Powertrain | Diesel International 2022-01

AUTOMOTIVE: EURO 6E The FPT Industrial’s way; HYDROGEN FOR BUS & COACHES: UITP, FCH JU, VDV, Transdev, Keolis; NIKOLA: Ulm plant is officially working; SUSTAINABLE CAT: PG FOR DATA CENTRE: Fuel cells with Ballard and Microsoft; ZERO EMISSIONS MINING: With Newmont for battery haul trucks; REPORTS: H2 Internal Combustion Engines (Alastair Hayfield, Interact Analysis); OFF-ROAD WEBINAR: CECE, CEMA, Cummins, Dana, FPT; PREVIEWS: KOHLER SMALL DISPLACEMENT, 1.4-litre electronic diesel engine; KUBOTA D902-K; SCANIA POWER SOLUTIONS; The Griffin recipe for electrification; DEUTZ @ EIMA: TCD 5.2 and TCD 2.9HP; DEUTZ DAYS 2021: PowerTree, hydrogen genset, e-machinery; TECHNO: AUGA M1 The biomethane hybrid tractor; WALVOIL ALS together with Dieci; BONFIGLIOLI Talking with the Group CEO; COLUMNS: Editorial, Newsroom, Sustainable Tech

AUTOMOTIVE: EURO 6E The FPT Industrial’s way; HYDROGEN FOR BUS & COACHES: UITP, FCH JU, VDV, Transdev, Keolis; NIKOLA: Ulm plant is officially working; SUSTAINABLE CAT: PG FOR DATA CENTRE: Fuel cells with Ballard and Microsoft; ZERO EMISSIONS MINING: With Newmont for battery haul trucks; REPORTS: H2 Internal Combustion Engines (Alastair Hayfield, Interact Analysis); OFF-ROAD WEBINAR: CECE, CEMA, Cummins, Dana, FPT; PREVIEWS: KOHLER SMALL DISPLACEMENT,
1.4-litre electronic diesel engine; KUBOTA D902-K; SCANIA POWER SOLUTIONS; The Griffin recipe for electrification; DEUTZ @ EIMA: TCD 5.2 and TCD 2.9HP; DEUTZ DAYS 2021: PowerTree, hydrogen genset, e-machinery; TECHNO: AUGA M1 The biomethane hybrid tractor; WALVOIL ALS together with Dieci; BONFIGLIOLI Talking with the Group CEO; COLUMNS: Editorial, Newsroom, Sustainable Tech


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Griffin<br />

Kohler Small Displacement - Sustainable Cat - H2 for<br />

freight & passengers - Web event: Is offroad multitasking? -<br />

Deutz between ICE and alternatives - Scania Power Solutions<br />


www.vadoetorno.com<br />

www.diesel-international.com<br />

www.dieseloftheyear.com<br />

ISSN 0042<br />

Press Register n. 4596 – April 20th 1994<br />

Poste Italiane Inc. – Mail subscription<br />

D.L. 353/2003 (mod. in L. 27/02/2004 n° 46)<br />

Art. 1, subsection 1, LO/MI<br />


January <strong>2022</strong>


JANUARY <strong>2022</strong><br />

powertrain-magazine.com<br />


ICE<br />



kWe ELECTRIC<br />

GAS<br />

14<br />


22<br />


10. EURO 6E<br />

The FPT Industrial’s way<br />


UITP, FCH JU, VDV, Transdev, Keolis<br />

14. NIKOLA<br />

Ulm plant is officially working<br />



Fuel cells with Ballard and Microsoft<br />


With Newmont for battery haul trucks<br />


18. H2 Internal Combustion Engines<br />

Alastair Hayfield, Interact Analysis<br />


CECE, CEMA, Cummins, Dana, FPT<br />



1.4-litre electronic diesel engine<br />

32. KUBOTA<br />

D902-K<br />


The Griffin recipe for electrification<br />

36. DEUTZ @ EIMA<br />

TCD 5.2 and TCD 2.9HP<br />

38. DEUTZ DAYS 2021<br />

Powertree, hydrogen genset, e-machinery<br />

TECHNO<br />

40. AUGA M1<br />

The biomethane hybrid tractor<br />

42. WALVOIL<br />

ALS. Together with Dieci<br />


Talking with the Group CEO<br />


4. Editorial 6. Newsroom 46. Sustainable Tech<br />

38<br />


COOP26 instead of COP26<br />

“What if the issue was just an innocent vowel,<br />

an ‘O’, misplaced by a mistake in the form?<br />

Try calling it COOP26. It sounds better, isn’t?”<br />



by Fabio Butturi<br />

What if the issue was just an innocent vowel,<br />

an “O”, misplaced by a mistake in the<br />

form? Try calling it COOP26. It sounds<br />

better, isn’t? Let us clarify the linguistic<br />

assumptions. According to the spelling,<br />

COP26 stands for Conference of the Parties. The final<br />

figures point to the 26 th annual summit of countries that<br />

have ratified the United Nations framework convention<br />

on climate change, UNFCCC. In order to come forward<br />

with ambitious 2030 emissions reductions targets that<br />

align with reaching net zero by the middle of the century,<br />

countries will need to accelerate the phase-out of coal,<br />

speed up the switch to electric vehicles and encourage<br />

investment in renewables.<br />

So, the mission is to accelerate and to encourage.<br />

If the verb is the meaning-producer of a sentence, and this<br />

is precisely the premise of any sentence that produces<br />

meaning, it does not seem to us that the paraphrase of the<br />

text justifies the electric frenzy. To achieve these objectives<br />

in such a short time would require advice from any<br />

chemical laboratory, test bench or town planning office.<br />

There is no need for the millenarian slogans of the many<br />

Merlin wizards in the media and political arena.<br />

COOPeration is the key word for accessing long-term<br />

change, with immediate effect, or rather from yesterday.<br />

Latin etymology, cooperatio, there is that hidden cum (it<br />

means “with”), full of proactive overtones, of synergy and<br />

mutuality, and there is the word action. Because hypocrisy<br />

is a blunt instrument of mass distraction, and all it takes is<br />

for someone to oppose it to insert a postulate that reclaims<br />

coal as a primary source. And someone insists on talking<br />

about decarbonisation... including coal in the word which<br />

denies its own meaning? COOP26, understood as<br />

cooperation, based on facts and the real prospects for<br />

change, in the short and long term, of the 26 countries<br />

with the highest GDP on the planet: from the USA and<br />

China to Poland, Belgium and Thailand. Targeted and<br />

accelerated (remember: “to accelerate”) investments in<br />

incentives for renewables, in a multifuel perspective.<br />

Electrify the most highly urbanised areas. Push for low<br />

emission ICEs and synthetic and bio fuels. Wouldn’t that<br />

make more sense?<br />

AND THE<br />

WINNER IS...<br />

4<br />






GAS<br />

Iveco and Edison have<br />

signed a Memorandum<br />

of Understanding<br />

to accelerate the<br />

development of<br />

sustainable gas mobility<br />

Iveco and Edison have signed a<br />

MoU to accelerate the development<br />

of sustainable gas mobility<br />

and promote further the use of liquefied<br />

natural gas (LNG) in the road<br />

transport sector in Italy.<br />

In this case, FPT Industrial is indirect-<br />


ly involved as the engine arm of the<br />

Iveco Group, with which it started the<br />

spin-off from CNH Industrial. “Last<br />

October we completed the first integrated<br />

LNG logistics chain in Italy to<br />

support sustainable mobility, thanks to<br />

a small-scale coastal deposit in Ravenna,<br />

and an LNG carrier ship dedicated<br />

to the supply. Today we are taking<br />

a further step in the strategic path of<br />

decarbonisation of transport, in view<br />

of the European and Italian climate<br />

targets. By joining forces and working<br />

together with Iveco, both in Italy and<br />

internationally, we will be able to speed<br />

up the conversion of fleets and the energy<br />

transition process”, stated Nicola<br />

Monti, Edison CEO.<br />

Gerrit Marx, designated CEO, Iveco<br />

Group: “Natural gas mobility holds a<br />

big stake of our present and our future.<br />

It is an important step towards the decarbonization<br />

of the transport sector,<br />

and our pioneering efforts in this field<br />

have paid off: we now lead the market,<br />

with 55% of market share in Europe<br />

for LNG trucks. This collaboration will<br />

give an additional boost to sustainable<br />

mobility, which will be reinforced by<br />

the gradual introduction of biomethane<br />

in the project’s development plan.<br />

Iveco already offers near CO 2<br />

-neutral<br />

heavy-duty truck technology when the<br />

powertrain is running on renewable<br />

bio-methane: this further demonstrates<br />

our commitment and clear roadmap”.<br />



Mikael Lindner will be responsible for the engines and<br />

components business of MAN Truck & Bus SE as<br />

Head of MAN Engines and Senior Vice President of<br />

MAN Truck & Bus with effect from 1 January <strong>2022</strong>.<br />

His goal will be to ensure that the well-established<br />

components business of MAN Truck & Bus continues<br />

to thrive, to benefit from the strengths within the Group,<br />

and to position the company firmly in the direction of<br />

future technologies. “MAN Engines is an integral part<br />

of MAN Truck & Bus and a reliable partner for all our<br />

customers. I want to maintain this and further expand<br />

our business for the future,” says Lindner. Mikael<br />

Lindner has been in the engine industry since 2003.<br />

He studied mechanical engineering at the Royal<br />

Institute of Technology in Stockholm and graduated<br />

with a Master of Science degree specialising in<br />

industrial engineering and business administration.<br />

In his previous<br />

position, Lindner<br />

headed up<br />

the national<br />

organisation<br />

in Japan for<br />

the distribution<br />

and service of<br />

trucks, buses<br />

and engines<br />

from Swedish<br />

commercial<br />

vehicle<br />

manufacturer Scania, which, like MAN Truck & Bus, is<br />

also part of the Traton Group.<br />

In his capacity as Head of the MAN Engines Business<br />

Unit, Lindner will report to Göran Nyberg.<br />

AGRITECHNICA <strong>2022</strong> WILL NOT TAKE PLACE<br />

This year’s edition of Agritechnica was to be the place where people from over 140 countries could finally<br />

meet up in person again to gather information, exchange viewpoints and make investments. Unfortunately,<br />

due to the deteriorating pandemic situation in recent weeks and the resulting current official regulations, a<br />

situation has arisen which makes the trouble-free execution of Agritechnica no longer possible. Together<br />

with the VDMA Agricultural Machinery Association and the trade fair’s exhibitor advisory board, the<br />

organizers have therefore come to the decision that Agritechnica <strong>2022</strong> cannot take place in Hannover under<br />

these conditions. The next Agritechnica will take place from 12 to 18 November 2023 in its regular cycle.<br />





ON<br />

AND OFF<br />

ROAD<br />

Sir Jim Ratcliffe, Ineos’s founder and chairman: “We believe that hydrogen<br />

is the fuel of the future and Ineos is determined to take a leading role in its<br />

development. Electric cars are ideal for city centres and short journeys. But<br />

hydrogen is much better for longer journeys and heavier loads and that requires<br />

immediate investment in hydrogen distribution and hydrogen filling stations.”<br />

Needless to say, off-roaders<br />

have become bourgeois. Even<br />

the models that deny transformation<br />

into an SUV (which is<br />

very much appreciated by marketers),<br />

in terms of size, equipment and car<br />

body, are the opposite of a 4x4 suitable<br />

for driving along a mule track in the<br />

Alps. The Mercedes G, Land Rover<br />

Defender and Toyota Land Cruiser can<br />

only go off-road in the dunes behind<br />

the skyscrapers in Dubai without incurring<br />

in the risk of losing a few thousand<br />

euros for car body and electronics<br />

damage at the first misjudged obstacle.<br />

To the delight of those who love “pure<br />

and solid” off-roaders, an outsider<br />

that presents itself as the successor of<br />

the historic Land Rover opened the<br />

bookings a few weeks ago. It is the<br />

Ineos Grenadier, whose square lines<br />

are reminiscent of the “mother of all<br />

off-roaders” produced in Britain from<br />

1948 to 2<strong>01</strong>6. However, the English<br />

have already lost their case for plagiarism.<br />

These lines allow it to gain<br />

almost 10 centimetres in width compared<br />

to its competitors, although the<br />

Grenadier, with its 1.93 metres, is 14<br />

cm bulkier than the historic “Landie”.<br />

The Defender has<br />

been retired. But for<br />

the “hard and pure”<br />

off-roaders there is an<br />

outsider coming, with<br />

the collaboration of<br />

Magna Steyr, ZF and<br />

Carraro Drive Tech<br />

But, as we know, passenger safety<br />

doesn’t come cheap; it is no coincidence<br />

that one of the reasons for the<br />

ancestor’s retirement was its crash test<br />

results. Developed in collaboration<br />

with the Austrians from Magna Steyr<br />

as a heavy-duty 4x4 that is highly reliable<br />

and easy to repair, the Grenadier<br />

is 4.93-metre long and is based on an<br />

innovative chassis with side members<br />

produced by the Portuguese company<br />

Gestamp, to which the rigid steel and<br />

cast iron axles specifically developed<br />

by the Italian company Carraro are<br />

attached: they alone weigh 350 kilos<br />

per pair, about twice as much as in<br />

other cars, just to give an idea of the<br />

resistance targets. The powertrain with<br />

eight-speed (automatic) transmission,<br />

permanent four-wheel drive, gear reducer<br />

and centre locking differential<br />

is by ZF. The reference brand for the<br />

two planned engines is BMW. In fact,<br />

two three-litre six-cylinder petrol (turbo)<br />

and diesel (twin-turbo) engines,<br />

derived from the B57/B58 series but<br />

slightly downsized to offer a smoother<br />

delivery and more torque at low<br />

speed, have arrived from Munich. The<br />

diesel engine delivers 249 hp and 550<br />

Nm of torque, while the petrol one offers<br />

285 hp and 450 Nm of torque. In<br />

any case, such performances are more<br />

than enough not only for an off-road<br />

use and the 3.5-tonne towing capacity<br />

allowed, but also for an uncompromising<br />

motorway drive: a speed of 130<br />

km/h, which for the Land Rover was<br />

almost a mirage, must be a comfortable<br />

routine for the Grenadier.<br />

Its interiors are also distinctive, with<br />

an aeronautical style, influenced by<br />

heavy-duty choices: washable materials<br />

(there is a “rubber floor with drain<br />

plugs” option) and zero touch screen.<br />

All of the Grenadier’s functions are<br />

controlled via rotary pushbuttons and<br />

sliders that can be operated even with<br />

gloves on; the only screen is for infotainment.<br />

But why on earth did the<br />

London-based petrochemical giant Ineos,<br />

$91 billion in sales this year, decide<br />

to build the Grenadier off-roader?<br />

Because its chairman, Jim Ratcliffe,<br />

is a magnate with a passion for adventures<br />

and extreme sports. And,<br />

comparing himself to other wealthy<br />

enthusiasts in London’s muffled clubs,<br />

he realised that the retirement of the<br />

Land Rover Defender was an extraordinary<br />

opportunity to offer a reliable<br />

and robust 4x4, suitable for both those<br />

who use it for work, from forest rang-<br />

ers to electricity network maintenance<br />

technicians, and those who aim for the<br />

limit, in Africa as well as at the North<br />

Pole. An entrepreneurial adventure<br />

that began in 2<strong>01</strong>7 and led Sir Jim<br />

to buy – from Mercedes – one lot of<br />

the French plant in Hambach where<br />

Smart cars are produced in order to<br />

set up the Grenadier assembly line,<br />

and to involve, little by little, managers<br />

and technicians stolen from Bentley,<br />

Daimler, Ford, Land Rover itself,<br />

Tesla and Volkswagen. Available in<br />

three body variants – 5-seater standard,<br />

7-seater wagon and pick-up – the<br />

first Grenadiers will be in customers’<br />

hands in a few months. And, given<br />

the interest generated by the previews<br />

around the world, it is not unlikely that<br />

Ineos has put its stamp on a new segment<br />

in the automotive world.<br />

8<br />






EURO<br />

6E<br />

REGULATION (EU) 2<strong>01</strong>9/631<br />

For the period 2020-2024, Regulation (EU) 2<strong>01</strong>9/631<br />

confirms the EU fleet-wide CO 2<br />

emission targets set<br />

under Regulations (EC) No 443/2009 and (EU) No<br />

510/2<strong>01</strong>1.<br />

Cars: 95 g CO 2<br />

/km<br />

Vans: 147 g CO 2<br />

/km<br />

These target levels refer to the NEDC emission test<br />

procedure. From 2021 onwards, the emission targets<br />

for manufacturers will be based on the new WLTP<br />

emission test procedure.<br />

Starting in the years 2025 and 2030, Regulation (EU)<br />

2<strong>01</strong>9/631 sets stricter EU fleet-wide CO 2<br />

emission<br />

targets, which are defined as a percentage reduction<br />

from the 2021 starting points.<br />

Cars: 15% reduction from 2025 on and 37.5% reduction<br />

from 2030 on.<br />

Vans: 15% reduction from 2025 on and 31% reduction<br />

from 2030 on.<br />

FPT Industrial Cursor 13 and<br />

Andrea Abbà.<br />

“ Iveco and Air Liquide, a world leader in gases, technologies<br />

and services for Industry and Health, have signed<br />

a Memorandum of Understanding to develop hydrogen<br />

mobility in Europe”<br />

FPT Industrial, hand in hand<br />

with Iveco, is moving forward<br />

on the road to Euro 7.<br />

The European Commission’s<br />

sights will be set on CO 2<br />

, in other<br />

words, consumption. Euro 6E has<br />

now come into force. We asked Andrea<br />

Abbà, FPT’s On Road Product<br />

Marketing Manager, to explain the<br />

essence of this emissions rules upgrade.<br />

In the transition from Euro 6D to<br />

Euro 6E, the main changes and<br />

emission differences are in the number<br />

of particles and the cold start<br />

phase. With step E we introduced<br />

the titanium-vanadium SCR, as this<br />

technology shows better performance<br />

at low temperatures. Another<br />

new feature is the improved com-<br />

pression ratio on the Cursor family.<br />

It has been increased, with a view to<br />

reducing carbon dioxide emissions,<br />

without any impact on the product<br />

hardware.<br />

Titanium-vanadium<br />

SCR, new-generation<br />

ECU, increased<br />

compression ratio of<br />

the Cursor family.<br />

FPT Industrial’s<br />

Euro 6E has this<br />

and more. The main<br />

changes are in number<br />

of particles and the<br />

cold start phase<br />

What about the light duty range?<br />

We have introduced the dual SCR<br />

module, with dual urea injection,<br />

to facilitate cold starts. In addition,<br />

for the F1 Series, we optimised the<br />

common rail systems to 2,000 bar<br />

and introduced steel pistons, in order<br />

to reduce fuel consumption.<br />

Let’s get to the software...<br />

There is a new control unit (from<br />

Bosch) on all engine families, called<br />

MD1, which is faster in calculations.<br />

It’s a proprietary model that allows<br />

us to read the real exhaust emissions<br />

and consequently adapt urea injection<br />

on the basis of parameters that<br />

are actually read downstream from<br />

the exhaust. In short, there is a sensor<br />

that sees the exhaust emissions<br />

and the urea injection is managed<br />

according to the real emission values.<br />

Going into the heart of the engine,<br />

what did you change?<br />

On the Cursor we significantly increased<br />

the compression ratio from<br />

16.5:1 to 20.5:1. To optimise performance<br />

and fuel consumption on the<br />

F1 Series we opted for steel pistons<br />

instead of aluminium ones and increased<br />

the injection pressure of the<br />

common rail.<br />

Euro 6E came into force on 1 st<br />

January <strong>2022</strong>. Is there a next step<br />

planned?<br />

As of today there is no Euro 6F, but<br />

Euro 7 is being discussed, probably<br />

from 2026-2027. What the new emission<br />

limits will be is not yet known,<br />

everything is still in progress.<br />

Is there still room for improvement<br />

in a diesel engine or has the<br />

best been done?<br />

We believe that there is still room<br />

for improvement in diesel engines,<br />

especially with regard to fuel consumption<br />

and CO 2<br />

balance. For this<br />

reason we do not think that diesel<br />

will become a dead issue in the next<br />

five to ten years.<br />

What about synthetic fuels?<br />

Regarding alternative fuels, we have<br />

the entire range already certified and<br />

HVO approved: our engines can run<br />

on second-generation fuels, a fuel<br />

technology that helps reduce CO 2<br />

.<br />

To what extent and in what way<br />

does developing the Euro 6E platform<br />

help you in the run-up to<br />

Euro 7?<br />

The evolution from step D to step E<br />

has been very important in terms of<br />

optimising fuel consumption. While<br />

we’re waiting for clear guidelines<br />

for Euro 7, what was introduced in<br />

step E will be developed and improved<br />

in the transition to Euro 7.<br />

Increasing the compression ratio,<br />

together with the improvement of<br />

the common rail, makes it easier for<br />

us to work in the near future.<br />

Have radiators, weight and engine<br />

dimensions increased?<br />

No, the changeover to Euro 6E has<br />

not resulted in any increase in radiators,<br />

weight or overall dimensions<br />

compared to the D step versions.<br />

10<br />





THE TIME<br />

IS<br />

NOW?<br />


Flixbus hydrogen-powered coaches are set to be in<br />

operation in Europe by 2024. It’s FlixMobility itself to<br />

announce the future milestone. “<strong>Diesel</strong> buses in the FlixBus<br />

fleet can be replaced with fuel cell buses in the future”, the<br />

German group underlines. The minimum range request is<br />

450 km on a single refilling.<br />

FlixMobility is taking part in the recently started research<br />

project HyFleet together with its partners Freudenberg Fuel<br />

Cell e-Power Systems<br />

and ZF. The project<br />

consortium recently<br />

received the official “UIA”<br />

(a non-binding letter<br />

of intent) confirmation<br />

by the German Federal<br />

Ministry of Transport and<br />

Digital Infrastructure.<br />

André Schwämmlein, founder and CEO of FlixMobility: “Fuel cell<br />

power technology is part of the green mobility revolution and gives bus<br />

producers the chance to shape the future of sustainable mobility.”<br />

Technology in public transport<br />

has become a breeding ground<br />

for electrification. Will this<br />

also be the case for hydrogen?<br />

“Sustainable Bus” magazine asked<br />

UITP, FCH JU, the German association<br />

of public transport companies<br />

VDV, the operators Transdev and Keolis<br />

and other industry stakeholders<br />

during the webinar “Hydrogen buses.<br />

Their time is... now?”. According to<br />

Efe Usanmaz, Manager Knowledge<br />

and Innovation Department at UITP,<br />

the international organization of public<br />

transport, in 2030 the 12 percent<br />

of the city bus market in Europe will<br />

be covered by H2 buses. The JIVE<br />

and JIVE 2 projects will end in 2021<br />

with a total of 310 fuel cell buses<br />

rolled out in Europe (as of June 2021,<br />

there were some 150 hydrogen buses<br />

in operation) in 18 cities and regions<br />

across Europe by the end of <strong>2022</strong>. Efe<br />

Usanmaz provided us some insights.<br />

When it comes to city bus market<br />

developments, BEBs are expected<br />

to take the lead; PHEB CNG/biogas<br />

to stabilize as transition technology;<br />

CNG/biogas has different market<br />

penetration across different markets.<br />

Finally, Fuel Cell Hydrogen Bus<br />

technology is consolidated as viable<br />

ZE solution, even to the amount of 12<br />

“Sustainable Bus”<br />

magazine organised<br />

a “concert” of bus<br />

specialists. The<br />

score? Hydrogen<br />

buses out of 100, which we have just<br />

mentioned. Well, mass production is<br />

yet to be established. And costs is still<br />

an issue: a maximum price of €625k<br />

is the target of the above mentioned<br />

EU-backed projects.<br />

As of October 2021, 17 cities and regions<br />

have been involved in JIVE and<br />

JIVE 2 as they placed 274 bus orders<br />

from six different suppliers. Cologne<br />

and Wuppertal are taking the lead in<br />

Europe, with 70 hydrogen buses ordered<br />

so far. What is interesting is<br />

that they are to be deployed on suburban<br />

routes.<br />

It’s time for Fuel Cells and Hydrogen<br />

Joint Undertaking (FCH JU), a<br />

public private partnership supporting<br />

research, technological development<br />

and demonstration (RTD)<br />

activities in fuel cell and hydrogen<br />

energy technologies in Europe (with<br />

the European Commission among<br />

its member). Lionel Boillot, FCH JU<br />

project manager, updates data on the<br />

uptake of FBCs (Fuel Cells Buses) in<br />

Europe. Hydrogen buses within JIVE<br />

and JIVE 2 projects have reached<br />

15,000,000 km since projects started,<br />

more than 35,000 hours lifetime and<br />

40.000 km/year per bus on average.<br />

One of the most demanding challenges<br />

was reducing downtime. The most<br />

immediate solutions to achieve this<br />

goal have been to simplify access to<br />

spare parts, to integrate FC maintenance<br />

in bus preventative schedule<br />

and to focus dedicated pits at bus<br />

depots. Finally, a significant element<br />

is undoubtedly the presence of OEM<br />

staff on-site. Boillot tackles a hot topic,<br />

without which it is unthinkable to<br />

imagine hydrogen moving beyond<br />

the sphere of good intentions into<br />

practice and into applications that<br />

feed the vehicle fleet: business and financing<br />

models. Joint procurements,<br />

for instance, allow several cities to<br />

order plots of buses, renewing them<br />

from ten to ten according to budget<br />

availability. Another way is central<br />

purchase office, such as UGAP in<br />

France, where FCB are available on<br />

catalogue, and there is no need for<br />

a tender. Special Purpose Vehicle<br />

(SPV) gather all stakeholders (PTO,<br />

OEMs, H2 suppliers etc.) in order to<br />

share the investment risks.<br />

Last but not least FCB leasing. These<br />

are measures to reduce the economic<br />

damage caused by the lack of a second-hand<br />

market. Basically it’s matter<br />

of CapEx and uncertainties’reduc-<br />

tion at end of the concession.<br />

At the end, some pills of Project<br />

Genesis. The speaker is Bart Kraaijvanger,<br />

Manager Zero Emission Programs<br />

at Transdev Netherlands. The<br />

case study is the retrofit of an Iveco<br />

Crossway coach, equipped with a<br />

diesel engine, replaced by a hydrogen<br />

electric motor (via a fuel cell). The<br />

four steps of this project started at the<br />

beginning of 2021, with the completion<br />

of the technical, partnership and<br />

financial file. During the last year<br />

Q2 and Q3 the technical and administrative<br />

procedures to carry out the<br />

retrofit have been set. In Old Evreux,<br />

Normandy (France), started the refurbishment<br />

of the EAS-Hymob station,<br />

to improve the refuelling network and<br />

satisfy the basic needs of a successful<br />

initiative.<br />

12<br />


kWe & H2 - AUTOMOTIVE<br />





TRUCKS<br />

“The partnership between the global commercial vehicles manufacturer and the<br />

US-based group specializing in zero-emission heavy-duty trucks and related<br />

energy solutions is about to begin its manufacturing journey in Ulm, Germany.”<br />

Iveco and Nikola, the US startup<br />

active in the electric truck sector,<br />

have inaugurated with a live and<br />

online event a new facility in Ulm,<br />

Germany. The manufacturing site was<br />

renewed and reorganized over the last<br />

two years and will soon be used to assemble<br />

the Nikola Tre BEV heavy-duty<br />

trucks. However, the site is already<br />

suitable for the Nikola Tre FCEV<br />

trucks, which will be assembled using<br />

the same lines starting from 2023. Our<br />

colleagues from “Sustainable Truck<br />

& Van” magazine had the opportunity<br />

to attend the opening ceremony held<br />

in October in Ulm, quite an important<br />

milestone of the partnership established<br />

nearly two years ago by Iveco, FPT<br />

Industrial and Nikola and presented in<br />

December 2<strong>01</strong>9 with a dedicated event<br />

in Turin, during which the first proto-<br />

type of an electric truck was unveiled to<br />

the press all over Europe.<br />

The first Nikola Tre electric heavy-duty<br />

trucks have been produced at the<br />

end of 2021. The vehicles will be initially<br />

addressed to the US market,<br />

while from next year on the first Nikola<br />

trucks addressed to the European<br />

market will be produced. Based on the<br />

Launching the battery<br />

technology first will<br />

drive the maturity<br />

of the underlying<br />

platform before<br />

adding the fuel cell<br />

as a range-extension<br />

technology<br />

Iveco S-Way truck platform with an<br />

electric axle co-designed and produced<br />

by FPT Industrial, the Nikola Tre features<br />

an advanced electric and fuel cell<br />

technology, along with key components<br />

provided by Bosch. Together, the<br />

teams have designed a modular platform<br />

capable of fuel cell as well as battery<br />

propulsion technology. Launching<br />

the battery technology first will drive<br />

the maturity of the underlying platform<br />

before adding the fuel cell as a<br />

range-extension technology.<br />

The Ulm plant – located within the traditional<br />

Iveco site – relies on 50,000<br />

square meters, of which 25,000 are<br />

covered. It is a final assembly plant,<br />

conceived to be flexible enough to assemble<br />

both electric and fuel cell vehicles.<br />

The site will welcome components<br />

from over 160 suppliers all over<br />

the world and, according to the top<br />

managers, will be soon ready to produce<br />

1,000 trucks a year per shift. So,<br />

around 3,000 trucks every year. Nikola<br />

can rely on another production plant<br />

in Arizona, which will serve the US<br />

market according to the company’s future<br />

plans. As a matter of fact, Nikola<br />

is building a broad dealer network in<br />

the United States. The site is expected<br />

to operate according to the principles<br />

of the World Class Manufacturing programme<br />

and is conceived to include<br />

fully digital shopfloor management designed<br />

to guarantee 100% traceability<br />

and paperless operations. Quite a high<br />

number of logistics AGVs (Automated<br />

Guided Vehicles) will help assembly<br />

operators in Ulm.<br />

The opening ceremony was the right<br />

occasion to take stock of the joint<br />

venture, with Nikola’s CEO, Mark<br />

Russell, and Gerrit Marx, CEO of<br />

the Iveco Group, who answered the<br />

questions coming from journalists.<br />

“There’s no reason to worry about the<br />

future of the Nikola project and the<br />

future of the joint venture”, they said,<br />

also reaffirming that the trucks will be<br />

sold under the Nikola brand also in<br />

the future and that the two companies<br />

are facing indeed the hot issue of key<br />

components shortage.<br />

There was room also for the joint<br />

venture’s plans on hydrogen development.<br />

“We are focused on finding the<br />

best solution in terms of carbon intensity.<br />

We are looking for a system that<br />

might be actually cost-effective”, said<br />

Gerrit Marx.<br />

During the opening ceremony a memorandum<br />

was signed between the<br />

Nikola-Iveco joint venture and the<br />

Hamburg Port Authority. The agreement<br />

states their joint intent to partner<br />

in two phases encompassing up<br />

to 25 Nikola Tre battery-electric vehicles<br />

(BEV) for delivery to the port<br />

throughout <strong>2022</strong>. The first phase involves<br />

testing of the Nikola Tre BEVs<br />

at the port for transport and logistics<br />

operations together with high-performance<br />

charging solutions. A more<br />

definitive second phase in the project<br />

partnership plans to see the full integration<br />

of the BEV vehicles in port<br />

operations, installation of charging<br />

infrastructure and on-site service support<br />

including major suppliers. The<br />

vehicles provided for these two phases<br />

will be the US version of the Nikola<br />

Tre with special permissions for inport<br />

operation.<br />

14<br />




kWe - OFFROAD<br />




BACKUP<br />

FOR<br />


Ballard Power Systems is supplying<br />

an advanced, 1.5 MW ClearGen-II<br />

hydrogen fuel cell power generator<br />

for a demonstration project with<br />

Caterpillar and Microsoft.<br />



MINING<br />

US-based gold producer Newmont<br />

Mining signed an agreement<br />

with Caterpillar to deliver a zeroemissions<br />

mining system to improve<br />

safety and productivity.<br />

H<br />

ydrogen is a frontier, requiring<br />

cohesion and a common<br />

horizon. One of the applications<br />

for this energy carrier is<br />

certainly data centres. For this reason<br />

Caterpillar has joined forces with Microsoft<br />

and Ballard Power Systems.<br />

The project aims to develop a 1.5 MW<br />

backup power system incorporating<br />

a large-format hydrogen fuel cell for<br />

data centers. As the prime contractor<br />

on the project, Caterpillar is providing<br />

the overall system integration, power<br />

electronics, and controls that form the<br />

central structure of the power solution,<br />

which will be fueled by low-carbon-intensity<br />

hydrogen. Microsoft is<br />

hosting the demonstration project at a<br />

company data center in Quincy, Washington,<br />

while Ballard is supplying an<br />

advanced hydrogen fuel cell module.<br />

The National Renewable Energy<br />

Laboratory (NREL) is performing<br />

analyses on safety, techno-economics,<br />

and greenhouse gas (GHG) impacts.<br />

In exploring the “hydrogen dimension”<br />

there are several problems to be<br />

solved. In a critical application such as<br />

data centres, as might be the standby<br />

unit for a hospital facility, the power<br />

output must be providing uninterruptible<br />

power that supports totally uptime<br />

requirements. The project will also<br />

explore the scalability of fuel cell systems<br />

powered by low-carbon-intensity<br />

hydrogen from cost and performance<br />

perspectives, including 48-hour operation<br />

using on-site fuel, power transfer<br />

time, and load acceptance.<br />

“At Caterpillar, we focus on supporting<br />

our customers with reliable, resilient<br />

and economical power solutions while<br />

achieving their climate-related goals,”<br />

Caterpillar, Microsoft<br />

and Ballard are<br />

involved in a hydrogen<br />

fuel cell project<br />

said Jason Kaiser, vice president of<br />

Caterpillar Electric Power. “This hydrogen<br />

fuel cell demonstration project<br />

enables us to collaborate with industry<br />

leaders to take a large step toward commercially<br />

viable power solutions that<br />

also support our customers in making<br />

their operations more sustainable.”<br />

“We continue to invest in research and<br />

advanced development in hydrogen fuel<br />

cells as one of the various pathways<br />

toward our commitment to be carbon<br />

negative by 2030,” said Christian Belady,<br />

Distinguished Engineer and VP,<br />

Advanced Development, Cloud Operations<br />

+ Innovation at Microsoft.<br />

“The results of this project will provide<br />

key insights into the capability of fuel<br />

cell systems to scale and serve multi-megawatt<br />

data centers,” said Randy<br />

MacEwen, Ballard’s President and<br />

CEO. These efforts are supported and<br />

partially funded by the US Department<br />

of Energy (DOE) under the H2@Scale<br />

initiative and backed by the NREL.<br />

N<br />

ewmont Mining, the world’s<br />

largest gold mining company,<br />

announced a strategic alliance<br />

agreement with Caterpillar to<br />

deliver a fully connected, automated,<br />

zero-emissions, mining system.<br />

Through this agreement, the two<br />

companies will collaborate to create a<br />

safer, more productive mine, and support<br />

Newmont in reaching their 2030<br />

greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction<br />

targets of more than 30 percent,<br />

with an ultimate goal of being<br />

net-zero carbon by 2050.<br />

The agreement will also include the<br />

rapid deployment of an all-electric autonomous<br />

haulage fleet of 26 vehicles<br />

with an initial investment from Newmont<br />

of 100 million dollars.<br />

“A year ago, Newmont announced<br />

industry-leading emission reduction<br />

targets because we understand the human<br />

contribution to climate change.<br />

We followed with a commitment to<br />

invest 500 million dollars over five<br />

years to identify pathways forward as<br />

we firmly believe that we must make<br />

bold, lasting commitments to achieve<br />

the necessary change for a bright,<br />

healthy future,” said Tom Palmer,<br />

President and CEO of Newmont<br />

Corporation. “Today, we furthered<br />

that commitment by announcing a new<br />

strategic alliance with Caterpillar to<br />

address climate change by fundamentally<br />

changing the mining industry<br />

through the rapid development and<br />

implementation of a comprehensive<br />

“We furthered that<br />

commitment by<br />

announcing a new<br />

strategic alliance with<br />

Caterpillar to address<br />

climate change by<br />

changing the mining<br />

industry”<br />

all-electric autonomous mining system<br />

to achieve zero emissions mining.”<br />

Building pathways to decarbonization<br />

is essential for the future of mining.<br />

“Caterpillar is committed to providing<br />

transformational advancements in<br />

safety, sustainability and technology,”<br />

said Jim Umpleby, Chairman and<br />

CEO of Caterpillar. “We share Newmont’s<br />

dedication to a reduced-carbon<br />

future, and we’re honored to work together<br />

on this industry leading effort.”<br />

Caterpillar will develop its first battery<br />

electric zero-emissions underground<br />

truck to be deployed by 2026.<br />

The deployment includes a fleet of<br />

up to 10 battery electric underground<br />

haul trucks, supported by Caterpillar’s<br />

advanced electrification and infrastructure<br />

system. The time-line?<br />

First-of-a-kind battery electric haulage<br />

technology for underground mining<br />

in 2024, the introduction of battery<br />

autonomous technology in 2025,<br />

with full deployment in 2026.<br />

16<br />





IS ICE<br />

THE WAY TO<br />



Bosch and Italian specialized company OMB Saleri have<br />

signed a partnership that will allow Bosch to have in<br />

its own portfolio also key components such as tank<br />

valves and pressure regulators. These components are<br />

supposed to equip hydrogen tanks for mobile on-road<br />

applications. In fact, Bosch expects one in eight new<br />

commercial vehicles to be powered by fuel cells by<br />

2030. From 2021 to 2024, Bosch plans to invest around<br />

600 million euros in mobile fuel-cell applications and<br />

a further 400 million euros in stationary ones for<br />

the generation of electricity and heat. The portfolio<br />

for vehicles ranges from individual sensors to core<br />

components such as the electric air compressor and<br />

the stack to the complete fuel-cell module.<br />

“At Interact Analysis, our research shows that, whilst the technology clearly<br />

has the potential to reduce carbon emissions, the use of hydrogen combustion<br />

engines in heavy duty applications will be limited because of the challenges<br />

with machine and fuel price, the small number of suitable applications, and<br />

the shift toward battery and fuel cell solutions in many other applications.”<br />

Hydrogen has hit the headlines.<br />

Its application with the ICE,<br />

according to some, could be<br />

its crowning achievement,<br />

ahead of the time expected by insiders.<br />

Alastair Hayfield, Senior<br />

Research Director of Interact Analysis,<br />

pondered if this makes sense. He<br />

pointed out that “JCB announced in<br />

May that it would be developing such<br />

a solution. And hot on the heels of this<br />

news we have seen Cummins, Caterpillar,<br />

Liebherr and the GAC Group<br />

make announcements that they too<br />

will be trialing and developing hydrogen<br />

combustion engines for a variety<br />

of applications. A hydrogen fueled<br />

combustion engine works in much the<br />

same way as a diesel fueled combustion<br />

engine. Hydrogen is combusted to<br />

produce water with no carbon-based<br />

emissions; however, the temperature<br />

of the reaction produces nitrogen<br />

oxides, which are harmful to human<br />

health. In addition to emissions and<br />

Is hydrogen technology<br />

“the place to be”? And<br />

does it make sense<br />

to convert internal<br />

combustion engines<br />

to pursue the goal<br />

of decarbonisation?<br />

Alastair Hayfield, from<br />

Interact Analysis,<br />

spoke on the topic and<br />

answered our questions<br />

the costs associated with minimizing<br />

them, a “regular” combustion engine<br />

designed to use diesel needs to be<br />

modified to run on hydrogen, adding<br />

further cost. Additionally, a weighty<br />

set of high-pressure hydrogen tanks<br />

must be added to the vehicle, further<br />

increasing cost and decreasing the<br />

cargo payload. The current cost of<br />

hydrogen means that, not only is the<br />

engine/vehicle more expensive, but it<br />

costs substantially more to run – not<br />

something that is mentioned in the<br />

slick PR and marketing behind these<br />

projects. Proponents of the technology<br />

will argue that the cost of hydrogen<br />

will decrease with scale (true,<br />

but on a timeline of 5-10 years) and<br />

that “electrified” powertrains – battery<br />

or fuel cell – cost substantially<br />

more upfront. On this latter point,<br />

that is true right now, our research at<br />

Interact Analysis shows that both the<br />

battery and the fuel cell system are<br />

falling in price substantially over the<br />

next 5 or 10 years. Not only will this<br />

bring the purchase price of an electrified<br />

powertrain much closer to parity<br />

with an internal combustion engine<br />

powertrain, but with the substantially<br />

lower running costs associated with<br />

electricity, the total cost of ownership<br />

will be lower – for battery electric<br />

systems, at least”.<br />

These are the assumptions. POWER-<br />

TRAIN and Sustainabletruckvan.com<br />

asked Alastair to answer their questions.<br />

There were a lot of expectations<br />

about the COP26, but it was totally<br />

disappointing. After the COP26,<br />

what’s your opinion about the internal<br />

combustion engine fueled by<br />

hydrogen as a transition technology?<br />

I think it can work but there are a<br />

number of challenges to face. All the<br />

manufacturers and OEMs will have to<br />

develop their engines, road test them<br />

and it will take time: we won’t see<br />

their engines rolling out of production<br />

in <strong>2022</strong>, we’re looking in a something<br />

long-term. Realistically, it will take at<br />

least three years before this technology<br />

enters the market in meaningful<br />

volumes. However, we have to face<br />

the challenge of emissions. I wonder<br />

if this technology will be beaten or<br />

maybe overtaken by other solutions,<br />

i.e. fuel cells. I don’t think there is a<br />

clear path towards electrifying agriculture<br />

machinery particularly quick-<br />

ly; we know that truck manufacturers<br />

are looking to biofuels, synthetic diesel,<br />

which are a lot easier to use with<br />

car engines because there is no real<br />

change in how you distribute it and<br />

store it. We think hydrogen doesn’t<br />

pollute but at the moment most hydrogen<br />

is not green, it’s brown and there’s<br />

still a carbon footprint associated<br />

with it. For me, there are still many<br />

issues to be resolved in this technology<br />

that sounds very promising: there<br />

are technical challenges and market<br />

challenges.<br />

You mentioned the green hydrogen,<br />

which can be considered the key to<br />

a really sustainable transition. How<br />

far are we from the development of<br />

green hydrogen on large scale in the<br />

commercial vehicle sector? Our<br />

18<br />




Right, Alastair<br />

Hayfield, Senior<br />

Research Director<br />

of Interact Analysis.<br />

On the left, the Cursor<br />

X, multifuel concept<br />

by FPT Industrial, and<br />

a complete package<br />

by Hyvia. In the<br />

previous page, Rolls-<br />

Royce has exhibited<br />

mtu fuel cells at<br />

COP26 in Glasgow.<br />

impression is that we are still quite<br />

far from green hydrogen.<br />

I agree. If we look to Australia or the<br />

Middle East we see some serious investments<br />

going to green hydrogen, but<br />

I think it’s going to take a long time.<br />

native solutions. Almost all on-highway<br />

truck manufacturers are focused<br />

on battery electric. Obviously, Cummins<br />

is doing some work around<br />

hydrogen in internal combustion<br />

engines. They have two models available<br />

and supplied in North America in<br />

a path towards positive perception of<br />

hydrogen used in internal combustion<br />

engines. Cummins have invested a lot<br />

in hydrogen, but I think in Europe this<br />

is not the best solution.<br />

In Europe some politicians are<br />

scared about electrification because<br />

it could cost much to the whole supply<br />

chain, because we have a lot<br />

of components manufacturers involved<br />

in the traditional powertrain<br />

systems. Do you think this could be<br />

an obstacle to research about elec-<br />

All the truck manufacturers talk<br />

about long-term strategies: biodiesel,<br />

electrification, fuel cells. They<br />

hardly speak of hydrogen at all,<br />

except DAF which is running some<br />

tests. In your opinion, are they doing<br />

tests without communicating it<br />

or are they more focused on fuels?<br />

I think they are more focused on fuel<br />

cells and battery electric, if you look<br />

where all of the investment money is<br />

going: billions of Euros are going to<br />

battery cell production. I think there’s<br />

very little additional money for altertrification<br />

or new technologies?<br />

If you look at jobs in the automotive<br />

industry, passenger cars, commercial<br />

vehicles, off-highway, a large number<br />

of jobs has nothing to do with powertrain:<br />

you still have to assemble vehicles,<br />

you still have to produce lighting,<br />

braking, interiors, infotainment<br />

systems, etc. Here in the UK there was<br />

a lot of concern that Ford would shut<br />

its Halewood transmission facility,<br />

but they have just announced they will<br />

reinvest £230m funds into producing<br />

electrified components. I think this is<br />

an opportunity to rescale, to reinvest.<br />

I don’t really agree with the argument<br />

this is going to cost a lot of unemployment<br />

or that this is really bad for the<br />

supply chain.<br />

Can hydrogen ICE and fuel cells<br />

coexist in the future?<br />

I think so. I think hydrogen ICE is a<br />

transitional technology and I don’t<br />

see it becoming a major part of the<br />

market in a long term.<br />

Converting internal combustion engines<br />

to hydrogen there is a loss of<br />

efficiency.<br />

If you compare a diesel ICE with a<br />

hydrogen one, theoretically the hydrogen<br />

engine should be thermally<br />

as efficient. In reality it isn’t, because<br />

obviously we are looking to a hundred-year<br />

story of investment in diesel<br />

to make it as efficient as possible. And<br />

then we have another problem: the<br />

hydrogen engine is more expensive<br />

and the actual hydrogen is expensive.<br />

It is very difficult for an operator or<br />

an end user to choose a vehicle that<br />

is more expensive and less efficient.<br />

With fuel cells the powertrain is much<br />

more efficient than any form of internal<br />

combustion engine. Many manufacturers<br />

have been quite slow in the<br />

transition to electrification because<br />

they don’t have money to invest, so I<br />

think they could partner to develop<br />

solutions. Brown hydrogen technology<br />

is technically feasible, but I wonder<br />

how quickly they can scale this<br />

technology from the cost perspective.<br />

The investments are going to green<br />

hydrogen, so I don’t think it will be in<br />

the short or mid-term.<br />

A crucial issue is the infrastructure,<br />

which is a problem for hydrogen<br />

ICEs but also for fuel cells. The manufacturers<br />

are talking about producing<br />

biofuels and synthetic fuels in<br />

Chile. The problem is how to move to<br />

Europe, North America and China?<br />

The problem is basically the same: how<br />

do you transport hydrogen around the<br />

world? My opinion is that it should be<br />

converted into ammonia, transported<br />

by ship and then converted back from<br />

ammonia into hydrogen. But if we are<br />

talking about local distribution, that’s<br />

very challenging because hydrogen<br />

storage is very expensive and it is<br />

unlikely to be stored in the next few<br />

years in remote areas or outside the<br />

big cities. If you’re going to use hydrogen<br />

in internal combustion engine<br />

in agriculture or in mining equipment,<br />

I can say this can be achieved. But,<br />

how can you get this fuel to where is<br />

needed? This is the real challenge.<br />

That’s why I think it’s a quite limited<br />

technology.<br />

20<br />





KOHLER<br />

SMALL<br />



CEOL is the Agreenculture’s autonomous agricultural<br />

robot remote-controlled via GPS, on which the K-HEM<br />

1003 will be installed starting in <strong>2022</strong>. Agreenculture, a<br />

French manufacturer of autonomous agricultural solutions,<br />

has been working with Kohler for some time on the<br />

development of a product that aims to raise the bar for the<br />

level of technology available to the agricultural industry.<br />

Like other manufacturers, Agreenculture was quick to<br />

embrace the features of the K-HEM 1003 hybrid unit, which<br />

is perfect for this type of application.<br />

“We found Kohler to be a valid support for taking the<br />

CEOL robot to a further stage of development, and we<br />

are convinced that it will be a new benchmark in terms of<br />

innovation and technology,” said Christophe Aubé, Founder<br />

and President of Agreenculture.<br />

“Once again, Kohler demonstrates that it is the perfect<br />

alternative to the traditional market offer for achieving the<br />

highest level of technology and innovation. Agreenculture’s<br />

autonomous robot is a perfect example of the direction that<br />

precision agricultural mechanization has taken,” remarked<br />

Vincenzo Perrone, President of Kohler Engines.<br />

The “K” in the acronym “KSD”<br />

stands out for Kohler, just as it<br />

does in “KDI”. The line-up’s<br />

first restructured units were the<br />

modular 1.9 and 2.45 L (B/S 88 x 102<br />

mm) followed by the 3.4 L (B/S 96 x<br />

116 mm). The 1.4 L now brings the<br />

family’s renewal to completion while<br />

strengthening Kohler’s placement below<br />

the momentous 19 kW threshold.<br />

Guido Franchi, Product Manager<br />

<strong>Diesel</strong> Engine at Kohler Engines<br />

EMEA, replies to our questions.<br />

What’s the market request concerning<br />

engines with this displacement?<br />

Above 19 kW after-treatment is imperative.<br />

Some of our competitors’<br />

strategy was to depower the existing<br />

engines, which took a toll on performance,<br />

especially regarding torque.<br />

We, instead, worked on real market<br />

needs, developing an innovative technology<br />

(this refers primarily to the<br />

injection system, editor’s note) which<br />

allowed us to set up an extremely compact<br />

platform – one of the features<br />

that has a strong appeal to installers.<br />

What is it that makes it disruptive and<br />

more competitive compared to other<br />

well-tested engine units in this range?<br />

We managed to build a 1.4 liter in the<br />

same size as a 1.1 liter, with 90 Nm<br />

The KSD series, Kohler<br />

Small Displacement,<br />

is a 1.4-litre, 18.4<br />

kW and up to 120<br />

Nm electronic diesel<br />

engine<br />

at 1800 rpm in its aspirated version,<br />

which gets as high as 105 Nm for its<br />

turbocharged counterpart and to 120<br />

Nm for the one with an aftercooler.<br />

This is how we managed to reconcile<br />

compactness with performance, especially<br />

in terms of torque and power<br />

output at low revs – reaching the levels<br />

one usually gets with a far bigger engine<br />

– typically a 1.5 or a 1.7 liter unit.<br />

There aren’t many electronic engines<br />

of this size around. Electronics are<br />

meant to be an advantage for customers,<br />

which means they should not make<br />

installation trickier, or more expensive.<br />

That’s why we worked heavily on flexibility;<br />

we can provide all the benefits of<br />

an electronic engine without affecting<br />

the ease of installation customer side.<br />

We provide a drop-in solution whereby<br />

the mechanical engine that’s already<br />

onboard can be easily replaced. This<br />

means, for instance, that the same unit<br />

is provided with a dual wiring interface,<br />

including a standard one with<br />

which the customer can still use their<br />

analogue dashboard or mechanical<br />

lever (we provide an engine-mounted<br />

potentiometer).<br />

So what you’re hinting at is that<br />

KSD is just so flexible that the benefits<br />

of electronic control can get<br />

embedded into a machine’s functions<br />

without spending a fortune or<br />

disrupting its layout?<br />

Exactly. I mean that OEMs will be able<br />

to obtain certain features and functions<br />

that are found on units with a<br />

higher displacement and performance,<br />

simply through CANbus connection.<br />

Again focusing on flexibility, I’d like to<br />

highlight that the cooling fan position<br />

is adjustable, as the fan’s not fitted on<br />

the water pump but has a dedicated<br />

pulley. Hence it can be mounted in<br />

different ways, allowing for its easy<br />

alignment with the existing radiator<br />

in any installation. As for service<br />

side, we have all options available, on<br />

both the intake and the exhaust sides.<br />

Another thing we bet on is reducing<br />

the cost of ownership, by providing<br />

an extended service interval. In the<br />

standard engine version, this is equal<br />

to 500 hours. The alternator has a<br />

“stretch Poly-V” belt featuring a running<br />

time of 2000 hours. The tappets<br />

are of the hydraulic type and need no<br />

adjustment. We also offer a few options<br />

to reach a 1000-hour interval, which is<br />

required, for instance, for light towers<br />

or gensets. The engine suits all applications,<br />

including heavy duty.<br />

What’s the breakthrough compared<br />

to the FOCS series?<br />

We are now targeting excavators,<br />

wheel loaders, skid steers, and, as<br />

mentioned earlier, gensets. In addition<br />

to offering a highly innovative<br />

engine, we’re also aiming for<br />

cost-competitiveness. Given the engine’s<br />

heavy-duty architecture, it has<br />

a gear transmission (again differently<br />

than the FOCS) and the fan can be<br />

fitted in different positions. The entry<br />

version has no PTO; with maximum<br />

flexibility in mind, we give our customers<br />

the possibility to remove the<br />

cover that’s on the engine block and<br />

install a third 40 Nm PTO. We’ve already<br />

developed a broad assortment<br />

of options: for example, suction manifolds<br />

in different shapes, and versions<br />

with an electric or mechanical pump.<br />

22<br />





The KDI 3404 TCR-SCR Stage V in the Power Pack version is the<br />

most powerful engine in Kohler’s offering, with performance<br />

capable of reaching 650 Nm@1400 rpm and 112 kW@1800<br />

rpm of maximum power (105 kW@2200 rpm). Thanks to its<br />

compact size application, everything is already assembled, ready<br />

to be installed and adaptable to different types of machines<br />

(agricultural, industrial, or in the construction industry), also<br />

thanks to the generous performance features of the engine<br />

and the selected accessories available. The same engine<br />

model is also available in the Electro Pack version. Able to 315<br />

Nm@1500 rpm and 55 kW from 2000 rpm, the KDI 2504 TCR<br />

Stage V Agri model is a customized variant strictly for tractor<br />

installations, with compact ATS mounted on the engine and a<br />

dedicated layout for the brake compressor and air-conditioning<br />

compressor, mounted in front. Therefore, this is a highly<br />

versatile engine thanks to the possibility to work also at low<br />

rpm while maintaining the expected performance and at the<br />

same time saving on fuel consumption. This is made possible<br />

by the very high torque values, which are reflected in an engine<br />

responsive to work loads even at low speeds, making it even<br />

quieter and more comfortable also with the addition of counterrotating<br />

shafts.<br />

Guido Franchi, Product Manager <strong>Diesel</strong><br />

Engine at Kohler Engines EMEA.<br />

The most meaningful features include<br />

cold starting: we took the challenge of<br />

starting the engine at –26 °C without<br />

a block heater, relying solely on the<br />

electric pump and a powerful starter<br />

motor. Other options include a fuel<br />

filter, either mounted on the engine as<br />

standard equipment or provided as a<br />

remote filter for easier installation; oil<br />

refilling either from the engine head,<br />

above the rocker arm cover, or on the<br />

side, which makes maintenance easier.<br />

Indeed, servicing can be done both on<br />

exhaust and on intake sides. There is a<br />

remote filter both in the aspirated and<br />

the turbocharged versions; we have oil<br />

dipsticks coming in different shapes<br />

and two types of sumps, a standard<br />

5.6 L one plus a 3.7 L compact version<br />

which is meant to become standard as<br />

it allows to reach a 500-hour oil in-<br />

terval and to fit a wide variety of applications.<br />

We’re also working on an<br />

Electro Pack and a full Power Pack<br />

(radiator, tailpipe, air filter, control<br />

board) available as of April 2023. The<br />

Power Pack was devised with variable<br />

rpm engines in mind, while the Electro<br />

Pack is for fixed rpm engines. We<br />

have three types of alternators – 45,<br />

80 and 100 Ampere – with the “stretch<br />

Poly-V” which frees us from the need<br />

to adjust the belt tension. We have a<br />

SAE 4 as well as a SAE 5 backplate.<br />

Its shape reminds that of Kubota, for<br />

easier maintenance.<br />

Many would expect Kohler to provide<br />

engines bigger than 3.4 L. The<br />

KSD range is the one that faces<br />

tougher competition from two-cylinder<br />

petrol engines and electric motors.<br />

So yours was a brave choice.<br />

Are these engines also meant to replenish<br />

the K-HEM range?<br />

As for “green-tinted” engines, we’ve<br />

already scheduled for 2023 a hybrid<br />

version of the K-HEM fitted with a<br />

KSD that will run on 100% HVO and<br />

other alternative low-carbon fuels. The<br />

same platform will feature spark-ignition<br />

versions. For heavy duty applications,<br />

we believe internal combustion<br />

engines are still the answer.<br />

Kohler’s response to the depowering<br />

of existing engines is a line expressly<br />

designed to provide balanced torque<br />

and power curves. We know there’s<br />

no ATS. What about the EGR?<br />

There is no gas recirculation, either.<br />

To us, the aspirated version is pretty<br />

interesting due to its compact size<br />

and behaviour at high altitude. The<br />

electronic injection allows to keep<br />

performance unaltered: if you get<br />

18.4 kW at sea level, you will still get<br />

about 18.2 kW at a 1700 m altitude,<br />

while the natural derating of an aspirated<br />

engine is usually equal to 1%<br />

every 100 m (thus, about 14kW less<br />

power). Injection is optimized for real-life<br />

environmental and load conditions.<br />

Load response is far quicker<br />

(currently, many mechanical engines<br />

feature an electronic rpm adjuster as<br />

an option) which is also beneficial to<br />

gensets, in that an engine with a lower<br />

speed drop allows gensets to keep a<br />

constant frequency.<br />

An overview of performance in the<br />

KSD Series.<br />

The innovation lies in having created<br />

a common rail with direct injection,<br />

which provides benefits in terms of size<br />

and noise levels. To achieve this, we<br />

worked on calibration and pre-chamber<br />

injections. As for injection, we<br />

tried to transfer a system that’s usually<br />

found on direct injection units onto<br />

a diesel engine with indirect injection<br />

– with several advantages: to begin<br />

with, a low-pressure rail that allows us<br />

to meet the needs of those user areas<br />

where fuel is of a cheaper quality.<br />

How is this injection system different<br />

from a conventional common rail?<br />

Basically it’s about the pressure –<br />

sensibly lower – and indirect injection<br />

that relies on a pre-chamber. If<br />

we look at the genset power ratings,<br />

interestingly we will notice that the<br />

turbo-aftercooler version, in stand-by<br />

mode, reaches maximum power (18.8<br />

kW) at 1500 rpm, at 1800 rpm in prime<br />

mode: which means having an engine<br />

that’s just below 19 kW about the size<br />

of a 1.1 L unit. And speaking of size,<br />

we manage to reach 90 Nm at 1800<br />

rpm with compact dimensions thanks<br />

to a sump that’s smaller – even in its<br />

deeper version (the one that guarantees<br />

1000 running hours) while height,<br />

length and width are basically the<br />

same. I’d like to close by highlighting<br />

the flexibility of our wiring connections.<br />

We offer two different interfaces<br />

– a standard version designed for<br />

those needing to replace a mechanical<br />

engine – a potentiometer and analogue<br />

signals so that electronics does<br />

not come at an additional cost. The<br />

optional version (Best engine machine<br />

integration solution), instead, features<br />

different connectors and control unit<br />

options available customer side, an<br />

electronic dashboard, as well as diagnostics<br />

through the Kohler CheckApp.<br />

24<br />


REPORT<br />



PROUD<br />

TO BE<br />



What is the true meaning of sustainability? Is it possible to<br />

find the right balance between economical, technological<br />

and environmental sustainability? The first edition of the<br />

Sustainable <strong>Powertrain</strong> Tour 2021 looks towards the future<br />

without neglecting the current requirements of OEMs as<br />

well as end users when it comes to choosing a machine<br />

or a system. As a matter of fact, cleaner diesel engines,<br />

hybridization, electrification and research on alternative<br />

fuels for ICEs do not concern only automotive applications.<br />

The watchword for decarbonization is “RIGHT NOW”. In<br />

other words, it’s time to talk about all this involving primary<br />

international institutions together with some of the main<br />

global players among the manufacturers of engines and<br />

powertrain components.<br />

The first stage focused on leisure boats: “Evolution of the<br />

species: the unplugged hybrid”, with ICOMIA, IMEC, Amer<br />

Yachts, Fincantieri Yachts, AS Labruna and Rolls-Royce Power<br />

Systems. The second event covered the topics of power<br />

generation: “Biomethane and Smart grid: the Eco-CHP”, with<br />

REN21, Cogen Europe, 2G, Himoinsa and Caterpillar.<br />

KGP Auto: “Challenge is below the 56 kW range: the price<br />

increases exponentially with the electric powertrain but you<br />

don’t see the TCO (total cost of ownership) benefits”.<br />

Off-road powertrain is multitasking<br />

or is not (anymore)?<br />

Is this really the case? We<br />

asked Riccardo Viaggi, Secretary<br />

General at CECE, Jérôme<br />

Bandry, Secretary General at CEMA,<br />

Diego Rotti (FPT Industrial), Valery<br />

Shapochkin (Cummins), Peter Pickel,<br />

Manager External Relations at John<br />

Deere, and Lorenzo Serrao, Lead Engineer<br />

of off-highway electrification<br />

at Dana Inc.<br />

James Dorling, Senior Consultant at<br />

KGP Auto, introduced the web event<br />

with a short video. “We expect diesel<br />

continue to be the primary fuel for the<br />

off-highway in short-term, while electrification<br />

is more long-term, but the<br />

supply chain and the OEMs are all<br />

making decisions right now and the<br />

drives for electrification are highly<br />

pronounced in the off-highway as in<br />

commercial vehicles and passenger<br />

cars. Challenge is below the 56 kW<br />

range: the price increases exponentially<br />

with the electric powertrain but<br />

you don’t see the TCO benefits”.<br />

First of all, the European construction<br />

equipment point of view, by<br />

CECE. “Acceptable TCOs are the<br />

ICE technology will not<br />

disappear as soon as<br />

some people would<br />

like to think. Non-road<br />

mobile applications will<br />

be multitasking for<br />

a decade at least<br />

keys, as are the policies and the role<br />

of public authorities as buyers, not<br />

only as regulators. So we, as a representative<br />

industry organization,<br />

recommend to the policy makers to<br />

set technology independent objectives,<br />

to assess decarbonisation on<br />

the basis of full life cycle approach<br />

inclusive of the operations involved,<br />

to be developed in coordination with<br />

other regions of the world, to ensure<br />

the availability of low or net zero CO 2<br />

energy carriers at acceptable costs<br />

and to incentivize fleet renewal and<br />

facilitate decarbonisation of existing<br />

machinery (drop-in fuels). Our ‘four<br />

pillars approach’ emphasizes the four<br />

elements to decarbonize construction<br />

machinery: efficiency, operation efficiency,<br />

process efficiency and alternative<br />

energy sources. There are many<br />

energy carriers which offers a low or<br />

net-zero solutions and that’s way we<br />

strengthen that concept of technology<br />

independence in the choices made by<br />

the policy makers. It is true that electrification<br />

is a long-term trend, but<br />

there are other energy carriers, like<br />

hydrogen and ammonia, which can<br />

have an important role in the process<br />

of decarbonising the fleets. Another<br />

important element for us is the opportunity<br />

for certain technology selection<br />

when it comes to the huge diversity<br />

of construction site. The greatest<br />

opportunity for battery electric and<br />

hydrogen is in fixed or long-term sites<br />

which require low power, low energy<br />

consumption, a short intermittent use.<br />

I think it is extremely important to<br />

keep this variety of technologies open<br />

in order to achieve the decarbonized<br />

construction of the future”.<br />

Below the 56 kW threshold electrification<br />

of construction machinery appears<br />

to be accelerated. How fast will<br />

it be?<br />

Cummins replied: “At this moment<br />

many OEMs are trying to create, develop<br />

and test the electrical coverage<br />

of mini excavator, wheel loaders<br />

and other equipment but we don’t<br />

see a high rate of manufacturing yet.<br />

Everything can change quickly because<br />

battery technologies are evolving<br />

and we see opportunities in electrification<br />

of the compact segment,<br />

especially in applications which operate<br />

in the cities, with a relatively low<br />

duty cycle or close to the charging<br />

infrastructure. From the other side,<br />

we also understand that technologies<br />

are not there yet to compete well with<br />

the diesel engines especially in heavy<br />

duty cycles. Machines which operate<br />

remotely or have space or weight<br />

constraints will continue predominantly<br />

to use diesel power at least until<br />

the end of this decade and maybe the<br />

next. Price sensitive markets also will<br />

continue to use traditional engines.<br />

But we support development of lowcarbon<br />

energy sources, we continue<br />

to invest in the broad portfolio of products<br />

for sustainable low-carbon for<br />

the future. For exemple, we invest a<br />

lot in high and low batteries, in fuel<br />

cells, in generation of the clean production<br />

of green hydrogen, but we will<br />

also continue to invest in traditional<br />

technologies: advanced diesels, gas<br />

engines including H2 ICE engines.<br />

All these technologies will help us to<br />

achieve carbon neutrality because we<br />

26<br />


REPORT<br />


CECE: “Acceptable TCOs are the key to the deployment of these<br />

technologies, as are the policies and the role of public authorities<br />

as buyers, not only as regulators.”<br />

velopment is on alternative fuels, i.e.<br />

natural gas, because we think that<br />

in the short-term it can represent an<br />

effective answer to CO 2<br />

reduction,<br />

especially when using biomethane.<br />

The last – and largest – pillar involves<br />

all the research streams on electrification<br />

and hydrogen. Probably if you<br />

look at slightly larger machine, close<br />

to 55 kW or higher, we have been on<br />

one side working on battery electric<br />

concept. We had a demo with our sister<br />

company Case CE and we’re also<br />

looking at potential opportunities for<br />

hybrid there, leveraging on the 55kW<br />

threshold. We think there might be<br />

some benefits there, but probably not<br />

as important as what we see on agriculture<br />

applications on the same limit.<br />

We still probably believe that their full<br />

electrification can be more viable in<br />

will not be able to satisfy all the needs<br />

with just one solution.”<br />

FPT Industrial statements: “Our research<br />

approach must be multitasking<br />

and search for multiple paths for the<br />

off-highway equipment. In FPT we<br />

are following a different research<br />

approach: we’re still investing in the<br />

diesel or ICE improving engine thermodynamic<br />

efficiency and allowing<br />

the use of renewable and synthetic<br />

fuels. We also are working on the new<br />

engine families with a modular approach:<br />

our new 2.8-liter engine, 2020<br />

<strong>Diesel</strong> of the Year, has been designed<br />

already taking into account a future<br />

version that an engine must have to<br />

debate, so we started from a common<br />

diesel core and architecture which is<br />

ready for both natural gas and hybrid<br />

solutions. Another pillar of our determs<br />

of technology in the mid-term.”<br />

Now let’s switch from construction to<br />

agriculture. We are still talking about<br />

off-road equipment of course but there<br />

are big differences, as previously<br />

underlined by CECE.<br />

What about CEMA outlook? “Actually,<br />

if you take a tractor put on the<br />

market just a couple of years ago, it<br />

emitted 95 percent less in pm than a<br />

comparable machine did 20 years<br />

ago. And under Stage V, EU environmental<br />

requirements for AG machines<br />

have become the strictest in<br />

the world. Our farms in Europe are<br />

small, in nature, we have about 10<br />

million agricultural holdings and 2/3<br />

of them have less than 5 hectares. The<br />

whole CO 2<br />

output from agriculture<br />

(crops, soil, animals) accounts for<br />

about 10.5% of the EU27 greenhouse<br />

gas and CO 2<br />

equivalent. On the input<br />

side, the fuel used by AG machinery is<br />

only good for 1 percent. So actually,<br />

we have two routes ahead of us if we<br />

want to reduce CO 2<br />

emissions from<br />

fuel use: one is the use of alternative<br />

fuels and drives, the second is the<br />

increase of energy efficiency by optimized<br />

use of the machinery within<br />

the process of growing crops. Alternative<br />

fuels like pure rapeseed oil or<br />

biomethane can be produced on the<br />

farm and be part of the new business<br />

model to compensate CO 2<br />

production<br />

in other sectors. The second route<br />

ahead of us is fuel efficiency, because<br />

fuel consumption constitutes about 50<br />

percent of the TCO for a tractor. The<br />

real opportunity now is best practice<br />

for fuel efficiency over the whole production<br />

process. There’s a project in<br />

our area called Ecotec which looked<br />

to fuel efficiency and delivered crossmanufacture<br />

evidence showing that<br />

innovative machinery existing today,<br />

intelligent process control available<br />

today and modern operating concepts<br />

can considerably reduce yield related<br />

fuel consumption against conventional<br />

processes. We’re talking about<br />

fuel savings of up to 40 percent, and<br />

if we add to this intelligent forms of<br />

machinery and data management,<br />

this will potentially further optimize<br />

the CO 2<br />

balance for agricultural machinery.<br />

In conclusion, we have many<br />

options available, but there is no onesize-fits-all.<br />

In the end we need the<br />

farmers to retain the freedom of choice<br />

over which option to use for their<br />

farm in the most sustainable and costeffective<br />

way.”<br />

Now an OEM has the floor, and what<br />

an OEM! John Deere: “There are four<br />

reasons why we need electrification:<br />

efficiency, power density, controllability<br />

and dynamic response behaviour.<br />

We presented a prototype in 2<strong>01</strong>7 with<br />

a lithium-ion battery. The back part<br />

of the vehicle was carrying the complete<br />

functionality of the tractor. The<br />

weakness of the electrified system is<br />

the battery: we cannot package enough<br />

energy in big tractors because the<br />

battery would be empty in one and a<br />

half hours. So we electrified the formerly<br />

battery electric tractor with a<br />

cable drum and a robot arm which<br />

carried for laying down the cable without<br />

putting too much mechanical<br />

load to the cable. When we built this,<br />

we learned that the cable guidance<br />

process is something a human being<br />

28<br />


REPORT<br />


CEMA: “Actually, if you take a tractor that was put on the market just a<br />

couple of years ago, it emitted 95 percent less in pm than a comparable<br />

machine did twenty years ago.”<br />

cannot operate, so we removed the<br />

cap and the result was the tractor on<br />

the lower part of the slide. If you think<br />

of such a solution for the future, you<br />

easily find that you can increase machine<br />

performance: this tractor has a<br />

500hp power in the body of a 250hp<br />

tractor. Let’s come back to the near<br />

future, the transmission for adapting<br />

the transmission ratio for the drivetrain<br />

and it has also the capability to<br />

off-board power for the implements.<br />

This solution has many advantages<br />

and we expect it to be released quite<br />

soon. On the mid-term (until 2030)<br />

the maximum level for battery electric<br />

farm machinery is about 100hp. For<br />

other applications which go to higher<br />

power we will need diesel-like fuels<br />

which can be produced on farm.”<br />

A final round about alternative fuels<br />

we’ve been working on is the 2.8-liter<br />

prototype, mounted on a vineyard<br />

tractor that will be used on a CO 2<br />

-free<br />

Barolo harvest project. We’re working<br />

on a 2.8 diesel coupled with an electric<br />

motor fitted in a very compact arrangement.<br />

Probably hybrid can also<br />

provide benefits to larger tractors to<br />

improve traction or provide electricity<br />

to some tools, but also in that case integration<br />

of electric power might have<br />

these benefits.”<br />

Cummins: “At this moment probably<br />

hybridization for sprayers or feeders<br />

can be like short- to mid-term solution.<br />

Mild hybrid could also bring<br />

some benefits to tractors and the combines<br />

because it will allow to downsize<br />

the engine, while the electrical<br />

power will boost the overall system<br />

power. Probably this is not very apand<br />

circular economy.<br />

John Deere: “The only alternative<br />

that we can currently see is biofuel,<br />

especially plant oil and biodiesel, but<br />

if we look to the renewable energy directive<br />

you see that the use of biofuels<br />

is limited to 7 percent of total energy<br />

consumption in mobility. On the other<br />

hand, if you look to what is planned<br />

in the energy strategy of the European<br />

Commission, you see that the aims at<br />

replacing energy consumption through<br />

synthetic fuels by 2.6 percent in<br />

2030 is not much.”<br />

FPT: “We believe that natural gas<br />

or biomethane can represent a ready<br />

and short-term alternative. On one<br />

side we have developed a 6.7-liter gas<br />

engine with the same performance,<br />

durability and robustness of its diesel<br />

version. Another research project<br />

plicable for Europe but worldwide we<br />

see the trend for the increased size<br />

of the farm, which drives the need<br />

for bigger machines. Duty cycles required<br />

for the tractors demand high<br />

power and consistent work rate so internal<br />

combustion engine is preferred.<br />

TCO will become driver only when<br />

the technologies and the components<br />

cost will go down and the system cost<br />

will be comparable with the internal<br />

combustion engine system.”<br />

Dana Inc.: “It’s clear to everybody<br />

that electrification is possible in the<br />

low power range while for larger<br />

machines we need other solutions.<br />

The challenge for a powertrain supplier<br />

like us is to provide a solution<br />

which is optimized, no matter what<br />

the energy source is. The driveline architecture<br />

itself now sees a variety of<br />

solutions: a single motor driving the<br />

wheels via a transmission or even in<br />

a direct drive configuration; e-axles<br />

with two or four motors per machine.<br />

There is no right solution, there<br />

is only the solution that best fits each<br />

application. If we need to look at<br />

the vehicle requirements (performance,<br />

requirements, emission, profile,<br />

duty cycle) and we need to combine<br />

all these elements when choosing the<br />

right motor, gearbox, driveline units,<br />

the real challenge is to make sure that<br />

our system’s configuration is not done<br />

by looking at each component individually<br />

but looking at the system and<br />

at its performance. In most cases this<br />

is actually complicated, that’s why we<br />

use advanced optimization techniques<br />

to find the best compromise. But the<br />

right performance cannot be achieved<br />

without the right components, so<br />

we are investing on both mechanical<br />

and electric components. In terms<br />

of mechanical components, we have<br />

two different trends: one is the need<br />

for higher efficiency in electric machines<br />

driven by the cost of the battery,<br />

sometimes rethinking the design<br />

of the components; the second trend<br />

is speed: electric motors are normally<br />

much faster than electric motors,<br />

which means the traditional components<br />

won’t work and they have to be<br />

redesigned for electric solutions. We<br />

are focusing a lot of attention on synchronous<br />

motor, without magnets but<br />

much more efficient than the typical<br />

asynchronous motor. Collaboration<br />

with the OEMs is a key aspect here<br />

because only knowing the application<br />

very well we can optimize it.”<br />

30<br />





SMALL<br />

AND BIG<br />

SIZES<br />


Xavier Hamel, Senior Export Sales Manager, Engine<br />

Division, Kubota Europe SAS, explains that “all the Kubota<br />

engines are designed for many applications, with<br />

any specific features at the base of the design. Only<br />

for generators we choose specific settings and a technical<br />

structure, otherwise all these small engines can<br />

be adapted to any kind of applications. In this particular<br />

case, the D902-K, the goal was to achieve the zero<br />

black smoke emissions. For the electrification of the<br />

engine, we used CAN communication, and this is the<br />

innovation we have introduced with this engine. I think<br />

it’s the best solution for the actual needs of the market.<br />

That’s why in the future this technology might be the<br />

flagship of our range.”<br />

Ryota Hiraiwa: “Equipped with a one-of-a-kind commonrail<br />

system developed exclusively for small engines, the<br />

D902-K comes with a new combustion system, TVCR.”<br />

Kubota faces <strong>2022</strong> with the awareness<br />

of having withstood the<br />

shock of the pandemic and having<br />

gained a significant market<br />

share in off-highway applications, also<br />

in Europe. We interviewed Takayuki<br />

Tsujimoto (Vice President Business<br />

Unit Engine Europe - Kubota Holding<br />

Europe), Ryota Hiraiwa (General Manager,<br />

Engine Division, Kubota Europe<br />

SAS), Xavier Hamel (Senior Export<br />

Sales Manager, Engine Division, Kubota<br />

Europe SAS) of Kubota Business<br />

Unit Engine Europe at the SAIM stand<br />

during EIMA.<br />

What are Kubota’s strategies for<br />

<strong>2022</strong>, after such a long period of<br />

pandemic?<br />

Takayuki Tsujimoto: After the pandemic,<br />

the economy is growing globally<br />

and so is the engine business. Engine<br />

manufacturers are trying to develop<br />

new alternatives for the future, for the<br />

next five or ten years, but still combustion<br />

engines will be our major business.<br />

It is important to balance both sides<br />

of the relationship: in the middle<br />

there is a customer, on one side there<br />

is a strong and reliable company,<br />

on the other side a dealer, who has<br />

to be a kind of translator of the language<br />

of engine block into a different<br />

language. How do you under-<br />

We spoke to Kubota<br />

management on many<br />

topics, including the<br />

new D902-K engine<br />

stand the specific needs of the local<br />

customer?<br />

Xavier Hamel: It’s quite right to say<br />

that the company needs the support of<br />

a “translator”. The ability of Mr. Furuta,<br />

President of Kubota Europe SAS,<br />

Paris, in the 1990s, was to find a partner<br />

that, more than a translator, knew<br />

the products, the markets and the right<br />

way to introduce them. That’s why we<br />

consider SAIM as a partner: because<br />

they know our products like we do, but<br />

they know the local markets much better<br />

than us. This has been the ability<br />

of Mr. Furuta: in Italy we have SAIM,<br />

in Spain Trans<strong>Diesel</strong>, in Holland<br />

Prins Maasdijk, in Belgium Matermaco,<br />

as partners of the French Kubota<br />

company. Kubota’s network all over<br />

Europe was also created through our<br />

sister companies in Germany and the<br />

UK many years ago and has always<br />

been very professional.<br />

Massimo Donà, CEO of SAIM: Xavier<br />

has spent more than 21 years in<br />

Kubota, so he played a very important<br />

role in our growth in Italy, he has<br />

contributed to the success of SAIM<br />

exactly with a very close relationship<br />

with every single OEM with the help<br />

of Michelangelo Di Gregorio and, in<br />

very recent years, Paolo Bassi (both<br />

are SAIM sales representatives, editor’s<br />

note).<br />

Michelangelo Di Gregorio, SAIM<br />

Sales Manager: We are proud to be<br />

here today to discuss about Kubota<br />

because the quality of the product is<br />

off the table, but Xavier was able to<br />

transmit this quality to the market.<br />

Step by step, we propose solutions<br />

and make the customers think that<br />

Japan is just behind the corner.<br />

Massimo Donà: Thirty years are not<br />

a short period, but they elapsed very<br />

quickly, and ahead of us there are at<br />

least further thirty years of intense cooperation.<br />

Kubota is enhancing its range up<br />

the 5-litre <strong>Diesel</strong> of the Year 2<strong>01</strong>9,<br />

but Kubota is still the one of the<br />

strongest players below 96 kW. Do<br />

you have news about this?<br />

Ryota Hiraiwa: Today we present for<br />

the first time in the world the D902-<br />

K, a recently developed common-rail<br />

engine in the Super Mini family that<br />

will be able to mark a path towards<br />

lower emissions, compliant with<br />

China IV standards. D902-K is the<br />

electronically-controlled diesel engine<br />

below 19 kW. It saves users of<br />

our current engines from the need to<br />

develop new machinery to accommodate<br />

changes in dimensions and/<br />

or structures and is complying with<br />

the latest emission standards around<br />

the world. The end result is that it<br />

is compact and easy to mount, with<br />

clean emissions (the amount of black<br />

smoke is reduced to an imperceptible<br />

level) and low fuel consumption. This<br />

innovative engine corresponds to various<br />

regional emission standards,<br />

including China’s national smoke<br />

regulations Category III, which are<br />

the toughest state-wide smoke emission<br />

standards there, in addition to<br />

EPA Tier 4, Stage V, and China IV<br />

standards (implemented in December<br />

<strong>2022</strong>). This engine is able to use<br />

CAN, thus allowing engine speed and<br />

torque to be controlled using signals<br />

from vehicles.<br />

32<br />


kWe - OFFHIGHWAY<br />






Christian Levin, CEO of Scania and Traton Group: “Our joint venture (editor’s<br />

note: MAN, Scania, Daimler Truck and Volvo Group) will be a strong push for the<br />

rapid breakthrough of battery electric trucks and coaches.”<br />

The plan is to install and operate at least 1,700 high-performance green energy<br />

charging points on and close to highways as well as at logistic and destination points<br />

within five years of the establishment of the joint venture.<br />

Ecomondo, in English Eco-World<br />

− it would perhaps be more<br />

correct to use the plural Eco-<br />

Worlds, referring to one of the<br />

most transversal trade fairs − has become<br />

the backbone of a series of highly<br />

diversified productive companies.<br />

The green horizon “patent” represents<br />

its verticality certificate, which led<br />

Scania Power Solutions to present its<br />

electrification proposal for industrial<br />

applications. A formula which fits<br />

both purely electric solutions, particularly<br />

suitable for operations in a<br />

urban perimeter, underground mining,<br />

and telescopic handlers. In its hybrid<br />

form, on the contrary, it is a good candidate<br />

for operating machines, such as<br />

quarry and construction site vehicles,<br />

fire-fighting machines and cranes. In<br />

the generation field, the emphasis is<br />

on battery storage systems, where batteries<br />

are both new and reconditioned.<br />

As for the marine industry, the focus is<br />

on hulls which work at low loads for<br />

a long time. It should be known that<br />

the griffon’s electric machine is 650<br />

volts, 230 to 280 kilowatts, measures<br />

485 millimetres with SAE1 bell, and<br />

370 mm without it. Reversibility is<br />

the basis for a project which provides<br />

the same flanging as a diesel solution.<br />

The following is what emerged from<br />

an early morning meeting over a cup<br />

Scania launched<br />

an integrated<br />

hybrid solution for<br />

industrial and marine<br />

applications<br />

of coffee. “We are fortunate to follow<br />

the powertrain development for our<br />

vehicles. We can benefit from a path<br />

towards electrification that has begun<br />

in trucks and buses a long time ago.<br />

The Scania modular system approach<br />

allowed us to find out that this solution<br />

can also fit industrial and marine<br />

applications, where it was possible to<br />

go further and combine several electric<br />

motors to a single heat engine, or<br />

implement those alternative modes of<br />

operation which are not possible for<br />

trucks. In the course of <strong>2022</strong>, we will<br />

intensify our current contacts with<br />

the manufacturers interested in this<br />

type of solution in order to start the<br />

projects.”<br />

An industrial-style presentation<br />

under the banner of the premium<br />

truck brand. So, you do believe in<br />

this project, don’t you?<br />

There is no more doubt in that Scania<br />

believes in the industrial sector. We<br />

have a dedicated division which shares<br />

the R&D with the trucks. Right now we<br />

are at the kick-off, the product has been<br />

used and needs to be optimised for different<br />

applications. We are organising<br />

field tests, and we can say that all big<br />

industrial companies, so not only the<br />

generation field, are considering electrified<br />

solutions. The world is so wide<br />

that it is only in the imagination of<br />

the company’s technical department<br />

to find the right application, whether<br />

the machine works indoors or in the<br />

city centre. In terms of generation, the<br />

most interesting use of it is represented<br />

by energy storage systems. There are<br />

also plenty of applications that match<br />

very well, such as ARFFs, airport machines,<br />

dumpers, and all those requiring<br />

high braking forces.<br />

When you talk about “the product”,<br />

do you mean the full electric solution?<br />

It is modular, so it can be installed as<br />

a hybrid, serial, and also operate as a<br />

stand-alone unit. A downsizing and the<br />

possibility to add up to twelve 32 kWh<br />

battery packs should be considered. It<br />

is possible to effectively cover power<br />

ranges of up to 1,000 kilowatts with an<br />

extremely simple machine, compared<br />

to 12 and 16-cylinder engines. The<br />

time horizon is a couple of years, its<br />

serial production will start in the second<br />

half of 2023, in Sweden. A collaboration<br />

with Northvolt is underway for<br />

the next generation battery cells.”<br />

In fact, the Volkswagen Group invested<br />

around 900 million Euros in bat-<br />

tery-related activities with Northvolt<br />

in 2020. The Germans will acquire<br />

around 20 percent of the shares and<br />

will get a seat on the Board of Directors,<br />

subject to approval by the Antitrust<br />

Authorities. A fifty-fifty joint<br />

venture is planned to set up a 16 GWh<br />

battery cell plant.<br />

“Since a battery cell consumes a lot<br />

of energy, we thereby reduce the environmental<br />

impact in terms of CO 2<br />

.<br />

At the plant which is under construction<br />

in Södertälje we will assemble<br />

the modules and packs. After all, no<br />

engine manufacturer makes pistons...<br />

We adhere to the integration principle,<br />

which has helped us with our deliveries.<br />

By producing most of the components<br />

on-site and directly taking care<br />

of the assemblies, we have minimised<br />

any risk of production downtimes.”<br />

34<br />





5.2<br />

AND<br />

2.9 HP<br />

Deutz AG is creating a new reporting structure and introducing the segments<br />

“Classic” and “Green”. With effect from January 1, <strong>2022</strong>, all activities<br />

connected with the development and production of new non-diesel drives<br />

will be assigned to the Green segment.<br />

At EIMA <strong>International</strong>, Deutz<br />

made two front-page announcements,<br />

known under<br />

the name of TCD 5.2 and TCD<br />

2.9 HP. Regarding the market vision,<br />

it is believed that especially in the agricultural<br />

field the trend could be to<br />

shift to engines with a power which<br />

is less than 56 kilowatts. Switching<br />

from a mechanical engine to an electronic<br />

motor resulted in significantly<br />

higher performances: remaining below<br />

this threshold prevents the use of<br />

SCR and AdBlue. The Deutz range<br />

– below 56 kW – includes the turbocharged<br />

version only, the 55.4 kW<br />

four-cylinder TCD 2.9, which can be<br />

found in lower sizes (50, 45 and 36<br />

kW), the TCD 2.9, with intercooler,<br />

which Deutz has designed in a standard<br />

and HT (High Torque) version,<br />

tercooler version with various power<br />

ratings.<br />

Completely different sectors have<br />

ordered the HP (High Power) prototype,<br />

which will be mass-produced<br />

from <strong>2022</strong>, while the HT is already<br />

homologated and produced on a large<br />

scale, even in the USA. These engine<br />

types are highly flexible in terms of<br />

installation, with a high degree of customisation:<br />

for example, depending<br />

on the space, available to house the<br />

after-treatment, the manufacturer can<br />

choose whether to receive it with an<br />

ATS which is pre-installed or supplied<br />

in an accessory box, and integrally<br />

mount it to the engine, in compliance<br />

with the directives. It is possible to<br />

provide motors with a 12 or 24 Volt<br />

electrical system according to the customer<br />

needs. On the 2.2-litre 3-cylinwith<br />

a very high torque comprised<br />

between 1,000 and 1,500 rpm. The<br />

2.9 range comes alongside the 2.2<br />

series: a very compact three-cylinder<br />

unit delivering up to 56 kW, also<br />

available in a Turbo only or Turbo in-<br />

Deutz is strongly<br />

oriented towards<br />

alternative drivelines<br />

but does not forget<br />

the development of<br />

the ICE technology.<br />

The TCD 5.2 and TCD<br />

2.9 HP complete the<br />

extensive range<br />

in Cologne<br />

der engine, an air compressor can also<br />

be fitted.<br />

After illustrating the TCD 2.9 HP, how<br />

would you describe the TCD 5.2?<br />

The 5.2-litre will be available from<br />

March <strong>2022</strong>. With a power ranging<br />

from 100 to 170 kilowatts, it fills the<br />

gap in the Deutz range created by the<br />

transition from Stage IIIB. The same<br />

engine, without substantial changes,<br />

will be able to reach 170 kW. Thanks<br />

to a know-how derived from the automotive<br />

industry, the after-treatment<br />

is very compact in size, it is around<br />

half a metre. It is also the first engine<br />

designed in Cologne without EGR, a<br />

choice that Deutz is likely to replicate.<br />

In the current range of engines, which<br />

are above 4 litres, it is necessary to<br />

have a mixing pipe (to connect the<br />

DPF and SCR) with a built-in urea<br />

injector, a rigid member between the<br />

two parts that must be taken into account<br />

during installation. The 3.6<br />

Stage V lesson and innovation has<br />

been learnt on the TCD 5.2, the urea<br />

injector is integrated in the DPF, in<br />

the rear cap, with advantages in terms<br />

of compactness.<br />

Will EGR, a flagship of German<br />

technology, be removed?<br />

Deutz is constantly evolving in the development<br />

of its product range, and<br />

plans to offer engine types with or<br />

without EGR depending on the technical<br />

features of the engine and its after-treatment<br />

system as well as on the<br />

performances of the system dynamism<br />

and reliability. The TCD 5.2 will be<br />

very dynamic, compact and install-<br />

able on small size machines which<br />

however require high dynamism.<br />

Another noteworthy improvement can<br />

be found in the exhaust gas treatment<br />

used by our TCD 2.9L4 High Power.<br />

In fact, we have reduced the SCR<br />

length by bringing the two catalyst<br />

bodies (SCR and Clean-Up) closer<br />

together, while creating an insulation<br />

along its entire length, thus eliminating<br />

unused space. Thanks to this<br />

development we can install the engine<br />

with its after-treatment mounted<br />

above the engine inside the tractor at<br />

about 10 millimetres from the bonnet.<br />

Therefore, we limit the passage of the<br />

very high temperatures (450°C on<br />

SCR and >500°C on DPF) present<br />

in the exhaust gas treatments to a few<br />

hotspots, which are only present at the<br />

sensor outlets.<br />

36<br />


kWe & H2 - EVENTS<br />


DEUTZ DAYS 2021<br />

ONE<br />

STEP<br />



Deutz is so focused on electric and hydrogen applications<br />

that it has set up a special division. With effect from<br />

January 1, <strong>2022</strong>, all activities connected with the<br />

development and production of new non-diesel drives<br />

will be assigned to the Green segment. This includes<br />

electric drives, the subsidiary Torqeedo, and the battery<br />

management specialist Futavis.<br />

Frank Hiller, CEO of Deutz: “The new segmentation of our<br />

commercial operations will, above all, provide the capital<br />

markets with a more transparent picture of our work on<br />

off-highway technology for a carbon-neutral future. It is<br />

backed by a growth strategy that very clearly sets out our<br />

milestones and activities in the period up to 2031. At the<br />

same time, the new strategy leaves Deutz’s employees<br />

in no doubt that the Company is fully committed to the<br />

transformation of its product portfolio.”<br />

The Coreum sees itself as an innovation and technology platform in the field of<br />

construction equipment and wants to position itself as a meeting point and venue for<br />

training and continuing professional development in the sector. In the future, Deutz<br />

will use the modern facilities and infrastructure at the site, which covers around<br />

120,000 square meters, to demonstrate its products.<br />

We’re close to Frankfurt, the<br />

Rhine River flows a few<br />

kilometres away and makes<br />

Cologne feel even closer. At<br />

the Coreum, the Deutz Days are staged,<br />

a showcase for the “polyphonic” approach<br />

to the decarbonisation score. It<br />

is more than three years since Electrip,<br />

and e-Deutz does not just mean electrification.<br />

Focus also on hydrogen and<br />

alternative fuels. These are the premises,<br />

by Frank Hiller, CEO of Deutz,<br />

and Michael Wellenzohn, member of<br />

the Deutz Board of Management: “Our<br />

hydrogen engine is on the test bench<br />

at our Cologne site. At the beginning<br />

of <strong>2022</strong> we will install it into a genset<br />

and ship it to our local utility partner to<br />

produce electric power. Another focus<br />

is our fuel cell technology, the cooperation<br />

with Blue World Technologies<br />

all-electric drive systems in various voltage<br />

levels. The e-Deutz 360V system, integrated<br />

here in the Comet 4E airfield<br />

tractor from Mulag and the CC1485<br />

crawler crane from Maeda, as well as<br />

the 48V in a ZX26 mini-excavator from<br />

Hitachi – both including state-of-the-art<br />

battery technology “made by Deutz”.<br />

Furthermore, we will be commissioning<br />

the first hydrogen-powered genset<br />

based on our TCG 7.8 H2 as part of a<br />

POC outside our factory gates as early<br />

as next year (editor’s note: among the<br />

electrified applications at the Coreum,<br />

Deutz put on display also Hitachi 48V<br />

Mini Excavator, Maeda Mini Crane<br />

CC1485 and the electric airport towing<br />

tractor Mulag Comet 4E HV). Last but<br />

not least, we will launch our mobile fast<br />

charging station Powertree as early as<br />

next year. This already broad portfohas<br />

been announced. By 2024, we’ll be<br />

ready to offer our products. Also, when<br />

it comes to reliable ICEs, e-fuels are<br />

a hot topic, and all of our engines are<br />

e-fuel ready, today.” Fabian Mäling,<br />

Deutz Product Management, explains:<br />

“Due to the pandemic and its economic<br />

impact, we experienced slight delays<br />

on our strategic path to CO 2<br />

-neutral<br />

drives. Despite this, we are already in<br />

the starting blocks with a range of innovative<br />

and climate-friendly alternative<br />

drive systems. First of all, there are our<br />

Deutz Days 2021,<br />

at the Coreum.<br />

Electrification,<br />

hydrogen, biofuels,<br />

strategies and so on<br />

lio will be complemented in the future<br />

by our cooperation with Blue World in<br />

the field of fuel cells. It is essential to<br />

be able to offer this broad portfolio of<br />

alternative drive systems, as a future diversification<br />

of energy sources by power<br />

classes and applications in the non-road<br />

sector is likely”. Mäling rounds off his<br />

comments with a consideration of the<br />

outlook for batteries. “The technological<br />

leaps and short development times in<br />

the field of energy storage systems are<br />

challenging. Before we have achieved<br />

the SOP of our first battery generation,<br />

we are already working on the second<br />

generation with higher energy density,<br />

lower costs and flexible scalability in<br />

terms of shape and cell chemistry.” Germany<br />

believes in hydrogen. The Federal<br />

Government expects that around 90 to<br />

110 TWh of hydrogen will be needed<br />

by 2030. In order to cover part of this<br />

demand, Germany plans to establish<br />

up to 5 GW of generation capacity. For<br />

instance, the Cologne regional public<br />

transport company will have a total of<br />

52 hydrogen-powered fuel cell buses by<br />

the end of 2021 or beginning of <strong>2022</strong>,<br />

making it the largest fleet of fuel cell<br />

buses in Europe. Markus Bollmann,<br />

Technical Sales Support Manager: “This<br />

hydrogen genset will run at the beginning<br />

of <strong>2022</strong>, in Cologne. We can store<br />

the electrical power and then we can<br />

charge on and off-highway electric vehicles<br />

everywhere and independent of the<br />

electrical infrastructure.” Talking about<br />

the Powertree, a mobile high power<br />

charger for construction sites, Bollmann<br />

said that “the standard charging power<br />

is 150 kW, but it can be increased to<br />

300 kW. To avoid downtime you can re-<br />

charge an excavator during lunch time,<br />

for example. With the current set up, you<br />

can recharge the excavator from 10% to<br />

90% in 45 minutes.”<br />

“Environmentally friendly construction<br />

sites are now a reality, not a distant<br />

dream. The Maeda CC 1485 is already<br />

fully functional. Our electric drive is<br />

quiet, efficient and emission free, even<br />

when used on a construction site,” stated<br />

Markus Müller, Chief Technology Officer<br />

at Deutz AG. “I believe that electrification<br />

will be possible upto 50 kW today.<br />

We may be able to increase that in a<br />

next step up to 100 kW and still provide<br />

our customers competitive products. But<br />

that depends both on the regulatory environment<br />

as well as the decrease of the<br />

battery cost,” Müller answered. <strong>2022</strong><br />

looks to be the year of the first electrified<br />

Deutz systems in the field.<br />

38<br />




AUGA M1<br />

BIO<br />


HYBRID<br />

Auga Group’s CEO Kęstutis Juščius: “We’ll commit to making<br />

this tractor and other technologies under development available<br />

to farmers throughout the world, thus giving our contribution to<br />

solving the global issue of agricultural pollution”.<br />

Hybridization in industrial applications<br />

is inevitably linked to<br />

the marriage between a <strong>Diesel</strong><br />

cycle combustion engine and<br />

an electric system, typically threephase<br />

asynchronous motors matched to<br />

a battery pack. The passenger car sector<br />

broke free of this paradigm, probably<br />

due to the domino effect of the <strong>Diesel</strong>gate<br />

tsunami and diesel engines being<br />

pilloried as people’s enemy as well as<br />

being replaced by petrol engines as<br />

internal combustion powerplants. But<br />

then are we really sure that the diesel<br />

vs petrol dichotomy is the only choice<br />

when considering hybrid propulsion<br />

systems? In the Baltic States some<br />

would not agree – at least they didn’t<br />

when they used a gas engine to design<br />

the powertrain of an open-field tractor.<br />

Distinctive marks? It pretty much<br />

resembles those old-style articulated<br />

monsters crossing American and<br />

Asian fields. The Auga M1 is, instead,<br />

brand new and the first working prototype<br />

hybrid tractor running on the<br />

biomethane and electric combo.<br />

It was manufactured by Lithuania-based<br />

Auga Group, a European<br />

leader in organic farming that also specializes<br />

in devising “AgTech” solutions<br />

for sustainable food production. As we<br />

reported the news at the end of 2021,<br />

A hybrid application<br />

with biomethane?<br />

Lithuania has figured<br />

it out with the Auga M1<br />

tractor<br />

the project was still in its prototype<br />

stage, with mass production scheduled<br />

to begin in <strong>2022</strong>. No detailed powertrain<br />

info can thus be unveiled for the<br />

time being, which includes the internal<br />

combustion engine’s specs. More info<br />

will come ASAP. Here is a sneak-peak<br />

at what they say about it at the motherhouse<br />

headquartered in Vilnius, the<br />

country’s capital.<br />

“This is our company’s first step towards<br />

providing technological solutions<br />

that will remove climate pollution<br />

from the entire food chain, from<br />

the field to the table, allowing us to<br />

produce food without impacting the<br />

environment,” says Auga Group’s<br />

CEO Kęstutis Juščius. “Our group<br />

manages about 39 thousand hectares<br />

of organically certified land employing<br />

over 1200 people. When we first<br />

calculated our emissions three years<br />

ago, we realized that a good 30% of<br />

the amount comes from the fossil fuels<br />

largely used by our company’s<br />

tractors. So that’s why we decided to<br />

become leaders in developing technologies<br />

that will allow us to set new<br />

standards for sustainable agriculture<br />

and dramatically reduce pollution<br />

along the entire food value chain.<br />

Our biomethane/electric tractor is the<br />

first result of our work to this aim”.<br />

According to the Lithuanian team in<br />

charge of the project, biomethane is<br />

crucial in that it is “harvested” from<br />

farming waste and then converted,<br />

thus offsetting more emissions per<br />

energy unit than it releases in its production<br />

cycle. Auga M1 is also said<br />

to have overcome the hurdle of low<br />

mileage thanks to its design that provides<br />

for huge tanks to be hosted in the<br />

tractor’s rear section. Hybrid technology<br />

is at the heart of the system. When<br />

the tractor is in operation, the biomethane-fuelled<br />

400 hp combustion engine<br />

generates energy that is sent to<br />

the four electric motors operating the<br />

wheels. During less demanding work<br />

cycles, the vehicle will store surplus<br />

energy into the batteries. So no energy<br />

gets wasted during low-duty operation<br />

and this makes possible to use a relatively<br />

small engine in that peak power<br />

demand can be fulfilled by the electric<br />

combo as needed. According to the<br />

manufacturer, the M1 can run for up<br />

to 12 hours a day, after which you’ll<br />

just need to replace the storage tanks.<br />

“Our invention,” says K. Juščius, “allows<br />

to create a wide range of tractor<br />

applications and to make them acces-<br />

sible to all farmers wishing to work<br />

sustainably. We are not developing<br />

this technology just to curb our own<br />

emissions and keep to our promise of<br />

becoming a zero-impact company by<br />

2030. We have a bigger goal: we’ll<br />

commit to making this tractor and<br />

other technologies under development<br />

available to farmers throughout the<br />

world, thus giving our contribution to<br />

solving the global issue of agricultural<br />

pollution.” We’ll be waiting, too.<br />

Currently, a few manufacturers can<br />

handle this technology – biomethane<br />

plus electric (FPT Industrial and<br />

Cummins on top, followed by Deutz.<br />

Caterpillar and Perkins are familiar<br />

with biomethane use for stationary<br />

applications. MAN Engines, Rolls-<br />

Royce and Scania, too, for engines in<br />

the range 5 to16 L).<br />

40<br />


TECHNO<br />




LOAD<br />


Davide Mesturini, Walvoil R&D Manager: “During ALS development,<br />

however, we discovered that by customising the software and acting on various<br />

implementation parameters, it was possible to also implement other solutions,<br />

thus increasing its functionality, a feature that the user perceives instantly, while<br />

consumptions can be observed in the long term. Walvoil spent a month working<br />

on the PHC Studio software, a fully programmable and customisable system.”<br />

In order to ensure a simultaneous<br />

control of the movements, the<br />

hydraulic pump generates more<br />

pressure than necessary. This is<br />

a pre-set value of “stand-by margin”,<br />

which constitutes a considerable loss<br />

of energy, limiting the overall performance<br />

of the vehicle and unnecessarily<br />

increasing wear and consumption.<br />

Walvoil’s Adaptive Load Sensing is<br />

able to modulate the “stand-by margin”<br />

value according to the actual work<br />

requirements, automatically varying it<br />

only as and when required. Together<br />

with Dieci, the ALS was successfully<br />

tested on an Agri Plus 42.7 GD telescopic<br />

handler and Agri Farmer 34.7<br />

GD. During the tests, a drop in energy<br />

loss values of 28% was detected during<br />

arm operations, and up to 45% with the<br />

vehicle in motion. These tests also re-<br />

vealed further advantages, first of all in<br />

terms of safety: by acting directly on<br />

the hydraulic signal, the ALS avoids<br />

the functional complexity associated<br />

with the digital signal. Moreover, in<br />

the event of faults, the original operation<br />

is automatically restored, avoiding<br />

any machine shutdown. These were<br />

the premises. We got into this matter<br />

with Davide Mesturini, Research and<br />

The Walvoil Adaptive<br />

Load Sensing is a<br />

system that allows<br />

manipulation of the<br />

LS signal to adjust<br />

the pressure margin<br />

applied to the valve<br />

Development Manager at Walvoil, and<br />

Enrico Ognibene, Technical Manager<br />

at Dieci.<br />

Let’s start with the consumption,<br />

which affects the end user: to what<br />

extent does the ALS guarantee a reduction<br />

of up to 6%?<br />

Ognibene: Regarding the machine, we<br />

defined standard work cycles, simulating<br />

real working conditions, and tested<br />

the same vehicle with and without<br />

the ALS. We repeated the work cycles<br />

for a given time, on the same day and<br />

with the same operator. Once the electronics<br />

were checked with the CANbus<br />

communicating the consumption detected<br />

by the engine control unit, an<br />

empirical test was conducted to define<br />

the fuel level at the beginning and end<br />

of the test. Consumptions were checked<br />

by topping up the values recorded on<br />

the CANbus matched those measured<br />

experimentally. Of course, those work<br />

cycles were defined on the basis of the<br />

machine’s main uses, which are lifting<br />

and positioning loads and moving<br />

them. So, initially we placed different<br />

loads (500 and 1,000 kilos) on racks<br />

at two positions of a track, and carried<br />

them from one side to the other with a<br />

telescopic handler. After repeating this<br />

test for 30 minutes, we placed the load<br />

on the same track by inserting it into<br />

the rack rather than simply resting it<br />

on it: an operation which required a<br />

greater precision in the movement of<br />

the arm. Here we measured the consumption<br />

and counted the number of<br />

successfully completed cycles to quantify<br />

the work efficiency and handling<br />

precision. The other two tests involved<br />

the machine movement with and without<br />

a load (1,000 kilos), thus simulating<br />

the transport or towing of a small<br />

trailer. With the load we monitored the<br />

movement for a given time measuring<br />

the fuel consumption with and without<br />

the ALS.<br />

From the OEM’s point of view, besides<br />

the functional benefits, how will<br />

the ALS be perceived by the user?<br />

Ognibene: The user will certainly see<br />

an immediate benefit in fuel consumption<br />

and running costs: a real 5-6%<br />

over a machine lifetime is not a negligible<br />

figure and can be quantified in a<br />

few thousand euros. In addition, being<br />

able to perform more precise movements<br />

is useful for stacking bales neatly,<br />

for example, and this was one of the<br />

aspects which was most appreciated by<br />

the test operator.<br />

Did this project start with consump-<br />

tion optimisation or positioning optimisation?<br />

Mesturini: We started with consumption,<br />

since as R&D we have several ongoing<br />

projects aiming to optimise and<br />

make oleodynamics more efficient. We<br />

consider this need to be a priority, also<br />

with a view to hybridising machines.<br />

From a theoretical point of view there<br />

was a chance of doing a good job since<br />

load-sensing systems necessarily cover<br />

this margin, which on certain machines<br />

can reach a significant percentage of<br />

the working pressure. Machines often<br />

have a starting stand-by which is set<br />

quite high and can therefore represent<br />

as much as 20 per cent of the machine’s<br />

average working pressure. By modulating<br />

this stand-by we can achieve advantages<br />

in terms of consumption, and<br />

this was our main focus.<br />

42<br />


kWe - TECHNO<br />




AND<br />


Bonfiglioli Group reached the figure of 1 billion euros in sales in December<br />

2021. As Sonia Bonfiglioli said: “When my father founded Bonfiglioli 65 years<br />

ago, I don’t think he could have imagined how far we would have come and the<br />

changes we have made over the years.”<br />

Bonfiglioli wants to put itself<br />

forward as a partner supporting<br />

customers in the transition<br />

towards the electrification of<br />

work equipment,” says Bonfiglioli<br />

Group’s CEO Fausto Carboni at the<br />

outset.<br />

“Let’s start with the reducers actuated<br />

by hydraulic motors, which in<br />

turn are driven by an ICE. In this<br />

case, hydraulic motors can be replaced<br />

by electric ones. We have built<br />

competences from our experience<br />

with industrial automation, which is<br />

expressed in our permanent magnet<br />

motors, high power density and compact<br />

size. Bonfiglioli offers the market<br />

a midway solution under the name<br />

of “all-in-one”. It comprises an electric<br />

motor for machinery in a medium<br />

power range, an inverter and a PCU<br />

– power control unit. The entry-level<br />

PCU version coming from automotive<br />

applications only features the accelerator<br />

pedal signal (open/closed) and<br />

is thus unsuitable for work machinery<br />

characterized by more complex working<br />

cycles as well as multichannel<br />

The interview with<br />

CEO Fausto Carboni<br />

helps us understand<br />

the challenges that<br />

Bonfiglioli will face<br />

during the year. To<br />

give just one example,<br />

full electrification is the<br />

ultimate goal<br />

controllers. In most cases, full electrification<br />

has to be seen as the ultimate<br />

goal, not the starting point. This<br />

is why we offer primary-level electrification<br />

and all-round electrification.<br />

We combine the experience gained<br />

with working equipment – subject to<br />

energy efficiency requirements – with<br />

that gained in industrial automation<br />

-a field that’s very stimulating, complex<br />

and demanding.<br />

Ecomondo Key Energy hosted a preview<br />

of the “all in one” coming in<br />

two versions: the first made for work<br />

equipment fitted with single-stage final<br />

drives that slows down the electric<br />

motor to align it with combustion<br />

engine speed. There is a gear reduction<br />

ratio needed to bring the axle to<br />

the speed required by the machine’s<br />

transmission. The other version in-<br />

cludes a steel gear reducer with differential<br />

that can be used on any vehicle<br />

needing one output shaft for two<br />

half-shafts.”<br />

Green economy also means reconciling<br />

the productivity, emission<br />

reduction and equipment manoeuvrability<br />

requirements. What’s<br />

Bonfiglioli’s value added?<br />

In all of these respects, it all boils<br />

down to software programming.<br />

There is nothing a machine cannot<br />

do, once that the logics of motion<br />

control from industrial automation<br />

are applied. The technology is there,<br />

but the sector specific application is<br />

still to be invented.<br />

Currently, the market still lacks widespread<br />

competences in this field.<br />

That’s why we think we’re offering<br />

equipment professionals a strategic<br />

opportunity with our primary-level<br />

electrification mode. It took our<br />

customers years to gain an in-depth<br />

knowledge of hydraulics – it actually<br />

marks the difference between<br />

a machine and another – and become<br />

skilled system engineers. When<br />

switching to electric, said knowledge<br />

tends to get back to square one. You<br />

need to be familiar with electronic<br />

controls and the system providers<br />

themselves can fill this gap.<br />

Bonfiglioli set up a spin-off from<br />

their mobile division, which will<br />

provide skilled resources from this<br />

ad-hoc department. The professionals<br />

tackling these needs that we may<br />

term “disruptive”, have the required<br />

flexibility to tackle the mission we<br />

have entrusted on them.<br />

How is Bonfiglioli Group doing<br />

through the hardships of semi-finished<br />

material/component supply<br />

problems and booming energy and<br />

logistics costs?<br />

I feel I can say Bonfiglioli is in a position<br />

to withstand these stress factors.<br />

We never resorted to massive delocalization.<br />

The plants of China, India, Brasil,<br />

USA, Vietnam, have been working<br />

for some 10 years now based on the<br />

local-for-local principle. You produce<br />

for your reference market so you avoid<br />

shipping containers, differently than<br />

those who delocalized production to<br />

import from low-cost production sites<br />

to western markets. What worries me<br />

most is the shortage of raw materials.<br />

44<br />


TECHNO<br />


MAN ES:<br />

H2 READY<br />

MAN Energy Solutions<br />

has announced that its<br />

gas-powered, four-stroke<br />

engines are “H2-ready”<br />

and operable in stationary mode with<br />

a hydrogen content of up to 25% by<br />

volume in a gas-fuel mix. As such,<br />

within the power-plant segment, the<br />

company’s MAN 35/44G TS, 51/60G<br />

and 51/60G TS gas engines are now<br />

designated as H2-ready and capable of<br />

exploiting hydrogen to further reduce<br />

CO 2<br />

emissions. This hydrogen-combusting<br />

capability enables MAN gas<br />

engines to meet Level B requirements<br />

of the European Engine Power Plants<br />

Association’s (EUGINE) H2-readiness<br />

standard. With Power-to-X fuels such<br />

as synthetic natural gas (SNG), MAN<br />

engines can already be operated in a<br />

completely climate-neutral way.<br />

“Flexible and decentralised, gas-fired<br />

power plants will play a decisive role<br />

for a secure power-supply on the pathway<br />

towards 100% renewable energy,”<br />

said Gunnar Stiesch, Head of<br />

Engineering Engines at MAN Energy<br />

Solutions. “The CO 2<br />

emissions of these<br />

power plants can be further reduced<br />

by mixing the fuel gas with hydrogen.<br />

Green hydrogen is still a scarce commodity<br />

and therefore our engines offer<br />

operators full flexibility within the<br />

scope of the admixture possible in the<br />

existing gas network. At the same time,<br />

we are working on future concepts that<br />

will enable hydrogen fuelling of up to<br />

100% as soon as it becomes available<br />

in large quantities.”<br />

The adaptive combustion control<br />

(ACC) of the MAN engines reacts fully<br />

automatically to varying hydrogen<br />

contents in the natural gas and enables<br />

operation without loss of efficiency,<br />

even with fluctuating H2 content. Gas<br />

engines already in operation can be<br />

retrofitted for hydrogen blend-in by<br />

upgrading the automation and adding<br />

additional ACC sensors.<br />

“We are focusing our R&D efforts on<br />

offering our customers maximum operational<br />

flexibility and future-proofness,”<br />

said Stiesch. “The development<br />

of a hydrogen economy will take several<br />

years, during which time the infrastructure<br />

will be upgraded and the<br />

production of green hydrogen ramped<br />

up. In the German natural-gas grid,<br />

for example, a maximum admixture of<br />

up to 10% is currently possible; in the<br />

future, 20% will be feasible. With our<br />

engines, power-plant operators are optimally<br />

positioned for this situation.”<br />



We are in China, and it is not<br />

in itself a sensational figure,<br />

especially when it comes to<br />

electrification, especially in<br />

heavy-duty automotive. Farizon Auto,<br />

the truck arm of the Geely Group, to<br />

be clear who has controlled Volvo Cars<br />

since 2<strong>01</strong>0, has officially presented its<br />

vision of the truck of the future, attentive<br />

to sustainability and, at the same<br />

time, rich in technological equipment<br />

for driving assist and onboard comfort.<br />

It will be called Homtruck and promises<br />

to be revolutionary starting from<br />

its design. The Geely Holding Group<br />

brand has announced the start of production<br />

and the very first deliveries<br />

for early 2024 and defines the next<br />

generation smart semi-trailer as “one<br />

of the most advanced and cleanest<br />

commercial vehicles on the road that<br />

focuses on efficiency, driver and pedestrian<br />

safety, and boasts important discoveries<br />

in sustainable powertrains”.<br />

Homtruck’s architecture can carry a<br />

number of powertrain options including<br />

range extender, hybrid methanol<br />

and pure electric with battery swap<br />

option, a technology based on government<br />

standards recently released<br />

by the Chinese Ministry of Industry<br />

and Technology. The Homtruck can be<br />

“recharged” at service stations, including<br />

motorway ones, in a few minutes<br />

compared to the long amounts of time<br />

required by charging via the column.<br />

Of course, these are lead-acid batteries,<br />

the fact is that it is sufficient to re-<br />

place the battery pack during the lunch<br />

break, rather than having it recharged,<br />

to avoid any downtime. Basically, the<br />

vehicles with this solution, instead of<br />

stopping to carry out the (long) recharge<br />

of a few hours at the columns, will<br />

be able to change batteries at special<br />

stations, under development and construction<br />

in recent months, reducing<br />

downtime and significantly streamlining<br />

company operations.<br />


Liebherr, which is developing “climate-friendly” injection solutions for alternative fuels, has presented H2 direct<br />

injection as a drive solution for on- and off-highway applications and also unveiled combustion concepts for H2<br />

engines in the range of 6-16 litres displacement and 200-450 kW. As a development partner and system supplier<br />

for climate-friendly injection technology, Liebherr offers solutions for hydrogen combustion engines that can be<br />

used in on- and off-highway applications. Development work in the injection systems product area focuses on lowpressure<br />

direct injection (LPDI). A 2-valve concept ensures that H2 leakage is kept as low as possible. Depending on<br />

the particular configuration, the LPDI injector is designed for system pressures of up to 60 bar. Typical applications<br />

usually lie in the range of 30 bar. Initial test results show promising behaviour of the injector in terms of injection<br />

rate and small-volume capability. The component thus covers a wide range of applications. Today’s prototypes<br />

allow customer-specific screw inserts to interface with the hydrogen connection. They are geared towards<br />

most common connection types and offer the greatest possible flexibility in engine development.<br />

46<br />


TECHNO<br />




For Volvo, the choice of a hybrid<br />

vessel is the logical thing to do<br />

in order to mitigate the environmental<br />

impact as much as possible<br />

and provide the muscle to tackle the<br />

Arctic Ocean. Volvo Penta is running<br />

a pilot project with Svalbard’s oldest<br />

tourist operator, Hurtigruten Svalbard,<br />

to test a state-of-the-art hybrid Marell<br />

M15 vessel called Kvitbjørn (Polar<br />

Bear) that will change how tourists experience<br />

this natural wonder, delivering<br />

near-silent operation and creating a<br />

more enjoyable experience for tourists<br />

and wildlife alike. Powered by a Volvo<br />

Penta twin D4-320 DPI Aquamatic<br />

hybrid solution, the boat has a top<br />

speed of 32 knots and a cruising speed<br />

of 25 knots. This vessel, designed and<br />

built by Marell Boats Sweden AB, will<br />

be tailored to the customer’s needs and<br />

robust enough to operate safely in the<br />

demanding Arctic environment – running<br />

in sub-zero temperatures with an<br />

extensive range of 500 Nm. This pioneering<br />

model is still at the concept stage,<br />

but could see future development down<br />

the line. Hurtigruten Svalbard will trial<br />

paying by the kilowatt-hour for its operation,<br />

with the boat set to run for more<br />

than 1,000 hours during the tourist season<br />

(May 1 st – October 31 st ). All the<br />

interfaces between the hybrid drive and<br />

supporting systems were developed<br />

through close collaboration between<br />

Marell Boats and Volvo Penta. These<br />

include the charging, ventilation, heating,<br />

and air-conditioning systems. The<br />

complete power drivetrain solution for<br />

the vessel is based on the Volvo Penta<br />

D4/D6 Aquamatic DPI package.<br />


Hyundai Doosan Infracore announced the expansion of the DX family with the release of DX22, the latest<br />

electronic engine of 22L, 12-cylinders for power generators. As an electronic engine for generators, DX22 applies<br />

a fuel system with the high-pressure common rail to feature high power density of 995 kW at ESP 60 Hz.<br />

Moreover, its major parts, such as cylinder block, cylinder head, and crankshaft, are manufactured based on highstrength<br />

design, and they have undergone thorough durability verification. DX22 generator engine has acquired<br />

EPA Tier 2 certification for emission control. It is eco-friendly enough to meet European Reach & RoHS regulations<br />

(Restriction of Hazardous Substances). Its design reflects VOC (Voice of Customers), offering customer-friendly<br />

and safety features. The DX22 generator engine is scheduled to be launched in the North American market in<br />

December of this year. At the beginning of <strong>2022</strong>, the DX22 generator engine that meets CN3 will be introduced<br />

in the Chinese market. Starting with the launch of the DX22 engine, Hyundai Doosan Infracore plans to build<br />

a diverse electronic engine sales lineup by 2024 and strengthen its dealer network accordingly.<br />


H2<br />






Engines and components for OEM<br />

Culture, technology, purposes<br />

And market of <strong>Diesel</strong> engines<br />

Established in 1986<br />

Editor in chief<br />

Fabio Butturi<br />

Editorial staff<br />

Stefano Agnellini, Ornella Cavalli,<br />

Fabrizio Dalle Nogare<br />

Cristina Scuteri, Roberto Sommariva<br />


Wherever you are<br />

For some, hydrogen is the El Dorado,<br />

for others, a broken promise,<br />

for still others, Beckett’s Godot.<br />

Here is a concrete experience or,<br />

if you can find it, a case study.<br />

The Bavarian hydro]]gen fuel cell specialist<br />

Proton Motor Fuel Cell is now<br />

successfully delivering its high-tech<br />

innovation HyShip 72. For the largest<br />

European shipbuilding group Fincantieri,<br />

two fully redundant HyShip 72<br />

product designs were primarily adapted<br />

for the power supply of the electric<br />

powertrain and other consumers of the<br />

ZEUS ship (Zero Emission Ultimate<br />

Ship). The hydrogen-powered propulsion<br />

solution is equipped with Proton<br />

Motor fuel cells, a battery system as<br />

well as a metal hydride hydrogen sto-<br />

rage system. The multiple HyShip 72<br />

applications provide power supply<br />

for recreational, passenger, cargo,<br />

working, military ships and submarines.<br />

The waste heat can also be used<br />

thermally, as intended for ZEUS, to<br />

extract the hydrogen from the metal<br />

hydrate. In mid-December 2021, the<br />

technical acceptance and official release<br />

of the first HyShip product by<br />

Fincantieri and the classification society<br />

RINA took place for delivery to<br />

the customer. The core of a singular<br />

HyShip 72 are two integrated Proton<br />

Motor stack modules PM 400-120.<br />

They will be supplemented with a battery<br />

system and the hydrogen storage<br />

system based on metal hydride to an<br />

emission-free electric drive train.<br />

Contributors<br />

Carolina Gambino,<br />

Maria Grazia Gargioni,<br />

Erika Pasquini<br />

Layout & graphics<br />

Marco Zanusso (manager)<br />

Editorial management<br />

Fabio Zammaretti<br />

Printing<br />

Industrie Grafiche RGM srl,<br />

Rozzano (Mi)<br />

Milano City Court Authorization<br />

n. 860 – December 18th 1987 National<br />

Press Register n. 4596 – April 20th 1994<br />

Poste Italiane Inc. – Mail subscription<br />

D.L. 353/2003 (mod. in L. 27/02/2004 n°<br />

46) Art. 1, subsection 1, LO/MI<br />





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We unlock e-mobility for every community and every location,<br />

regardless of how remote they are. The grid-independent isles<br />

provide reliable and cost-efficient fast charging at any time,<br />

with net-zero CO2 emissions. We team up with me energy and<br />

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service. NGV <strong>Powertrain</strong> green power systems are the beating<br />

heart of the green mobility revolution.<br />

in partnership with

Power to<br />

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Yield<br />

More power. More productivity. More uptime. Less complexity.<br />

Cummins Performance Series engines deliver benefits to<br />

farmers and equipment manufacturers alike. Higher power<br />

means more machine capability. A simpler design means<br />

easier installation and maintenance.<br />

To learn more visit:<br />

cummins.tech/y4sw8t<br />


+<br />

S E R V I C E<br />

+<br />

S U P P O R T<br />

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+<br />

D I S T R I B U T O R S<br />

performance<br />

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There’s an unbreakable bond between John Deere products and<br />

the people who choose them. It gives you the power to take your<br />

equipment where it needs to go, with premium John Deere quality<br />

standing behind you. And the power to work confidently knowing a<br />

global network of more than 9,000 John Deere dealers are ready to<br />

offer service and support whenever you need it. That’s the unique<br />

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JohnDeere.com/Connection<br />

©<strong>2022</strong> Cummins Inc.

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