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SLSNZ National Beach & Coastal Safety Report 10-Year Overview | 2011 - 21 & 1-Year Overview | 2020-21

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NATIONAL BEACH &<br />

COASTAL SAFETY REPORT<br />

<strong>10</strong>-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong> & 1-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>


KEY FINDINGS<br />

KEY FINDINGS<br />

<strong>10</strong>-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

<strong>10</strong> YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

1<br />

Our Ten <strong>Year</strong> Average Fatal<br />

Drowning Rate is 44% Higher<br />

Than Australia’s<br />

2<br />

Other Ethnicities* Had the<br />

Greatest Fatal Drowning Rate<br />

Over the Last Ten <strong>Year</strong>s<br />

2.5<br />

44%<br />

New Zealand has a 44% higher ten-year average<br />

beach and coastal fatal drowning rate per capita<br />

(per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) than Australia.<br />

2.0<br />

1.5<br />

1.0<br />

Maori Pasifika Other<br />

Ethnicities*<br />

*Other Ethnicities represent all other ethnicities that<br />

are not NZ European, Pasifika, Asian nor Maori.<br />

Over the last ten years, Other Ethnicities* had the<br />

highest fatal drowning rate per capita (2.49 per<br />

<strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.), followed by Pasifika (1.28 per<br />

<strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) and Maori (1.15 per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop).<br />

3<br />

Pasifika Had the Second-Highest<br />

Drowning Rate Over<br />

the Last <strong>10</strong> <strong>Year</strong>s.<br />

4<br />

Māori Had the Third-Highest<br />

Drowning Rate Over<br />

the Last <strong>10</strong> <strong>Year</strong>s<br />

1.28 1.15<br />

per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop. per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.<br />

Over the last ten years, Pasifika people had the<br />

second-highest fatal drowning rate per capita<br />

(1.28 per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.)<br />

Over the last ten years, Maori people had the<br />

third-highest fatal drowning rate per capita (1.15<br />

per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop).<br />

5<br />

46% Of Fatal Drownings<br />

Occurred in the Summer Months.<br />

Over the last ten years, there were 167 beach and<br />

coastal drowning fatalities during the three summer<br />

months of December, January and February. This<br />

figure represents nearly half of the total annual<br />

beach and coastal drowning fatalities recorded,<br />

highlighting the increased risk associated with the<br />

busy summer season.


We, Surf Life Saving New Zealand, are saying “enough is<br />

enough” and are calling for greater investment in a long term,<br />

evidence-based beach and coastal safety education strategy.<br />

6<br />

Males are Fatally Drowning<br />

More Than Females<br />

87%<br />

MALE<br />

13%<br />

FEMALE<br />

Of those who died from drowning over the last ten<br />

years, males represent 87% and females only 13%.<br />

Men are fatally drowning more on our beaches and<br />

coastlines than females.<br />

7<br />

Many New Zealand Adults<br />

Cannot Swim or Float Unaided.<br />

Nearly three in ten New Zealanders cannot swim or<br />

float in the ocean for more than a few minutes.<br />

Only 9% of New Zealand adults swam further than<br />

50m in the ocean in 20<strong>21</strong> while over one quarter<br />

have never swum this distance in the ocean.<br />

Adults are Fatally Drowning<br />

More Than Children and Young<br />

8 9<br />

Adolescents.<br />

Surf <strong>Beach</strong>es Pose the Greatest<br />

Risk for <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong> Fatal<br />

Drowning in New Zealand.<br />

38%<br />

Adults over the age of 15 account for 95% of all<br />

drowning fatalities in the beach and coastal<br />

environment. The 35-54 and 65+ age groups have<br />

the greatest number of fatal drownings.<br />

Over the last ten years, 38% of beach and<br />

coastal fatal drownings occurred at a surf beach<br />

in New Zealand.<br />

<strong>10</strong><br />

Over the Last <strong>10</strong> <strong>Year</strong>s, the<br />

Greatest Risk Activities on a<br />

<strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong> Environment<br />

Have Been:<br />

However… Last <strong>Year</strong>, the Greatest<br />

Risk Activities Were:<br />

Swimming/Wading<br />

Boating<br />

Falls (trips/slips)<br />

Swimming/Wading<br />

Snorkelling<br />

Boating


DROWNING SNAPSHOT<br />

<strong>10</strong>-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

357 87%<br />

MALE<br />

BEACH &<br />

COASTAL FATAL<br />

DROWNINGS<br />

13%<br />

FEMALE<br />

LOCATION<br />

38%<br />

SURF BEACH<br />

13%<br />

HARBOUR<br />

17%<br />

0-1KM<br />

OFFSHORE<br />

ACTIVITY<br />

22%<br />

SWIMMING/WADING<br />

18%<br />

BOATING<br />

16%<br />

FALLS


CONTENTS<br />

Synopsis 04<br />

Key Findings 06<br />

SECTION ONE:<br />

COMMUNITY 09<br />

New Zealand Population <strong>10</strong><br />

<strong>Coastal</strong> Visitation 12<br />

Covid-19 Impacts 13<br />

Activity Participation 14<br />

Swimming Ability 18<br />

<strong>Coastal</strong> <strong>Safety</strong> 19<br />

Feature: Rip Currents and the 3Rs 22<br />

SECTION TWO:<br />

CAPABILITY 25<br />

Capability 26<br />

Surf Life Saving Patrol<br />

Locations 28<br />

Surf Lifeguard Capability 29<br />

Rescues Per Region 30<br />

Assists Per Region 31<br />

Major First Aid Incidents 32<br />

Minor First Aid Incidents 33<br />

Searches Per Region 34<br />

Preventative Actions 35<br />

SECTION THREE:<br />

INCIDENT ANALYSIS 37<br />

<strong>10</strong> <strong>Year</strong> <strong>National</strong> <strong>Overview</strong> 38<br />

Rescues and Assists 40<br />

First Aid Treatments 41<br />

Searches 42<br />

45<br />

SECTION FOUR:<br />

SEARCH & RESCUE<br />

ANALYSIS<br />

<strong>10</strong> <strong>Year</strong> <strong>National</strong> <strong>Overview</strong> 46<br />

SECTION FIVE:<br />

FATAL DROWNING 49<br />

ANALYSIS - <strong>2011</strong>/<strong>21</strong><br />

<strong>10</strong> <strong>Year</strong> <strong>National</strong> <strong>Overview</strong> 50<br />

57<br />

SECTION SIX:<br />

FATAL DROWNING<br />

ANALYSIS - <strong>2020</strong>/<strong>21</strong><br />

1 <strong>Year</strong> <strong>National</strong> <strong>Overview</strong> 58<br />

SECTION SEVEN:<br />

REGIONAL OVERVIEWS<br />

Northland<br />

Auckland<br />

Waikato<br />

Bay of Plenty<br />

Gisborne<br />

Hawke's Bay<br />

Taranaki<br />

Manawatu-Wanganui<br />

Wellington<br />

Tasman<br />

Nelson<br />

Marlborough<br />

West Coast<br />

Canterbury<br />

Otago<br />

Southland<br />

61<br />

62<br />

64<br />

66<br />

68<br />

70<br />

72<br />

74<br />

76<br />

78<br />

80<br />

82<br />

84<br />

86<br />

88<br />

90<br />

92<br />

95<br />

SECTION EIGTH:<br />

<strong>10</strong> YEAR ACTIVITY<br />

OVERVIEW <strong>2011</strong>/<strong>21</strong><br />

Snapshot: Swimming/Wading 96<br />

Snapshot: Boating 97<br />

Snapshot: Falls 98<br />

Snapshot: Snorkelling 99<br />

Snapshot: Watercraft <strong>10</strong>0<br />

Snapshot: Land-Based Fishing <strong>10</strong>1<br />

SECTION NINE:<br />

<strong>10</strong> YEAR ETHNICITY <strong>10</strong>3<br />

OVERVIEW <strong>2011</strong>/<strong>21</strong><br />

Snapshot: NZ European <strong>10</strong>4<br />

Snapshot: Maori <strong>10</strong>5<br />

Snapshot: Asian <strong>10</strong>6<br />

Snapshot: Pasifika <strong>10</strong>7<br />

Snapshot: Other <strong>10</strong>8<br />

Key Terms 1<strong>10</strong><br />

References 112


SYNOPSIS<br />

New Zealander’s love the coast. Sadly, in the last ten years,<br />

there have been 357 beach and coastal fatal drownings in<br />

New Zealand. Each one leaves families and communities<br />

devastated. Our drowning toll is something every New<br />

Zealander should see as a national tragedy and one we all<br />

have a responsibility to address.<br />

The <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong> <strong>Beach</strong> & <strong>Coastal</strong> <strong>Safety</strong> <strong>Report</strong> is being<br />

released while we are in the midst of an appalling summer<br />

for fatal drownings. Data from the <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong> <strong>Report</strong> shows<br />

that New Zealand has a 44% higher ten-year average beach<br />

and coastal fatal drowning rate per capita (per <strong>10</strong>0,000<br />

pop.) than Australia. This is a hugely concerning statistic and<br />

as a coastal nation, we need to do far better. We, Surf Life<br />

Saving New Zealand, are saying “enough is enough” and<br />

support water safety and public sector collaboration, to<br />

manage the risks our coastline presents and improve our<br />

drowning rate. We are also calling for greater investment<br />

in a long term, evidence-based beach and coastal safety<br />

education strategy.<br />

In order to help understand the problem in more detail,<br />

Surf Life Saving New Zealand (<strong>SLSNZ</strong>) produces this report<br />

on an annual basis, documenting incidents that have<br />

occurred within the coastal zone, while also analysing<br />

coastal participation, behaviours and perceptions. The<br />

report in itself does not provide answers, but provides the<br />

data in such a way that highlights the problem and will aid<br />

further analysis to help provide potential solutions.<br />

Between May <strong>2020</strong> and April 20<strong>21</strong>, 3.1 million New<br />

Zealand adults (16 years and above) visited the coast on<br />

average 3.8 times each month. This suggests there were<br />

over 12 million individual visits to the coast. Swimming/<br />

wading was the most popular activity, followed by kai<br />

gathering and boating.<br />

From <strong>2011</strong>-20<strong>21</strong> there were 167 beach and coastal<br />

drowning fatalities during the three summer months of<br />

December, January and February. This figure represents<br />

nearly half of the total annual beach and coastal drowning<br />

fatalities recorded, highlighting the increased risk associated<br />

with the busy summer season, as has tragically been seen<br />

with the high drowning numbers this year.<br />

Over the past ten years, nearly 40% of beach and coastal<br />

fatal drownings occurred at a surf beach, with almost onequarter<br />

of these deaths occurring while swimming or wading.<br />

Astoundingly almost a third of New Zealanders cannot swim<br />

or float in the ocean for more than a few minutes, and many<br />

cannot swim 50m in the ocean without touching the bottom.<br />

For those whose swimming and floating ability in the ocean<br />

is limited, it highlights the importance of choosing to swim<br />

at a lifeguarded beach.<br />

“Rip currents are the greatest<br />

hazard at a surf beach.”<br />

There is a strong correlation between rip currents, beaches,<br />

and swimming and wading incidents. As predicted, research<br />

shows nearly 60% of New Zealanders cannot identify a<br />

rip. Because of this inability to identify rip currents, <strong>SLSNZ</strong><br />

introduced the 3Rs Rip Survival Plan to increase awareness<br />

and knowledge on what to do if caught in a rip. The 3Rs<br />

message comprises three simple and easy-to-remember<br />

steps:<br />

R – Relax and float to conserve energy.<br />

R – Raise your hand to signal for help.<br />

R – Ride the rip until it stops and you<br />

can swim back to shore or help arrives.<br />

Research suggests the 3Rs campaign is clear and resonates<br />

with the New Zealand public. While we have an effective<br />

behaviour change tool, campaign exposure needs to be<br />

greater, more consistent and communicated in an authentic<br />

manner to a wider range of communities.<br />

Across all coastal activities, males continue to believe they<br />

are experienced enough to take more risks compared to<br />

females. Males are more likely to take risks and less likely to<br />

follow safety practices, while the opposite is true for female<br />

participants. Not surprisingly, males continue to fatally<br />

drown more than females on our beaches and coastline,<br />

accounting for 87% of drowning deaths.<br />

Interestingly, from a total of <strong>21</strong>,575 incidents addressed by<br />

Surf Lifeguards over the past ten years, 60% involved males<br />

and 40% females. Although males represent the majority<br />

of all beach and coastal incidents (fatal and non-fatal), the<br />

disparity in the male-female proportion is even higher when<br />

accounting for only the fatal incidents.<br />

During the last ten years, there has been an average of<br />

36 beach and coastal fatal drownings each year and in<br />

comparison to our antipodean neighbours, the ten-year<br />

average beach and coastal fatal drowning rate is 44%<br />

greater than the Australian ten-year average.<br />

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND<br />

04<br />

NATIONAL BEACH & COASTAL SAFETY REPORT


The Auckland region has the highest number of fatal<br />

drownings, followed by Northland and Waikato. However,<br />

when looking at per-capita figures, Northland had<br />

New Zealand’s greatest fatal drowning rate (3.30<br />

per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) and Auckland, with a far greater<br />

population size, has a fatal drowning rate of only 0.59.<br />

Therefore, the risk of fatally drowning on the beach and<br />

coastal environments of Northland is over five times<br />

greater than in Auckland.<br />

Surf beaches remain the most dangerous environment,<br />

followed by locations 0-1 km from shore and within<br />

harbours. Most beach and coastal fatal drownings occurred<br />

while swimming or wading, followed by boating and falls.<br />

Over the last ten years, the highest fatal drowning rate<br />

per capita (2.49 per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) has been seen amongst<br />

those communities that are less familiar with our beaches<br />

and essential water safety information, followed by Pasifika<br />

(1.28 per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) and Maori (1.15 per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop).<br />

<strong>SLSNZ</strong>’s vision is “No one drowns at our beaches”, the<br />

volunteer membership has provided a Surf Lifeguard<br />

Service to the New Zealand public for 111 years. This<br />

national Lifeguard service now consists of 74 volunteer<br />

Surf Life Saving Clubs who patrol at weekends from Labour<br />

Weekend to Easter and a council funded Lifeguard Service<br />

delivered by <strong>SLSNZ</strong> to provide patrols during the week in the<br />

peak summer holiday season in the most popular locations.<br />

When combined, these services patrol a total of over 80<br />

locations countrywide. During <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong> there were 4,6<strong>21</strong><br />

qualified Surf Lifeguards, with 925 of them gaining their<br />

Surf Lifeguard Award during the season.<br />

The interventions performed while Surf Lifeguards have<br />

been protecting our beaches in the last decade have saved<br />

countless people. Through these actions <strong>SLSNZ</strong> Volunteer<br />

Surf Lifeguards have likely saved more than 11,364 lives.<br />

Over the last ten years, Surf Lifeguards have carried<br />

out 1,136,315 preventative actions involving 4,472,325<br />

members of the public. That is a huge number of drownings<br />

that have been potentially averted because of the vital role<br />

that <strong>SLSNZ</strong> performs.<br />

<strong>SLSNZ</strong> also saves lives on the land as well as in the sea.<br />

All Surf Lifeguards are first aid trained, and many as First<br />

Responders. Over the last ten years, Surf Lifeguards have<br />

treated 24,163 people who have required minor or major<br />

first aid treatments and searched for 3,397 people.<br />

“Over the past ten years, Surf Lifeguards<br />

have recovered <strong>10</strong>1 deceased people,<br />

almost one-third of all beach and coastal<br />

drowning deaths across New Zealand.”<br />

As part of the ‘<strong>National</strong> Search and Rescue (SAR)<br />

Framework’, Volunteer <strong>SLSNZ</strong> Clubs are regularly called<br />

upon by the Police to respond to incidents out of hours.<br />

These call-outs have significantly increased in recent years<br />

as more and more people need our services. More lives<br />

are being saved, and more people are being rescued than<br />

ever before. Unfortunately, SAR Squads have also been<br />

busy searching for and recovering people who have died,<br />

returning them to their whanau and loved ones.<br />

The <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong> <strong>Beach</strong> & <strong>Coastal</strong> <strong>Safety</strong> <strong>Report</strong> shows that<br />

beach and coastal fatal drownings had plateaued, and<br />

there was a slight 1.3% decrease in the number of beach<br />

and coastal fatal drownings over the last five years when<br />

compared to the previous five years. Data for <strong>2020</strong>-20<strong>21</strong><br />

also shows there were 25 beach and coastal fatal drownings,<br />

the lowest fatality count since 2013-14, which sees the New<br />

Zealand drowning rate (0.49 per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) drop to less<br />

than the Australian (0.53 per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) for the first<br />

time in ten years.<br />

However, it seems this is not an indication of a positive<br />

trend. It is likely the statistics reflect last summer’s poor<br />

weather and Covid-19 restrictions keeping people away<br />

from the beach. Tragically, record numbers of rescues<br />

and dire drowning figures already taking place in the<br />

20<strong>21</strong>-22 summer period.<br />

We must ask the question why the New Zealand ten-year<br />

drowning rate is so high in comparison to Australia and<br />

ensure we do not repeat this disastrous year for drowning<br />

deaths. We cannot become complacent about the need for<br />

significant and sustained investment in public education<br />

strategies and campaigns for beach and coastal safety.<br />

This is essential to ensure that future figures no longer tell<br />

the tragic tale of hundreds of lives lost from preventable<br />

drownings in our oceans.<br />

Anyone can drown,<br />

but no one should.<br />

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND<br />

05<br />

SYNOPSIS


KEY FINDINGS<br />

• New Zealand adults (16 years and above) visited the coast on average 3.8 times each month. This<br />

suggests there were over 12 million individual visitations to the coast with 2.2 million coastal activity<br />

participants.<br />

• In the last 12 months, males and females visited the coast equally, but females spent fewer hours per<br />

visit. Swimming and wading was the most popular activity (49%), followed by kai gathering for food<br />

(23%) and boating (16%).<br />

• Nearly three in ten New Zealanders cannot swim or float in the ocean for more than a few minutes.<br />

• Only 9% of New Zealand adults swam further than 50m in the ocean in 20<strong>21</strong>, while over one quarter<br />

have never swum this distance in the ocean.<br />

• New Zealand has a 44% higher ten-year average beach and coastal fatal drowning rate per capita<br />

(per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) than Australia.<br />

• Males are fatally drowning more than females on our beaches and coastline. Of those who died from<br />

drowning over the last ten years, males represent 87% and females 13%.<br />

• Over the last ten years, Other Ethnicities had the highest fatal drowning rate per capita (2.49 per<br />

<strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) of any ethnicity, followed by Pasifika (1.28 per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) and Māori (1.15 per<br />

<strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.).<br />

• Over the last ten years, there were 167 beach and coastal drowning fatalities during the three<br />

summer months of December, January and February. This figure represents nearly half of the total<br />

annual beach and coastal drowning fatalities recorded, highlighting the increased risk associated<br />

with the busy summer season.<br />

• Over the last ten years, adults over the age of 15 accounted for 95% of all drowning fatalities in the<br />

beach and coastal environment. The 35-54 and 65+ age groups have the greatest number of fatal<br />

drownings.<br />

• Over the last ten years, 38% of beach and coastal fatal drownings occurred at a surf beach in New<br />

Zealand. Rip currents are the greatest hazard at a surf beach.<br />

• Over the last ten years, swimming/wading, boating, and falls (trips/slips) have been the highest risk<br />

activities on the coast. Last year swimming/wading, snorkelling and boating were the highest risk<br />

activities.<br />

New Zealander’s love the coast. Sadly, in the last ten years, there<br />

have been 357 beach and coastal fatal drownings in New Zealand.<br />

Each one leaves families and communities devastated. Our drowning<br />

toll is something every New Zealander should see as a national<br />

tragedy and one we all have a responsibility to address.<br />

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH AND COASTAL SAFETY REPORT<br />

06


COMMUNITY<br />

SECTION ONE<br />

3.1M<br />

2.2M<br />

12M<br />

NEW ZEALAND<br />

ADULTS VISITED<br />

THE COAST<br />

COASTAL<br />

ACTIVITY<br />

PARTICIPANTS<br />

INDIVIDUAL<br />

COASTAL<br />

VISITATIONS<br />

49%<br />

SWIMMING/<br />

WADING<br />

23%<br />

KAI<br />

GATHERING<br />

16%<br />

BOATING


NEW ZEALAND POPULATION<br />

VISITATION & PARTICIPATION BY REGION<br />

Figure 1.1<br />

New Zealand (NZ) Population Density per Statistical<br />

Area (SA)<br />

This heat map shows the estimated NZ population density<br />

per SA area at June 2018 (Census 2018 – Stats NZ). The<br />

majority of areas with a population density greater than 2.9<br />

persons per square kilometre are located on NZ's extensive<br />

coastline.<br />

The <strong>National</strong> <strong>Coastal</strong> <strong>Safety</strong> Survey 20<strong>21</strong> (NCSS20<strong>21</strong>)<br />

collected data on coastal visitation, frequency and activity<br />

participation for the regions presented in the map below.<br />

SOUTH ISLAND<br />

REST OF THE<br />

SOUTH ISLAND<br />

0.4M - VISITORS<br />

5.4 - VISITS PER MONTH<br />

2 - HOURS PER VISIT<br />

0.3M - COASTAL ACTIVITY<br />

PARTICIPANTS<br />

CANTERBURY<br />

0.4M - VISITORS<br />

2.3 - VISITS PER MONTH<br />

1.8 - HOURS PER VISIT<br />

0.3M - COASTAL ACTIVITY<br />

PARTICIPANTS<br />

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH & COASTAL SAFETY REPORT 20<strong>21</strong><br />

<strong>10</strong>


NORTH ISLAND<br />

AUCKLAND<br />

1M - VISITORS<br />

4.6 - VISITS PER MONTH<br />

2 - HOURS PER VISIT<br />

0.8M - COASTAL ACTIVITY<br />

PARTICIPANTS<br />

REST OF THE<br />

NORTH ISLAND<br />

1M - VISITORS<br />

2.8 - VISITS PER MONTH<br />

2.2 - HOURS PER VISIT<br />

0.7M - COASTAL ACTIVITY<br />

PARTICIPANTS<br />

WELLINGTON<br />

0.4M - VISITORS<br />

4.6 - VISITS PER MONTH<br />

1.7 - HOURS PER VISIT<br />

0.2M - COASTAL ACTIVITY<br />

PARTICIPANTS<br />

Population density by Statistical Area<br />

(Census 2018)<br />

< 0.0<strong>21</strong> persons per km²<br />

0.0<strong>21</strong> - 0.544 persons per km²<br />

0.544 - 1.762 persons per km²<br />

1.762 - 2.941 persons per km²<br />

> 2.941 persons per km²<br />

SECTION ONE<br />

11<br />

COMMUNITY


COASTAL VISITATION<br />

NATIONAL VISITATION & PARTICIPATION<br />

3.1M 3.8 2.0<br />

HOURS/ 2.2M<br />

NZ ADULTS VISITED<br />

THE COAST<br />

VISITS/MONTH<br />

VISIT<br />

COASTAL ACTIVITY<br />

PARTICIPANTS<br />

COASTAL PARTICIPATION SUMMARY<br />

New Zealanders love the coast. To better understand how<br />

the coast is used, the annual <strong>National</strong> <strong>Coastal</strong> <strong>Safety</strong> Survey<br />

(NCSS) explores coastal participation, behaviours and<br />

perceptions. Between May <strong>2020</strong> and April 20<strong>21</strong>, 3.1 million<br />

New Zealand adults (16 years and above) visited the coast<br />

on average 3.8 times each month. This suggests that there<br />

were over 12 million individual visitations to the coast with<br />

2.2 million coastal activity participants (Figure 1.2).<br />

The OmniPoll <strong>National</strong> <strong>Coastal</strong> and Water <strong>Safety</strong> Survey in<br />

New Zealand is conducted online among a national sample<br />

of <strong>10</strong>00 people aged 16 and over. In the OmniPoll annual<br />

research, participation is asked for several coastal activities<br />

and refers to the past 12 months. The OmniPoll research<br />

has predominately a beach and coastal focus. For boating/<br />

watercraft/ jet ski, this also include activities in bay, harbour,<br />

estuary, off shore …but not in lake or river.<br />

Figure 1.2<br />

<strong>Coastal</strong> Participation By Activity And Gender<br />

In the last 12 months, males and females visited the coast equally, but females spend less hours per visit. Swimming and<br />

wading was the most popular activity (49%), followed by kai gathering for food (23%) and boating (16%).<br />

SCUBA<br />

1% DIVING<br />

55%<br />

SWIMMING/<br />

WADING 49%<br />

45%<br />

JET SKI/<br />

3% PWC<br />

35%<br />

25%<br />

KAI<br />

GATHERING 23%<br />

15%<br />

SURFIING<br />

6%<br />

5%<br />

BOATING<br />

16%<br />

ROCK<br />

6% FISHING<br />

LAND-BASED<br />

FISHING <strong>10</strong>%<br />

6% SNORKELLING<br />

WATERCRAFT 7%<br />

Net Occasional<br />

Net Frequent<br />

Net Occasional: people who occasionally participate in coastal activities (11 times per year to less than once a year.<br />

Net Frequent: people who often participate in coastal activities (everyday to 3 times per month).<br />

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH & COASTAL SAFETY REPORT 20<strong>21</strong><br />

12


COVID-19 IMPACTS<br />

CHANGES TO COASTAL VISITATION & PARTICIPATION<br />

Figure 1.3<br />

Did New Zealanders Visit The Coast More Or Less In The Last <strong>Year</strong> - Why & By Activity<br />

Recent unprecedented challenges have anecdotally affected coastal participation trends. When asked if, how and why<br />

coastal visitations had changed in the last year, 34% New Zealand adults have visited the coast less and 19% more often<br />

than in previous years. For those who visited less, 38% attributed this change due to COVID-19 restrictions, while 16% of<br />

those who visited more couldn’t travel overseas. <strong>Coastal</strong> activities also observed changes. For example, 35% of surfers<br />

and 34% of PWC users went more often this summer, while 40% of water craft users went less than in previous years.<br />

Understanding these changes is important to ensure coastal safety services remain relevant and able to support the<br />

community.<br />

No overseas travel,<br />

can only travel in Australia<br />

Place to relax or to exercise<br />

Moved closer to<br />

the coast/ relocated<br />

Weather,hotter,<br />

more sunny days<br />

Because of lockdown,<br />

to go out<br />

Other<br />

For the kids<br />

16%<br />

14%<br />

13%<br />

12%<br />

<strong>10</strong>%<br />

9%<br />

7%<br />

19%<br />

5%<br />

42%<br />

About the same<br />

as in previous<br />

years<br />

42%<br />

38%<br />

17%<br />

9%<br />

8%<br />

8%<br />

Covid/restrictions<br />

Busy, lack of time,<br />

less time than before<br />

Other<br />

Change in personal<br />

circumstances<br />

Bad weather/<br />

cold weather<br />

More free time<br />

Because of Covid /<br />

Covid restrictions (NFI)<br />

New habit<br />

7%<br />

5%<br />

4%<br />

34%<br />

8%<br />

7%<br />

Too crowded, to stay<br />

away from people<br />

Illness, health issues<br />

Can't say<br />

The only place to go these<br />

days,no covid, no mask<br />

For food gathering<br />

3%<br />

3%<br />

2%<br />

About the same as in<br />

previous years<br />

Less often than in<br />

previous years<br />

More often than in<br />

previous years<br />

Can’t say<br />

6%<br />

4%<br />

Can't say<br />

Cost, price<br />

Working from home<br />

0 5 <strong>10</strong> 15 20<br />

2%<br />

40 35 30 25 20 15 <strong>10</strong> 5 0<br />

No one to go with<br />

1%<br />

2%<br />

3%<br />

27%<br />

35%<br />

30%<br />

35%<br />

33%<br />

32%<br />

Swimming/<br />

Wading<br />

Surfing<br />

Boating<br />

36%<br />

32%<br />

33%<br />

3%<br />

25%<br />

33%<br />

30% 30%<br />

39%<br />

29%<br />

PWC<br />

Other<br />

Watercraft<br />

Rock<br />

Fishing<br />

39%<br />

40%<br />

32%<br />

1%<br />

3%<br />

5%<br />

23%<br />

31%<br />

29%<br />

34%<br />

30%<br />

52%<br />

Land-Based<br />

Fishing<br />

24%<br />

Snorkelling<br />

Kai<br />

Gathering<br />

32%<br />

37%<br />

More often than in previous years Less often than in previous years Or about the same as in previous years Can’t say<br />

SECTION ONE<br />

13<br />

COMMUNITY


ACTIVITY PARTICIPATION<br />

PARTICIPATION BY GENDER, FREQUENCY & REGION<br />

48%<br />

MALE<br />

52%<br />

FEMALE<br />

TOTAL 1.8M<br />

59%<br />

MALE<br />

41%<br />

FEMALE<br />

TOTAL 0.23M<br />

60%<br />

MALE<br />

40%<br />

FEMALE<br />

TOTAL 0.59M<br />

0.6M<br />

FREQUENT<br />

SWIMMERS<br />

1.2M<br />

OCCASIONAL<br />

SWIMMERS<br />

0.12M<br />

FREQUENT<br />

SURFERS<br />

0.11M<br />

OCCASIONAL<br />

SURFERS<br />

0.16M<br />

FREQUENT<br />

BOATERS<br />

0.42M<br />

OCCASIONAL<br />

BOATERS<br />

66<br />

HOURS/<br />

YEAR<br />

4<br />

HOURS/<br />

YEAR<br />

157<br />

HOURS/<br />

YEAR<br />

7<br />

HOURS/<br />

YEAR<br />

159<br />

HOURS/<br />

YEAR<br />

<strong>10</strong><br />

HOURS/<br />

YEAR<br />

54%<br />

48%<br />

8%<br />

5%<br />

19%<br />

15%<br />

51%<br />

8%<br />

18%<br />

39%<br />

6%<br />

13%<br />

49%<br />

3%<br />

<strong>10</strong>%<br />

49%<br />

Swimmers/Waders always<br />

choose to swim between flags<br />

when on a lifeguarded beach.<br />

64%<br />

Surfers avoid surfing under the<br />

influence of alcohol/drugs.<br />

61%<br />

Boaters always, or most of the<br />

time, fish while boating.<br />

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH AND COASTAL SAFETY REPORT 20<strong>21</strong><br />

14


<strong>Coastal</strong> participation differs by activity, gender, frequency and region. These pages show the proportion of male and<br />

female participants, the number of total, frequent and occasional participants, how many hours annually frequent vs.<br />

occasional participants spend on an activity, and the percentage of the region population who participate in each activity.<br />

Scuba diving not included due to small sample or no data<br />

66%<br />

MALE<br />

34%<br />

FEMALE<br />

TOTAL 0.22M<br />

66%<br />

MALE<br />

34%<br />

FEMALE<br />

TOTAL 0.37M<br />

59%<br />

MALE<br />

41%<br />

FEMALE<br />

TOTAL 0.85M<br />

0.11M<br />

FREQUENT<br />

ROCK FISHERS<br />

0.11M<br />

OCCASIONAL<br />

ROCK FISHERS<br />

0.17M<br />

FREQUENT<br />

LAND-BASED<br />

FISHERS<br />

0.<strong>21</strong>M<br />

OCCASIONAL<br />

LAND-BASED<br />

FISHERS<br />

0.30M<br />

FREQUENT<br />

SURFERS<br />

0.55M<br />

OCCASIONAL<br />

SURFERS<br />

127<br />

HOURS/<br />

YEAR<br />

9<br />

HOURS/<br />

YEAR<br />

<strong>10</strong>0<br />

HOURS/<br />

YEAR<br />

8<br />

HOURS/<br />

YEAR<br />

N/A<br />

HOURS/<br />

YEAR<br />

N/A<br />

HOURS/<br />

YEAR<br />

8%<br />

5%<br />

8%<br />

9%<br />

1%<br />

1%<br />

4%<br />

17%<br />

2%<br />

7%<br />

7%<br />

2%<br />

5%<br />

13%<br />

1%<br />

23%<br />

Rock fishers never wear a<br />

lifejacket or buoyancy aid.<br />

55%<br />

Land-based fishers consider<br />

land-based fishing not very<br />

hazardous or not at all hazardous.<br />

24%<br />

Kai gatherers consider the<br />

activity not very hazardous.<br />

SECTION ONE<br />

15<br />

COMMUNITY


ACTIVITY PARTICIPATION<br />

PARTICIPATION BY GENDER, FREQUENCY & REGION<br />

61%<br />

MALE<br />

39%<br />

FEMALE<br />

TOTAL 0.24M<br />

56%<br />

MALE<br />

44%<br />

FEMALE<br />

TOTAL 0.13M<br />

56%<br />

MALE<br />

44%<br />

FEMALE<br />

TOTAL 0.22M<br />

0.<strong>10</strong>M<br />

FREQUENT<br />

WATERCRAFT<br />

USERS<br />

0.14M<br />

OCCASIONAL<br />

WATERCRAFT<br />

USERS<br />

0.05M<br />

FREQUENT<br />

PWC USERS<br />

0.08M<br />

OCCASIONAL<br />

PWC USERS<br />

0.<strong>10</strong>M<br />

FREQUENT<br />

SNORKELLERS<br />

0.13M<br />

OCCASIONAL<br />

SNORKELLERS<br />

<strong>10</strong>4<br />

HOURS/<br />

YEAR<br />

6<br />

HOURS/<br />

YEAR<br />

44<br />

HOURS/<br />

YEAR<br />

6<br />

HOURS/<br />

YEAR<br />

<strong>10</strong>8<br />

HOURS/<br />

YEAR<br />

4<br />

HOURS/<br />

YEAR<br />

<strong>10</strong>%<br />

4%<br />

6%<br />

2%<br />

7%<br />

7%<br />

4%<br />

2%<br />

3%<br />

8%<br />

3%<br />

9%<br />

4%<br />

3%<br />

2%<br />

88%<br />

Watercraft users carry or use a<br />

lifejacket or a buoyancy aid.<br />

65%<br />

Users never had any<br />

Jet Ski training.<br />

37%<br />

Snorkellers have a dive plan<br />

and an emergency plan.<br />

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH AND COASTAL SAFETY REPORT 20<strong>21</strong><br />

16


ACTIVITY PARTICIPATION<br />

PROFILES & PRACTICES<br />

SWIMMERS/<br />

WADERS<br />

SURFERS<br />

BOATERS<br />

52%<br />

35-69 years old<br />

66%<br />

16-34 years old<br />

56%<br />

35-70 years old<br />

35%<br />

Swim at unpatrolled locations<br />

22%<br />

Are beginners<br />

85%<br />

Use power boat<br />

43%<br />

Always look for rip currents<br />

33%<br />

Always surf with others<br />

16%<br />

Boat further than 2<br />

nautical miles offshore<br />

49%<br />

Always swim between the flags<br />

32%<br />

Always check surf conditions<br />

with a lifeguard or other<br />

authoritative source<br />

70%<br />

Always wear a lifejacket<br />

48%<br />

Feel experienced enough<br />

to take some risks<br />

64%<br />

Always avoid alcohol/drugs<br />

when surfing<br />

78%<br />

Always carry safety equipment<br />

ROCK<br />

FISHERS<br />

LAND-BASED<br />

FISHERS<br />

KAI<br />

GATHERERS<br />

65%<br />

25-49 years old<br />

55%<br />

35-69 years old<br />

71%<br />

25-69 years old<br />

23%<br />

Never wear a lifejacket<br />

or buoyancy aid<br />

38%<br />

Never wear a lifejacket or<br />

buoyancy aid<br />

39%<br />

Gather from the beach<br />

46%<br />

Always avoid alcohol/drug<br />

33%<br />

Never carry EPIRB/phone<br />

23%<br />

Go at least once a year<br />

26%<br />

Consider rock fishing<br />

not very hazardous<br />

48%<br />

Always wear appropriate<br />

clothing/footwear<br />

44%<br />

Go to a beach<br />

42%<br />

Rock fishers feel experienced<br />

enough to take some risk<br />

53%<br />

Consider it reasonable to<br />

consume alcohol while fishing<br />

24%<br />

Consider activity not very<br />

hazardous<br />

WATERCRAFT<br />

USERS<br />

PWC<br />

USERS<br />

SNORKELLERS<br />

64%<br />

16-34 years old<br />

69%<br />

16-34 years old<br />

52%<br />

35-69 years old<br />

29%<br />

Always carry safety equipment<br />

65%<br />

Never had any jet ski training<br />

56%<br />

Choose location because it is<br />

safe<br />

67%<br />

Use kayaks<br />

67%<br />

Always wear a lifejacket<br />

44%<br />

Always use safety equipment<br />

63%<br />

Choose locations they<br />

consider safe<br />

47%<br />

Always carry safety equipment<br />

47%<br />

Feel experienced enough<br />

to take some risks<br />

60%<br />

Always wear a lifejacket<br />

46%<br />

Are beginners<br />

70%<br />

Can swim 50m in ocean<br />

without stopping<br />

SECTION ONE<br />

17<br />

COMMUNITY


SWIMMING ABILITY<br />

CONFIDENCE & ABILITY IN COASTAL WATERS<br />

Figure 1.4<br />

Unaided Swimming Ability In <strong>Coastal</strong> Waters<br />

Nearly three in ten New Zealanders cannot swim or float in the ocean for more<br />

than a few minutes.<br />

Figure 1.5<br />

The Last Time Participants Swam More<br />

Than 50m In The Ocean<br />

Only 9% of New Zealand adults swam<br />

further than 50m in the ocean in 20<strong>21</strong><br />

while over one quarter have never swum<br />

this distance in the ocean.<br />

In 20<strong>21</strong> 9%<br />

9%<br />

7%<br />

4%<br />

26%<br />

I can comfortably float and gently<br />

swim for about 15 minutes<br />

I can comfortably float for over 1<br />

minute and swim a little distance<br />

I can comfortably float and gently<br />

swim for up to 30 minutes<br />

Last year<br />

2 to 5<br />

years ago<br />

11%<br />

16%<br />

<strong>10</strong>%<br />

I cannot float or swim<br />

I can comfortably float and gently<br />

swim for up to 60 minutes<br />

More than<br />

5 years ago<br />

30%<br />

18%<br />

24%<br />

I can swim constantly for over one<br />

hour and float as long as I wish<br />

Can't say<br />

Never<br />

26%<br />

Can't say<br />

8%<br />

0 5 <strong>10</strong> 15 20 25 30 35<br />

Figure 1.6<br />

Ability To Swim 50m In The Ocean Without Touching The Bottom<br />

Swimming ability is not always very high amongst New Zealand adults. Snorkellers (70%), followed by watercraft users (68%)<br />

have the highest percentage of participants able to swim 50m in the ocean without touching the bottom.<br />

70%<br />

68%<br />

59% 59% 59%<br />

57% 57%<br />

54%<br />

51%<br />

SNORKELLING<br />

WATERCRAFT SURFING PWC ROCK<br />

FISHING<br />

BOATING<br />

KAI<br />

GATHERING<br />

SWIMMING/<br />

WADING<br />

LAND-BASED<br />

FISHING<br />

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH AND COASTAL SAFETY REPORT 20<strong>21</strong><br />

18


COASTAL SAFETY<br />

HAZARD PERCEPTION<br />

Figure 1.7<br />

Hazard Perception Of The Coast Vs.The <strong>Beach</strong><br />

Almost half (46%) of New Zealand adults believe the<br />

beach (ocean, surf zone and adjacent sandy beach) is not<br />

hazardous.<br />

Figure 1.8<br />

Proportion Who Consider The Coast To Be Very Or<br />

Extremely Hazardous By Region<br />

One in five (<strong>21</strong>%) of New Zealanders consider the coast to<br />

be extremely or very hazardous, but this differs by region.<br />

One in four participants from the rest of the South Island<br />

consider the coast to be hazardous compared to one in five<br />

in Auckland.<br />

60<br />

50<br />

Coast<br />

<strong>Beach</strong><br />

<strong>21</strong>%<br />

22%<br />

Percentage (%)<br />

40<br />

30<br />

20<br />

24%<br />

<strong>10</strong><br />

0<br />

Extremely<br />

hazardous<br />

Very<br />

hazardous<br />

Somewhat<br />

hazardous<br />

Not very<br />

hazardous<br />

Not at all<br />

hazardous<br />

Can’t<br />

Say<br />

18%<br />

22%<br />

Figure 1.9<br />

<strong>Coastal</strong> Hazards & Activities Rated Extremely Or Very Hazardous<br />

One in five (<strong>21</strong>%) New Zealanders consider the coast to be extremely or very hazardous. Rip currents remain the highest<br />

rated coastal hazard by New Zealanders, while rock fishing is regarded the most hazardous coastal activity.<br />

80<br />

70<br />

60<br />

Hazard<br />

Activity<br />

Percentage (%)<br />

50<br />

40<br />

30<br />

20<br />

<strong>10</strong><br />

0<br />

Land-Based<br />

Fishing<br />

Wading<br />

The <strong>Beach</strong><br />

Swimming<br />

Snorkelling<br />

Boating<br />

Watercraft<br />

The Rivers<br />

Surfing<br />

The Coast<br />

Scuba<br />

Diving<br />

PWC<br />

Marine<br />

Stinger<br />

Waves<br />

Rock<br />

Fishing<br />

Sharkss<br />

Rocks/<br />

Rocky Platform<br />

Sun<br />

Exposure<br />

Rip<br />

Currents<br />

SECTION ONE<br />

19<br />

COMMUNITY


COASTAL SAFETY<br />

RISK TAKING<br />

Figure 1.<strong>10</strong><br />

Participants Who Believe They Are Experienced Enough To Take Some Risks In Their <strong>Coastal</strong> Activity By Gender<br />

Across all coastal activities, males continue to believe they are experienced enough to take some risks compared to females.<br />

This is highlighted with a 20% difference in land-based fishing and 30% difference in other watercraft riders.<br />

80<br />

70<br />

60<br />

Male<br />

Female<br />

Percentage (%)<br />

50<br />

40<br />

30<br />

20<br />

<strong>10</strong><br />

0<br />

Swimming/<br />

Wading<br />

Surfing<br />

Watercraft<br />

Rock Fishing<br />

Land-Based<br />

Fishing<br />

Boating<br />

Snorkelling<br />

PWC<br />

Figure 1.11<br />

Play Safe Index Vs. Risk Taking By Gender<br />

The Play Safe Index has been developed to show how often activity participants follow safety practices. Here we compare<br />

this against self-reported belief in whether they are experienced enough to take risk. This revealed a clear separation<br />

between genders. Males were more likely to take risks and less likely to follow safety practices, while the opposite was true<br />

for female participants.<br />

60<br />

Male<br />

Female<br />

65<br />

70<br />

PlaySafe Index (%)<br />

75<br />

80<br />

85<br />

90<br />

95<br />

20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65<br />

Participants experienced enough to take risks (%)<br />

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH AND COASTAL SAFETY REPORT 20<strong>21</strong><br />

20


COASTAL SAFETY<br />

COASTAL RESCUES<br />

The role that bystander rescuers play in preventing<br />

drowning incidents cannot be underestimated, often they<br />

are the only form of assistance outside patrolled areas<br />

or times. Exploring perceptions helps to understand<br />

behaviours surrounding rescue incidents. A clear disparity<br />

exists between the numbers of rescues from the perspective<br />

of the rescuer or the rescuee, with fewer New Zealanders<br />

considering themselves as rescuees.<br />

9%<br />

NZ ADULTS<br />

HAVE RESCUED<br />

SOMEONE<br />

7%<br />

NZ ADULTS<br />

HAVE BEEN<br />

RESCUED<br />

Most rescuers were rescuing a stranger (52%), at a beach<br />

(54%), in the afternoon (45%), and away from Surf Life<br />

Saving services (70%). Bystander rescue events are often<br />

highly emotive events and can also be fatal when the rescuer<br />

gets in trouble themselves. Previous research has revealed a<br />

major factor in these tragic situations is the lack of flotation<br />

devices used or taken when enacting a rescue, here nearly<br />

half reported not using any rescue or flotation equipment<br />

(46%). These results support the call for further water safety<br />

and rescue training to be made readily available, to build<br />

our community of 'everyday' surf lifesavers.<br />

70%<br />

OCCURRED AWAY FROM<br />

SLS/LIFEGUARDS<br />

52%<br />

WERE RESCUING<br />

A STRANGER<br />

54%<br />

RESCUES OCCURRED<br />

AT A BEACH<br />

45%<br />

OCCURRED<br />

BETWEEN 12-4PM<br />

Figure 1.12<br />

Participants Who Have Been Rescued Or Rescued<br />

Someone Else By Gender & Activity<br />

Half (50%) of scuba divers have reported rescuing others<br />

while diving, but only 8% report having been rescued<br />

themselves.<br />

Figure 1.13<br />

Equipment Used By Rescuers<br />

Nearly half of all rescues were conducted without the use of<br />

any rescue or flotation equipment (46%).<br />

Percentage (%)<br />

50<br />

40<br />

30<br />

20<br />

<strong>10</strong><br />

0<br />

Swimming/<br />

Wading<br />

Rescued<br />

Rescuer<br />

Surfing<br />

Other<br />

Watercraft<br />

Rock<br />

Fishing<br />

Land-Based<br />

Fishing<br />

Activity<br />

Boating<br />

Snorkelling<br />

Scuba<br />

Diving*<br />

PWC<br />

*Small sample size<br />

<strong>10</strong>%<br />

11%<br />

9%<br />

6%<br />

16%<br />

3%<br />

46%<br />

Did Not Use<br />

Flotation<br />

Device<br />

46%<br />

None<br />

Lifejacket<br />

Rescue Tube<br />

Board<br />

Life Buoy<br />

Other or Watercraft<br />

Unknown<br />

SECTION ONE<br />

<strong>21</strong><br />

COMMUNITY


FEATURE: RIP CURRENTS AND THE 3R’S<br />

A SAFETY AWARENESS CAMPAIGN<br />

RRip currents are known to have<br />

contributed to 11% of drowning<br />

deaths at beaches between <strong>2011</strong><br />

and <strong>2020</strong> (provisional results). The<br />

data suggested a strong relationship<br />

between rip currents, beaches, and<br />

swimming/wading incidents.<br />

PEOPLE’S PERCEPTION OF THE RIP CURRENT HAZARD<br />

Figure 1.14<br />

Percentage Of People That Consider The Hazard Extremely Or Very<br />

Hazardous<br />

80<br />

70<br />

AWARENESS: RIPS ARE THE NUMBER<br />

ONE COASTAL HAZARD<br />

Three out of four NZ adults (76%)<br />

consider rip currents to be extremely<br />

or very dangerous. When asked what<br />

the biggest concern was when visiting<br />

the coast, 44% was extremely or<br />

very concerned about being caught<br />

unintentionally in a rip (Figure 1.15).<br />

Percentage (%)<br />

60<br />

50<br />

40<br />

30<br />

20<br />

<strong>10</strong><br />

0<br />

Rip<br />

Currents<br />

Sun<br />

Exposure<br />

Rocks/<br />

Rocky Platform<br />

Sharks<br />

Waves<br />

Figure 1.15<br />

Percentage Of People That Are Extremely Or Very Concerned<br />

50<br />

Research<br />

suggests the 3Rs<br />

campaign is clear<br />

and resonates with<br />

the New Zealand<br />

public. While we<br />

have an effective<br />

behaviour change<br />

tool, campaign<br />

exposure needs to<br />

be greater, more<br />

consistent and<br />

communicated<br />

in an authentic<br />

manner to a<br />

wider range of<br />

communities.<br />

Percentage (%)<br />

40<br />

30<br />

20<br />

<strong>10</strong><br />

0<br />

The Water Quality<br />

Being hit in the<br />

water by a board<br />

or watercraft<br />

Being stung<br />

by a jellyfish<br />

Figure 1.16<br />

People That Are Confident Identifying a Rip Current<br />

43%<br />

4%<br />

53%<br />

Not Confident<br />

53%<br />

Not Confident<br />

Confident<br />

Can’t Say<br />

Being caught<br />

unintentionally<br />

in a rip<br />

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH AND COASTAL SAFETY REPORT 20<strong>21</strong><br />

22


FEATURE: RIP CURRENTS AND THE 3R’S<br />

A SAFETY AWARENESS CAMPAIGN<br />

However, only 39% could identify a rip correctly. From<br />

those that were very confident they could identify a rip, only<br />

half identified them correctly (50%). New Zealanders who<br />

think they can spot rips, highly competent ocean swimmers<br />

and those who have previously been caught in a rip are<br />

most aware of this danger.<br />

THE 3 R’S SAFETY MESSAGE<br />

In February 2019, Surf Life Saving New Zealand introduced<br />

the 3R’s Rip Survival Plan poster (Figure 1.16) to increase<br />

awareness and knowledge on what to do if caught in<br />

a rip. Rip currents are not always easy to identify, so the<br />

message focused on what to do if the situation arises. The<br />

3R’s message was composed of three simple and easy-toremember<br />

steps that stated:<br />

R – Relax & float to conserve energy<br />

R – Raise your hand to signal for help<br />

R – Ride the rip until it stops & you can swim back to shore<br />

or help arrives<br />

This year the <strong>National</strong> <strong>Coastal</strong> <strong>Safety</strong> Survey (NCSS)<br />

evaluated the impact and exposure of the poster as reported<br />

by the NZ public for the first time.<br />

Only 15% have recognised the 3R’s poster and 18% said<br />

they have heard of the 3R’s message (Relax, Raise and Ride)<br />

before. Interestingly, 27% of the 16-24 years old recognised<br />

the poster, indicating that the younger people have been<br />

more exposed to the poster compared to the average<br />

percentage.<br />

When asked whether the 3R’s poster conveys a clear and<br />

informative message, 92% said the messages on the poster<br />

are clear and easy to understand, and 90% feel better<br />

informed on what to do if caught in a rip current. However,<br />

when asked which options they would use if caught in a rip<br />

current, 1 in 4 would not apply the 3R’s in full.<br />

Nevertheless, the responses above demonstrate the<br />

potential for the campaign to change behaviour with<br />

adequate campaign exposure.<br />

SUMMARY<br />

The 3R’s campaign is clear and resonates with the NZ<br />

population. The campaign has intrinsic value with clear<br />

messaging that communicates it is possible to escape<br />

rip currents and has the potential to change behaviour<br />

(campaign below). However, the overall messaging over the<br />

past few years was not visible enough and therefore did not<br />

cut through or was diluted due to its lack of exposure. These<br />

results show that we have an effective behaviour change tool<br />

with potential to be expanded but suggest that campaign<br />

exposure needs to be greater and more consistent to see<br />

these changes reflected within the NZ community.<br />

Figure 1.17<br />

20<strong>21</strong> <strong>National</strong> <strong>Coastal</strong> <strong>Safety</strong> Survey (NCSS) Question:<br />

Thinking now about these different options to get out<br />

of a rip. Which options would you personally use if you<br />

were caught in a rip?<br />

Rip Survival Plan<br />

Percentage (%)<br />

80<br />

70<br />

60<br />

50<br />

40<br />

30<br />

20<br />

to conserve your energy<br />

your Hand<br />

to signal for help<br />

<strong>10</strong><br />

0<br />

Relax, stay calm and float<br />

Raise your hand to<br />

signal for help<br />

Ride the rip until it stops<br />

and you can swim back<br />

to shore or help arrives<br />

the Rip<br />

until it stops & you can<br />

swim back to shore or<br />

help arrives<br />

3Rs Messages<br />

SECTION ONE<br />

23<br />

COMMUNITY


CAPABILITY<br />

SECTION TWO<br />

<strong>10</strong>-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

&<br />

1-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

STATISTICS | <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

1,136,315<br />

PREVENTATIVE<br />

ACTIONS<br />

11,364<br />

RESCUES<br />

7,866<br />

ASSISTS<br />

3,397<br />

SEARCHES<br />

INVOLVING<br />

4,472,325<br />

MEMBERS OF THE PUBLIC<br />

45<br />

SEARCH & RESCUE<br />

SQUADS<br />

24,163<br />

FIRST AID<br />

TREATMENTS


CAPABILITY<br />

Surf Life Saving New Zealand has provided a Surf<br />

Lifeguard Service to the New Zealand public for 111 years.<br />

The service consists of 74 volunteer Surf Life Saving Clubs<br />

and Paid Surf Lifeguard Service. When combined, these<br />

services patrol a total 80+ locations country-wide. During<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong> there were 4,6<strong>21</strong> qualified Surf Lifeguards, with<br />

925 gaining their Surf Lifeguard Award during the season.<br />

Beyond the red and yellow flags, Surf Life Saving New<br />

Zealand provides surveillance at many remote beaches and<br />

coastlines through a fleet of Inflatable Rescue Boats, Rescue<br />

Water Craft, All-Terrain Vehicles and 4x4’s, and delivers an<br />

invaluable Search and Rescue service, through a network of<br />

Volunteer Search & Rescue Squads.<br />

VOLUNTEER SURF LIFEGUARDS<br />

Seasonal patrols are provided by 74 volunteer Surf Life<br />

Saving Clubs, with patrols typically occurring between<br />

Labour Weekend (October) and Easter (April). Over the past<br />

few years, Surf Life Saving Clubs have been reviewing and<br />

adapting season lengths and daily patrol timings to meet<br />

the ever-changing demands of the communities they serve.<br />

The recommended Surf Lifeguard service requirements are<br />

evidence-based and derived from coastal risk assessments,<br />

which have been tailored towards existing patrol locations<br />

nationally. The coastal risk assessment also recommend<br />

new patrol locations, based upon risk-adjusted water use<br />

values for each site. Surf Life Saving New Zealand works<br />

with Surf Life Saving Clubs, communities and stakeholders<br />

to deliver services to areas with the greatest need.<br />

Volunteer clubs use standardised equipment that includes<br />

Rescue Tubes, Rescue Boards, Inflatable Rescue Boats and<br />

Rescue Water Craft to perform rescues and preventative<br />

actions that stop the public getting into dangerous situations.<br />

The organisation also provides a number of surveillance<br />

patrols to increase service coverage. All-Terrain Vehicles and<br />

4x4 vehicles equipped with first aid and rescue equipment,<br />

ensure coverage is extended across larger stretches of the<br />

coastline and remote beaches. A number of Rescue Water<br />

Craft provide rapid response to remote areas and rock<br />

foreshores and participate in both surveillance and Search<br />

and Rescue activities.<br />

PAID SURF LIFEGUARD SERVICE<br />

The Paid Surf Lifeguard Service is funded by Regional<br />

Councils and Local Territorial Authorities. Patrols primarily<br />

run on weekdays (Monday-Friday) through the summer<br />

school holidays (December-February). An evidence-based<br />

delivery model for the Paid Surf Lifeguard Service is also<br />

being used to expand the service to meet community need.<br />

In some areas, surveillance-based patrolling methods have<br />

been used to extend patrolling hours into the evening.<br />

An approach that has been effective for preventing Surf<br />

Lifeguard fatigue. On-call based services have also been<br />

successfully trialled in the Bay of Plenty, to extend patrols<br />

in response to periods of prolonged settled weather and<br />

dangerous swimming conditions, as well as providing<br />

additional safety services to the public.<br />

SEARCH AND RESCUE<br />

SAR Squads are used to assist Search & Rescue agencies<br />

or sometimes Maritime New Zealand, in NZ Police tasked<br />

incidents. There are currently 45 active SAR Squads<br />

nationally. In <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong> SAR Squads were involved in 91<br />

Category One and 1 Category Two SAR Operations. As a<br />

result of the operations, 78 people were rescued, of which<br />

60 people's lives were saved, with a further 35 people<br />

assisted to safety.<br />

SAR Squads were also involved in retrieving 15 persons<br />

who died returning them back to their whanau and loved<br />

ones. Surf Lifeguards provided over 1,091 hours of volunteer<br />

service as part of official SAR Operations.<br />

SURF LIFEGUARD INTERVENTIONS <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

The interventions performed whilst Surf Lifeguards have<br />

been protecting our beaches in the last decade have saved<br />

countless lives. The exact figure at present cannot be<br />

quantified, however through these actions Surf Life Saving<br />

New Zealand Volunteer Surf Lifeguards have likely saved<br />

more than 11,364 lives.<br />

Table 1<br />

Surf Lifeguard Interventions <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong> (last <strong>10</strong>yrs)<br />

SURF LIFEGUARD<br />

INTERVENTION<br />

TOTALS<br />

(<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>)<br />

Rescues / Lives Saved 11,364<br />

Assists (new category since 2016/17) 7,866<br />

Preventative Actions<br />

People in Preventatives: 3,775,982<br />

1,136,315<br />

Searches 3,397<br />

First Aid Treatments 24,163<br />

TOTAL INTERVENTIONS 1,183,203<br />

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH & COASTAL SAFETY REPORT 20<strong>21</strong><br />

26


CAPABILITY<br />

1-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

Figure 2.1<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Qualifications held by Surf Lifeguards.<br />

There were a total of 4,6<strong>21</strong> proficient Surf Lifeguards in <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>, of which 925 were new recipients of the Surf Lifeguard<br />

Award. <strong>SLSNZ</strong> Surf Lifeguards currently hold a total of 9,938 awards, with 2,796 first aid awards and 1,509 craft<br />

qualifications (IRB and RWC).<br />

PATROL<br />

SUPPORT<br />

171<br />

ADVANCED<br />

LIFEGUARD<br />

AWARD<br />

18<br />

SENIOR<br />

LIFEGUARD<br />

AWARD<br />

PATROL<br />

CAPTAIN<br />

81<br />

FIRST AID<br />

2,796<br />

IRB<br />

CREWSPERSONS<br />

MODULE<br />

501<br />

SURF LIFEGUARD<br />

AWARD<br />

4,6<strong>21</strong><br />

RADIO<br />

OPERATOR<br />

CERTIFICATE<br />

309<br />

ROCK<br />

TRAINING &<br />

RESCUE<br />

MODULE<br />

433<br />

SENIOR<br />

LIFEGUARD<br />

AWARD<br />

IRB DRIVER<br />

932<br />

RESCUE<br />

WATER<br />

CRAFT<br />

OPERATORS<br />

AWARD<br />

76<br />

Figure 2.2<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Patrolling Surf Lifeguards per Region<br />

800<br />

700<br />

Male Lifeguards<br />

Female Lifeguards<br />

Lifeguards (n)<br />

600<br />

500<br />

400<br />

300<br />

200<br />

<strong>10</strong>0<br />

0<br />

NTL AUK WKO BOP GIS TKI MWT HKB WGN NSN MBH WTC CAN OTA STL<br />

Region<br />

SECTION TWO<br />

27<br />

CAPABILITY


SURF LIFE SAVING PATROL LOCATIONS<br />

1-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

Figure 2.3<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Surf Life Saving Patrol Locations per Region<br />

There are a total of 74 Surf Life Saving Clubs in New Zealand who provide voluntary patrols during varying season lengths<br />

between Labour and Easter weekends.<br />

46<br />

Northland<br />

6<br />

13<br />

Auckland<br />

Bay of Plenty<br />

<strong>10</strong><br />

288<br />

8<br />

Waikato<br />

Gisborne<br />

5<br />

4<br />

Taranaki<br />

ND<br />

Tasman<br />

1<br />

Nelson<br />

Hawke’s Bay<br />

5<br />

Manawatu-Wanganui<br />

5<br />

Wellington<br />

8<br />

2<br />

West Coast<br />

Marlborough<br />

1<br />

Canterbury<br />

<strong>10</strong><br />

1<br />

Southland<br />

Otago<br />

5<br />

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH & COASTAL SAFETY REPORT 20<strong>21</strong><br />

28


SURF LIFEGUARD CAPABILITY<br />

1-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

Figure 2.4<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Total Volunteer Surf Life Saving Patrols and Paid Surf Lifeguard Services per Region<br />

There are a total of 74 Surf Life Saving Clubs in New Zealand which provide voluntary patrols, up to a maximum season<br />

length between Labour and Easter weekends. The Paid Surf Lifeguard Service (Monday-Friday) provides 80 Surf Lifeguard<br />

Patrols nationally.<br />

15<br />

12<br />

Volunteer Surf Life Saving Patrols<br />

Contract Surf Lifeguard Service<br />

Patrols (n)<br />

9<br />

6<br />

3<br />

0<br />

NTL AUK WKO BOP GIS TKI MWT HKB WGN NSN MBH WTC CAN OTA STL<br />

Region<br />

Figure 2.5<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Equipment Used in a Rescue<br />

Figure 2.6<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Patrolling Surf Lifeguards<br />

1%<br />

5%<br />

19%<br />

33%<br />

42%<br />

IRB<br />

42%<br />

IRB<br />

Rescue Tube<br />

Rescue Board<br />

RWC<br />

No Gear<br />

55%<br />

MALE<br />

45%<br />

FEMALE<br />

SECTION TWO<br />

29<br />

CAPABILITY


RESCUES PER REGION<br />

1-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

“Rescue - Where a person requires immediate help to return to shore (or place of safety)<br />

and who without intervention would have suffered distress, injury or drowning.”<br />

Figure 2.7<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Rescues per Region<br />

Northland 28<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

513<br />

RESCUES<br />

1<strong>10</strong> Auckland<br />

142 Waikato<br />

Bay of Plenty<br />

38<br />

Gisborne<br />

8<br />

14<br />

Taranaki<br />

Hawke’s Bay<br />

15<br />

Tasman<br />

ND 5<br />

Nelson<br />

Manawatu-Wanganui<br />

14<br />

Wellington<br />

8<br />

0<br />

West Coast<br />

Marlborough<br />

3<br />

Key to Rescues per Region<br />

1 - 43 Rescues<br />

Canterbury 88<br />

43 - 86 Rescues<br />

86 - 130 Rescues<br />

130 - 173 Rescues<br />

0<br />

Southland<br />

Otago 40<br />

ND<br />

173 - <strong>21</strong>6 Rescues<br />

No Data<br />

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH & COASTAL SAFETY REPORT 20<strong>21</strong><br />

30


ASSISTS PER REGION<br />

1-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

“Assist - Where a person requires assistance to return to shore but would most likely be<br />

able to get themselves out of danger if unaided.”<br />

Figure 2.8<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: People Assisted to <strong>Safety</strong> per Region<br />

Northland 70<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

1,142<br />

ASSISTS<br />

<strong>21</strong>1 Auckland<br />

252 Waikato<br />

Bay of Plenty 151<br />

Gisborne 37<br />

59<br />

Taranaki<br />

Hawke’s Bay<br />

42<br />

Tasman<br />

ND 25<br />

Nelson<br />

Manawatu-Wanganui<br />

39<br />

Wellington 23<br />

11<br />

West Coast<br />

Marlborough<br />

1<br />

Key to Assists per Region<br />

1 - 34 Assists<br />

Canterbury<br />

173<br />

34 - 69 Assists<br />

69 - <strong>10</strong>3 Assists<br />

<strong>10</strong>3 - 138 Assists<br />

4<br />

Southland<br />

Otago 44<br />

ND<br />

138 - 172 Assists<br />

No Data<br />

SECTION TWO<br />

31<br />

CAPABILITY


MAJOR FIRST AID INCIDENTS PER REGION<br />

1-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

“Major First Aid - Any incident where a patient is administered some form of advanced<br />

medical treatment, or requires hospitalization.”<br />

Figure 2.9<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Major First Aid Incidents per Region<br />

Northland 31<br />

89<br />

Auckland<br />

Bay of Plenty<br />

49<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

313<br />

MAJOR<br />

FIRST AID<br />

INCIDENTS<br />

Tasman<br />

77 Waikato<br />

5 Taranaki<br />

ND 1<br />

Nelson<br />

Gisborne<br />

Hawke’s Bay 5<br />

Manawatu-Wanganui <strong>10</strong><br />

Wellington 14<br />

6<br />

0<br />

West Coast<br />

Marlborough<br />

0<br />

Key to Major First Aid Treatments<br />

per Region<br />

1 - <strong>10</strong> Treatments<br />

Canterbury<br />

16<br />

<strong>10</strong> - <strong>21</strong> Treatments<br />

<strong>21</strong> - 31 Treatments<br />

31 - 42 Treatments<br />

0<br />

Southland<br />

Otago <strong>10</strong><br />

ND<br />

42 - 52 Treatments<br />

No Data<br />

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH & COASTAL SAFETY REPORT 20<strong>21</strong><br />

32


MINOR FIRST AID INCIDENTS PER REGION<br />

1-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

“Minor First Aid - Where a patient is administered some form of<br />

minor medical treatment.”<br />

Figure 2.<strong>10</strong><br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Minor First Aid Incidents per Region<br />

Northland<br />

<strong>10</strong>8<br />

457<br />

Auckland<br />

Bay of Plenty<br />

345<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

1,873<br />

MINOR<br />

FIRST AID<br />

INCIDENTS<br />

Tasman<br />

480 Waikato<br />

39 Taranaki<br />

ND 7<br />

Nelson<br />

Gisborne 46<br />

Hawke’s Bay 36<br />

Manawatu-Wanganui 27<br />

Wellington 85<br />

5<br />

West Coast<br />

Marlborough<br />

17<br />

Key to Minor First Aid Treatments<br />

per Region<br />

0 - 69 Treatments<br />

Canterbury<br />

180<br />

69 - 138 Treatments<br />

138 - 207 Treatments<br />

207 - 276 Treatments<br />

0<br />

Southland<br />

Otago<br />

41<br />

ND<br />

276 - 345 Treatments<br />

No Data<br />

SECTION TWO<br />

33<br />

CAPABILITY


SEARCHES PER REGION<br />

1-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

“Search - Any organised search for a missing person or group either at sea or on land.<br />

Searches include body recoveries.”<br />

Figure 2.11<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Patrol Searches per Region<br />

Northland 25<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

355<br />

SEARCHES<br />

99 Auckland<br />

78 Waikato<br />

7 Taranaki<br />

Bay of Plenty<br />

54<br />

Gisborne 12<br />

Hawke’s Bay<br />

<strong>10</strong><br />

Tasman<br />

ND 5<br />

Nelson<br />

Manawatu-Wanganui<br />

7<br />

Wellington<br />

2<br />

4<br />

West Coast<br />

Marlborough<br />

2<br />

Canterbury<br />

33<br />

Key to Searches per Region<br />

1 - 12 Searches<br />

12 - 24 Searches<br />

24 - 37 Searches<br />

37 - 49 Searches<br />

1<br />

Southland<br />

Otago 16<br />

ND<br />

49 - 61 Searches<br />

No Data<br />

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH & COASTAL SAFETY REPORT 20<strong>21</strong><br />

34


PREVENTATIVE ACTIONS PER REGION<br />

1-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

“Preventative Action - Direct action taken to reduce or eliminate the probability of a<br />

specific rescue, first aid or other reportable incident occuring.”<br />

Figure 2.12<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Preventative Actions per Region<br />

Northland<br />

3,991<br />

17,704<br />

Auckland<br />

Bay of Plenty<br />

17,833<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

111,861<br />

PREVENTATIVE<br />

ACTIONS<br />

14,893 Waikato<br />

11,861 Taranaki<br />

11 Nelson<br />

ND Tasman<br />

Gisborne 1,478<br />

Hawke’s Bay 4,912<br />

Manawatu-Wanganui 9,478<br />

Wellington<br />

6,076<br />

27<br />

West Coast<br />

Marlborough<br />

329<br />

Key to Preventative Actions per Region<br />

1 - 3,522 Actions<br />

Canterbury<br />

18,573<br />

3,522 - 7,038 Actions<br />

7,038 - <strong>10</strong>,553 Actions<br />

<strong>10</strong>,553 - 14,069 Actions<br />

33<br />

Southland<br />

Otago 4,562<br />

ND<br />

14,069 - 17,585 Actions<br />

No Data<br />

SECTION TWO<br />

35<br />

CAPABILITY


INCIDENT ANALYSIS<br />

SECTION THREE<br />

<strong>10</strong>-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

KEY DEMOGRAPHICS | <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

<strong>21</strong>,575<br />

6-15<br />

<strong>21</strong>-30<br />

INCIDENTS<br />

DURING<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

YEAR-OLDS<br />

BOTH<br />

GENDERS<br />

YEAR-OLD<br />

MALES<br />

31%<br />

SWIMMING/<br />

WADING<br />

59%<br />

MALE<br />

41%<br />

FEMALE


INCIDENT ANALYSIS<br />

<strong>10</strong>-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

“Incident - Any unplanned event requiring lifesaving services intervention.”<br />

TOTAL INCIDENTS<br />

<strong>21</strong>,575<br />

IN <strong>10</strong> YEARS<br />

AVERAGE INCIDENTS<br />

2,157<br />

PER YEAR<br />

KEY DEMOGRAPHIC<br />

6-15 <strong>21</strong>-30<br />

YEAR-OLD SWIMMERS YEAR-OLD MALE SWIMMERS<br />

59%<br />

MALE<br />

41%<br />

FEMALE<br />

Figure 3.1<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Incidents By Activity<br />

Total number of incidents reported<br />

n=<strong>21</strong>,575; total number of activities<br />

reported in incidents n=9,864.<br />

2% 1%<br />

Figure 3.2<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Actions Performed by<br />

Lifeguards at Time of Incident<br />

More than one type of response is usually<br />

necessary at time of incident.<br />

Figure 3.3<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Incidents by Status<br />

Total number of incidents reported<br />

n=<strong>21</strong>,575; total number of status level<br />

allocated to incidents n=7,009.<br />

2% 1%<br />

17%<br />

7%<br />

5%<br />

20%<br />

20%<br />

31%<br />

Swimming/<br />

Wading<br />

26%<br />

31%<br />

17%<br />

24%<br />

28%<br />

Major<br />

First Aid<br />

24%<br />

28%<br />

19%<br />

73%<br />

S4 - Stable<br />

(Unlikely to Change)<br />

73%<br />

Swimming/Wading<br />

Surfing<br />

Walking<br />

Other<br />

Boating<br />

Watercraft<br />

Land-Based Fishing<br />

Major First Aid<br />

Minor First Aid<br />

Rescues<br />

Assists<br />

Searches<br />

S4 - Stable (Unlikely to change)<br />

S3 - Stable (Possibility of worsening)<br />

S2 - Unstable<br />

S0 - Patient Deceased<br />

S1 - Life Threatening<br />

Figure 3.4<br />

Comparison Between the <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong> <strong>10</strong>-year Average and <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong> Count for Actions Performed During Incident.<br />

RESCUES<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

(average)<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

(count)<br />

MAJOR FIRST AID REATMENTS<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

(average)<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

(count)<br />

SEARCHES<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

(average)<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

(count)<br />

1,136<br />

513<br />

1,312 313<br />

350 355<br />

ASSISTS<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

(average)<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

(count)<br />

MINOR FIRST AID TREATMENTS<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

(average)<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

(count)<br />

PREVENTATIVE ACTIONS<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

(average)<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

(count)<br />

1,311 1,142<br />

1,841 1,873<br />

1113,632 111,861<br />

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH AND COASTAL SAFETY REPORT<br />

38


Figure 3.5<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Incidents by Age and Gender<br />

Total number of patients recorded n=<strong>21</strong>,779.<br />

Figure 3.6<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Incidents by Ethnicity and Gender<br />

Total number of patients recorded n=<strong>21</strong>,779.<br />

Number of People<br />

5000<br />

4000<br />

3000<br />

2000<br />

<strong>10</strong>00<br />

Unknown Gender<br />

Female<br />

Male<br />

Number of Incidents<br />

8000<br />

7000<br />

6000<br />

5000<br />

4000<br />

3000<br />

2000<br />

<strong>10</strong>00<br />

Unknown Gender<br />

Female<br />

Male<br />

0<br />

Unknown<br />


RESCUES AND ASSISTS<br />

<strong>10</strong>-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

TOTAL INCIDENTS<br />

19,230<br />

IN <strong>10</strong> YEARS<br />

KEY DEMOGRAPHIC<br />

<strong>21</strong>-30<br />

YEAR OLD MALES<br />

AVERAGE INCIDENTS<br />

1,923<br />

PER YEAR<br />

SWIMMING/WADING<br />

62%<br />

MALE<br />

38%<br />

FEMALE<br />

Figure 3.11<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Equipment Used at Time of Rescue/Assist<br />

More than one type of equipment may be necessary at time<br />

of rescue/assist.<br />

Figure 3.12<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Activity at Time of Rescue/Assist<br />

Total number of rescues/assists reported n=19,230; total number of<br />

activities reported in rescues/assists n=4,949.<br />

Category ‘other’ includes beach activities other than walking/running,<br />

activities not done at the beach, SLS training/competition and other water<br />

activities such as diving and jet-ski.<br />

2% 1%<br />

5% 3% IRB<br />

5%<br />

5%<br />

12%<br />

37%<br />

43%<br />

IRB<br />

43%<br />

Rescue Tube<br />

Rescue Board<br />

No Equipment<br />

RWC<br />

8%<br />

24%<br />

55%<br />

Swimming/<br />

Wading<br />

55%<br />

Swimming/Wading<br />

Surfing<br />

Boating<br />

Watercraft<br />

Other<br />

Land-Based Fishing<br />

Walking<br />

Figure 3.13<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Rescues/Assists by Age and Gender (n=9,950)<br />

Figure 3.14<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Rescues/Assists by Ethnicity and Gender (n=9,950)<br />

Number of People<br />

5000<br />

4000<br />

3000<br />

2000<br />

<strong>10</strong>00<br />

Unknown Gender<br />

Female<br />

Male<br />

Number of People<br />

3500<br />

3000<br />

2500<br />

2000<br />

1500<br />

<strong>10</strong>00<br />

500<br />

Unknown Gender<br />

Female<br />

Male<br />

0<br />

Unknown<br />


FIRST AID TREATMENTS<br />

<strong>10</strong>-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

TOTAL INCIDENTS<br />

24,163<br />

IN <strong>10</strong> YEARS<br />

KEY DEMOGRAPHIC<br />

6-15<br />

YEAR OLDS<br />

AVERAGE INCIDENTS<br />

2,416<br />

PER YEAR<br />

SWIMMING/WADING<br />

54%<br />

MALE<br />

46%<br />

FEMALE<br />

Figure 3.15<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: First Aid Treatments by Major and Minor<br />

(n=24,163)<br />

Figure 3.16<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Activity at Time of Injury (n=2,478).<br />

Total number of major first aid reported n=13,120; total number of<br />

activities reported in major first aid n=2,478.<br />

Activities are only reported for major first aid. Category ‘other’ includes<br />

beach activities, on-land activities not done at the beach and other water<br />

activities such as water craft, diving and jet-ski.<br />

2%<br />

6%<br />

11%<br />

46%<br />

54%<br />

Major<br />

First Aid<br />

54%<br />

Major First Aid<br />

Minor First Aid<br />

18%<br />

37%<br />

Swimming/<br />

Wading<br />

37%<br />

Swimming/Wading<br />

Surfing<br />

Other<br />

SLS Training/<br />

Competing/Patrol<br />

Boating<br />

Land-Based Fishing<br />

26%<br />

Figure 3.17<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Major First Aid by Age and Gender (n=<strong>10</strong>,534).<br />

Figure 3.18<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Major First Aid by Ethnicity and Gender (n=<strong>10</strong>,534).<br />

Number of Patients<br />

2500<br />

2000<br />

1500<br />

<strong>10</strong>00<br />

500<br />

Unknown Gender<br />

Female<br />

Male<br />

Number of Patients<br />

4000<br />

3500<br />

3000<br />

2500<br />

2000<br />

1500<br />

<strong>10</strong>00<br />

500<br />

Unknown Gender<br />

Female<br />

Male<br />

0<br />

Unknown<br />


SEARCHES<br />

<strong>10</strong>-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

TOTAL INCIDENTS<br />

3,397<br />

IN <strong>10</strong> YEARS<br />

AVERAGE INCIDENTS<br />

340<br />

PER YEAR<br />

74%<br />

MALE<br />

KEY DEMOGRAPHIC<br />

6-<strong>10</strong> <strong>21</strong>-30<br />

YEAR OLD MALES YEAR OLD MALES<br />

WALKING AND SWIMMING/WADING<br />

26%<br />

FEMALE<br />

Figure 3.19<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Category-1 Police Tasked vs. <strong>SLSNZ</strong> Callout<br />

Operations<br />

In the last ten years, only 17% of SAR callouts involving<br />

<strong>SLSNZ</strong> were tasked by the Police (Category-1).<br />

Figure 3.20<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Searches by Activity (n=1,132)<br />

Total number of searches reported n=3,397; total number<br />

of activities reported in searches n=1,132.<br />

Category ‘other’ includes beach activities other than walking/running,<br />

activities not done at the beach, SLS training/competition and other water<br />

activities such as diving and jet-ski.<br />

17%<br />

9%<br />

12%<br />

27%<br />

83%<br />

<strong>SLSNZ</strong><br />

Tasked<br />

83%<br />

<strong>SLSNZ</strong> Tasked<br />

Police Tasked Cat1<br />

13%<br />

16%<br />

27%<br />

Walking<br />

23%<br />

Walking<br />

Swimming/Wading<br />

Other<br />

Surfing<br />

Boating<br />

Land-Based Fishing<br />

Figure 3.<strong>21</strong><br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Searches by Age and Gender (n=3,397)<br />

Figure 3.22<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Searches by Ethnicity and Gender (n=3,397)<br />

Number of People<br />

400<br />

350<br />

300<br />

250<br />

200<br />

150<br />

<strong>10</strong>0<br />

50<br />

Unknown Gender<br />

Female<br />

Male<br />

Number of People<br />

800<br />

700<br />

600<br />

500<br />

400<br />

300<br />

200<br />

<strong>10</strong>0<br />

Unknown Gender<br />

Female<br />

Male<br />

0<br />

Unknown<br />


Countless lives have been<br />

saved by the vast numbers<br />

of rescues, assists, searches,<br />

preventative actions conducted by<br />

our Surf Lifesaving Service every<br />

year, not to mention the thousands<br />

of first aid treatments administered<br />

to those in need. Without these<br />

actions, we would see many<br />

more lives lost from preventable<br />

drownings in our oceans.<br />

SECTION THREE<br />

43<br />

INCIDENT ANALYSIS


SEARCH AND RESCUE<br />

ANALYSIS<br />

SECTION FOUR<br />

<strong>10</strong>-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

The Search and Rescue (SAR) analysis presented here refers to operations involving<br />

<strong>SLSNZ</strong> SAR squads, including those tasked by the Police (Category-1 SAR).<br />

587<br />

CAT 1 SAR<br />

OPERATIONS<br />

28<strong>10</strong><br />

<strong>SLSNZ</strong> SAR<br />

CALLOUTS<br />

405<br />

PEOPLE<br />

RESCUED<br />

344<br />

PEOPLE ASSISTED<br />

TO SAFETY<br />

346<br />

LIVES<br />

SAVED<br />

<strong>10</strong>1<br />

BODIES<br />

RETRIEVED


SEARCH AND RESCUE ANALYSIS<br />

<strong>10</strong>-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

<strong>SLSNZ</strong> data shows that COVID-19 has had an impact<br />

on the outdoor activities across New Zealand’s coastal<br />

environment, where a decrease in aquatic activity over the<br />

last two seasons has been observed. However, the overall<br />

SAR operations is trending upwards (Figure 4.1). More lives<br />

are being saved and more people rescued than ever before.<br />

The past <strong>10</strong> years have also seen an increase in lives<br />

lost in the coastal environment. More people are finding<br />

themselves in life-threatening situations and losing their<br />

lives. SAR squads have been busier than ever searching and<br />

retrieving bodies, returning them to their whanau and loved<br />

ones.<br />

Figure 4.1<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: <strong>SLSNZ</strong> SAR Operations<br />

SAR Responses (n)<br />

<strong>10</strong>0<br />

80<br />

60<br />

40<br />

20<br />

Lives Saved<br />

People Rescued<br />

People Assisted<br />

Tasking Numbers Captured<br />

0<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-12<br />

2012-13<br />

2013-14<br />

2014-15<br />

2015-16<br />

2016-17<br />

2017-18<br />

2018-19<br />

2019-20<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

<strong>Year</strong><br />

Figure 4.2<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Number of Bodies Recovered During <strong>SLSNZ</strong> SAR Operations<br />

25<br />

Number of Bodies (n)<br />

20<br />

15<br />

<strong>10</strong><br />

5<br />

0<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-12<br />

2012-13<br />

2013-14<br />

2014-15<br />

2015-16<br />

2016-17<br />

2017-18<br />

2018-19<br />

2019-20<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

<strong>Year</strong><br />

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH AND COASTAL SAFETY REPORT 20<strong>21</strong><br />

46


Outside the Category-1 taskings generated by NZ Police,<br />

<strong>SLSNZ</strong> assets often respond to emergencies along their<br />

coastline within reach of their asset base or club.<br />

With the nature of a marine emergency and the importance<br />

of responding within a tiny time window, <strong>SLSNZ</strong> SAR squads<br />

will activate a response to ready personnel and equipment,<br />

often without all the operational intelligence. The response<br />

is often successfully executed before all the operational<br />

information and formal police activation through a 111 call<br />

is made.<br />

These types of activations would otherwise lead to an<br />

escalating situation if an immediate response were not<br />

activated, potentially leading to fatalities if the <strong>SLSNZ</strong> SAR<br />

response were paused until all specific information gathered<br />

was complete.<br />

Since 2014 <strong>SLSNZ</strong> has actively encouraged its rescue<br />

squads to phone the Police to log a rescue that is underway<br />

(outside normal patrolling operations) and record a tasking<br />

number. Although this practice has increased the tasking's<br />

captured (Figure 4.3), the number of <strong>SLSNZ</strong> instigated<br />

emergency search and rescue responses continues to grow<br />

faster than the police Category-1 tasking numbers.<br />

<strong>SLSNZ</strong> Callouts are therefore not being formally recognised<br />

in the sector reports, resulting in critical underreporting. The<br />

disparity may result in an inequitable allocation of resource<br />

development, training requirements, maintenance costings<br />

and effect long term planning considerations from local<br />

and central government.<br />

Figure 4.3<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Cat-1 Police Tasked Vs. <strong>SLSNZ</strong> Callout Operations<br />

500<br />

Number of SAR Callouts<br />

450<br />

400<br />

350<br />

300<br />

250<br />

200<br />

150<br />

<strong>10</strong>0<br />

50<br />

<strong>SLSNZ</strong> Tasked Response<br />

Cat 1 Police Tasked Response<br />

0<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-12<br />

2012-13<br />

2013-14<br />

2014-15<br />

2015-16<br />

2016-17<br />

2017-18<br />

2018-19<br />

2019-20<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

<strong>Year</strong><br />

SECTION FOUR<br />

47<br />

SEARCH AND RESCUE ANALYSIS


FATA L D R O W N I N G<br />

ANALYSIS<br />

SECTION FIVE<br />

<strong>10</strong>-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

357 87%<br />

MALE<br />

BEACH &<br />

COASTAL FATAL<br />

DROWNINGS<br />

13%<br />

FEMALE<br />

LOCATION<br />

38%<br />

SURF BEACH<br />

17%<br />

0-1KM<br />

OFFSHORE<br />

13%<br />

HARBOUR<br />

ACTIVITY<br />

22%<br />

SWIMMING/WADING<br />

18%<br />

BOATING<br />

16%<br />

FALLS


NATIONAL OVERVIEW<br />

<strong>10</strong>-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

Each fatal drowning is a tragedy in its own right; it affects<br />

not only the close family and friends but the wider community.<br />

The research presented here aims to report and categorise<br />

fatal drownings, to better inform strategic decision making<br />

for preventative educational programmes and community<br />

engagement initiatives. The following section focuses on<br />

fatal drownings that have occurred in beach and coastal<br />

environments from <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>.<br />

There were 357 fatal drownings from <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>. Auckland<br />

region has the highest number of fatal drownings (n=93),<br />

followed by Northland (n=58) and Waikato (n=41). Surf<br />

beaches were the most dangerous environment with 134<br />

drowning fatalities, followed by 0-1 km from shore (n=59)<br />

and within harbours (n=48). The majority of beach and<br />

coastal fatal drownings occurred while swimming/wading<br />

(n=77) followed by boating (n=64) and falls (n=56).<br />

Figure 5.1<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Total Number of New Zealand <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong> Fatal Drownings per <strong>Year</strong> from <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong> (n=357); and<br />

Comparison of New Zealand vs Australian <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong> Fatal Drowning Rates per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.<br />

Fatal Drownings (n)<br />

60<br />

50<br />

40<br />

30<br />

20<br />

<strong>10</strong><br />

Fatal Drownings<br />

NZ Fatal Drowning Rate<br />

AUS Fatal Drowning Rate<br />

1.2<br />

1.0<br />

0.8<br />

0.6<br />

0.4<br />

0.2<br />

Fatal Drowning Rate<br />

(per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.)<br />

0<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-12<br />

2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18 2018-19 2019-20 <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

<strong>Year</strong><br />

0.0<br />

The New Zealand <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong> fatal drowning rate (0.49 per<br />

<strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) is less than the Australian <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong> fatal<br />

drowning rate (0.53 per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.). However, the New<br />

Zealand ten-year average fatal drowning rate (0.76 per<br />

<strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) is 43% greater than the Australian ten-year<br />

average (0.49 per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.).<br />

The New Zealand <strong>10</strong>-year<br />

average beach and coastal fatal<br />

drowning rate is 43% higher than<br />

the Australian <strong>10</strong>-year average,<br />

and is on the increase.<br />

Figure 5.2<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-16 and 2016-<strong>21</strong> Five-year Average <strong>Beach</strong> and<br />

<strong>Coastal</strong> Fatal Drownings and Average Fatal Drowning<br />

Rate per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-16<br />

AVERAGE<br />

DROWNING RATE<br />

0.77<br />

PER <strong>10</strong>0,000 POPULATION<br />

2016-<strong>21</strong><br />

AVERAGE<br />

DROWNING RATE<br />

0.76<br />

PER <strong>10</strong>0,000 POPULATION<br />

When comparing the first half of the decade (<strong>2011</strong>-2016)<br />

to the later (2016-20<strong>21</strong>), there has been an increase from<br />

35 (<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>16) fatal drownings on average per year to 37<br />

per year (2016-<strong>21</strong>). The five-year average fatal drowning<br />

rate has decreased from 0.77 in the first half of the decade<br />

to 0.76 per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop. in the later half.<br />

AVERAGE FATAL<br />

DROWNINGS<br />

33<br />

PER YEAR<br />

AVERAGE FATAL<br />

DROWNINGS<br />

37<br />

PER YEAR<br />

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH & COASTAL SAFETY REPORT 20<strong>21</strong><br />

50


NATIONAL OVERVIEW<br />

<strong>10</strong>-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

Figure 5.3<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Regional Comparison of Total <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong> Fatal Drownings and Fatal Drowning Rate per <strong>10</strong>0,000<br />

pop. (n=357)<br />

During <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong> there were 357 fatal drownings in the beach and coastal environments. Auckland (n=93) experienced the<br />

highest fatal drowning number per region, followed by Northland (n=58) and Waikato (n=41). Northland has the highest<br />

average fatal drowning rate per region (3.30 per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.), followed by the West Coast (2.13 per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.), and<br />

then Gisborne (2.06 per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.).<br />

Fatal Drownings (n)<br />

<strong>10</strong>0<br />

80<br />

65<br />

40<br />

20<br />

Fatal Drownings<br />

Average Fatal Drowning Rate<br />

3.5<br />

3.0<br />

2.5<br />

2.0<br />

1.5<br />

1.0<br />

0.5<br />

Fatal Drowning Rate<br />

(per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.)<br />

0<br />

AUK<br />

NTL<br />

WKO<br />

BOP<br />

WGT<br />

HKB<br />

CAN<br />

OTA<br />

STL<br />

Region<br />

GIS<br />

TKI<br />

WTC<br />

MWT<br />

TAS<br />

MBH<br />

NSN<br />

0.0<br />

Figure 5.4<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Age Groups and Gender Represented in<br />

<strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong> Fatal Drownings (n=357).<br />

Age groups 15 years and above account for 95% (n=339)<br />

of all beach and coastal fatal drownings during <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>.<br />

Males account for 87% (n=312) of all drowning fatalities,<br />

whereas females account for 13% (n=45). The fatal<br />

drowning rate for males is greater than females across all<br />

age groups.<br />

Fatal Drownings (n)<br />

70<br />

60<br />

50<br />

40<br />

30<br />

20<br />

<strong>10</strong><br />

Male<br />

Female<br />

87%<br />

More males are fatally<br />

drowning than females<br />

87%<br />

MALE<br />

MALE<br />

13%<br />

87%<br />

FEMALE<br />

FEMALE<br />

0<br />

0-4 5-14 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 MALE 65+<br />

Age<br />

More adults are fatally 13%<br />

13%<br />

drowning than children FEMALE<br />

SECTION FIVE<br />

51<br />

FATAL DROWNING ANALYSIS / <strong>10</strong> YEAR OVERVIEW


NATIONAL OVERVIEW<br />

<strong>10</strong>-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

Figure 5.5<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong> (ten-year average) and <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Total <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong> Fatal Drownings by Ethnicity.<br />

From <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>, NZ Europeans (n=12) had the greatest average number of total fatal drownings per year, followed by Maori<br />

(n=9), Asian (n=5) and Pasifika (n=5). In <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>, the annual fatal drowning toll for all ethnicities was less than the ten-year<br />

average.<br />

15<br />

Average Fatal Drownings per <strong>Year</strong> (<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>)<br />

Total Fatal Drownings (<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>)<br />

Fatal Drownings (n)<br />

12<br />

9<br />

6<br />

3<br />

0<br />

NZ EUROPEAN MAORI<br />

ASIAN PASIFIKA OTHER* UNKNOWN<br />

Ethnicity<br />

(*represents all other ethnicities)<br />

Figure 5.6<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong> (ten-year average) and <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong> Fatal Drowning Rates (per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) by<br />

Ethnicity (n=357).<br />

From <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>, Other Ethnicities recorded the highest average fatal drowning rate (2.49 per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.), followed by<br />

Pasifika (1.28 per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) and Maori (1.15 per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.).<br />

During <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong> Other Ethnicities represented the highest fatal drowning rate (2.34 per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.), followed by Maori<br />

(1.03 per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) and Asian (0.57 per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.).<br />

The <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong> fatal drowning rates for each ethnicity was less than their respective ten-year average.<br />

Rate (per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.)<br />

2.5<br />

2.0<br />

1.5<br />

1.0<br />

0.5<br />

Fatal Drowning Rate (<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>)<br />

Fatal Drowning Rate (<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>)<br />

0<br />

NZ EUROPEAN MAORI ASIAN PASIFIKA OTHER*<br />

Ethnicity<br />

(*represents all other ethnicities)<br />

From <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>, Other Ethnicities recorded the highest fatal drowning<br />

rate (2.49 per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) across all ethnicities<br />

52<br />

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH & COASTAL SAFETY REPORT 20<strong>21</strong>


NATIONAL OVERVIEW<br />

<strong>10</strong>-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

Figure 5.7<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong> Fatal Drownings by Month (n=357).<br />

The highest number of beach and coastal fatal drownings occurred in January (n=63), followed by February (n=53) and<br />

December (n=51). From <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>, 45% of all fatal drownings occurred during the summer months (Dec – Feb).<br />

80<br />

70<br />

Fatal Drownings<br />

Summer Season<br />

Fatal Drownings (n)<br />

60<br />

50<br />

40<br />

30<br />

20<br />

<strong>10</strong><br />

0<br />

JUL AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN<br />

<strong>Year</strong><br />

Figure 5.8<br />

Comparison Between the <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong> Ten <strong>Year</strong> Average (n=357) and <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong> Count (n=25) for <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong><br />

Fatal Drownings by Activity.<br />

The activities listed below represent the top eight causes of fatal drowning within the beach and coastal environment between<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>. In <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>, snorkelling was the only activity where the number of drowning fatalities was above the ten–year<br />

average. Swimming / wading, boating, falls, watercraft, land-based fishing, net/shell fishing and attempting a rescue activities<br />

were below the ten-year average.<br />

SWIMMING / WADING<br />

FALL<br />

BOATING<br />

WATERCRAFT<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

8<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

6<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

6<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

3<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

7<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

1<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

4<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

2<br />

SNORKELLING<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

4<br />

LAND-BASED FISHING<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

3<br />

NET / SHELL FISHING<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

2<br />

ATTEMPTING A RESCUE<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

2<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

5<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

2<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

1<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

1<br />

SECTION FIVE<br />

53<br />

FATAL DROWNING ANALYSIS / <strong>10</strong> YEAR OVERVIEW


Figure 5.9<br />

<strong>10</strong> YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

Fatal Drownings Per Region<br />

South Island<br />

5<br />

Tasman<br />

0<br />

Nelson<br />

7<br />

West Coast<br />

Marlborough<br />

4<br />

Canterbury<br />

14<br />

12<br />

Southland<br />

Otago<br />

13<br />

54<br />

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH & COASTAL SAFETY REPORT 20<strong>21</strong>


Northland<br />

58<br />

North Island<br />

93<br />

288<br />

Auckland<br />

Bay of Plenty<br />

34<br />

41<br />

Waikato<br />

Gisborne<br />

<strong>10</strong><br />

7<br />

Taranaki<br />

Hawke’s Bay<br />

20<br />

Manawatu-Wanganui<br />

5<br />

Wellington<br />

34<br />

4<br />

A TOTAL OF<br />

357<br />

BEACH AND<br />

COASTAL FATAL<br />

DROWNINGS<br />

SECTION FIVE<br />

55<br />

FATAL DROWNING ANALYSIS / <strong>10</strong> YEAR OVERVIEW


FATA L D R O W N I N G<br />

ANALYSIS<br />

SECTION SIX<br />

1-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

25<br />

80%<br />

MALE<br />

BEACH &<br />

COASTAL FATAL<br />

DROWNINGS<br />

20%<br />

FEMALE<br />

LOCATION<br />

36%<br />

SURF BEACH<br />

17%<br />

HARBOUR<br />

12%<br />

ROCKY<br />

FORESHORE<br />

ACTIVITY<br />

28%<br />

SWIMMING/WADING<br />

20%<br />

SNORKELLING<br />

16%<br />

BOATING


NATIONAL OVERVIEW<br />

1-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

In <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong> there were 25 fatal drownings at beach and coastal environments. Auckland had the highest<br />

fatalities per region (n=6), followed by Northland (n=4) and Bay of Plenty (n=4).<br />

The majority of drowning fatalities occurred while swimming/wading (n=7), followed by snorkelling (n=5)<br />

and boating (n=4).<br />

Surf beaches proved to be the most dangerous environment for drowning fatalities (n=9), followed by<br />

harbour (n=4), rocky foreshore (n=3), 0-1 km offshore (n=3) and river / harbour bar (n=3).<br />

Figure 6.1<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong> Fatal Drownings per Region (n=25).<br />

25<br />

80%<br />

MALE<br />

20%<br />

BEACH &<br />

COASTAL FATAL<br />

DROWNINGS<br />

6FEMALE<br />

Auckland<br />

Northland<br />

4<br />

Bay of Plenty<br />

4<br />

LOCATION<br />

36%<br />

SURF BEACH<br />

17%<br />

HARBOUR<br />

0<br />

Waikato<br />

ROCKY 0<br />

FORESHORE Taranaki<br />

Tasman<br />

288<br />

2<br />

12%<br />

0 Nelson<br />

Gisborne 2<br />

Hawke’s Bay 1<br />

ACTIVITY<br />

Manawatu-Wanganui<br />

0<br />

Wellington<br />

3<br />

0<br />

West Coast<br />

Marlborough<br />

0<br />

28%<br />

SWIMMING/WADING<br />

20%<br />

SNORKELLING<br />

16%<br />

BOATING<br />

Canterbury<br />

1<br />

0<br />

Southland<br />

Otago<br />

2<br />

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH & COASTAL SAFETY REPORT 20<strong>21</strong><br />

58


NATIONAL OVERVIEW<br />

1-YEAR OVERVIEW | 2019-20<br />

Figure 6.2<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong> Fatal Drownings by Age<br />

and Gender (n=25).<br />

The highest number of fatal drownings occurred in the<br />

65+ year age group (28%, n=7), followed by 45-54 (20%,<br />

n=5), 55-64 (16%, n=4) and 15-24 (16%, n=4) age groups.<br />

Across all age groups males accounted for 80% (n=20) of<br />

fatal drownings, whereas females accounted for 20% (n=5).<br />

Figure 6.4<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong> Fatal Drownings by Month<br />

(n=25).<br />

The greatest number of fatal drownings occurred in<br />

November (24%, n=6), followed by December (16%, n=4)<br />

and February (16%, n=4). The summer months (Dec –<br />

Feb) accounted for the majority (40%, n=<strong>10</strong>) of all fatal<br />

drownings. With the exception of October, November and<br />

April, the number of fatal drownings per month during<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong> were below the <strong>10</strong> year average.<br />

Fatal Drownings (n)<br />

12<br />

<strong>10</strong><br />

8<br />

6<br />

4<br />

2<br />

Male<br />

Female<br />

Fatal Drownings (n)<br />

8<br />

7<br />

6<br />

5<br />

4<br />

3<br />

2<br />

1<br />

Fatal Drownings (<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>)<br />

Average Fatal Drownings (<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>)<br />

0<br />

0-4 5-14 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65+<br />

Age Groups<br />

0<br />

JUL AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN<br />

Month<br />

Figure 6.3<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong> Fatal Drownings by<br />

Activity (n=25).<br />

The majority of fatal drownings occurred while swimming/<br />

wading (n=7), followed by snorkelling (n=5) and boating<br />

(n=4).<br />

Figure 6.5<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong> Fatal Drownings by<br />

Location (n=25).<br />

The majority of fatal drownings occurred at surf beaches<br />

(n=9), in harbours (n=4), adjacent to rocky foreshores (n=3),<br />

0-1 km offshore (n=3) and river / harbour bars (n=3).<br />

4%<br />

8%<br />

4%<br />

8%<br />

28%<br />

8%<br />

8%<br />

28%<br />

Swimming/<br />

Wading<br />

20%<br />

12%<br />

12%<br />

36%<br />

Surf<br />

<strong>Beach</strong><br />

36%<br />

16%<br />

12%<br />

16%<br />

Swimming/Wading<br />

Snorkelling<br />

Boating<br />

Attempting a Rescue<br />

4% 4% Surf <strong>Beach</strong><br />

Land-Based Fishing<br />

Watercraft<br />

Fall<br />

Net/Shell Fishing<br />

Scuba Diving<br />

Harbour<br />

Rocky Foreshore<br />

0-1km off Shore<br />

River/Harbour Bar<br />

Estuary<br />

Calm Water <strong>Beach</strong><br />

SECTION SIX<br />

59<br />

FATAL DROWNING ANALYSIS / 1 YEAR OVERVIEW


REGIONAL OVERVIEWS<br />

SECTION SEVEN<br />

NZ Regions<br />

Northland<br />

Auckland<br />

Bay of Plenty<br />

Waikato<br />

Gisborne<br />

Taranaki<br />

Hawke’s Bay<br />

Tasman<br />

Nelson<br />

Manawatu-Wanganui<br />

Wellington<br />

Marlborough<br />

West Coast<br />

Canterbury<br />

Southland<br />

Otago<br />

Please note: latitude and longitude coordinates were not available for all fatalities.


NORTHLAND / TE TAI TOKERAU<br />

Figure 7.1<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Northland Region <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong> Fatal<br />

Drownings and Fatal Drowning Rate per <strong>10</strong>0,000<br />

population (n=58).<br />

During <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>, there were four beach and coastal<br />

drowning fatalities within the Northland Region, which is less<br />

than the ten-year average of six per year. The <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong> fatal<br />

drowning rate (2.06 per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) was less than the<br />

ten-year average (3.30 per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.).<br />

Figure 7.2<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Northland Region <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong><br />

Drownings by Activity (n=58).<br />

Within the Northland Region during <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>, the majority<br />

of beach and coastal drowning fatalities occurred while<br />

swimming/wading (n=13), followed by using watercraft<br />

(n=11) and net/shell fishing (n=<strong>10</strong>).<br />

Fatal Drownings (n)<br />

<strong>10</strong><br />

9<br />

8<br />

7<br />

6<br />

5<br />

4<br />

3<br />

2<br />

1<br />

0<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-12<br />

Fatal Drownings<br />

2012-13<br />

2013-14<br />

2014-15<br />

Fatal Drowning Rate<br />

2015-16<br />

2016-17<br />

<strong>Year</strong><br />

2017-18<br />

2018-19<br />

2019-20<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

4.5<br />

4.0<br />

3.5<br />

3.0<br />

2.5<br />

2.0<br />

1.5<br />

1.0<br />

0.5<br />

0.0<br />

Fatal Drowning Rate<br />

(per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.)<br />

5%<br />

7%<br />

9%<br />

12%<br />

5% 3% 17%<br />

24%<br />

Swimming/<br />

Wading<br />

24%<br />

17%<br />

Swimming/Wading<br />

Watercraft<br />

Net/Shell Fishing<br />

Boating<br />

Snorkelling<br />

Falls<br />

Attempting a Rescue<br />

Scuba Diving<br />

Land-Based Fishing<br />

Figure 7.3<br />

Comparison of <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong> Fatal Drowning Rates (per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) by Activity in the Northland Region:<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong> (ten-year average) and <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>.<br />

Within the Northland Region the <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong> fatal drowning rates (per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) for all activities was less than their<br />

respective ten-year averages.<br />

SWIMMING / WADING<br />

SNORKELLING<br />

FALL<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.81<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.51<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.28<br />

LAND-BASED FISHING<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.51<br />

BOATING<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.22<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.12<br />

NET / SHELL FISHING<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

WATERCRAFT<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.38<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.66<br />

ATTEMPTING A RESCUE<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.56<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.51<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.17<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

62<br />

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH AND COASTAL SAFETY REPORT 20<strong>21</strong>


FATAL DROWNING SNAPSHOT<br />

<strong>10</strong>-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong> 1-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

FATAL DROWNINGS<br />

AVERAGE FATALITY<br />

4 2.06<br />

FATAL DROWNINGS BY LOCATION<br />

PER <strong>10</strong>0,000 POPULATION<br />

25%<br />

25%<br />

58<br />

25<br />

River/<br />

Harbour Bar<br />

25%<br />

0-1 km<br />

from shore<br />

Attempting a Rescue<br />

Boating<br />

Diving / Jumping<br />

Fall<br />

Net / Shell Fishing<br />

Land-Based Fishing<br />

Scuba Diving<br />

Snorkeling<br />

Swimming / Wading<br />

Watercraft<br />

25%<br />

25%<br />

Surf <strong>Beach</strong><br />

25%<br />

Harbour<br />

25%<br />

TOTAL FATAL DROWNINGS: 58<br />

AVERAGE FATAL DROWNINGS<br />

6<br />

PER YEAR<br />

AVERAGE FATALITY<br />

3.30<br />

PER <strong>10</strong>0,000 POPULATION<br />

0-1 Km from Shore<br />

Harbour<br />

FATAL DROWNINGS BY ACTIVITY<br />

Surf <strong>Beach</strong><br />

River/Harbour Bar<br />

KEY DEMOGRAPHIC<br />

YEAR OLD MALES<br />

SWIMMERS/WADERS<br />

81%<br />

MALE<br />

19%<br />

FEMALE<br />

15+ 15+<br />

YEAR OLD MALES<br />

NET/SHELL FISHING<br />

25%<br />

25%<br />

25<br />

Watercraft<br />

25%<br />

Swimming/<br />

Wading<br />

Scuba Diving<br />

Snorkelling<br />

25%<br />

Scuba Diving<br />

25%<br />

Snorkelling<br />

25%<br />

25%<br />

Swimming/Wading<br />

Watercraft


AUCKLAND / TAMAKI-MAKAU-RAU<br />

Figure 7.4<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Auckland Region <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong> Fatal<br />

Drownings and Fatal Drowning Rate per <strong>10</strong>0,000<br />

population (n=93).<br />

During <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>, there were six beach and coastal drowning<br />

fatalities within the Auckland Region, which is less than<br />

the ten-year average of ten per year. The <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong> fatal<br />

drowning rate (0.35 per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) was less than the<br />

ten-year average (0.59 per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.).<br />

Figure 7.5<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Auckland Region <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong><br />

Drownings by Activity (n=93).<br />

Within the Auckland Region during <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>, the majority<br />

of beach and coastal drowning fatalities occurred while<br />

boating (n=26), followed by swimming/wading (n=23) and<br />

falls (n=17).<br />

2%<br />

1%<br />

Fatal Drownings (n)<br />

18<br />

16<br />

14<br />

12<br />

<strong>10</strong><br />

8<br />

6<br />

4<br />

2<br />

0<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-12<br />

Fatal Drownings<br />

Fatal Drowning Rate<br />

2012-13<br />

2013-14<br />

2014-15<br />

2015-16<br />

2016-17<br />

<strong>Year</strong><br />

2017-18<br />

2018-19<br />

2019-20<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

1.2<br />

1.0<br />

0.8<br />

0.6<br />

0.4<br />

0.2<br />

0.0<br />

Fatal Drowning Rate<br />

(per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.)<br />

9%<br />

9%<br />

18%<br />

3%<br />

3%<br />

28%<br />

Boating<br />

25%<br />

28%<br />

Boating<br />

Swimming/Wading<br />

Falls<br />

Land-Based Fishing<br />

Watercraft<br />

Attempting a Rescue<br />

Snorkelling<br />

Scuba Diving<br />

Diving/Jumping<br />

Net/Shell Fishing<br />

Unknown<br />

Figure 7.6<br />

CComparison of <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong> Fatal Drowning Rates (per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) by Activity in the Auckland Region:<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong> (ten-year average) and <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>.<br />

Within the Auckland Region the <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong> fatal drowning rates (per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) for swimming/wading, falls, boating,<br />

snorkelling, net/shell fishing and attempting a rescue activities were less than their respective ten-year averages. However,<br />

the <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong> fatal drowning rates for watercraft, snorkelling and land-based fishing activities were higher.<br />

SWIMMING / WADING<br />

SNORKELLING<br />

FALL<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.15<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.12<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.02<br />

LAND-BASED FISHING<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.06<br />

BOATING<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.11<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.06<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.05<br />

NET / SHELL FISHING<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.06<br />

WATERCRAFT<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.17<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.01<br />

ATTEMPTING A RESCUE<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.05<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.06<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.02<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

64<br />

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH AND COASTAL SAFETY REPORT 20<strong>21</strong>


FATAL DROWNING SNAPSHOT<br />

<strong>10</strong>-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong> 1-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

FATAL DROWNINGS<br />

AVERAGE FATALITY<br />

13 0.77<br />

FATAL DROWNINGS BY LOCATION<br />

PER <strong>10</strong>0,000 POPULATION<br />

17%<br />

33%<br />

93<br />

Attempting a Rescue<br />

Boating<br />

Diving / Jumping<br />

Fall<br />

Net / Shell Fishing<br />

Land-Based Fishing<br />

Scuba Diving<br />

Snorkeling<br />

Swimming / Wading<br />

Watercraft<br />

TOTAL FATAL DROWNINGS: 93<br />

17%<br />

17%<br />

33%<br />

Rocky<br />

Foreshore<br />

17%<br />

AVERAGE FATAL DROWNINGS<br />

<strong>10</strong><br />

PER YEAR<br />

AVERAGE FATALITY<br />

0.59<br />

PER <strong>10</strong>0,000 POPULATION<br />

Rocky Foreshore Calm Water Beaach Surf <strong>Beach</strong><br />

0-1km from shore Harbour<br />

FATAL DROWNINGS BY ACTIVITY<br />

90%<br />

MALE<br />

<strong>10</strong>%<br />

FEMALE<br />

17%<br />

17%<br />

33%<br />

Swimming/<br />

Wading<br />

33%<br />

KEY DEMOGRAPHIC<br />

15+ 25+<br />

YEAR OLD MALES<br />

SWIMMING/WADING<br />

YEAR OLD MALES<br />

BOATING<br />

17%<br />

Swimming/Wading<br />

Falls<br />

Land-Based Fishing<br />

17%<br />

Snorkelling<br />

Watercraft


WAIKATO<br />

Figure 7.7<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Waikato Region <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong> Fatal<br />

Drownings and Fatal Drowning Rate per <strong>10</strong>0,000<br />

Population (n=41).<br />

During <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>, there were two beach and coastal<br />

drowning fatalities within the Waikato Region, which equals<br />

the ten-year average of four per year. The <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong> fatal<br />

drowning rate (0.40 per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) was less than the<br />

ten-year average (0.91 per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.).<br />

Figure 7.8<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Waikato Region <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong><br />

Drownings by Activity (n=41).<br />

Within the Waikato Region during <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>, the majority<br />

of beach and coastal drowning fatalities occurred while<br />

swimming/wading (n=<strong>10</strong>), followed by land-based fishing<br />

(n=9) and falls (n=5).<br />

2%<br />

Fatal Drownings (n)<br />

<strong>10</strong><br />

9<br />

8<br />

7<br />

6<br />

5<br />

4<br />

3<br />

2<br />

1<br />

0<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-12<br />

Fatal Drownings<br />

Fatal Drowning Rate<br />

2012-13<br />

2013-14<br />

2014-15<br />

2015-16<br />

2016-17<br />

<strong>Year</strong><br />

2017-18<br />

2018-19<br />

2019-20<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

2.0<br />

1.8<br />

1.6<br />

1.4<br />

1.2<br />

1.0<br />

0.8<br />

0.6<br />

0.4<br />

0.2<br />

0.0<br />

Fatal Drowning Rate<br />

(per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.)<br />

5%<br />

5%<br />

<strong>10</strong>%<br />

<strong>10</strong>%<br />

5%<br />

24%<br />

Swimming/<br />

Wading<br />

12%<br />

24%<br />

22%<br />

Swimming/Wading<br />

Land-Based Fishing<br />

Falls<br />

Boating<br />

Net/Shell Fishing<br />

Attempting a Rescue<br />

Scuba Diving<br />

Snorkelling<br />

Diving/Jumping<br />

Watercraft<br />

Unknown<br />

Figure 7.9<br />

Comparison of <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong> Fatal Drowning Rates (per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) by Activity in the Waikato Region:<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong> (ten-year average) and <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>.<br />

Within the Waikato Region the <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong> fatal drowning rates (per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) for swimming/wading, falls, boating,<br />

watercraft, snorkelling and net/shell fishing and were less than their respective ten-year averages. However, the <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

fatal drowning rate for attempting a rescue was greater than the ten-year average.<br />

SWIMMING / WADING<br />

SNORKELLING<br />

FALL<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.22<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.05<br />

LAND-BASED FISHING<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

BOATING<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.11<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.20<br />

NET / SHELL FISHING<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.20<br />

WATERCRAFT<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.09<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.12<br />

ATTEMPTING A RESCUE<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.02<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.04<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.20<br />

66<br />

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH AND COASTAL SAFETY REPORT 20<strong>21</strong>


FATAL DROWNING SNAPSHOT<br />

<strong>10</strong>-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong> 1-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

FATAL DROWNINGS<br />

AVERAGE FATALITY<br />

41<br />

2 0.40<br />

PER <strong>10</strong>0,000 POPULATION<br />

FATAL DROWNINGS BY LOCATION<br />

Attempting a Rescue<br />

Boating<br />

Diving / Jumping<br />

Fall<br />

Net / Shell Fishing<br />

Land-Based Fishing<br />

Scuba Diving<br />

Snorkeling<br />

Swimming / Wading<br />

Watercraft<br />

50% 50% 50%<br />

Rocky Surf <strong>Beach</strong><br />

Foreshore<br />

50%<br />

TOTAL FATAL DROWNINGS: 41<br />

AVERAGE FATAL DROWNINGS<br />

4<br />

PER YEAR<br />

90%<br />

MALE<br />

<strong>10</strong>%<br />

FEMALE<br />

AVERAGE FATALITY<br />

0.91<br />

PER <strong>10</strong>0,000 POPULATION<br />

KEY DEMOGRAPHIC<br />

15-44 35-44<br />

YEAR OLD MALES YEAR OLD MALES<br />

SWIMMING/WADING LAND BASED FISHING<br />

FATAL DROWNINGS BY ACTIVITY<br />

50%<br />

Surf <strong>Beach</strong><br />

50%<br />

Land-Based<br />

Fishing<br />

Attempting a Rescue<br />

Rocky Foreshore<br />

50%<br />

Attempting a<br />

Rescue<br />

50%<br />

Land-Based Fishing


BAY OF PLENTY / TE MOANA-A-TOI<br />

Figure 7.<strong>10</strong><br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Bay of Plenty Region <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong> Fatal<br />

Drownings and Fatal Drowning Rate per <strong>10</strong>0,000<br />

Population (n=34).<br />

During <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>, there were four beach and coastal<br />

drowning fatalities within the Bay of Plenty Region, which<br />

is greater than the ten-year average of three per year. The<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong> fatal drowning rate (1.19 per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) was<br />

greater than the ten-year average (1.14 per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.).<br />

Figure 7.11<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Bay of Plenty Region <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong><br />

Drownings by Activity (n=34).<br />

Within the Bay of Plenty Region during <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>, the majority<br />

of beach and coastal drowning fatalities were swimming/<br />

wading (n=7), followed by boating (n=6) and falls (n=6).<br />

Fatal Drownings (n)<br />

7<br />

6<br />

5<br />

4<br />

3<br />

2<br />

1<br />

0<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-12<br />

Fatal Drownings<br />

Fatal Drowning Rate<br />

2012-13<br />

2013-14<br />

2014-15<br />

2015-16<br />

2016-17<br />

<strong>Year</strong><br />

2017-18<br />

2018-19<br />

2019-20<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

2.5<br />

2.0<br />

1.5<br />

1.0<br />

0.5<br />

0.0<br />

Fatal Drowning Rate<br />

(per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.)<br />

9%<br />

9%<br />

9%<br />

12%<br />

6%<br />

<strong>21</strong>%<br />

Swimming/<br />

Wading<br />

18%<br />

<strong>21</strong>%<br />

18%<br />

Swimming/Wading<br />

Boating<br />

Falls<br />

Land-Based Fishing<br />

Snorkelling<br />

Watercraft<br />

Attempting a Rescue<br />

Net/Shell Fishing<br />

Figure 7.12<br />

Comparison of <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong> Fatal Drowning Rates (per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) by Activity in the Bay of Plenty<br />

Region: <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong> (ten-year average) and <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>.<br />

Within the Bay of Plenty Region the <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong> fatal drowning rates (per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) for falls, watercraft, snorkelling, landbased<br />

fishing and attempting a rescue activities were less than their respective ten-year averages. However, the <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

fatal drowning rates for swimming/wading, boating and net/shell fishing were greater than the ten-year average.<br />

SWIMMING / WADING<br />

SNORKELLING<br />

FALL<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.22<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.59<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.<strong>10</strong><br />

LAND-BASED FISHING<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

BOATING<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.20<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.<strong>10</strong><br />

NET / SHELL FISHING<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

WATERCRAFT<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.<strong>21</strong><br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.30<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.09<br />

ATTEMPTING A RESCUE<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.30<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.07<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.11<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

68<br />

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH AND COASTAL SAFETY REPORT 20<strong>21</strong>


FATAL DROWNING SNAPSHOT<br />

<strong>10</strong>-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong> 1-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

FATAL DROWNINGS<br />

AVERAGE FATALITY<br />

34<br />

4 1.19<br />

PER <strong>10</strong>0,000 POPULATION<br />

FATAL DROWNINGS BY LOCATION<br />

25%<br />

Attempting a Rescue<br />

Boating<br />

Diving / Jumping<br />

Fall<br />

Net / Shell Fishing<br />

Land-Based Fishing<br />

Scuba Diving<br />

Snorkeling<br />

Swimming / Wading<br />

Watercraft<br />

TOTAL FATAL DROWNINGS: 34<br />

25%<br />

50%<br />

Surf <strong>Beach</strong><br />

50%<br />

AVERAGE FATAL DROWNINGS<br />

3<br />

PER YEAR<br />

KEY DEMOGRAPHIC<br />

85%<br />

MALE<br />

15%<br />

FEMALE<br />

AVERAGE FATALITY<br />

1.14<br />

PER <strong>10</strong>0,000 POPULATION<br />

15+ 15+<br />

YEAR OLD MALES<br />

SWIMMING/WADING<br />

YEAR OLD MALES<br />

BOATING<br />

Surf <strong>Beach</strong> Eastuary Rocky Foreshore<br />

FATAL DROWNINGS BY ACTIVITY<br />

25%<br />

25%<br />

50%<br />

Swimming/<br />

Wading<br />

50%<br />

Swimming/Wading Boating Net/Shell Fishing


GISBORNE / TE TAI RAWHITI<br />

Figure 7.13<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Gisborne Region <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong> Fatal<br />

Drownings and Fatal Drowning Rate per <strong>10</strong>0,000<br />

Population (n=<strong>10</strong>).<br />

During <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>, there were two beach and coastal<br />

drowning fatality within the Gisborne Region, which is the<br />

greater than the ten-year average of one per year. The<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong> fatal drowning rate (3.94 per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) was<br />

greater than the ten-year average (2.06 per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.).<br />

Figure 7.14<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Gisborne Region <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong><br />

Drownings by Activity (n=<strong>10</strong>).<br />

Within the Gisborne Region during <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>, beach and<br />

coastal drowning fatalities were attributed to snorkelling<br />

(n=5), attempting a rescue (n=1), boating (n=1), diving/<br />

jumping (n=1), swimming / wading (n=1) and watercraft<br />

(n=1) activities.<br />

Fatal Drownings (n)<br />

4<br />

3<br />

2<br />

1<br />

0<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-12<br />

Fatal Drownings<br />

Fatal Drowning Rate<br />

2012-13<br />

2013-14<br />

2014-15<br />

2015-16<br />

2016-17<br />

<strong>Year</strong><br />

2017-18<br />

2018-19<br />

2019-20<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

7<br />

6<br />

5<br />

4<br />

3<br />

2<br />

1<br />

0<br />

Fatal Drowning Rate<br />

(per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.)<br />

<strong>10</strong>%<br />

<strong>10</strong>%<br />

<strong>10</strong>%<br />

<strong>10</strong>%<br />

50%<br />

Snorkelling<br />

<strong>10</strong>%<br />

50%<br />

Snorkelling<br />

Attempting a Rescue<br />

Boating<br />

Diving/Jumping<br />

Swimming/Wading<br />

Watercraft<br />

Figure 7.15<br />

Comparison of <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong> Fatal Drowning Rates (per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) by Activity in the Gisborne Region:<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong> (ten-year average) and <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>.<br />

Within the Gisborne Region the <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong> fatal drowning rate (per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) for swimming / wading, watercraft and<br />

attempting a rescue activities was less than their respective ten-year average. However, the <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong> fatal drowning rate for<br />

boating and snorkelling activities were greater than the ten-year average.<br />

SWIMMING / WADING<br />

SNORKELLING<br />

FALL<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.<strong>21</strong><br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

1.02<br />

LAND-BASED FISHING<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

1.97<br />

BOATING<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

NET / SHELL FISHING<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

WATERCRAFT<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.20<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

1.97<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

ATTEMPTING A RESCUE<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.<strong>21</strong><br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.<strong>21</strong><br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

70<br />

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH AND COASTAL SAFETY REPORT 20<strong>21</strong>


FATAL DROWNING SNAPSHOT<br />

<strong>10</strong>-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2011</strong>-20 1-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

FATAL DROWNINGS<br />

AVERAGE FATALITY<br />

2 3.94<br />

PER <strong>10</strong>0,000 POPULATION<br />

FATAL DROWNINGS BY LOCATION<br />

<strong>10</strong><br />

Attempting a Rescue<br />

Boating<br />

Diving / Jumping<br />

Fall<br />

Net / Shell Fishing<br />

Land-Based Fishing<br />

Scuba Diving<br />

Snorkeling<br />

Swimming / Wading<br />

Watercraft<br />

<strong>10</strong>0%<br />

Surf <strong>Beach</strong><br />

TOTAL FATAL DROWNINGS: <strong>10</strong><br />

AVERAGE FATAL DROWNINGS<br />

1<br />

PER YEAR<br />

<strong>10</strong>0%<br />

MALE<br />

AVERAGE FATALITY<br />

2.06<br />

PER <strong>10</strong>0,000 POPULATION<br />

Surf <strong>Beach</strong><br />

FATAL DROWNINGS BY ACTIVITY<br />

0%<br />

FEMALE<br />

50%<br />

50%<br />

Boating<br />

50%<br />

Snorkelling<br />

50%<br />

KEY DEMOGRAPHIC<br />

24-44<br />

YEAR OLD MALES<br />

SNORKELLING<br />

Attempting a Rescue<br />

Land Based Fishing


HAWKE’S BAY / TE MATAU-A-MAUI<br />

Figure 7.16<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Hawke’s Bay Region <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong> Fatal<br />

Drownings and Fatal Drowning Rate per <strong>10</strong>0,000<br />

Population (n=20).<br />

During <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>, there was one beach and coastal<br />

drowning fatality within the Hawke’s Bay Region, which is<br />

less than the ten-year average of two per year. The <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

fatal drowning rate (0.56 per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) is less than the<br />

ten-year average (1.22 per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.).<br />

Figure 7.17<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Hawke’s Bay Region <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong><br />

Drownings by Activity (n=20).<br />

Within the Hawke’s Bay Region during <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>, the majority<br />

of beach and coastal drowning fatalities occurred as a fall<br />

(n=6) attempting a rescue (n=5), followed by swimming/<br />

wading (n=4).<br />

Fatal Drownings (n)<br />

6<br />

5<br />

4<br />

3<br />

2<br />

1<br />

0<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-12<br />

Fatal Drownings<br />

Fatal Drowning Rate<br />

2012-13<br />

2013-14<br />

2014-15<br />

2015-16<br />

2016-17<br />

<strong>Year</strong><br />

2017-18<br />

2018-19<br />

2019-20<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

3.5<br />

3.0<br />

2.5<br />

2.0<br />

1.5<br />

1.0<br />

0.5<br />

0.0<br />

Fatal Drowning Rate<br />

(per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.)<br />

<strong>10</strong>%<br />

20%<br />

<strong>10</strong>%<br />

5%<br />

30%<br />

Falls<br />

25%<br />

30%<br />

Falls<br />

Attempting a Rescue<br />

Swimming/Wading<br />

Boating<br />

Scuba Diving<br />

Snorkelling<br />

Figure 7.18<br />

Comparison of <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong> Fatal Drowning Rates (per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) by Activity in the Hawke’s Bay<br />

Region: <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong> (ten-year average) and <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>.<br />

Within the Hawke’s Bay Region the <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong> fatal drowning rates (per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) for swimming/wading, falls, boating<br />

and attempting rescue activities were less than their respective ten-year averages. However, the <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong> fatal drowning rate<br />

for snorkelling was greater than the ten-year average.<br />

SWIMMING / WADING<br />

SNORKELLING<br />

FALL<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.24<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.06<br />

LAND-BASED FISHING<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.56<br />

BOATING<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.37<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

NET / SHELL FISHING<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

WATERCRAFT<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.12<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

ATTEMPTING A RESCUE<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.31<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

72<br />

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH AND COASTAL SAFETY REPORT 20<strong>21</strong>


FATAL DROWNING SNAPSHOT<br />

<strong>10</strong>-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong> 1-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

FATAL DROWNINGS<br />

AVERAGE FATALITY<br />

1 0.57<br />

PER <strong>10</strong>0,000 POPULATION<br />

FATAL DROWNINGS BY LOCATION<br />

Attempting a Rescue<br />

Boating<br />

Diving / Jumping<br />

Fall<br />

TOTAL FATAL DROWNINGS: 20<br />

AVERAGE FATAL DROWNINGS<br />

2<br />

PER YEAR<br />

KEY DEMOGRAPHIC<br />

YEAR OLD MALES<br />

FALLS<br />

Net / Shell Fishing<br />

Land-Based Fishing<br />

Scuba Diving<br />

Snorkeling<br />

80%<br />

MALE<br />

20%<br />

FEMALE<br />

20<br />

Swimming / Wading<br />

Watercraft<br />

AVERAGE FATALITY<br />

1.22<br />

PER <strong>10</strong>0,000 POPULATION<br />

0-24 5-54<br />

YEAR OLD MALES & FEMALES<br />

ATTEMPTING A RESCUE<br />

<strong>10</strong>0%<br />

Surf <strong>Beach</strong><br />

Surf <strong>Beach</strong><br />

FATAL DROWNINGS BY ACTIVITY<br />

<strong>10</strong>0%<br />

Snorkelling<br />

Snorkelling


TARANAKI<br />

Figure 7.19<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Taranaki Region <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong> Fatal<br />

Drownings and Fatal Drowning Rate per <strong>10</strong>0,000<br />

Population (n=7).<br />

During <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>, there were no beach and coastal drowning<br />

fatality within the Taranaki Region, which is less than the<br />

ten-year average of one per year. The <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong> fatal<br />

drowning rate (0.00 per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) was less than the<br />

ten-year average (0.60 per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.).<br />

Figure 7.20<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Taranaki Region <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong><br />

Drownings by Activity (n=7).<br />

Within the Taranaki Region during <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>, the majority<br />

of beach and coastal drowning fatalities resulted from falls<br />

(n=2) and boating (n=2), followed attempting a rescue<br />

(n=1), swimming/wading (n=1) and watercraft activities<br />

(n=1).<br />

Fatal Drownings (n)<br />

4<br />

3<br />

2<br />

1<br />

0<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-12<br />

Fatal Drownings<br />

Fatal Drowning Rate<br />

2012-13<br />

2013-14<br />

2014-15<br />

2015-16<br />

2016-17<br />

2017-18<br />

2018-19<br />

2019-20<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

3.0<br />

2.5<br />

2.0<br />

1.5<br />

1.0<br />

0.5<br />

0.0<br />

Fatal Drowning Rate<br />

(per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.)<br />

14%<br />

14%<br />

14%<br />

29%<br />

Boating<br />

29%<br />

29%<br />

Boating<br />

Falls<br />

Attempting a Rescue<br />

Swimming/Wading<br />

Watercraft<br />

<strong>Year</strong><br />

Figure 7.<strong>21</strong><br />

Comparison of <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong> Fatal Drowning Rates (per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) by Activity in the Taranaki Region:<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong> (ten-year average) and <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>.<br />

Within the Taranaki Region the <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong> fatal drowning rates (per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) for falls, boating, watercraft and<br />

attempting rescue activities were less than their respective ten-year averages.<br />

SWIMMING / WADING<br />

SNORKELLING<br />

FALL<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.08<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

LAND-BASED FISHING<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

BOATING<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.18<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

NET / SHELL FISHING<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

WATERCRAFT<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.17<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

ATTEMPTING A RESCUE<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.08<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.09<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

74<br />

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH AND COASTAL SAFETY REPORT 20<strong>21</strong>


FATAL DROWNING SNAPSHOT<br />

<strong>10</strong>-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong> 1-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

FATAL DROWNINGS<br />

AVERAGE FATALITY<br />

0 0.00<br />

PER <strong>10</strong>0,000 POPULATION<br />

FATAL DROWNINGS BY LOCATION<br />

7<br />

Attempting a Rescue<br />

Boating<br />

Diving / Jumping<br />

Fall<br />

Net / Shell Fishing<br />

Land-Based Fishing<br />

Scuba Diving<br />

Snorkeling<br />

Swimming / Wading<br />

Watercraft<br />

ZERO<br />

Fatal<br />

Drownings<br />

TOTAL FATAL DROWNINGS: 7<br />

AVERAGE FATAL DROWNINGS<br />


MANAWATU-WANGANUI<br />

Figure 7.22<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Manawatū-Wanganui Region <strong>Beach</strong> and<br />

<strong>Coastal</strong> Fatal Drownings and Fatal Drowning Rate per<br />

<strong>10</strong>0,000 Population (n=5).<br />

During <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>, there were no beach and coastal drowning<br />

fatalities within the Manawatu-Wanganui Region, which is<br />

less than the ten-year average of less than one per year. The<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong> fatal drowning rate (0.00 per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) was<br />

less than the ten-year average (0.<strong>21</strong> per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.).<br />

Figure 7.23<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Manawatū-Wanganui Region <strong>Beach</strong> and<br />

<strong>Coastal</strong> Drownings by Activity (n=5).<br />

Within the Manawatu-Wanganui Region during 20<strong>10</strong>-<br />

20, the majority of beach and coastal drowning fatalities<br />

occurred while swimming/wading (n=3), followed by<br />

snorkelling activities (n=1).<br />

3<br />

Fatal Drownings<br />

Fatal Drowning Rate<br />

1.0<br />

20%<br />

Fatal Drownings (n)<br />

2<br />

1<br />

0.8<br />

0.6<br />

0.4<br />

0.2<br />

Fatal Drowning Rate<br />

(per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.)<br />

80%<br />

Swimming/Wading<br />

Snorkelling<br />

0<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-12<br />

2012-13<br />

2013-14<br />

2014-15<br />

2015-16<br />

2016-17<br />

<strong>Year</strong><br />

2017-18<br />

2018-19<br />

2019-20<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.0<br />

80%<br />

Figure 7.24<br />

Comparison of <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong> Fatal Drowning Rates (per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) by Activity in the Manawatū-<br />

Wanganui Region: <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong> (ten-year average) and <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>.<br />

Within the Manawatu-Wanganui Region the <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong> fatal drowning rate (per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) for swimming/wading and<br />

snorkelling activities were less than their respective ten-year average.<br />

SWIMMING / WADING<br />

SNORKELLING<br />

FALL<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.17<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.04<br />

LAND-BASED FISHING<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

BOATING<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

NET / SHELL FISHING<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

WATERCRAFT<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

ATTEMPTING A RESCUE<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

76<br />

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH AND COASTAL SAFETY REPORT 20<strong>21</strong>


FATAL DROWNING SNAPSHOT<br />

<strong>10</strong>-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong> 1-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

FATAL DROWNINGS<br />

AVERAGE FATALITY<br />

5<br />

0 0.00<br />

PER <strong>10</strong>0,000 POPULATION<br />

FATAL DROWNINGS BY LOCATION<br />

Attempting a Rescue<br />

Boating<br />

Diving / Jumping<br />

Fall<br />

Net / Shell Fishing<br />

Land-Based Fishing<br />

Scuba Diving<br />

Snorkeling<br />

Swimming / Wading<br />

Watercraft<br />

ZERO<br />

Fatal<br />

Drownings<br />

TOTAL FATAL DROWNINGS: 5<br />

AVERAGE FATAL DROWNINGS AVERAGE FATALITY<br />


WELLINGTON / TE WHANGA-NUI-A-TARA<br />

Figure 7.25<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Wellington Region <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong> Fatal<br />

Drownings and Fatal Drowning Rate per <strong>10</strong>0,000<br />

Population (n=34).<br />

During <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>, there were three beach and coastal<br />

drowning fatalities within the Wellington Region, which<br />

equals the ten-year average of three per year. The <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

fatal drowning rate (0.55 per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) was less than<br />

the ten-year average (0.67 per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.).<br />

Figure 7.26<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Wellington Region <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong><br />

Drownings by Activity (n=34).<br />

Within the Wellington Region during <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>, the majority<br />

of beach and coastal drowning fatalities occurred while<br />

swimming/wading (n=8), followed by boating (n=5), falls<br />

(n=5), snorkelling (n=5) and watercraft activities (n=5).<br />

Fatal Drownings (n)<br />

6<br />

5<br />

4<br />

3<br />

2<br />

1<br />

0<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-12<br />

Fatal Drownings<br />

Fatal Drowning Rate<br />

2012-13<br />

2013-14<br />

2014-15<br />

2015-16<br />

2016-17<br />

2017-18<br />

2018-19<br />

2019-20<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

1.2<br />

1.0<br />

0.8<br />

0.6<br />

0.4<br />

0.2<br />

0.0<br />

Fatal Drowning Rate<br />

(per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.)<br />

15%<br />

6%<br />

3% 3% 3%<br />

3%<br />

15%<br />

15%<br />

24%<br />

Swimming/<br />

Wading<br />

24%<br />

15%<br />

Swimming/Wading<br />

Boating<br />

Falls<br />

Snorkelling<br />

Watercraft<br />

Scuba Diving<br />

Attempting a Rescue<br />

Diving/Jumping<br />

Net/Shell Fishing<br />

Land-Based Fishing<br />

<strong>Year</strong><br />

Figure 7.27<br />

Comparison of <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong> Fatal Drowning Rates (per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) by Activity in the Wellington Region:<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong> (ten-year average) and <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>.<br />

Within the Wellington Region the <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong> fatal drowning rates (per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) for falls, watercraft, snorkelling, landbased<br />

fishing, net/shell fishing and attempting a rescue activities were less than their respective ten-year averages. However,<br />

the <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong> fatal drowning rates for swimming/wading and boating activities were greater than the ten-year average.<br />

SWIMMING / WADING<br />

SNORKELLING<br />

FALL<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.16<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.37<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.<strong>10</strong><br />

LAND-BASED FISHING<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

BOATING<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.<strong>10</strong><br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.02<br />

NET / SHELL FISHING<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

WATERCRAFT<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.<strong>10</strong><br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.18<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.02<br />

ATTEMPTING A RESCUE<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.<strong>10</strong><br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.02<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

78<br />

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH AND COASTAL SAFETY REPORT 20<strong>21</strong>


FATAL DROWNING SNAPSHOT<br />

<strong>10</strong>-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong> 1-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

FATAL DROWNINGS<br />

AVERAGE FATALITY<br />

3 0.55<br />

PER <strong>10</strong>0,000 POPULATION<br />

FATAL DROWNINGS BY LOCATION<br />

34<br />

33%<br />

Attempting a Rescue<br />

Boating<br />

Diving / Jumping<br />

Fall<br />

Net / Shell Fishing<br />

Land-Based Fishing<br />

Scuba Diving<br />

Snorkeling<br />

Swimming / Wading<br />

Watercraft<br />

67%<br />

Harbour<br />

67%<br />

TOTAL FATAL DROWNINGS: 34<br />

AVERAGE FATAL DROWNINGS<br />

3<br />

PER YEAR<br />

KEY DEMOGRAPHIC<br />

25+<br />

91%<br />

MALE<br />

9%<br />

FEMALE<br />

AVERAGE FATALITY<br />

0.67<br />

PER <strong>10</strong>0,000 POPULATION<br />

FATAL DROWNINGS BY ACTIVITY<br />

33%<br />

Harbour<br />

0-1Km from shore<br />

67%<br />

Swimming/<br />

Wading<br />

67%<br />

YEAR OLD MALES<br />

SWIMMING/WADING<br />

Swimming/Wading<br />

Boating


TASMAN / TE TAI-O-AORERE<br />

Figure 7.28<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Tasman Region <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong> Fatal<br />

Drownings and Fatal Drowning Rate per <strong>10</strong>0,000<br />

Population (n=5).<br />

During <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>, there were beach and coastal drowning<br />

fatality within the Tasman Region, which is less than the tenyear<br />

average of less than one per year. The <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong> fatal<br />

drowning rate (0.00 per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) was less than the<br />

ten-year average (0.96 per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.).<br />

Figure 7.29<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Tasman Region <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong> Drownings<br />

by Activity (n=5).<br />

Within the Tasman Region during <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>, the beach and<br />

coastal drowning fatalities occurred while swimming/wading<br />

(n=2), net / shell fishing (n=1) land based fishing (n=1) and<br />

watercraft activities (n=1).<br />

Fatal Drownings (n)<br />

2<br />

1<br />

0<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-12<br />

Fatal Drownings<br />

Fatal Drowning Rate<br />

2012-13<br />

2013-14<br />

2014-15<br />

2015-16<br />

2016-17<br />

2017-18<br />

2018-19<br />

2019-20<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

4.0<br />

3.5<br />

3.0<br />

2.5<br />

2.0<br />

1.5<br />

1.0<br />

0.5<br />

0.0<br />

Fatal Drowning Rate<br />

(per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.)<br />

20%<br />

20%<br />

40%<br />

Swimming/<br />

Wading<br />

40%<br />

Swimming/Wading<br />

Land-Based Fishing<br />

Net/Shell Fishing<br />

Watercraft<br />

<strong>Year</strong><br />

20%<br />

Figure 7.30<br />

Comparison of <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong> Fatal Drowning Rates (per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) by Activity in the Tasman Region:<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong> (ten-year average) and <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>.<br />

Within the Tasman Region the <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong> fatal drowning rates (per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) for swimming/wading, watercraft, landbased<br />

fishing and net/shell fishing activities were less than their respective ten-year averages.<br />

SWIMMING / WADING<br />

SNORKELLING<br />

FALL<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.39<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

LAND-BASED FISHING<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

BOATING<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.19<br />

NET / SHELL FISHING<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

WATERCRAFT<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.25<br />

ATTEMPTING A RESCUE<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.18<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

80<br />

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH AND COASTAL SAFETY REPORT 20<strong>21</strong>


FATAL DROWNING SNAPSHOT<br />

<strong>10</strong>-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong> 1-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

FATAL DROWNINGS<br />

AVERAGE FATALITY<br />

0 0.00<br />

PER <strong>10</strong>0,000 POPULATION<br />

FATAL DROWNINGS BY LOCATION<br />

Attempting a Rescue<br />

Boating<br />

Diving / Jumping<br />

Fall<br />

Net / Shell Fishing<br />

Land-Based Fishing<br />

Scuba Diving<br />

Snorkeling<br />

5<br />

Swimming / Wading<br />

Watercraft<br />

ZERO<br />

Fatal<br />

Drownings<br />

TOTAL FATAL DROWNINGS: 5<br />

AVERAGE FATAL DROWNINGS AVERAGE FATALITY<br />


NELSON / WHAKATU<br />

Figure 7.31<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Nelson Region <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong> Fatal<br />

Drownings and Fatal Drowning Rate per <strong>10</strong>0,000<br />

Population (n=0).<br />

During <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>, there were no beach and coastal drowning<br />

fatality within the Nelson Region, which equals the ten-year<br />

average of zero per year. The <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong> fatal drowning rate<br />

(0.00 per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) was equals the ten-year average<br />

(0.00 per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.).<br />

Figure 7.32<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Nelson Region <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong> Drownings<br />

by Activity (n=0).<br />

Within the Nelson Region during <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>, there were no<br />

beach and coastal drowning fatalities.<br />

1 Fatal Drownings<br />

1.0<br />

Fatal Drowning Rate<br />

Fatal Drownings (n)<br />

Fatal Drowning Rate<br />

(per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.)<br />

ZERO<br />

Fatal<br />

Drownings<br />

0<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-12<br />

2012-13<br />

2013-14<br />

2014-15<br />

2015-16<br />

2016-17<br />

2017-18<br />

2018-19<br />

2019-20<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.0<br />

<strong>Year</strong><br />

Figure 7.33<br />

Comparison of <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong> Fatal Drowning Rates (per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) by Activity in the Nelson Region:<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong> (ten-year average) and <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>.<br />

Within the Tasman Region the <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong> fatal drowning rates (per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) for swimming/wading, watercraft, landbased<br />

fishing and net/shell fishing activities were less than their respective ten-year averages.<br />

SWIMMING / WADING<br />

SNORKELLING<br />

FALL<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

LAND-BASED FISHING<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

BOATING<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

NET / SHELL FISHING<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

WATERCRAFT<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

ATTEMPTING A RESCUE<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

82<br />

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH AND COASTAL SAFETY REPORT 20<strong>21</strong>


FATAL DROWNING SNAPSHOT<br />

<strong>10</strong>-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong> 1-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

FATAL DROWNINGS<br />

AVERAGE FATALITY<br />

0 0.00<br />

PER <strong>10</strong>0,000 POPULATION<br />

FATAL DROWNINGS BY LOCATION<br />

Attempting a Rescue<br />

Boating<br />

Diving / Jumping<br />

Fall<br />

Net / Shell Fishing<br />

Land-Based Fishing<br />

Scuba Diving<br />

Snorkeling<br />

0<br />

Swimming / Wading<br />

Watercraft<br />

ZERO<br />

Fatal<br />

Drownings<br />

TOTAL FATAL DROWNINGS: 0<br />

AVERAGE FATAL DROWNINGS<br />

0<br />

PER YEAR<br />

AVERAGE FATALITY<br />

0.00<br />

PER <strong>10</strong>0,000 POPULATION<br />

FATAL DROWNINGS BY ACTIVITY<br />

0%<br />

MALE<br />

0%<br />

FEMALE<br />

ZERO<br />

Fatal<br />

Drownings


MARLBOROUGH / TE TAUIHU-O-TE-WAKA<br />

Figure 7.34<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Marlborough Region <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong><br />

Fatal Drownings and Fatal Drowning Rate per <strong>10</strong>0,000<br />

Population (n=4).<br />

During <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>, there were no beach and coastal drowning<br />

fatality within the Marlborough Region, which is less than<br />

the ten-year average of less than one per year. The <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

fatal drowning rate (0.00 per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) was less than<br />

the ten-year average (0.84 per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.).<br />

Figure 7.35<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Marlborough Region <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong><br />

Drownings by Activity (n=4).<br />

Within the Marlborough Region during <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>, the majority<br />

of beach and coastal drowning fatalities were classified as<br />

falls (n=3), followed by scuba diving activities (n=1).<br />

2<br />

Fatal Drownings<br />

Fatal Drowning Rate<br />

2.5<br />

Fatal Drownings (n)<br />

1<br />

0<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-12<br />

2012-13<br />

2013-14<br />

2014-15<br />

2015-16<br />

2016-17<br />

<strong>Year</strong><br />

2017-18<br />

2018-19<br />

2019-20<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

2.0<br />

1.5<br />

1.0<br />

0.5<br />

0.0<br />

Fatal Drowning Rate<br />

(per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.)<br />

25%<br />

75%<br />

Fall<br />

75%<br />

Falls<br />

Scuba Diving<br />

Figure 7.36<br />

Comparison of <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong> Fatal Drowning Rates (per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) by Activity in the Marlborough<br />

Region: <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong> (ten-year average) and <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>.<br />

Within the Marlborough Region the <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong> fatal drowning rates (per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) for falls was less than the ten-year<br />

average.<br />

SWIMMING / WADING<br />

SNORKELLING<br />

FALL<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

LAND-BASED FISHING<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

BOATING<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.62<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

NET / SHELL FISHING<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

WATERCRAFT<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

ATTEMPTING A RESCUE<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

84<br />

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH AND COASTAL SAFETY REPORT 20<strong>21</strong>


FATAL DROWNING SNAPSHOT<br />

<strong>10</strong>-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong> 1-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

FATAL DROWNINGS<br />

AVERAGE FATALITY<br />

0 0.00<br />

PER <strong>10</strong>0,000 POPULATION<br />

FATAL DROWNINGS BY LOCATION<br />

Attempting a Rescue<br />

Boating<br />

Diving / Jumping<br />

Fall<br />

Net / Shell Fishing<br />

Land-Based Fishing<br />

Scuba Diving<br />

Snorkeling<br />

4<br />

Swimming / Wading<br />

Watercraft<br />

ZERO<br />

Fatal<br />

Drownings<br />

TOTAL FATAL DROWNINGS: 4<br />

AVERAGE FATAL DROWNINGS AVERAGE FATALITY<br />


WEST COAST / TE TAI POUTINI<br />

Figure 7.37<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: West Coast Region <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong> Fatal<br />

Drownings and Fatal Drowning Rate per <strong>10</strong>0,000<br />

Population (n=7).<br />

During <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>, there were no beach and coastal drowning<br />

fatality within the West Coast Region, which is less the tenyear<br />

average of one per year. The <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong> fatal drowning<br />

rate (0.00 per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) was less than the ten-year<br />

average (2.13 per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.).<br />

Figure 7.38<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: West Coast Region <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong><br />

Drownings by Activity (n=7).<br />

Within the West Coast Region during <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>, the majority<br />

of beach and coastal drowning fatalities were classified<br />

as boating (n=3) and falls (n=3), followed by swimming/<br />

wading (n=1).<br />

3<br />

Fatal Drownings<br />

Fatal Drowning Rate<br />

7.0<br />

6.0<br />

14%<br />

Fatal Drownings (n)<br />

2<br />

1<br />

5.0<br />

4.0<br />

3.0<br />

2.0<br />

1.0<br />

Fatal Drowning Rate<br />

(per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.)<br />

43%<br />

Boating<br />

43%<br />

Falls<br />

43%<br />

0<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-12<br />

2012-13<br />

2013-14<br />

2014-15<br />

2015-16<br />

2016-17<br />

<strong>Year</strong><br />

2017-18<br />

2018-19<br />

2019-20<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.0<br />

43%<br />

Falls<br />

Boating<br />

Swimming/Wading<br />

Figure 7.39<br />

Comparison of <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong> Fatal Drowning Rates (per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) by Activity in the West Coast Region:<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong> (ten-year average) and <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>.<br />

Within the West Coast Region the <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong> fatal drowning rates (per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) for swimming/wading, falls and boating<br />

activities were less than their respective ten-year averages.<br />

SWIMMING / WADING<br />

SNORKELLING<br />

FALL<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.30<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

LAND-BASED FISHING<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

BOATING<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.91<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

NET / SHELL FISHING<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

WATERCRAFT<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.92<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

ATTEMPTING A RESCUE<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

86<br />

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH AND COASTAL SAFETY REPORT 20<strong>21</strong>


FATAL DROWNING SNAPSHOT<br />

<strong>10</strong>-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong> 1-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

FATAL DROWNINGS<br />

AVERAGE FATALITY<br />

0 0.00<br />

PER <strong>10</strong>0,000 POPULATION<br />

FATAL DROWNINGS BY LOCATION<br />

Attempting a Rescue<br />

Boating<br />

Diving / Jumping<br />

Fall<br />

Net / Shell Fishing<br />

Land-Based Fishing<br />

Scuba Diving<br />

Snorkeling<br />

7<br />

Swimming / Wading<br />

Watercraft<br />

ZERO<br />

Fatal<br />

Drownings<br />

TOTAL FATAL DROWNINGS: 7<br />

AVERAGE FATAL DROWNINGS<br />


CANTERBURY / WAITAHA<br />

Figure 7.40<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Canterbury Region <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong> Fatal<br />

Drownings and Fatal Drowning Rate per <strong>10</strong>0,000<br />

Population (n=14).<br />

During <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>, there was one beach and coastal drowning<br />

fatalities within the Canterbury Region, which equals the tenyear<br />

average of one per year. The <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong> fatal drowning<br />

rate (0.15 per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) was less than the ten-year<br />

average (0.24 per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.).<br />

Figure 7.41<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Canterbury Region <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong><br />

Drownings by Activity (n=14).<br />

Within the Canterbury Region during <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>, the majority<br />

of beach and coastal drowning fatalities occurred while<br />

snorkelling (n=4), followed by boating (n=2), falls (n=2),<br />

land based fishing (n=2) and scuba diving (n=2).<br />

Fatal Drownings (n)<br />

5<br />

4<br />

3<br />

2<br />

1<br />

0<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-12<br />

Fatal Drownings<br />

Fatal Drowning Rate<br />

2012-13<br />

2013-14<br />

2014-15<br />

2015-16<br />

2016-17<br />

<strong>Year</strong><br />

2017-18<br />

2018-19<br />

2019-20<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.7<br />

0.6<br />

0.5<br />

0.4<br />

0.3<br />

0.2<br />

0.1<br />

0.0<br />

Fatal Drowning Rate<br />

(per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.)<br />

14%<br />

14%<br />

7%<br />

7%<br />

29%<br />

Snorkelling<br />

14%<br />

14%<br />

29%<br />

Snorkelling<br />

Boating<br />

Falls<br />

Land-Based Fishing<br />

Scuba Diving<br />

Attempting a Rescue<br />

Swimming/Wading<br />

Figure 7.42<br />

Comparison of <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong> Fatal Drowning Rates (per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) by Activity in the Canterbury Region:<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong> (ten-year average) and <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>.<br />

Within the Canterbury Region the <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong> fatal drowning rates (per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) for swimming/wading, falls, boating,<br />

snorkelling and land based fishing were less than their respective ten-year averages. However, the <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong> fatal drowning<br />

rates for attempting a rescue was greater than the ten-year average.<br />

SWIMMING / WADING<br />

SNORKELLING<br />

FALL<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.02<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.07<br />

LAND-BASED FISHING<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

BOATING<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.03<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.03<br />

NET / SHELL FISHING<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

WATERCRAFT<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.03<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

ATTEMPTING A RESCUE<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.02<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.15<br />

88<br />

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH AND COASTAL SAFETY REPORT 20<strong>21</strong>


FATAL DROWNING SNAPSHOT<br />

<strong>10</strong>-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong> 1-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

FATAL DROWNINGS<br />

AVERAGE FATALITY<br />

1 0.15<br />

PER <strong>10</strong>0,000 POPULATION<br />

FATAL DROWNINGS BY LOCATION<br />

Attempting a Rescue<br />

Boating<br />

Diving / Jumping<br />

Fall<br />

AVERAGE FATAL DROWNINGS<br />

1<br />

PER YEAR<br />

KEY DEMOGRAPHIC<br />

25-64<br />

YEAR OLD MALES<br />

Net / Shell Fishing<br />

Land-Based Fishing<br />

Scuba Diving<br />

Snorkeling<br />

TOTAL FATAL DROWNINGS: 14<br />

93%<br />

MALE<br />

7%<br />

FEMALE<br />

14<br />

Swimming / Wading<br />

Watercraft<br />

AVERAGE FATALITY<br />

0.24<br />

PER <strong>10</strong>0,000 POPULATION<br />

SNORKELLING<br />

<strong>10</strong>0%<br />

Surf <strong>Beach</strong><br />

Surf <strong>Beach</strong><br />

FATAL DROWNINGS BY ACTIVITY<br />

<strong>10</strong>0%<br />

Attempting<br />

a Rescue<br />

Attempting a Rescue


OTAGO / OTAKOU<br />

Figure 7.43<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Otago Region <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong> Fatal<br />

Drownings and Fatal Drowning Rate per <strong>10</strong>0,000<br />

Population (n=13).<br />

During <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>, there were two beach and coastal<br />

drowning fatalities within the Otago Region, which is greater<br />

than the ten-year average of one per year. The <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

fatal drowning rate (0.82 per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) was greater<br />

than the ten-year average (0.57 per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.).<br />

Figure 7.44<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Otago Region <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong> Drownings<br />

by Activity (n=13).<br />

Within the Otago Region during <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>, the majority<br />

of beach and coastal drowning fatalities occurred while<br />

snorkelling (n=7), followed by boating (n=3) and falls (n=2).<br />

Fatal Drownings (n)<br />

5<br />

4<br />

3<br />

2<br />

1<br />

0<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-12<br />

Fatal Drownings<br />

Fatal Drowning Rate<br />

2012-13<br />

2013-14<br />

2014-15<br />

2015-16<br />

2016-17<br />

<strong>Year</strong><br />

2017-18<br />

2018-19<br />

2019-20<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

1.8<br />

1.6<br />

1.4<br />

1.2<br />

1.0<br />

0.8<br />

0.6<br />

0.4<br />

0.2<br />

0.0<br />

Fatal Drowning Rate<br />

(per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.)<br />

15%<br />

23%<br />

8%<br />

54%<br />

Snorkelling<br />

54%<br />

Snorkelling<br />

Boating<br />

Falls<br />

Land-Based Fishing<br />

Figure 7.45<br />

Comparison of <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong> Fatal Drowning Rates (per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) by Activity in the Otago Region:<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong> (ten-year average) and <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>.<br />

Within the Otago Region the <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong> fatal drowning rates (per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) for falls, land-based fishing and net /<br />

shell fishing were less than their respective ten-year averages. However, the <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong> fatal drowning rates for boating and<br />

snorkelling was greater than the ten-year average.<br />

SWIMMING / WADING<br />

SNORKELLING<br />

FALL<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.30<br />

LAND-BASED FISHING<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.41<br />

BOATING<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.09<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.04<br />

NET / SHELL FISHING<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

WATERCRAFT<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.14<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.41<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

ATTEMPTING A RESCUE<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

90<br />

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH AND COASTAL SAFETY REPORT 20<strong>21</strong>


FATAL DROWNING SNAPSHOT<br />

<strong>10</strong>-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong> 1-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

FATAL DROWNINGS<br />

AVERAGE FATALITY<br />

2 0.82<br />

PER <strong>10</strong>0,000 POPULATION<br />

FATAL DROWNINGS BY LOCATION<br />

13<br />

Attempting a Rescue<br />

Boating<br />

Diving / Jumping<br />

Fall<br />

Net / Shell Fishing<br />

Land-Based Fishing<br />

Scuba Diving<br />

Snorkeling<br />

Swimming / Wading<br />

Watercraft<br />

50%<br />

50%<br />

34% 50%<br />

50% 50%<br />

River/ Estuary<br />

Harbour Bar<br />

TOTAL FATAL DROWNINGS: 13<br />

AVERAGE FATAL DROWNINGS<br />

1<br />

PER YEAR<br />

69%<br />

MALE<br />

31%<br />

FEMALE<br />

AVERAGE FATALITY<br />

0.57<br />

PER <strong>10</strong>0,000 POPULATION<br />

Estuary<br />

FATAL DROWNINGS BY ACTIVITY<br />

50%<br />

Snorkelling<br />

River/Harbour Bar<br />

50%<br />

Boating<br />

50% 34% 50%<br />

KEY DEMOGRAPHIC<br />

15-54<br />

YEAR OLD MALES<br />

SNORKELLERS<br />

Boating<br />

Snorkelling


SOUTHLAND / MURIHIKU<br />

Figure 7.46<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Southland Region <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong> Fatal<br />

Drownings and Fatal Drowning Rate per <strong>10</strong>0,000<br />

Population (n=12).<br />

During <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>, there were no beach and coastal drowning<br />

fatalities within the Southland Region, which is less than<br />

the ten-year average of one per year. The <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong> fatal<br />

drowning rate (0.00 per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) was less than the<br />

ten-year average (1.<strong>21</strong> per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.).<br />

Figure 7.47<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>: Southland Region <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong><br />

Drownings by Activity (n=12).<br />

Within the Southland Region during <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong>, the majority<br />

of beach and coastal drowning fatalities occurred while<br />

boating (n=3) and land-based fishing (n=3), followed by<br />

snorkelling (n=2).<br />

Fatal Drownings (n)<br />

4<br />

3<br />

2<br />

1<br />

Fatal Drownings<br />

Fatal Drowning Rate<br />

3.5<br />

3.0<br />

2.5<br />

2.0<br />

1.5<br />

1.0<br />

0.5<br />

Fatal Drowning Rate<br />

(per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.)<br />

8%<br />

8%<br />

8%<br />

8%<br />

25%<br />

Land-Based<br />

Fishing<br />

25%<br />

Boating<br />

25%<br />

Boating<br />

Land-Based Fishing<br />

Snorkelling<br />

Falls<br />

Scuba Diving<br />

Swimming/Wading<br />

Watercraft<br />

0<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-12<br />

2012-13<br />

2013-14<br />

2014-15<br />

2015-16<br />

2016-17<br />

<strong>Year</strong><br />

2017-18<br />

2018-19<br />

2019-20<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.0<br />

17%<br />

25%<br />

Figure 7.48<br />

Comparison of <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong> Fatal Drowning Rates (per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) by Activity in the Southland Region:<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong> (ten-year average) and <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>.<br />

Within the Southland Region the <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong> fatal drowning rates (per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.) for swimming/wading, falls, boating,<br />

watercraft, snorkelling and land-based fishing activities were less than their respective ten-year averages.<br />

SWIMMING / WADING<br />

SNORKELLING<br />

FALL<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.<strong>10</strong><br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.20<br />

LAND-BASED FISHING<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

BOATING<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.<strong>10</strong><br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.30<br />

NET / SHELL FISHING<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

WATERCRAFT<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.30<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

ATTEMPTING A RESCUE<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.<strong>10</strong><br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

92<br />

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH AND COASTAL SAFETY REPORT 20<strong>21</strong>


FATAL DROWNING SNAPSHOT<br />

<strong>10</strong>-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong> 1-YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

FATAL DROWNINGS<br />

AVERAGE FATALITY<br />

0 0.00<br />

PER <strong>10</strong>0,000 POPULATION<br />

FATAL DROWNINGS BY LOCATION<br />

12<br />

Attempting a Rescue<br />

Boating<br />

Diving / Jumping<br />

Fall<br />

AVERAGE FATAL DROWNINGS<br />

1<br />

PER YEAR<br />

Net / Shell Fishing<br />

Land-Based Fishing<br />

Scuba Diving<br />

Snorkeling<br />

TOTAL FATAL DROWNINGS: 12<br />

<strong>10</strong>0%<br />

MALE<br />

0%<br />

FEMALE<br />

Swimming / Wading<br />

Watercraft<br />

AVERAGE FATALITY<br />

1.<strong>21</strong><br />

PER <strong>10</strong>0,000 POPULATION<br />

KEY DEMOGRAPHIC<br />

15-34 25+<br />

YEAR OLD MALES YEAR OLD MALES<br />

LAND BASED FISHING BOATING<br />

ZERO<br />

Fatal<br />

Drownings<br />

FATAL DROWNINGS BY ACTIVITY<br />

ZERO<br />

Fatal<br />

Drownings


<strong>10</strong> YEAR ACTIVITY<br />

OVERVIEW <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

SECTION EIGHT<br />

TOTAL FATAL DROWNINGS BY ACTIVITY | <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

77<br />

64<br />

56<br />

SWIMMING/<br />

WADING<br />

BOATING<br />

FALLS<br />

(TRIPS/SLIPS)<br />

38<br />

30<br />

30<br />

SNORKELLING<br />

WATERCRAFT<br />

LAND-BASED<br />

FISHING


SNAPSHOT: SWIMMING/WADING<br />

<strong>10</strong> YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

FATAL DROWNINGS<br />

77<br />

SWIMMING/WADING<br />

FATAL DROWNINGS LOCATION<br />

AVERAGE FATAL<br />

DROWNINGS PER YEAR<br />

8<br />

AVERAGE FATALITY RATE<br />

PER <strong>10</strong>0,000 POPULATION<br />

0.17<br />

KEY DEMOGRAPHIC<br />

15-65+<br />

ALL ETHNICITIES<br />

SWIMMING & WADING FATAL DROWNINGS <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

Fatal Drownings (n)<br />

12<br />

<strong>10</strong><br />

8<br />

6<br />

4<br />

2<br />

84%<br />

MALE<br />

16%<br />

FEMALE<br />

Fatal Drownings<br />

Fatal Drowning Rate<br />

0.30<br />

0.25<br />

0.20<br />

0.15<br />

0.<strong>10</strong><br />

0.05<br />

Fatal Drowning Rate<br />

(per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.)<br />

0<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-12<br />

2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18 2018-19 2019-20<br />

<strong>Year</strong><br />

<strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

0.00<br />

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH AND COASTAL SAFETY REPORT 20<strong>21</strong><br />

96


SNAPSHOT: BOATING<br />

<strong>10</strong> YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

FATAL DROWNINGS<br />

64<br />

BOATING<br />

FATAL DROWNINGS LOCATION<br />

AVERAGE FATAL<br />

DROWNINGS PER YEAR<br />

6<br />

AVERAGE FATALITY RATE<br />

PER <strong>10</strong>0,000 POPULATION<br />

0.14<br />

KEY DEMOGRAPHIC<br />

25+<br />

YEAR OLD MALES (PASIFIKA & NZ EUROPEAN)<br />

94%<br />

MALE<br />

6%<br />

FEMALE<br />

BOATING FATAL DROWNINGS <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

14<br />

12<br />

Fatal Drownings<br />

Fatal Drowning Rate<br />

0.30<br />

0.25<br />

Fatal Drownings (n)<br />

<strong>10</strong><br />

8<br />

6<br />

4<br />

0.20<br />

0.15<br />

0.<strong>10</strong><br />

Fatal Drowning Rate<br />

(per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.)<br />

2<br />

0.05<br />

0<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-12<br />

2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18 2018-19 2019-20 <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

<strong>Year</strong><br />

0.00<br />

SECTION EIGHT<br />

97<br />

<strong>10</strong> YEAR ACTIVITY OVERVIEW


SNAPSHOT: FALLS<br />

<strong>10</strong> YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

FATAL DROWNINGS<br />

56<br />

FALLS<br />

FATAL DROWNINGS LOCATION<br />

AVERAGE FATAL<br />

DROWNINGS PER YEAR<br />

6<br />

AVERAGE FATALITY RATE<br />

PER <strong>10</strong>0,000 POPULATION<br />

0.12<br />

KEY DEMOGRAPHIC<br />

15+<br />

YEAR OLD MALES (NZ EUROPEAN)<br />

79%<br />

MALE<br />

<strong>21</strong>%<br />

FEMALE<br />

FALLS FATAL DROWNINGS <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

Fatal Drownings (n)<br />

12<br />

<strong>10</strong><br />

8<br />

6<br />

4<br />

2<br />

Fatal Drownings<br />

Fatal Drowning Rate<br />

0.25<br />

0.20<br />

0.15<br />

0.<strong>10</strong><br />

0.05<br />

Fatal Drowning Rate<br />

(per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.)<br />

0<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-12<br />

2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18 2018-19 2019-20 <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

<strong>Year</strong><br />

0.00<br />

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH AND COASTAL SAFETY REPORT 20<strong>21</strong><br />

98


SNAPSHOT: SNORKELLING<br />

<strong>10</strong> YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

FATAL DROWNINGS<br />

38<br />

SNORKELLING<br />

FATAL DROWNINGS LOCATION<br />

AVERAGE FATAL<br />

DROWNINGS PER YEAR<br />

4<br />

AVERAGE FATALITY RATE<br />

PER <strong>10</strong>0,000 POPULATION<br />

0.08<br />

KEY DEMOGRAPHIC<br />

25-54<br />

YEAR OLD MALES (MAORI)<br />

95%<br />

MALE<br />

5%<br />

FEMALE<br />

SNORKELLING FATAL DROWNINGS <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

Fatal Drownings (n)<br />

<strong>10</strong><br />

9<br />

8<br />

7<br />

6<br />

5<br />

4<br />

3<br />

2<br />

1<br />

0<br />

Fatal Drownings<br />

Fatal Drownings<br />

Fatal Drowning Rate<br />

Fatal Drowning Rate<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18 2018-19 2019-20 <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

<strong>Year</strong><br />

0.16<br />

0.14<br />

0.12<br />

0.<strong>10</strong><br />

0.08<br />

0.06<br />

0.04<br />

0.02<br />

0.00<br />

Fatal Drowning Rate<br />

(per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.)<br />

SECTION EIGHT<br />

99<br />

<strong>10</strong> YEAR ACTIVITY OVERVIEW


SNAPSHOT: WATERCRAFT<br />

<strong>10</strong> YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

FATAL DROWNINGS<br />

30<br />

WATERCRAFT<br />

FATAL DROWNINGS LOCATION<br />

AVERAGE FATAL<br />

DROWNINGS PER YEAR<br />

3<br />

AVERAGE FATALITY RATE<br />

PER <strong>10</strong>0,000 POPULATION<br />

0.06<br />

KEY DEMOGRAPHIC<br />

45+<br />

YEAR OLD MALES (NZ EUROPEAN)<br />

83%<br />

MALE<br />

17%<br />

FEMALE<br />

WATERCRAFT FATAL DROWNINGS <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

6<br />

5<br />

Fatal Drownings<br />

Fatal Drowning Rate<br />

0.14<br />

0.12<br />

Fatal Drownings (n)<br />

4<br />

3<br />

2<br />

0.<strong>10</strong><br />

0.08<br />

0.06<br />

0.04<br />

Fatal Drowning Rate<br />

(per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.)<br />

1<br />

0.02<br />

0<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-12<br />

2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18 2018-19 2019-20 <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

<strong>Year</strong><br />

0.00<br />

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH AND COASTAL SAFETY REPORT 20<strong>21</strong><br />

<strong>10</strong>0


SNAPSHOT: LAND-BASED FISHING<br />

SNAPSHOT: LAND-BASED FISHING<br />

<strong>10</strong> YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

<strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

FATAL DROWNINGS<br />

30<br />

LAND-BASED FISHING<br />

FATAL DROWNINGS LOCATION<br />

AVERAGE FATAL<br />

DROWNINGS PER YEAR<br />

3<br />

AVERAGE FATALITY RATE<br />

PER <strong>10</strong>0,000 POPULATION<br />

0.06<br />

KEY DEMOGRAPHIC<br />

25-64<br />

YEAR OLD MALES (ASIAN)<br />

93%<br />

MALE<br />

7%<br />

FEMALE<br />

LAND-BASED FISHING FATAL DROWNINGS <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

Fatal Drownings (n)<br />

<strong>10</strong><br />

9<br />

8<br />

7<br />

6<br />

5<br />

4<br />

3<br />

2<br />

1<br />

0<br />

Fatal Drownings<br />

Fatal Drowning Rate<br />

<strong>2011</strong>-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18 2018-19 2019-20 <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

<strong>Year</strong><br />

0.16<br />

0.14<br />

0.12<br />

0.<strong>10</strong><br />

0.08<br />

0.06<br />

0.04<br />

0.02<br />

0.00<br />

Fatal Drowning Rate<br />

(per <strong>10</strong>0,000 pop.)<br />

SECTION EIGHT<br />

<strong>10</strong>1<br />

<strong>10</strong> YEAR ACTIVITY OVERVIEW


<strong>10</strong> YEAR ETHNICITY<br />

OVERVIEW <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

SECTION NINE<br />

TOTAL FATAL DROWNINGS BY ETHNICITY | <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

124<br />

NZ EUROPEAN<br />

89 MAORI<br />

51<br />

ASIAN<br />

49 PASIFIKA<br />

32 OTHER


SNAPSHOT: NZ EUROPEAN<br />

SNAPSHOT: NZ EUROPEAN<br />

<strong>10</strong> YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

<strong>10</strong> YEAR OVERVIEW: <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

FATAL DROWNINGS<br />

124<br />

FATAL DROWNING LOCATIONS<br />

AVERAGE FATAL<br />

DROWNINGS PER YEAR<br />

12<br />

AVERAGE FATALITY RATE<br />

PER <strong>10</strong>0,000 POPULATION<br />

0.38<br />

Fatal Drownings (n)<br />

40<br />

35<br />

30<br />

25<br />

20<br />

15<br />

<strong>10</strong><br />

5<br />

0<br />

Female<br />

Male<br />

0-4 5-14 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65+<br />

Age<br />

80%<br />

MALE<br />

20%<br />

FEMALE<br />

FATAL DROWNINGS BY ACTIVITY<br />

2%<br />

1%<br />

FATAL DROWNINGS BY LOCATION<br />

6%<br />

5%<br />

27%<br />

6%<br />

8%<br />

8%<br />

39%<br />

12%<br />

27%<br />

Falls<br />

<strong>21</strong>%<br />

9%<br />

12%<br />

4% 4% 18%<br />

39%<br />

Surf <strong>Beach</strong><br />

18%<br />

Falls<br />

Swimming/Wading<br />

Boating<br />

Watercraft<br />

Attempting a Rescue<br />

Land-Based Fishing<br />

Snorkelling<br />

Scuba Diving<br />

Diving/Jumping<br />

Unknown<br />

Surf <strong>Beach</strong><br />

Harbour<br />

River/Harbour Bar<br />

0-1Km off Shore<br />

Marina<br />

Rocky Foreshore<br />

Estuary<br />

Calm Water <strong>Beach</strong><br />

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH AND COASTAL SAFETY REPORT 20<strong>21</strong><br />

<strong>10</strong>4


SNAPSHOT: MAORI<br />

SNAPSHOT: MAORI<br />

<strong>10</strong> YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

<strong>10</strong> YEAR OVERVIEW: <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

FATAL DROWNINGS<br />

89<br />

FATAL DROWNING LOCATIONS<br />

AVERAGE FATAL<br />

DROWNINGS PER YEAR<br />

9<br />

AVERAGE FATALITY RATE<br />

PER <strong>10</strong>0,000 POPULATION<br />

1.15<br />

Fatal Drownings (n)<br />

25<br />

20<br />

15<br />

<strong>10</strong><br />

5<br />

0<br />

Female<br />

Male<br />

0-4 5-14 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65+<br />

Age<br />

93%<br />

MALE<br />

7%<br />

FEMALE<br />

FATAL DROWNINGS BY ACTIVITY<br />

1%<br />

6%<br />

7%<br />

28%<br />

7%<br />

FATAL DROWNINGS BY LOCATION<br />

8%<br />

6% 3% 1%<br />

8%<br />

8%<br />

28%<br />

Snorkelling<br />

15%<br />

12%<br />

39%<br />

Surf <strong>Beach</strong><br />

39%<br />

9%<br />

12%<br />

30%<br />

Snorkelling<br />

Swimming/Wading<br />

Boating<br />

Falls<br />

Watercraft<br />

Net/Shell Fishing<br />

Land-Based Fishing<br />

Scuba Diving<br />

Attempting a Rescue<br />

Diving/Jumping<br />

Surf <strong>Beach</strong><br />

0-1km off Shore<br />

Rocky Foreshore<br />

Harbour<br />

Estuary<br />

River/Harbour Bar<br />

Calm Water <strong>Beach</strong><br />

SECTION NINE<br />

<strong>10</strong>5<br />

<strong>10</strong> YEAR ETHNICITY OVERVIEW


SNAPSHOT: ASIAN<br />

SNAPSHOT: ASIAN<br />

<strong>10</strong> YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

<strong>10</strong> YEAR OVERVIEW: <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

FATAL DROWNINGS<br />

51<br />

FATAL DROWNING LOCATIONS<br />

AVERAGE FATAL<br />

DROWNINGS PER YEAR<br />

5<br />

AVERAGE FATALITY RATE<br />

PER <strong>10</strong>0,000 POPULATION<br />

0.72<br />

Fatal Drownings (n)<br />

15<br />

12<br />

9<br />

6<br />

3<br />

0<br />

Female<br />

Male<br />

0-4 5-14 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65+<br />

Age<br />

84%<br />

MALE<br />

16%<br />

FEMALE<br />

FATAL DROWNINGS BY ACTIVITY<br />

2%<br />

FATAL DROWNINGS BY LOCATION<br />

2%<br />

4%<br />

4%<br />

24%<br />

6%<br />

4%<br />

6%<br />

12%<br />

<strong>10</strong>%<br />

<strong>10</strong>%<br />

24%<br />

Swimming/<br />

Wading<br />

22%<br />

12%<br />

47%<br />

Surf <strong>Beach</strong><br />

47%<br />

16%<br />

18%<br />

Swimming/Wading<br />

Land-Based Fishing<br />

Net/Shell Fishing<br />

Falls<br />

Snorkelling<br />

Scuba Diving<br />

Diving/Jumping<br />

Attempting a Rescue<br />

Boating<br />

Watercraft<br />

Unknown<br />

Surf <strong>Beach</strong><br />

Rocky Foreshore<br />

0-1km off Shore<br />

River/Harbour Bar<br />

Harbour<br />

Calm Water <strong>Beach</strong><br />

Estuary<br />

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH AND COASTAL SAFETY REPORT 20<strong>21</strong><br />

<strong>10</strong>6


SNAPSHOT: PASIFIKA<br />

SNAPSHOT: PACIFIC PEOPLES<br />

<strong>10</strong> YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

<strong>10</strong> YEAR OVERVIEW: <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

FATAL DROWNINGS<br />

49<br />

FATAL DROWNING LOCATIONS<br />

AVERAGE FATAL<br />

DROWNINGS PER YEAR<br />

5<br />

AVERAGE FATALITY RATE<br />

PER <strong>10</strong>0,000 POPULATION<br />

1.28<br />

Fatal Drownings (n)<br />

12<br />

<strong>10</strong><br />

8<br />

6<br />

4<br />

2<br />

0<br />

Male<br />

0-4 5-14 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65+<br />

Age<br />

<strong>10</strong>0%<br />

MALE<br />

0%<br />

FEMALE<br />

FATAL DROWNINGS BY ACTIVITY<br />

2%<br />

4%<br />

6%<br />

8%<br />

FATAL DROWNINGS BY LOCATION<br />

<strong>10</strong>%<br />

29%<br />

12%<br />

45%<br />

Boating<br />

45%<br />

12%<br />

29%<br />

Surf <strong>Beach</strong><br />

22%<br />

18%<br />

4% 4% 22%<br />

Boating<br />

Swimming/Wading<br />

Net/Shell Fishing<br />

Falls<br />

Attempting a Rescue<br />

Land-Based Fishing<br />

Scuba Diving<br />

Surf <strong>Beach</strong><br />

River/Harbour Bar<br />

Harbour<br />

0-1Km off Shore<br />

Calm Water <strong>Beach</strong><br />

Estuary<br />

Rocky Foreshore<br />

SECTION NINE<br />

<strong>10</strong>7<br />

<strong>10</strong> YEAR ETHNICITY OVERVIEW


SNAPSHOT: OTHER<br />

SNAPSHOT: OTHER<br />

<strong>10</strong> YEAR OVERVIEW | <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

<strong>10</strong> YEAR OVERVIEW: <strong>2011</strong>-<strong>21</strong><br />

FATAL DROWNINGS<br />

32<br />

FATAL DROWNING LOCATIONS<br />

AVERAGE FATAL<br />

DROWNINGS PER YEAR<br />

3<br />

AVERAGE FATALITY RATE<br />

PER <strong>10</strong>0,000 POPULATION<br />

2.49<br />

Fatal Drownings (n)<br />

<strong>10</strong><br />

8<br />

6<br />

4<br />

2<br />

0<br />

Female<br />

Male<br />

0-4 5-14 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65+<br />

Age<br />

91%<br />

MALE<br />

9%<br />

FEMALE<br />

FATAL DROWNINGS BY ACTIVITY<br />

3%<br />

FATAL DROWNINGS BY LOCATION<br />

3%<br />

6%<br />

13%<br />

9%<br />

34%<br />

16%<br />

44%<br />

Swimming/<br />

Wading<br />

22%<br />

44%<br />

113%<br />

16%<br />

34%<br />

Surf <strong>Beach</strong><br />

19%<br />

Swimming/Wading<br />

Falls<br />

Watercraft<br />

Boating<br />

Snorkelling<br />

Land-Based Fishing<br />

Surf <strong>Beach</strong><br />

0-1Km off Shore<br />

Harbour<br />

Rocky Foreshore<br />

Estuary<br />

Calm Water <strong>Beach</strong><br />

Marinas<br />

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH AND COASTAL SAFETY REPORT 20<strong>21</strong><br />

<strong>10</strong>8


We must address the high<br />

drowning rates in Pasifika and<br />

Maori communities, along with<br />

those who are newer to New<br />

Zealand and have less knowledge<br />

of the beach environment.<br />

Exposure to <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong><br />

<strong>Safety</strong> education needs to be<br />

greater, more consistent and<br />

communicated in an authentic<br />

manner to a wider range of<br />

communities.<br />

SECTION NINE<br />

<strong>10</strong>9<br />

<strong>10</strong> YEAR ETHNICITY OVERVIEW


KEY TERMS<br />

Adult – For this report, adults refer to a person 15 years<br />

of age and over, which aligns with the Stats NZ Tatauranga<br />

Aotearoa classification.<br />

Assist – Where a person requires assistance to return to<br />

shore but would most likely be able to get themselves out of<br />

danger if unaided.<br />

Attempting a Rescue – Trying to retrieve a person in distress<br />

and deliver them to a place of safety.<br />

<strong>Beach</strong> – A wave-deposited accumulation of sediment –<br />

usually sand, but ranging in size up to boulders – deposited<br />

between the upper tidal limit and the offshore area where<br />

waves first start breaking.<br />

<strong>Beach</strong> Fatal Drowning – Where the location of the fatality<br />

occurs on a surf beach, calm water beach or rocky foreshore<br />

and the cause of death involves drowning or immersion.<br />

Boating – Using either a powered vessel or sailing boat for<br />

pleasure and/or fishing.<br />

Bystander – A person who is present at an incident but not<br />

part of it initially.<br />

Calm Water <strong>Beach</strong> – An area of estuarine coastline with<br />

sand, gravel or pebbles that contains a sheltered foreshore,<br />

with no surf zone – e.g. harbour beach.<br />

<strong>Coastal</strong> – Tidal waters (estuary, harbour, marina and river/<br />

harbour bar); ocean up to 1km offshore; or inland up to five<br />

times the width of the inlet/river.<br />

Category 1 Search and Rescue Operations – Search and<br />

Rescue coordinated at a local level by the New Zealand Police;<br />

including land operations, river, lake and inland waterway<br />

operations and close-to-shore marine operations.<br />

<strong>Coastal</strong> Fatal Drowning – Where the location of the<br />

fatality is in tidal waters (estuary, harbour, marina and river/<br />

harbour bar), in the ocean up to 1km offshore or inland<br />

up to five times the width of the inlet/river and the cause of<br />

death includes drowning or immersion.<br />

<strong>Coastal</strong> Risk Assessment - A report that recommends levels<br />

of service provision at a location.<br />

Paid Lifeguard Service – Surf Lifeguard services that are<br />

funded by regional councils and local territorial authorities,<br />

and managed by Surf Life Saving New Zealand or Surf Life<br />

Saving Northern Region<br />

Drowning – The process of experiencing respiratory<br />

impairment from submersion/immersion in liquid; outcomes<br />

are classified as death, morbidity and no morbidity.<br />

DrownBaseTM – Database run by Water <strong>Safety</strong> New<br />

Zealand that collates all of the deaths from drowning in<br />

New Zealand. The dataset also includes information on<br />

non-fatal drownings.<br />

Search and Rescue Squads (SAR) – These are made up<br />

of several combined clubs and volunteer surf lifeguards<br />

attached to external local rescue/emergency services.<br />

Squad members are qualified and equipped to respond to<br />

any incident within the beach and coastal environment.<br />

Emergency Response – An action taken by an SLS entity<br />

in response to a call for assistance from an emergency<br />

management organisation.<br />

Estuary - A partially enclosed coastal body of water that is<br />

either permanently or periodically open to the sea<br />

Falls (trips/slips) – An event that results in a person tripping/<br />

slipping so they end up accidentally immersed in water.<br />

Fatal Drowning Rate – A comparative rate of drowning (as<br />

the cause of death) to the size of the population in a given<br />

area.<br />

First Aid – First aid is the first and immediate assistance<br />

given to any person suffering from either a minor or serious<br />

illness or injury, with care provided to preserve life, prevent<br />

the condition from worsening, or to promote recovery.<br />

Harbour – Large inner body of water surrounded on<br />

several sides by prominences of land<br />

Hazard – A source of potential harm.<br />

Incident – Any unplanned event requiring lifesaving<br />

services intervention.<br />

Intervention – An action performed by a Surf Lifeguard to<br />

prevent a situation from deteriorating, which includes injury<br />

or drowning. Interventions include preventative actions,<br />

assists, rescues, searches, major first aids and minor first<br />

aids.<br />

IRB – Inflatable rescue boat.<br />

Land Based Fishing – Attempting to catch fish from the<br />

shoreline. The locations for such activities are generally<br />

rock platforms, though wharfs, jetties and beaches are also<br />

common.<br />

Major First Aid – Any incident where a victim is administered<br />

some form of advanced medical treatment or requires<br />

hospitalization.<br />

Marina – A boat basin offering dockage and other service<br />

for small craft.<br />

Minor First Aid - Where a victim is administered some form<br />

of minor medical treatment – minor cut, bluebottle sting,<br />

sand in the eye, minor strain or sprains.<br />

Morbidity – Any physical or psychological state considered<br />

to be outside the realm of normal well-being. The term<br />

morbidity is often used to describe illness, impairment, or<br />

degradation of health.<br />

Net Fishing – Using a net to trawl the shallows of a beach/<br />

estuary for fish.<br />

Non-fatal Drowning – A subset of drowning, the process<br />

of experiencing respiratory impairment from submersion/<br />

immersion in liquid, where the outcome is classified as<br />

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH & COASTAL SAFETY REPORT 20<strong>21</strong><br />

1<strong>10</strong>


morbidity and no morbidity.<br />

Patrol – Surf Lifeguard service to monitor activities in/<br />

around an aquatic environment and respond accordingly<br />

through either preventative actions or rescue operations. A<br />

patrol will use the red and yellow patrol flags to assign a<br />

safer swimming area.<br />

Patrol Flags – Red/yellow horizontally divided flags which<br />

are set after performing a risk assessment to determine the<br />

most suitable area for swimming. The flags identify a zone<br />

for swimming and bodyboarding within a patrolled location.<br />

Patrolled Location – A location supervised by a Surf<br />

Lifeguard service.<br />

Preventative Action – Direct action taken to reduce or<br />

eliminate the probability of a specific rescue, first aid or<br />

other reportable incident from occuring.<br />

Rescue – Where a person requires immediate help to return<br />

to shore (or place of safety) and who without intervention<br />

would have suffered distress, injury or drowning.<br />

Risk-Adjusted Water Use Values – Dictates how many<br />

lifeguards are required at patrol location at any given time.<br />

Rock/Cliff – A rock platform that may or may not have a<br />

high steep face.<br />

Rocky Foreshore - The area of coastline with shoreline<br />

rocks, including steep rocky cliffs that is exposed by low<br />

tides and submerged by high tides.<br />

RWC – Rescue water craft or JetSki.<br />

Scuba Diving – Swimming underwater with the aid of<br />

scuba equipment for recreational or commercial purposes.<br />

Searches - Any organised search for a missing person<br />

or group either at sea or on land. Searches include body<br />

recoveries.<br />

Search and Rescue – The search for and provision of aid to<br />

people who are in distress or imminent danger.<br />

Season – For the context of this report, the 2018/19 season<br />

is for the period of July 2018 to June 2019.<br />

Shell Fishing – Collecting shellfish while onshore or<br />

wading/swimming in water.<br />

Snorkelling – Swimming with a snorkel and face mask.<br />

Surf <strong>Beach</strong> – An area of land with sand, gravel or pebbles<br />

that contains a foreshore and surf zone. Surf beaches<br />

include low energy and exposed coasts.<br />

Surf Lifeguard – An individual who undertakes patrols at a<br />

beach. As a minimum requirement they are qualified in surf<br />

rescue and basic lifeguard support.<br />

Surf Lifeguard Service – A coordinated group that exists to<br />

provide aquatic safety services to the public. This includes<br />

Volunteer Surf Life Saving Clubs, Contract Surf Lifeguards,<br />

RWCs, IRB’s, ATV’s and 4WD units.<br />

Surf Life Saving Club – An affiliated not-for-profit<br />

organisation that has volunteer members who provide<br />

patrols and coastal safety services to the community.<br />

Surf Life Saving New Zealand – The leading beach and<br />

coastal safety, drowning prevention and rescue authority in<br />

New Zealand. The purpose of the organisation is to reduce<br />

injury and drowning on our beaches with a vision of zero<br />

preventable drownings.<br />

Surveillance Patrols – Surf Lifeguard services that monitor<br />

beach and water users without designating a red and yellow<br />

flagged area. This approach is effective for extending<br />

patrolling hours or season length, where resources are<br />

limited.<br />

Swimming – Moving through water by moving the body or<br />

parts of the body.<br />

Wading – Walking through water while partially immersed.<br />

Water <strong>Safety</strong> New Zealand – Water <strong>Safety</strong> New Zealand<br />

works with water safety sector organisations, individuals<br />

and the public to reduce the incidence of drowning and<br />

injury in New Zealand. The purpose is to lead a step change<br />

in New Zealand so people don’t drown with a vision that by<br />

2025 more people in New Zealand respect the water and<br />

have the skills, knowledge and awareness to enjoy it safely.<br />

Watercraft – A piece of non-powered recreational<br />

equipment used in water. Examples include surfboards,<br />

stand-up paddleboards, body boards, windsurfers or<br />

kayaks.<br />

SYMBOL KEY<br />

Male and<br />

Female<br />

Rescue<br />

First Aid<br />

Swimming /<br />

Wading<br />

Net/Shell<br />

Fishing<br />

Marina<br />

Calm Water<br />

<strong>Beach</strong><br />

Fatal<br />

Drownings<br />

Search &<br />

Rescue<br />

Squad<br />

Major First<br />

Aid<br />

Fall<br />

Watercraft<br />

River/<br />

Harbour Bar<br />

Surf <strong>Beach</strong><br />

Rescue<br />

Tube<br />

IRB<br />

Minor First<br />

Aid<br />

Land-Based<br />

Fishing<br />

Boating<br />

Harbour<br />

Cat 1 SAR<br />

Operations<br />

Preventative<br />

Action<br />

Searches<br />

SLS Club Snorkelling Attempting<br />

a Rescue<br />

Rock<br />

Fishing<br />

Jet Ski/<br />

PWC<br />

Estuary<br />

<strong>SLSNZ</strong> SAR<br />

Callouts<br />

Assist<br />

Patrol Hours<br />

Dive<br />

Kai<br />

Gathering<br />

Rocky<br />

Foreshore<br />

Female<br />

and Male<br />

Lifeguards<br />

Patrol Sites<br />

Surfing<br />

Scuba<br />

Diving<br />

0-1Km<br />

Off Shore<br />

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND<br />

111<br />

KEY TERMS


REFERENCES<br />

METHODOLOGY<br />

The <strong>National</strong> <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong> <strong>Safety</strong> <strong>Report</strong> 20<strong>21</strong><br />

contains information on SLS capability and membership<br />

capacity; rescues and emergency response; and fatal and<br />

non-fatal drownings for the period of 1 July <strong>2011</strong> to 30 June<br />

20<strong>21</strong>. This information is correct as of 1 November 20<strong>21</strong>.<br />

All care has been taken to ensure the statistical information<br />

included within this report is correct. However, pending the<br />

outcome of ongoing coronial investigations, this data may<br />

be amended. Data in figures may not always add up to<br />

<strong>10</strong>0% due to rounding.<br />

The <strong>National</strong> <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong> <strong>Safety</strong> <strong>Report</strong> only<br />

documents incidents that have occurred within the coastal<br />

zone. The coastal zone is defined as “Tidal waters (estuary,<br />

harbour, marina and river/harbour bar); ocean up to 1km<br />

offshore; or inland up to five times the width of the inlet/<br />

river”.<br />

LIMITATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE<br />

RESEARCH<br />

The regional fatal drowning rates per <strong>10</strong>0,000 population<br />

use regional population estimates obtained from Stats NZ.<br />

However, these regional estimates do not include visitors<br />

from elsewhere in New Zealand or visitors from overseas.<br />

Further research is recommended to adjust these figures to<br />

account for the seasonal influx of visitors to each respective<br />

region.<br />

Further research is required to enable Surf Life Saving New<br />

Zealand and water safety stakeholders to gain a greater<br />

understanding of how and why people are recreating on our<br />

coastlines. Additional research is also required to understand<br />

how residents and international tourists use beach and<br />

coastal areas for recreation. Whilst applied psychological<br />

research is also recommended to assess public behaviour<br />

and perception of risk on our beaches. These findings will<br />

be used to inform community engagement and education<br />

strategies nationally.<br />

CAPABILITY ANALYSIS<br />

The Patrols and Memberships (PAM) database is a central<br />

repository for all Surf Life Saving clubs in New Zealand. It<br />

is used to log details of members (contact details, awards,<br />

memberships), patrols and incidents. PAM holds this<br />

information securely, and the data gives us an understanding<br />

of trends across the whole organisation. The database<br />

includes the Customer Relationship Management System<br />

(CRM) which includes operational data such as rescues, first<br />

aids, membership statistics and awards. Information was<br />

extracted from the CRM to identify how many interventions<br />

were performed by volunteers, lifeguards and lifesaving<br />

services during <strong>2020</strong>-<strong>21</strong>; and how many active Surf<br />

Lifeguards and award holders there were during this period.<br />

FATAL DROWNING DATA ANALYSIS<br />

Fatal drownings statistics was recorded in DrownBase TM<br />

and shared for this report by Water <strong>Safety</strong> New Zealand<br />

(20<strong>21</strong>). Water <strong>Safety</strong> New Zealand gives no warranty as to<br />

the correctness of the information or the data provided as it<br />

is supplied to WSNZ by third parties, not under its control.<br />

While WSNZ is satisfied as to its accuracy for the purposes<br />

for which it is supplied to it, WSNZ shall not be liable for any<br />

loss or damage arising directly or indirectly from the use of<br />

any data supplied. All reported statistics are provisional.<br />

The non-fatal drowning data used in this report is based<br />

on hospital stays of at least 24 hours and has been provided<br />

by WSNZ’s as recorded in DrownBaseTM. The data is sorted<br />

by the ICD-<strong>10</strong>-AM/ACHI/ACS international coding system.<br />

SUGGESTED CITATION: Surf Life Saving New Zealand.<br />

(20<strong>21</strong>). <strong>National</strong> <strong>Beach</strong> and <strong>Coastal</strong> <strong>Safety</strong> <strong>Report</strong> 20<strong>21</strong>.<br />

Wellington: Surf Life Saving New Zealand.<br />

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS<br />

Surf Life Saving New Zealand would like to thank the<br />

following organisations for their assistance in the production<br />

of the <strong>National</strong> <strong>Beach</strong> & <strong>Coastal</strong> <strong>Safety</strong> <strong>Report</strong>. Water <strong>Safety</strong><br />

New Zealand; Surf Life Saving Australia; Omnipoll; Statistics<br />

New Zealand; <strong>SLSNZ</strong> regions and Volunteer Surf Life Saving<br />

clubs; <strong>SLSNZ</strong> would also like to thank our sponsors for their<br />

continued support and regional councils and local territorial<br />

authorities for their funding towards the cost of providing<br />

the Paid Lifeguard Service.<br />

The report was compiled by Dr Mick Kearney (<strong>National</strong><br />

<strong>Coastal</strong> <strong>Safety</strong> Manager), Dr Juliana Albertoni de Miranda<br />

(<strong>Coastal</strong> <strong>Safety</strong> Officer), Adam Wooler (Chief Operations<br />

Officer) and Rajal Middleton (Head of Commercial and<br />

Marketing).<br />

PHOTOGRAPHIC MATERIAL<br />

Cody Keepa: Pages 01, 07-09, 24-25, 36-37, 44-45, <strong>10</strong>9, 113.<br />

Canvas/Weekend Herald: Pages 60-61<br />

Liam Productions: Pages <strong>10</strong>2-<strong>10</strong><br />

Unsplashed: Pages 46-48<br />

Pixabay: Pages 56-57<br />

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH AND COASTAL SAFETY REPORT 20<strong>21</strong><br />

112


Road, fire and boating<br />

safety have had significant<br />

investment in public<br />

education strategies and<br />

campaigns, which has not only<br />

dramatically reduced deaths<br />

and injuries but also raised<br />

awareness of the issues. It's<br />

now time to do the same for<br />

beach and coastal safety.<br />

© 20<strong>21</strong> SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND<br />

This publication is copyright. Except as expressly provided<br />

in the Copyright Act 1968 and the Copyright Amendment Act<br />

2006, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in<br />

any retrieval systems or transmitted by any means (including<br />

electronic, mechanical, microcopying, photocopying,<br />

recording or otherwise) without prior permission from Surf<br />

Life Saving New Zealand. Every attempt has been made to<br />

trace and acknowledge copyright, but in some cases, this<br />

may not have been possible. Surf Life Saving New Zealand<br />

apologises for any accidental infringements and would<br />

welcome any information to redress the situation.<br />

REFERENCES<br />

Omnipoll. (20<strong>21</strong>). <strong>National</strong> <strong>Coastal</strong> and Water Survey in<br />

New Zealand. Unpublished survey.<br />

Statistics New Zealand. (20<strong>21</strong>, October <strong>10</strong>). Population<br />

Estimates-DPE. http://infoshare.stats.govt.nz/<br />

Water <strong>Safety</strong> New Zealand. (2015). New Zealand Water<br />

<strong>Safety</strong> Sector Strategy <strong>2020</strong>. https://cdnflightdec.userfirst.<br />

co.nz/uploads/sites/watersafety/files/PDFs/Official_<br />

Documents/Sector-Strategy-Published-Version-Aug-2015.<br />

pdf<br />

Water <strong>Safety</strong> New Zealand. (20<strong>21</strong>). <strong>Coastal</strong> drowning<br />

deaths <strong>2011</strong>-20<strong>21</strong>. Retrieved from DrownBaseTM database.<br />

Water <strong>Safety</strong> New Zealand. (<strong>2020</strong>). Water <strong>Safety</strong> New<br />

Zealand Annual <strong>Report</strong> <strong>2020</strong>. https://cdn-flightdec.userfirst.<br />

co.nz/uploads/sites/watersafety/files/Annual_<strong>Report</strong>s/<br />

WSNZ_20<br />

20-Annual<strong>Report</strong>-FINAL_W.pdf


CONTACT INFORMATION<br />

Surf Life Saving New Zealand<br />

Phone: +64 4 560 0383<br />

E-Mail: communications@surflifesaving.org.nz

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