.

References

110 Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022


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Chemical Engineering

1. A.M., Abdalla, S. Hossain, O.B. Nisfindy, A.T. Azad, M. Dawood, A.K. Azad, Energy

Conversion and Management, 165, 602–627 (2018).

2. R. Sharma, A. Kumar, and R.K. Upadhyay, ChemCatChem, 11 (18), 4568–4580 (2019).

Light hydrocarbons production from the effective cracking of the

endothermic fuels

Satya Priyadarshi * , and R. Vinu

Department of Chemical Engineering and National Centre for Combustion Research and Development,

Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai – 600036, India.

*

Corresponding author e-mail: ch17d011@smail.iitm.ac.in

Employing endothermic hydrocarbon fuels (EHFs) in high-speed flights aids in regenerative

cooling of the aircraft surfaces and components due to the physical and chemical heat sink

mechanisms they offer. The development of such fuels involves a thorough understanding of its

pyrolysis characteristics in the presence of additives. In this study, analytical Curie point pyrolyzer

is used to conduct pyrolysis of Jet-A1 fuel, and investigate the effect of temperature and free radical

initiators on the pyrolysate composition. The temperatures were 590 o C, 740 o C and 920 o C, and the

initiators were triethylamine (TEA), 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (TEMPO), phenyl

hydrazine (PH), 1-nitropropane (NP), di-tert-butyl peroxide (DTBP), and cumene hydroperoxide

(CH). The results showed that, at 590 o C, the addition of TEMPO, NP and PH, all at 5 wt.% to the

fuel, improved the cracking reactions with 25% decline in yield of alkanes compared to pyrolysis

of neat Jet-A1. It was also observed that the yield of alkyl-substituted benzenes was high in presence

of TEMPO and PH, while the yield of iso-alkanes was high in the presence of DTBP, CH and TEA.

At 920 o C, the yield of low molecular weight alkenes (C3-C7) was high with TEMPO followed by

PH, TEA, and NP.

In continuation of our work, a comparative pyrolytic study of 3-carene, a biofuel and JP-10, a

missile fuel was accomplished. Catalytic pyrolysis tests of JP-10 and 3-carene were carried out in

an analytical Curie point pyrolyzer over zeolites HY, HBeta, and mordenite at 590 and 650 °C. A

thorough analysis of the pyrolysate composition is imperative for their development as EHFs. The

results demonstrated that the effect of temperature was minimal since the pyrolytic reactions were

driven primarily by the protolysis of the reactants. The yield of light hydrocarbons was higher for

HY and HBeta, whereas, the extent of cracking was low over mordenite. The overall light

hydrocarbons yield was comparable for both fuels. Benzene derivatives were the dominant product

alongside the alicyclic hydrocarbons. The cycloalkanes and cycloalkenes were the major alicyclic

hydrocarbons formed from JP-10 and 3-carene respectively. Product composition from both fuels

followed a similar trend, indicating that the 3-carene could be considered as a potential alternative

to JP-10.

Graphene Oxide Impregnated MOF for the Effective Remediation of

Fluoride from Ground Water

Sikha 1 , Bishnupada Mandal 1*

1

Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of technology, Guwahati, India

* E-mail: bpmandal@iitg.ac.in, +913612582256

Abstract

The excess of fluoride in groundwater can have significant ill effects on health and thus, its removal

is vital. In this study, different composition of graphene oxide (GO) with iron-based metal organic

frameworks (UiO-66) were successfully synthesised in order to obtain best possible composite for

fluoride remediation. The characterization of as-synthesised composites before and after the

fluoride adsorption were investigated by using x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared

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spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), field

emission transmission electron microscopy (FE-TEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface

area and total pore volumes. The novel application of MIL-100/GO composites aimed to study the

adsorption mechanism, kinetics, isotherm and thermodynamics toward fluoride adsorption by

varying different parameters like pH, time, temperature, initial concentration of fluoride, adsorbent

doses and co-existing ions. The use of MIL-100/GO composite demonstrated excellent fluoride ion

removal within a short time. Results of the present study will be beneficial for the researchers

working on efficient removal of fluoride from groundwater.

Keywords: Metal organic frameworks; Graphene Oxide; Adsorbent; Fluoride

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Chemistry

Molecular Memory Device Based on a Tetranuclear

Organotin Sulfide Cage

Abhishek Mishra, Atanu Betal, Neelam Pal, Ravi Kumar, Prem Lama, Satyajit Sahu, Ramesh K. Metre*

Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Jodhpur

Email: mishra.6@iitj.ac.in

To overcome the problem of data storage and data handling various electronic devices at molecular

level are being explored continuously. Molecular organometallic complexes have been considered

as the potential candidates for the molecular materials to be used in these devices for their ease of

processing, flexibility, being light weight, solubility, stability, and versatility to design. 1

Azoaromatic compounds are known to show switching behaviour 2,3 which encouraged us design a

tetranuclear monoorganotin sulfide cage [(RSn IV ) 4(μ-S) 6]·2CHCl 3·4H 2O (1) (R = 2-

phenylazophenyl) exploiting the intramolecular N→Sn coordination. It consists of an interesting

Sn 4S 6 double decker cage like core in which Sn centers are bridged through µ 2-S units. The single

crystal x-ray diffraction analysis revealed that it contains four identical Sn possessing distorted

trigonal bipyramidal geometry. The complex 1 is further explored as active material for the

fabrication of solution-processable resistive memory switching device. I-V characteristics of the

device showed an excellent memory behaviour with low write voltage i.e., -1.4 V. The device

showed a good ON/OFF ratio of 10 3 with retention time of 10000s. 4 The complex 1 is the first

organotin complex to exhibit the memristive behaviour.

1E-6

d

write

erase

1E-7

1E-8

1E-9

2000 4000 6000 8000 10000

Time (S)

Reference:

Hong, E. Y. H.; Poon, C. T.; Yam, V. W. W. A Phosphole Oxide-Containing Organogold(III)

Complex for Solution-Processable Resistive Memory Devices with Ternary Memory

Performances. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2016, 138, 20, 6368–6371.

Goswami, S.; Matula, A. J.; Rath, S. P.; Hedstrom, S.; Saha, S.; Annamalai, M.; Sengupta, D.;

Patra, A.; Ghosh, S.; Jani, H.; Sarkar, S.; Motapothula, M. R.; Nijhuis, C. A.; Martin, J.; Goswami,

S.; Batista, V. S.; Venkatesan, T. Robust resistive memory devices using solution-processable

metal-coordinated azo aromatics. Nat. Mater. 2017, 16, 1216–1224

Mishra, A.; Betal, A.; Kumar, R.; Lama, P.; Sahu, S.; Metre, R. K. Dinuclear

Monoorganostannoxane [(RSn IV ) 2(μ-OH)(μ-OCH 3)Cl 4]∙CH 3OH (R= 2-(phenylazo)phenyl)

Assembled Using Intramolecular Coordination Approach: Design of Organostannoxane Based

NDR Device. ACS Appl. Electron. Mater. 2021, 3(1), 203-210.

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Mishra, A.; Betal, A.; Pal, N.; Kumar, R.; Lama, P.; Sahu, S.; Metre, R. K. Molecular Memory

Switching Device Based on a Tetranuclear Organotin Sulfide Cage [(RSn IV ) 4(μ-S) 6]·2CHCl 3·4H 2O

(R = 2-(Phenylazo)phenyl): Synthesis, Structure, DFT Studies, and Memristive Behavior. ACS

Appl. Electron. Mater. 2020, 2(1), 220-229.

Hydrogen Peroxide-responsive Turn-on Fluoregenic Probes: Direct

Linkers Supersede Self-immolative Linkers for Sensing H2O2.

Abu Sufian, Debojit Bhattacherjee, Tripti Mishra and Krishna P. Bhabak*

Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati, Assam – 781039, India

(Email: abu176122050@iitg.ac.in and kbhabak@iitg.ac.in)

Hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2) is an important non-radical oxidant among reactive oxygen species

(ROS), which is produced enzymatically in the mammalian system by the metabolism of molecular

oxygen. 2 An overproduction of H 2O 2 has been implicated as the hallmark of oxidative stress in

several pathological conditions as well as disease states. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to

estimate the endogenous level of H 2O 2 under normal and pathological conditions. 3-6 In the last

decade several studies were performed demonstrating turn-on fluorogenic probes as commonly

utilized tool for efficient estimation of reactive oxygen species such as H 2O 2. In the present study 1 ,

three different sets of turn-on fluorogenic probes (coumarin, napthalimide, and methoxy

fluorescein) for sensing H 2O 2 were rationally designed by coupling boronate ester group with three

important fluorescent dyes either by linking directly or via self-immolative linkers (ether and

carbonate). Interestingly, our results reveal that directly-linked boronate ester probes are

significantly better and more sensitive than the self-immolative linker-containing probes in

detecting traces of both exogenous and endogenous levels of H 2O 2 (Figure 1).

Figure 1. Schematic representation for the detection of hydrogen peroxide of direct linked-probe

A and ether linked-probe B.The difference in probe efficiency was also found to be dependent on the nature

of fluorophore unit being used. Considering these aspects, our detailed studies further reveal that the directlylinked

boronate ester-based fluorescein probe A is the most suitable probe for efficiently sensing H 2O 2 both

under aqueous as well as cellular medium with very high level of sensitivity. The present observation would

be useful while designing the fluorogenic sensors for ROS as well as during their utilization in ROSassociated

pathologies.

References

1. A. Sufian, D. Bhattacherjee, K. P. Bhabak, Dyes and Pigments, 2021, 191, 109363.

2. H. Sies, Redox Biol, 2017, 11, 613-619.

3. H. Ohshima, M. Tatemichi and T. Sawa, Arch Biochem Biophys, 2003, 417, 3-11.

4. H. Sies, Am J Med, 1991, 91, S31-S38.

5. K. J. Barnham, C. L. Masters and A. I. Bush, Nat Rev Drug Discov, 2004, 3, 205-214.

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Chemistry

6. K. P. Bhabak and G. Mugesh, Acc Chem Res, 2010, 43, 1408-1419.

Can We Theoretically Predict Turnover Numbers?

Himangshu Pratim Bhattacharyya 1 , Manabendra Sarma 1

1

Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam-781039, India

*Corresponding author e-mail: msarma@iitg.ac.in

To computationally find the efficiency of the catalyst in terms of turnover number (TON) is a

challenging task. To do so, we have designed a computational roadmap, namely, the Efficiency

Conceptualization Model (ECM), to predict the efficiency of the Ru-based molecular water

oxidation catalysts (WOC). The bedrock of the ECM model is on the kinetics, thermodynamics,

and bonding performance of the complexes. The computations with density functional theory were

adopted to determine the rate constants using the transition state theory (TST) as a function of the

activation barrier identifying the O-O bond formation process to be the rate-determining step

(RDS). Our calculations were successful in validating the experimental TON of the WOCs and

hence may be correlated to the experiment. At present, the ECM is under the validation stage, and

the water splitting reaction was our first choice of theoretical validation. We are currently working

on organic and inorganic catalysts mediated reactions to establish our Efficiency Conceptualization

Model.

References

[1] Bhattacharyya, H.P.; Sarma, M.; (in preparation)

Synthesis, Characterization, Computational Studies And In Vitro

Antiproliferative Assays Of Dithiocarbazate Based Compounds

Kakoli Malakar1, and Marappan Velusamy2

Department of Chemistry, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong, Meghalaya, India

*E-mail: kakoli0091@gmail.com

Dithiocarbazates based compounds with different heterocyclic ring L1-L4 N'-(1-methyl-1Himidazol-2-ylmethylene)-hydrazinecarbodithioic

acid methyl ester (L1),N'-(1-methyl-1Himidazol-2-ylmethylene)-hydrazinecarbodithioic

acid benzyl ester (L2), N'-[1-(1H-benzoimidazol-

2-yl)-ethylidene]-hydrazinecarbodithioic acid methyl ester(L3) and N'-[1-(1H-benzoimidazol-2-

yl)-ethylidene]-hydrazinecarbodithioic acid benzyl ester(L4) has been synthesied and fully

characterized by various spectroscopic techniques using SXRD, NMR, UV-Vis, mass spectrometry,

IR and thermal analysis. Computational studies DFT studies of 4 complexes have been calculated

with B3LYP correlation function and 6-311G (d,p) level is taken as basis sets. The HUMO-LUMO

energy gap of the four compounds L1-L4 is 4.2, 3.94, 3.95 and 3.87 eV respectively.Compound L1

and L3 adopt a planar conformation and crystallizes as orthorhombic crystal system in P 21 21 21

space group and as monoclinic in P 21/c. MTT assay against H520 (Squamous cell lung carcinoma)

cell reveals that N-Methyl imidazole based dithiocarbazates shows lower cytotoxic value (IC50

value=15 and 17) than benzimidazole (IC50 value= 33 and 40) containing moieties and could be a

better choice for chemotherapeutic agent.

Keywords: Dithiocarbazates; XRD; MTT Assay;

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References: (1) Sohtun, W. P.; Khamrang, T.; Kannan, A.; Balakrishnan, G.; Saravanan, D.;

Akhbarsha, M. A.; Velusamy, M.; Palaniandavar, M. Iron(III) Bis-Complexes of Schiff Bases of

S-Methyldithiocarbazates: Synthesis, Structure, Spectral and Redox Properties and Cytotoxicity.

Appl. Organomet. Chem. 2020, 34 (5), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1002/aoc.5593.

Selective Chemodosimetric ‘Turn-On’ fluorescence sensor for HSO3 - :

Comparing the reactivity of the exocyclic vs. non-exocyclic C=C double

bond

A. Asesh Das, B. Gopal Das *

1

Department of Chemistry, IIT Guwahati, India

*

Corresponding author e-mail: gdas@iitg.ac.in

The present report deals with specific colorimetric (naked-eye) and fluorometric sensing of HSO 3

-

by a pair of chemodosimetric probes. The D-π-A structure-based probes exhibited an outstanding

HSO 3− -dependent response with excellent selectivity and lower detection limit values. The probes

were designed to verify the reactivity of exo-cyclic vs. non-exocyclic C=C bonds towards reactionbased

sensing. It was proven that only activated exo-cyclic C=C double bonds were responsible for

selective sensing. We also reported the utility of probe-coated paper-strip analysis for rapid

detection of HSO 3

-

in the experimental medium. Also, the ability to detect HSO 3

-

in real food sample

as well as in river water, lake water, and tap water were also checked by the probe.

References:

Fig. 1 Pictorial representation of selective detection of HSO 3- .

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Chemistry

D. H. Lee, J. H. Im, S. U. Son, Y. K. Chung and J. I. Hong, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2003, 125, 7752-

7753.

J. Perez and L. Riera, Chem. Commun., 2008, 533-543.

Hot-Exciton Harvesting Through-Space Single-Molecule Based White-

Light Emission and Optical Microwaveguides

Debasish Barman, 1 Mari Annadhasan, 2 Rajadurai Chandrasekar 2 and Parameswar Krishnan Iyer 1,3 *

1 Debasish Barman, Prof. Parameswar Krishnan Iyer, Department of Chemistry

Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati-781039, India

2 Mari Annadhasan, Prof. Rajadurai Chandrasekar, School of Chemistry, and Centre for Nanotechnology

University of Hyderabad, Gachibowli, Prof. C. R Rao Road, Hyderabad, 500046 India

3 Prof. Parameswar Krishnan Iyer, Centre for Nanotechnology Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati,

Guwahati-781039, India

Corresponding author: pki@iitg.ac.in

Through-space donor-alkyl bridge-acceptor (D-σ-A) luminogens are developed as new organic

single-molecule white light emitters (OSMWLEs) by evolving multiple higher lying singlet (Sn)

and triplet (Tm) states (hot-excitons). Experimental and theoretical results confirm the origin of

WLE due to the co-existence of dual fluorescence, such as prompt locally excited emission,

thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF), and color mixing fast/slow dual

phosphorescence (DP) simultaneously. Notably, the fast phosphorescence emission is inherited by

trace amounts of isomeric impurities from commercial carbazole, while H-/J-aggregation results in

slow phosphorescence. Isolated / dimeric form of single crystal X-ray structures, and the alkyl chain

length induced supramolecular self-assembly directly influenced the manifold Sn to Tm transitions

and excited state dynamics (ESD). Furthermore, a triplet-harvesting optical wave-guiding property

was investigated with the micro-crystals of OSMWLEs. This work thus highlights an uncommon

design strategy of multi-functional OSMWLEs with in-depth mechanistic insights and waveguiding

application endowing them as potentially new class of white emissive materials.

Figure 1. Proposed Jablonski diagram for WLE, evolving with PF, TADF, and dual RTP (left).

Chemical Structure of the OSMWLEs and fluorescence images under UV-lamp. Gated Spectrum

covering entire visible span

References :

Uoyama, H., Goushi, K., Shizu, K., Nomura, H., Adachi, C. Nature 2012, 492, 234.

Qian, H., Cousins, M. E., Horak, E. H., Wakefield, A., Liptak, M. D., Aprahamian, I. Nat. Chem.

2017, 9, 83.

Chen, C., Chi, Z., Chong, K. C., Batsanov, A. S., Yang, Z., Mao, Z., Yang, Z., Liu, B. Nat. Mater.

2020, 20, 175.

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Ratiometric and Visual Sensing Utility of Complex Coupled Quantum

Dot

M. Manna *a , S. Roy a , S. Bhandari b ; A. Chattopadhyay ac

a

Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam 781039, India

b

Department of Chemistry, University of North Bengal, Darjeeling, West Bengal, 734013, India

c

Centre for Nanotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam 781039, India

E-mail: mannamihir@iitg.ac.in

Herein we report the application potential of inorganic complex coupled quantum dot (Qdot), with

dual emission maxima, towards ratiometric and visual sensing of heavy metal ions (e.g. Hg 2+ and

Cu 2+ ) 1 , phosphate ions (H 2PO 4- ) in environmental water and commercial fertilizer 2 , and long-chain

unsaturated fatty acids (LCUFAs) in commercial vegetable oils 3 . For example, Zn(MSA) 2 complex

MSA = methylsalicylaldimine) coupled Mn 2+ -doped ZnS Qdots changed their luminescence color

from purple to blue and intensity ratio during the detection of Hg 2+ and Cu 2+ with a limit of detection

(LOD) of 85.5 nM for Hg 2+ and 34.9 nM for Cu 2+ while Zn(QS) 2 (HQS= 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-

sulfonic acid) coupled Mn 2+ -doped ZnS Qdots detected phosphate ions in commercial fertilizer,

with a LOD of 5.9 nM, followed by changing their luminescence color from white to orange and

intensity ratio. 1-2 Further, the white light emitting ZnQ 2 complex (HQ=8-hydroxyquinoline)

coupled Mn 2+ -doped ZnS Qdots successfully detected LCUFAs in commercial vegetable oils, with

a LOD of 0.127 M (in the case of oleic acid), followed by altering their luminescence color from

white to cyan and intensity ratio. 3

Keywords: Quantum Dot, Inorganic Complex, Ratiometric Sensing, Heavy Metal Ions, Phosphate,

Fertilizer, Long Chain Unsaturated Fatty Acids, Vegetable Oils.

Reference:

M. Manna, S. Roy, S. Bhandari and A. Chattopadhyay, J. Mater. Chem. C, 2020, 8, 6972-6976.

M. Manna, S. Roy, S. Bhandari and A. Chattopadhyay, Langmuir, 2021, 37, 18, 5506-5512.

M. Manna, S. Bhandari and A. Chattopadhyay, J. Mater. Chem. C, 2021, 9, 13810-13817.

An Expedient Route to Tricyanovinylindoles and Indolylmaleimides

from o-alkynylanilines Utilising DMSO as a One-Carbon Synthon

Nikita Chakraborty, Anjali Dahiya, Amitava Rakshit, Anju Modi and Bhisma K. Patel*

Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati,

Guwahati, Assam-781039, India

Fax: (+91)361-26909762

E-mail: nikit176122113@iitg.ac.in

A Pd(II)/Cu(II) catalysed domino synthesis of tricyanovinylindoles has been achieved using DMSO

as a one-carbon synthon and NH4SCN as a cyano source. The reaction proceeds via the construction

of 2-aryl-3-formyl indole followed by sequential addition of malononitrile and a CN resulting in

two C–C, one C=C and one C–N bonds in the final product. Furthermore, post-synthetic

modification results in the unprecedented formation of 4-cyano-3-indolylmaleimides.

Photophysical studies of selected compounds show emission in the visible range.

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Chemistry

Keywords: Tricyanovinylindoles, Indolylmaleimides and o-Alkynylanilines.

References:

N. Chakraborty, A. Dahiya, A. Rakshit, A. Modi, B. K. Patel, Org. Biomol. Chem. 2021, 19, 6847.

2. A. Modi, P. Sau, B. K. Patel, Org. Lett. 2017, 19, 6128.

Removal of Textile Dye from Wastewater by Magnetic Graphene based

Hybrid Nanocomposites

Poonam Kumari, 1,2 Disha, 1,2 Manoj K. Nayak 1,2*

1. Central Scientific Instruments Organisation (CSIR –CSIO), Chandigarh – 160030, India;

2. Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR)-CSIO, Gaziabad-201002, India.

*Corresponding Author email: mknayak@csio.res.in

Nowadays wastewater treatment is a major attention of researcher. Textile dyes are the major

pollutants of water direct dumped by textiles industries. Magnetic graphene based hybrid

nanocomposites are more sensitive and better supporting material to develop novel platform for

removal of toxic dye-stuff from wastewater. The magnetic graphene oxide (MGO) is synthesized

via in situ co-precipitation method in the presence of Fe(II) and Fe(III) salts with graphene oxide

(GO). MGO is further functionalized with sulfonic acid group with the help of EDC/NHS

chemistry. The Sulfonated magnetic graphene oxide (SMGO) is successfully characterized by X-

ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy

(FTIR). The morphology and elemental analysis are performed using Scanning electron microscope

(SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM)

confirms the magnetic behavior of obtained nanomaterial. Additionally the nanomaterial is

thermally stable which is confirmed by Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). The present study

demonstrates the decolonization of textile effluents containing cationic dye methylene blue by

adsorption on SMGO. The negatively charged SMGO is a strong adsorbent to bind electro statically

positive charged methylene blue dye from water bodies. The removal capacity of SMGO for

methylene blue is 99%. The batch study of adsorption analysis is carried out at various optimized

parameters such as pH, concentration, incubation time, regeneration study. As a sustainable and

environment friendly nanomaterial, SMGO holds a great potential as novel platform with better

adsorption capacity and subsequent reusability.

Keywords: Sulfonated magnetic graphene oxide (SMGO), textile, Adsorption, eco-friendly,

Methylene blue

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References:

Fig: Adsorption of Methylene blue dye by Sulfonated magnetic graphene oxide

1.Doustkhah, Esmail, and Sadegh Rostamnia. "Covalently bonded sulfonic acid magnetic graphene

oxide: Fe3O4@ GO-Pr-SO3H as a powerful hybrid catalyst for synthesis of

indazolophthalazinetriones." Journal of colloid and interface science 478 (2016): 280-287.

2..Song, Na, et al. "Biocompatible G-Fe3O4/CA nanocomposites for the removal of methylene

blue." Journal of Molecular Liquids 212 (2015): 63-69.

3.Wei, Mao-ping, et al. "Sulfonated graphene oxide as an adsorbent for removal of Pb2+ and

methylene blue." Journal of colloid and interface science 524 (2018): 297-305.

TfO-….H-O-H Interactions Assisted Generation of Silicon Cation from

Allylsilanes: Access to Phenylallyl Ferrier Glycosides from Glycals

Rupa Bai Addanki, Suvendu Halder, and Pavan K. Kancharla*

Department of Chemistry,

Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati, Assam – 781039, India

(Email: rupa176122021@iitg.ac.in, suven176122101@iitg.ac.in and pavankancharla@iitg.ac.in)

We demonstrate here that the strained and bulky protonated 2,4,6-tri-tert-butylpyridine (TTBPy)

triflate salt serves as a mild and efficient organocatalyst for the diastereoselective C-Ferrier

glycosylation of various glycals. The criticality of the role of ½ H 2O molecule trapped in the catalyst

has been disclosed. The mechanism of action involves a unique anionic triflate and H 2O hydrogen

bond interactions assisting the activation of allylsilanes resulting in the observed catalysis. The

catalysis has been utilized in the synthesis of unprecedented anti-selective phenylallyl Ferrier

glycosides that can be of significance from the perspective of natural products synthesis. Selective

functionalisation of terminal olefin has been carried out showcasing the further utility of current

protocol.

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Chemistry

Keywords: • Ferrier glycosides • Organocatalytic • C-glycosylation

References:

1. Mukherji, A.; Kancharla, P. K. Org. Lett. 2020, 22, 2191–2195.

2. Ansari, A. A.; Lahiri, R.; Vankar, Y. D., Arkivoc 2013, 316-362.

3. Yang, Y.; Yu, B., Chem. Rev. 2017, 117 (19), 12281-12356.

Controlling the lifetime of cucurbit[8]uril based self-abolishing

nanozymes

Saurav Das, Tanushree Das, Priyam Das and Debapratim Das*

Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam-781039, India

*

Corresponding author e-mail: ddas@iitg.ac.in

Nature has evolved a unique mechanism of self-regulatory feedback loops that help in maintaining

an internal cellular environment conducive to growth, healing and metabolism. In biology, enzymes

display feedback controlled switchable behaviour to upregulate/downregulate generation of

metabolites as per the need of the cells. To mimic the self-inhibitory nature of certain biological

enzymes under laboratory settings, herein, we present a cucurbit[8]uril based pH responsive

supramolecular peptide amphiphile (SPA) 1 that assembles into hydrolase mimetic vesicular

nanozymes upon addition of alkaline TRIS buffer (fuel). The catalytic prowess of the assembled

nanozyme leads to in situ generation of the deactivating agent (acid) from the ester substrates and

results in disintegration of the nanozyme due to hydrolysis of the imine linkages at acidic pH. The

lifetime of these nanozymes could be manipulated in multiple ways, either by varying the number

of catalytic groups on the surface of the vesicles, by changing the acid generating substrate, or by

changing the ratio between the fuel and the substrate. The self-inhibitory nanozymes displayed

highly tuneable lifetimes ranging from minutes to hours, controlled and in situ generation of

deactivating agent, and efficient reproducibility across multiple pH cycles. The self-inhibitory

feedback mechanism employed herein presents a new approach to generation of transient functional

assemblies and may serve as a novel addition to the progressively developing field of out-ofequilibrium

systems chemistry.

Fig. 1. Graphical presentation of the self-inhibitory feedback driven temporal formation of nanozymes

showing hydrolase like catalytic activity.

Reference:

1. Dowari, P.; Das, S.; Pramanik, B.; Das, D., pH clock instructed transient supramolecular peptide

amphiphile and its vesicular assembly. Chem. Commun. 2019, 55 (94), 14119-14122.

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Scientifique: Oral

Dehydration induced dynamical heterogeneity and ordering mechanism

of lipid bilayers

Sheeba Malik and Ananya Debnath

Department of Chemistry

Indian Institute of Technology, Jodhpur

(malik.2@iitj.ac.in)

Understanding the influence of dehydration on the membrane structure is crucial to control

membrane functionality related to domain formation and cell fusion under anhydrobiosis

conditions. To this end, we perform all-atom molecular dynamic simulations of 1,2-dimyristoyl-snglycero-3-phosphocholine

dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine lipid membranes at different hydration

levels at 308 K. As dehydration increases, the lipid area per head group decreases with an increase

in bilayer thickness and lipid order parameters indicating bilayer ordering. Concurrently,

translational and rotational dynamics of interfacial water (IW) molecules near membranes slow

down. On the onset of bilayer ordering, the IW molecules exhibit prominent features of dynamical

heterogeneity evident from non-Gaussian parameters and one-dimensional van Hove correlation

functions. At a fully hydrated state, diffusion constants (D) of the IW follow a scaling relation, D

∼ τ α

−1

, where the α relaxation time (τ α) is obtained from self-intermediate scattering functions.

However, upon dehydration, the relation breaks and the D of the IW follows a power law behaviour

as D ∼ τ α −0.57 , showing the signature of glass dynamics. τ α and hydrogen bond lifetime calculated

from intermittent hydrogen bond auto-correlation functions undergo a similar crossover in

association with bilayer ordering on dehydration. The bilayer ordering is accompanied with an

increase in fraction of caged lipids spanned over the bilayer surface and a decrease in fraction of

mobile lipids due to the non-diffusive dynamics. Our analyses reveal that the microscopic

mechanism of lipid ordering by dehydration is governed by dynamical heterogeneity. The

fundamental understanding from this study can be applied to complex bio-membranes to trap

functionally relevant gel-like domains at room temperature.

Snapshots of mobile and caged atoms in VDW (van der Waals) representations at (a) 45 and (b) 4.

Blue: mobile; green: caged.

Reference:

Malik, S.; Debnath, A., J. Chem. Phys., 2021, 154, 174904.

122 Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022


Scientifique: Oral

Chemistry

Synthesis of Pyrimido[2,1-a]isoindolone and Isoindolo[2,1-

a]quinazolinone via Intramolecular Aza-Prins Type Reaction

Subhamoy Biswas, Bikoshita Porashar, Pallav Jyoti Arandhara and Anil K. Saikia*

Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati, Assam-781039, India

Email: subha176122104@iitg.ac.in

A novel aza-Prins type cyclization reaction involving N-acyliminium ions and amides is reported

for the synthesis of tetrahydropyrimido[2,1-a]isoindole-2,6-dione and 6,6a-dihydroisoindolo[2,1-

a]quinazoline-5,11-dione derivatives in excellent yields. The strategy features inexpensive

reagents, mild reaction conditions, and metal-free synthesis of N-heterocyclic frameworks.

Moreover, the present protocol tolerates structurally discrete substrates with steric bulk and

different electronic properties, which provides a straightforward and practical pathway for the

synthesis of highly functionalised N-heterocycles. Further, post-synthetic modification results in

the unprecedented formation of its triazole, tetracyclic diazacyclopenta[def]phenanthrene-

1,4(9a1H)-dione and carbonyl derivatives.

Keywords: aza-Prins cyclization, pyrimidoisoindolone and isoindoloquinazolinone.

References:

Biswas, S.; Porashar, B.; Arandhara, P. J.; Saikia A. K. Chem. Commun. 2021, 57, 11701-11704.

Photoresponsive transformation from spherical to nanotubular

assemblies: anticancer drug delivery using macrocyclic cationic gemini

amphiphiles

Subhasis Dey, a Soumya Chatterjee, b Anjali Patel, c Nirmalya Pradhan, a Diship Srivastava, d Niladri

Patra, d Arindam Bhattacharyya b and Debasis Manna ac,*

a .Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam 781039, India. b Calcutta

University, Zoology, Kolkata, West Bengal, India. c Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Centre for the

Environment, Guwahati, Assam, India. d Indian Institute of Technology (Indian School of Mines) Dhanbad,

Chemistry, Dhanbad, Jharkhand, India

*dmanna@iitg.ac.in

Lipid-based nanocarriers represent effective agents for efficiently delivering appropriate

therapeutic doses of various chemotherapeutic drugs to targeted cancer cells or tissues. Though it

has suitable biophysical properties, still it is a challange to control the delivery of appropriate doses

of the drug at the right time. Moreover, precisely controlled release of drug molecules into deep

tumors is a prerequisite for enhancing the therapeutic efficiency of lipid-based DDSs. Furthermore,

installation of stimuli-responsive cleavable covalent linkers to the lipid molecules provides a

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 123


Chemistry

Scientifique: Oral

controllable tool for triggering the release of

encapsulated drug molecules. However, most of the

cleavages mediated by these endogenous stimuli are

restricted by the limiting conditions obligatory for

the release, as they rely on differences in properties

between cells. The use of a near-infrared (NIR;

exogenous stimulus) light-responsive DDS is one of

the attractive strategies as it can be used over long

distances with excellent spatial and temporal

resolutions. Here we introduce a 2-nitrobenzyl

containing 11-membered strained macrocyclic

amphiphiles. We hypothesized that the installation

of the UV-active, 2-nitrobenzyl moiety within the

highly strained macrocyclic moiety would make it

NIR sensitive and endow it with substantial

structural changeInterestingly, our synthesized

macrocycle lipid molecule easily formed liposomal

aggregate and upon 15 minutes NIR light irradiation

turns into nanotubular assembly. The potent

synthesized gemini cationic amphiphile showed successful encapsulation and delivery of the most

widely used hydrophobic chemotherapeutic drug Dox to cancer cells.

Keywords: antibacterial activities; drug delivery; Lipid; stimuli-responsive.

References:

Dey, S.; Chatterjee, S.; Patel, A.; Pradhan, N.; Srivastava, D.; Patra, N.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Manna,

D. Photoresponsive transformation from spherical to nanotubular assemblies: anticancer drug

delivery using macrocyclic cationic gemini amphiphiles. ChemComm 2021

A low-cost and mechanically rechargeable aqueous aluminum-metal

battery

S. Nandi 1, 2* , and S.K. Das 1

1 Department of Physics, Tezpur University, Assam, India

2 Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles

* Corresponding author e-mail: sunny@tezu.ernet.in

In recent times, there has been an extensive research interest for the development of new

rechargeable battery systems. Currently, lithium-ion batteries are leading the battery market but

there are ever growing concerns over the sustainability of Li-based batteries due to paucity and

escalating cost of Li-resources [1]. Therefore, it becomes increasingly important to develop low

cost and easily processable novel energy storage technologies in the future. Hence, aluminum-metal

battery will be a promising candidate due to its high abundance, low cost and easy processing [2-

4]. In an effort to develop such Al 3+ ion based rechargeable electrochemical cells, herein we report

here the working of a rechargeable aqueous aluminum-metal battery for the first time by

electrochemically pairing pretreated metallic aluminum anode with exfoliated graphite cathode. A

discharge voltage of 1.8 V is obtained with an initial discharge capacity of 213 mAhg -1 at a current

density of 0.5 Ag -1 over several cycles. The dissolution of Al electrode in aqueous electrolyte limits

the long-term rechargeability, however we show immense promise of the system by mechanically

recharging it to prolong the longevity [5].

124 Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022


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Chemistry

References:

Fig. 1. An aqueous Al-graphite foam cell

[1]. J. M. Tarascon and M. Armand, Nature, 414, 359 (2001).

[2]. A. Eftekhari, P. Corrochanoc, Sustainable Energy Fuels, 1, 1246 (2017)

[3]. M. C. Lin, M. Gong, B. Lu, Y. Wu, D.Y. Wang, M. Guan, M. Angell, C. Chen, J. Yang, B. J.

Hwang, H. Dai, Nature, 520, 325 (2015).

[4]. S. K. Das, S. Mahapatra, H. Lahan, J. Mater. Chem.A, 5, 6347 (2017).

[5]. S. Nandi and S.K. Das, ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng. 24, 19839 (2019).

Distinct Interaction Patterns of a Triblock Copolymer Micelle with

Zwitterionic vs. Cationic Surfactant: An Excited-State Proton Transfer

Dynamics Investigation

Tapas Pal and Kalyanasis Sahu*

Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039, Assam, India

*E-mail: ksahu@iitg.ac.in

This investigation explored the interaction between a triblock copolymer F127 (poly-(ethylene

oxide) 101 (PEO 101)−poly(propylene oxide) 56 (PPO 56)−PEO 101)) micelle and a zwitterionic

sulfobetaine surfactant N-dodecyl-N, N-dimethyl-3-ammoniopropane sulfonate (SB3-12 or SB12),

primarily utilizing the excited-state proton transfer (ESPT) dynamics of a photoacid, 8-hydroxy

pyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonate (HPTS). We compared the obtained interaction pattern to that of the

cationic surfactant, dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB or C 12TAB), having the same

number of alkyl chains. The two surfactants, irrespective of charge differences, grossly follow the

same pattern as manifested by the change in the intensity ratio of the protonated and deprotonated

emission bands. For both cases, the ratio first increases above a particular surfactant concentration.

After attaining a maximum, decreases at a high concentration and finally levels off at a very high

concentration. However, the ratio attains maximum for a post-micellar (30-35 mM) SB12

concentration (~10 times higher than critical micellar concentration or CMC), whereas, for DTAB,

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 125


Chemistry

Scientifique: Oral

the maximum occurs at a sub-micellar (6-8 mM) concentration (significantly lower than its CMC).

Detailed analysis of the time-dependent emission intensity ratio reveals that ESPT dynamics is

slower in the optimum F127-SB12 assembly than in the case of the cationic surfactant. The

fluorescence anisotropy decay of 8-methoxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonate (MPTS), a methoxy analog

of HPTS, also corroborates well; the rotational dynamics become more retarded inside the F127-

SB12 assembly than in the case of the cationic surfactant. Thus, although SB12 surfactant requires

a higher concentration to acquire the optimum state, it results in a more organized and less hydrated

state than the cationic surfactant.

References

Pal, T.; Sahu, K., The Journal of Physical Chemistry B 2019, 123 (40), 8559-8568.

A New Class of Pyrazino[2,3-g]quinoxaline Carbazole Derivatives based

on D-A-D Architecture with High Efficiency in Yellow OLEDs

Vinod Kumar Vishwakarma,1 Neichoihoi Lhouvum,1 Mangey Ram Nagar,3 Jwo-Huei Jou3 and A. S.

Achalkumar1,2*

1Department of Chemistry, IIT Guwahati, India.

2Centre for Sustainable Polymers, IIT Guwahati, India.

3Department of Materials Science & Engineering, NHTU, Taiwan.

*Corresponding author e-mail: achalkumar@iitg.ac.in

Carbazole based materials have been investigated for their excellent fluorescence, hole transport

behaviour, excellent photoconductivity, and electron-donating nature with a deep HOMO level. So

here we report a new class of pyrazino[2,3-g]quinoxaline carbazole derivatives with straight and

branched C-12 alkyl flexible peripheral chains PQC-12n and PQC-12b. The electron-donating

carbazole moieties that have been placed in the periphery are showed strong electron-donating

ability, high molar extinction coefficients and lower band-gap. The non-planar conformation of the

carbazole rings with respect to the central pyrazino[2,3-g]quinoxaline unit helped to minimize

unfavourable fluorescence quenching in the solid state. Both PQC compounds exhibited bright

emission behavior in the solution and solid-state. Solvatochromism and solvent-dependent

aggregation behavior was noticed. It was interesting to note that they could form long fibers of

several micrometers in length. These materials have good potential for applications in organic

optoelectronic devices. Compound PQC-12b was utilized to fabricate yellow organic light-emitting

diodes (OLEDs) either as single emissive material or as a dopant at different low concentrations in

the different host materials and exhibited high external quantum efficiency. 1-4

Fig. 1. (a) Molecular electrostatic contour mapping of the pyrazino[2,3-g]quinoxaline carbazole

derivatives (the red and blue colors refer to the electron-rich and electron-poor regions,

respectively); (b) Solvatochromism behaviour shown by PQC-12b, photographs taken in different

solvents (from lower to higher polarity order) in micromolar concentration; (c) Chromaticity

126 Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022


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Chemistry

diagram of the device prepared from PQC-12b neat film and for the device prepared from the film

of 10 wt % PQC-12b in CBP host for bright Yellow OLEDs lights.

Acknowledgements: Authors sincerely thanks Science and Engineering Board (SERB) DST, Govt.

of India and BRNS-DAE for funding this work through project CRG/2018/000362 and Department

of Chemistry, Central Instruments Facility (CIF), IIT Guwahati for providing the instruments

facility.

References:

D. Kiymaz et al., Int. J. Hydrog. Energy, 42, (2017).

V. K. Vishwakarma and A. S., Achalkumar, Soft Matter, 17, (2021).

V. K. Vishwakarma et al., ACS Appl. Electron. Mater., 1, (2019)

X. Wang et al., Chem. Mater., 22, (2010).

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 127


Civil Engineering

Scientifique: Oral

A Review on the Mechanical Properties of Portland Cement Stabilized

Base Course using Full Depth Reclamation

A. Sachdeva 1, * , G.D.R.N. Ransinchung 1

1

Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Roorkee, India

*

Corresponding author e-mail: abhitesh_s@ce.iitr.ac.in

The primary objective of any Road Transportation System is to ensure efficient, comfortable, and

safe mobility of the road users including pedestrians and bicyclists. Due to ever-increasing axle

loads, load repetitions and limited funds, the single line aim is nowadays becoming inaccessible for

most agencies all over the world. Conventional methods of flexible pavement rehabilitation such as

Milling and Overlaying consume a lot of virgin materials, energy and in turn, release tones of

harmful gases into the atmosphere.

Full Depth Reclamation (FDR) is an innovative technique that involves scarification of the existing

flexible pavement structure up to a depth of 200 mm to 450 mm, thus removing the surface course,

base, sub-base course, and/or even subgrade. The scarified material is processed and blended with

a pre-determined proportion of Portland Cement (PC, as a stabilizer) and water. The rejuvenated

FDR mix is laid as the new base course and is compacted to specified density using smooth-wheeled

and Pad foot vibratory rollers. After adequate curing, a wearing course is provided using Cold

Bituminous Technology.

There is a common consensus among various international agencies, that 7- Day Unconfined

Strength (UCS) is a major parameter for FDR mix design. Research states that the UCS value of

PC-FDR mixes is higher in comparison to that of other chemical base stabilizations involving

Asphalt, lime, fly ash, and their combinations. The average UCS value of 43 different studies is

reported as 4 MPa. However, the maximum values reported lie in the range of 3.10 MPa to

5.51MPa. In a typical mixture of FDR containing a specific Reclaimed Asphalt Material (RAM)

content, the UCS value increases with increasing proportions of PC up to 6%. The phenomena of

continuous cement hydration enable PC-FDR treated base courses to provide strength values even

greater than the original mix design UCS values. Apart from the laboratory experiments, various

long-term performance studies have shown that PC-FDR formerly designed to deliver UCS value

of 2.75 MPa to 4.13 MPa, exhibited a mean UCS value of 6.30 MPa.

The Flexural strength of PC-FDR mixtures depends on the proportion of Cement, gradation of the

aggregate mix, mix density, and curing procedures. Optimum PC blending proportion sufficiently

improves the bonding of soil, aggregates, and RAM material thereby minimizing the horizontal

tensile strain at the bottom of the base course and hence increasing the Flexural strength of the

pavement. However, the research is limited in this aspect due to specific problems pertaining to the

excavation of field specimens for on-site FDR flexural testing. Therefore, keeping in mind the

economic and ecological benefits of the technology it is imperative to explore all the fundamental

properties of PC-FDR technology. It is recommended to establish empirical relationships by

corelating UCS and Indirect Tensile strength (ITS) obtained from extracted cores to determine the

field Flexural strength of FDR projects.

References

Reeder. G.D., Harrington. D.S., Ayers. M.E., Adaska. W, “Guide to Full-Depth Reclamation (FDR)

with Cement”, National Concrete Paper Technology Centre, Institute for Transportation, Iowa State

University.

Ghanizadeh. A.R., Rahrovan.M., Bafghi.K.B., “The effect of cement and reclaimed asphalt

pavement on the mechanical properties of stabilized base via full-depth reclamation”, Construction

and Building Materials, 161, 2018, 165-174.

128 Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022


Rainfall intensity(mm/hr)

Scientifique: Oral

Civil Engineering

Rainfall Data Analysis

Akanksh Mamidala

1

Department of Civil Engineering, NIT Bhopal, India

E-mail: akankshmamidala47@gmail.com

Every human activity is related to the availability of water in one way or other. In such a case, a

consistent monitoring of water availability is necessary. Rainfall and runoff are the major sources

of water, Hence, there is a need to estimate or monitor them. As rainfall patterns is not stationary,

there is a need to estimate rainfall periodically which in turn gives runoff and discharge values. The

process of building IDF (Intensity-Duration-Frequency relationships) curves based on available

rainfall data is referred to as ‘Rainfall Analysis’.

In this study, we have collected previous 25 years daily rainfall data of an area (14°N,75°E -

15.5N,76.75°E) in Karnataka state from IMD Pune and Constructed intensity duration frequency

relationships for the maximum series of rainfall intervals 15min, 30min, 1hr, 2hr, 3hr, 4hr, 5hr, 6hr,

7hr, 8hr, 9hr, 10hr, 11hr, 12hr, 13hr, 14hr, 15hr, 16hr, 17hr, 18 hr, 19hr, 20hr, 21hr, 22hr, 23hr,

24hr by converting 24-hour rainfall data to above mentioned intervals using IMD reduction

formula. The IDF curves were constructed for 5,10,50,100 years return periods and are shown

below in Fig. 1.

200

IDF curve

150

100

50

0

15 30 1

min min hr

2

hr

3

hr

4

hr

5

hr

6

hr

7

hr

8

hr

9

hr

10

hr

11

hr

12

hr

Duration

13

hr

14

hr

15

hr

16

hr

17

hr

18

hr

19

hr

20

hr

21

hr

22

hr

23

hr

24

hr

RETURN PERIOD (5 years) RETURN PERIOD (10 years) RETURN PERIOD (50 years)

RETURN PERIOD (100 years)

Fig. 1. Intensity-Duration-Frequency curves.

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 129


Civil Engineering

Scientifique: Oral

A Study on the Decadal Transformations in Land Use and Land Cover

Using Remote Sensing-Based Change Detection Techniques for Tartous

Region in Syria

Ali Younes 1,2, *, Adnan Ahmad 3 , Ashok D. Hanjagi 1 , Archana M. Nair 3

1

Department of Geography and Geoinformatics, Bangalore University. Bangalore, India.

2

Department of Geography, University of Tartous. Tartous, Syria.

3

Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Guwahati, India. Guwahati, India.

*

Corresponding Author: ali.h.you1994@gmail.com

The study of Land Use and Land Cover is essential to realize how the earth's terrestrial surface was

changing during a period of time. LULC supplies the foremost basis for human livelihoods and

well-being. Human use directly affects more than 70% of the global ice-free land surface (IPCC,

2019). Nowadays, the expansion, intensity and rate of LULC change (LULCC) are considered the

maximum ever. In Syria, the increasing population and the growing development have their impact

on human behaviour in land utilization. During the last decade, the anthropogenic pressure caused

by the current crisis led to substantial change of LULC. This paper aims to observe the LULCC in

Tartous Sub-district from 1987 to 2019 in order to understand the nature and direction of landscape's

transformations occurred and the environmental consequence. The study was practically conducted

by the proper use of GIS and RS. In particular, supervised classification, change detection and postclassification

thematic change were applied on six imageries from 3 different satellites. From 1987

onwards the natural vegetation cover showed an obvious decrease, nearly to the half by 2019,

whereas built-up areas recorded approximately double-fold growth during the same period. It was

found that degradation of the natural vegetation cover was driven by deforestation and

transformation mostly to agricultural lands. However, agricultural lands were also lost mainly on

account of built-up areas, and this all had impacts on the environment. This study provides a better

understanding of land utilization aspects and it plays an important role as an input into the formation

of plans and policies required for the natural resources management regionally and nationally.

Keywords: LULC Transformations, Change Detection, Environmental Impact, Sustainable Land

Utilization, Urbanization, Natural Resources Management.

Fig. 1. LULC Distribution Maps

from 1987 to 2019 (Per Year).

Fig. 2. Environmental

Impact

Fig. 3. Growth and Extension of

Built-up Areas from 1987 to

2019.

References:

IPCC, 2019. People, land and climate in a warming world, in: Climate Change and Land. WMO,

UNEP, Geneva, Switzerland, p. 2.

130 Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022


Scientifique: Oral

Civil Engineering

Scope of Recycling Different Industrial Wastes in Construction of

Geopolymer Concrete Pavements

A.Ghosh 1* , C.Chandrasekhar 1 , and G.D.R.N Ransinchung 1

1

Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Roorkee, India

*

Corresponding author e-mail: a_ghosh@ce.iitr.ac.in

Sustainable construction practices are the need of the hour. Any initiative fostering the reduction of

carbon footprint leading to global warming is of unequivocal relevance. This definite abstract

provides an introspect on the scope of effective utilisation of geopolymer concrete in sustainable

rigid pavement construction.

The primary mechanism for producing geopolymer concrete (GPC) is the activation of an aluminasilicate

source using alkaline hydroxides and silicates. Geopolymerisation basically involves a

three-step mechanism commencing with the dissolution of silica and alumina from the source

materials followed by coagulation and gelation of the dissolved materials which subsequently

polymerizes to form 3-D networks of silica-aluminate structures. Thus, it may be inferred that the

geopolymeric system is fundamentally re-utilizing the supplementary cementitious materials and

takes a way forward towards sustainability and eco-friendliness.

It may be contemplated that the stresses induced in concrete pavements are predominantly flexural.

Therefore, designing mixes based on flexural strength criterion is considered for rigid pavement

construction. The minimum characteristics flexural strength of concrete shall not be less than

4.5MPa unless otherwise specified. Comprehensive studies have reported that geopolymeric

binders can attain the desired strength when designed precisely. For pavements, consideration of

durability is obligatory in predicting the service life since they are exposed outside, often in harsh

environments. Various researchers have studied the durability properties of rigid pavements

through resistance to acid attack, alkaline silicate reaction, and freeze and thaw cycles. Particularly,

the resistance of geopolymers to sulfuric acid has been examined due to the frequent exposure of

concretes to acid rain, sewage, and sulphur-rich soils. A majority of the past research works

included durability studies on metakaolin, FA, slag as effective pre-cursors of geopolymer concrete,

however, there is limited literature on synthesis using RM and other wastes.

Literature has also shown promising results of geopolymer concrete performance with regards to

strength and durability, limited shrinkage, dense microstructure, and enhanced performance in

acidic and sulphate mediums. Aguilar et al. [1] investigated the compressive and flexural strength

development of metakaolin-based geopolymer concrete and reported the formation of dense

microstructure and a solid interfacial zone. He et al. [2] observed an interesting shift from ductile

to brittle failure for longer cured Red Mud (RM) based geopolymeric binders. It has been further

reported that RM can be a probable source modifier owing to its high pH value, richer alumina

content, and leaching characteristics. The mechanical properties and strength development of

geopolymer concrete are primarily dependent on the curing temperature. Research on Fly Ash (FA)-

based geopolymer systems exposed to curing at elevated temperature exhibited almost six times the

compressive strength obtained from ambient cured specimens at 7 days and nearly the double

strength increment at 28 days. However, this method of curing is apt only for precast geopolymer

specimens. Hence, to overcome the challenges of site application of oven-cured geopolymer

concrete, research is now being oriented towards its production at ambient temperature. The age of

curing is a significant parameter influencing the compressive strength developed. For oven-cured

specimens, increased curing time had a negligible effect on compressive strength improvement but

was a vital criterion for ambient-cured specimens. Though a significant number of studies based on

the utilization of wastes had been conducted in the past, yet there is a lack of clear understanding

of how the different curing techniques can affect the performance properties of mix prepared by

varied combinations of the recycled wastes.

Geopolymeric binders have paved a new way in the construction of rigid pavements not only by

addressing the problems associated with sustainable construction but also through evident enhanced

performance. The acceptance of this modern binder by the industry faces multiple challenges

because of misconceptions associated with the cost analysis and improper handling of chemicals.

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 131


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Scientifique: Oral

The primary objective should be focused on bridging this gap through extensive research and

industry-academia interface.

Keywords- Geopolymer Concrete, Rigid Pavements, Ambient curing, Fly Ash, Red Mud

References

Aguilar A. R, Diaz O. B, Escalante-Garcia J. I. Lightweight concretes of activated metakaolin-fly

ash binders, with blast furnace slag aggregates, Constr. Build. Mater. 2010:24: 1166–1175.

He J, Zhang J, Yu Y, Zhang G. The strength and microstructure of two geopolymers derived from

metakaolin and red mud-fly ash admixture: a comparative study, Constr. Build. Mater. 2012:30:

80–91.

Development of a Monitoring Application used for systematic Pre-

Disaster Management to develop a Self-Sustaining Disaster Resilient

Community

A. DEBDUT SENGUPTA 1 , B. SUBHAM MAURYA 2

1

Centre for Disaster Management and Research (CDMR), IIT GUWAHATI, INDIA

2

Centre for Disaster Management and Research (CDMR), IIT GUWAHATI, INDIA

The purpose of the solution proposed is to reduce the impact of disasters on affected populations

and assist them to recover fast. Our work focuses on reducing the Vulnerability of People,

maintaining transparency in the execution of Disaster Management, uplifting the livelihood status

for sustainable growth of the vulnerable people, limiting long-term negative- effects of disasters

and achieving SDGs.

Fig. 1. KEY HIGHLIGHTS

Monitoring Application:In the monitoring application algorithms will be developed such that

according to the data collected it will provide VSD Diagram & Risk Index for each of the clusters

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Civil Engineering

based on the average age, income, and medical condition etc. of the group. Here the help of the

application will quickly lead us to useful insights. Through this application we can picturize or

visualize different aspects which makes the community vulnerable. Further based on the prepared

results the Disaster Management team needs to take proper actions.

The application is supposed to designed considering – ease of use, accessible to public, creating

disaster awareness, faster way of dealing, systematic approach, improving connectivity, data storing

for better future disaster preparedness, faster risk analysis, government schemes available etc.

Bioremediation and toxicity evaluation of petroleum refinery industry

wastewater prior and post bacterial treatment

Izharul Haq * and Ajay S Kalamdhad

Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati-781039, Assam, India.

*Corresponding author: E-mail: izhar@iitg.ac.in

The petroleum refinery industry generates a huge amount of wastewater characterized by high

concentration of solids, COD, BOD, TPH, TKN, heavy metals and other toxic pollutants. The

pollutants discharged from the refinery industry pose toxicity to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.

Therefore, in this study we evaluated the bacterial system for the treatment of refinery wastewater

and its toxicity assessment using plant model. Refinery wastewater was characterized by physicochemical

analysis and organic pollutants were analysed by Gas Chromatography Mass

Spectroscopy (GC-MS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The result of the study

showed that the raw wastewater containing high amount of toxic pollutants which was reduced after

bacterial degradation. The decline of organic pollutants was also corroborated by GC-MS and FTIR

analysis. The toxicity of the wastewater assessed through phytotoxicity and cyto-genotoxicity assay

using Vigna mungo and Allium cepa plant showed the raw wastewater was inhibiting seed

germination, seedling, root length, shoot length and biomass in comparison to control. After

bacterial treatment the growth parameters of the plants were improved in comparison to untreated

wastewater. The result of the cytotoxicity assay showed significant reduction in mitotic index with

respect to control but after bacterial treatment the improved mitotic index was observed. Further,

the wastewater induced genotoxicity as evidenced by the presence of various chromosomal

aberrations (CAs) and nuclear abnormalities (NAs) in raw wastewater treated plant. However, the

bacterial treatment led to reduction of genotoxicity as evident by reduced numbers of CAs and NAs.

Thus, the finding of the present study reported that refinery wastewater containing diverse types of

pollutants and act as phytotoxic and cyto-genotoxic agent in plant system but after bacterial

treatment process, the reduction of pollutant and toxicity was observed. Therefore, the present

bacteria culture could be promising approach for the treatment of refinery industry wastewater at

large scale.

Keywords: Refinery industry wastewater, Bacterial degradation, Toxicity reduction,

Characterization

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 133


Civil Engineering

Scientifique: Oral

Scour Simulations around circular bridge pier using flow 3D Software

Hansraj Uke & Annapurna Verma Dr. Rutuja M Chavan

1

Department of civil Engineering, NIT Bhopal, India

e-mail: hansrajuke6@gmail.com

The problem of Local scour around the circular pier was examined numerically using 3D flow.

Proper measurement of the scrubbing process is a way to prevent the bridge from potential damage.

The present paper uses FLOW-3D software to simulate three-dimensional flow and scour around a

circular pier. A rectangular channel with 0.5 m width and 1.0 m length and a vertical cylindrical

pier with a diameter of 0.05 m and height of 0.5m was specified for simulation of scour depth.

The purpose of this study was to validate the ability of the Flow-3D numerical simulation model to

accurately and predict scour depths around the circular pier, the velocity of flow, fluid depth,

packaged sediment height, piercing, and changes in net cell movement, speed. vector, move. The

results were in agreement with the quality and standards reported in the literature, which shows that

Flow-3D is powerful as a design tool that works with a circular pier under a variety of flow

conditions. In this study, navigating the imitation near the circular pier area it will also be discussed.

The main purpose of this study is to test the model's ability to simulate a scour-hole depth of

unstable soils under a variety of conditions incoming prices. According to the results of this study,

it was concluded that Flow-3D is a model with the ability to imitate different flow characteristics

with different dimensions of, 2D and 3D also. But has other barriers to imitation

sedimentation/scouring processes. Component Area / Capacity Barrier Representative method

(FAVOR) is used to indicate I complex boundaries of the solution domain. Flow-3D too allows

multiple programs to end conflict compiled and tested. These closing plans include a two-equation

k-e, large equation Re Normalized Group (RNG) model. 3D-CFD model used in Flow-3D

represents a common river channel with a rectangular entry 0.5 m wide and long 1.0 m. A straight

cylindrical pier with a diameter of 0.05 m and a height of 0.5 m is placed in the centre channel as a

solid component. Full sediment part of the type is used at the bottom of the channel with dimensions

1.0, 0.5, and 0.16 m in length, width, and height, respectively. Particle diameter was 0.04 mm at a

concentration of 2650 kg / m3 with 20000 mesh block cells included in the geometric model.

Keywords: Flow-3D, Scour, Circular Pier, packed sediment, mesh cell

Factors affecting the Cost of Quality (CoQ) in Construction Industry: A

Systematic Review

Nandini Sharma 1, * , Boeing Laishram 2

1 Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Guwahati, India

2 Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Guwahati, India

* Corresponding author e-mail: nandini.sharma@iitg.ac.in

Construction is the most complex and fragmented sector, where cost overruns continue to be a big

issue. As a result, quality is sacrificed in the name of cost savings, as quality costs account for a

significant portion of the entire cost of construction projects owing to rework and failure.

Understanding the factors that influence the cost of quality (CoQ) in the construction industry may

assist in identifying cost-cutting solutions without compromising quality. Many researchers have

studied the cost of quality in the manufacturing sector, but no systematic review has been conducted

on the cost of quality in the construction sector. The purpose of this review paper is to identify the

factors and group them into respective themes. The review is conducted by using 55 peer-reviewed

articles in the field of CoQ obtained from three databases, i.e., EBSCO Host, Scopus & Web of

science. Finally, future research suggestions identified in the literature are methodically presented.

This paper sheds light on future research areas in the field of CoQ in the construction sector. Thus,

this study may be used by both academics and practitioners to further improve this field in

134 Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022


Scientifique: Oral

Civil Engineering

accordance with future research recommendations & identified factors categorise into different

themes.

Keywords: Cost of quality, Construction, CoQ, Components of CoQ

A study on chromium adsorption by ladle furnace slag from aqueous

medium.

Partha Pratim Pal 1 , Sunil Kumar Gupta 2 , Sanchita Chakravarty 1

CSIR – National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur- 831007

Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, IIT (ISM), Dhanbad - 826004

The objective of the study was adsorption potential of ladle furnace slag (LDS) for removal of

chromium ions from aqueous medium. The ladle furnace slag, a by-product of steel making

industries, which was collected in our city Jamshedpur (India) form M/s Tata Steel Limited, and

used as an adsorbent. The characterization of LD slag was done by SEM morphology images, EDS

elementary analysis, XR Diffraction study and chemical analysis. The adsorption studies were

conducted with optimization of pH, contact time, initial Cr(IV) concentration, dose of LDS in batch

experiments system. The equilibrium adsorption on LDS followed Langmuir and Freundlich

isotherm models and both fitted well. The adsorption kinetics for Cr(IV) ions onto LDS was best

indicated by pseudo-second-order kinetics with correlation coefficient 0.98. The maximum

adsorption capacity of Cr(VI) ions on LDS was estimated and found 21.74 mgL -1 at or above pH

5.4 in normal room temperature 28 0 C. The competitive adsorption study on mix multi metals

elements was examined and results shown very favourable remediation. The results indicate that

LDS can be used as an effective and no-cost adsorbent for treatment of contaminated industrial

effluents.

Keywords: Ladle furnace slag, Adsorption, Chromium ions, Isotherms, Kinetics.

A REVIEW ON UNEXPLOITED FEATURES OF N-DIMENSIONAL

BIM: AN INDIAN CONSTRUCTION SCENARIO

*Rhijul Sood and Laishram Boeing

Ph.D. Research Scholar, IEM division, Civil Engineering Department, IIT Guwahati (*rsood@iitg.ac.in)

Professor, IEM division, Civil Engineering Department, IIT Guwahati

Infrastructure sector is a backbone of economic development for most of the countries worldwide.

Indian AEC (Architecture, Engineering and Construction) industry is one of the leading sectors in

terms of GDP and employment. With the increasing demand for infrastructure and continuous

development in field of technology, the speed of construction has been improved in various

countries. But most of the projects still face the issues of cost and time overruns due to unexploitation

of digital tools and technology. Building Information Modeling (BIM) is one such

promising technology that spans several levels of maturity (Level 0, 1, 2, and 3) and dimensions

(2d, 3d, 4d, 5d, 6d and 7d). Many studies shows that the construction industry is still lagging behind

the rate with which technology should have been adapted, particularly in developing countries

including India. The study compiled a list of 40 peer-reviewed articles from the SCOPUS database

that summarized the benefits of BIM software among various stakeholders across the project

lifecycle in the context of the Indian construction industry. The paper also discuss about the barriers

which are hindering the optimal utilization of BIM along with the need to study about the

opportunity created by recent COVID-19 pandemic to shift the focus of all the stakeholders towards

effective and enhanced use of digital technology in AEC industry in India.

Keywords: AEC, BIM, COVID-19, Level of maturity.

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 135


Civil Engineering

Scientifique: Oral

Current status of floating-bed agriculture in India and its way forward

Tanmoy Kumar Ghosh * , Sudip Mitra, Sougata Karmakar

Centre for Disaster Management and Research (CDMR),

IIT Guwahati, Guwahati, Assam 781039, India.

*

tanmoy.kumar@iitg.ac.in

India is highly vulnerable to adverse impacts of global climate change. One of India's most

destructive consequences of global climate change is flooding. Long-term water logging makes it

too difficult for the farmers to continue traditional land-based agriculture practices. Agricultural

land in India is steadily shrinking due to rapid urbanization and population explosion. In this

scenario, alternative farming practices, such as innovative floating-bed agriculture, might hold great

promise in flood-prone and wet-land areas. Many challenges have been reported regarding the

promotion of floating agriculture in India, including lack of awareness among the farmers,

economic constraints, weather conditions, non-suitability for all types of water bodies, plant

diseases and pest attacks, the adverse effect of unwanted or unsafe motions of floating bed beyond

the normal range, risk and destruction of the crop, etc. The study aims to document the current

states of floating bed agriculture and its future possibilities in India by extensive literature review.

In the present review, published literature on floating bed agriculture has been identified from

online resources using electronic search engines (Google Scholar, Scopus, and Web of Science)

with different keywords (floating-bed, innovative farming, aquatic farming, flood-prone,

waterlogging, etc.). The adopted systematic review process followed the PRISMA framework.

Collected information was segregated and presented under different headings and sub-headings,

which included broad topics: a) Current global scenario of agricultural practice in flood-prone and

water-logged areas; b) Process and tools/techniques used by the farmers in floating bed-agriculture,

c) Research and developmental activities in this particular agricultural practices in the context of

developing countries like India, d) Challenges and future scope reported regarding the promotion

of floating agriculture. It has been observed that peer-reviewed journal publications on floating

agriculture in the Indian context are rare. It indicates that the research in this domain has received

less attention from the Indian scientific community. The research gap has demonstrated in the

current review would encourage the agricultural researcher/engineer to indulge themselves in this

prospective domain of floating agrarian technique. Detailed field research and scientific

investigations are needed to evaluate floating agriculture's potential as a suitable method for climate

change adaptation and enhance the resilience of the farming community of the low-lying areas,

specifically for flood-prone and marshy-land regions.

eywords: Climate change; Flood; Adaptation; Sustainable development; Aquatic agriculture

136 Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022


Scientifique: Oral

Computer Science and Engineering

INTELLIGENT OXYGEN MASK.

BODDU VENKATA SAI BHUVAN.

Department of computer science and Engineering, WOXSEN UNIVERSITY, India

*Corresponding author e-mail: bhuvanboddu08@gmail.com

During these covid times requirement of oxygen is rapidly increasing. Among all Some of the

people are getting the required amount of oxygen and some others are dying due to lack of oxygen

.A device which controls the flow and delivers the required amount of oxygen to patients is really

required. This allows us to deliver oxygen much efficiently and saves oxygen .The oxygen device

which controls the flow even helps in critical situations byincreasing flow. The patient with

respiratory disorders are facing problem during intake of oxygen so, for their convenience we are

designing a device that which detects the percentage of oxygen level in the body and provides the

required amount of oxygen to the patient automatically. The spO2 sensor in this device first detects

the percentage of oxygen in the body and sends it to the micro processor and this microprocessor

will detect the required percentage of oxygen for patient and provide it to him with the help of air

flow valve. If the patient's oxygen lave is above the threshold value, then it decreases the flow of

oxygen.

When the patient's oxygen level is normal then the device will send good flow of oxygen

consistently. When the percentage of oxygen in the patient goes below the threshold value then, the

device will increase the flow of oxygen and sends a notice to the doctor so that doctor can come

and check the patient to make sure that he doesn’t have any illness and he is healthy.

This device will allow the patients to take breath comfortably. This is a device which is required

during these covid times. The requirement of oxygen is being rapidly increased. This saves oxygen

having said that it tell the doctor when the patient oxygen saturation level goes below the threshold

value then this device will send a notice to that doctor.so, the doctor can come and check the patient

for his illness. By sending the required amount of oxygen it saves the oxygen. The oxygen which

is being used by one person only can be given to two people suffering with the disease one after

another.

This is used to used to asthma patients to breath properly. This is helpful for the people who went

through heart operations. This device can be used for long term respiratory problems. This can be

used for patients who are suffering with lung diseases. Oxygen is being saved by this process

CKNOWLEDGEMENT: I would like to express my special thanks of gratitude to my professor

“Dr. Daya Shankar” for their able guidance and support in completing my project.

REFERENCES:

https://24x7mag.com/medical-equipment/testing-calibration/general-testingequipment/understanding-spo2-sensor-testing/

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ycoA4YmOqtw

A Penalty-aware Real-time Scheduler for Task Graphs on

Heterogeneous Platforms

D. Senapati 1, * , A. Sarkar 2 , and C. Karfa 1

1

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, IIT Guwahati, India

2

Advanced Technology Development Centre, IIT Kharagpur, India

*

Corresponding author e-mail: debab176101003@iitg.ac.in

Scheduling real-time applications modelled as Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAGs) on heterogeneous

distributed platforms is known to be a challenging as well as a computationally demanding problem.

Therefore, research in this domain often focuses on the design of low complexity heuristics that

produce quick and satisfactory, generally sub-optimal schedules. Traditionally, list scheduling

heuristics generate efficient schedules within reasonable time complexities [1, 2, 3]. Most of the list

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 137


Computer Science and Engineering

Scientifique: Oral

scheduling schemes attempt to construct a static schedule for DAGs to minimize the

overall schedule length (also known as makespan). Unlike these existing schemes, this research

work deals with the design of an efficient scheduler for executing a real-time DAG-structured

application on a distributed platform consisting of a set of fully connected heterogeneous

processors. The objective of the scheduling strategy is to minimize a generic penalty function that

can be amicably adopted towards its deployment in various application domains such as real-time

embedded systems, industrial automation, cloud/fog computing, and IoTs, smart grids, automotive

and avionic systems, etc. In this work, we developed an efficient list-based heuristic scheduling

algorithm called Penalty-aware REal-time Scheduler for Task graphs on heterOgeneous platforms

(PRESTO), to generate a minimal penalty deadline-meeting static schedule. The generic efficacy of

PRESTO is exhibited through extensive simulation-based experiments using two commonly used

benchmark task graphs, namely Gaussian elimination [2] and Epigenomics [3]. The practical

applicability of PRESTO in diverse scenarios has further been exhibited by using the scheme in two

different real-world case studies, the first of which relates to automotive embedded systems, while

the second is in the domain of fog computing.

REFERENCES

H. Topcuoglu, S. Hariri, and Min-You Wu, “Performance-effective and low-complexity task

scheduling for heterogeneous computing” in IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed

Systems 13, 3, 260–274. https://doi.org/10.1109/71.993206, 2002.

H. Arabnejad and J. G. Barbosa, “List Scheduling Algorithm for Heterogeneous Systems by an

Optimistic Cost Table” in IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems 25, 3, 682–694,

https://doi.org/10.1109/TPDS.2013.57, 2014.

D. Senapati, A. Sarkar, C. Karfa,“HMDS: A Makespan Minimizing DAG Scheduler for

Heterogeneous Distributed Systems,” in ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems

(ACM TECS), Special Issue on ESWEEK, 20, 5s, Article 106, 26 pages. DOI:

https://doi.org/10.1145/3477037, October 2021.

Retinal image quality restoration and automatic classification using

Generative Adversarial Networks

Smitha A. 1 , Jidesh P. 1,*

1

Department of Mathematical and Computational Sciences,

National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal

*

Corresponding author e-mail: ppjidesh@gmail.com

A brilliant vision gives us a luscious life. This vision might be hindered due to the natural ageing

process leading to weaker tissues in the human eye. The retina of the human eye plays a significant

role in vision. Damage to any part of the retina leads to visual impairments. Retinal disorders such

as Diabetic Retinopathy and Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) are causing distress in the

elderly community (age beyond 60 years). Diagnosis of retinal disorders is a daunting task for

ophthalmologists as the devices are not equipped with automatic retinal analysis. The advent of

deep learning has transformed the necessity of smart medical applications to a reality in recent

years. However, the existing AI-enabled products such as D-Eye and Artelus are primarily designed

to grade Diabetic Retinopathy. Motivated by this, the aim of the research work is to use Generative

Adversarial Networks (GAN) and classify the retinal images into normal or abnormal. The

abnormal categories include Glaucoma, Age-related Macular Degeneration, and Diabetic Macular

Edema.

Ophthalmologists predominantly use Colour Fundus Photography and Optical Coherence

Tomography (OCT) to conduct eye screening. These modalities are non-invasive and provide a

lucid view of retinal tissues and other structures as shown in Fig.1. Retina is composed of an optical

disc, fovea in the macular region and the blood vessels, that are observed from fundus images. The

intricate details of the retinal tissue layers can be identified from OCT. Fundus and OCT imaging

138 Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022


Scientifique: Oral

Computer Science and Engineering

modalities significantly differ in terms of working principle. As a result, fundus images suffer

contrast degradation while OCT images are affected by inherent speckles. Plethora of fundus and

OCT images are available in public domain for various retinal conditions. However, the image

quality varies depending on the model and manufacturer of these devices. Preprocessing is thus an

essential step in automated systems.

The thesis discusses two different approaches to restore the degraded retinal images. Particularly, a

novel retinex based non-local total generalized variation restoration method enhances the fundus

images increasing the visibility of the macula region. Realizing the fact that the speckles inherent

in OCT images are multiplicative in nature, a statistical analysis is incorporated to identify

appropriate noise distribution. A novel non-local deep image prior model is proposed to despeckle

OCT images that alleviates multiplicative speckles following Gamma distribution. The deep image

prior method eliminates the requirement of a large number of ground truth images for denoising. A

detailed qualitative and quantitative analysis conducted on images from multiple datasets confirm

that the proposed method outperforms other existing methods. The metrics such as Global Contrast

Factor and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio shows the image quality improved by incorporating proposed

preprocessing techniques. As a further stratum of evaluation, the preprocessed images are used to

classify the retinal disorders using GAN. A semi-supervised GAN is used to classify fundus images

and the segmentation task include fovea location, optic segmentation and blood vessel extraction.

Heterogeneous datasets are used to segment and simultaneously classify the disorders. The OCT

images are classified into normal, AMD, and DME categories using Wasserstein GAN. Standard

classification metrics such as accuracy are measured from confusion matrix. The proposed GAN is

compared with existing deep learning models and transfer learning approaches. The experimental

analysis shows classification accuracy of upto 90% can be achieved proving the stability of a GAN

amongst heterogeneous datasets. In short, the research work acts as a cornerstone for end-to-end

automatic multi-modal retinal image analysis.

Fig. 1. Retina observed from (A) fundus and (B) OCT.

(Image source: ODIR grand challenge 2019 and OCTID 2018 public repository)

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 139


Design

Scientifique: Oral

Design of Affective Computing System For Self-Awareness To Improve

Mental Health

Antariksh Tiwari 1

Department of Multimedia Communication and Design

Central Institute of Technology, Kokrajhar

antarikshtiwari@gmail.com

Everyone becomes stressed due to various aspects. However, when it negatively interferes with

one’s daily routine without people’s awareness, it creates significant issues in our quality of life,

including low mental and physical health. Physical conditions like obesity, high blood pressure,

high heart rate are very prevalent. This paper uses a human-centred approach to design a system

based on the internet of things (IoT) to know a person's stress level. Based on that, various proven

method like breathing exercise is recommended to calm the person and encourage self-awareness.

The detection of stress is done through close-up sensing of physiological data such as temperature,

ECG and skin conductance which are used in the detection of the stress of a person via gadgets like

bodily wearables. A smartphone application is designed to analyse and record these data as growth

levels reports on a daily basis, which is then shown to the user. It has been found that when people

see their growth improvements in real-time, they are active, self-aware and motivated to improve

themselves to deal with stress, which also makes them confident to change and be resilient. The

development of the same has to be done. This affective computing system has significant potential

for self-improvement in terms of mindfulness to deal with stress.

Difference comparison in behavioral engagement with memes between

Productive and Unproductive groups of people during COVID-19

lockdown period.

Abhay Verma ,*

1 Dept of Multimedia Communication and Design,

Central Institute of Technology, Kokrajhar-78330, Assam (India).

vabhay7070@gmail.com

Due to COVID-19, Lockdown has forced us to use social media more than ever for a variety of

different purposes out of which entertainment is the most common one. The most common

and popular forms of social media entertainment are internet memes. Memes are usually

jokes which are presented in the form of an image, video, or a piece of written text which are

responsible and capable of carrying an idea, behavior, and cultural information representing

a particular phenomenon or theme.

Based on the survey done there’s a group of people who acknowledges that their productivity

has increased and another group acknowledges that they’ve become unproductive post

lockdown.

This study deals with finding out the differences in terms of behavioral engagement of

Productive and Unproductive people with memes by collecting and comparing Qualitative

and Quantitative data. To perform this research, participants were required to answer some

questions based on the memes from different categories they were shown and, other

questions to understand the post lockdown lifestyle changes.

This study can be used to understand the psychological conditions, digital media interaction,

and productivity differences during the lockdown. This study can further be amalgamated

with other User Interaction and User Experience studies to design impactful digital solutions

specifically for challenging and unexpected scenarios like COVID- 19 which will help masses

to get through these times in the best way possible.

140 Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022


Scientifique: Oral

Design

Keywords: Memes Interaction, Social media interaction, Comparative Study, Productive and

Unproductive user interaction, Entertainment during lockdown.

Interactive Design Approach on Vehicle Monitoring and Tracking in

Academic Sector

Anurag M 1* , Bhaskar Saha 2

1,2

Department of Multimedia Communication and Design,

1,2

Central Institute of Technology Kokrajhar, Assam, India

anuragam5139@gmail.com, bhaskarsahahb@gmail.com

There is an increase in unauthorized vehicle presence in Indian academic surroundings, which

creates issues for the authority. Vehicle monitoring and tracking are essential in academic activities.

It is observed that the lack of proper security systems and vehicle tracking in academic sectors are

the root cause of the presence of unauthorized vehicles on campus.

This paper aims to resolve issues through an interactive design concept approach based on the

creative technical concept and use of the mobile application to track or monitor vehicles on an

academic campus for better security. This paper focuses on a better security system through a

database and depends on the perceptions or cognitive design approach.

Keywords: Interactive Design, UX & UI, RFID, Mobile Application, Security Alert

Application of interactive digital art with the infusion of surrealism for

visual interpretation of the journey of spiritual guru Srimanta

Shankardeva

A. Anuranan Kakati 1, * , B. Susmita Roy 1

1

Department of Multimedia Communication and Design, CIT Kokrajhar, India

*

Corresponding author e-mail: anurananofficial@gmail.com

Digital art is defined as an artistic work or practice using digital technology as part of the creative

process. Presently, digital art has become an integral part of social life and greatly impacts

traditional art. Compared to traditional art, the most significant advantage of digital art is its

convenience in narrowing down the distance between artists and viewers. This paper aims to depict

a glimpse of the inspirational journey of Spiritual Guru “Mahapurush Srimanta Sankardev” of

Assam - North East India, with the application of interactive digital art form infusing “surrealism”

and analyses its visual impact on viewers. In olden days, books and oral interpretations were the

only medium to convey information and stories of spiritual gurus. In Assamese literature, there are

lot of books based on the biography of Guru Shankardeva by renowned writers. But most of these

books lacks visuals narrative. In the present era, advent of latest technologies creates scope for

better visual representation of these spiritual stories. This experiment is a fresh approach for

interpretation of spiritualism exhibited with the infusion of surrealism, an art form that embraces

the power of the unconscious mind. To analyse the impact of this experiment, an interview based

survey was carried out with people and a few writers from the Assamese community. It was

observed that majority of the people gave affirmative response. Further the interactivity of the

digital illustrations makes the art form more interesting for the viewers.The positive outcome puts

forward future hope to implement it with AR/VR technologies into the block-chain method and

explore with various media platform.

Keywords: Digital Illustration, Digital Art, Storytelling, Spiritualism, Surrealism, Interactive Art,

Visual Narrative

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 141


Design

Scientifique: Oral

Fig.1: Sankardeva’s

biography with a

rare old painting.

Fig.2: Step by Step

Explorations of

Digital Art.

Fig.3: Few Snapshots

from the Final Visual

Narrative.

Conceptualization of a Vending Machine for Indian Scenario to

Overcome COVID-19 Situations with a Mobile App-Based Integration

A. Banamita Sarma 1, * , B. Anowar Hussain Mondal 2 , and C. Dr. Abhijit Padun 1

1

Department of Multimedia Communication and Design, CIT Kokrajhar, India

2

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, CIT Kokrajhar, India

*

Corresponding author e-mail: p21mcd1001@cit.ac.in

Fig.4: Development of

website for the

Interactive Visual

Narrative.

The COVID-19 pandemic had a huge impact on our lives. We faced a lot of problems during the

pandemic such as buying essentials from stores. We all had to stand in a long line in front of a store

where one person was catering to a lot of people. It also got crowded at most shopping places

making it harder to follow covid protocol. We have realized that it is best to avoid unnecessary

human contact and social distancing is the key to beating any pandemic or other such transferable

diseases. Any social distancing practice we implement in our daily life will help us beat COVID-

19 and also avoid future pandemics.

With that in mind, an autonomous vending machine has been conceptualized that can be controlled

with a smartphone. Users will be able to view and select items on the Android/iOS application to

place the order. The order can be placed beforehand without payment. The user then can visit the

vending machine where they will need to scan a QR code placed on the vending machine upon

which they will be prompted for order confirmation and payment. After successful payment, the

vending machine will initiate the item give-out process.

This idea has been conceptualized for Indian society. Similar vending machines are available in

other countries but in India implementation of such vending machines gives rise to the challenge of

the security of vending machines and storing items that differ in weight, size, and required storing

condition. This autonomous vending machine will be able to help us maintain social distance. As

users will not have to touch any common control panel on the vending machine, this will also further

decrease the transmission of viruses. Since the vending machine can function autonomously with

just needing to restock the items, it can function 24*7 and multiple vending machines can be placed

with a little manpower to handle a large number of users. This can benefit society during and after

the pandemic.

142 Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022


Scientifique: Oral

Design

Fig. 1. Flowchart Diagram of Proposed System.

Fig. 2. Concept UI for the Android/iOS Application

Fig. 3. Concept Illustration for

Vending Machine

Implementation of Drawing learning approach kids Through Online for

better communication

Divya sharma and Bhaskar saha

Department of Multimedia Communication Design

central institute of technology kokrajhar,India

divyasharmadec16@gmail.com

Utilization and implementation of new media technologies have put emphasis on imparting quality

knowledge and skill in more convenient manner. Children being very curious and indulging in these

new media technologies are quick to pick up learning elements from them.

This paper aims towards implementation of Augmented Reality technology in imparting quality

Drawing skills and retention in children through digital platforms. The advantages and challenges

Into implementing the hypothetical design concept has been thoroughly tallied through a two fold

user survey using prototype and questionnaire in Delhi, India. In-depth query about cognitive

learning of the children through the design concept has been essentially considered. The digital

platform would essentially provides children with scope to learn drawing skill conveniently in

virtual space. The design concept also ventures through implementation of the cognitive learning

methods through Augmented Reality.

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 143


Design

Scientifique: Oral

Conceptual Framework for Factors Affecting Consumer Emotional

Response Before Product Purchase

A. Gaurav Vaidya 1,2 * , and B. Pratul Ch Kalita 2,

1

National Institute of Fashion Technology, Bhopal, India

2

Department of Design, IIT Guwahati, India

*

Corresponding author e-mail: gaurav.vaidya@iitg.ac.in

Motivation: In the design process, aspects of form and aesthetics are always thought of carefully,

along with technical functionality. If only functionality were the requisite aspect of the design, there

would be only one design of each product. People demand variation in product design to satisfy

their emotional needs. Moreover, market research has shown that consumers who decide only based

on pure facts are extremely small, and mostly they choose with their emotions. As consumers are

becoming more and more aware, functionality and usability are more and more taken for granted

in products, and consumers are eyeing for the attainment of higher-level needs, i.e., emotional

needs. Therefore, the emotional aspect of design has gained significance in design education,

practice, and research in the recent past. In this regard, it is necessary to identify the factors affecting

consumer emotional response and their interrelations.

Objective: 1. To determine the factors affecting consumer emotional response prior to the product

purchase through a comprehensive review of available literature.

2. To establish links between the identified factors.

3. To propose a conceptual framework that describes the interrelation between the identified factors.

Materials and Methods: In the current study, a comprehensive review of available literature in the

area of design, consumer psychology, management, and cognitive science was conducted. Total

203 relevant research articles were identified in the initial search on online databases like Scopus

and Google Scholar. 77 articles were shortlisted for review based on the inclusion and exclusion

criteria mentioned in the figure 1.

Fig. 1. Process and Method of Research.

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Results: In the critical analysis of literature, we deconstructed the phenomenon of consumer

emotional response in the 'before product purchase' into its elemental parts. Now in synthesis, we

connect these parts to generate new ways of thinking about the topic in the form of a conceptual

framework. The framework has been proposed in figure 2, taking account of the multiple factors

that could have a decisive influence on consumer emotions, directly or indirectly, in the 'before

product purchase' scenario.

Fig. 2. Conceptual Framework for Factors Affecting Consumer Emotional Response Before Product

Purchase.

References:

Ahmed, S., & Boelskifte, P. (2006). Investigation Of Designers Intentions and a Users' Perception

of Product Character. Nordesign , (September), 372-381.

Bellizzi, J., & Hite, R. (1992). Environmental Color, Consumer Feelings, and Purchase Likelihood.

Psychology & Marketing, 9 (5), 347-363.

Bloch, P. H. (1995). Seeking the Ideal Form: Product Design and Consumer Response. Journal of

Marketing, 59 (3), 16. https://doi.org/10.2307/1252116

Chang, W. C., & Wu, T. Y. (2007). Exploring types and characteristics of product forms.

International Journal of Design, 1 (1), 3-13.

Desmet, P. (2003b). Measuring Emotion: Development and Application of an Instrument to

Measure Emotional Responses to Products. In M. A. Blythe, A. F. Monk, K. Overbeeke, & P. C.

Wright (Eds.), Funology: from usability to enjoyment (pp. 111-123). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic

Publishers. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-68213-6_25

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 145


Design

Scientifique: Oral

Frijda, N. (1994). Varieties of Affect: Emotions and Episodes, Moods, and Sentiments. In P. Ekman

& R. Davison (Eds.). The Nature of Emotion: Fundamental Questions (pp. 59-67). Oxford: Oxford

University Press.

Hayes-Roth, B., Ball, G., Lisetti, C., Picard, R. W., & Stern, A. (1998). Panel on affect and emotion

in the user interface. In International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces (pp. 91-94). New

York: ACM Press. https://doi.org/10.1145/268389.268406

Jordan, P. (1998). Human factors for pleasure in product use. Applied Ergonomics, 29 (1), 25-33.

https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-6870(97)00022-7

Yu, Y. T., & Dean, A. (2001). The contribution of emotional satisfaction to consumer loyalty.

International Journal of Service Industry Management, 12 (3), 234-250.

https://doi.org/10.1108/09564230110393239

Gamification Concept for Cognitive Learning in Indian Traffic Rules &

Regulations for Safe Driving

A. Jintu Mahanta 1,*(0000-0001-9956-5228) B. Swarnadeep Nath 1(0000-0002-2263-2194) C. Bhaskar Saha 1(0000-0003-1253-8265)

1

Department of Multimedia and Communication Design, CIT Kokrajhar, Assam, India

*

Corresponding author e-mail: s.nath@cit.ac.in

The growing automobile population of India has resulted in a significant increase in the number of

road incidents. Over the years, numerous safety measures have been implemented to address these

issues, but the results have never been satisfactory due to deficits in education, road safety

awareness, morals, and road discipline. Considering the magnitude of the problem, a more

comprehensive solution is needed. To address the significance of the study, a survey was conducted

to assess the study's importance, and the key findings were examined and put into a research design

approach. Based on inputs and discussions with professionals from diverse backgrounds, it was

determined that a gamification based on road safety awareness will certainly offer users the practical

knowledge they require. This study attempts to design and develop a 3D gamification concept to

assist Indian drivers and road users in cognitive learning of Indian Traffic Rules and Regulations

for safe driving in a virtual environment, which can also be used as an assessment tool by the

authority to evaluate the knowledge of users or applicants before issuing learner licences instead of

the current static self-test. However, the design approach in this study will aid in raising awareness

and imparting proper knowledge about road safety, as everyone is a road user in one way or the

other.

Keywords – Road Safety, Cognitive Learning, Concept Design, 3D Gamification.

A SWOT analysis on User Interfaces of existing digital platforms

(websites) used for selling or exhibiting Indian handicrafts

A. Renu Kundu 1, * , B. Dr Ritwij Bhowmik 2 ,

1

Department of Design, IIT Kanpur, India

2

Department of Design, IIT Kanpur, India

*

renuk@iitk.ac.in

The handicraft artisans of India play an important role in preserving the rich cultural heritage of the

nation by passing it from generation to generation. Concurrently, their in-person interaction with

the customers/users have manifested an appreciation for the hand-crafted products, as well as the

unique and highly valuable manual dexterity and artistic skill of the artisans. With the advent of

digital marketing, the social interaction between the artisan, the customer/user, and the craft/art

object, has been changed altogether. However, question remains, whether the customers/users are

having the same experience on the digital platforms, as they used to experience it physically. In an

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Design

effort to understand the current scenario of Indian digital platforms selling/exhibiting handicrafts,

and to look forward for the future of Indian handicraft presentations digitally, this research would

conduct a SWOT analysis, by studying user interfaces of 25 handicraft exhibiting websites. The

findings will be presented through the poster.

Implementation of Gamification Concept for Virtual Tour Guide

A. Samarpita Ghatak 1,*(0000-0002-7560-1914) B. Jintu Mahanta 1,(0000-0001-9956-5228) C. Swarnadeep Nath 1(00000002-2263-2194)

1

Department of Multimedia and Communication Design, CIT Kokrajhar, Assam, India

*Corresponding author e-mail: ghataksamarpita@gmail.com

India, one of the oldest civilizations in the world, with a rich heritage and myriad attractions, the

country is among the most popular tourist destinations in the world. Accordingly, keeping Indian

tourism in mind, if certain regions in India, as the North-East are taken into consideration, facts say

that, it is one of the least known and unexplored regions by most of the mainstream people of India

and the world. To address this issue of awareness gap, introducing a game concept with the use of

gamification technology to help users to explore and adventure the simulated natural rich sites of

North-East India in a virtual 3D environment would certainly help people to know and learn about

the importance of these places amidst the new challenges and travel restrictions, due to which,

people are not getting access to travel to tourist places. In addition, through this process, people

could gain a better understanding of the knowledge about the identity and ethnicity of these places.

The study in this research was done by taking Assam, a state in the Indian Northeast region, as the

special reference.

Keywords – Virtual Tour, Awareness, Concept Design, 3D Gamification.

Zoning and Development Control Regulations for Shillong Master Plan

under AMRUT

B. Trisha 1, * , and B. Dipanka 2

1

Department of Design, IIT Guwahati, Guwahati, India

2

Discipline of Industrial Design, National Institute of Design Assam, Jorhat, India

*

Corresponding author e-mail: t.bordoloi@iitg.ac.in

Master plans are the legal frameworks or instruments by the urban local governments or the

development authorities for anticipating the urban development and provisions such as land-use

allocation, development regulations, zoning and the provision of civic amenities. However, the

development and zoning regulations are part and parcel of a city for planned development and urban

growth. Hilly cities like Shillong are situated in the mid-hill regions and have undergone

tremendous development pressure due to population growth, rapid urbanization, massive tourist

influx, migration from neighbouring villages due to increased job production and better living

standards. The city has grown many times more than its design and carrying capacity and has

pressure on residential, commercial, public health, recreational, open spaces and the existing landuse

functions. Shillong and its residents are facing worsening living standards and the climate with

poverty, overcrowding, water shortages, contamination of lakes and streams and loss of scenic

beauty due to the growing demand for more land and unparalleled growth. The hilly regions are the

most critical and challenging terrains to carry out the development regulations and the land-use

zoning as the regions are constrained by climatic condition, geographical condition, sloping

gradients, flora and fauna etc. This study discusses the existing land-use function of the Shillong

city, the issues related to future development and the role of sustainable land-use planning.

Moreover, this study has been focussed on the preparation of development control regulations and

zoning plan for Shillong planning area. An algorithm or rational model has been prepared through

the entire study for the benefit of the city and its citizens considering the different aspects, slope,

local economy and the terrain factor.

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Scientifique: Oral

Key words: Land-use, Zoning, Services, Development, Hilly-area.

User’s perception analysis on flash flood: A case of Guwahati, Assam

B. Trisha 1, * , and B. Dipanka 2

1

Department of Design, IIT Guwahati, Guwahati, India

2

Discipline of Industrial Design, National Institute of Design Assam, Jorhat, India

*

Corresponding author e-mail: t.bordoloi@iitg.ac.in

The impact of the flood is one of the significant phenomena in the world. It affects the highest

global regions in Asia. Flood hazards are the most common and destructive of all natural disasters.

Flood occurs and results in losses of life and damage properties due to heavy rainfall and other

natural factors. The northeast region of India receives the highest rainfall as it falls under the

subtropical type of climate and is expected to be highly prone to the consequences to flood.

Guwahati is one of the flood-affected regions in North-east India during the monsoon. The city is

frequently affected by flash floods every monsoon and it is a common sight after every heavy

shower. Roads are blocked; people and children face a lot of problems while going to work, schools,

and colleges. The water slowly rises on the city streets covering the pedestrian pathways and the

median strip of the road. Besides, a lot of accidents take place, loss of lives, and damage to public

property. It has a large economic and social impact. Flash flood is caused by heavy rainfall

overwhelming the drainage capacity and the drainage system of the city depends heavily on the

existing natural drains. The condition of the drain channels is not well connected as they are covered

with garbage, debris, and solid waste dumping. The objective of this research work is to study the

impact, risk management, public participation, and awareness in controlling flood situations in

urban areas of Guwahati city and compile their findings and recommendations under one umbrella

of conclusion. The research work focuses on the different stakeholders and the city dwellers’ (users)

experience (UX), challenges, and problems faced during the disaster. The study is based on the

primary and secondary data, which has been collected from the different sources and field study. It

is important to study the flash flood scenarios and this research study highlights the different

experiences of city users as well as the impact and consequences.

Key words: User perception, Flash flood, Urbanization, Safety, Infrastructure and management.

Futuristic Air Purifying Drone Idea Inspired by Nature

C. Vinjay, and B. Dipanka *

Discipline of Industrial Design, NID Assam, Jorhat, India

*

Corresponding author e-mail: dipanka@nidj.ac.in

The design of the futuristic drone could be inspired by natural forms. Designers are exploring

various design research ideas that come into biometrics, an interdisciplinary area consisting of the

principles of design, engineering, and other applied natural sciences. The biometric idea can be

construed as a sustainable solution to human wellbeing by imitating forms found in nature. In this

regard, a design idea has emerged from a natural element: how does the sea bird called ‘Manta Ray’

filter small particles without clogging water, and it has an ability to reduce polluted water. Manta

Rays use arrays of leaf-like lobes to bounce food particles away from the filter. However, air

pollution is now considered the most serious and largest environmental health problem in the world;

approximate seven million people die each year because of air pollution. There are many diseases,

including asthma, cancer, lung illness, and heat stroke, are caused by air pollution.

Based on this mimicking feature, a concept drone was initiated which detects the toxic gases in the

troposphere coming from industries and purifies them to maintain the good quality of breathable

air. The goal of this research is to design and develop an air purification device or a type of drone

that can detect specific areas that have been contaminated by toxic pollutants.

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Design

Keywords. Air purification, Futuristic flying device, Nature inspiration, Industrial Design and

Development

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Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Scientifique: Oral

Design, Analysis and Prototype Realization of a Dual Band Notch

Printed UWB Monopole Antenna for Wireless Applications

Sagnik Chakrabarti 1 , Aniket Jana 1, 2 , and Jeet Banerjee 1, 3 *

1

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Adamas University, Kolkata

*

Corresponding author e-mail: jeet.banerjee@adamasuniversity.ac.in

This paper presents the design, analysis, and low-cost realization (using 1.6 mm thick FR4

substrate) of a planar UWB monopole antenna with modified Minkowski fractal-shaped slots in the

ground plane as well as impedance steps over the radiating monopole that contributes to Ultrawideband

(UWB) characteristics. The fractal technique (slots in the ground plane) is applied to

enhance the lower impedance bandwidth of the antenna in comparison to its non-fractal counterpart.

The antenna is realized over a compact footprint of 30×34 mm 2 (W S×L S) with an impedance

bandwidth ranging from 3 GHz to 11 GHz and near-omnidirectional radiation patterns are obtained

throughout the UWB band. The proposed antenna utilizes a single H-shaped slot that renders the

capability to reject multiple bands like 3.3-3.7 GHz (WiMAX), 3.7-4.2 GHz (C-Band), and 5.15-

5.825 GHz (WLAN) to mitigate interference. The suggested radiator has a flat gain except in the

rejection bands where the gain decreases sharply up to -9 dBi in the C-band and -5 dBi in the WLAN

band. The proposed antenna can be a very useful candidate for wireless UWB portable

communication systems.

(a) (b) (c)

Fig. 1. (a) Initial configuration of the radiator (b) inclusion of fractal shape slots in the ground plane

and (c) comparison of resonant characteristics of antenna.

(a) (b) (c) (d)

Fig. 2. (a) Antenna geometry with modified H-slot, (b) VSWR of the antenna with H-slot, (c) current

distribution over the H-shaped and fractal slots at 5.5 GHz, and (d) 3.5 GHz respectively.

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Conclusion: The paper presents a novel dual-band rejection ultra-wideband monopole antenna

where a single H-shape slot has been adopted for producing interference suppression at multiple

bands like WiMAX, C-band, and WLAN. The impedance bandwidth of the antenna ranges from 3

GHz to 11 GHz and near-omnidirectional radiation patterns are obtained throughout the UWB band.

This antenna is suitable for UWB short-range communication systems possessing near

omnidirectional radiation patterns and fair gain.

A Cyber-Physical System based UGV for Safety Inspection & Rescue

action support in an Underground Mine

Kasina Jyothi Swaroop 1, * , Samarjeeth Singh 2 , Aman Raj 2 and Dr.Siddartha Agarwal 1,2

1

Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT(ISM) Dhanbad, India

2

Department of Mining Engineering, IIT(ISM) Dhanbad, India

*

Corresponding author e-mail: kasina.18je0405@ee.iitism.ac.in

This project aims at improving safety inspection and rescue operations in underground coal and

metal mines to increase productivity through the use of smart sensor data and unmanned ground

vehicles (UGV). The sensor data comprises depth sensing, thermal, and LIDAR cameras along with

air quality & gas concentration. The remotely sensed data is analyzed using deep learning and

simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) algorithm to build a decision support system for

delivering mine rescue support. This system architecture forms a cyber-physical system to increase

efficiency in mine rescue operations by decreasing human exposure to unpleasant and dangerous

situations. The proposal's secondary goal is to include this capacity in training situations when it

has been validated and authorized by DGMS. This technology, as well as the resulting

rescue/training process, can be used in underground coal, gold, and hard rock mining operations.

The Longwall Demo Mine, at IIT (ISM), is being used as the site of the first operations. Deep

learning algorithms are used to achieve overall capabilities such as real-time image analysis for

miner identification, object detection, and posture analysis, identifying threats of roof fall and

overhangs. Whereas simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) is used for 3D map creation

of the mine and autonomous navigation. Funding has been allocated through National Mission on

Interdisciplinary Cyber-Physical Systems (NM-ICPS) TexMin (TIH) to the project.

Table 1 Results of experiments

Name of Experiment

Accuracy

Crack Detection

Personnel Detection

98.95

99.00

Fig. 1. An overview of CPS application in mining delineating the physical and cyber world

interaction through sensors and AI models

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Fig. 2. The pipeline of the project.

Design of a Magnetic Field Strength Measurement System Using

Arduino-UNO

Rohan Datta 1 , Marconi Debbarma 2 , Anirban Karmakar 3

1&2 Electronics & Communication Engg. Dept., Tripura University, India.

3 Netaji Subhash Engg. College, Kolkata, India

email: rohandatta5@gmail.com

A magnetic field is a region in which the force of magnetism works around a magnetic substance

or a moving electrical charge. It is a quantity with both magnitudes and directions. The closeness

of the lines determines the strength of the field. Magnetic field lines can be used to illustrate the

magnetic field. The density of the field lines correlates to the field strength. The magnetic flux is

the total number of magnetic field lines that penetrate a given region. The Magnetic field strength

measurement system has many real world applications, In various industrial environment, we want

to keep magnetic field under a certain limit and above this limit magnetic field may cause

disturbance to electrical equipment. So magnetic field strength measurement project is useful for

this kind of situation. and we can easily make a magnetic strength measurement system using

a analog hall effect sensor and Arduino UNO.

Here Arduino based Magnetic Field Strength Measurement System is used to measure magnetic

field using Hall Effect Sensor. In this project we are using a 8-bit microcontroller with 32KB of

Flash memory and 2KB of RAM to perform ADC (Analog to Digital Conversion). By using Hall

Effect sensor and Arduino UNO we are going to measure the field strength of the magnet. the output

generated is seen in varying voltage and is directly proportional to the strength of the magnetic

field. The sensor captures the field strength measured in the unit of GAUSS. And using ADC we

finally convert this voltage to a numerical number for the simplicity of understanding. And the

number is shown on the LCD

Fig:1- Circuit Diagram of Smart and Wireless Irrigation System

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Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Design of Smart and Wireless Irrigation System (Using ESP8266 NodeMCU)

Smita Roy 1 , Payel Saha 2 , Dr. Anirban Karmakar 3

1&2 Electronics & Communication Engg. Dept., Tripura University, India. 3 Netaji Subhash Engg. College, Kolkata, India

email: roy.smita595@gmail.com

As the world population is nearing 8 billion people and 10 billion is a possibility by 2040, it is going

to be tough for the farmers to meet the huge demand of produce required to feed those hungry

stomachs. It seems a possibility that more farming land is going to be acquired to overcome the

demand for crops. Moreover, due to global warming, the temperature is going to increase over the

year and sudden climate changes are a possibility. In these circumstances, farmers have to be able

to raise their crops with maximum efficiency which will require an effective irrigation system that

requires less attention and things happen automatically according to the condition of the soil and

weather. In this regard, we are designing a smart and wireless irrigation system using ESP8266

NodeMCU and sensors that will automatically evaluate the soil moisture condition, temperature,

and humidity levels and will operate the irrigation systems as per the condition. Although different

crops grow under different levels of Soil Moisture, temperature, and humidity we are considering

soil moisture levels to be between 42% to 46% as a sample and will be setting the equipment

accordingly.

The basic idea of a Smart and Wireless Irrigation System is to use a Wi-Fi-enabled microcontroller

platform and sensors to analyze the environmental conditions according to which the Irrigation

system will be operated. Here we have used NodeMCU which is an open-source IoT Platform. It is

incorporated with ESP-8266 Wi-Fi microchip SoC with built-in TCP/IP networking software and

microcontroller capability. The NodeMCU has interfaces to connect various peripheral devices and

sensors and with the right coding, an efficient irrigation system can be operated which will also

keep track of the soil and environmental variables to a cloud-based server for deeper insights about

the conditions. NodeMCU operates on very low power which is desirable from an IoT-based

platform but that also limits the power delivery required to operate any high-power equipment; in

our case, it is the Water Pump that will irrigate the firm lands. Therefore, to operate the same, a

relay unit is to be connected with the NodeMCU to run the Pump.

Fig:1- Circuit Diagram of Smart and Wireless Irrigation System

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Scientifique: Oral

Thermal Macro modelling of 14 nm SOI FinFET using Machine

learning

P. Bharti 1, * , H. Muthusamy 1 , and V. Kumar 1,2

1

Department of Electronics Engineering, NIT Uttarakhand, India

1

Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering, IIT Roorkee, India

*

Corresponding author e-mail: vivek.kumar@nituk.ac.in

In this work for the first-time thermal macro modeling of 14nm SOI FinFET by using machine

learning methods. Flow chart of modeling is shown in Fig. 1(a). A 14 nm SOI FinFET simulation

setup (Fig. 1(b)) with device parameters shown in Fig.1(c) is electrothermally calibrated with

experimental data of 14 nm SOI FinFET (shown in Fig.1(d)) given in [1] using Sentaurus TCAD

[2]. Drift diffusion and thermodynamic model is used with proper quantum and mobility correction

model for simulation. We proposed an ML approach for the prediction of maximum lattice

temperature (3-D lattice temperature contour is shown in Fig. 1(e)) of 14nm SOI FinFET which can

predict maximum lattice temperature without knowledge of complex device physics for circuit

simulation. 3D TCAD simulation results are used as datasets for the ML training, validation, and

verification. Around 1000 structures of SOI FinFET are generated by TCAD simulations by

varying the device parameters and its impact on lattice temperature is observed. Different regression

models like Random Forest Regression, Artificial Neural Network are used to predict the lattice

temperature and comparison in results of different ML approach is done. It predicted R 2 value as

0.97% shown in Fig. 1(f). This shows by combining TCAD modeling and ML approaches reduces

the computational cost and product to market time for device parameters extraction.

Fig.1: (a) Flow chart of model, (b) Simulation setup of 14 nm SOI FinFET, (c) Device Physical

and thermal parameters used in this simulation, (d) transfer characteristics calibration data, (e) 3-

D lattice temperature contour plot, and (e) The comparison of true value and predicted value of

lattice temperature for 80% training set.

Reference:

[1] C-H. Lin et al., “High Performance 14nm SOI FinFET CMOS Technology with 0.0174 μm2

embedded DRAM and 15 Levels of Cu Metallization,” in IEDM Tech. Dig., pp. 3.8.1-3.8.3, Dec.

2014.

[2] Sentaurus Device User Guide, Version O-2018.06-SP2, Synopsys, Mountain View, CA, USA,

2018.

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Energy Sciences and Engineering

NUMERICAL MODELING OF A WAVE TO WATER SYSTEM TO

POWER AN RO DESALINATION PLANT FOR VIZAG

ABSTRACT

The impressive figures of estimated 8000–80,000 TW/year of wave energy in the entire

ocean and on average about 1–10 TW, with each wave crest transmitting 10–50 kW per

meter. (10–15 kW/m is distributed almost evenly along the western and eastern coasts of

India) that the wave energy could produce and also, the seawater, being about 835 times

heavier than air and carrying an enormous momentum, has captured the conscience of the

research community. Amongst a plethora of research works done and methods proposed

for wave energy with various devices like wells turbine, impulse turbine, flapping type

device etc, the point absorber wave energy converter remains to be the most fundamental

and a reasonably efficient one and has also been claimed to be the potential candidate for

the wave energy harvesting from highly energetic locations, hence, considered for the

current work, where a wave-to-water system is modelled using a point absorber Wave

Energy Converter(WEC) device to power a Reverse Osmosis Desalination plant with feed

water at a required RO inlet pressure. The system consists of a heaving point absorber that

responds to the wave motion, which is selected as the one to be performing the best of the

available ones. There is a valved piston connected to the point absorber that sucks water in

one stroke and pressurises it in the other. After the water is pressurised in the piston with a

significantly high compression ratio and a high area ratio(ratio of the area towards wave

side to the area towards compression side), it is sent to the RO plant through a pressure

accumulator in order to have a uniformity of pressure at the RO inlet. The numerical

model(Governing Equation) includes wave excitation, Viscous, diffraction, radiation and

friction forces. The work briefly elaborates on assumptions, forces considered, followed by

the main work of modelling the buoy geometry in SOLIDWORKS, preliminary frequency

domain solution in ANSYS and extraction of hydrodynamic coefficients, then the timedomain

solution in MATLAB - WECSIM. Then there is the comparison with the

requirement, modification, which constitutes for the post-processing. Then there is a

discussion on results, followed by the concluding remarks. The entire work shall be

presented and explained in an interesting and simple way, without any compromise in the

qualitative aspects of it.

Explanatory Diagrams:

Fig 1. External forces acting on the buoy assumed to be static

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Scientifique: Oral

Fig 2. Radiation forces emitted from the buoy, into an assumed quiescent water

environment

Fig 3. Schematic of the overall Setup

Study of dielectric and optical properties of agro-food wastes derived

glasses and glass ceramics

Gaurav Sharma* and K. Singh

School of physics and materials science, Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology,

Patiala, 147004

ABSTRACT

Agro-food waste ashes (rice husk ash (RHA), sugarcane leave ash (SCLA), wheat straw ash (WSA),

peanut shell ash (PSA) and eggshell powder (ESP), etc.) are used as new sources of materials to

synthesize glasses and glass-ceramics via melt-quench technique. These as-prepared glasses and

glass-ceramics are characterized using different experimental techniques. Physical, thermal, optical

and dielectric properties on agro-food waste ashes derived glasses and glass-ceramics have been

carried out. The prepared glasses are translucent having bluish tint due to the presence of trace

transition elements. Inherently, present glasses exhibit lower density than mineral-derived glasses

due to the presence of high porosity created due to the presence of organic substances in the agrofood

waste ashes. Optical band gap of all the glasses is in the wide semiconductor range i.e. 3-4 eV.

All the as-prepared glasses convert into glass-ceramics by controlled heat-treatment. All glassceramics

exhibit either silicate or aluminate based crystalline phases. At room temperature and 100

Hz frequency, they exhibit low/moderate dielectric constant in the range of 16-50 with minimum

losses. Dielectric constant shows the independency up to certain temperature and frequency range

in these glass-ceramics, which make them a good choice for microelectronic applications.

Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is found in the range of 6-16×10-6/K depending on the

presence of different crystalline phases in the glass matrix. In all the synthesized glasses and glassceramics,

40RHA-60ESP glass shows good thermal and dielectric properties. Therefore, these

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Energy Sciences and Engineering

glasses and glass-ceramics could be used as sealing materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs).

Wheat straw ash (WSA) derived glass shows good adhesion with interconnect Since, it formed very

good semi-coherent interface with Crofer 22 APU (interconnect). Interface between interconnect

and glass seal was smooth, defect and crack-free, even up to 500 h with different thermal cycles.

So, agro-food waste ashes could be used as sustainable and renewable resources to generate new

engineering cost-effective materials. Utilization of these agro-food waste ashes provides a practical

and environment-friendly way to convert them into value-added materials. Further, these materials

could replace conventionally synthesized mineral-based products. This approach could also provide

an effective solution to agro-food waste ashes related management problems. These agro-food

waste ashes could be used as alternative resource materials to synthesize glasses, glass-ceramics

and silicate-based ceramics for various engineering applications instead of mineral oxides-derived

glasses.

*Corresponding Author:

E-mail address: gauravsharma@thapar.edu.

School of Physics and Materials Science

Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology

Tel.: +91 1752393891; fax: +91 1752393005

Reconstruction and constraint-based analysis of genome-scale metabolic

models: In-silico approach to enhance the production of biofuels in

solventogenic Clostridia

Karan Kumar 1,* and Vijayanand S. Moholkar 1,2

1

School of Energy Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati-781039,

Assam, India.

2

Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati-781039, Assam,

India.

*

Author for correspondence e-mail: karan18@iitg.ac.in

ABSTRACT

Genome-scale metabolic models (GSMs) are gradually gaining interests and being put forth for

several microorganisms in order to explore their metabolic capabilities for producing various

chemicals and fuels. A good quality GSM is very much essential to understand the metabolic

capabilities of an organism and to develop the metabolic engineering strategies for strain

development. In this study we have performed performed the detailed comparison of selected

representative GSM models for solventogenic Clostridia contrasting their metabolic repertoire.

Furthermore, we have also reconstructed GSMs for two model Clostridium strains viz., Clostridium

acetobutylicum ATCC824 and Clostridium pasteurianum ATCC 6013 and performed constraintbased

analysis on these two models. Resultant models from our study were of good quality in terms

of stoichiometric consistency and annotations compared to available models. These models will aid

to understand the metabolic capabilities of aforementioned solventogenic model organism and will

help to develop the metabolic engineering strategies for strain development.

References:

Palsson BØ Systems Biology: Constraint-based Reconsstruction and Analysis. Cambridge

University Press, Cambridge, England, January (2015)

O’Brien EJ, Monk JM, and Palsson BO Using Genome-scale Models to Predict Biological

Capabilities. Cell 161(5), 971–987, May (2015).

Keywords: Systems biology, genome-scale metabolic model, clostridium, ABE fermentation,

alcoholic biofuels, systems metabolic engineering

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Purification and characterization of endo-β-xylanase (CcGH30B) from

Clostridium clariflavum

Nazneen Ahmed 1 , Kedar Sharma 2 , Yumnam Robinson Singh 1 , Kaustubh Chandrakant Khaire 3* , Carlos M. G.

A. Fontes 4,5 and Arun Goyal 1,3

1

Carbohydrate Enzyme Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian

Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati, Assam 781039, India. 2 Genomic Integrity & Structural Biology

Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina,

USA 27709. 3 School of Energy Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati,

Guwahati, Assam 781039, India. 4 NZYTech-Genes & Enzymes, Estrada do Paço do Lumiar, Campus do

Lumiar, Edifício E - R/C, 1649-038 Lisbon,Portugal. 5 CIISA-Faculdade de MedicinaVeterinária,

Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida da Universidade Técnica, 1300-477 Lisbon, Portugal.

Corresponding author: *kaust176151005@iitg.ac.in

Abstract

Hemicelluloses, a family of heterogeneous polysaccharides with complex molecular

structures, constitute a fundamental component of lignocellulosic biomass. Hemicellulose

is the second most abundant polysaccharides existed in plant cell walls, comprising

approximately 25% of most plant walls, with the amount varying based on the particular

plant. Xylan is the mostly found hemicellulosic polysaccharide consists of D-xylose

backbone as its monomeric unit and L-arabinose and glucuronic acid as a side chain.

Clostridium clariflavum is a gram-positive, anaerobic, thermophilic and spore forming

bacterium is reported to show its ability to utilize hemicellulose as the source of carbon and

energy. Therefore, the gene encoding a putative endo-β-xylanases of family 30 glycoside

hydrolases from Clostridium clariflavum (CcGH30B) was identified using genome mining.

The gene encoding CcGH30B was cloned in expression vector pET28a (+) and expressed

in E. coli BL21 (DE3) cells. The CcGH30B was purified and expressed as a soluble protein

of molecular mass, 72 kDa. The total protein eluted was 2.49 mg after purification from

400 ml culture in LB medium. CcGH30B showed maximum activity against commercial

xylan at pH 5.0, 70℃ temperature and 4 min reaction time. CcGH30B displayed its

maximum stability at pH 8.5 and 9 after incubation at 25℃ for 90 min. The kinetic

parameters of CcGH30B determined by Michaelis-Menten equation using commercial

xylan as substrate gave Vmax 164 U/mg, Km 1.3 mg/mL and Kcat/Km 9083.07 mL/min/mg.

CcGH30B showed an enhanced enzyme activity in the presence of NaCl, MgCl2, CaCl2,

NiSO4 and SDS metal ions.

Keywords: Xylan, Endo-β-xylanase, Hemicellulose, Glycoside Hydrolase.

ABSTRACT

Conventional air conditioning system’s dehumidification process consumes high grade energy and

uses the environment degrading refrigerants. The best solution to this problem is the liquid desiccant

solution based dehumidification. The most prominent desiccant solutions are made of LiBr, LiCl,

CaCl2 and TEG. Amongst them the LiCl is most promising salt due to its low vapor pressure

characteristics. To determine numerically, the performance of the LDD process is the task that has

been addressed in this work. Finite difference model incorporating the change in the geometrical

dimensions of packing has been considered. Heat and mass transfer coefficients has been calculated

from the equation mentioned in the literature. Particle model has been used to study the pressure

drop in the structured packing of the dehumidifier with LiCl and CaCl2 solution. Comparison of

different structured and random packing has been done on the basis of pressured drop. The LiCl

desiccant solution concentration is optimized with statistical design of experiments tool.

158 Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022


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Energy Sciences and Engineering

Optimization of saccharification for enhancing the production of

monosaccharides for biorefineries approach using delignified rice-straw

Premeshworii Devi Maibam 1 * and Arun Goyal 1,2

1

School of Energy Sciences and Engineering, IIT Guwahati, India.

2

Carbohydrate Enzyme Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, IIT

Guwahati, India.

*

Corresponding author e-mail: p.maibam@iitg.ac.in

Abstract

In the biorefineries of lignocellulosic biomass, pretreatment and saccharification process are the

crucial steps. Deep eutectic solvents (DES) serve as green and cost-effective solvents for the

delignification of lignocellulosic biomass. For the efficient saccharification process, the use of

cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzyme cocktails is crucial. In the present work, rice straw (RS) was

delignified using DESs comprising choline chloride and acetic acid. Central composite design

approach was used to model the process and optimized by a quadratic regression with ANOVA

(analysis of variance). The numerical optimization for each factor and response gave an optimized

condition of delignification with Chlorine Chloride (ChCl) and acetic acid in molar fraction 1:3.59

at 126 °C for 150 min. The model was validated by performing pretreatment for 50 ml with 7.5%,

w/v biomass loading under optimized conditions and resulted in 84% delignification with 5 (%,

w/w) lignin content. Consequent hydrolysis under optimum conditions for RSM based

saccharification of pretreated RS at 35°C, 150 rpm, 2.48% (w/v) substrate loading in sodium

phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 5.7) using recombinant clostridial enzyme cocktail comprising

cellulase (chimera, CtGH1-L1-CtGH5-F194A=188 U/g, cellobiohydrolase, CtCBH5A =225 U/g)

and xylanase (endo-1,4-β-xylanase, CtGH11A =190 U/g, β-Xylosidase, BoGH43=25 U/g) resulted

in a total reducing sugar (TRS) yield of 459 mg/g of pretreated RS at 96h of saccharification. To

enhance the TRS yield, saccharification process was further carried out for 100 ml in fed-batch

mode with feeding of substrate at regular interval of 24h till 72h accounting total substrate loading

of 7.5% (w/w) and yielded a TRS of 584 mg/g pretreated biomass at 168h. Structural morphology

and functional group analyses of preteated RS were also carried out using FESEM and FTIR,

respectively.

Fig. 1. Graphical abstract

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 159


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Functionalized Polyurethane Composites Gel Electrolytes with

Cosensitized Photoanode for Higher Solar Cells Efficiency using

Passivation Layer Efficiency.

Ravi Prakash1, Ishwar Chandra Maurya2, Pankaj Srivastava2, Sourov Mondal2, Biswajit Ray2 and Parlay

Maiti1 #

1 School of Materials Science and Technology IIT-BHU Varanasi – 221005, India

2 Department of Chemistry, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005

Email:Ravip.rs.mst16@itbhu.ac.in

ABSTRACT

Graphene oxide is chemically tagged with thermoplastic polyurethane, chain extended using

butane diol to obtain varying molecular weight of polymer. Graphene tagged polyurethane is

functionalized using propane sultone to introduce polar sulphonate group in the main chain. The

chain extension, tagging of GO and functionalization have been verified through spectroscopic

techniques like NMR, FTIR, UV and gel permeation chromatography. Electrical conduction has

been improved by the chemical attachment of graphene with the polymer (5.08×10-7 S/cm) which

further increases through functionalization and subsequent use of additive (1.07×10-3 S/cm) and

make them suitable for gel electrolyte, being in the range of semiconductor. Quantum dots of CdS

and CdSe have been prepared using capping agent and its characteristic properties and dimension

are worked out for their suitability as active materials in solar cell. Conducting carbon has been

incorporated in the gel electrolyte to modulate the conductivity while ZnSe layer has been inserted

as passivation layer between active material and gel electrolyte. Solar cell devices have been

fabricated using the suitable materials, through the suitable energy diagram, and found significantly

high power conversion efficiency of 1.71%. The reason behind the improved efficiency is

understood from the greater light harvesting behaviour, higher level of conductivity and blocking

capacity of various layered structure to reduce the electron-hole pair recombination.

Keywords: Functionalized polyurethane; quantum dots; energy diagram; solar cell device.

Electrospun polymer based nanohybrid for energy harvesting

application

Shivam Tiwari and Pralay Maiti*

School of Materials Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University),

Varanasi, 221005, India

Abstract

Polymer based energy harvesting devices has gained much attention in the field of sustainable /

alternative energy as they provide better flexibility and durability. Electrospun nanofibers of poly

(vinylidene fluoride) have been designed in the template form on top of a two dimensional modified

nanoclay for energy harvesting applications. Nanoclay has been incorporated at different

concentration with the PVDF matrix to examine the alteration in structure and morphology. Nearly

90% of electroactive piezo-phase has been stabilized in presence of nanoclay through optimized

electrospinning. Nanohybrid is found to be stiffer and tougher than pure polymer which favored the

flexibility of the nanogenerator. The electrospun nanohybrids were fabricated into a device to

observe the electromechanical response produced via different human movements. Considerable

voltage and power output has been obtained from the different mode of human movement e.g. finger

tapping, bending, twisting, walking and foot tapping. The maximum voltage and power of 70 V and

68 μWcm -2 has been recorded through finger tapping mode. The processed nanohybrid is capable

to transform the waste mechanical energy to useful energy which can be understood through the

charge separation mechanism in template system.

References:

160 Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022


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Energy Sciences and Engineering

“Enhanced piezoelectric response in nanoclay induced electrospun PVDF nanofibers for energy

harvesting”, Shivam Tiwari, Anupama Gaur, Chandan Kumar, Pralay Maiti, , Energy 171, 485-492

, (2019)

Tiwari, V. K.; Prasad, A. K.; Singh, V.; Jana, K. K.; Misra, M.; Prasad, C. D.; Maiti, P. Nanoparticle

and Process Induced Super Toughened Piezoelectric Hybrid Materials: The Effect of Stretching on

Filled System. Macromolecules 2013, 46 (14), 5595–5603.

Hydrodynamic Analysis of Point Absorber Wave Energy Converter in

Irregular WavesE

Suman Kumar, S.A. Sannasiraj, Abdus Samad *

Wave Energy and Fluids Engineering Laboratory, Department of Ocean Engineering, Indian Institute of

Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, India

Abstract

The present work concerns the numerical and experimental assessment of a point absorber wave

energy converter with a floating spar under irregular wave conditions. The study is performed on a

1:3.3 scaled-down model developed at Wave Energy and Fluids Energy Laboratory, IIT Madras.

The primary hydrodynamic parameters required for undertaking complex response analysis are

evaluated using the boundary element method (BEM). Further, the responses and the other

performance parameters are obtained using a multibody dynamic solver. The experiment is

conducted in the wave basin facility at IIT Madras for different combinations of significant wave

height and peak period ranging from 0.15 - 0.23 m and 1- 2.5 s, respectively. The numerical results

are compared with the experimental results. The experimental result indicates that the system

absorbs maximum power at the peak period of 2.5 s, which is close to the resonance period.

Keywords: Wave energy, Point absorber; Hydrodynamic analysis, Renewable Energy

Bio-inspired anode for solid state battery

Vijaya and Pankaj Kalita

School of Energy Science and Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati,

Assam -781039, India.

Corresponding author e-mail: vijaya19@iitg.ac.in

The growing demand for rechargeable Li ion batteries in the recent years has severely strained the

supply chain of graphite, a principle component of anodes in Li ion batteries, with predictions on

graphite deficit by 2022 [1]. This work aims to develop economically and environmentally

sustainable anode by thermochemical treatment of biomass material to replace the conventional

graphite anodes in batteries. Biomass derived carbon materials have gained prominence in battery

research mainly because of their abundance, renewable nature and more importantly, inherent

diverse and intricate micro – architectures which can provide more potential charge storage sites

[2] [3]. Biochar obtained after pyrolysis at 550 ⁰C in this study, contained carbon in the range of

73-90% (weight %) and possessed some of the properties present in graphite as confirmed by XRD

EDX, FESEM and FTIR analysis. Our future studies will investigate the electrochemical energy

storage application of the biochar samples.

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 161


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References:

Figure 1: FESEM images of (a) rice husk and (b) rice straw biochar respectively

G. J. Simandl, S. Paradis, and C. Akam, “Graphite deposit types , their origin , and economic

significance,” Br. Columbia Geol. Surv. Pap., vol. 3, no. Symposium on Strategic and Critical

Materials Proceedings, pp. 163–171, 2015.

R. Li, Y. Zhou, W. Li, J. Zhu, and W. Huang, “Structure Engineering in Biomass-Derived Carbon

Materials for Electrochemical Energy Storage,” Research, vol. 2020, pp. 1–27, 2020.

Q. Chen et al., “Biomass-derived porous graphitic carbon materials for energy and environmental

applications,” J. Mater. Chem. A, vol. 8, no. 12, pp. 5773–5811, 2020.

Zinc-Blende Nanoparticles derived from ZIF-8 MOF for Supercapacitor

Applications

Vishal Shrivastav 1 , Shashnak Sundriyal 2 , Mansi Thapyal 1 , Ashwinder Kaur 3 , Umesh K.Tiwari 1,2* , Akash

Deep 1,2*

1 CSIR-Central Scientific Instrument Organisation (CSIR-CSIO), Chandigarh-160030, India

2 National Physical Laboratory, (CSIR-NPL), New Delhi-201002, India

3 Punjabi University, Patiala-147002, India

* Corresponding author E-mail: dr.akashdeep@csio.res.in

ABSTRACT

The increased industrialization and demand for renewable energy have inspired the research

community to improve energy storage systems. From the last decade, the rise of the Metal-Organic

Framework (MOF) has been proven to a revolutionary material for various applications. Herein,

we have utilized ZIF-8 MOF to derive the ZnS nanoparticles through hydrothermal synthesis

methods for energy storage applications. The obtained ZnS from ZIF-8 exhibit high crystallinity,

high reaction sites, and nanoparticles confirmed from various characterization techniques including

XRD, FESEM, and EDS. Further, the electrochemical testing has been done in the three

electrochemical systems with 1M Na 2SO 4 electrolyte solution. The ZnS nanoparticles showed a

capacitance of 51.2 F/g which can be attributed to the high surface area of the nanoparticles and

redox activity. Additionally, the full symmetric solid-state supercapacitor device has been

assembled with 1M Na 2SO 4 PVA electrolyte gel. The electrochemical device showed excellent

electrochemical performance with long-term cyclability.

162 Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022


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Environment

Sulfonium-based liposome-encapsulated antibiotics deliver a synergistic

antibacterial activity

Anjali Patel, a Subhasis Dey, b Kamal Shokeen, c Tomasz M. Karpiński, d Senthilkumar Sivaprakasam, c Sachin

Kumar c and Debasis Manna* ab

a Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Centre for the Environment, Guwahati, Assam, India. E-mail:

dmanna@iitg.ac.in b Biological Chemistry Laboratory, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Chemistry,

Guwahati, Assam, India c Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Biosciences and Bioengineering,

Guwahati, Assam, India dDepartment of Medical Microbiology, Poznań University of Medical Sciences,

Wieniawskiego, Poznań, Poland † Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/

d1md00091h

Abstract

The devastating antibacterial infections, coupled with their antibiotic resistance abilities, emphasize

the need for effective antibacterial therapeutics. In this prospect, liposomal delivery systems have

been employed in improving the efficacy of the antibacterial

agents. The liposome-based antibiotics enhance the therapeutic

index of the new or existing antibiotics and reduce their adverse

effects. The current study describes the development of

sulfonium-based antibacterial lipids that demonstrate the

delivery of existing antibiotics. The presence of cationic

sulfonium moieties and inherent membrane targeting abilities

of the lipids could be beneficial in reducing the antibiotic

resistance abilities of the bacteria and delivering the antibiotics

to remove the infectious pathogens electively. The transmission

electron microscopic images and dynamic light scattering

analyses revealed the liposome formation abilities of the

sulfonium-based amphiphilic compounds in the aqueous

medium. The effectiveness of the compounds was tested against

the gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial strains. The viability of the bacterial cells was

remarkably reduced in the presence of the compounds. The sulfonium-based compounds with

pyridinium moiety and long hydrocarbon chains showed the most potent antibacterial activities

among the tested compounds. Mechanistic studies revealed the membrane-targeted bactericidal

activities of the compounds. The potent compound also showed tetracycline and amoxicillin

encapsulation and sustained release profiles in the physiologically relevant medium. The

tetracycline and amoxicillin encapsulated lipid showed much higher antibacterial activities in

comparison with the free antibiotics at similar concentrations, emphasizing the usefulness of the

synergistic effect of sulfonium-based lipid and the antibiotics signifying that the sulfonium lipid

penetrated the bacterial membrane and increased the cellular uptake of the antibiotics. Hence, the

sulfonium-based lipid exemplifies a promising framework for assimilating various warheads and

provides a potent antibacterial material.

Keyword- Antimicrobial activity, Synergistic effect

Reference-

Patel, A.: Dey, S.: Shokeen, K.: Karpiński, T.M.: Sivaprakasam,S.: Kumar S.: and Manna, D.: 2021.

Sulfonium-based liposome-encapsulated antibiotics deliver a synergistic antibacterial activity. RSC

Medicinal Chemistry.

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Scientifique: Oral

Synthesis of Amine-Functionalized Carbon Dots from Biotin-Modified

Chitosan and Silk-Fibroin Blend for Targeted Delivery of Anticancer

Drugs

Himadree Das 1 , Himali Horo 1 , and L.M. Kundu *1, 2

1 Centre for the Environment, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati, Assam-781039, India.

2 Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati, Assam- 781039, India.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: lmkundu@iitg.ac.in

ABSTRACT

Nanotheranostics, which integrates diagnosis and therapy into a single platform, has emerged as

one of the powerful strategies in cancer treatment. Carbon dots (CDs) or carbon nanoparticles have

been recognized as highly promising theranostic candidates. In this study, We have synthesized a

primary amine functionalized fluorescent CDs using LMWC and SF blend. Upon increasing the SF

content in the blend, there was an enhancement in the fluorescence properties due to doping. The

size of the CDs was evaluated by FETEM analysis. it is evident that the CDs were quasi-spherical

in shape with a size of 3 ± 1.5 nm. The cancer cell targeting moiety, biotin, has been successfully

conjugated to the CD, and the 5-FU has also been loaded with a very high encapsulation efficiency.

The cell imaging on MCF-7 cell lines showed bright blue fluorescence with increased

internalization of the conjugated CDs compared to normal cell lines due to biotin receptor-mediated

endocytosis. The high-water solubility, drug encapsulating efficiency, fluorescence properties, and

target specificity proves the efficiency of the synthesized biotin-conjugated CDs as drug delivery

carrier and cell-imaging tool.

Figure 1: Synthesis process of 5-FU loaded biotin-conjugated CDs.

Keywords: Carbon dots; Silk fibroin; Low molecular weight chitosan; 5-fluorouracil

164 Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022


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Environment

Plant polyphenol-iron complex synthesized in powder form, used in

toxic dye treatment and its cytotoxicity effects

J. Aktar a , S. Chakraborty b and M.Ray c

a

Centre for the Environment, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati, Assam-781039, India,

b

Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati, Assam-781039, India,

c

Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati, Assam-781039, India

Corresponding author email: jinat@iitg.ac.in

Abstract

In the present study, iron polyphenol complexes were prepared using leaves of Psidium guajava

and tannic acid. These materials were utilized for carcinogenic dye removal purposes. Multiple

reports showed that nano-material from plant extract has the potential for pollutant removal.

However, existing reports have insufficient information about the exact nature of synthesized

materials and mechanisms of formation. Plant extracts tend to have a mixture of components that

poses difficulty in characterization and scientific study. For this reason, along with plant extract,

we have also used tannic acid, a known polyphenol that is known to occur in different plants, to

improve our understanding. Both guava-iron and tannic acid-iron complexes showed > 80%

removal of BB in a wide range of dye concentrations, from 20-400 mg/L with very high adsorption

capacities of 680 mg/g and 652 mg/g, respectively. The cytotoxic effect of BB dye was checked on

A. cepa, and mitotic index (MI) and chromosomal aberration were studied. It was observed that the

BB dye could cause cell and chromosomal deformations. However, after treatment with guava-iron

and tannic acid- iron complex, BB solution did not show such negative effects in MI% or cell

deformation.

Keywords: Polyphenols, leaf extract, iron-complex, dye removal

Cellular roles of alternative dehydrogenases and catalases in

Neurospora crassa

Krishna Das 1 and Ranjan Tamuli 1 , *

1

Centre for the Environment

Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati

Guwahati-781 039, Assam, India

*

Corresponding Author:

Ranjan Tamuli, Ph. D.

Telephone: +91 361 258 2220

Fax: +91 361 258 2249/ 2690762

Email: ranjantamuli@iitg.ac.in, ranjan.tam@gmail.com

Abstract

In most eukaryotes, the mitochondrial respiratory chain is composed of a series of protein

complexes that, along with ATP synthase, carry out oxidative phosphorylation for ATP generation.

Fungi and plants, however, are known to contain a highly branched respiratory electron transport

chain (ETC) that bypasses the canonical respiratory complexes through the alternative non-protonpumping

NAD(P)H dehydrogenases and the alternative oxidase. One of the unavoidable

consequences of aerobic respiration and the mitochondrial metabolism is the formation of reactive

oxygen species (ROS). Numerous stress agents, including herbicides and exposure to heavy metals,

trigger an alteration in mitochondrial activity resulting in an increased level of ROS. The

antioxidant enzymes like catalases and glutathione come into play to provide protection. The model

filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa possesses four catalases, namely, cat-1, cat-2, cat-3

and cat-4 and four types of alternative dehydrogenase genes, namely, nde-1, nde-2, nde-3 and ndi-

1. Previous works demonstrated increased activity of catalases in the nde-1 and nde-2 mutant

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 165


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strains. Catalases play a crucial role in oxidative stress tolerance under the regulation of

transcription factors like all developmental altered (ADA) genes and NAP-1. ADA-6 is a

Zn(II)2Cys6 transcription factor, which is a global regulator of oxidative stress response in N.

crassa. Our primary focus is to understand the mechanisms of transcriptional regulation by several

molecular regulators under various stress conditions in N. crassa.

Keywords: Alternative dehydrogenases; Transcription factors; Fungi; Neurospora crassa; Reactive

oxygen species, Catalases, ADA6.

Multivariate optimization of nutrient and growth factors of anthracene

degrading microbial strains to maximize biomass production for

bioremediation of petroleum refinery wastewater

Prithwi Chayan Chatterjee 1 , Sanjukta Patra 1,2, * , Mohammad Jawed 1,3

1 Centre for the Environment, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati, India

2 Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati, India

3 Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati, India

*Corresponding author. Tel: +913612582213, E-mail: sanjukta@iitg.ac.in

Petroleum industries are considered a major boon for all the developing as well as developed

economy. Refining of crude petroleum oil is an important step to convert it to usable compounds.

However, waste generated from such refineries pose larger threat due to presence of toxic class of

components. Microbial biomass is a suitable avenue to combat such threats and strategies to

enhance microbial biomass need to be devised. In this study, the effect of certain mineral nutrients

and growth parameters of three isolated microbial strains, GR2, GE1 and GE2 in anthracene

supplemented media was checked. Anthracene being one major class of polyaromatic compounds

found in refinery sludge was chosen as a model compound. Initially, tolerance of these strains to

heavy metals Fe, Zn, Co, Cr, Cu and As were studied. Five nutrient factors viz. concentration of

FeSO 4.7H 2O (A), CoCl 2.6H 2O (B), CuSO 4.5H 2O (C), ZnSO 4.7H 2O (D) and NaCl (E) and three

growth parameters, concentration of anthracene (F), time (G) and inoculum (H) were subjected to

screening to identify significant factors according to Plackett-Burman Design (PBD) of

experiments. Biomass concentration was recorded as response at the end of each experiment.

Concentration of FeSO 4.7H 2O (A) and NaCl (E) and further, concentration of anthracene (F) and

inoculum (H) for GE1 and concentration of anthracene (F) and time (G) for GR2 and GE2 had

positive effect on biomass production. Further, the significant factors were subjected to second

order optimization as per Central Composite Design (CCD) of experiments and the reliability of

the models obtained were checked statistically. The maximum biomass concentration increased

from 0.31 mg/mL to 0.46 mg/mL for GE1. The optimum conditions for amendment were obtained

as 65.34 mg/L FeSO4.7H2O, 334.88 mg/L NaCl, 5% inoculum dose and 27 days of incubation

which is similar to the maximum survival time. COD removal also increased from 55% to a

maximum of 67% at MIC of 50 mg/L anthracene for GE1. Hence, the microbial strains have

potency for maximum biomass production under the biostimulated media which is critical for

bioremediation of petroleum refinery wastewater.

Keywords: Anthracene, Bioremediation, Biostimulation, Optimization, Petroleum

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Environment

Advanced process control for continuous bioprocessing of

biotherapeutic protein production

Nivedhitha S 1*

1

Centre for the Environment, IIT Guwahati, India

*

Corresponding author e-mail: nivedhitha@iitg.ac.in

The global biotherapeutics market has been tremendously growing with a compound annual growth

rate (CAGR) of 13.8%, and is expected to reach a total sales value close to half a trillion USD

within the next five years. The rising demand for the production of high-quality therapeutic products

in affordable price range, especially in developing countries, has made the manufacturers to focus

on the implementation of a continuous manufacturing process for the production of the same.

Efficient measurement and control of the critical process parameters (CPPs) governing the critical

quality attributes (CQAs) of the therapeutic products can be achieved by implementing the

mechanisms of Process analytical technology (PAT) as imparted by the FDA. The work presented

herein attempts to implement the different components of PAT to venture the possibility of

acquiring reliable real-time process measurements and utilizing them in a process model to develop

an efficient control strategy. The expression of the therapeutic product Ranibizumab (also called

Lucentis) in recombinant Escherichia coli has been chosen as the system for exploring the various

concepts of PAT.

The physiological changes associated with cellular population would impact product quality, and

therefore, real-time monitoring and estimation of the biomass concentration using an emerging PAT

tool, namely, dielectric spectroscopy (DS), was explored in the first phase of this study. The realtime

scanning capacitance data from DS were pre-processed and then modelled through a nonlinear

theoretical Cole-Cole model. The obtained model parameters were further applied to estimate the

physiological properties like cell diameter and viable cell concentration (VCC), which were

validated using traditional offline analytical methods like particle size analyzer and flow cytometry,

respectively. The Cole-Cole model predicted the cell diameter and viable cell concentration with

an error of 1.03% and 7.72%, respectively. The proposed approach can enable the operator to take

real-time process decisions to achieve desired productivity and product quality.

The second phase of the study focused on developing a mechanistic model based on mass balances

of the various state variables of fermentation and the application of the model to optimize the total

biomass with the aid of online capacitance measurements. The developed mechanistic model was

validated using experimental data sets obtained from the production of a therapeutic product,

Ranibizumab, from E. coli. The model predicted the experimental results of the calibration set and

validation set within an average error value of 12.64% and 14.97%, respectively.

The final phase of the study focuses on the development of different optimization case studies for

achieving enhanced productivity. The objective of the case study (1) focused on maximizing the

total biomass in the reactor at a minimum broth volume. A validated mechanistic model was

employed to formulate a multiobjective optimization (MOO) problem. The substrate flow rate

during the fed-batch phase (F) was taken as the decision variable for the MOO. The Pareto front

resulting from MOO revealed that for a minimum broth volume (V) of 1.96 L, a maximum of 58.8

g of total biomass (XV) could be generated. The total biomass obtained from the optimal substrate

feeding profile was 20.6% higher than the experimentally achieved total biomass. Enhanced

productivity was achieved by the proposed MOO formulation, which facilitates the choice of any

operating point from the Pareto front based on downstream expenses of the therapeutic product.

The case study (2) focuses on the development of optimization strategies for predicting an optimal

fed-batch harvest time. The harvest of a batch is typically linked to the time of induction. Rather

than using time as the control criterion, basing harvest on biomass concentration is likely to result

in more consistent process performance. The previously developed MOO was used along with a

third objective of optimizing final harvest time t f (t end). Simulation studies were carried out with

different t end values to predict the optimal fed-batch harvest time. The Pareto for different t end values

were obtained, and the objective functions were compared at different λ values. The optimal feeding

profiles and fed-batch harvest time can be chosen based on the desired volume of operation.

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In a nutshell, the approach presented in this work integrated the real-time process measurements in

a validated process model and explored the application of different optimization strategies for a

therapeutic protein production process. The combination of enhanced measurement, modelling and

control strategies will significantly improve the product quantity and quality, thereby paving way

for better process performance.

Preparation and Characterization of Zeolite from Waste LD-slag of

Steel Industry for Removal of Fe 3+ from Drinking Water

Niladri Shekhar Samanta a , Sirsak Banerjee b , Piyal Mondal b , Anweshan b , Utpal Bora a , Mihir K. Purkait a,b*

a

Centre for the Environment, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam - 781039, India

b

Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam - 781039, India

Abstract

Cubical-shaped zeolite A was synthesized from LD-slag utilizing conventional fusion-assisted

hydrothermal treatment. Morphological and Physico-chemical characterizations were

performed by FESEM, EDX, FTIR, XRD, BET, DSC, and TGA analysis. A weight ratio of 1:1.2

(LD-slag: NaOH) was maintained during fusion, which provides a better binding effect with

better mechanical stability to the zeolite framework. Fe 3+ adsorption studies were performed

at 273, 298, 303, and 308 K, respectively, within the range of 10 to 40 mg L -1 Fe 3+ ion

concentration for kinetic and isotherm studies. A maximum adsorption capacity of 27.55 mg

g -1 was obtained at a 1.4 g L -1 adsorbent dosage, with 99.99% Fe 3+ ion removal. Moreover, the

Fe 3+ adsorption study obeyed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, whereas multistage

diffusion controlled the adsorption process. Langmuir isotherm model best fitted the

equilibrium data suggesting the highly negative charge over the adsorbent surface played a

vital role towards the electrostatic attraction of Fe 3+ ions. Isomorphic replacement of silicon

by aluminum ion imparted a highly negative charge over the zeolite surface in the primary

structure unit. For real-life sample drinking water, the Fe 3+ ion removal efficiency increases

to 97.7%.

Keywords: Zeolite; Fe 3+ adsorption; LD slag; Langmuir isotherm; multistage diffusion

Potent Process inhibitors affecting the key enzyme -adhe2 for butanol

production in alcohologenesis in Clostridium acetobutylicum

Pragati 1, * , Karan Kumar 2 , Vijayanand S. Mohalkar 2,3

1

District Environment Committee, Directorate of Environment, Uttar Pradesh, India

2

School of Energy Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam, India

³Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam, India

* Corresponding author e-mail: studypg19@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

The present rate of energy consumption and carbon emissions are alarming for depleting resources

and deteriorating the environment. Therefore, it necessitates the transformation of present and

future generations from non-renewable energy resources to sustainable renewable sources to meet

the energy demands of the rising population. Different alternatives have been accessed for their

potential role. Biobutanol as the biofuel has emerged as a promising alternative that may be obtained

from a cheap nonfeed stock substrate-Lignocellulosic biomass offering an efficient but economic

fermentation. Microbial fermentation is an economical approach but the yield and effectiveness of

enzymes in bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass is a concern due to inhibitors released in

lignocellulose pretreatment. Our study, therefore, focuses on the key enzyme of C. acetobutylicum

-adhe2 involved in butanol production while alcohologenesis. Our aim is to understand the

inhibition of adhe2 by the process inhibitors generated during the degradation of lignocellulosic

biomass using homology modeling, docking analysis, and MD simulation study. The present

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investigation has accessed process inhibitors such as furan derivatives, phenolic compounds, and

weak acids to depict the mechanism and extent of inhibition of adhe2 enzyme and the crucial

binding sites. The results of our study may aid in future research focused to increase the rate and

yield of butanol through engineering the adhe2 enzyme of C. acetobutylicum.

Keywords: C. acetobutylicum, adhe2, lignocellulosic biomass, process inhibitors, molecular

docking simulations.

Visible Light Driven Ni/TiO2 Photocatalyst Synthesis via Bioinspired

Route using Pineapple Peel

Ravi a and Animes Kumar Golder a,b, *

a

Centre for the Environment, IIT Guwahati, Assam, INDIA -781039

b

Department of Chemical Engineering, IIT Guwahati, Assam, INDIA -781039

Abstract

Water pollution is a major concern due to its destructive effects on the environment, which hinders

the growth of flora and fauna. Photocatalysis has gained massive attention in the catalytic

wastewater treatment process due to its chemical and photostability, eco-friendly nature, and nonselective

reaction mechanism. However, the high bandgap energy of TiO 2 setbacks its application

using solar light. Herein, we have developed a visible light-driven Ni/TiO 2 photocatalyst via a

bioinspired route using waste pineapple peel extract as a sole source of reducing and capping

analytes. Doping of Ni into TiO 2 using waste pineapple peel extract eliminates the need for the use

of intensive chemicals required in convention processes. The synthesized Ni/TiO 2 was

characterized using UV-Vis differential reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), and the obtained DRS

spectra were fitted using the Kubelka-Munk function for the calculation of the bandgap energy. Ni

doping resulted in the narrowing of bandgap energy of TiO 2 from 3.29 eV to 2.83 eV, which claimed

its visible light-driven photocatalytic ability. Ni/TiO 2 with reduced bandgap energy is a potential

candidate for the photocatalytic degradation of recalcitrant pollutants under visible and solar light

irradiation.

Keywords: Ni/TiO 2 photocatalyst; Bioinspired doping; Green approach; Pineapple peel

Assessment of biodegradation potentiality of ligninolytic bacteria

isolated from Boragaon dumpsite, Guwahati

Rituparna Addy 1* , Izharul Haq 2 , Ajay Kalamdhad 2 , Vaibhav Vasant Goud 3

1 Centre for the Environment, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Amingaon, North Guwahati, Assam

781039

2 Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Amingaon, North Guwahati,

Assam 781039

3 Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Amingaon, North

Guwahati, Assam 781039

*Email id: a.rituparna@iitg.ac.in

Tremendous generation of municipal solid waste (MSW) and its improper management,

unscientific dumping are the utmost challenges at the present time globally. The problem is

dominating in the developing countries mainly due to open dumping practices and lack of suitable

treatment procedures. The waste in a landfill is quite heterogeneous and contains a great variety of

waste materials, of which biodegradable organic material can be in bulk and suitable for biological

degradation. Such composition includes lignocellulosic substrates, hydrocarbons, complex

aromatic compounds. The diverse group of microbes reported in the landfill wastes, capable of high

metabolic activities to lessen the organic content and recalcitrant compounds to an extent. The

carbon content of wastes can be assessed by parameters such as, volatile solid, soluble biological

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oxygen demand (sBOD), soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), which also implies the

presence of viable microorganisms in the wastes. Municipal solid waste collected from Boragaon

dumpsite, Guwahati has found to have volatile solid, and organic carbon ranging from 31-39%, and

18-21%, respectively. The lignin content is quite countable ranging from 12-29%, which indicates

the presence of ligninolytic bacteria. Such bacteria are reported to produce lignin degrading

enzymes viz. Lignin peroxidase (LiP), Manganese peroxidase (MnP), and Laccase, etc.

Ligninolytic enzymes have been reported to degrade pollutants, such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons,

polychlorinated biphenyls, and other xenobiotic compounds. Isolation of potential bacteria with

efficient enzyme producing ability can lead us to remediate the recalcitrant compounds from waste

matters. Our study suggests that the bio-augmentation approach using bacterial consortia can treat

the waste sample to reduce organic matters and hydrocarbons.

Keywords: Landfill, Municipal solid waste, Ligninolytic bacteria, Ligninolytic enzymes, Bioaugmentation

Screening and Scoping of Precursors associated to the production of

Jeevamrutha bio-fertilizer in North-east India

Udaratta Bhattacharjee 1 , Ramagopal V. S Uppaluri 1,2*

1 Centre for the Environment, IIT Guwahati,

2 Department of Chemical Engineering, IIT Guwahati,

*Corresponding Author e-mail: ramgopalu@iitg.ac.in

Abstract

Large scale cow dung based bio-fertilizer development necessitates upon the utilization of cheaper

protein and sugar sources. In rural India, these correspond to jaggery and gram flour respectively.

This article addresses the screening and identification of critical precursors associated to the

development of low cost and macronutrient rich cow dung based Jeevamrutha solid bio-fertilizer

formulations in North-east India. Plackett-Burman Design (PBD) statistical tool was deployed to

screen and identify critical precursors among jaggery (A), gram flour (B), moisture content (C), soil

(D) and pH (E). Two diverse parametric ranges (SH and SL) were considered to evaluate upon the

chosen parametric range on the screening outcomes using Minitab 16.0 (USA). Ammonium

nitrogen (AN) and phosphate (P) were considered as response variables in the conducted

investigations. Thereby, twenty four duplicate sets of experiments were performed in a laboratory

shady environment in the summer and monsoon months (May – July). For a variation in A – D and

E from 0.05 – 0.4 kg/L and 3 – 8, the AN and P varied from 49.8 – 388.6 and 606.5 – 1248.1 mg/L

respectively. Pareto charts associated to the obtained data along with analysis of variance

(ANOVA) characteristics affirmed high confidence level (95%), lower p-value (<0.05), higher F-

value for screened parameters etc. Thereby, based on normal plots, A – C have been identified and

screened to be the most critical precursors to influence AN and B and D were critical to influence

the P nutrient yield.

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Humanities and Social Sciences

Factors influencing Social Inclusion of Women: A Study on

Entrepreneurial Support System in Tripura

Dr. Rajesh Chatterjee 1* , B. Prof. Debarshi Mukherjee 2 , C. Abhranil Bhattacharjee 3 ,

D. Abdur Rahman Choudhury 4 .

1

Assistant Professor, Centre for Study of Social Inclusion & Exclusion, Tripura University, India

2

Professor & Head, Department of Business Management, Tripura University, India

3

Research Scholar, CSSEIP, Tripura University, India

4

Research Scholar, CSSEIP, Tripura University, India

*Corresponding author, E-mail: rajeshchatterjee@tripurauniv.in

In our society, a woman is always considered to be a silent optimistic contributor. At every nook

and corner of the world, their contributions are uncountable & immeasurable. The growth of the

family, community & society depends on the wellbeing of a women. The social and economic

factors play a major role over justifying the development of women. The tweaking factors in the

progress of the women are at large, though some of the imbibing parts are gaining of essential

indigenous knowledge, attainment of potential skill based resources and majorly the leadership

activities. In this context, the boost in socio-economic condition of women has been a triggering

factor that could be achieved through engagement in entrepreneurial activities. This paper aims at

examining the crucial factors that influence active participation of women in entrepreneurial

activity resulting in economic independence through government support system. The paper also

tries to address the key factors leading to social inclusion of women through entrepreneurial

activities. The study is carried out among 135 women entrepreneurs of West Tripura District. The

purposive sampling method is deployed to conduct the study. The limitation of the study lies on the

women entrepreneurs of West Tripura District covering 9 Rural Development Blocks.

Keywords

Entrepreneurship, Social Inclusion, Women

References

Agarwal, A, Lekha, U. (2016). An exploratory study on the development of women entrepreneurs:

Indian cases. Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, Vol.18, No.2, pp. 232-247

Yadav, M.K., Longchar, Sushila. (2018). Social Exclusion & Inclusion: An Overview. International

Journal of Science and Research, Vol. 7, Issue-1, January-2018

Siddiqui, A.B. (2012). Problems encountered by Women Entrepreneurs in India. International

Journal of Applied Research & Studies. Vol. I, Issue II, Sept-Oct 2019/189, ISSN- 2278-9480

Policy implications for the sovereign bond market of an emerging

economy: Evidence from India

Anshul Kumar 1

1

Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, IIT Guwahati, India

Corresponding author email: anshul18@iitg.ac.in

Abstract

Robust, deep and vibrant sovereign bond market is necessary to increase the financial system

stability of a nation, help the needs of credit and mitigate the banking and financial crises that is

important for economic growth. It is imperative to assess the impact of macroeconomic shocks on

the health of sovereign bonds. This paper empirically evaluates the impact of key macroeconomic

variables on the term structure of interest rates. Accordingly, the dynamic linkages between the

estimated parameters of a zero-coupon yield curve and macroeconomic variables like inflation,

gross domestic product growth in the presence of a monetary policy indicator (changes in call

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money rate), fiscal policy indicator (change in fiscal deficit) and exchange rate is investigated for

the period from April 2000 to March 2020 using the secondary data.

First, three yield curve latent factors – level, slope and curvature are estimated using the principal

component analysis (PCA). An unrestricted vector autoregressive (VAR) model is used to assess

the dynamic relation between the macro and yield curve factors. The PCA analysis reveals that

three factors -level, slope and curvature explain almost 99% of the total variance and are a good

estimate of the shape of the yield curve. The study shows that there exists strong causality from

yield curve factors to macroeconomic factors. However the causality in the opposite direction is

weaker. The causality from yield curve factors to macroeconomic factors is primarily driven by the

fact that the changes in the level of yield curve brings an impact on inflation through the changes

in monetary policy. Empirical evidence suggests that monetary policy is an important variable in

shaping the yield curve. Study also shows that fiscal policy variable does not have significant impact

on the yield curve movements.

Keywords: term-structure; yield curve; monetary policy; VAR; PCA

A STUDY ON DETERMINING THE LEGAL STATUS OF

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

A. Monikornika Dutta 1 and B. Ranishree Moran 2

1,2

School of Public Policy and Law, Assam Rajiv Gandhi University of Cooperative Management, Joysagar,

Sivasagar, Assam

1,2

Corresponding author e-mail: monikornika7@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

The growth of Artificial Intelligence(AI) has created new services and products which in turn

provide newer and improved opportunities for the society and economy. But AI is also affecting

almost every single persons subtly or not so subtly by performing different task that were previously

performed solely by humans. The AI technologies are affecting markets and industries and are

accused not only of causing problem in employment sector, but also to the current legal system as

well. Various privacy concerns steam from social media platforms and search engines generate,

collect and share our personal data which can range from our product preferences, our political and

social views and even data that is extremely privy to us. AI powered surveillance used by state

which may include techniques like video surveillance, facial recognition, voice recognition with

the ability to identify and track every individual often without their knowledge invading the

essential human rights. With the development of AI it is very essential to assign legal rights and

responsibilities to it as there is still no clarity as to whom shall be held liable incase any mishap

arises from AI generated devices. As AI is wholly based on the collection of data from various

sources, biased data fed into AI system could evidently lead to a biased decision. Sometimes

personal data are shared with third parties without the consent of the users which leads to the potent

threat to human rights and can be used as a tools of exploitation and oppression. So the real

challenge of legislature is to keep AI at a point that it will be beneficial for mankind, In this paper

author has made an attempt to review the legal and ethical consideration in AI space, which should

be addressed before AI engrosses us completely.

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Agricultural Productivity and Irrigation Intensity: A district level

Analysis in Assam

R. Nidhishree 1 and Nivedita Deka 2

1

M.Sc. Ag. 2 nd year, Department of Agricultural Economics and Farm Management, AAU, Jorhat, India

2

Professor and Head, Department of Agricultural Economics and Farm Management, AAU, Jorhat, India

*

Corresponding author e-mail: nidhishree.r.amj20@aau.ac.in

One of the important non-physical inputs in modern agriculture is water. The crop production of an

area is largely dependent on the irrigation facilities availed in that area. The present paper studies

the impact of irrigation on agricultural productivity in different districts of Assam for two points of

time, 2012-13 and 2018-19 using secondary data collected from different government sites. The

agricultural productivity (AP) of ten major crops such as autumn rice, winter rice, summer rice,

wheat, jute, sugarcane, black gram, lentils, potato and rape and mustard of different districts of

Assam is ranked using Kendall’s Ranking Coefficient Method (Fig 1). Irrigation intensity (II) is

estimated as the ratio between gross irrigated area and gross cropped area (Fig 2 and 3). Correlation

coefficient is used to examine the relation between the intensity of irrigation and the agricultural

productivity of the selected crops. The study reveals that in 2012-13, Sonitpur district recorded the

highest AP, Dhemaji district recorded the highest II, while in 2018-19 Dharrang district recorded

the highest AP and Sonitpur district recorded the highest II. (Table 1). Most crops showed positive

relationship with the irrigation intensity except wheat, jute and summer rice. The analysis suggests

that the area under better performance is attributed to better irrigation facilities, optimum fertilizer

usage, growing HYV, better management practices along with crop insurance and marketing

techniques and farmers moving towards modernization.

Table No. 1 Districts with highest and lowest Agricultural productivity of 10 major crops of

Assam

Agricultural Productivity 2012-13 Ranking Coefficient 2018-19 Ranking Coefficient

Highest Sonitpur 9.70 Darrang 7.10

Lowest Baksa 17.7 Chirang 21.30

Fig.1 Districts based on Ranking Coefficient for 2012-13 and 2018-19

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Fig. 2 Trend of II of Assam

Scientifique: Oral

Fig. 3 Highest and Lowest II obtaining

II OF ASSAM

II, 2016-2017, 11.38

II, 2018-2019, 12.34

II, 2015-2016, 9.56

II, 2013-2014, II, 2014-2015, 9.15 9.16

II, 2009-2010, 5.48

II, 2017-2018, 5.91

II, 2010-2011, II, 2011-2012, 4.09 II, 2012-2013, 3.91 3.93

districts of Assam

Understanding the Intersectionality in Inequalities: A Social-

Geographic Inquiry of the Throes and Longings of Transgender in

Assam

Syeda Fahima Shahnaz Sultana 1* , Dr. Madhushree Das 2

1

Research Scholar, Department of Geography, Gauhati University, Guwahati, Assam, India/

shahnaz014@gauhati.ac.in,

2

Professor, Department of Geography, Gauhati University, Guwahati, Assam, India/

madhushreedas@gauhati.ac.in

Abstract

Reducing inequalities has become a prime concern for every nation as attaining economic

development along with growth becomes crucial. Inequality, defined by the inaccessibility to and

unavailability of resources, rights and opportunities, is prone to intersectionality existing as sex,

age, class, religion, residence, etc. This intersectionality explains how different individuals or

groups experience inequalities in the various domains. The present study tried to comprehend the

gendered intersectionality in inequalities existing in Assam through an qualitative study conducted

on the transgender populace of the state. Despite being legally accepted as ‘third gender’ and

accorded fundamental rights by the Supreme Court of India in 2014, the study portrayed a grim

picture of the discrimination and thence the inequalities the transgender people are subjected to.

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The study delves into the hurdles faced, conquered and still facing in the social, economic and

political milieu of Assam by the transgender populace, and also highlights their aspirations for

greater inclusivity. With the SDG indicator- ratio of transgender to male Labour Force Participation

Rate (LFPR) for SDG 10, showing a stagnant score of 0.6 for Assam in the SDG India Index 2018,

2019 and 2020-21, the study further tried to illuminate the steps adopted for economic inclusion of

transgender of the state. With a slow-paced increase in acceptance and visibility in a spatio-temporal

manner for the transgendered population of the state, they desire for a society not based on (binary)

gendered ideals.

Keywords: Gender, Inequality, SDG, Transgender

A Step Towards Making India Carbon Neutral:

Increasing the Solar Power by Reducing the space it occupies

Tejas Agarwal and Tushar Das

Shiksha The Gurukul

email-id: nezutejas@gmail.com, tushardas815@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

In India, the average 1-year consumption of electricity is about 1500TWh. However, the amount of

electricity generated by solar power is only 60TWh (about 4%)! Although the Government is taking

initiatives, if we want to achieve the carbon neutral India goal, we will need to upgrade ourselves.

The main problem that the government faces while making these kinds of projects is not funds, but

the area occupies by the solar panels. They require a huge amount of land, which then will be

unusable. However, we can solve this problem with just some things; sun, mirrors, diverging lens,

solar panels, batteries and the law of reflection. If we place the mirrors is such an angle that the

sunrays are directed to the diverging lens, and they diverge to meet the vertical solar panels, then

we can reduce the space used up by the solar panels. The merits of this project, is that the solar

panels will be vertical, and so, we can increase the scale. They will be getting the heat and will

produce adequate electricity. If the project is executed, and a 10x10 m 2 wall is filled up with solar

panels, the area will be taken of only about 30m 2 , which is about nearly 70% increase in the

efficiency of a piece of land! If the Andhra Pradesh mega solar plant is filled using this proposal,

then, the number of solar panels there would become 70% more (about 1 lakh to 1.7 lakh PV

modules)!

Fig 1: The Efficient Setting of Solar Panels

Keywords: Solar Panels, Law of reflection, Electricity, PV Module, Renewable Energy, Efficiency

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Humanities and Social Sciences

Scientifique: Oral

Strengthening linkages of Start-ups with the players of the Innovation

Ecosystem

Trina Das 1 * and Binay Kumar Pattnaik 2

1

Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, IIT Kanpur

2

Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, IIT Kanpur

*Corresponding author e-mail: trinadas@iitk.ac.in

Quadruple Helix Model of Innovation (Arnkil et al. (2010); Leydesdorff, 2012) emphasises that the

locus of innovation and knowledge production stems from the interactions between government,

industry, academia, and people. Quadruple Helix Model (QH) of Innovation is an adaptation to the

Triple Helix Model (TH) of Innovation (Edquist 2013; Etzkowitz and Leydesdorff (1997)) which

earlier recognised only government, industry, and academia as the key players in innovation. The

Quadruple Helix Model of Innovation is a finer version of the TH model since it recognises that

people are also prominent players in innovation and knowledge production. The approach of the

model is bottom-up, making it imperative to study the participation of people in innovation and one

of the ways in which people participate in the innovation process of a society is by establishing

their start-ups or enterprises. The process of start-up establishment, growth, contribution in

innovation and survival requires interaction with government, industry, and academia.

Through empirical data collected from 195 start-up founders in Information Technology and

Communication (ITC) and ITC allied sectors from the Delhi NCR region the paper aims to elucidate

how start-up founders are collaborating/interacting with government, academia and industry that

are three other different Helixes of QH model and what are the gaps in this process of co-creation,

further suggesting the expectations of the start-up founders from these prominent players of the

innovation ecosystem i.e. the government, industry and academia so that the linkages between them

can be leveraged at best and strengthened.

References

Arnkil, R., Järvensivu, A., Koski, P., & Piirainen, T. (2010). Exploring quadruple helix outlining

user-oriented innovation models.

Edquist, C. (2013). Systems of innovation: technologies, institutions and organizations. Routledge.

Etzkowitz, H., & Leydesdorff, L. A. (1997). Universities and the global knowledge economy.

Pinter.

Leydesdorff, L. (2012). The triple helix, quadruple helix,…, and an N-tuple of helices: explanatory

models for analyzing the knowledge-based economy?. Journal of the knowledge economy, 3(1),

25-35.

A STUDY OF HOW TO CONTROL SPACE JUNK

A.AAYUSH CHOUDHARY 1 , B. HARSHIL KEJRIWAL 2 , C. TUSHAR DAS 3

Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.

Email-id: aayush22choudhary22@gmail.com, harshilkejriwal@gmail.com, tushardas815@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Space junk, or space debris, is any piece of machinery or debris left by humans in space. It can refer

to big objects such as dead satellites that have failed or been left in orbit at the end of their mission.

It can also refer to smaller things, like bits or debris or paint flecks that have fallen off a rocket.

While there are about 2,000 active satellites orbiting Earth at the moment, there are also 3,000 dead

ones littering space. But how does space junk affect the environment and us? The accumulation of

space junk poses a particularly catastrophic threat to humankind's future in space exploration, due

to increased risk of collision with and damage to functioning satellites. It could also have

detrimental effects on Earth's environment. There are around 34,000 pieces of space junk bigger

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than 10 cm in size and millions of smaller pieces that could nonetheless prove disastrous if they hit

something else due to their extreme velocity.As we use vacuum cleaners in our home for cleaning

& sucking the dust, similarly we can develop a satellite which will revolve around the earth’s orbit

and can suck the nearby space junk or debris by its vacuum mechanism. Hence, reducing the amount

of space junk. We can receive information about those trapped waste &we can bring them back by

new technologies as of Spacex’s Falcon 9.

KEYWORDS: Space junk, debris, disastrous, satellites, vacuum mechanism, etc.

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Mathematics

Scientifique: Oral

Water wave interaction with a poro-elastic structure in a two-layer fluid

over a porous sea-bed

Koushik Kanti Barman a,1 and Swaroop Nandan Bora a,2

a

Department of Mathematics, IIT Guwahati, India

1

Corresponding author e-mail: koushik.barman@iitg.ac.in

2

Author e-mail: swaroop@iitg.ac.in

Abstract

This article studies the oblique surface wave interaction with a vertical interface-piercing poroelastic

barrier in a fluid consisting of two immiscible layers. The barrier is placed near a partially

reflective sea-wall. The problem is studied for finite depth of a porous sea-bed exhibiting both

resistance and inertial effects. The objective is to analyse the impact of the barrier, sea-wall and

bottom porosity in mitigating the wave reflection and wave forces. The solution of this problem is

found by using small amplitude wave theory and the method of eigenfunction expansion. Various

hydrodynamic coefficients are then obtained by using the least square method in a semi-analytical

approach. The overall aim is to examine the (i) incident and reflected wave scattering, (iii) wave

trapping in the confined region, (ii) wave damping due to the sea-bed porosity, (iv) dissipation of

wave energy due to the poro-elastic barrier as well as due to the reflecting wall, (v) wave elevations

in both propagating modes, as well as the wave run-up near the wall. The porosity of the sea-bed is

accounted for while calculating the potential, and following that, the dispersion relation is

rigorously analyzed. The wave energy identities are developed for the two-layer fluid ow, and the

corresponding energy loss is measured in which the contribution from the barrier, sea-wall and

porous sea-bed is noticed. An optimal structural length is proposed in order to obtain minimal and

maximal wave reflection. Furthermore, the lowest pressure distribution can be obtained from higher

values of porous parameters and long structures. Due to the analogue of the dead water

phenomenon, the occurrence of a large amplitude internal wave with a low amplitude at the surface

is established with respect to bottom porosity. The findings of the current study are likely to

influence the design of marine facilities so as to encounter less amount of wave force on the

infrastructure.

Parameter-uniform Numerical Solution of a Singularly Perturbed 2D

Parabolic Convection-Diffusion-Reaction Problem using Operatorsplitting

ADI Hybrid Scheme

M. Barman 1,* , S. Natesan 1 , A. Şendur 2

1

Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Technology,

Guwahati - 781 039, India,

2

Department of Mathematics Education, Alanya Alaaddin Keykubat University,

Antalya - 07490, Turkey.

* Corresponding author e-mail: mrityunjoy@iitg.ac.in

Abstract:

In this work, we present an efficient and parameter-uniform hybrid numerical scheme of ADI

operator-splitting type for a two-dimensional parabolic singularly perturbed problem of convectionreaction-diffusion

type with two positive parameters. The exact solution of the model problem

exhibits regular boundary layers at the boundaries and corner layers at the corners of rectangular

space domain. The proposed numerical method consists of backward-Euler method for the time

discretization and a hybrid scheme for the space discretizations. The analysis of the proposed

method is presented on a layer adapted piecewise-uniform Shishkin mesh. The proposed method

has first-order convergence in time variable and second-order convergence in space variable.

Numerical experiments are carried out for validation of the theoretical results.

178 Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022


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Mathematics

References:

1. K. Mukherjee, S. Natesan, Parameter-uniform hybrid numerical scheme for time-dependent

convection-dominated initial-boundary-value problems, Computing 84 (3) (2009) 209–230.

2. A. Majumdar, S. Natesan, An ε-uniform hybrid numerical scheme for a singularly perturbed

degenerate parabolic convection–diffusion problem, International Journal of Computer

Mathematics 96 (7) (2019) 1313–1334.

3. M. Stynes, H.-G. Roos, The midpoint upwind scheme, Applied Numerical Mathematics 23 (3)

(1997) 361–374.

4. C. Clavero, J. Jorge, F. Lisbona, G. Shishkin, An alternating direction scheme on a nonuniform

mesh for reaction-diffusion parabolic problems, IMA Journal of Numerical Analysis 20 (2) (2000)

263–280.

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 179


Mechanical Engineering

Scientifique: Oral

Conversion of Diesel to Natural Gas Fueled Internal Combustion

Engines for Heavy Duty Vehicles

J. Priyadarshi 1 , K. Lavanya 1 , A. Roy 1, * , A. K. Mishra 1 and A. Singh 1

1

Department of Mining Machinery Engineering, IIT (ISM) Dhanbad, India

*

Corresponding author e-mail: 20je0180@mme.iitism.ac.in

The threat posed by rapid climate change and severe emission regulations in many countries

demands researchers explore sustainable eco-friendly fuel resources for internal combustion

engines in heavy duty.For several decades, natural gas and hydrogen to a lesser extent has provided

clean power to transportation sector nationwide. This article investigates andprovides a

comprehensive overview about apromising technology for heavy duty truck sector of transportation

as a target for conversion from diesel to natural gas which will enable us to achieve the same(or

better) than diesel power density and efficiency, steady-state, and substantially similar transient

performances. They also permit to deliver better than diesel engine-exhaust emissions for CO 2,

unburnt HC, NO x, SO x and particulate matter.3D-CAD model of the internal combustion engine

components is prepared in Solid works and CATIA software package. The CAD model is then

imported to ANSYS R-21 software distribution package for CFD simulation and validation of

corresponding results.The domain has been discretized into growing boxes at rate of 1.2 to make it

easier to generate the grid by using triangles method. Total number of nodes and elements generated

are 19341 and 32272 respectively. The meshing is shown in figure 1a. Methodology employed to

study and analyse the ICE port flow simulation is the use of CFD software that uses finite volume

method of 2D-numerical analysis to solve the continuity, Navier-Stokes equation, and energy

equations governing the flow of air inside the internal combustion engine. The boundary conditions

that were initiated while performing this simulation includes the inlet mass flow rate as 0.18 kg/s

at a temperature value of 300 K.The analysis is based on a 2D planar model of the same geometry

and run the simulation on it. During the duty cycle of the internal combustion engine to make the

combustion happenthe air velocity intake pattern is shown in the contour plot of figure 1b.

Figure 1c and Figure 1d depicts the cylinder temperature distribution fields at swirl numbers of 0.2-

0.4. The profiles indicates the development of the internal recirculation zone which is resulted in

the production of combustion materials in the internal combustion zone. It is evident that as the

swirl number increases, the radial flow distribution improves and the flame heat exchange area

enhances and decrement in the axial velocity component and the increase in the tangential

component, the flow expanded radially, resulting in uniform temperature distribution within the

chamber.

The supply of natural gas is limited so we need to verify its availability both before and after vehicle

conversion. This article concludes with an economic feasibility discussion and corresponding

comparison of exchangeability of natural gas as compared to diesel engine. Natural gas is touted as

a clean technology that can significantly reduce the CO 2emissions. Here we have considered the

ability of natural gas to replace the diesel as a transportation fuel on the basis of quantity and

combustibility when mixed with cryogenics. The possibility of replacing a large portion of

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transportation sector in the near future is high, but comes with necessary infrastructure investment.

Thus, the proposed modification can be instrumental for the heavy-duty vehicles in order to achieve

a better fuel conversion rate, better atomization of the injected fuel, and henceforth paving the path

for a better eco-friendly and green environment. This modification will also help us to reduce the

carbon footprint for the world to make a better place to live in.

Abstract of Contact of thin elastic shells with smooth flat rigid

substrates

Aishwarya Kasarla 1, * , Dr. Sovan Lal Das 2

1

Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Palakkad, India

2

Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Palakkad, India

*

Corresponding author e-mail: aishwaryakasarla22@gmail.com

In this research, a very interesting and little-discussed contact of a thin shell with a rigid substrate

is studied. The standard problem considered is that of a cylindrical shell, which is subjected to

uniform line load on top, is resting on a smooth planar rigid substrate (with its axis parallel to the

plane of the rigid substrate). The shell material is assumed to be linearly elastic. To solve the contact

problem, we have made use of the available shell theories and solved the governing equilibrium

equations separately for the contact and free regions and then used the continuity of displacements

and stresses at the intersection of the two regions. All the shell theories consider the middle surface

as the reference surface of the shell. Out of all the shell theories available, we have selected the

linear Cosserat shell theory, obvious reason is that it considers all six degrees of freedom at any

point on the middle surface of the shell and therefore was expected to provide a more accurate

analysis for the contact problem. The other two considered shell theories are Flügge-Lur’e-Byrne

and shear deformation theory. The Flügge-Lur’e-Byrne shell theory is similar to the classical shell

theory (the very first shell theory by Love) with thinness assumption not as strict as that considered

in classical theory. The transverse shear strains and also the transverse normal stress and strain at

any point on the middle surface are neglected in this theory. Therefore, every point on the middle

surface has only three degrees of freedom, which are the three translations. In the shear deformation

theory, the transverse shear strains are considered and thus each point on the middle surface has

five degrees of freedom (three translations and two rotations of the normal), the transverse normal

stress and strain are neglected in this theory. The results are obtained for the radial and tangential

displacements, contact pressure, and also for the applied load vs contact patch length plots. The

results obtained from the Cosserat, shear deformation, and Flügge-Lur’e-Byrne shell theories are

compared with those from finite element simulation (using ABAQUS).

It has been observed that for thin shells (that is for thickness to radius ratio less than 0.1) the

contact pressure and load vs contact length results obtained from the Cosserat theory and FE

simulation are in excellent agreement. In contrast, we have obtained a non-zero value of contact

pressure at the contact edge in the case of shear deformation and Flügge-Lur’e-Byrne theories, that

is there is a discontinuity in contact pressure at the contact edge. Also, the Flügge-Lur’e-Byrne

theory does not give results for zero contact angle, we have to start computing from some small

non-zero value of contact angle. Therefore, we conclude that the inclusion of transverse shear strains

along with transverse normal stress and strain is necessary in order to accurately capture the physics

of the contact problems of shell-like structures, particularly where the accurate measurement of

traction between the contacting bodies and the contact area is of primary concern, and Cosserat

theory provides the best analysis for such complex problems.

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 181


Mechanical Engineering

Scientifique: Oral

Validation of Methodical Approach Used in SUMO simulator for State of

Charge (SOC) Prediction by Simulating Real-world Trajectories

A. Amit Rai 1, * , B. Dr. Caleb Ronald 2 , and C. Dr. Nelson Muthu 3

1

B.Tech. student, Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Guwahati, India

2

Project Manager, CR/RTC1-IN, Bosch Global Software Technologies

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Guwahati

*

Corresponding author e-mail: rai18b@iitg.ac.in

Traffic Simulator is a tool used for planning before implementation in the transportation domain.

This paper uses Simulation of Urban Mobility (SUMO) to simulate vehicles and predict the vehicle

state precisely, using a real-world dataset. The novelty of work lies in mimicking the real-world

trajectories in SUMO to calculate the energy consumptions using physics-based models used in

SUMO in contrast to using predefined lab-tested drive cycles and successfully calibrating SUMO

at the microlevel. Given that electric vehicles' adoption rate is higher than ever, proper planning is

required for a smooth transition from gasoline to electric vehicles. Inefficient planning for adoption

in an electric vehicle can affect both transportation systems due to unpredicted frequent traffic

congestion and heavy load on electric grid systems. In the worst case, it can collapse both systems.

Therefore, proper planning is required. The work on validating the methodical approach used in

SUMO for SOC prediction using the simulation method is explained. About 500 vehicle trajectories

have been taken from Ann Arbor for analysis. Upon analysis, vehicle positions are mimicked

precisely, MAE (Mean Absolute Error) between SOC calculated from SUMO and SOC from the

real-world dataset is found to be 1.77%, and MAE between speed observed from real-world data

and that obtained from SUMO is 2.44 m/s. The MAE of distances between input and tracked output

positions in SUMO is 4*10^-5 m.

Table 1 Dataset description used in the work [1]

Parameters used from Dataset Sampling time

Latitude/longitude(deg)

3 sec

Vehicle speed (km/hr)

1 sec

Battery SOC (%)

60 sec

Battery Voltage (V)

5 sec

Battery Current (A)

1 sec

Fig. 1. Steps followed

Fig. 2. Ann Arbor Open Street Map in web-wizard tool

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Mechanical Engineering

SUMO SOC[%]

Real-world SOC[%]

Fig 3. SUMO Interface showing vehicle

moving according to the input trajectory data

about position, speed and SOC

Fig. 4. Plot of Original SOC vs Cleaned

SOC

for Veh-id 554 and trip id 268

is being collected

Fig. 5. Predicted SOC vs time for Veh-Id 1875010

in dataset

Fig. 6. SUMO Predicted SOC MAE

distribution for 500 EVs

REFERENCE

[1] Oh, G. & Leblanc, David & Peng, Huei. (2019). Vehicle Energy Dataset (VED), A Large-scale

Dataset for Vehicle Energy Consumption Research.

Analysis of Plantar Pressure Distribution for aiding diagnosis of foot

conditions

Arnab Sarmah 1,2* , Lipika Boruah 3 , Satoshi Ito 4 , S.K. Dwivedy 1,3 , Subramani Kanagaraj 1,3

1

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam, India.

2

Graduate School of Engineering, Gifu University, Gifu, Japan

3

Center for Intelligent Cyber Physical Systems, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam, India.

4

Faculty of Engineering, Gifu University, Gifu, Japan.

*

Corresponding author e-mail: sarmah18@iitg.ac.in

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Foot is critical to the understanding of the mechanics of gait as it affects the normal motion of the

entire lower extremity. Plantar pressure distribution provides us with the force distribution over the

sole of the foot. It provides us with detailed information regarding the region of contact during

normal daily activities such as walking. Alteration in the plantar pressure distribution can influence

the normal functions of the ankle, knee, hip and spine. Thus, analysis of plantar pressure distribution

is important in gait and posture research for diagnosis of lower limb conditions such as flat foot,

diabetic foot, knee osteoarthritis, footwear design, sports biomechanics, injury prevention and other

applications like human identification, biometric, monitoring postures allocation and rehabilitation

support systems. The use of imaging technologies such as X-ray, MRI for detecting foot problems

comes with the risk of radiation exposure, while techniques such as Doppler ultrasound are limited

to assessing only blood flow and neuropathy. Thus, pressure mats measuring the plantar pressure

can provide a biomechanical insight to various foot problems and detect areas with asymmetric

pressure distribution. In addition to detection, quantitative tracking of intervention which may

include exercises or use of insoles, is also possible through monitoring of plantar pressure at regular

intervals. The objective of this study is to analyse and assess the plantar pressure distribution for

various foot conditions. Different subjects with conditions such as flat foot, high arch, knee

osteoarthritis were studied. The loading patterns of subjects with flat-foot, high arch, knee

osteoarthritis along with able-bodied subjects were analysed and reported. In addition, the various

markers that aids a clinical decision and can be used to monitor the progress of a clinical

intervention are explained.

Review on Applications of Industry 4.0 in the Fabrication of Composite

Materials Industry

Arpita Priyadarshani Samal

Department of Metallurgical & Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Jodhpur, India-342037

*

Corresponding Author: aarpitasamal1997@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

In engineering practice, where considerations of mechanical strength and stiffness are usually

paramount, the term ‘composite’ is generally understood to refer to a material which combines a

matrix phase with admixed filaments of a reinforcing (strengthening) phase. A composite derives

from the essentially simple and practical idea of bonding together two or more homogeneous

materials which have very different properties. The term ‘composite’ is sometimes taken to include

materials in which the second phase is in the form of particles or laminae. In such cases the

composite structure may offer special advantages, other than strength, such as economy and

corrosion-resistance (e.g. filler in plastics, plastic-coated steel sheet). The present account primarily

concerns the reinforcement of polymeric matrices with fibres. The aim is to investigate the

applicability of Industry 4.0 via distributed ledger/blockchain technology in the supply chain of

composite materials/carbon fibre, in particular the manufacturing of structures and components

relying on semi-finished materials such as prepregs (preimpregnated) which can be used for the

purpose of tamper proof history of product manufacturing, provenance, transportation, handling

and storage.

Keywords: Ledger/blockchain technology, Polymer Matrix Composite

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In vitro Evaluation of UHMWPE-MWCNT Nano-composite based

Acetabular Cups meant for Total Hip Replacement using ‘Ball-On-Cup’

Tribometer as per ISO 14242-3 with a Synovial Fluid Analogue

Ashirbad Jana 1, * , Senthilvelan Selvaraj 1 , and Kanagaraj Subramani 1

1

Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Guwahati, India

*

Corresponding author e-mail: j.ashirbad@iitg.ac.in

Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is being used as an acetabular cup in the

total hip joint replacements (THR) since 1960. However, life of a metal-on-plastic total hip

arthroplasty (THA) is often limited to fifteen years, mainly due to excessive wear debris generation

during its operation leading to osteolysis and aseptic loosening. Tribological characteristics of an

UHMWPE acetabular cup can be improved by better processing, bio-compatible reinforcement and

superior bearing surface finish. The objective of present work is to develop UHMWPE and

UHMWPE/MWCNT composite based Acetabular cup and their preclinical evaluation as per

international guidelines. A novel technique for the manufacturing of Acetabular cups using medical

grade UHMWPE-GUR1050 polymer powder by a cold isostatic compaction against a mirror

finished metallic surface, followed by shape-constrained sintering is investigated. UHMWPE

powder is processed with optimum compaction pressure, sintering temperature and sintering

duration to obtain the products at par with a HIPped one having the density of 0.94 g/cc and Vickers

hardness of 5.0. Moreover, Plateau finished bearing surface is achieved with R a <100 nm not

requiring of any surface finishing. Up to 0.25 wt.% of MWCNT is successfully dispersed and

distributed uniformly in UHMWPE matrix by ultra-sonication, where the hardness and compressive

strength of UHMWPE are improved by 77% and 43%, respectively. An orbital bearing machine

(OBM) hip simulator is designed and fabricated for pre-clinical tribological characterization of a

THA as per ISO-14242-3 with dynamic loading and bi-axial angular motion at 5 Hz. Rheological

properties of a 1:2 volumetric solution of 2% w/v high molecular weight sodium alginate and 0.75%

w/v gellan gum are found to be similar to that of a synovial fluid and utilized as a lubricant during

in vitro wear tests of the developed prosthesis. Based on the wear debris analysis, it is confirmed

that adhesive wear and fatigue wear are the main causes of the material loss under in vitro condition.

The wear debris obtained from the OBM hip simulator had significant morphological resemblance

with those retrieved from human body while using THA. Total volume of wear debris generated

from the UHMWPE/MWCNT liner against stainless steel femoral head is found to be 52% less

compared to that of pure polymer liner. The maximum linear wear depth in the UHMWPE

acetabular cup, measured by CMM, is observed to be reduced by 33% after optimum MWCNT

reinforcement.

Table 1 Zone-wise bearing surface diameter measurement before and after test

Fig. 1. (A)Volumetric Measurement of the Acetabular cups after Simulator test with an interval of 1

million cycles (B) SEM images of some typical wear debris after simulator test

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 185


Mechanical Engineering

Scientifique: Oral

Impact of Trochoidal toolpath in magnetorheological fluid assisted

finishing process

Atul Singh Rajput 1, * , Manas Das 1 , and Sajan Kapil 1

1

Department of Electronics & Electrical Engineering, IIT Guwahati, India

*

Corresponding author e-mail: atulsingh@iitg.ac.in

Magnetorheological Fluid Assisted Finishing (MFAF) process is an advanced finishing process that

produces a high level of surface quality, even on complex freeform surfaces. Although the

development of the MFAF process was started in the late '90s, the evolution process is still in

progress to increase process effectiveness and efficiency. With the assistance of

Magnetorheological (MR) fluid consisting of metal particles, abrasives, carrier fluid, and

stabilizers, the unbonded multipoint cutting tool is generated during the finishing operations to

achieve surface roughness (R a) in the nanometer range. Hence, the MFAF process produces fine

surface quality without affecting the component's surface topography. In the MFAF process, the

properties of MR fluid can be controlled in-situ, with the help of an external magnetic field,

according to the process's necessity. The MFAF process is a Computer Numerical Control (CNC)

process; hence an appropriate toolpath is required to map the desired workspace. A newly

developed Trochoidal toolpath is used during the surface finishing operation to enhance the surface

quality of the workpiece, as shown in Fig. 1. However, the experiments show the final surface

roughness (R a) achieved on the Mild steel is 1.04 nm from 379 nm.

Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of Trochoidal toolpath

A numerical investigation on the aerodynamics of a DrivAer model in a

Platoon

M. Divya Sri * , A. Roopa, Pandrangi V P N S Sai Srikar, B. Vamsi, and Prasanth A K Lam

Department of Mechanical Engineering, NIT Warangal, India

Corresponding author email: dm931812@student.nitw.ac.in

In the recent past, a substantial rise in fuel prices and the negative impact of fossil fuels on the

environment has motivated automobile manufacturers to decrease the fuel consumption of vehicles

[1]. One major means to increase fuel efficiency is to design the vehicles in an aerodynamically

sound way as vehicle drag is the prime cause of fuel consumption. The methods of drag reduction

and shape optimization are considered to be inexpensive ways to reduce fuel consumption. Hence,

aerodynamic studies have become a mandate for automobile manufacturers to identify better outer

body designs with reduced drag and thereby improving fuel efficiency. Furthermore, in densely

186 Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022


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Mechanical Engineering

packed roads like that of New Delhi, the motion of one vehicle can significantly influence the drag

experienced by the vehicle downstream. Thus, studying the aerodynamic behavior of a vehicle in a

platoon is of great importance.

The main objective of this study is to examine aerodynamic aspects such as wake formation, vehicle

drag, and pressure distribution over the vehicles in a platoon [2]. For this purpose, CFD simulations

were performed on the notchback DrivAer model in a platoon. The governing equations such as

conservation of mass and momentum are solved in a cartesian framework through an Open Source

CFD package, OpenFOAM® V-8.0 [3]. In the simulations, flow is considered to be viscous,

transient, incompressible, turbulent, and air is the working fluid with constant temperature

properties. In this study, a RANS-based two-equation SST k-⍵ turbulence model is selected.

The fluid flow patterns are investigated for two different free-stream velocities and five different

inter-vehicle spacings. It was observed that with the increase in the inter-vehicle spacing, the drag

on the trailing vehicle decreases, and the drag of the leading vehicle increases. The results of the

coefficient of drag, streamlines, pressure distribution, vortex structures are presented and discussed

in detail.

Fig. 1. Streamlines over a single DrivAer body

References:

[1] Mukut, A. N. M. M. I., & Abedin, M. Z. (2019). Review on Aerodynamic Drag Reduction of

Vehicles. International Journal of Engineering Materials and Manufacture, 4(1), 1–14.

https://doi.org/10.26776/ijemm.04.01.2019.01

[2] Kaluva, S. T., Pathak, A., & Ongel, A. (2020). Aerodynamic drag analysis of autonomous

electric vehicle platoons. Energies, 13(15). https://doi.org/10.3390/en13154028

[3] A Crash Introduction to the Finite Volume Method and Discretization Schemes in OpenFOAM®

OpenFOAM® Beginner training session. (n.d). http://www.cpe.vt.edu/ofw15/

Machined Surface Texture Analysis as a Replacement for Probe Based

Method

Sameer Taylur 1 , Gururaja S 2 , and Kundan K S *,3

1,2,3

Department of Mechanical Engineering, BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus, India

*

Corresponding author e-mail: ksingh@hyderabad.bits-pilani.ac.in

The need of high precision and accurate micro and nano components for sectors like automobile,

aerospace, energy, jewellery, molds and electronics demands faster and agile manufacturing

process. Inspection of machined surface is an important aspect of the machining process. With

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Scientifique: Oral

advancement in technologies, non-contact type sensors are gaining more scope. Techniques that

uses diamond tip probes may cause scratches to machined surfaces while analysing thereby

reducing the accuracy of the machined surface, this necessitates a more effective non-contact type

technique where machined surface can be characterized more accurately. We propose an image

processing technique for accurate characterisation of machined surface, which can be used in-situ

manufacturing process. In-situ surface characterization minimises the wastage of material and

cutting tool and can produce the desired surface finish and geometry of the components. Machined

Surface image for milling machining of Ti6Al4V with 3 µm micro-end mill is shown in Fig. 1(a).

In the present work, pixel intensity histograms are plotted from the captured image of the machined

surface. A statistical method based on GLCM (Eq. (1)) (Grey-Level Co-occurrence Matrix) of the

machined surface image has been calculated and compared with average surface roughness (Ra)

for different machining conditions to establish a relation between the surface roughness and GLCM.

A normalized value of the GCLM and measured surface roughness shows the similar trend

(Fig.2(a)). Image texture analysis-based approach homogeneity for distribution of the intensity of

pixel in grey scale image of machined surface has also been captured to obtain a relationship

between surface roughness and the captured image. The normalized value of homogeneity shown

the similar trend as that of normalized value of the measured surface roughness at different

machining conditions (Fig. 2(b)). These statistical parameters, GCLM and Homogeneity can be

used to measure the deviation of the machined surface from the desired surface roughness and

detected deviation can further be reduced by altering of the process parameters during machining

process. The machined surface image can also be used to detect the chatter onset during machining

process. The spectral analysis of image of the machined surface shows the radial pattern of the

distribution of the brightness of the pixel intensity (Fig. 1(b)), which indicates the stable machining

process.

1(a)

1(b)

Fig. 1. (a) Machined surface and (b) its Spectrum.

2

2

0

-2

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0

-2

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Correlation Roughness

Homogeneity Roughness

2(a)

2(b)

Fig. 2. (a) Comparison of correlation against surface roughness and (b) homogeneity against surface roughness

N g N g

C = ∑ ∑ ijp(i, j) − μ xμ y

σ x σ y

i=1 j=1

N g

N g

p(i, j)

H = ∑ ∑

1 + (i − j) 2

i=1 j=1

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Study of Flow and Heat Transfer Properties for a 2D geometry of linear

Gas Turbine Blade cascade at Transonic Flow Condition

Kain Dipendrasingh 1 , Srinivas M V V 2 , and Arun Kumar R 3,*

1,2,3

Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Jodhpur, India

*

Corresponding author e-mail: arunkr@iitj.ac.in

A highly efficient gas turbine requires a very high turbine inlet temperature (1400 0 C). At such high

temperatures, the first blade of the turbine is subjected to very harsh thermal and centrifugal loads.

On the other hand, the shock waves generated cause additional damage to the blades. Several

researchers are focusing on developing efficient cooling methods to protect the turbine blade.

Therefore a comprehensive knowledge about flow behaviour across the blade is necessary. Thus, it

becomes very important to know how the Mach number and heat transfer distribution changes with

incidence angles, inlet temperature, pressure ratio, and free-stream turbulence. The study related to

transonic flow conditions is very less, and thus it gives us the motivation to study the transonic flow

regime over the gas turbine blades. Commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software

FLUENT is used to perform the numerical simulations of transonic flow around a gas turbine blade

cascade. To properly resolve the high strain rates and streamline curvature near the blade leading

edge, RNG k-ε turbulence model with Enhanced Wall Treatment (EWT) is selected.

The study aims to enhance the fundamental understanding of various flow phenomena around the

gas turbine blade cascade at transonic flow conditions. The heat transfer characteristics are

evaluated at various transonic blade exit Mach numbers and blade incidence angles. Major flow

phenomena such as the shock wave position, flow separation and reattachment, laminar to turbulent

boundary layer transition, and shock - boundary layer interactions are investigated by varying the

blade exit Mach number (0.85 to 1.30) and incidence angle (-15 0 to 15 0 ). It is observed that as the

blade incidence angle is increased from -15 0 to 15 0 , the Mach number rapidly increases along the

blade suction side. Increasing the exit Mach number resulted in increased shock strength and more

intense shock - boundary layer interaction. Figure 1 shows the heat transfer coefficient variation

over the blade profile, (‘s’ - coordinate along the blade profile) for various incidence angles (I), at

exit Mach number (M 2=1.15) and inlet turbulent intensity (Tu=4%). The figure shows all the major

flow phenomena around the gas turbine blade. The extended part of this study focuses on

developing a detailed understanding of blade tip leakage flow at transonic conditions.

Fig. 1. Heat transfer coefficient variation for different incidence angles (M 2=1.15, Tu=4%)

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 189


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Scientifique: Oral

Advanced Potential Hybrid Biocomposites - An Affordable way to go

Green: A Short Review

Muhammad Farhan 1, * , P. k. Bharti 2 , and Azhar Jamil 3

1,2

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Integral University, India

3

Advanced Composites Research Lab, 2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aligarh Muslim University,

India

*

Corresponding author e-mail: mufarhan@iul.ac.in

Abstract

The developing biological and natural cognizance has driven endeavours for improvement of new

creative materials for different end-use applications. Polymers orchestrated from normal assets,

have increased significant exploration enthusiasm for the ongoing years. This audit paper is

expected to give a brief diagram of work that covers in the region of biocomposites, significant

class of biodegradable polymers, characteristic filaments, just as their assembling methods and

properties have been featured. Natural fibre composites are being progressively seen as successful

and environmentally feasible alternatives for synthetic fibres and plastics. This paper is dedicated

to hybrid biocomposite materials and their development that emerged as an exciting segment of

engineering materials in recent decades offering new opportunities for technological advances. [1-

2] In many engineering applications, hybrid biocomposite materials are widely used, as they deliver

a range of enhanced properties and distinct advantages over conventional composite materials.

Hybrid composites have hallmark features that can be used in different structures and structural

elements without losing the efficiency and durability. Due to their excellent ability compared with

non-hybrid single fiber-reinforced composites, hybrid biocomposite materials have at present

received considerable attention from researchers. As a result of the current evolution in material

science, cost-efficient hybrid composites with the properties needed could be obtained through the

selection of suitable materials. Hybrid biocomposites also provide a lightweight characteristic in

comparison to non-hybrid counterparts, this feature makes these materials valuable for aerospace

and lightweight applications as the low weight is one of the requirements especially relevant for

reducing fuel dependency and energy usage in transport sectors.

Table 1 Different reinforcements and Matrices used in hybrid biocomposites

S.

No.

Reinforcement Matrices References

Fibers Particulate filler Thermoset Thermoplastic

1. Hemp Wood Flour Banana Polypropylene [1][2]

2. Coir Fly Ash Kenaf PLA [3], [4]

3. Silk Cornhusk Polyester Polyethylene [5][6]

4. Sisal Flour Silica Polyester [7] [3] [8][9][10]

[7]

5. Kenaf Coconut shell Epoxy resin [11] [12][13] [3]

6. Oil palm - Phenolic resin [5][14][15]

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References:

Fig. 1. Representation of Hybrid Biocomposites

[1] M. J. M. Ridzuan, M. S. A. Majid, M. Afendi, A. Z. A. Firdaus, and K. Azduwin, “Effect

of elevated temperature on the tensile strength of Napier/glass-epoxy hybrid reinforced

composites,” 2017, p. 020062.

[2] M. J. Halimatul, S. M. Sapuan, M. Jawaid, M. R. Ishak, and R. A. Ilyas, “Effect of sago

starch and plasticizer content on the properties of thermoplastic films: mechanical testing and cyclic

soaking-drying,” Polimery, vol. 64, no. 06, pp. 422–431, 2019.

[3] T. Sathishkumar, J. Naveen, P. Navaneethakrishnan, S. Satheeshkumar, and N. Rajini,

“Characterization of sisal/cotton fibre woven mat reinforced polymer hybrid composites,” J. Ind.

Text., vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 429–452, Nov. 2017.

[4] R. Boujmal et al., “Alfa fibers/clay hybrid composites based on polypropylene,” J.

Thermoplast. Compos. Mater., vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 974–991, Jul. 2018.

[5] M. Jawaid, H. P. S. Abdul Khalil, A. Hassan, R. Dungani, and A. Hadiyane, “Effect of jute

fibre loading on tensile and dynamic mechanical properties of oil palm epoxy composites,”

Compos. Part B Eng., vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 619–624, Feb. 2013.

[6] M. Faezipour, R. Shamsi, A. Ashori, A. Abdulkhani, and A. Kargarfard, “Hybrid composite

using recycled polycarbonate/waste silk fibers and wood flour,” Polym. Compos., vol. 37, no. 6,

pp. 1667–1673, Jun. 2016.

[7] M. Idicula, S. K. Malhotra, K. Joseph, and S. Thomas, “Dynamic mechanical analysis of

randomly oriented intimately mixed short banana/sisal hybrid fibre reinforced polyester

composites,” Compos. Sci. Technol., vol. 65, no. 7–8, pp. 1077–1087, Jun. 2005.

[8] L. Silva, T. Panzera, V. Velloso, J. Rubio, A. Christoforo, and F. Scarpa, “Statistical design

of polymeric composites reinforced with banana fibres and silica microparticles,” J. Compos.

Mater., vol. 47, no. 10, pp. 1199–1210, May 2013.

[9] M. Jacob, K. T. Varughese, and S. Thomas, “Dielectric characteristics of sisal–oil palm

hybrid biofibre reinforced natural rubber biocomposites,” J. Mater. Sci., vol. 41, no. 17, pp. 5538–

5547, Sep. 2006.

[10] M. Aslan, M. Tufan, and T. Küçükömeroğlu, “Tribological and mechanical performance

of sisal-filled waste carbon and glass fibre hybrid composites,” Compos. Part B Eng., vol. 140, pp.

241–249, May 2018.

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[11] A. Atiqah, M. Jawaid, M. R. Ishak, and S. M. Sapuan, “Moisture Absorption and Thickness

Swelling Behaviour of Sugar Palm Fibre Reinforced Thermoplastic Polyurethane,” Procedia Eng.,

vol. 184, pp. 581–586, 2017.

[12] R. Yahaya, S. M. Sapuan, M. Jawaid, Z. Leman, and E. S. Zainudin, “Review of kenaf

reinforced hybrid biocomposites: Potential in defence applications,” Curr. Anal. Chem., vol. 13,

no. July 2018, 2017.

[13] D. Sivakumar, L. F. Ng, S. M. Lau, and K. T. Lim, “Fatigue Life Behaviour of Glass/Kenaf

Woven-Ply Polymer Hybrid Biocomposites,” J. Polym. Environ., vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 499–507, Feb.

2018.

[14] P. A. Sreekumar et al., “Transport properties of polyester composite reinforced with treated

sisal fibers,” J. Reinf. Plast. Compos., vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 117–127, Jan. 2012.

[15] Z. A. M. Ishak, A. Aminullah, H. Ismail, and H. D. Rozman, “Effect of silane-based

coupling agents and acrylic acid based compatibilizers on mechanical properties of oil palm empty

fruit bunch filled high-density p,j 1998.

An analytical approach to the design of Ramjet engine

Neeraj Kumar 1, * and Vinay Anand Yadav 1

1

Department of Aerospace Engineering, Defence Institute of Advanced Technology, Girinagar,

Pune 411 025, Maharashtra, India

*

Corresponding author e-mail: neeraj_maero21@diat.ac.in/neerajkumar.mech@rnd.iitg.ac.in

1. Introduction

Ramjet engine is simplest type of gas turbine engine used ,which consists of nonmoving parts for

its operation. It is mainly used for power generation at supersonis speeds. This type of engine is

mostly used in missiles. The current study of design for a ramjet engine is based on mathematical

equations considering ideal conditions. The equations used were aero-thermodynamic equations.

2. Methods

The main components of ramjet engines are intake, diffuser, combustor and nozzle. For the design

of intake, the reduction of velocity is obtained by shock waves. A single normal shock can lead to

a large pressure loss. So, for the current approach two oblique shocks followed by a normal shock

was considered (Fig. 1a). The optimum ramp angle should be selected in a way that all shocks need

to be of equal strength. The optimum ramp angle for double wedge inlet for different mach numbers

is shown in Fig 1b [1]. In the present study, the mach number was selected as 2 and ramp angle was

10 degree. The required parameters were calculated with help of normal shock and oblique shock

properties. After the intake, area was increased in the upstream direction of flow to reduce the

velocity up to Mach 0.2 at combustor entry, for which isentropic relations were used. In the

combustor the fuel used was octane. To gain larger combustion time and avoid soot formation, a

lean fuel-air mixture was used having minimum possible equivalence ratio of 0.51 [2]. For constant

pressure adiabatic flame temperature, the enthalpy of reactants was made equal to entalpy of

products. By using chemical combustion equations and sensible enthalpy table, the combustion

chamber temperature was found by iterative process.The other parameters at exit of combustion

chamber was found by Rayleigh flow equations. The nozzle was designed as optimal expansion

condition at sea level. The mach number at exit of nozzle and properties at throat, was calculated

using isentropic flow conditions.

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Fig 1. (a) Three shock compression (b)Optimum ramp angle for double compression inlet

3. Results

The mass flow rate of air at Mach 2 for a thrust of 10 KN was found to be 13.2 kg/s while the fuel

flow rate was 0.45 kg/s. The inlet area was found to be 125 square cm and the exit area was 392

square cm. The area of combustion chamber and nozzle throat was 298.4 square cm and 238 square

cm respectively.

References

1. Farokhi S. Aircraft propulsion.,(2014)365.

2. Turns SR. An introduction to combustion.,(2000)287.

Data Driven Approach for Measurement Diagnostics in Hypersonic

Flows

Rachakonda Naga Sai Prakash 1 Prof.Tapan K.Mankodi 2

Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Guwahati, India

Corresponding author e-mail: r.naga@iitg.ac.in

The Hypersonic flows occur at higher Mach number greater than due to which there is generation

of high amount of temperature which leads to high heat flux and similarly large velocities acting on

the space craft leads to high drag forces. Hypersonic Shock tunnels are the available ground based

experimental method to simulate the exact real working condition of hypersonic flows or missiles.

There is a proper need to estimate the amount of forces acting and temperature distribution for the

effective design of thermal protection system. Similarly exact understanding of the forces and

moments acting on the space craft is necessary which in turn plays a key role in estimating the

propulsion power and fuel requirements.

Several experimental and computational /CFD techniques in the past have been performed and

reported in the literature. But in past few years with the advancement in the technology, Data driven

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solutions have proven to be much faster and effective way of estimating the parameters of the

research study in various multidisciplinary fields. The motive of using Data driven solutions is

because they are capable of predicting more than one output for a given set of inputs. They reduce

the computational time and are applicable for complex geometries. the In the current report an

attempt has been made to understand the data driven techniques namely the Machine learning

techniques applied to fluid flow problems. The study employs the use of Physics informed neural

networks to solve the current objectives of the study specifically applied to hypersonic flows.

References

1. N. Sahoo, S. Saravanan, G. Jagadeesh, and K. P. J. Reddy, “Simultaneous measurement of

aerodynamic and heat transfer data for large angle blunt cones in hypersonic shock tunnel,”

Sadhana - Acad. Proc. Eng. Sci., vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 557–

2. V. Sekar and B. C. Khoo, “Fast flow field prediction over airfoils using deep learning approach,”

Phys. Fluids, vol. 31, no. 5, p. 057103, May 2019, doi: 10.1063/1.5094943

3. N. Buduma and N. Locascio, Fundamentals of deep learning : designing next-generation

machine intelligence algorithms. / Nikhil Buduma ; with contributions by Nicholas Locascio. 2017.

Simulation guided grain refinement studies on as-cast multicomponent

alloy

Rahul Kumar 1 , Ashok K 2 , Rahul M R 1

1

Department of Fuel, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (ISM) Dhanbad,

826004, Jharkhand, India

2

National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur, 831007, Jharkhand, India

1

rahul2045236.20mt0294@fme.iitism.ac.in, 2 ashokk@nmlindia.org, 1 rahulmr@iitism.ac.in

Abstract

The development of multicomponent alloys with good strength and ductility combinations is

challenging. Several reports show the application of thermo-mechanical processing to enhance the

properties, which requires further energy utilization. The application of grain refiners can be utilized

to modify the properties in the cast condition. In the current study, a multicomponent CoCrFeMn

alloy was selected. The effect of the addition of various trace elements is studied using

thermodynamic simulation using Thermo-Calc. The simulation studies identified the maximum

amount of trace elements addition without any new phase formation. A master alloy was made and

characterized. Trace elements are added to the master alloy, and the effect on grain size was

established. The detailed SEM and optical microscopy characterization were carried out to establish

the effect of each trace element addition. The mechanical properties are evaluated and show

remarkable variation with the base material. The studies confirm that simulation-guided

experiments will accelerate alloy development.

194 Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022


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Mechanical Engineering

Finite Element Simulation of Low-Velocity Impact Induced Damage

Analysis of laminated Fibre-Reinforced Polymeric composite structures

Semayat Fanta 1, * , PM Mohite 2 , and CS Upadhyay 1,2

1

Department of Aerospace Engineering, IIT Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, 208016, India

2

Department of Aerospace Engineering, IIT Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, 208016, India

*

Corresponding author e-mail: semayatf@iitk.ac.in

The study of damage induced from the low-velocity impact on laminated fiber-reinforced

composite structures, often called barely visible impact damage (BVID), has major importance for

mechanical structural and aerospace industry applications. This research paper is concerned with

developing a finite element model to simulate the impact-induced damage of laminated carbon fiber

reinforced polymer composite plates. The study mainly involves the finite element formulation of

damage initiation and its evolution. Researchers have conducted experimental work on ASTM

D7136 standard laminated composite plate manufactured from T700/M20 carbon/epoxy material

and subjected to low-velocity impacts of various energy levels using a drop-weight impact testing

machine. An equivalent model is simulated in the Abacus/Explicit finite element modelling tool

using three-dimensional Hashine failure criteria for initiation of intralaminar damage. The damage

evolution follows the damage evolution Miteznmilan-Lubinun-Tailor (MLT) exponential

formulation. A solid interface layer (COH3D8R) is used to simulate interlaminar damage

(delamination) between adjacent laminate layers. A quadratic traction criterion is used to model

damage initiation and the Benzeggagh-Kennan fracture criterion for modelling damage evolution.

The finite element formulations of intralaminar damage initiation and its evolution implemented to

ABAQUS/Explicit solver as a user-defined material subroutine code (VUMAT) written in Fortran

language. The damage of constituent materials (fiber and matrix) in a laminate were represented

using four damage variables of particular modes of failure with the help of solution-dependent state

variables (SDV). The inter-laminar damage were represented using the deleted elements at interface

layers between laminates with different fiber orientation. The numerical result is validated with the

experimental work of many researchers and shows very close agreement, and thus it shows the

accuracy of recent finite element models.

Table 1 Comparison of numerical and experimental energy dissipated during the impact process

Impact Energy

in Joule

Experimental Dissipated

Energy in Joule (%)

Numerical Dissipated

Energy in Joule (%)

Difference in Dissipated

Energy in Joule (%)

7.35 5.60 (76.20) 2.90 (39.50) 2.70 (36.70)

10.03 7.25 (72.3) 5.75 (52.20) 1.50 (15.00)

14.75 9.80 (66.70) 7.15 (48.60) 2.65 (18.00)

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Fig. 1. Force versus Displacement curves for 3 various impact energies

REFERENCES

Abrate, S. (1991) Impact on laminated composite materials. Appl. Mech. Rev.44, 155–190.

ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual: Volumes I – VI, Version 6.10,

Atas C, Akgun Y, Dagdelen O. (2011) An experimental investigation on the low velocity

impact response of composite plates repaired by VARIM and hand lay-up processes. Compos

Struct; 93(3): 1178-86.

Bouvet C, Castanie B, Bizeul. (2009) Low velocity impact modelling in laminate composite

panels with discrete interface elements. Int J Solids Struct; 46(14-15): 2809-21.

Feng D, Aymerich F. (2014) Finite element modelling of damage induced by low-velocity

impact on composite laminates. Compos Struct; 108: 161-71.

Zhang J, Zhang X. (2015) Simulating low-velocity impact induced delamination in composites by

a quasi-static load model with surface-based cohesive contact. Composite Structures, volume 125:

51–57.

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Nanotechnology

Development of an Electrochemical Sensing Method for Progesterone

Hormone

Disha 1, 2 , Poonam Kumari 1, 2 1, 2*

, Manoj K. Nayak

1

CSIR-Central Scientific Instrument Organization (CSIR-CSIO), Chandigarh 160030, India

2

Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR-CSIO), Ghaziabad 201002, India

*Corresponding author E-mail: mknayak@csio.res.in

Monitoring the endocrine disrupting lipid-compounds such as progesterone (a gonadal steroid

hormone) is becoming vital in environmental as well as clinical samples because of the deleterious

effects on reproductive health and causing hormonal imbalance. A simplified and label-free

approach using Magnetic Graphene Oxides (MGOs) for sensitive as well as highly selective

electrochemical sensing of progesterone, steroid hormone has been developed herein. For the past

few years, Magnetic nanocomposites of graphene have drawn much research interest due to its

unique properties of high chemical stability, good electrical conductivity and large surface area to

immobilize different molecules. Thus these magnetic nanomaterials are widely implemented in

sensors development. Our present work demonstrates the usage of electrochemical approach

consisting Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) and Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV), in order to

generate a facile and effective detecting technique for progesterone hormone. The synthesized

nanomaterials are also well explored through characterization techniques such as FE-SEM, HR-

TEM, FT-IR, RAMAN and XRD. The MGOs were introduced as the immobilization matrix for the

bio receptors against the target hormone on screen-printed carbon electrodes. At optimal

experimental-parameters, the proposed sensing method not only achieved a well linearity from 0.01

pM to 1000 nM progesterone concentrations but also showed a fast response and outstanding

repeatability. Additionally this developed technique was also employed in real sample applications

with satisfactory recovery performance of 91% and 93%. The MGOs nanomaterials synergistically

improved the sensing with its high surface area and abundant active sites and thus proved the

potential for developing a label free and cost effective bio sensing strategy for steroid hormones in

complex matrices.

Keywords: Endocrine, Steroid hormone, Gonadal, Immobilization, Hormonal imbalance

Table 1 Analytical performance analysis through CV & DPV.

Electrochemical technique Limit of Detection Range

Cyclic Voltammetry 0.17 pM 0.01 pM to 1000 nM

Differential Pulse Voltammetry 0.15 pM 0.01 pM to 1000 nM

Fig. 1. Schematic process of the experiment.

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Li + -incorporated Thermochromic Metallogel: A Case of Temperature

Assisted Hydrolytic Metallogel to metallogel Transition

Moupia Mukherjee, Manish K. Dixit and Mrigendra Dubey *

1

Soft Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Metallurgy Engineering and Materials Science,

Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Indore-453552, India

* Corresponding author e-mail: mdubey@iiti.ac.in

To obtain an alkali metal ion mediated supramolecular metallogel, we engineered a novel,

symmetric and flexible gelator molecule, H 4TL. The gelator, upon deprotonation by Li + in DMSO

medium, dictated the supramolecular self-assembly into an intricate nano-fibrillar milieu (average

fibre diameter of ~35 nm) resulting in a fluorescent, conductive and multi-stimuli-responsive

supramolecular metallogel (1% w/v). The unique phenomenon of temperature induced yellow to

red colour change accompanying a strong to weak metallogel transformation has been well

scrutinized using various physicochemical measurements such as temperature-dependent UV-vis,

fluorescence spectroscopy, 1 H NMR, ESI-mass, FESEM, PXRD and rheology. Elaborated

fluorescence experiments revealed the presence of two contrasting phenomena viz. aggregationinduced

emission (AIE) and aggregation caused quenching (ACQ) during metallogelation process.

FESEM analysis identified a unique morphology tuning from thin to thick fibrillar network (~70

nm) transition upon exposure towards heat stimulus. Furthermore, the Nyquist plot obtained using

EIS studies emphasized on the crucial role of in situ gel phase modification to improve the

conductive nature of pristine gelator material. Such intriguing approach of gel property

modification at microscopic as well as macroscopic level exploiting a simple external stimulus may

stand crucial to shed light into the complicated realm of hierarchical self-assembly and may aid to

the mechanistic development of next generation conductive metallogel materials.

Fig. 1. Schematic representation of the metallogelation mechanism and temperature-induced strong to weak

metallogel (Y-TLG to R-TLG) transformation

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Nanotechnology

Dual-Passivation Strategy for Improved Ambient Stability of Perovskite

Solar Cells

Ritesh Kant Gupta 1, * , Rabindranath Garai 2 , and Parameswar Krishnan Iyer 1,2

1

Centre for Nanotechnology, IIT Guwahati, India

2

Department of Chemistry, IIT Guwahati, India

*

Corresponding author e-mail: riteshkantgupta@iitg.ac.in

Dual-passivation of MAPbI 3-based perovskite using p-toluenesulfonic acid (PTSA) in the bulk and

hydrophobic polystyrene (PS) at the surface (Figure 1) significantly diminishes the trap-density and

improves the device performances substantially. The sulfonic acid functional group of PTSA

interacts with the defects in perovskite and passivates the trap-states, while PS repairs the surface

defects and increases the moisture resistance of perovskites. Thus, improvement in perovskite

crystallinity and formation of larger grain size occurs because of dual-passivation, thereby

enhancing the power conversion efficiency (PCE) to 20.62% from 15.14% of the device without

passivation. Notably, the large-area dual-passivated device also displays a PCE of ∼18.5%. The

modified device (PTSA2PS2) showcases reduced hysteresis and a steady-state output of >20%. The

PTSA2PS2-based devices exhibit higher photogenerated charges, lower charge recombination,

reduced trap-density, and better charge transport than the control devices. The modified device

retains 93% of the original PCE after 1000 h under ambient condition.

Fig. 1. Characteristic J-V graph of the champion device, device architecture and molecular additives

shown in the inset.

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EL intensity, a.u.

Nanotechnology

Scientifique: Oral

Rational control of hole transport layer for high performance perovskite

light emitting diodes

Ramesh Babu Yathirajula, * 1 Ritesh Kant Gupta, 1 Mohammad Adil Afroz, 2 Anwesha Choudhury, 1 and

Parameswar Krishnan Iyer 1,2

1

Centre for Nanotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039, Assam, India.

2

Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039, Assam, India.

Corresponding author’s email IDs: ritesh110990@gmail.com; afroz.madil@gmail.com;

anwesha.25july@gmail.com; pki@iitg.ac.in;

Abstract:

Charge balance in the emissive layer through well-match energy levels and reduced barrier of the

transport layers can attain maximum radiative recombination. In this work, four hole transporting

layers (HTLs) has been used to regulate the hole injection in the emissive layer. The HTLs have

varying HOMO level in between the work function of FTO and HOMO of the emissive layer.

Among the four HTLs, NPD-based perovskite LED device demonstrated the best performance with

highest brightness of 24343 cd m −2 , current efficiency of 16.2 cd A -1 , and turn-on voltage of 4.7 V.

The main reason for such improved results was well-match HOMO of NPD to both the anode and

emissive layer supporting enhanced hole injection. Both the photo-luminescent and electroluminescent

studies confirm pure green emission with CIE coordinates around (0.22, 0.75).

Morphology show best quality film for NPD-based perovskite film supporting smooth transport of

the charges. The crystallinity of the NPD-based perovskite film was also found to be optimum.

Finally, stability of the working PLEDs is tested and superior stability with 79% of the retention of

initial brightness is observed for NPD-based device.

Key word: Charge balance, energy barrier, perovskite LED, luminance, and stability.

(a)

1.6

1.4

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

PEDOT:PSS

PVK

NPD

TCTA

0.0

480 500 520 540 560 580 600

Wavelength, nm

(b)

Figure: (a) EL spectra for different HTLs and (b) CIE diagrams for all individual HTL devices

200 Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022


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Nanotechnology

Performance Comparison of Aptamer and its Truncated Variant for

Cortisol Detection using Electrochemical Graphene Quantum Dots

based Nanosensor

Vipasha Sharma 1, 2 , Tarun Kumar Sharma 3* , Inderpreet Kaur 1,2*

1

CSIR- Central Scientific Instruments Organisation, Sector 30-C, Chandigarh-160030, India

2

Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad-201002, India

3

Centre for Biodesign and Diagnostics, Translational Health Science and Technology Institute (THSTI),

Faridabad, Haryana, India-12100;

Corresponding Authors:

Email: tarun@thsti.res.in (Tarun Kumar Sharma); inderpreet@csio.res.in (Inderpreet Kaur)

Stress is one of the leading causes of the depression and suicides in today’s world. The recent

COVID-19 pandemic has contributed a lot to the mental health problems of the individuals. Due to

COVID-19, in China, about 16.5% reported depression symptoms; 28.8% people reported anxiety

symptoms; and 8.1% people reported moderate to severe stress levels in a study of 1210

respondents.[1] A study reported that about 52.8 percent of healthcare workers in India working

during COVID-19 pandemic faced burnouts.[2] The techniques which are currently used to

diagnose stress are self-reporting method and multimodal physiological analysis. Physical

interviews and self-response questionnaire are the part of self reporting methods and these methods

lack direct link to stress response, are time consuming process and also require trained interviewees.

Multimodal physiological analysis monitors heart rate variability, change in blood pressure, activity

of the brain and skin conductance. These methods are non-invasive but continuous monitoring is

challenging and lack direct link with the stress. It is also difficult to quantify stress with these

techniques as there is no standard available and stress varies with time. For the monitoring of stress,

measurement of change in concentration in biochemical marker in biofluids is the need of an hour.

Cortisol is a steroid hormone and major glucocorticoid in human body also known as stress

hormone. The various techniques used to detect cortisol are Enzyme Linked Immuno Assay

(ELISA), Electro Chemi Luminescence Immuno Assay (ECLIA), chromatography and other

immunoassays but these techniques are only upto the laboratory levels along with several

shortcomings including time consuming steps and dependence on skilled professional. Hence to

overcome these limitations, Biosensor came into picture. In biosensor, various types of bioreceptors

have been used for the sensing like antibody, aptamer and molecularly imprinted

polymers (MIP) etc. Due to more stability at room temperature and more specificity, aptamers

(ssDNA or RNA molecules) are preferred as bio-recognition probe. In the present work, we have

rationally truncated a long sequence of aptamer (61-mer) into a smaller variant of 14-mer by

considering the secondary structure of the aptamer to increase the specificity of the sensor. In this

work, we have immobilized aptamers on the Graphene Quantum Dots (GQDs) modified electrodes

and compared the performance of both the aptamers in terms of binding affinity, limit of detection

and specificity. Limit of detection for both the aptamer is found to be of 0.1 pg/ml but in terms of

specificity 14-mer aptamer showed better results than the parent 61-mer aptamer. Truncation of the

aptamer improved the binding affinity by ~1900 fold which indicate the superiority of truncated

aptamer (14-mer) over the parent aptamer (61-mer).

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Scientifique: Oral

References:

Fig. 1. Schematic of Biosensor fabrication

[1] C. Wang, R. Pan, X. Wan, Y. Tan, L. Xu, C.S. Ho, R.C. Ho, International journal of

environmental research and public health, 17 (2020) 1729.

[2] R.W. Khasne, B.S. Dhakulkar, H.C. Mahajan, A.P. Kulkarni, Indian Journal of Critical Care

Medicine: Peer-reviewed, Official Publication of Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine, 24

(2020) 664.

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Physics

Polarisation Insensitive Graphene-Dielectric based Tunable Terahertz

Absorption Modulator.

Bhagwat Singh Chouhan, Dr. Gagan Kumar

Department of Physics, IIT Guwahati, India

Corresponding author e-mail: bhagwatsingh@iitg.ac.in

In recent years, a considerable attention has been given to design artificial materials that can absorb

electromagnetic (EM) radiation over a broad frequency range. Such artificially designed metamaterial absorber

can be significant to several applications across the electromagnetic spectrum owing to its ability to manipulate

the optical response. Due to their exotic properties, metamaterial absorbers have numerous invaluable applications

in modulators, sensors, imaging, cloaking devices, and photo-detectors. Several different geometrical

configurations to design metamaterial absorber have been employed over a wide range of electromagnetic

spectrum from microwave to near infrared (0.3 GHz to 400 THz). However, at higher frequency side, the terahertz

spectrum has the potential to realize high quality and high-efficiency devices. The terahertz range (from 0.1 THz

to 10 THz) which lies between the microwave and far-infrared frequencies, has attracted increasing attention due

to the innumerable practical applications in spectroscopy, imaging, communication, astronomy, etc. Recently,

graphene (Gr) has been introduced to realize highly efficient tunable and flexible practical devices due to its ability

to significantly enhance surface plasmon-based absorption at terahertz frequency. In this article, we investigate

polarization insensitive tunable broadband metamaterial absorber in the terahertz range. The design comprises

Cubical-shaped dielectric (SiO 2) metamaterial structures on top of a two-dimensional graphene layer deposited

over the ultrathin metal-backed dielectric. Our design offers a more then 90 % absorption in the range of 1.1 THz

to 2.3 THz. for TM as well as TE mode. The excitation of plasmons in graphene layer combined with resonance

induced by the graphene-dielectric-metal cavity leads to the nearly perfect broadband absorption. This polarization

insensitive metamaterial absorption modulation can find potential applications in switches, polarizationinsensitive

devices, optical filters, modulators etc. at terahertz frequencies. The proposed design and corresponding

absorption vs frequency plot is given in figure 1.

Figure 1: (a) Schematic diagram of the front view of Gr-metamaterial, (b) Side-view of Gr-metamaterial (c)

Whole Structure of Gr-metamaterial and (d) polarization independent structure due to cross-ribbon with upper

dielectric-slab and variation due to change in chemical potential.

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 203


Biosciences and Bioengineering

Scientifique: Poster

Exploring Thin Film Sensing using Meta-waveguide Design

Bhairov Kumar Bhowmik 1 , Maidul Islam 2 , KM Dhriti 1 , Gagan Kumar *

1

Department of Physics, IIT Guwahati, India

2

Department of Physics, The Assam Royal Global University, Guwahati, Assam, India – 7810351

1

Author: bhairov.kumar@iitg.ac.in

*

Corresponding author e-mail: gk@iitg.ac.in

In this work, we have used terahertz waveguide-based approach to explore sensing characteristics in a onedimensional

periodic array of split ring resonator (SRR) designed on a waveguide. The substrate of the metawaveguide

structure has two layers. The lower one is made of metal, whereas the upper layer is made of dielectric

(quartz). On the top of dielectric, metallic SRRs are designed. The array of SRRs is covered with thin-film analyte

to analyze the sensing capability of the meta-waveguide. The waveguide transmission properties are observed for

varying refractive index of analyte. To understand the sensing capability different sensing parameters such as

frequency shift, sensitivity, figure of merit (FoM) of resonance modes supported by the meta-waveguide have

been studied. The obtained values of sensitivity and FoM shows better sensing capability of the meta-waveguide

sensor rather than typical normal incidence transmission-based approach with planar metamaterial.

References

[1] J. Uddin, Terahertz Spectroscopy: A Cutting-Edge Technology, BoD–Books on Demand2017.

Fig. 1. The schematic of THz meta-waveguide design. It’s a 3-

Dimensional view of the meta-waveguide design comprising of

one-dimensional array of periodic SRRs. gap, thickness,

periodicity of SRRs. The meta-waveguide design is covered

with analyte of varying thickness.

Fig. 2. The simulated transmission

spectra for various refractive index

of the analyte.

[2] X.-C. Zhang, J. Xu, Introduction to THz wave photonics, Springer2010

[3] M. Islam, D.R. Chowdhury, A. Ahmad, G. Kumar, Terahertz plasmonic waveguide based thin

film sensor, Journal of Lightwave Technology 35(23) (2017) 5215-5221.

204 Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022


Scientifique: Oral

Physics

Role of silver nanoparticle as plasmonic back reflector to improve the

performance of a-Si:H thin film solar cells.

Manvendra Singh Gangwar 1* , Pratima Agarwa l,2

1 Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam, India

2 School of Energy Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam, India

*Corresponding Author E-mail: manvendrasingh@iitg.ac.in

In recent years, the optimization of light trapping schemes in thin-film solar cells have been intensively

investigated and a number of promising approaches have been identified, among others, scattering from

subwavelength size metallic nanoparticles (NPs) sustaining localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) [1-2]

has been identified as a more promising approach to achieve high efficiency with reduced thickness of

semiconductor. Silver nanoparticles, used as a back reflector, promote reflection and scatter light back to the

absorber layer, which facilitates the absorption of light passing through the absorber layer not being absorbed in

its first pass. A standard configuration PBR consists of a flat silver mirror, a thin aluminum-doped zinc oxide

(AZO) spacer layer, and the NPs deposited on the top. Thereafter, such a stack can serve as a substrate for the

deposition of any thin-film photovoltaic absorber. In this work, we synthesized and characterized the silver

nanoparticles to incorporate them as plasmonic back reflectors in thin-film solar cells. First, we optimized the

deposition parameters to grow uniformly spaced circular silver nanoparticles from silver thin films deposited by

rf sputtering. Then the optimized nanoparticles were integrated as plasmonic back reflectors into the a-Si:H thinfilm

solar cells (Ag/AZO/Ag NPs/n-i-p a-Si: H/ITO/Ag) Fig 1 (a). The J-V curve and quantum efficiency spectra

of the device show a significant enhancement in terms of J sc and power conversion efficiency. We obtained 5.9%

and 9.2% efficiency (η) of the a-Si:H thin-film solar cell with flat back reflector and a-Si:H solar cell with

plasmonic back reflector respectively.

Figure 1: (a) Solar cell structure, (b) J-V curve with Ag NPs and without Ag NPs

(a)

(b)

Keywords: Metallic nanoparticles; Localized surface plasmon resonance; Plasmonic back

reflector; Thin-film solar cells.

References:

[1] V.E. Ferry, R.E.I. Schropp, H.A. Atwater, A. Polman, Nano Lett., 11 (2011), pp. 4239-4245.

[2] M.J. Mendes, H. Águas, E. Fortunato, R. Martins, Nano Energy, 26 (2016), pp. 286-296.

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 205


Biosciences and Bioengineering

Scientifique: Poster

Two-Dimensional layered Mxene and Mxene-based nanomaterials for

removal of water pollutant: challenges and opportunities

Nahid Tyagi* and Manoj Kumar Gupta

Corresponding Authors: Nahid Tyagi

Research Scholar

School of Physics and Astro-Physics

Central university of Haryana,

Mahandra Garh, India

Two-dimensional (2D) MXenes because of having unique optical, electronic and metallic conductivity including

Plasmonic resonance in both visible and near infra-red regions considered as a promising substrate for Surface

Enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and hence, capable candidates for a large array of applications. However,

various challenges are still arises for enhancing or improving the SERS selectivity, sensitivity or specificity of

MXenes. In this potable water crisis era MXenes and their SERS based sensors have become the fabulous tools

for detecting various types of organic or pharmaceutical contaminates and metal ions including dyes such as

Methylene blue MB, methyl orange MO and lead, chromium, copper, mercury and many more from the waste or

produced water. Different types of synthesis schemes for MXenes and based SERS substrate are intensified in this

article. A brief prospective about the SERS, MXenes overview and applications for water purification and

techniques for the detection and elimination of environmental contaminates are also provided by the author after

an intense literature study. A future perspective of the MXenes and limitations in environmental and sensing fields

will provide a pathway for understanding the full potential of MXenes and based materials for the researcher’s

community.

ONE STEP SYNTHESIS OF MOLYBDENUM CARBIDE

NANOPARTICLES FOR EFFICIENT HYDROGEN EVOLUTION

REACTION

Sanjay Upadhyay# and Om Prakash Pandey*

Functional Materials Lab, School of Physics and Materials Science,

Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Patiala, Punjab 147004, India

*Corresponding author e-mail oppandey@thapar.edu

Hydrogen has been promoted as an alternative source of energy, which is renewable, cost-effective and naturefriendly.

Hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) can be used for mass production of hydrogen at a very low cost

through electrochemical water splitting. An active and efficient electrocatalyst is required to perform this reaction.

Till date, platinum (Pt) is a stable and efficient electrocatalyst towards HER. But its high cost and low abundance

hiders its large scale uses. Molybdenum carbide having a similar electronic structure to platinum can be a great

alternative to costly platinum. In this study, pure phase molybdenum carbide (Mo2C) has been synthesized in a

single step. Synthesis temperature and holding time has been optimized to obtain pure phases of Mo2C. The

surface, structural and morphological properties of as-synthesized compounds has been studied. The HER activity

of as-synthesized compounds has been explored in detail.

KEYWORDS: Molybdenum carbide; Hydrogen evolution reaction; Solution route.

206 Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022


Scientifique: Oral

Physics

Investigation of Laser-Induced Plasma Parameters of Cu Target Using

Single Langmuir Probe Method

Sudarshan L Hegde * and Alika Khare

*Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati

The transient nature of the pulsed laser-induced plasma expanding with supersonic velocity is investigated using

a planar Langmuir probe. The laser-induced plasma is produced normal to the target surface, via focusing of the

second harmonic of high power Nd: YAG laser, operated at a pulse energy of 30 mJ at a wavelength of 532 nm,

on a Cu target placed in the vacuum chamber with base pressure ~10 -6 mbar. The time of flight signal (TOF) of

the ion and the electron current from the transient plasma through the biased Langmuir probe of dimension 3×4

mm, is recorded using a Tektronix DPO 3034 (300 MHz) interfaced with the computer. The measurements are

performed by varying the biased voltage (-110 V to +180 V). The probe is placed at a distance of ~1cm from the

target. The recorded data is then analyzed by the computer code generated using MATLAB. The ion and the

electron currents as a function of bias voltage are extracted by taking the time slices of the TOF signals. The timedependent

electron temperature, electron density, and plasma potential are estimated. It is observed that the plasma

parameters initially increase with the increasing time as the leading edge and the core of the plasma plume reaches

the probe and then decay as the plume passes beyond.

A NEW VISION TO RIEMANN HYPOTHESIS

Tanmay Dev 1, * , and Bhrigu Das 2

1

Department of Physics, Gauhati University, India

2

Department of Mathematics, Gauhati University, India

*

Corresponding author e-mail: tanmaydev177@gmail.com

Physicists become acquainted with special functions early in their studies. Consider the perennial model, the

harmonic oscillator, for which we need Hermite functions,or the Laguerre functions in quantum mechanics. We

will be showing a very particular number theoretical function, the Riemann Zeta function and show how its

applications in physics may be suggestive for the resolution of one of mathematics most famous unconfirmed

million dollar conjecture “The Riemann Hypothesis”. It is one of the millennium problem that were stated by the

Clay Mathematics Institute.

Here, we have tried to study prime number with new idea and form a prime counting function, which further help

us understand prime behaviour more. We derived the following prime counting function,

π(x) = (arithmetic function) – cN 2 logN

where, c is an arbitrary constant

and N is a function of x

From Riemann hypothesis we have,

π(x) = li(x) + O(√xlogx)

= (asymptotic function) + O(√xlogx)

We examine numerous models from different branches of physics, from classical mechanics to statistical physics,

where this function plays an integral role. We also see how this function is related to quantum chaos and how its

pole-structure encodes when particles can undergo Bose-Einstein condensation at low temperature.

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 207


Biosciences and Bioengineering

Scientifique: Poster

Terahertz metamaterial sensor based on toroidal induced multiband

transparency

Angana Bhattacharya 1, * , Rakesh Sarkar 1 , and Gagan Kumar 1

1

Department of Physics, IIT Guwahati, India

*

Corresponding author e-mail: angana18@iitg.ac.in

Toroidal excitation is a class of electromagnetic resonances that has recently garnered significant research attention

[1] . They possess narrow line width resonances, contributing to significantly high quality factors. Toroidal

resonances are often masked by traditional electric and magnetic dipolar resonances in natural materials. The

earnest exploration of toroidal excitations can be attributed to the advent of photonic metamaterial studies.

Metamaterials (MM) are artificially designed human-made materials which enable the manipulation of

electromagnetic radiation in extraordinary ways. They consist of resonant unit cells called meta-atoms, and the

properties of the MM can be changed by altering the dimensions of the unit cells [2]. Dominant toroidal excitation

over other electromagnetic moments has been studied by specific design of material geometries possessing a

toroidal symmetry. Toroidal excitations are identified by the head-to-tail arrangement of magnetic dipole

moments. In our study, we analyse the sensing application of a toroidal metamaterial. The metamaterial

demonstrates multiband transparency in the terahertz region by the coupling between toroidal resonance and an

LC resonance [3]. An analyte layer is coated over the MM and its refractive index (RI) is varied. The transmission

for varying RI is studied. Further, the shift in the resonant frequency of the MM for changing RI is analysed. A

linear shift is observed. The transmission spectrum for changing RI is shown in figure 1 (a). The shift in frequency

for varying RI is plotted in figure 1 (b). The sensitivity of the transmission dips is calculated to be 161 GHz/RIU

and 135 GHz/RIU. This indicates significant sensing capacity of the MM. Thus, the proposed toroidal

metamaterial sensor can find significance in in terahertz based bio-molecular and chemical sensing applications.

Fig. 1. Sensing in a toroidal multiband terahertz metamaterial. a) Shift in the transmission spectrum for varying

refractive index ‘n’. b) Plot of the resonance frequency shift for increase refractive index.

References:

1.Savinov, V., V. Fedotov, and N.I. Zheludev, Toroidal dipolar excitation and macroscopic

electromagnetic properties of metamaterials. Physical Review B, 2014. 89(20): p. 205112.

2.Zheludev, N.I. and Y.S. Kivshar, From metamaterials to metadevices. Nature materials, 2012.

11(11): p. 917-924.

3.Bhattacharya, A., et al., Multiband transparency effect induced by toroidal excitation in a strongly

coupled planar terahertz metamaterial. Scientific Reports, 2021. 11(1): p. 1-9.

208 Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022


Scientifique: Oral

Physics

Simulation studies on optimization of Antireflection coating for n-

WS2/c-Si (p) heterojunction solar cells

Anterdipan Singh 1 and Pratima Agarwal 1,2 *

1 Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam 781039, India

2 School of Energy Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam 781039, India

*

Corresponding author e-mail: s.anterdipan@iitg.ac.in

Tungsten Disulfide (WS 2) has the potential to be a promising candidate for replacing heavily doped emitter layers

in c-Si(p) based solar cells. The reflection losses from the Air/n-WS 2 and n -WS 2 /Silicon interfaces severely

cripple the efficiency of the solar cell. Anti-reflection coatings are the most effective means to reduce reflection

losses from the cell and improve the efficiency of a solar cell. The reflection losses from n-WS 2/c-Si(p) structure

are very high and apparent from fig-1(b). After introducing TiO 2 as an electrode material in the structure, the

reflection of TiO 2/n-WS 2/c-Si(p) was reduced noticeably. However, the low reflectance region is limited to a single

wavelength, and reflections are high in wavelengths other than 500nm. For a broader low reflectance region, a

noble self-optimizing algorithm is developed and utilized for ARC optimization for the n-WS 2 /Si structure. This

algorithm requires refractive index for the corresponding layers of ARC to carry out the optimization process for

layer thicknesses using the Vector model. The materials are arranged in ascending order of refractive index, i.e.,

MgF 2(1.38)/Al 2O 3(1.77)/TiO 2(2.64). This order minimizes the reflection coefficients from each interface and

overall reflection from the structure. The reflection value for ARC/n-WS 2/c-Si(p) structure is below always 0.79%

in the wavelength 400-900nm region. This significant reduction in reflection losses of TiO 2/n-WS 2/c-Si(p) and

structure significantly improved the current density and efficiency of the ARC/n-WS 2/c-Si(p) solar cell. The

efficiency was improved to 25.06% from 20.949%. The other parameters for both solar cells are tabulated in table

1.

Table 1: Parameters for TiO 2/n-WS 2/c-Si(p) and ARC/n-WS 2/c-Si(p) solar cells

VOC JSC Fill factor Efficiency

TiO 2/n-WS 2/c-Si(p) 0.65 36.61 0.88 20.949%

ARC/n-WS 2/c-Si(p) 0.66 44.15 0.86 25.06%

Fig 1: (a) IV characteristics and (b) reflection spectra for TiO 2/n-WS 2/c-Si(p) AND ARC/n-WS 2/c-Si(p)

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 209


Biosciences and Bioengineering

Scientifique: Poster

Emergence of multiple localization transitions in a one-dimensional

quasiperiodic lattice

Ashirbad Padhan 1, , Mrinal Kanti Giri 1 , Suman Mondal 1,2 , and Tapan Mishra 1, *

1

Department of Physics, IIT Guwahati, India

2

Institut for Theoretical Physics, Georg-August-Universitat Gottingen, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany

*

Corresponding author e-mail: apadhan@iitg.ac.in

Low dimensional quasiperiodic systems exhibit localization transitions by turning all quantum states localized

after a critical quasidisorder. While certain systems with modified or constrained quasiperiodic potential undergo

multiple localization transitions in one dimension, we predict an emergence of multiple localization transitions

without directly imposing any constraints on the quasiperiodic potential. By considering a one-dimensional system

described by the Aubry-Andre (AA) model, we show that an additional staggered onsite potential can drive the

system through a series of localization transitions as a function of the staggered potential. Interestingly, we find

that the number of localization transitions strongly depends on the strength of the quasiperiodic potential.

Moreover, we obtain the signatures of these localization transitions in the expansion dynamics and propose an

experimental scheme for their detection in the quantum gas experiment.

Fig. 1. (a) The phase diagram in ∆ - λ plane obtained using the values of η where the red color represents a critical

phase and the blue color below (above) it, is an extended (a localized) phase. Here ∆ is the staggred onsite potential

and λ is the strength of the quasiperiodic disorder. η is computed using average values of two quantities known

as inverse participation ratio (IPR) and normalized participation ratio (NPR) by taking average over all the

eigenstates of the system. IPR and NPR provide the degree of localization of an eigenstate such that for an extended

state, IPR is zero but NPR is finite whereas it is just the opposite for a localized state. (b) IPR of all the eigenstates

as a function of energies and λ for ∆ = 1.8. (c) Extrapolated values of average IPR () (dashed red), average

NPR () (dashed blue), average Shannon entropy /ln(L) (solid green) and average gap ratio (dotdashed

black) are plotted as a function of ∆ for λ = 1.5 and different system sizes L showing the multiple

localization transitions. The critical phases are indicated by the grey shaded regions. (d) IPR of all the eigenstates

as a function of state index and λ for ∆ = 1.8. The white dashed line in (a) indicates the AA critical point at λ = 2.

Reference:

arXiv:2109.09621v2

210 Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022


Scientifique: Oral

Physics

Properties of S-wave Bc Mesons Using Matrix Numerov Method

Nayana T S, and Bhaghyesh*

Department of Physics, Manipal Institute of Technology (MIT),

Manipal Academy of Higher Education (MAHE), Manipal, India

*

Corresponding author e-mail: bhaghyesh.mit@manipal.edu

Mesons containing heavy quarks are important systems to understand strong interactions. Heavy mesons can be

quarkonium (cc̅ and bb̅) or open heavy-flavored mesons (D and B mesons). Open flavored heavy mesons consists

of a quark and an antiquark of different flavor, with either one or both being heavy. In this work, the spectra and

decay properties of S-wave Bc mesons (cb̅) are investigated using a non-relativistic potential model.

The Hamiltonian of our model is of the form H = M + (p 2 ⁄ 2μ) + V(r) , where M = m c + m b̅ and μ =

m c m b̅ ⁄ m c + m b̅ . The quark-antiquark potential V(r) includes i) the well-known Cornell potential [1], ii) a

correction term proportional to ln r, which arises as a O(1/m) correction to the static potential from LQCD [2,3],

and also iii) the spin hyperfine interaction term [4]. The non-relativistic Schrodinger equation corresponding to

the above Hamiltonian is solved numerically using the Matrix Numerov Method [5]. In this method, the

Schrodinger equation is discretized and converted into a matrix eigenvalue equation [5]. The eigenvalue equation

is solved using MATHEMATICA and we obtain the masses and wave functions of Bc mesons. Obtained masses

of S-wave singlet and triplet states are given in Table 1 in comparison with experimental and other theoretical

models. Obtained wave functions (for n = 1, 2 & 3) are shown in Fig.1 using which we further calculate different

decay properties of Bc mesons. The obtained results are comparable with other theoretical models and with

experiments.

Table 1:Bc meson S-wave mass spectra (in GeV)

State Present Exp. [6] [7] [8] [9] [10]

1 1 S 0 6.2745 6.27447± 0.00027± 0.00017 6.349 6.272 6.270 6.270

1 3 S 1 6.2957 - 6.373 6.333 6.337 6.332

2 1 S 0 6.8712 6.8712±0.001 6.821 6.842 6.856 6.835

2 3 S 1 6.8805 - 6.855 6.882 6.899 7.072

3 1 S 0 7.2921 - 7.175 7.226 7.244 7.193

3 3 S 1 7.2984 - 7.210 7.258 7.280 7.235

Fig. 1. Bc meson S-wave radial wave functions.

References:

[1]T. Barnes, S. Godfrey, and E. S. Swanson, Phys. Rev. D 72, 054026 (2005).

[2]Y. Koma, and M. Koma, PoS LAT2009, 122 (2009), arXiv:0911.3204 [hep-lat].

[3]T. Kawanai and S. Sasaki, AIP Conf. Proc. 1701, 050022 (2016), arXiv:1503.05752 [hep-lat].

[4]D. Ebert, R. N. Faustov and V. O. Galkin, Phys. Rev. D 67, 014027 (2003).

[5]R. Manzoor, J. Ahmed, and A. Raya, Rev. Mex. Fis.67, 33 (2021).

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 211


Biosciences and Bioengineering

Scientifique: Poster

[6]P.A. Zyla et al. (Particle Data Group), Prog. Theor. Exp. Phys. 2020, 083C01 (2020).

[7]A. K. Rai and P. C. Vinodkumar, Pramana - J. Phys. 66, 953, (2006).

[8]D. Ebert, R. N. Faustov, and V. O. Galkin, Eur. Phys. J. C 71, 1825 (2011).

[9]E. J. Eichten and C. Quigg, Phys. Rev. D 49, 5845 (1994).

[10]D. Ebert, V. O. Galkin, and R. N. Faustov, Phys. Rev. D 57, 5663 (1998).

“SMART DUSTBIN”

Dhrubajyoti Baishya

Department of physics

J.N. college ,Boko

Email ID-dhrubajyotibaishya360@gmail.com

Aim: To make a “SMART DUSTBIN”

Features of The Dustbin:

1. Vibration to reduce the size of garbage(with adjustable knob).

2. Automated lid.

3. % of garbage displayed on dustbin screen.

4. 10% space available buzzer(warning).

5. 10% space available SMS(warning).

6. Day-ON/Night-OFF system(with RTC module).

7. Solar + Adapter powered.

8. Smiley emoji is displayed on screen after disposal of garbage(For make the dustbin user friendly).

9. Lid lock while not use(Solenoid lock).

10. False trigger avoid system(can be enable or disable by optional settings selection board).

11. Easy to carry like travel bag(with the help of transportation wheel fitted on the dustbin).

12. Dust proof lid.

13. Date-Hour-Minute display on 3 rd matrix display.

14. Manual open/close switch in case of technical issue(through optional settings selection

Methodology:

1. When somebody comes near to the dustbin the ultrasonic sensor sense it, &gives a signal to the

microcontroller.

2. Then microcontroller send a 2 millisecond square wave to the servo(modified for heavy load),after

getting the signal the servo open the lid until the person go.

3. After completion of garbage disposal process the lid locked automatically, and vibration starts to reduce

the space occupy by the garbage.

4. When the lid has locked ,a smiley face appears on the display to make the dustbin user friendly .After

that “Thank You” message scrolled on 3 rd display.

5. When the dustbin is not used ,then percentage of non-biodegradable & biodegradable garbage is

displayed on 1 st and 2 nd display respectively.

6. The dustbin stop all operation in night & starts in day with the help of RTC module.

7. When the garbage reaches 90% space of the dustbin a warning alarm starts ring simultaneously a SMS

send to the operator(the warning alarm can be disable through optional settings selection board)

212 Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022


Scientifique: Oral

Physics

Collision and quenched dynamics of quantum solitons in 1D SO coupled

Bose-Einstein condensates

Sonali Gangwar, 1* Rajamanickam Ravisankar, 1 Paulsamy Muruganandam, 2

and Pankaj Kumar Mishra 1

1 Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati 781039, Assam, India

2 Department of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024, Tamilnadu, India

*Corresponding Author E-mail: km@iitg.ac.in

In this paper we present analytical and numerical studies of the quantum droplet in spin-orbit (SO) coupled binary

Bose-Einstein condensates in one dimension. We vary the coupling parameters and investigate their effect on the

ground state density profile. Further we present a detailed study related to the dynamics of the quantum droplet.

We consider different situations under which the collision between the droplet takes place. First, we consider the

collision between the droplets when initially they are given some initial velocity in absence of SO and Rabi

coupling. For this situation we find the collision is elastic in nature for high velocity while it is inelastic for the

small velocity. We confirm this behaviour with nature of total energy with time which remains constant for the

elastic while show decreasing trend for the inelastic collision. Finally, we present the dynamics of the droplets as

the coupling parameters are quenched instantaneously during the evolution. They show many interesting

phenomena like generation of secondary waves, interference, transition from the plane wave soliton to stripe wave

solitons, etc.

Keywords: Bose-Einstein condensates, Spin-Orbit coupling, Solitons, Quantum droplet.

Copper and Nickel Doped Strontium Based Perovskite Oxides for Solid

Oxide Fuel Cell Applications

Paramvir Kaur * and K. Singh

1

School of Physics and Materials Science, Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Patiala-147004,

Punjab, India

*

Corresponding author e-mail: paramvirkaurphd@gmail.com

As the need for sustainable, renewable, and clean electricity-producing devices with enhanced efficiency is

increasing, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are gaining much attention, particularly for stationary power

applications [1]. However, material development is a hurdle in the commercialisation of SOFCs. Perovskite-based

oxides are commonly used SOFC cathode materials because they accommodate multiple periodic table elements

that enhance several properties. Transition metal dopings in perovskite oxides enhance conduction due to their

variable oxidation states, and doping of lower valence cations generates oxygen vacancies in the system. Both

these phenomena are necessary for the mixed ionic and electronic conduction (MIEC) since a potential cathode

material must conduct both electrons and oxygen ions to increase the reaction zone beyond the triple-phase

boundary [2]. Also, the materials either expand or contract on heating; therefore, as the SOFC undergoes various

thermal cycles during the operation, any mismatch between the thermal expansions of the different components

leads to cracking. So, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of all the SOFC components should be matchable

or within the tolerance limit.

Strontium-based materials, strontium zirconate (SrZrO 3) and strontium manganite (SrMnO 3), with variation in the

concentrations of copper and nickel as dopants at Zr and Mn sites, synthesised by the solid-state reaction method,

are developed for intermediate temperature SOFCs (IT-SOFCs). The doping has been done mainly at the B-site

of the ABO 3 type materials to enhance their conducting properties, match CTE, and increase the sinterability of

strontium-based perovskites. SrZrO 3 samples are monophasic, while SrMnO 3 are multiphasic. The doped SrZrO 3

and SrMnO 3 samples exhibit conductivity of the order of ~10 -4 and 10 -2 Scm -1 , respectively, at 600℃ [3, 4]. The

CTE of all the developed samples is in the required range of SOFCs. The samples are thermally stable between

600-800℃. The interfacial study of one of the samples, i.e. SrZr 0.85Cu 0.15O 3-δ with a boro-silicate glass sealant,

resulted in good adhesion with minimum secondary phase formations at the interface even after heat-treatment of

500 hrs at 800℃ in air. Moreover, the CTE is also in the required range for SOFCs. Based on the structural,

thermal, and conducting properties, copper-doped SrZrO 3 exhibits appreciable results in the IT-SOFC working

range and thus can be further checked in real IT-SOFC conditions as a cathode material.

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 213


Biosciences and Bioengineering

Scientifique: Poster

References

S.C. Singhal, Advances in solid oxide fuel cell technology, Solid State Ionics 135 (2000) 305-313.

P. Kaur, K. Singh, Perovskite-structured cobalt-free cathode materials for solid oxide fuel cells, in:

M. Jeguirim (Ed.), Recent advances in Renewable Energy Technologies Vol 2, Acad. Press (2022)

357-373.

P. Kaur, K. Singh, Structural, thermal and electrical study of copper doped strontium zirconate,

Ionics 26 (2020) 6233-6244

P. Kaur, K. Singh, Effect of sintering temperature on the crystal structure of SrMnO 3, AIP Conf.

Proc. 2352 (2021) 020039

Investigations on structured light to probe optical singularity and its use

in image encryption

Praveen Kumar * , Naveen K. Nishchal

Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Patna, India

* Corresponding author e-mail: praven.pph17@iitp.ac.in

We have reported novel approaches to produce structured laser beams and methods for their measurement and

analysis. One popular approach to control wavefront is using a liquid crystal-based spatial light modulator (SLM)

[1]. However, most of the SLMs exhibit phase response errors. As a solution, we have reported a polarimetric

approach for determining the SLM's modulation characteristics and techniques to apply corrections for its phase

response errors [2]. This calibration is crucial for the on-axis phase modulation of a light beam.

A dual-pass phase modulation technique has been proposed for generating non-uniformly polarized beams based

on the principle of computer-generated holography while using a single SLM [3]. This approach does not involve

the superposition of orthogonally polarized beams. Hence, the optical set-up remains non-interferometric, which

reduces sensitiveness towards external vibrations and the complexity in alignment. Different forms of structured

light, including cylindrical-vector beams, Poincaré beams, and optical singularity lattices have been generated

[3,4]. The progress in techniques for generating structured light gives an advantage to its applications.

There is a considerable effort to develop techniques to determine the topological charge of vortex beams that gives

the orbital angular momentum (OAM) carried by the beam. We have demonstrated techniques based on selfreferenced

interferometry to determine the topological charge of high-order Laguerre-Gaussian vortex beams to

overcome the restrictions of conventional approaches [5,6].

Applications of non-uniformly polarized structured light beams for novel information encoding and encryption

schemes have also been presented. Encryption schemes are employed to protect information from unauthorized

usages during the public distribution of information [7]. We have utilized the large degrees of freedom offered by

arbitrary vector beams for image encoding [8]. We have also proposed an optical cryptosystem based on

Exclusive-OR operation, which provides a simple and effective way to encrypt quick response (QR) codes [9].

The present investigation on structured beams can significantly contribute to the optics community as efficient

techniques for the generation and characterization of structured beams are prerequisite to enhance their

applicability.

Fig. 1 (a) Wavefront and intensity of a vortex beam, (b) interferogram for topological charge measurement of

high-order vortex beams, and (c) simulated and experimentally recorded intensity of a radially polarized

cylindrical vector beam.

214 Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022


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Physics

References:

[1] H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, et al. J. Opt. 19 (2017) 013001.

[2] P. Kumar, N.K. Nishchal, Opt. Lasers Eng. 146 (2021) 106720.

[3] P. Kumar, S.K. Pal, N.K. Nishchal, P. Senthilkumaran, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 37 (2020) 1043-1052.

[4] M. J. Padgett, Optics Express, 25 (2017) 11265–11274.

[5] P. Kumar, N.K. Nishchal, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 36 (2019) 1447-1455.

[6] P. Kumar, N.K. Nishchal, Appl. Opt. 58 (2019) 6827-6833.

[7] Javidi, B. et al., J. Opt. 18 (2016) 083001.

[8] P. Kumar, A. Fatima, N.K. Nishchal, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 33 (2021) 243-246.

[9] P. Kumar, N.K. Nishchal, Appl. Opt. 58 (2019) 1408-1412.

Ground states and Instability in Spin-Orbit Coupled Bose-Einstein

Condensates

R. Ravisankar 1,2* , T. Sriraman 2 , R. Kishor Kumar 3 , P. Muruganandam 2 , and Pankaj. K. Mishra 1

1

Department of Physics, IIT Guwahati, India

2

Depatment of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, Indina

3

Department of Physics, Centre for Quantum Science, and Dodd-Walls Centre for Photonic and Quantum

Technologies, University of Otago, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand

* Corresponding author e-mail: ravicpc2012@rnd.iitg.ac.in

After the successful experimental realization of Bose-Einstein Condensates (BECs) of dilute atomic gases in the

laboratory experiment [1] at ultra-low temperature the field has opened a large avenue for the Physicists to unravel

the mystery of ultracold matters. It has provided a platform to understand and manipulate many of the macroscopic

quantum phenomenon in the highly controllable environment. In similar line another fascinating aspect of BECs

in dilute atomic gas is the internal atomic states of the condensates, which can be manipulated to produce the novel

system, such as multi-component BECs. The multi-component BECs may consists of different isotopes/hyperfine

states of same or different atoms. An external electromagnetic field coherently couples the internal atomic states

of the condensates, which have been investigated by theorists and experimentalists. In two component BECs,

bosons will occupy two different hyperfine states, which are considered as pseudospin-1/2 bosons behaves as

“qubits” (spin-up/spin-down), it is useful to store the information.

Recently artificial spin-orbit coupling created in BECs has been realized experimentally by I. B. Spielman group

[2, 3]. Spin-orbit (SO) coupling is the interaction between quantum particles spin and its momentum. SO coupled

BECs have atomic interactions, trap potentials, SO and Rabi couplings. From these parameters, we can control the

phases, such as spins-mixed (coherent) phase to spins-demixed (decoherent) phase, which are quite useful for the

quantum computing and information processing. In this talk I will be discussing few of my numerical and

theoretical works that we have performed to understand dynamics and structure of the ground state phases of SO

coupled BECs. We investigated the ground states by theoretically and numerically solving the two coupled Gross-

Pitaevskii equations [4, 5, 6]. Further, for attractive case, we demonstrated that the spin transport can be controlled

by suitably quenching SO and Rabi coupling strengths. We predict a variety of dynamical features induced by

quenching: broken oscillations, breathers-like oscillating patterns, spin-mixing-demixing, miscible-immiscible

transition, emerging dark-bright states, dark solitons, and spin-flipping dynamics, for repulsive case [7].

Then we discuss the collective elementary excitation spectrum for Rashba SO coupled BECs in quasi-two

dimension [8]. In particular, we will discuss the role of SO and Rabi coupling strengths in determining the

dynamical stability of the coupled BECs using Bogoliubov–de-Gennes (BdG) theory. Using the eigenenergy of

the BdG spectrum, we have obtained the existence of phonon, roton, and maxon modes with weak repulsive intraand

interspecies contact interactions. We will further highlight some of our endeavors in getting a comprehensive

picture about the stability and instability in the coupling parameters space that give clue about the intricate

structure of spins and ground state phases.

References:

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Scientifique: Poster

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman and E. A. Cornell, Science 269, 198

(1995).

Y. J. Lin, R. L. Compton, A. R. Perry, W. D. Phillips, J. V. Porto, and I. B. Spielman, Phys. Rev.

Lett. 102, 130401 (2009).

Y. J. Lin, K. Jimenez-Garcia and I. B. Spielman, Nature 471, 83 (2011).

P. Muruganandam and S. K. Adhikari, Comp. Phys. Comm. 180, 1888 (2009).

R. Ravisankar, D. Vudragovic, P. Muruganandam, A. Balaz, and S. K. Adhikari, Comput. Phys.

Commun. 259, 107657 (2021).

R. Ravisankar, T. Sriraman, P. Muruganandam, and P. K. Mishra, J. Phys. B 54 225301 (2021).

R. Ravisankar, T. Sriraman, L. Salasnich, and P. Muruganandam, J. Phys. B 53, 195301 (2020).

R. Ravisankar, H. Fabrelli, A. Gammal, P. Muruganandam, and P. K. Mishra, Phys. Rev. A 104,

053315 (2021).

Deposition pressure and substrate temperature effect on optical and

electrical properties of ITO thin films

Rahul 1 , Juhi Kumari 2 1, 2, *

and Pratima Agarwal

1

Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati, Assam-781039, India.

2

School of Energy Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati, Assam-

781039, India

*

Corresponding author e-mail: rahul_1997@iitg.ac.in

Transparent conducting oxides (TCO) play an important role in a solar cell. High transmission and low sheet

resistance of TCO are needed for achieving good performance in solar cell. Here, we have focussed our study on

optimising the optical and electrical properties of ITO, which is the most widely used TCO in silicon

heterojunction solar cells. ITO films were deposited on corning glass substrate using RF Sputtering. The effect of

deposition pressure and substrate temperature on structural, optical and electrical properties were studied. Pressure

while deposition of ITO films was varied from 6.2×10 -2 mbar to 3.8×10 -3 mbar and substrate temperature was

varied from 130°C to 200°C. From XRD analysis, it was observed that deposited thin films were crystalline in

nature. Sharp peak was observed at 2θ= 30° which corresponds to (222) plane. With decrease in pressure, more

peaks were observed in the XRD spectra indicating polycrystalline nature of ITO films. Low pressure had led to

the growth of the crystals along different planes (400), (440) and (622). No significant changes were observed in

XRD pattern with variation in substrate temperature. UV-Vis transmission spectra of ITO films had shown good

transparency ~80% in the range of 400 to 800 nm wavelength. Bandgap was calculated using Tauc’s plot which

comes out nearly 3.70eV. Sheet resistance was also calculated using Four Probe Experiment. Sheet Resistance

had decreased with decrease in pressure from 650Ω/


Scientifique: Oral

Physics

high frequency only the triangular and square state is observed. We obtain the phase diagram in the potential

strength and angular frequency plane. The minimum frequency for the transition to the fully pinned state increases

upon the increase of the lattice constant of the potential. We find that the lattice constant exhibits the power law

behaviour with the minimum frequency for the pinning. Further we add the random impurities in the condensates

and find the melting of the vortex lattice beyond a certain concentration of the impurities.

Condensate density in real space and Fourier space:

Fig. 1 The ground state structure of the condensate. Upper, center, and lower row corresponds to a=2.2, a=2 and

a=1.8, respectively. From left to right V 0 = 0.0, 1.2, 2, and 4, respectively. Here Ω =0.7.

Phase Diagram:

Fig. 2 Phase diagrams for the vortex lattice structures; (a) a=2.2, (b) a=2, and (c) a=1.8.

Steady-state analysis of General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamics

(GRMHD) accretion flows around black hole space-time

Samik Mitra 1 , Santabrata Das 1 , Indu Kalpa Dihingia 2 , Debaprasad Maity 1

1

Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039, Assam, India

2

Discipline of Astronomy and Space Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Indore 453552,

India

Email: m.samik@iitg.ac.in., sbdas@iitg.ac.in, idihingia@iiti.ac.in,Phone no. 9205547994

Magnetic fields play a crucial role in driving the accretion flows around black holes (BHs). However, the underlying mechanisms

that govern accretion flow are not well understood. In this study, we investigate advective transonic accretion flows (ADAF) around

a BH and analyze the flow dynamics in the presence of radial and toroidal magnetic fields. We consider the disk to be thin, and

axisymmetric in the equatorial plane (θ ∼ π/2). Here, we present the first-ever analytical study of the steady-state general-relativistic

magneto-hydrodynamics (GRMHD) accretion flows around BHs to the best of our knowledge. We connect the flow properties

with the global constant of motion of the accreting fluid, namely the energy (E), angular momentum (L), and the local magnetic

fields, respectively. We use the GRMHD flow equations to find critical points and obtain the global transonic accretion solutions.

The thermodynamical counterpart is taken care of by the relativistic equation of state (REoS). We find that even a weakly

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Scientifique: Poster

magnetized flow (β >> 1) can transport angular momentum outwards. Additionally, we define a model viscosity parameter (αtot)

that develops within the disk due to the magnetic stress and find it to be radially varying in a ‘U’ shape, which was not reported

earlier. Interestingly, our 1.5D analytical study confirms that magnetic fields are dynamically important (several thousand Gauss

for a 10M BH, (β ∼ 1)) in the near horizon region, which is in favor of the recent observations by the Event Horizon Telescope

(EHT).

References:

Balbus S. A., Hawley J. F., 1998, Rev. Mod. Phys., 70, 1

De Villiers J.-P., Hawley J. F., 2003, ApJ, 592, 1060

Dihingia I. K., Das S., Maity D., Chakrabarti S., 2018, Phys. Rev. D, 98, 083004

Dihingia, I. K., Das, S., Prabhakar, G., & Mandal, S. 2020, MNRAS, 496, 3043

McKinney J. C., Gammie C. F., 2004, ApJ, 611, 977

Bogoliubov-de Gennes spectrum of Spin-1 spin-orbit Coupled Bose-

Einstein condensate

Sanu Kumar Gangwar 1* , Rajamanickam Ravisankar 1,2 , Paulsamy Muruganandam 2 , Pankaj Kumar Mishra 1

1

Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati 781039, Assam, India

2

Department of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024, Tamilnadu, India

*

Corresponding author e-mail: sanu.kumar@iitg.ac.in

One of the challenging problems in spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) is to understand the

effect of different coupling parameters on the excitation spectrum. So far different excitation modes like phonon,

roton, maxon were shown to exist in the spin-1/2 binary BECs. However, the existence of such kind of modes

have not been explored much for spin-1 BECs [1]. In this work, we have performed a detailed theoretical and

numerical investigation of the collective excitation spectrum of quasi-1D spin-1 BECs using Bogoliubov de

Gennes (BdG) theory. First, we present an analytical study to analyze the effect of spin-orbit Rashba (γ) and Rabi

(Ω) coupling parameters on the dynamical stability of spin-1 coupled BECs. In the initial part of the study, we

compute the single-particle spectrum of the spin-1 BECs and show the presence of plane wave spectrum [see Fig.

1(a)] for zero and small Rashba and Rabi coupling parameters. For the higher value of stripe phase appears [see

Fig. 1(b)]. Following this, we investigate the effect of variation in Rashba (Rabi) coupling parameters by fixing

Rabi (Rashba) term at some finite value. For this, the Eigenenergy of the BdG excitation spectrum exhibits to have

the presence of imaginary parts [see Fig. 2(b) orange color line] for some ranges of Rashba and Rabi coupling

parameters which suggest the dynamical instability for the excitation mode. Through our extensive numerical

analysis, we confirm the presence of the photon and roton mode. We have also computed the Eigenvectors of the

collective excitations corresponding to the dynamically stable and unstable regimes and demonstrate that they

have density-like nature in the stable range while spin-like in the dynamically unstable range. We complement our

BdG analysis with the numerical simulation of the coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equation corresponding to the spinorbit

coupled spin-1 system.

FIG. 1. Single-particle spectrum (a) Plane wave for γ=0 and

Ω=0 (b) Stripe wave for γ=1.0 and Ω=0.5 [2].

Reference

FIG. 2. Collective Excitation spectrum (a) Noninteracting

case (C 0=0, C 2 =0), with γ=1.0 and Ω=0.5 (b)

Interacting case with non-zero (C 0 , C 2) [3], with γ=1.0

and Ω=0.5, which shows the imaginary solution given by

orange color line.

218 Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022


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Physics

[1] Yuki Kawaguchi and Masahito Ueda. Spinor Bose-Einstein condensates. Physics Reports, 520(5):253-381,2012.

[2] Rajamanickam Ravisankar, Henrique Fabrelli, Arnaldo Gammel, Paulsamy Muruganandam, and PankajKumar

Mishra. Effect of rashba spin-orbit and rabi couplings on the excitation spectrum of binary Bose-Einstein condensates.

Phys. Rev. A, 104:053315, Nov 2021.

[3] Hui Zhai, Chunji Wang, Chao Gao, and Chao-Ming Jian. Spin-orbit coupled spinor Bose-Einstein condensate. In

APS march meeting Abstracts, volume 2011, pages T45-002, 2011.

A low-cost and mechanically rechargeable aqueous aluminum-metal

battery

S. Nandi 1, 2* , and S.K. Das 1

1

Department of Physics, Tezpur University, Assam, India

2

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles

* Corresponding author e-mail: sunny@tezu.ernet.in

In recent times, there has been an extensive research interest for the development of new rechargeable battery

systems. Currently, lithium-ion batteries are leading the battery market but there are ever growing concerns over

the sustainability of Li-based batteries due to paucity and escalating cost of Li-resources [1]. Therefore, it becomes

increasingly important to develop low cost and easily processable novel energy storage technologies in the future.

Hence, aluminum-metal battery will be a promising candidate due to its high abundance, low cost and easy

processing [2-4]. In an effort to develop such Al 3+ ion based rechargeable electrochemical cells, herein we report

here the working of a rechargeable aqueous aluminum-metal battery for the first time by electrochemically pairing

pretreated metallic aluminum anode with exfoliated graphite cathode. A discharge voltage of 1.8 V is obtained

with an initial discharge capacity of 213 mAhg -1 at a current density of 0.5 Ag -1 over several cycles. The dissolution

of Al electrode in aqueous electrolyte limits the long-term rechargeability, however we show immense promise of

the system by mechanically recharging it to prolong the longevity [5].

REFERENCES:

Fig. 1. An aqueous Al-graphite foam cell

[1]. J. M. Tarascon and M. Armand, Nature, 414, 359 (2001).

[2]. A. Eftekhari, P. Corrochanoc, Sustainable Energy Fuels, 1, 1246 (2017)

[3]. M. C. Lin, M. Gong, B. Lu, Y. Wu, D.Y. Wang, M. Guan, M. Angell, C. Chen, J. Yang, B. J.

Hwang, H. Dai, Nature, 520, 325 (2015).

[4]. S. K. Das, S. Mahapatra, H. Lahan, J. Mater. Chem.A, 5, 6347 (2017).

[5]. S. Nandi and S.K. Das, ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng. 24, 19839 (2019).

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 219



Abstracts for Poster Presentation



Scientifique: Poster

Biosciences and Bioengineering

A novel cytoprotective factor for macrophages in malaria like conditions

Alok Kumar Pandey 1 , Vishal Trivedi 1

1

Department of Bioscience and Bioengineering, IIT Guwahati, India

Corresponding author email: vtrivedi@iitg.ac.in

Degradation of hemoglobin by the malarial parasite leads to production and accumulation of several

pro-oxidant molecules in macrophages as well as other tissues like liver [1] and blood brain barrier

[2]. Pro-oxidant molecules like hemin, β-hematin and methemoglobin confer severe toxicity to

macrophages leading to compromised innate immune defense and other malaria pathologies. In

spite of the presence of several detoxification systems these molecules in severe pathological

conditions lead to very high cellular toxicity towards macrophages through production of

inflammatory mediators like cytokines, TNF-α and ROS [1]. In this work we are presenting a novel

cytoprotective factor for macrophages which is able to reduce the toxic effect of pro-oxidant

molecule hemin by converting it into less toxic product. Our primary findings suggest that this

factor, in presence of minute concentration of hydrogen peroxide can convert hemin into less toxic

heme polymer in a dose dependent as well as time dependent manner. We have also found through

isothermal calorimetric studies that this factor binds to hemin with high affinity to form a complex

which confers better protection to macrophages as compared to the factor itself. Through some

preliminary studies we have hypothesized that this complex shows peroxidase like activity in the

presence of hydrogen peroxide to convert hemin into heme polymer by a one electron transfer

mechanism as shown by several common peroxidases [3]. Further we have also tried to find out the

effect of hemin on the known functions of this factor. The results of this study shows that hemin

can cause functional modulation in this factor by affecting its binding to its known ligands.

In our future studies we will be focusing on the effect of this factor on various immunological

functions of macrophages and also, we will be extending our study to find out similar role of this

factor in other body tissues like liver and blood brain barrier.

References:

1. Dey, S., Bindu, S., Goyal, M., Pal, C., Alam, A., Iqbal, M.S., Kumar, R., Sarkar, S. and

Bandyopadhyay, U., 2012. Impact of Intravascular Hemolysis in Malaria on Liver Dysfunction:

Involvement of Hepatic Free Heme Over-load, NF κ-B Activation and Neutrophil Infiltration.

Journal of Biological Chemistry, pp.jbc-M112.

2. Butt, O.I., Buehler, P.W. and D'Agnillo, F., 2011. Blood-brain barrier disruption and oxidative

stress in guinea pig after systemic exposure to modified cell-free hemoglobin. The American

journal of pathology, 178(3), pp.1316-1328.

3. 11. Trivedi, V., Chand, P., Maulik, P.R. and Bandyopadhyay, U., 2005. Mechanism of

horseradish peroxidase-catalyzed heme oxidation and polymerization (β-hematin formation).

Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-General Subjects, 1723(1-3), pp.221-228.

Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022 223


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Scientifique: Poster

Putative anti-virulence inhibitors of human pathogenic fungal group III

histidine kinases: using Neurospora crassa as a model organism – a

computational approach

Aravind R 1, * , Prof. Ranjan Tamuli 1

1

Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, IIT Guwahati, India.

*

Corresponding author e-mail: aravind_r@iitg.ac.in

Fungi throughout their lifecycle in diverse environments, it gets exposed to several stresses. The

fungus has a two-component signal transduction system, which helps it to sense the change in

various factors like the temperature and osmolarity, while infecting the human. Two-component

system in fungi consists of hybrid histidine kinase (HHK), intermediate histidine phosphotransfer

(HPT) and the response regulator (RR), this system in response to the environmental stimuli

undergoes a four step phosphotransfer event ultimately leading to the activation of response

regulator, which helps in the expression of stress response genes. Fungal hybrid histidine kinase of

TCS system is categorized into 11 different groups, among which group III histidine kinases (HK)

are the most studied and it is found to play a prominent role in the virulence of several human

pathogenic fungi such as: Candida albicans, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Histoplasma capsulatum,

Cryptococcus neoformans, Sporothrix schenckii, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Penicillium

marneffei. Group III HKs will be a promising anti-fungal drug target because of its involvement in

virulence and the absence of HK homologs in the mammalian system. Multiple sequence

alignment of the ATP binding domain of group III HKs of the selected human pathogenic fungi and

Neurospora crassa showed a high sequence conservation, thus nik-1/os-1 which is a group III HKs

of N. crassa is used as a representative protein for the identification of group III HK inhibitors. In

this study, using molecular docking and visualization analysis of the selected compounds with the

homology modelled ATP binding domain of nik-1/os-1, seven compounds: TEP, RWJ-49968, 2-

[4-(5-Nitrothiophen-2-yl) anilino] ethanol, N-[3-(2-Chlorophenyl) phenyl] acetamide, luteolin,

apigenin and genistein were found to be potential ATP competitive anti-virulence inhibitors of

group III HKs of the selected human pathogenic fungi.

Metastasis inducing signaling pathways in cancer

Aswanth Harish M, Prof. Bithiah Grace Jaganathan

Stem Cell and Cancer Biology Group

Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, IIT Guwahati

aswanth_harish@iitg.ac.in, bithiahgj@iitg.ac.in

Abstract: MAPK/ERK family of pathways plays a pivotal role in cancer progression and

metastasis. Oncogenic mutations and receptors overexpression significantly contribute to the

activation of MAPK/ERK pathways in glioblastoma and colorectal cancers. In heterogeneous brain

tumor glioblastoma, the EGFR, PDGFR-β, RAS mutation continuously activates the pathway,

leading to cancer invasion, relapse, and chemoresistance. In colorectal cancers, due to mutation in

MAPK/ERK components RAS, RAF, and overexpression of mechano-transduction ion channel

Piezo1 leads to activation of MAPK/ ERK family pathway and leads to cancer metastasis. Targeting

these pathways with the inhibitors modulates the pathway and prevents off-target effects. In this

study, Sorafenib, a pan receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and BIX01288, ERK5 pathway inhibitor,

is tested against the glioblastoma cells. Sorafenib affects cell proliferation and migration

significantly, and BIX01288 has a negligible effect on U87MG cells. Piezo1 agonist Yoda1 and

Piezo1 silenced colon cancer cell line DLD1 and HCT116 were used to study the pathways involved

in colon cancer metastasis.

Keywords: MAPK/ ERK, ERK5, Sorafenib, Yoda1 and Piezo1.

224 Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022


Scientifique: Poster

Biosciences and Bioengineering

Understanding the adsorptive elimination of Sulfamethoxazole by

polypyrrole complexed carbon from aqueous setups under simulated

conditions

Chandi Patra 1,* , and Selvaraju Narayanasamy 1

1

Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering (BSBE),

Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati, Assam-781039, India

*

Corresponding author e-mail: patra176106016@iitg.ac.in

Biomass-derived carbonaceous materials are preferred for wastewater treatment and remediation

due to their extended surface area, porous structure, high adsorptive capacity and a high degree of

surface reactivity. However, limited nitrogen-containing groups limit the applicability of

carbonaceous materials in remediating anionic pollutants like antibiotics. Various sources of

nitrogen-containing functional groups like quaternary ammonium compounds have been used to

treat carbonaceous materials (Saleh et al., 2017; Han et al., 2020; Kundu et al., 2018) to enhance

their Nitrogen content. Polypyrrole is a heterocyclic conductive polymer and has been extensively

researched due to its high nitrogen content, simple polymerization, environmental stability, redox

properties and ease of synthesis. Therefore, modifying carbonaceous materials with positively

charged polypyrrole is a potential strategy for eliminating emerging contaminants such as

antibiotics. Preliminary analysis verifies the successful complexation of polypyrrole over biomassderived

carbon and the uptake of Sulfamethoxazole species as depicted in Fig. 1 (A, B, C and D).

The biomass-derived carbon surface exhibits the usual honeycomb porous structure with variable

pore sizes (macro and micro) and deep cavities (Fig. 1A). Fig. 1B represents the traditional fibrous

structure of polypyrrole, with individual pyrrole monomers stacked over each other.

Simultaneously, Fig. 1C represents the polypyrrole complexed carbon surface. Post

Sulfamethoxazole adsorption, the surface un-uniformity was affected, as depicted in Fig. 1D. In the

figure, polypyrrole molecules are capped with Sulfamethoxazole residues (encircled in red),

resulting in reduced surface irregularities. This justifies the adsorptive uptake of Sulfamethoxazole

species by polypyrrole complexed carbon surface. However, it is essential to understand the

interactions responsible for the adsorptive elimination of Sulfamethoxazole species by the

polypyrrole complexed carbon.

Realtime pharmaceutical wastewater may contain anionic salts affecting its ionic strength or

multiple co-existing heavy metal pollutants and other antibiotics that may affect the uptake of

Sulfamethoxazole species from the wastewater setup. Hence it is essential to study and investigate

their influence. Also, it is essential to understand the fate of remediated wastewater for its possible

applications in agriculture purposes.

Keywords: polypyrrole; Sulfamethoxazole; ionic strength; coexisting heavy metals; coexisting

antibiotics

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Fig. 1. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of (A): biomass-derived carbon; (B):

polypyrrole fibres; (C): polypyrrole complexed powdered carbon; (D): polypyrrole complexed

powdered carbon adsorbed with Sulfamethoxazole.

REFERENCES

Saleh, T.A., Naeemullah, Tuzen, M., Sarı, A., 2017. Chemical Engineering Research and Design

117, 218–227.

Han, W., Wang, H., Xia, K., Chen, S., Yan, P., Deng, T., Zhu, W., 2020. Environment International

142, 105846.

Kundu, S., Chowdhury, I.H., Naskar, M.K., 2018. ACS Omega 3, 9888–9898.

Mitigating the levels of methylene blue in simulated wastewater using

modified nanocellulose

Das Bedadeep 1 *, Tasrin Shahnaz 1 , Selvaraju Narayanasamy 1

1

Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering

Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam, India

*Corresponding Author: Das Bedadeep

Email: pupun_bedadeep@iitg.ac.in

Abstract In this study, Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) embedded nanocellulose

(NCED) has been used to study the adsorptive removal of methylene blue (MB) from simulated

wastewater. As a result of nano-resizing, the cellulose surface area has been enhanced, providing

more adsorption sites. Through the inclusion of EDTA onto the surface of nanocellulose, carboxylic

and amino groups have been added, which contribute to the process of adsorption. Analyses of the

morphological properties of the prepared adsorbent have been conducted using FESEM, FETEM,

and AFM. In addition, fingerprinting of the material has been investigated using FTIR, Raman

spectroscopy, and EDX spectroscopy. In addition to optimizing the parameters affecting the

adsorbent's removal efficiency, the associated isotherm, as well as the fitting of a kinetics model

with the obtained data, were also conducted. The maximum removal percentage with the optimized

condition was found out to be 91.14%. In light of all the collected data and the associated removal

efficiency, NCED could be a cost-effective and eco-friendly alternative to the expensive methods

of toxic dye removal from wastewater.

Keywords: Adsorption; Dye; Nanocellulose

226 Research and Industrial Conclave: Integration 2022


Scientifique: Poster

Biosciences and Bioengineering

Exploring the enigmatic role of Epstein-Barr virus in

neuroinflammation

Deeksha Tiwari 1 *, Shweta Jakhmola 1 , & Hem Chandra Jha

1 Equal contributors

Department of Biosciences and Biomedical Engineering (BSBE), IIT Indore

*Corresponding author e-mail- phd1701171004@iiti.ac.in

The Epstein-Barr virus, an oncogenic virus, is reported to be associated with neurological ailments

like multiple sclerosis (MS), Alzheimer's (AD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (AML), etc. Our

group demonstrated in-vitro EBV infection of neuronal and glial cells for the first time1. We

performed morphological, transcriptomics, proteomics, and biochemical analyses of infected

neuronal, astroglial, and microglial cells2. EBV is proposed to dysregulate cytokines and

chemokines in the brain, causing neuroinflammation that subsequently leads to neurodegeneration

and demyelination. These chemokines and cytokines can disrupt the blood-brain barrier and

subsequently allow peripheral blood lymphocytes, the primary mediator of inflammation, to

extravasate into the brain and promote inflammatory conditions. Also, the PBMCs might act as a

"Trojan horse" carrying the virus along with them inside the cell. To mimic such conditions in-vitro

and analyse their effects, we subjected the glial cells to indirect infection of EBV via infected

peripheral lymphocytes and their culture supernatant. We observed enhanced neuroinflammatory

markers in our experimental setup mimicking direct infection and via infected PBMC supernatant.

In-vivo mice experiments also corroborated our findings as infiltrating lymphocytes were observed

upon EBV infection.

The inflammatory microenvironment around neurons and glial cells may cause them to produce

NF-κB, which is a primary mediator of disruption in cellular homeostasis. Studies have reported

that NF-κB was produced in neurons as a cellular defence mechanism in response to insults such

as excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, & amyloid-beta peptide toxicity. We observed upregulated NFκB

upon EBV infection in astroglial cells2. Apart from the astroglia, microglia, the brain’s resident

macrophages are the most important player in mediating neuroinflammation. We further carried out

Raman spectroscopic analysis of the infected astroglia and microglia that revealed the biochemical

changes pertaining to cholesterol, glucose, phenylalanine, phosphoinositide, etc., at distinct

infection times1. These changes indicated their periodic involvement, depending on the stage of

virus infection in both the cells. To understand the mechanism of infection in the cells of different

origins, it is crucial to explore the nuances of viral attachment and entry inside the cell. Though

EBV entry is well studied in B-cells, its attachment and entry in the epithelial cells is underexplored.

Briefly, EBV glycoprotein heterodimer gHgL is speculated to directly interact with the host cell

receptor on the epithelial cells. However, recent data reveals that gH alone is primarily essential for

this interaction. Therefore, we attempted to target the viral glycoprotein H (gH) in-silico by using

various phytochemicals to block its entry into the cell3. Our study revealed bruceantin and EGCG

as potential molecules for targeting EBV gH. After successfully establishing infection, the virus

starts expressing an EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) which is crucial for replication and is

expressed through all stages of the viral infection cycle. Hence, we targeted EBNA-1 using

bioinformatic tools. Our analysis showed that Siponimod could bind to EBNA-1, thus making it

inaccessible for DNA interactions4. Interestingly, Siponimod is an FDA-approved drug for treating

MS, a disease strongly linked with EBV infections. Apart from MS, EBV is also involved in AD

pathophysiology. Our investigations have found a 12 amino-acid long EBV gM (EBV-gM136-147)

peptide with amyloid-like aggregate forming tendencies5. This peptide may, in turn, instigate the

amyloid-beta aggregation cascade and could be a potential drug target for EBV-mediated

amyloidosis.

References

1.Tiwari, D., Jakhmola, S., Pathak, D. K., Kumar, R. & Jha, H. C. Temporal In Vitro Raman

Spectroscopy for Monitoring Replication Kinetics of Epstein–Barr Virus Infection in Glial Cells.

ACS Omega 5, 29547–29560 (2020).

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2.Jakhmola, S. & Jha, H. C. Glial cell response to Epstein-Barr Virus infection: A plausible

contribution to virus-associated inflammatory reactions in the brain. Virology 559, 182–195 (2021).

3.Jakhmola, S., Hazarika, Z., Jha, A. N. & Jha, H. C. In silico analysis of antiviral phytochemicals

efficacy against Epstein–Barr virus glycoprotein H. J. Biomol. Struct. Dyn. 1–14 (2021)

doi:10.1080/07391102.2020.1871074.

4.Jakhmola, S. et al. Identification of Potential Inhibitors against Epstein–Barr Virus Nuclear

Antigen 1 (EBNA1): An Insight from Docking and Molecular Dynamic Simulations. ACS Chem.

Neurosci. 12, 3060–3072 (2021).

5.Tiwari, D. et al. Indication of Neurodegenerative Cascade Initiation by Amyloid-like Aggregate-

Forming EBV Proteins and Peptide in Alzheimer’s Disease. ACS Chem. Neurosci. 12, 3957–3967

(2021).

Gankyrin as an emerging culprit in Helicobacter pylori and Epstein Barr

Virus mediated Gastric cancer

Dharmendra Kashyap & Hem Chandra Jha

Infection Bio-Engineering Group IIT Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India - 453552

Abstract Presently, gastric cancer (GC) is one of the thriving areas of research due to its poor

prognosis and specific diagnosis. It is the 4th leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. GC

is a consequence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in 90% of cases, while 10% Epstein Barr virus

(EBV) could be responsible. Importantly, the coinfection of these two pathogens increases the

aggressiveness of cancers properties and decreases the life expectancy by many folds. In the current

study, we have tried to determine the role of H. pylori and EBV coinfection in GC progression.

Furthermore, we have tried to establish the role of pathogen load, sequential exposure, and mode

of infection in GC progression. Our findings suggest that heavy loads of pathogens and their

associated factors in case of coinfection. Notably, the host factors viz; GC markers and apoptotic

genes are also elevated in case of coinfection. Additionally, the interplay between EBV and H.

pylori promoted the oncogenic properties of AGS cells such as increased foci formation, cell

migration, and cell proliferation through the important oncoprotein Gankyrin. The knockdown of

the Gankyrin decreased the cancerous properties of gastric epithelial cells. From this study, we have

established that there could be communication between EBV and H. pylori, that not only regulates

the growth of each other but also controlled the expression of pathogenic factors. Hence, the present

study provides new insight into the interplay of two oncogenic agents (H. pylori and EBV) that

leads to enhanced carcinogenic activity in gastric epithelial cells through overexpression of

Gankyrin.

Targeting Proteases: Giving old concept a new approach for

antimalarial drug treatment

Eena Dodwani 1 , Prof. Vishal Trivedi*

Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, IIT Guwahati, India.

*vtrivedi@iitg.ac.in

ABSTRACT Malaria is a vector-borne parasitic infectious disease which is a major cause of

morbidity and mortality globally. Each year, over 200 million cases of malaria are reported, with

Plasmodium falciparum infection accounting for the vast majority of malaria-related fatalities. The

rapid emergence of resistance in the parasites against the frontline antimalarial drugs, including

Artemisinin based combination therapies, demands for rapid development of novel antimalarial

with specific molecular targets. In the malaria parasite, proteases are known to carry out obligatory

functions during the several stages of the life-cycle. One of the crucial roles of the proteases is to

enable the parasite in digesting the host hemoglobin during its erythrocytic stages. Proteases

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involved in hemoglobin digestion are Aspartic proteases, Plasmepsin (I-IV) which breaks down the

hemoglobin into large peptides. Cysteine proteases like Falcipain 2, 2’, 3 and Metalloproteases

including Falcilysin are involved in downstream processing of the large peptides into smaller

oligopeptides of different sizes. Several studies have discussed in detail the crystal structure,

enzymatic mechanism and composition of the active sites of these proteases. This provides an

opportunity for target based drug development in order to inhibit their machinery. We aim to

explore potent and highly selective inhibitors by targeting both the active and allosteric sites for

competitive and non-competitive inhibition respectively. More importantly, since the allosteric

inhibitors regulate enzymatic activity from remote and usually specific pockets, targeting these sites

may result in lesser off-target toxicity in their human counterparts. Additionally, novel inhibitors

could be selected against a single protease or combination of two or more proteases and their

potency determined with established parasite inhibition studies. These newly acquired information

can therefore be applied in an innovative way for developing novel drugs to combat malaria.

Keywords: Malaria, Proteases, hemoglobin degradation, Plasmodium falciparum, inhibitors.

UTILIZATION OF AGROWASTE AND RECYCLE TO A NATURAL

ORGANIC PRODUCTS

*Vandana Sharma

Address for correspondence: Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, email-id:vandana15feb@gmail.com

ABSTRACT Agriculture waste (Agrowaste) is the food waste produced as by product of human

activities and in a very huge amount. Measuring the amount of waste generated written in terms of

“Ton”. It’s surprisingly unbelievable that million tons of waste generated each year. Recycling of

waste is the one of major necessity of developing as well as developed countries. Food loss or

wastage occur at each and every step till human consumption. According to the estimation of the

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) each year 1.3 billion tons of food waste due to accident

(natural disturbances) or intentionally by some competitors.

Current scenario, most of the countries making committees, doing partnership to completely

eradicate the world’s one of the major problem how to recycle waste to reuse the materials and how

to feed 1.6 billion population in 2050.By collaboration countries now consider this issue as one the

biggest issue and awaking people to avoid excess use of fossil fuels and start doing research on this

sensitive topic. Current time is correct time to start work upon it applying skills and protocols to

achieve some good valuable products and save the beauty of environment for future generation.

The concept of Utilization of Agrowaste is booming topic of this era. Scientists are performing their

research some of them are getting successful in their research to conserve natural resources (fossil

fuels).Most famous product Biodiesel. Feel o Peel is also a new upcoming unique and innovative

idea to contribute in save fossil fuels and Feel o peel is the natural organic skincare that is purely

organic and made via a transforming solid Agrowaste (peel of fruits and vegetables) to organic

skincare.

Keywords: agrowaste, peel,organic,solid waste, skincare, ,transformation

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Assessing the Contribution of Lysine to the UV-visible Spectra of

Charged Amino Acid Rich Proteins by Acetylation

Himanshi 1 ,Simangka B Saikia 1 , Arijit Mallick 2 , Apoorva Badaya 3 , Paresh P Rana 2 , Imon Mandal 4 , Ravindra

Venkatramani 3 , Devyani Haldar 2 , Rajaram Swaminathan 1

1 Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam, India

2 Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics, India

3 Dept of Chemical Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, India

4 Dept of Chemistry and Pharmacy, Institute of Organic Chemistry, University of Regensburg, Germany

Recent studies have revealed that monomeric proteins rich in charged amino acids exhibit charge

transfer transitions which form a broad UV-visible absorption band spanning 200-800 nm [1]. The

new band termed as Protein Charge Transfer Spectra (ProCharTS) opens up a new label free

window to probe proteins and their interactions. However systemic studies on the contributions of

specific charged amino acid species to the spectra are required in order to develop ProCharTS as a

potent biophysical probe. Here we examine the possibility of using acetylation of Lys amino groups

to assess their contributions to the ProCharTS profile of charged amino acid rich proteins. We

present the UV-visible absorption of monomeric Human Serum Albumin (HSA) and acid extracted

Histone proteins from human cells whose sequence is rich (> 30%) in both positively and negatively

charged amino acids including Lys, Arg, Glu, and Asp. These proteins are found to show a

prominent ProCharTS profile exhibiting a distinctive tail which extends up to 800 nm. Titration of

HSA with acetic anhydride (chemical acetylation) and treatment of human U2OS cells in culture

with Sodium Butyrate (inhibition of HDAC mediated enzymatic deacetylation) are shown to

perturb the ProCharTS profile of these proteins. HSA purity was ascertained by HPLC and SDS-

PAGE, while its acetylation was confirmed by mass spectrometry and its effects on HSA structure

ascertained using CD spectroscopy. The purity of the acid-extracted Histones from human cells

were checked using SDS-PAGE with the aim of obtaining ProCharTS of the acetylated and

modified histones. The ProCharTS on individual recombinant histones and their complexes will be

studied after cloning, expressing and purifying these core histones. We present computational

studies based on molecular dynamics simulations and electronic structure calculations to understand

the impact of Lys acetylation on the ProCharTS profiles of HSA and Histones. Our studies indicate

that the modulation of the ProCharTS profile by selective acetylation of Lys in a diverse pool of

positively and negatively charged amino acids is sensitive to the salt-bridge forming propensities

for these amino acids.

References: [1] Prasad et. al, Chem. Sci. 8, 5416 (2017).

Analysis on the minerals, phytochemical contents, and antioxidant

properties of leaves from Musa spp

Imnanaro and Rakhi Chaturvedi*

Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, IIT Guwahati, Assam, India

*

Corresponding author e-mail: rakhi_chaturvedi@iitg.ac.in

Banana (Musa sp.) is a staple food grown in the tropical regions of the world. In this study, a

comparative analysis on the minerals, phytochemical contents, and antioxidant properties of leaves

from three different varieties of Musa sp., namely Malbhog (Musa paradisiaca, AAB), Chini

champa (Musa paradisiaca, AAB) and Bhimkol (Musa balbisiana, BB), were conducted to increase

their utility as a possible source of bioactive compounds. Usually, after harvesting the fruits, the

banana leaves are discarded as waste that causes menace to the environment. The leaves were dried

and ground into a fine powder and extracts were prepared using methanol. The phytochemical and

mineral content were analysed using standard analytical procedures and atomic emission

spectroscopy (AES), respectively. The free radical scavenging antioxidant capacity of the extracts

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were tested by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl ethanol) and FRAP (ferric reducing

antioxidant power) assay models. The result showed that all the three varieties have significant

amount of potassium, sodium and boron in the leaves. Quantitative estimation revealed higher

quantity of phytochemicals in leaf extracts of Bhimkol, followed by Malbhog and Chini champa.

The antioxidant activity was also observed in the same order in the leaves of three the three banana

varieties. These results indicated that the leaves of banana plants have profound pharmaceutical

values and can be a good economical source of important minerals. This study will serve an

effective step forward for environmental sustainability.

Keywords: Agricultural waste, antioxidant, environmental sustainability, Musa sp.,

phytochemicals.

Biochemical characterization and in silico analysis of pectin acetyl

esterase (CtPae12B) a family 12 carbohydrate esterase from Clostridium

thermocellum

Jebin Ahmed 1* , Krishan Kumar 1 , Kedar Sharma 1 , Carlos M. G. A. Fontes 2,3 and Arun Goyal 1

1 Carbohydrate Enzyme Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian

Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati, Assam 781039, India

2 NZYTech – Genes & Enzymes, Estrada do Paço do Lumiar, Campus do Lumiar, Edifício E - R/C, 1649-038

Lisbon, Portugal.

3 CIISA – Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida da Universidade Técnica,

1300-477 Lisbon, Portugal.

*Corresponding Author: jebinahmed@iitg.ac.in

Pectin is one of the major components of the plant cell wall apart from cellulose and hemicellulose,

that acts as the frontline defense system against pathogenic attacks. In the present study, the gene

encoding a putative pectin acetyl esterase (CtPae12B), belonging to family 12 carbohydrate esterase

from Clostridium thermocellum (GenBank accession number ABN54336.1 and locus tag

Cthe_3141) was cloned in pET21a(+) vector between NheI and XhoI restriction sites. The

recombinant enzyme (CtPae12B) was expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) cells and purified by

immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC). CtPae12B was expressed as a soluble

protein and exhibited a single band of molecular mass, approximately 26 kDa which was in

agreement with the theoretically calculated molecular mass of 26.05 kDa. The total protein eluted

was 21 mg after purification from 400 ml culture in LB medium. CtPae12B showed activity against

synthetic substrate p-nitrophenyl acetate (pNPA), releasing acetate and nitrophenol. The optimum

pH and temperature for enzyme activity were 8.0 and 65°C, respectively. The enzyme was found

to be stable in a wide range of pH 4.0-10.5 and it also showed thermal stability up to 70°C for 90

minutes. The kinetic properties of the enzyme were also determined and it displayed V max of 112

U/mg and K m of 0.45 mM against pNPA. Enzyme activity was not found to increase in the presence

of any metal ion. Homology modeling showed that CtPae12b folds into an α/β/α structure. The

Ramachandran plot of CtPae12B modeled structure showed 92.5% residues in the favoured region,

6.2% in the allowed region and only 1.3% in the disallowed region, indicating that CtPae12B has a

stable conformation. The active site of CtPae12B is an open cleft containing a serine–histidine–

aspartic acid catalytic triad which was confirmed by multiple sequence alignment. Molecular

docking showed stability and structural specificity of the catalytic residues with the ligand, 4-

nitrophenyl acetate (4-NPA) which was further confirmed by MD simulation of CtPae12B-4NPA

docked complex. Moreover, nucleophile Ser15 was found to complete covalent catalysis by

forming hydrophobic interaction with 4-NPA in the active site. Small angle X-ray scattering

analysis of CtPae12B at 3 mg/mL displayed elongated, compact and monodispersed nature in

solution. The ab initio derived dummy model showed that CtPae12B exists as a homotrimer at 3

mg/mL which was also confirmed by dynamic light scattering.

Keywords: Pectin, pectin acetyl esterase, Clostridium thermocellum, p-nitrophenyl acetate, MD

simulation; SAXS

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De-Novo Design of Peptide Catalyst

Kalpana Kumari and Vibin Ramakrishnan*

Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati-781039,

Assam, India. Email: vibin@iitg.ac.in

* Corresponding author

In our study, we have focussed on mimicking the active site of catalytic system, where Human

carbonic anhydrase II was chosen as case study in Phase I. We have rationally designed peptides

based on already established concepts of protein design, supplemented by automated design tools.

Peptides were synthesized using Solid Phase Peptide Chemistry and characterized by High

Performance Liquid Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry. In subsequent stages, the designed

peptides will be experimentally tested for their efficacy and stereoselectivity in catalysing reactions

of industrial significance, especially at different temperature and pH conditions. The construction

of ‘molecular mimics’ for the molecular model system is the core objective of this study.

Keywords: Peptide catalyst, carbonic anhydrase II, mimicry, stereoselectivity

Chemical analysis and characterization of in vitro grown adventitious

root cultures of Spilanthes paniculata Wall. ex DC.

Krishna Kant Pachauri and Rakhi Chaturvedi*

Department of Biosciences & Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati, Assam –

781039

Email* - rakhi_chaturvedi@iitg.ac.in

Abstract Spilanthes paniculata (Asteraceae) is a natural source of various medicinally important

bioactive metabolites known as N-alkylamides. The root extract of the plant has been reported to

have larvicidal activity against malarial and filarial vectors. In vitro tissue culture methods have

been widely explored for the production of Spilanthes biomass and its active metabolites.

Adventitious root suspension culture is a promising alternate method to generate the biomass and

metabolites at large scale. In the present study, chemical characterization of adventitious root

culture was performed. The in vitro culture of the plant was grown at shake flasks. The root biomass

was dried and ground to a fine powder and the extracts were prepared using organic solvents. The

extracts were analysed and characterized for the presence of N-alkylamides through High

performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Mass spectrometry (MS). The presence of

spilanthol was detected and quantified by using HPLC and further confirmed through MS analysis.

Apart from spilanthol, one of the extracts showed the presence of two other immunomodulatory

metabolites, which were identified as Ethane; N-ethylcyclohexa-1,5-diene-1-carboxamide and

N-Isobutyl-(2E,4Z,8Z,10E/Z)-dodecatetraenamide. The mass spectrometric analysis of the

collected HPLC eluted peaks confirms their molecular weight as 211 and 247, respectively. The

results of the study showed the presence of important metabolites in in vitro grown adventitious

roots. The in vitro method of producing the metabolites provides an alternate way to reduce the

overharvesting of the medicinal plant from their natural habitat.

Keywords: Adventitious root, anti-malarial, HPLC, Mass spectrometry, Spilanthes paniculata

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Development and in-silico characterization of a bi-functional chimeric

enzyme by fusing α-L-arabinofuranosidase from Pseudopedobacter

saltans (PsGH43_12) and endo-1,4-β-xylanase from Clostridium

thermocellum (CtGH11A).

Madhulika Shrivastava*, Kedar Sharma and Arun Goyal

Carbohydrate Enzyme Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian

Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati -781039, Assam, India.

*Corresponding Author: m.shrivastava@iitg.ac.in

Abstract Xylan is the major component of hemicellulose and is one of the abundant biofuel

resources. Owing to the complexity of heteroxylan, its complete and efficient hydrolysis to its

constituent products require multiple xylanolytic enzymes. Due to the economic constraints in the

production and availability of multiple hydrolytic enzymes, there is a need to engineer enzymes to

alleviate consecutive hydrolytic reactions. In this study, a chimeric enzyme (PsGH43_12-L-

CtGH11A) was constructed by fusing the catalytic domain of β-1,4-endoxylanase from family 11

Glycoside Hydrolases (CtGH11A) from Clostridium thermocellum and PsGH43 XynB like domain

of α-L-arabinofuranosidase from family GH43 (PsGH43_12) from Pseudopedobacter saltans,

subfamily 12. The gene encoding the chimeric enzyme was constructed using overlapping PCR

technique. The amplified product was cloned in pET28a+ and overexpressed in E. Coli BL21 (DE3)

cells. The chimera was purified as a soluble protein and displayed a single band in SDS-PAGE with

molecular mass of ~62 kDa which was in agreement with the theoretical molecular mass of the

chimera. The three-dimensional structure modelling of chimera (PsGH43_12-L-CtGH11A) was

done by I-Tasser, the template-based structure modeling server and the modeled structure thus

obtained was refined using YASARA energy minimization tool. The stereo-chemical properties of

the refined structure were validated using Ramachandran plot showing 92.7% of amino acid

residues in allowed, 4.3% in generously allowed and only 3.0% in disallowed regions. The chimera

was further validated using ERRAT plot (75.5%) and VERIFY-3D (92.5%) which showed the

compatibility of atomic model with the amino acid sequence. The energy minimized structure of

the chimera was used for molecular docking using Autodock 4.2.6 linked MGL Tools 1.56 against

1,4-β-D-xylobiose, 1,4-β-D-xylotriose, 1,4-β-D-xylotetraose, 1,4-β-D-xylopentaose,

arabinoxylobiose and arabinoxylotriose as ligands. Further results on biochemical characterization

of the chimera will be presented.

Keywords: Xylanase, α-L-Arabinofuranosidase, Chimera, Glycoside hydrolase, Protein

engineering

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Reference

Madhulika Shrivastava, Kedar Sharma and Arun Goyal (2021) Development and in-silico

characterization of a bi-functional chimeric enzyme by fusing α-L-arabinofuranosidase from

Pseudopedobacter saltans (PsGH43_12) and endo-1,4-β-xylanase from Clostridium thermocellum

(CtGH11A) using protein engineering. Research & Industrial Conclave 2022 "An amalgamation of

Academia, Industry & Start-up”. January 20-23, 2022, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati,

India

Role of RHOA Signaling in Breast cancer metastasis

Renu Sharma 1 , Bithiah Grace Jaganathan 1*

1

Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati,

Guwahati, Assam 781039, India

*Corresponding Author E-mail: bithiahgj@iitg.ac.in

Breast cancer refers to malignant tumours arising in breast tissues. Metastasis is known to be a

major contributor to the aforementioned tumour malignancy. Furthermore, dysregulation of cell

signalling, cell cycle progression and cell proliferation is known to be among the major causes for

tumour metastasis. GTPase family of proteins - one of the most studied enzymes which alter cell

signalling – have been reported to be correlated with uncontrolled growth of cancer cells. Among

them, Rho-ROCK family members play a major role in cancer cell invasion and migration by

facilitating cytoskeleton reprogramming and actin-myosin contraction. Therefore, in order to

understand the role of RHOA signalling in proliferation, metastatic migration, and anoikis

resistance, we proceeded to test different subtypes of breast cancer cells (TNBC, Triple positive,

Luminal A, and HER2+). We administered Y27632 dihydrochloride exogenously in order to inhibit

RHOA signalling. However, Y27632 treatment did not significantly affect the proliferation

capability of the cancer cell lines. Intriguingly, the migration potential of the cell lines was observed

to be upregulated upon treatment. This was observed using wound healing assay (2D) and spheroid

migration assay (3D). In addition to that, the clonogenic property of MCF7 was upregulated when

treated with Y27632 when compared with that of MDA-MB-231, SkBr3 and ZR75.1 cell lines.

Increase in the population of cells with CD44+/CD24- and CD49f cell surface markers in nonadherent

environment indicated that Y27632 treatment promotes anoikis resistance and selfrenewal

property of the cells. Increased expression of β-catenin, p-ERK, and BCL2 in Y27632-

treated cells grown in agar-coated wells, supports that Y27632 induces non-apoptotic pathway to

increase cell survival. In total, these findings indicate that inhibiting ROCK signalling in dormant

cells like MCF7 can promote migration and anoikis resistance.

Exploring the potential of aptamers for detection of tuberculosis

Satakshi Hazra 1 , Sanjukta Patra 1 *

1

Department of Biosciences & Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati-781039,

India

*Corresponding author. Tel: +913612582213, E-mail: sanjukta@iitg.ac.in

Tuberculosis infected patients release certain immunodominant antigens into the blood. These

secretory proteins like 6-kDa early secretory antigenic target, ESAT-6- like protein EsxB (known

as culture filtrate protein CFP10), diacylglycerol mycolyltransferase Ag85B & immunogenic

protein MPT64 are some of the important clinical biomarkers that can be used for diagnosis.

Designing aptamers (which are artificial oligonucleotides selected in vitro that bind cognate

ligands) against these biomarkers and developing them into biosensors is a viable and alternative

approach to conventional diagnostic procedures which are costly, cumbersome, time-consuming

and often misleading due to false negative outcomes. Designing a random 69-mer single stranded

DNA library followed by optimization of PCR, template concentration, primer concentration,

forward and reverse primer ratios were done. Results show that the thermocycling program was

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optimized at 30 cycles, with 1µM primers and 0.25 mM dNTPs at 60- 70°C annealing temperatures.

AFM of PVDF membrane chosen as the solid support for streptavidin-biotin SELEX for screening

of prospective aptamer candidates that capture the target protein with counter-selection against the

non-target proteins was done. Fluorescent nanomaterials like BSA-gold nanoclusters were prepared

and characterized through spectrophotometric, spectrofluorimetric, FESEM-EDX and FETEM

analysis that would be integrated as labels to the aptamer. The proposed nanobiosensing prototype

has potential to be developed into a one-step rapid point-of-care diagnosis method for tuberculosis.

Keywords: aptamer, biomarker, biosensor, point-of-care, tuberculosis

An Optical Sensing System to Measure Muscle Activity

Neeraj Sharma, Alok Prakashand Shiru Sharma*

Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi – 221005

*Corresponding Author’s Email: shiru.bme@iitbhu.ac.in

Abstract Surface electromyography (sEMG) has been a technique for the measurement and

analysis of muscle activity over several years.With the development of various sensing technologies

and electronic circuits, nowadays it is also possible to measure muscle activity by using optical

methods. Optomyography (OMG) is the recently developed optical technique to measure muscular

contraction. In the present work, we propose a new OMG sensing system for measuring

displacements of the skin surface during muscle contraction. It consists of a photoelectric sensor

that works on the wavelength of 650-1000nm i.e., Infrared.During muscle contraction blood is

depleted in the tissue, reflection and absorption process is occur in the human skin and some portion

of light is scattered from the neighbor tissues to skin surface. Therefore, change in the amount of

near infrared light is detected by the photodetector. Using the sensor, signals for four different types

of hand gestures were recorded from the forearm location of ten healthy subjects. Signal stability

(i.e., standard deviation) and repeatability error of the signals were determined for eachgesture. The

obtained results showed very good standard deviation (< 0.2) andrepeatability (<5%) for all types

of hand activity. Unlike EMG, the proposed system is insensitive to motion artifact and

electromagnetic interference. Therefore, the developed system can be an alternative option to

measure muscle activity that can be applied for controlling assistive devices.

Keywords: Surface electromyography, Optomyography, Muscle contraction, Standard deviation,

Repeatability, Assistive device.

Mechanotransduction in colorectal cancer metastasis

Nikhil Kulkarni 1 , Bithiah G Jaganathan 1*

1 Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati,

Guwahati, Assam 781039, India

*Corresponding Author E-mail: bithiahgj@iitg.ac.in

Introduction: The colorectal cancer is fourth most common cancer globally. In India, colon cancer

ranks 8 th and rectal cancer ranks 9 th in men whereas colon cancer ranks 9 th in women. Metastasis, a

leading cause of death in colorectal cancer patients, is found in 15-25% cases at the time of

diagnosis and metastasis occurs in 70% of the cases after diagnosis of colorectal cancer. The

common metastasis sites are liver, lungs, bone and rarely brain. The metastasis process involves

epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cancer cells which demands cytoskeletal

remodelling. EMT is also triggered by external signals such as cell crowding, external pressure,

shear, traction forces etc. apart from bio-chemical signals. These signals are sensed by

mechanosensitive channels such as Piezo1. Activation of Piezo1 results in calcium ion influx in

stem cells, cancer cells activating calcium dependent pathways which increase proliferation,

migration of the cells. Therefore, understanding role of Piezo1 in colorectal cancer metastasis is

necessary.

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Methods: The colorectal cancer cell lines DLD1, HCT116 were subjected to scratch wound assay,

cell cycle analysis, phenotyping, colony formation assay and spheroid formation assay in Piezo1

activated states.

Results: Activation of Piezo1 increases proliferation in DLD1, HCT116 cells and decreases the

clonogenic property, self-renewal capacity in HCT116 cells.

Conclusion: Initial results indicate Piezo1 ion channel plays a complex role in proliferation and

metastasis of colorectal cancer cells.

Keywords: Colorectal cancer, metastasis, mechanosensitive channel, Piezo1.

Removal of dye from aqueous solution by CMC/CH beads

Nirvesh, Ajit Kumar, Selvaraju Narayanasamy*

Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering

Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam, India

*Corresponding Author: Selvaraju Narayanasamy

Email: selva@iitg.ac.in

The present study focused on adsorptive remediation of Direct blue dye by carboxymethylcellulosechitosan

beads (CMC/CH) adsorbent. CMC/CH beads were prepared by crosslinking CMC with

chitosan with the help of triethylenetetramine (TETA). Adsorbent was characterized to study its

morphological and physicochemical properties. Batch adsorption study reveals that CMC/CH beads

have high removal adsorption efficiency for dye at the neutral pH. Various adsorption models were

studied to show the interaction between adsorbent and adsorbate.

Keywords: Direct blue dye, Adsorption, carboxymethylcellulose, chitosan

Extra embryonic chicken chorioallantoic membrane assay: a 3D animal

model to analyze ocular malignancies

Palak¹*, Perumal Jayaraj 1 **, Nimita², Seema Sen³

¹Department of Zoology, Sri Venkateswara College, University of Delhi

²Department of Zoology, Shivaji College, University of Delhi

³Department of Ocular Pathology, Dr. R.P. Centre, AIIIMS, New Delhi

*Presenting author

**Corresponding author, jayaraj@svc.ac.in

This research highlights the use of avian chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay to monitor the

tumor growth and invasion of patient-derived xenograft (PDX) of Retinoblastoma (RB) and

Choroidal Melanoma (CM). RB is the most widespread intraocular tumor among children and

despite the advancement in therapeutics, median survival of patients with CM is less than a year.

The current cellular molecular research on CM and RB often relies on matrigel invasion assay and

nude mice model. However, both are extensively attributed to variability. Nude mice model needs

to be artificially immunocompromised and matrigel assay does not layout true environment of a

basement membrane for tumor development. Moreover, PDX used in this study provides a more

authentic representation of tumors compared to cell lines. To carry out research, fertilized chicken

eggs were procured, windowed and their CAM layers were dropped. On embryonic development

day (EDD) 10, freshly chopped PDX of CM and RB were implanted on CAM layer and their setups

were incubated for 7 days. H/E of CM-CAM graft revealed its invasion to CAM mesoderm. On the

other hand, aggressiveness of the RB tumor is indicated by synaptophysin and Ki-67

immunopositivity. Significant changes were also observed in the vascularity around tumor

indicating angiogenic environment. Real-time imaging, and immunonaive nature of CAM assay

make it a robust technique for examining tumorigenicity and invasiveness of aggressive ocular

tumors. Moreover, this study suggests that CAM assay can further be utilized to develop

personalized medicine to bolster the survival period of CM and RB patients.

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Keywords- Chicken chorioallantoic membrane, Choroidal Melanoma, Retinoblastoma, Patientderived

xenograft, tumor development, alternative model

Figure 1: A Schematic representation of the protocol followed to study CM and RB Xenografts

on CAM model.

References-

Moreno-Jiménez, I., Hulsart-Billstrom, G., Lanham, S. et al. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM)

assay for the study of human bone regeneration: a refinement animal model for tissue

engineering. Sci Rep 6, 32168 (2016)

Dimaras, H. et al. Retinoblastoma. Lancet 379, 1436-1446, doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(11)61137-9

(2012)

Kaliki, S., Shields, C. L. & Shields, J. A. Uveal melanoma: estimating prognosis. Indian J.

Ophthalmol. 63, 93-102, doi:10.4103/0301-4738.154367 (2015)

Yeast ageing: a role for the understudied peroxisomes

Rachayeeta Deb 1 and Shirisha Nagotu 1, *

1

Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, IIT Guwahati, India

*

Corresponding author e-mail: snagotu@iitg.ac.in

Peroxisomes are single membrane-bound organelles ubiquitously present in several cell types and

are associated with cell and tissue-specific functions. They perform important cellular functions

like fatty acid oxidation and reactive oxygen species homeostasis. The molecular mechanisms of

peroxisome biogenesis is well established, however relatively little is known about the relationship

of this organelle and cellular ageing. This work uses yeast as a model to understand how peroxisome

dynamics change upon ageing in yeast cells. Yeast is used to study two types of ageing processes,

namely replicative ageing and chronological ageing. This study attempts to understand the role of

peroxisomes in aged yeast mutants deleted for peroxisome fission proteins. We aim to investigate

if the altered number of peroxisomes in the peroxisome fission mutants has any influence on their

replicative and chronological ageing under peroxisome inducing oleic acid and non-inducing

glucose media conditions.

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An inquiry into ayurvedic formulations for the development of novel

anti-cancer therapeutics

Mohammed rafi uz zama khan 1 , Vishal trivedi 2, *

1, 2

Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, IIT Guwahati, India

*Corresponding author e-mail: v.trivedi@iitg.ac.in

Abstract Cancer is one of the leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Cancer is the

outcome of uncontrolled cell proliferation caused by both intrinsic factors such as genetic

alterations and external factors such as carcinogenic substances that are supplemented in a variety

of ways. According to Globocan 2018, it has been estimated there have been over 18 million new

cases of cancer. In India alone there have been 1.1 million cases which includes all types of cancer.

The cumulative incidence rate of the disease is expected to double by 2040, with the number of

projected cases exceeding 40 million globally. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are the frontline

treatment strategies for cancer. However, both these interventions suffer from major limitations

such as severe side effects due to off target toxicity and in many cases incidence of a compromised

immune system. Consequently, many cancer patients have been often found to transmute their

treatment towards alternative medicine because of the severe side effects, high cost of new drugs,

dissatisfaction of curative treatment and increased resistance of micro flora to the already available

drugs. This emphasises the need for a rigorous scientific approach towards development of

alternative treatment strategies. Ayurveda has been practised in the Indian peninsula for over 2

millennia in the realm of alternative and complementary medicine. Ayurvedic formulations are

known for restoring the abnormal metabolic activities to its normalcy in the body due to which the

research of ayurvedic cancer formulations has gained prominence in the recent decades. We

explored the anticancer activity of ayurvedic formulations on various cancer cell lines including

breast cancer, cervical cancer, colon cancer and osteosarcoma. As a part of preliminary results, we

have found two ayurvedic formulations namely Mahashank bati and amoebica which have shown

potent anticancer activity against in-vitro models of cervical and breast cancer. We further aim to

isolate and characterize the anticancer compounds present in the formulations and decipher the

pathways involved. The study intends to signify Ayurveda as a source of novel therapeutics against

cancer and establish its molecular mechanism of action.

Keywords: Cancer, Ayurvedic formulations.

Heat shock protein 80 of Neurospora crassa in calcineurin pathway

Rahul Kr Thaosen 1, * , Prof. Ranjan Tamuli 1

1

Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, IIT Guwahati, India.

*

Corresponding author e-mail: thaos@iitg.ac.in

Calcineurin is a calmodulin-dependent, calcium-activated protein phosphatase composed of

catalytic and regulatory subunits. It gets activated by the second messenger calcium and regulates

stress responses in fungi. Calcineurin have been known to show impairing the phenocopies

inhibition of heat shock protein in other fungi organisms. Heat shock proteins are conserved in most

organisms and are expressed in response to thermal stress, they play a key role in the activity of its

client protein like calcineurin maturation, including kinases and transcription factors, as well as

signal transduction, protein folding and degradation, and morphological evolution. Heat shock

protein 80 (Hsp80) of Neurospora crassa, a member of the stress-90 protein family, is a cytosolic

molecular chaperone. Previous reported literature has shown to regulate stress responses by

overexpression of Hsp80 by means of calcium-calcineurin pathway. However, little is known about

Hsp80’s function in the model Neurospora crassa. We have studied that expression of Hsp80 was

upregulated with increasing concentration of Ca 2+ . Using the repeat-induced point mutation (RIP)

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mechanism, we are generating RIP for Hsp80 that will further elucidate the molecular mechanism

in different signalling pathway.

Characterisation of Silk proteins as a potential candidate against UTI

infections

Raunak Raj Singh 1 , Manash Pratim Sarma 1 , Ritismita Devi 2

1- Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Assam down town University,

Panikhaiti, Assam, India

2- Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Assam down town University, Panikhaiti, Assam, India

Abstract: Silk is a biomaterial which is fibrous proteins with remarkable mechanical properties

produced in fibre form by silkworms and spiders. Apart from being a fine biomaterial, from

centuries it has also been used as sutures in medical surgeries due to its advantages in healing

properties and antimicrobial activity to avoid infection. Silk as a material in medical fields has been

successful material in wound healing, and in tissue engineering of bone, cartilage, and tendon and

ligament tissues. Here the researcher(s) attempt to study up the antimicrobial properties against the

bacteria of the urinary tract infections and its potential utility as a regenerative agent and as a

probable medicine material in the UTI.

The aim of the study wa