Powertrain | Diesel International 2022-03

POWER GENERATION: BAUDOUIN, MEE Dubai, PSI and a much more; FPT INDUSTRIAL@CES VEGAS: Smart Hybrid Energy Hub; BERGEN: Langley Power Solutions Division; WARTSILA: What if Chile was the new Eldorado? OFF-HIGHWAY: FORKLIFTS&ELECTRIFICATION: Maya Xiao, Interact Analysis; A GREENER FARM IN USA D.T.Forum: Cummins, Deere, Tenneco COMPARISONS: 13 LITRE TRUCK ENGINES: Scania Super and other 8 players AUTOMOTIVE: DAKAR: Renault & Hino race hybrid TECHNO: NGV POWER Biomethane for e-charging; CUMMINS: H2 in Sacramento & battery with Sion Power; CAT & PERKINS: IPU & IOPU; UFI FILTERS How to be leader in filtration COLUMNS: Editorial; Newsroom; Diesel of the Year; Marine; Sustainable Tech

Smart Hybrid Energy Hub; BERGEN: Langley Power Solutions Division; WARTSILA: What if Chile was the new Eldorado?
D.T.Forum: Cummins, Deere, Tenneco
COMPARISONS: 13 LITRE TRUCK ENGINES: Scania Super and other 8 players
AUTOMOTIVE: DAKAR: Renault & Hino race hybrid
TECHNO: NGV POWER Biomethane for e-charging; CUMMINS: H2 in Sacramento & battery with Sion Power; CAT & PERKINS: IPU & IOPU; UFI FILTERS How to be leader in filtration
COLUMNS: Editorial; Newsroom; Diesel of the Year; Marine; Sustainable Tech


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20M33<br />

Face to face with Baudouin - FPT Smart Hybrid Energy Hub -<br />

Bergen & Langley - Green AG in USA - Alternative Cummins -<br />

Comparison: 13 litre truck - Cat IPU & Perkins IOPU - UFI Filters<br />


www.vadoetorno.com<br />

www.diesel-international.com<br />

www.dieseloftheyear.com<br />

ISSN 0042<br />

Press Register n. 4596 – April 20th 1994<br />

Poste Italiane Inc. – Mail subscription<br />

D.L. 353/20<strong>03</strong> (mod. in L. 27/02/2004 n° 46)<br />

Art. 1, subsection 1, LO/MI<br />


March <strong>2022</strong>



MARCH <strong>2022</strong><br />

diesel-international.com<br />


Simple. Advanced. Versatile.<br />


16<br />


ICE<br />


kWe ELECTRIC<br />

GAS<br />



10. BAUDOUIN<br />

MEE Dubai, PSI and a much more<br />


Smart Hybrid Energy Hub<br />

18. BERGEN<br />

Langley Power Solutions Division<br />

20. WÄRTSILÄ<br />

What if Chile was the new Eldorado?<br />



Maya Xiao, Interact Analysis<br />


D.T.Forum: Cummins, Deere, Tenneco<br />



Scania Super and other 8 players<br />


32. DAKAR<br />

Renault & Hino race hybrid<br />

We are proud to introduce KSD, Kohler Small Displacement, the 19 kW engine that<br />

delivers world class performance and adds value to your machine. Compliant with<br />

all global emission norms, it guarantees low cost of ownership, extending the range<br />

of possible applications as wide as your imagination can perceive.<br />

32<br />

TECHNO<br />

34. NGV POWER<br />

Biomethane for e-charging<br />

36. CUMMINS<br />

H2 in Sacramento & battery with Sion Power<br />

38. CAT & PERKINS<br />

IPU & IOPU<br />

44. UFI FILTERS<br />

How to be leader in filtration<br />


4. Editorial 6. Newsroom 8. <strong>Diesel</strong> of the Year<br />

40. Marine 48. Sustainable Tech<br />

We turned complexity into simplicity, with a new innovative and versatile product<br />

designed for all heavy-duty applications. Our vision of the future goes beyond<br />

performance, through the integration of an advanced electronic management<br />

system and smart functions for diagnostic and remote monitoring.<br />

The next chapter of Kohler is here.<br />

Welcome, KSD.<br />

44<br />


Total Cost of Ownership Echo<br />

“The letters of the word ‘cost’ are included within<br />

the word ‘discount’, but cannot be considered as<br />

completely swallowed and digested by that word.”<br />



by Fabio Butturi<br />


Power to<br />

enhance<br />

Yield<br />

More power. More productivity. More uptime. Less complexity.<br />

Cummins Performance Series engines deliver benefits to<br />

farmers and equipment manufacturers alike. Higher power<br />

means more machine capability. A simpler design means<br />

easier installation and maintenance.<br />

To learn more visit:<br />

cummins.tech/y4sw8t<br />

performance<br />

series<br />

TCO (Total Cost of Ownership) sounds as<br />

nightingale’s song, when this acronym matches<br />

the fleet managers’ expectations. A number<br />

that shows in a very clear way how much<br />

money you have to spend when evaluating<br />

an investment such as the purchase of an asset. What<br />

are called applications in the technical language of<br />

POWERTRAIN magazine can in fact be translated<br />

as assets in economic vocabulary. The word “cost” is<br />

included within the word “discount”, but cannot be<br />

considered as completely swallowed and digested by<br />

that word. The scope and impact of the total cost of<br />

ownership is not limited to the negotiation of a few<br />

percentage points discount of the official list price.<br />

Would you like to know with which words Scania<br />

introduced the new Super engines platform, which<br />

revolutionizes the 13-litre diesel engines, initially for<br />

trucks, in the future also for industrial applications?<br />

These are the official words: “Scania’s new powertrain<br />

has sustainability in focus, with 8 percent fuel savings”.<br />

Because the TCO acronym is able to unhinge even<br />

prejudices about ICE with regard to sustainability.<br />

And, of course, it also gives truckers a boost at a time<br />

when high diesel prices are threatening the economic<br />

recovery. If we compare the four main European markets<br />

(Germany, France, United Kingdom and Italy), the range<br />

of diesel prices at the pump is between 1.56 and 1.7€/<br />

litre (more or less around 10 February). Assuming a<br />

consumption of 4 kilometres per litre, that 8 per cent<br />

means, if you do the math, a saving of roughly 40,000<br />

euros per 100,000 kilometres travelled. Of course, this<br />

is a rough calculations, both for the computational<br />

approximations and for the reduction of TCO to liquid<br />

consumption only (by the way, it also applies to AdBlue<br />

and engine oil). However, it makes it clear that there are<br />

significant margins for cost reduction in the consolidated<br />

accounts of vehicles equipped with diesel engines.<br />

Not to mention the benefits of preventive maintenance,<br />

made possible by remote control. A kind of insurance<br />

against downtime and the related risks.<br />

Long and steep is the road to efficiency. Why disregard<br />

the shortest one?<br />





“Strong economic<br />

recovery combined<br />

with high demand for<br />

our products resulted<br />

in record full year<br />

revenues in 2021”<br />

says Tom Linebarger,<br />

Cummins Chairman<br />

and CEO<br />

YES,<br />

I'M<br />

FINE<br />

After a significant drop in 2020,<br />

Cummins quickly regained<br />

positions, with double-digit<br />

growth. Revenues for the<br />

full year were $24 billion, 21 percent<br />

higher than 2020, as expected. Sales<br />

in North America increased 17 percent<br />

and international revenues increased<br />

27 percent. Sales increased<br />

in all major regions compared to the<br />

prior year, which was severely impacted<br />

by the height of the COVID-19<br />

pandemic. EBITDA for the year was<br />

$3.5 billion (14.7 percent of sales)<br />

compared to $3.1 billion (15.7 percent<br />

of sales) in 2020. Net income attributable<br />

to Cummins for the full year<br />

was $2.1 billion ($14.61 per diluted<br />

share), compared to net income of<br />

$1.8 billion ($12.01 per diluted share)<br />

in 2020. The tax rate for 2021 was<br />

21.3 percent. Fourth quarter revenues<br />

of $5.9 billion were flat with the same<br />


quarter in 2020. Sales in North America<br />

decreased 4 percent while international<br />

revenues increased 6 percent<br />

driven by strong demand across most<br />

global markets, with the exception of<br />

China, compared to the same quarter<br />

in 2020.<br />

Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation<br />

and amortization (EBITDA)<br />

in the fourth quarter were $705 million<br />

(12.1 percent of sales), compared<br />

to $837 million (14.4 percent of sales)<br />

a year ago. Net income attributable to<br />

Cummins in the fourth quarter was<br />

$394 million ($2.73 per diluted share)<br />

compared to $501 million ($3.36 per<br />

diluted share) in 2020. The tax rate in<br />

the fourth quarter was 22.2 percent.<br />

ZF announced the successful start of its new Commercial Vehicle Solutions (CVS) division with<br />

effect from January 1, <strong>2022</strong>I. The new division combines ZF’s expertise in the commercial vehicle<br />

industry and will significantly advance solutions for safe, sustainable and digitized transport. The<br />

new division unites ZF’s former Commercial Vehicle Technology and Commercial Vehicle Control<br />

Systems divisions, the latter of which was formed from ZF’s May 2020 acquisition of Wabco. ZF’s<br />

Commercial Vehicle Solutions division is supported by around 25,000 employees based across 61<br />

locations in 28 countries.<br />


Since January 1 st <strong>2022</strong> Alexandre<br />

Marchetta of Group Mecalac and Evolis<br />

is the new President of CECE. He<br />

takes over this leadership role to steer<br />

the European industry association<br />

in <strong>2022</strong> and 2023, at a key moment<br />

of economic recovery. Alexandre<br />

Marchetta is President and CEO of<br />

Group Mecalac, a member company<br />

of French industry association Evolis.<br />

In his professional path towards<br />

becoming an experienced business<br />

leader, he joined the family business<br />

in the design office first, then managing<br />

production for seven years. In<br />






Sebastian Schulte, previously CFO<br />

and Labor Director, will take<br />

over as Chairman of the Board of<br />

Management of Deutz AG with<br />

immediate effect and will retain his previous<br />

areas of responsibility on an interim<br />

basis. The long-standing Chairman<br />

of the Board of Management, Frank<br />

Hiller, was dismissed from the Board of<br />

Management by the Supervisory Board<br />

in unanimous decision. He will leave the<br />

Board of Management with immediate<br />

effect. This news was out of the blue.<br />

We last listened to Hiller live at Deutz<br />

Days in November. On 10 February<br />

2021 Frank Hiller was confirmed as<br />

Deutz AG Chairman of the Board<br />

until 2026. According to the German<br />

company, the Supervisory Board has<br />

decided to appoint a woman to the<br />

Board of Management. The search<br />

process has already been started. The<br />

Board will therefore comprise four<br />

persons again in the future. In addition,<br />

the Supervisory Board has elected<br />

Dietmar Voggenreiter as its new<br />

2009 he took over the development<br />

of the Mecalac Group’s business activity.<br />

In addition to his previous role<br />

as Mecalac CEO, he recently started<br />

presiding over the Board of the Mecalac<br />

Group, a family-owned company<br />

with over 1,000 people and a<br />

global footprint from a manufacturing<br />

and commercial point of view. As<br />

the CECE President Alexandre Marchetta<br />

will dedicate relevant efforts to<br />

the EU regulatory agenda. Indeed, in<br />

<strong>2022</strong> we expect the proposal for a harmonised<br />

system of road circulation<br />

requirements across the EU. Moreover,<br />

<strong>2022</strong> will be the key year for the<br />

Machinery Regulation: “The legislation<br />

on machinery products is one of<br />

the most important for the CECE industry”<br />

highlighted Marchetta.<br />

chairman. The previous chairman,<br />

Bernd Bohr, has resigned from the position<br />

of chairman, but will remain an<br />

ordinary member of the Supervisory<br />

Board.<br />


DercoMaq is a full line JCB<br />

Power Systems dealer with<br />

12 locations across Chile<br />

and will supply the full range<br />

of JCB mobile, IPU and<br />

G-Drive engines. It will also<br />

offer service and engineering<br />

support for its engine clients<br />

across numerous business<br />

areas such as agricultural,<br />

mining and construction.<br />

OEM Engine Sales &<br />

Business Development<br />

Manager, Nick Grez said:<br />

“In entering the South<br />

American market, we wanted<br />

a partner who knows both the<br />

JCB Power Systems’ product<br />

line and the local market<br />

inside out.”<br />

6<br />




DOTY <strong>2022</strong><br />

ALMOST<br />

READY TO<br />

UNVEIL<br />

JOHN DEERE 18.0L DOTY 2021<br />

Winner of the first edition of <strong>Diesel</strong> of the Year back in<br />

2006, John Deere strikes again in 2021 with its 18.0L,<br />

6-cylinder, 3-L cylinder displacement (B&S 148x174<br />

mm). 650 kW and 4250 Nm, the 18 litre is equipped with<br />

the ever present high-pressure common rail, turbo and<br />

cooled EGR (engineering has paved the way for exhaust<br />

gas recirculation since Stage IIIB: the EGR system was<br />

confirmed on the entire Stage V range and turbocharging<br />

is set to meet specific applications, cycles and loads).<br />

The MBCs enable advanced prognostics capabilities and<br />

improved transient response. A rear gear train reduces<br />

noise as well as torsional and crank stress.<br />

When designing the engine, the top twenty service and<br />

repairs for larger John Deere engines were also taken into<br />

account, so as to ensure easy serviceability.<br />

Just as on the 13.6L, hydraulic regulators remove valve<br />

backlash. The 18.0L will be manufactured at the John Deere<br />

Engine Works plant in Waterloo, Iowa.<br />

dieseloftheyear.com: “Every <strong>Diesel</strong> of the Year has left its mark<br />

on the scene of industrial engines. Who’s next to enter the hall<br />

of fame of diesel engines?”<br />

ICE phase out looms ominously, yet<br />

only a few do believe it is going to<br />

happen. <strong>Diesel</strong> had a big relaunch<br />

with the Super family of Scania<br />

and Kubota, while the rest of the Japanese<br />

– like Caterpillar and Perkins –<br />

mainly keep churning out life-saving<br />

updates on heat engines, as well as<br />

launching projects for swift redemption<br />

from fossil fuels. No meaningful<br />

alternative echoes back from China’s<br />

big names – Weichai and Yuchai. FPT<br />

Industrial and Cummins, same as Volvo<br />

and Rolls-Royce, are playing their<br />

cards in the electrification game, but<br />

the transition still relies for the most<br />

part on Stage V and gas engines. MAN<br />

Engines, too, is now sparingly drawing<br />

on the resources their mother company<br />

– Volkswagen Group – is investing<br />

into battery development. Kohler is<br />

density, assistance. All features that internal<br />

combustion engines keep being<br />

endowed with. Against this backdrop,<br />

the <strong>Diesel</strong> of the Year award remains a<br />

predictor of market trends.<br />

“To be eligible for the prize, the candidate<br />

must have a completely new<br />

engine block or improvements in power<br />

and torque or innovative solutions<br />

to make it recognizable compared to<br />

previous engines generations.” Which<br />

means the jury – made up of members<br />

of VeT Publisher’s editorial team –<br />

will give their preference to an engine<br />

block researched into, designed and<br />

engineered from a clean slate. You<br />

need clear ideas, a far-sighted vision<br />

and designing skills to dare move into<br />

territories self-proclaimed Cassandras<br />

would warn you against. As is clear<br />

from the above intro to the competialso<br />

getting ready for electrification<br />

with the acquisition of Curtis and Heila<br />

Technologies; and yet they have recently<br />

revived diesel’s value in a segment<br />

so vulnerable and receptive to<br />

the call of the electrification sirens as<br />

the 19 kW. Hatz, JCB, and John Deere<br />

itself – though recently recruiting<br />

Kreisel Electric- keep following the<br />

logic of end-user needs. What needs?<br />

Reliability, durability, torque, power<br />

The time is<br />

approaching to reveal<br />

the identity of the<br />

<strong>Diesel</strong> of the Year<br />

<strong>2022</strong>. Innovation is<br />

still the keyword<br />

tion regulation, bore and stroke are not<br />

the sole prerequisites for eligibility.<br />

An engine ID – regardless of applications-<br />

must include power and specific<br />

torque. Even though long gone are the<br />

days when an engine needed to have<br />

6 cylinders and a whole load of extra<br />

hp to please farmers and construction<br />

site operators. Two intertwined factors<br />

drive engineering: downsizing and –<br />

consequently – power density. Just to<br />

clarify: every industrial engine must<br />

live with its dual soul – “a frankly offroad<br />

concept vs. on-road applications”<br />

natural inertia (honestly, with Stage<br />

V it boils down to adjustments that<br />

seem ordinary, if we think of the gap<br />

that opened up between the IIIA and<br />

Euro 4/Euro 5 when electronics turned<br />

tables and common rail and particulate<br />

filters made their way beneath the<br />

hood, dismissing rotary pumps and<br />

injector-pumps). Thus, being originally<br />

born as an industrial engine will be<br />

an asset in the eyes of DOTY’s jurors.<br />

The key criterion based on which the<br />

<strong>Diesel</strong> of the Year is chosen, as unsophisticated<br />

and straightforward as it<br />

may seem, is innovation. No doubt,<br />

innovation can’t be confined within<br />

the boundaries of performance parameters;<br />

nor, on the other hand, can it be<br />

merely encapsulated in the applications<br />

it is going to drive. “Innovation”<br />

is a word with multiple meanings.<br />

To the jury of the <strong>Diesel</strong> of the Year<br />

Award, it means the ability to provide<br />

effective responses to the needs of<br />

OEMs that often have to tune into the<br />

TCO of emission standards. By way of<br />

an example, let’s take the 2011 award<br />

winning engine: the Ecomax by JCB<br />

Power Systems. Eleven years ago, our<br />

introduction of the award winner read:<br />

“It’s the only industrial engine without<br />

after-treatment systems. The answer<br />

lies in its combustion chamber and in<br />

the EGR-VGT combo. JCB’s declared<br />

fuel consumption is 10% lower. Especially<br />

for applications leaving no<br />

room for bold angular gearboxes or<br />

cab-mounted exhaust stacks – maybe<br />

shielded with red-hot grids – having<br />

no ATS comes to the rescue of OEMs”.<br />

However, those who insisted on optimising<br />

regeneration, like Kubota and<br />

Yanmar, were later rewarded by Stage<br />

V as it made the DPF and SCR above<br />

56 kW unavoidable. How shall we put<br />

it, then? “Innovation is innovative by<br />

nature”. Check out the next issue to<br />

find out what the <strong>Diesel</strong> of the Year<br />

<strong>2022</strong> winner looks like.<br />

8<br />





POWER<br />


TEAM<br />

Fabrizio Mozzi, Baudouin CEO: “<strong>Diesel</strong> engine still has a lot<br />

to say, much depends on the application. Until 2025 ICE will<br />

be joined by electric, wind and solar power to recharge the<br />

batteries. After 2025, hydrogen will be increasingly present.”<br />

We interviewed Fabrizio<br />

Mozzi, CEO, and Richard<br />

Flynn, Product Planning &<br />

Development Director, to<br />

take stock of Baudouin’s outlook.<br />

cated Power Projects Team in place,<br />

we are further developing the product<br />

range and the technical assets<br />

and documentation required for the<br />

critical protection market. Our ongoing<br />

product development strategy is<br />

to focus on emissions, deliver more<br />

power, provide better power density,<br />

and lower the total cost of ownership<br />

for the customer. At MEE <strong>2022</strong> we<br />

will be unveiling some new products<br />

and a new partnership with PSI.<br />

What scenarios for natural gas and<br />

We spoke with<br />

Fabrizio Mozzi and<br />

Richard Flynn of<br />

Baudouin Moteurs<br />

What has changed compared to<br />

the pre-pandemic editions of the<br />

MEE in DUBAI? Will you exhibit<br />

at MEE <strong>2022</strong>?<br />

Mozzi: The M33 and M55 platforms<br />

were an important step in our high<br />

horsepower product development<br />

strategy to be able to enter segments<br />

that were previously inaccessible to<br />

us. The focus for the development of<br />

these platforms was to access COP<br />

and critical power segments such as<br />

banking, hospitals and data centers.<br />

Now, with a fully developed product<br />

range up to 4125 kVA, and a dediwhich<br />

markets are most responsive?<br />

Is biomethane a plausible solution<br />

in PG? What about LNG?<br />

Flynn: In the past the majority of<br />

natural gas installations have been<br />

dealing with CHP and grid balancing-type<br />

applications. We think that<br />

these will continue, and lean burn<br />

natural gas products will also expand<br />

into a wider selection of stationary<br />

applications, replacing some traditionally<br />

diesel projects where the load<br />

acceptance performance and power<br />

density can be accepted. With the<br />

introduction of the PSI engine range<br />

we also foresee growth in traditional<br />

standby applications, as the rich<br />

burn (stoichiometric) products have a<br />

load acceptance profile closer to their<br />

diesel counterparts, reducing the required<br />

performance compromise. With<br />

How are you approaching the rich<br />

and complex data centre business?<br />

Mozzi: Our dedicated Power Projects<br />

Team comprises application<br />

engineers and technical salespeople<br />

with many years of experience in dietheir<br />

inherent lower emissions, this is<br />

a technology which could see significant<br />

growth. Biomethane, as a renewable<br />

and environmentally-friendly fuel<br />

can certainly aid in the Net Zero transition,<br />

along with LNG.<br />

Mozzi: As part of our continuous development,<br />

we are looking at ways<br />

to provide more power and cleaner<br />

solutions, with better TCO for our<br />

customers. Thanks to Weichai, we are<br />

now able to provide a variety of gas<br />

products going from LPG and LNG to<br />

biogas under the Baudouin and PSI<br />

brands. We believe in gas as a stepping<br />

stone to a fully-renewable energy<br />

infrastructure. Gas will provide an<br />

opportunity for a smooth transition<br />

towards zero emissions, until large<br />

scale hydrogen and fully renewable<br />

energies are available.<br />

We would also like to learn more<br />

about the technical specifications,<br />

genesis and applications of 4M06,<br />

8M21 and 20M33.<br />

Fabrizio Mozzi: Our new engine<br />

platforms prove our commitment to<br />

increasing power density to provide<br />

our OEMs with smaller packages and<br />

easier integrations so that they can<br />

in turn optimize their manufacturing<br />

costs by providing smaller gensets to<br />

their customers. Thanks to the introduction<br />

of our M10, M21 and M33<br />

platforms, we have been able to replace<br />

some of our ratings with smaller<br />

displacement engines. In light of the<br />

current transportation and logistics<br />

challenges, this is a win-win as we<br />

believe that these new power-dense<br />

platforms will deliver substantial value<br />

for our OEMs and end-users.<br />

What plans does Baudouin have<br />

for diesel engines: expansion of the<br />

range, application prospects and<br />

resilience in the power generation<br />

sector?<br />

Mozzi: As said before, our focus is<br />

on emissions, power density and reducing<br />

total cost of ownership for<br />

our customers for all products in our<br />

range. Additionally with the creation<br />

of our dedicated Power Projects<br />

Team, we expect to achieve major<br />

growth in the data center and critical<br />

protection markets.<br />

10<br />




sel and gas power generation. This<br />

team is responsible to partner with<br />

our OEMs and work with technical<br />

consultants during the project specification,<br />

integration, commissioning,<br />

and aftersales phases to ensure total<br />

customer satisfaction. The Team is<br />

also working to fine-tune all of our<br />

HHP critical protection products<br />

to ensure that they achieve the performance<br />

standard expected in this<br />

competitive market.<br />

What about CHP and biomethane?<br />

Flynn: As a flexible source of electrical<br />

and thermal energy, CHP units<br />

have a wide range of applications.<br />

They can also burn various gaseous<br />

fuels (biogas, biomethane, LNG,<br />

landfill gas). We have strong connections<br />

with our OEM’s regarding CHP<br />

projects, and we are working closely<br />

with end customers to ensure our<br />

products perform optimally.<br />

In the context of increasing requirements<br />

for the overall decarbonization<br />

of the energy sector, renewable<br />

natural gas or biomethane, which is<br />

produced from the biogas produced<br />

in biogas plants, is increasingly being<br />

used in connection with cogeneration.<br />

Both biogas and biomethane originate<br />

from a range of organic feedstocks<br />

whose energy potential is underutilized<br />

today. Both can provide<br />

a sustainable, low-carbon source of<br />

energy; there are multiple pathways<br />

for their production and also a wide<br />

range of potential uses, depending<br />

on policy priorities and local circumstances.<br />

What developments in the interactions<br />

in the Weichai group, with the<br />

parent company, PSI and Ballard?<br />

Speaking of the Canadian company,<br />

how do you see the media buzz<br />

about hydrogen?<br />

Mozzi: Weichai is betting on a variety<br />

of technologies to secure the right<br />

solution for our customers in the<br />

future. With the Baudouin and PSI<br />

product lines, Weichai will be able to<br />

respond to a variety of customer demands<br />

across the diesel and gas spectrum<br />

– including rich burn and lean<br />

burn technologies. Preparing for a<br />

Net Zero future, Weichai has also<br />

invested in Ballard in Canada and<br />

Ceres in the UK to leverage the two<br />

main fuel cell technologies of PEM<br />

and SOFC. Additionally, Weichai,<br />

as a market-leading manufacturer<br />

of on-highway and off-highway vehicles<br />

and powertrain equipment,<br />

has invested in European hybrid and<br />

full-electric specialists such as VDS<br />

and Aradex. With regards to our expectations<br />

for hydrogen, we believe<br />

that this will be surely a mainstream<br />

technology to achieve zero emissions<br />

in the future. Nevertheless, we<br />

expect that it will take some time to<br />

fully develop the infrastructure and<br />

there will need to be some interim<br />

solutions such as gas and hybrid<br />

technologies.<br />

In an interview dating back to<br />

2019, Fabrizio Mozzi answered<br />

our questions on SCR, confirming<br />

that it is inevitable. What<br />

has changed since then in the approach<br />

to Stage V?<br />

Mozzi: Baudouin has been developing<br />

SCR technology since 2016. In<br />

2018 we released the smallest and<br />

most efficient SCR solution in the<br />

market for IMO III and EPA 4 marine<br />

applications from 440 to 1200kW.<br />

Building on this experience we are<br />

now in the process to release a Stage<br />

V inland waterways marine solution.<br />

Naturally our mature experience<br />

with SCR technology is currently<br />

supporting our work to release Stage<br />

V power generation solutions from<br />

500 kVA to 1 MW.<br />

How do you strategically view<br />

smart grid technology?<br />

Flynn: Distributed Generation and<br />

the emergence of multi-technology<br />

power systems is already driving the<br />

requirement for complex software<br />

control systems. Whatever the power<br />

system consists of and wherever it is<br />

located, efficient and reliable functionality<br />

will be contingent on smart<br />

grid controls reflecting the priorities<br />

and resilience requirements of the<br />

user. Baudouin sees a continued requirement<br />

for our products as smart<br />

grids evolve, providing dependable<br />

power solutions, from critical standby<br />

applications to base load power.<br />

We are always looking for feedback<br />

from our network on technology and<br />

customer requirement developments,<br />

and incorporating these requirements<br />

into our product plan is fundamental<br />

to our strategy. The development<br />

of smart grid technology is<br />

certainly something we keep a keen<br />

eye on, so that our products deliver<br />

maximum value.<br />

12<br />






ENERGY<br />

HUB<br />

F28NG FOR THE CO 2<br />

FREE CRU<br />

FPT Industrial firmly believes in natural gas, as<br />

illustrated by the New Holland TK specialized tractor,<br />

powered by F28 NG, fueled by biomethane. We are<br />

in the Langhe area, in Italy, where you can almost<br />

literally breathe truffles and Barolo in the air. Founded<br />

by Vittorio Emanuele II, the first King of Italy, the<br />

Fontanafredda winery celebrated 150 years in 2018 and<br />

owns 120 hectares of organically certified vineyards.<br />

The Vigna La Rosa cru, parent of the Barolo under the<br />

same name, is included in the Wine Spectator’s Top<br />

100. The year 2021 was been the first with a CO 2<br />

-free<br />

harvest. In 2025 it will reach its top, with the tasting of<br />

a “zero emissions” Barolo wine.<br />

At CES in Las Vegas, FPT Industrial<br />

unveiled the Smart<br />

Hybrid Energy Hub. An original<br />

approach to the use of<br />

ICE in power generation. It is a multi-mode<br />

hybrid variable speed genset,<br />

entirely developed by FPT Industrial<br />

in collaboration with Bennamann, a<br />

British agricultural technology company<br />

projected towards rapid growth<br />

in the clean energy sector through<br />

the supply and production of biomethane.<br />

The Smart Hybrid Energy Hub<br />

is a low-pressure, variable-speed<br />

methane generator fuelled by biomethane<br />

produced from the anaerobic<br />

digestion of agricultural biomass. We<br />

got to know this new solution better<br />

with Paolo Dal Toso, Product Marketing<br />

Power Generation FPT Industrial,<br />

and Carlotta Merlo, Category<br />

Manager Power Generation & Marine<br />

Engines FPT Industrial.<br />

Power generation and biomethane:<br />

an odd couple?<br />

We have designed this system to fit<br />

into the ecosystem of the farm in or-<br />

The Smart Hybrid<br />

Energy Hub, presented<br />

by FPT Industrial at the<br />

CES in Las Vegas, is<br />

fueled by biomethane,<br />

powered by FPT F28,<br />

targeting farms with<br />

a view to the circular<br />

economy<br />

der to reduce its carbon footprint,<br />

help achieve zero emissions, and<br />

close the circle of circular economy<br />

within the farm. A feasible strategy<br />

through the production of biomethane<br />

from waste and its use to produce<br />

energy for utilities. The goal of what<br />

is in fact a generator is the energy<br />

self-sufficiency of the farm. The Smart<br />

Hybrid Energy Hub is powered by biomethane,<br />

produced from the farm’s<br />

waste using technology supplied by<br />

Bennamann, our partner in this project.<br />

Specifically, the system is based<br />

on the gas-powered F28, which in<br />

this version gives 55 mechanical kW.<br />

Operating at variable rpm, with a<br />

control system developed by us, the<br />

Hybrid Control Management System,<br />

the engine is hybrid because it cooperates<br />

with the batteries to cover<br />

power loads of up to 86 kVA, in fact<br />

exceeding the engine’s rated power.<br />

What biomasses can be delivered?<br />

Anaerobic digestion produces biogas<br />

from waste (livestock waste, agricultural<br />

biomass), a “dirty” gas that is<br />

then filtered and purified to be transformed<br />

into biomethane. Of course it<br />

can be fed into the grid to be used for<br />

other purposes, but right now we are<br />

thinking about achieving net zero for<br />

the farm.<br />

What are the differences compared<br />

to other systems such as Deutz’s<br />

PowerTree?<br />

Compared to that system, which is<br />

in fact a big battery, ours is a generator<br />

in its own right, it never runs<br />

out of power and, thanks to its hybrid<br />

configuration, it reduces operating<br />

costs and polluting emissions.<br />

Compared to traditional generators,<br />

it allows us to cover a wider power<br />

range because the hybrid system<br />

allows us to downsize the engine.<br />

We did not use engines with a larger<br />

displacement because we started<br />

from the load curve of a farm. The<br />

energy demand is generally low but<br />

has infrequent peaks during the day.<br />

Normally you would scale the system<br />

based on these peaks and you would<br />

have an oversized engine, but thanks<br />

to the batteries we can use a smaller<br />

ICE (in our case the 2.8 litre NG<br />

engine instead of a 3.6 or 4.5 litre).<br />

In this way the F28 operates when<br />

peak power is not required, ensuring<br />

more correct use and reducing maintenance<br />

costs. Variable rpm further<br />

increase efficiency. Due to the power<br />

electronics and the presence of an inverter,<br />

we can unbundle the number<br />

of revolutions and make the engine<br />

work at the rpm with the best specific<br />

consumption.<br />

Has the engine design changed?<br />

From the point of view of engine<br />

block and design, the F28 is the<br />

same as the one that won the <strong>Diesel</strong><br />

of the Year 2020, in the NG version,<br />

only the fuel injection and management<br />

system has changed. In fact, for<br />

this application, the gas is low-pressure,<br />

so similar to mains gas. To<br />

avoid complicating the product<br />

with high-pressure compressors and<br />

tanks, multipoint injection has been<br />

replaced with a traditional low-pressure<br />

system with an air-gas mixer.<br />

14<br />




FPT F28, DIESEL OF THE YEAR 2020<br />

“When the F28 was unveiled at Agritechnica 2019<br />

we discovered not just one but two engines. The FPT<br />

Industrial 2.8-liter, Bosch 1,600 bar common rail for<br />

fueling the combustion chambers with diesel was<br />

showed alongside its gas-fueled twin. These were the<br />

reasons to reward the FPT 4 cylinder diesel engine.<br />

A baptism that in our eyes is already a consecration.<br />

We don’t dare to compare it to the Cursor X project,<br />

but we can define it as a sort of multitasking engine<br />

embryo. Just like starting from scratch and drawing<br />

at the same time a frankly industrial unit featuring a<br />

highly appreciable torque curve (with 375 Newtonmeter<br />

it’s the best in its displacement class) and another one<br />

featuring the injection coils as original equipment”.<br />

This is what we wrote when the award was announced<br />

in March 2020 issue. We also mentioned the NG<br />

version.<br />

“The running-in of the gas version is imminent –<br />

probably next summer we will know more – with a view<br />

to the much talked circular economy (the perimeter<br />

is that of the zero-km, in the context of a farm the<br />

winning card is biomethane).”<br />

Are there different ways of using<br />

it?<br />

Yes, just like in passenger cars, we<br />

have different modes in which the<br />

system can be used: Boosting, to respond<br />

to maximum load demands (the<br />

power produced by the engine is added<br />

to that produced by the batteries);<br />

Touring, which promotes the useful<br />

life of the components by working at<br />

optimum efficiency points; and fully<br />

electric, designed for low loads (for<br />

example, at night), where the engine<br />

remains switched off and only the battery<br />

packs (1 to 4) work. For now, the<br />

Smart Hybrid Energy Hub is a prototype,<br />

but the intention is to bring it to<br />

market in the near future. It will cost<br />

more than a generator but will have<br />

the advantage of greater efficiency<br />

and a return in terms of image and<br />

sustainability on the farm system.<br />

What change compared to a CHP<br />

plant?<br />

Our Smart Hybrid Energy Hub was<br />

not designed for cogeneration applications,<br />

but it can be used for this<br />

purpose. Compared to the standard<br />

approach of cogeneration engines,<br />

which use lean combustion, we have<br />

chosen stoichiometric combustion to<br />

enhance load management. Our generator<br />

can be combined with heat exchangers<br />

and converted into a system<br />

that produces both power and heat.<br />

The heat recovered from the engine<br />

can be converted back into an energy<br />

source and fed back into the farm<br />

to produce hot water for heating and<br />

for the biodigestion process itself.<br />

In addition to the type of combustion,<br />

the second difference with standard<br />

cogeneration systems is that FPT Industrial<br />

supports farms that create a<br />

supply chain based on biomethane<br />

and not biogas. The ecosystem based<br />

on biomethane can be considered<br />

more virtuous than CHP because,<br />

in addition to just generating electricity<br />

and heat, biomethane has a<br />

number of other benefits: in addition<br />

to feeding our Smart Hybrid Energy<br />

Hub, it can be fed back into the<br />

methane network, used as biofuel for<br />

vehicles, stored for future use and to<br />

provide the energy needed to power<br />

fast-charging stations for electric vehicles.<br />

FPT Industrial’s approach is<br />

also to use only and exclusively vegetable<br />

biomasses derived from the<br />

farm’s waste and livestock manure,<br />

thus excluding biomasses specifically<br />

cultivated for energy production.<br />

In fact, our main goal is not to create<br />

anything in addition to what is already<br />

produced by the farm, with the<br />

ultimate aim of producing zero-emission<br />

energy.<br />

Talking about the circular economy,<br />

is a “F28 NG powered tractor<br />



+ Smart Hybrid Hub” combo a realistic<br />

scenario?<br />

The “Biomethane tractor/Smart Hybrid<br />

Energy Hub” combination is<br />

not only plausible, it is highly desirable.<br />

Our Smart Hybrid Energy<br />

Hub can be used most effectively<br />

and concretely within an ecosystem<br />

involving a range of players to<br />

Electrical data<br />

Rated frequency Hz 50<br />

Rated voltage V 400<br />

Nominal Standby Power kVA/kWe 53/48<br />

Peak Standby Power kVA/kWe 86/78<br />

Nominal Prime Power kVA/kWe 48/44<br />

Peak Prime Power kVA/kWe 81/74<br />

Rated speed RPM 900-2500<br />

Energy storage system<br />

Nominal energy content kWh 37<br />

Peak Power output (intermittent) kWe 30<br />

make the most of the biomethane<br />

chain. Among the various components<br />

of the system, we would mention<br />

for example the T6 Methane<br />

Power Tractor of New Holland AG,<br />

a brand with which, even after the<br />

recent spin-off, we continue to have<br />

several collaboration projects in<br />

place, focused above all on alternative<br />

propulsion. In the model of<br />

a zero-CO 2<br />

-emission circular economy,<br />

which we presented at CES,<br />

our farm uses natural gas powered<br />

tractors to carry out the many operations<br />

necessary to run the business<br />

and our genset, to ensure its<br />

self-sufficiency and even the sale of<br />

the energy surplus to third parties.<br />

The ultimate goal is to contribute, in<br />

whatever form, to zero greenhouse<br />

gas emissions by 2050.<br />

16<br />







GOALS<br />


The Power Solutions Division comprises the Bergen Engines,<br />

Piller Power Systems and Marelli Motori groups, based<br />

in Norway, Germany and Italy respectively. The individual<br />

groups serve a wide spectrum of customers and markets,<br />

together they are focused on the rapidly emerging microgrid<br />

sector at the heart of Langley’s sustainability goals. According<br />

to Langley, we give an example of shift towards a<br />

zero carbon solution. “A power plant with three B36:45L6A<br />

engines running 8,000 hours per year would emit 1,824 tonnes<br />

less CO 2<br />

per year with a 15% H2 blend. To adapt the<br />

engine to a higher amount of H2 (above 60%) the engine<br />

modification can be done as part of a main service revision,<br />

so that much of the expense can be offset into the normal<br />

service cost. Most of the components that need replacement<br />

are in any case replaced or overhauled during a main<br />

service revision.”<br />

Tony Langley, talking about the Ammonia Zero Emission (AMAZE) project<br />

which Bergen Engines will commence in <strong>2022</strong> under Langley stewardship:<br />

“The world isn’t producing alternative fuels on a sufficient scale yet and right<br />

now we don’t know whether it will be ammonia, methanol, bio-diesel, hydrogen<br />

or a combination of them all that eventually wins out against fossil fuels.”<br />

In 2019 Rolls-Royce Power Systems<br />

completed the sale of its<br />

commercial marine business to<br />

Kongsberg. Three years after<br />

we’re still in Norway focusing on<br />

powergen engines. The 4 th January<br />

Langley Holdings has completed the<br />

acquisition of the Bergen Engines<br />

group from Rolls-Royce for a consideration<br />

of €91 million. In addition,<br />

€16 million of cash held within Bergen<br />

Engines AS, has been retained by<br />

Rolls-Royce. Europe is witnessing a<br />

huge process of rearrangement of the<br />

players involved in engine strategies.<br />

This does not only apply to the synergies<br />

between truck manufacturers<br />

in optimising the resources invested<br />

in battery packs and fuel cells. In the<br />

case of Langley, we are seeing here<br />

the establishment of an all-European<br />

research and production hub for power<br />

generation. Bergen is to become<br />

the core of a newly formed Power<br />

Solutions Division, working closely<br />

with the group’s Italian Marelli Motori<br />

and German Piller Power Systems<br />

subsidiaries. Completion of the<br />

transaction, which was announced on<br />

3 rd August 2021, follows the conclusion<br />

of work to separate the business<br />

from the Rolls-Royce group. As of<br />

Langley Holdings<br />

has completed the<br />

acquisition of the<br />

Norwegian Bergen<br />

Engines group from<br />

Rolls-Royce<br />

31 st December, 2021, Langley formally<br />

acquired Bergen Engines AS<br />

as a stand-alone group including its<br />

engine factory, service workshop and<br />

foundry in Norway; engine and power<br />

plant design capability; its global<br />

service network and subsidiaries in<br />

nine countries. In 2021, Bergen Engines<br />

generated revenues of approximately<br />

€250 million with the assets<br />

and liabilities of the business presented<br />

as held for sale in the Rolls-Royce<br />

Holdings plc consolidated balance<br />

sheet.<br />

The Bergen Engines group employs<br />

almost 950 people worldwide, of<br />

which more than 600 are based at its<br />

headquarters and production facilities<br />

near Bergen, in Norway. Going<br />

forward, Bergen Engines will be operated<br />

as a stand-alone business unit<br />

focused – in addition to its traditional<br />

markets – on the rapidly developing<br />

microgrid power generation sector,<br />

an area central to Langley’s net zero<br />

strategy.<br />

According to Chairman & CEO, Tony<br />

Langley: “The acquisition of Bergen<br />

Engines is a major step towards our<br />

net zero objectives. The company has<br />

a superb reputation and is proving to<br />

be highly innovative in adapting its<br />

engines to low-carbon and non-fossil<br />

fuels. Coupled with that, the emerging<br />

microgrid sector fits perfectly to our<br />

long-term sustainability goals.”<br />

18<br />





POWER<br />

TO<br />

CHILE<br />


It seems to us that this may well be so. Daniel Chatterjee, Rolls-<br />

Royce Power Systems, said: “For marine we see biofuels, such<br />

as LNG, e-diesel and e-methanol and even hydrogen is very<br />

attractive fuel for Power-to-X. Where are these fuel produced?<br />

Power plants in some regions like Chile, Patagonia or in Africa<br />

they come up to 6,000 operating hours per year. Blue one<br />

is more than 2,000 hours. South Chile and Patagonia look<br />

like very attractive regions, they produce a lot of renewable<br />

energy”. ENEL Green Power stated that “in the north of<br />

Chile, the Atacama Desert boasts some of the world’ highest<br />

insolation levels, making it ideal for photovoltaic energy. In<br />

the south, the strong winds are harnessed to produce wind<br />

power. Furthermore, in many parts of the country watercourses<br />

offer good conditions for hydroelectric power and there is also<br />

potential for geothermal energy. The country is also committed<br />

to the development of green hydrogen, which is extracted from<br />

water through electrolysis powered by renewable energy, and<br />

has launched a national strategy that aims to install around 25<br />

GW of this technology by 2<strong>03</strong>0”.<br />

“In the Magallanes region in Patagonia, for almost three years<br />

ENEL has been developing the first green hydrogen power plant<br />

in Latin America. It is equipped with a 3.4 MW wind turbine and<br />

a 1.25 MW electrolyzer.”<br />

Wärtsilä is really resourceful<br />

in the very long path to decarbonization.<br />

An example<br />

is the supply of an 8-megawatt/32-megawatt<br />

hour energy storage<br />

system to Colbun, one of the<br />

largest power generation companies<br />

in Chile. This is Wärtsilä’s first energy<br />

storage project in South America.<br />

This is a key area for the supply of<br />

renewable energy. Above all, Patagonia<br />

has the potential to play a major<br />

role in the Power-to-X strategy. In the<br />

focus you will find two examples of<br />

how Chile’s vocation for renewable<br />

energy is appreciated in Europe.<br />

The Wärtsilä energy storage system<br />

will be co-located with Colbun’s 230<br />

MWp Diego de Almagro solar photovoltaic<br />

(PV) facility located in the<br />

Atacama region; an area well-known<br />

for its solar radiation. This will be<br />

Colbun’s first system of an energy<br />

storage portfolio that will allow the<br />

power generation company to inte-<br />

Wärtsilä enters South<br />

American energy<br />

storage market with<br />

supply of 8 MW /<br />

32 MWh energy<br />

storage system to the<br />

Chilean PG company<br />

Colbun to accelerate<br />

decarbonisation.<br />

Chile is going to<br />

play a major role on<br />

renewables energies<br />

grate additional renewable energy capacity<br />

to achieve net zero emissions.<br />

The energy storage system will also<br />

help proactively address constraints<br />

on the transmission system from the<br />

new solar facility and allow Colbun to<br />

shift excess energy production from<br />

day to night to avoid curtailment,<br />

which also improves revenues for the<br />

company. Additionally, the system<br />

will provide frequency response and<br />

firm capacity to ensure adequate energy<br />

supply during peak periods. Once<br />

the system will be operational, some<br />

80,000 households are estimated to<br />

benefit from it.<br />

“One of the current challenges of<br />

wind and solar generation is intermittency.<br />

But by incorporating electrical<br />

storage alternatives, such as the energy<br />

storage project associated with our<br />

Diego de Almagro solar plant, we can<br />

solve for fluctuations in generation<br />

and capture the full value of renewable<br />

sources. By adding energy storage,<br />

Colbun seeks to provide robustness<br />

to the Chilean national electrical<br />

system,” said Christoph Perathoner,<br />

Construction Manager, Colbun. “We<br />

take this step-in alliance with Wärtsilä,<br />

a first-rate company with extensive<br />

international experience in energy<br />

storage equipment.”<br />

According to a 2021 report by Wärtsilä,<br />

“Front-Loading Net Zero,”<br />

achieving a 100 percent carbon neutral<br />

power system in Chile before<br />

2050 is possible with the buildout of<br />

renewable energy and short- and longterm<br />

energy storage. As coal-fired<br />

power plants in Chile are phased out<br />

by 2040, and more renewable energy<br />

capacity is integrated, battery storage<br />

systems will play an instrumental<br />

role in daily shifting of solar energy<br />

and providing ancillary services that<br />

maintain grid reliability.<br />

“Chile has become a leader in renewable<br />

energy and the country has one<br />

of the most ambitious and economical<br />

decarbonisation plans in the world,”<br />

said Andrew Tang, Vice President<br />

of Energy Storage & Optimisation,<br />

Wärtsilä. The Diego de Almagro storage<br />

facility will include Wärtsilä’s<br />

GridSolv Quantum, a fully integrated,<br />

modular and compact energy storage<br />

system, as well as the GEMS Digital<br />

Energy Platform. Wärtsilä’s sophisticated<br />

energy management system,<br />

GEMS, will co-optimise the utilisation<br />

of the energy storage system and<br />

the solar PV facility.<br />

Not faraway, in Brazil, the Finnish<br />

company is involved in three gas engine<br />

power plants with a combined<br />

output of 150 MW. The Brazilian<br />

plants are scheduled to be operational<br />

in the second quarter of <strong>2022</strong>. The<br />

electricity produced by the thermal<br />

balancing power plants will be fed to<br />

the national grid assuring system reliability,<br />

for instance, during times of<br />

adverse weather conditions. The contracts<br />

include altogether 16 fast-starting<br />

and flexible Wärtsilä 20V34SG<br />

gas engine generating sets. Flexible<br />

Wärtsilä gas engine power plants can<br />

use natural gas, LPG, synthetic fuels<br />

and various bio-gas fuels. Power<br />

plants which initially run on natural<br />

gas, can switch to operate on sustainable<br />

decarbonised fuels as and when<br />

these sources become available.<br />

20<br />


kWe - OFFHIGHWAY<br />




OR<br />

NOT?<br />


“When the going gets tough, let the tough get going”.<br />

This is why Still has renewed its faith in the diesel engine<br />

for the RCDs, which can handle loads of up to 18 tonnes.<br />

The forklifts are available in 12 different versions, with load<br />

capacities from 10 to 18 tonnes and barycenter from 600<br />

mm to 1,200 mm.<br />

Maya Xiao, Senior Analyst at Interact Analysis: “As well as removing<br />

the initial barrier of a high purchase price, battery leasing also removes<br />

concerns about the decline in battery life over time.”<br />

cations is so much wider. Secondly,<br />

off-highway equipment commonly requires<br />

non-standard specialized battery<br />

packaging, often irregularly shaped to<br />

fit into specific machinery, and sometimes<br />

protectively packed to withstand<br />

harsh operating environments.<br />

These issues affect the Li-ion forklift<br />

truck market, but the good news is we<br />

are seeing the penetration rate of Liion<br />

battery technology increase in the<br />

smaller class 3 truck market, as the<br />

“Forklifts have made<br />

the largest strides<br />

toward electrification”.<br />

Interact Analysis<br />

explored this issue<br />

When we talk about electrification,<br />

it is awkward to conjugate<br />

verbs in the present<br />

tense, hinting at an imminent<br />

future. But there is an application<br />

that even allows you to conjugate verbs<br />

in the past tense: forklifts. How does<br />

the electrification of material handing<br />

evolve? Maya Xiao, Senior Analyst<br />

at Interact Analysis, explains. “Our<br />

electrified off-highway powertrain<br />

pricing research,” writes Maya Xiao<br />

“showed that the battery pack prices<br />

for off-highway are far higher than for<br />

on-highway vehicles.” The reasons for<br />

this are simple. Firstly, it’s a matter of<br />

scale. Electrified off-highway equipment<br />

simply cannot match the scale<br />

of production of its on-highway counterparts<br />

as numbers of vehicles are so<br />

much smaller, and the range of applibattery<br />

pack is already an off the shelf<br />

product. An average 5% year-on-year<br />

decline in battery prices for forklifts is<br />

forecast up to 2<strong>03</strong>0, but what can be<br />

done to speed up electrification of larger<br />

forklift truck classes? Technological<br />

innovations are crucial, but new business<br />

models also have an important<br />

role to play. Certain classes of forklift<br />

have been powered by lead-acid batteries<br />

for decades. But these batteries<br />

are bulky and have low power density<br />

compared to Li-ion batteries. Lead-acid<br />

forklift manufacturers are facing<br />

demand from existing customers who<br />

want to refit existing machines with Liion<br />

batteries, which are much cleaner,<br />

charge faster, and do not have to be removed<br />

for charging. Battery substitution<br />

is relatively easy from a technical<br />

perspective. That’s because the 80V<br />

platform on a lead-acid forklift, as well<br />

as the frame and hydraulic parts, are<br />

compatible with Li-ion technology.<br />

But battery pricing continues to be the<br />

pinch-point, as the cost of replacing a<br />

lead-acid battery with an Li-ion battery<br />

represents 40%-70% of total forklift<br />

cost. Nevertheless, this business model<br />

has been seized by traditional lead-acid<br />

forklift manufacturers, such as SAFT,<br />

FAAM and Tianneng, who are keen to<br />

quickly grow their share of the Li-ion<br />

forklift market. <strong>Diesel</strong> forklift manufacturers<br />

are also looking for a piece<br />

of the action in the new energy market.<br />

They are breaking into it not by producing<br />

state-of-the-art electric forklifts,<br />

with all the costs that that would<br />

entail, but simply by taking existing<br />

diesel machine designs and replacing<br />

the drivetrain. While this solution does<br />

not carry the same technical advantages<br />

as purpose-built electric platforms, it<br />

is a cost-effective stage on the journey<br />

to pure electrification. TEU and JAC<br />

Forklifts are examples of companies<br />

following this path, and both companies<br />

are employing external suppliers<br />

to provide complete diesel-to-electric<br />

technical solutions. The diesel retrofit<br />

market has high potential. To take<br />

China as an example, 3,000 diesel to<br />

electric machines were sold in 2020,<br />

and the total stock of diesel forklifts in<br />

the country is over three million. Another<br />

strategy for new energy forklift<br />

manufacturers seeking to make their<br />

products price-competitive is to partner<br />

up with on-road vehicle manufacturers,<br />

who are much better placed to get production<br />

costs down through economies<br />

of scale. The automotive and heavy-du-<br />

ty vehicle sectors are both making rapid<br />

progress at mass-producing more<br />

powerful batteries. Such batteries can<br />

easily be applied to forklifts with a<br />

simple tweaking of the design of the<br />

machine platform. This would allow<br />

forklift manufacturers to buy batteries<br />

off the shelf from automotive manufacturers<br />

at highly competitive prices. Another<br />

solution is purchasing second-life<br />

batteries from the automotive sector –<br />

Audi has deployed second life batteries<br />

into forklifts at its factories and Nissan<br />

have partnered with 4R Energy to do<br />

the same. We have spoken to companies<br />

considering this strategy and have<br />

been told that even if they have only<br />

50% of the performance capability of<br />

new batteries, they could still be an extremely<br />

cost-effective solution in the<br />

material handling sector.<br />

22<br />





A<br />



The <strong>Diesel</strong> Technology Forum is a not-for-profit<br />

organization dedicated to raising awareness about the<br />

importance of diesel engines, fuel and technology.<br />

<strong>Diesel</strong> Technology Forum members are global leaders<br />

in clean diesel technology and represent the three<br />

key elements of the modern clean-diesel system:<br />

advanced engines, vehicles and equipment, cleaner<br />

diesel fuel and emissions-control systems. Since it was<br />

founded in 2000, the Forum has emerged as a leading<br />

source of information on agriculture, economics,<br />

energy, environmental, transportation and trade issues<br />

impacting diesel technology. <strong>International</strong> in scope, the<br />

Forum’s resources include technical researchers, policy<br />

and communications specialists and communications<br />

experts. The Forum regularly participates in<br />

legislative and regulatory deliberations, technology<br />

demonstrations, and industry and media events.<br />

insight and expert commentary.<br />

John Deere unveiled a fully self-driving tractor ready for large-scale production<br />

at a press conference at CES <strong>2022</strong>, in Las Vegas. The machine is based<br />

on the John Deere 8R platform, integrates the TruSet chisel plow, the<br />

GPS guidance system and a number of new advanced technologies. The<br />

autonomous tractor will be available to farmers by the end of this year.<br />

The global agriculture engine<br />

and equipment industry is<br />

rapidly evolving to face numerous<br />

challenges including<br />

feeding a growing population, the<br />

climate crisis and labor shortages.<br />

Continued improvements to engines,<br />

equipment and the technology that<br />

integrates the work of the machine<br />

with the land, are increasing efficiency<br />

and are the foundation for<br />

farming in the future.<br />

These topics were the subject of a<br />

virtual event recently organized by<br />

the <strong>Diesel</strong> Technology Forum, that<br />

discussed the state of farming, machines<br />

and equipment; opportunities<br />

for reducing emissions from smart<br />

and precision farming technologies,<br />

and the outlook for the future, including<br />

which fuels and technologies will<br />

meet the challenges of greater food<br />

demand and reducing greenhouse<br />

gas emissions. The event was titled<br />

“Making America’s farms greener<br />

and more productive with advancement<br />

in farming technology”.<br />

This webinar<br />

explored the state of<br />

technology and how<br />

new innovations in the<br />

machines, fuels and<br />

the use of smart<br />

farming systems<br />

contribute to boosting<br />

productivity and yields<br />

with lower emissions<br />

“US agriculture is among the most<br />

productive and economically valuable<br />

in the world; producing more<br />

yield in less time with fewer inputs<br />

thanks largely to the advancements<br />

in the diesel powered machines and<br />

equipment that do the planting, harvesting<br />

and tending to the land,”<br />

says <strong>Diesel</strong> Technology Forum Executive<br />

Director Allen Schaeffer,<br />

organizer of the event. “Technology<br />

has evolved a lot in the farming sector,<br />

but it all started with a tractor.<br />

The role of diesel technology across<br />

the whole agriculture sector is quite<br />

substantial: it powers more than<br />

two-thirds of the farm equipment,<br />

transport 90 percent of its product<br />

and pumps one-fifth of its water<br />

in the United States; 96 percent of<br />

large trucks that move agricultural<br />

commodities to railways and warehouses<br />

are powered by a diesel engine<br />

and 100 percent of the freight<br />

locomotives, marine river grain<br />

barges and ocean-going vessels that<br />

deliver these products to markets<br />

are powered by diesel. Today we’ll<br />

focus primarily on the large off-road<br />

equipment, tractors. In the last decade<br />

we’ve seen an evolution towards<br />

a clean and low emissions technology,<br />

but why are diesel engines still<br />

the main choice for today’s agriculture?<br />

The reasons are many: energy<br />

density of the fuel, power of the<br />

engines, efficient operation/range of<br />

travel, reliability, durability; availability<br />

of parts, service and fueling<br />

networks; near zero emissions and,<br />

last but not least, the suitability for<br />

existing and new equipment to use<br />

renewable biobased diesel fuels.”<br />

The first topic of the event is the<br />

state of farm equipment today.<br />

Speakers went into detail about the<br />

demand for food in the year 2050.<br />

Nick Block, Global Director, Marketing,<br />

Sales and Customer Support<br />

at John Deere Power Systems,<br />

says: “The industry will need to feed<br />

9.7 billion people around the world<br />

then according to a prediction by<br />

The Global Harvest Initiative. This<br />

means global agriculture productivity<br />

needs to increase 70 percent<br />

by 2050 in order to deliver on that<br />

50 percent growth in food demand,<br />

because we are feeding 9.7 billion<br />

people in 2050. In the United Stated<br />

large farms are becoming more dominant:<br />

farms with $1M of cash income<br />

were 49% in 2015 (versus 31%<br />

in 1991) and the challenge now is<br />

managing more land and increasing<br />

productivity. Agriculture equipment<br />

and powertrain advancements have<br />

helped farms plant, spray and harvest<br />

significantly more grain without<br />

requiring more fuel. US farms have<br />

become significantly more productive<br />

since 1990, but farm diesel use<br />

is essentially unchanged. Comparing<br />

fuel consumption of a tractor and a<br />

truck with two comparable engines,<br />

we see the tractor uses less fuel but<br />

needs more energy to manage heavy<br />

loads and high-resistance work.”<br />

With the increasing demand for food<br />

by a growing population, and less<br />

arable land to use to grow it, the industry<br />

is focused on the future, right<br />

now. “Technology on the farm today<br />

is giving them a lot of information<br />

24<br />





Cummins was named as one of 45 inaugural recipients of the<br />

Terra Carta Seal, an initiative led by HRH Prince Charles (left) to<br />

recognise businesses for their commitment to environmental<br />

sustainability and decarbonisation.<br />

Inspired by the Magna Carta, the medieval document that<br />

remains an important symbol of liberty around the world, the<br />

Terra Carta is a recovery plan for the planet that serves as the<br />

guiding mandate for The Prince of Wales’ Sustainable Markets<br />

Initiative (SMI). The initiative seeks to establish a global forum<br />

for industries to restructure their operations in a way that<br />

protects the world’s natural resources.<br />

“The Terra Carta Seal recognises those organisations which<br />

have made a serious commitment to a future that is much<br />

more sustainable, and puts Nature, People and the Planet at<br />

the heart of the economy,” Prince Charles said in a ceremony<br />

at Kelvingrove Art Museum and Gallery, not far from the COP26<br />

global climate summit taking place in Glasgow. “We all need to<br />

make changes if we are to preserve the planet for our children<br />

and grandchildren and these businesses have pledged to make<br />

it easier for us all to do so.”<br />

and insights today that they didn’t<br />

have in the past to make some decisions,”<br />

says Block.<br />

Ann Schmelzer, General Manager,<br />

Global Agriculture Business at<br />

Cummins, claims: “Today there are<br />

one million Cummins-powered agricultural<br />

machines in operation.<br />

Cummins is powering over 20 agriculture<br />

OEMs, we have a 2.8 to<br />

15-litre range with more applications,<br />

in more markets, than any other<br />

engine manufacturer and we have<br />

a very strong brand reputation in the<br />

farming community. The innovations<br />

in powertrains, fuels and equipment<br />

technology that serve farmers<br />

around the world are impressive.<br />

They contribute to reducing greenhouse<br />

gas, and other emissions, and<br />

reducing inputs on the farm. Beyond<br />

the machines themselves, innovations<br />

in farm practices like automation<br />

and precision agriculture have<br />

evolved to bring further important<br />

benefit. We need more technology,<br />

efficiency and power in agriculture.<br />

When we talk about current and future<br />

technology, we have to innovate<br />

and scale low carbon fuels, decarbonize<br />

the grid with renewable energy<br />

and develop the green hydrogen<br />

economy. We at Cummins are working<br />

on two power solutions: to improve<br />

affordability and applicability<br />

of fuel cell, BEV and hybrids, and to<br />

maximize GHG emission reduction<br />

from internal combustion engines.”<br />

Those innovations will be critical to<br />

meeting the dual challenges of greater<br />

demand for food and lower greenhouse<br />

gas emissions. “As we think<br />

about the future, I don’t think a onesize-fits-all<br />

approach is going to get<br />

us there,” says Schmelzer. “How we<br />

get to zero emissions is unclear at<br />

this point: what technology needs to<br />

be adopted, what are the infrastructure<br />

to be developed, hydrogen, battery<br />

electric, different type of fuels?<br />

As a powertrain supplier, our challenge<br />

is going to be incredibly difficult,<br />

we have to make sure that our<br />

solutions work for our customers.<br />

That’s why Cummins is developing a<br />

range of efficient, clean and capable<br />

powertrains to help manufacturers<br />

define the best power source for their<br />

equipment. I think that there is an incredible<br />

potential when we work on<br />

all of these technologies together,<br />

according to safety and emission requirements<br />

in each application.”<br />

She spoke about power options<br />

available on the market today and<br />

those Cummins is exploring in the<br />

future, including hydrogen and electrification<br />

as well as advanced diesel.<br />

“<strong>Diesel</strong> right now is still the<br />

primary power of choice for many<br />

reasons for its simplicity, flexibility<br />

and lower cost. And there are still a<br />

lot of advances that we are working<br />

on with our base technology.”<br />

While diesel engines power most of<br />

the agricultural equipment around<br />

the world, they are evolving to run<br />

more on fuels other than diesel, including<br />

renewable and biodiesel.<br />

Panelists also discussed the prospect<br />

of additional reductions in allowable<br />

emissions from both California and<br />

the US EPA.<br />

Interim results of an off-highway<br />

low-nitrogen oxide (NOx) demonstration<br />

project with the Southwest<br />

Research Institute was reviewed and<br />

is showing promise to further reduce<br />

emissions in diesel engines with advanced<br />

catalysts and Selective Catalytic<br />

Reduction systems, noted Tom<br />

Harris, Senior Technical Specialist<br />

with Tenneco. “Leverage what you<br />

have to make a relatively quicker<br />

impact on CO 2<br />

in the near term, but<br />

then again, thinking about that as<br />

a bridge technology that ultimately<br />

has an impact while we’re waiting<br />

for the final solution if you will,<br />

in terms of whatever that is from a<br />

powertrain solution for the agriculture<br />

industry.”<br />

In conclusion, agriculture sector is<br />

unique in its use of engines, equipment<br />

and fuels, the demands and<br />

duty cycles and task at hand, and<br />

unique in the economic and weather<br />

conditions that play a major role<br />

in its overall functioning. The trends<br />

in farming are demanding new technology<br />

and operating practices to<br />

keep up with the demand for food,<br />

and manufacturers are delivering<br />

through automation, connectivity<br />

and integration with land and soil<br />

conditions, helping boost outputs<br />

while reducing inputs. New fuels<br />

and technologies are emerging and<br />

like in other sectors we can expect<br />

some diversity of fuels in the future,<br />

but diesel engines are poised to continue<br />

to play a dominant role in farm<br />

machinery and equipment; the next<br />

chapter on emissions is being written<br />

and solutions to reduce emissions<br />

even further are at hand.<br />

26<br />




#13LITERS<br />




WINGS<br />

nus Henrikson, Chief Engineer and<br />

the person who has been heading the<br />

five-year development process. What<br />

has changed? The compression ratio is<br />

23:1, intake and exhaust are calibrated<br />

to improve the gas flow through the<br />

engine, as is the turbo and manifold<br />

connection. The peak pressure inside<br />

the cylinders can now reach 250 bars.<br />

“By injecting a first dose of AdBlue in<br />

the close-coupled position to the turbo<br />

charger, immediately after the Exhaust<br />

Brake Flap where the exhaust gases<br />

are still very hot, we dramatically increase<br />

the total efficiency of the aftertreatment<br />

system. The second dose is<br />

then injected in the usual position inside<br />

the aftertreatment system. But by<br />

then the task is easier, since the peak<br />

NOx level has already been reduced.<br />

The DPF, which is positioned between<br />

the two SCR catalysts, is regenerated<br />

without post-injecting extra fuel to the<br />

exhaust system.” Henrikson clarifies<br />

speaking of the Twin Dosing system.<br />

The range that takes Scania to Euro 6E<br />

will be available in 420, 460, 500 and<br />

560 HP ratings. The matching with the<br />

G25 and G33 Opticruise gearboxes<br />

and the new range of differentials results<br />

in an 8 percent fuel saving compared<br />

to the previous generation. All<br />

engines can be powered with HVO,<br />

and the 460 and 500 HP versions can<br />

be powered with biodiesel from renewable<br />

sources. The Griffin is the<br />

best in terms of torque, beating its predecessor<br />

by around 4 percent.<br />

Let’s now talk about Cummins, whose<br />

X12 earned the <strong>Diesel</strong> Index, taking it<br />

away from Scania by just one decimal.<br />

Is it a coincidence that they shared the<br />

development and engineering of the<br />

XPI common rail? This is a two-way<br />

race within a group that appears to be<br />

quite similar at the red-orange diarchy,<br />

which incredibly has an index of<br />

7.7 (except for Ford, of which we are<br />

missing some of the necessary data to<br />

compile the <strong>Diesel</strong> Index). The specific<br />

curves indicate a similar pattern to<br />

those of the off-highway equivalent.<br />

The slimming treatment has slimmed<br />

down the ATS by 40 percent compared<br />

In addition to the magnificent eight<br />

captive truck manufacturers, we<br />

have included Cummins. The X12<br />

can be found, among others, on<br />

some of the quintessential “big fronts”:<br />

the Freightliner trucks, such as the<br />

114SD, and the Western Star trucks.<br />

By overlapping the torque curves<br />

with those of its industrial equivalents<br />

of same displacement, the stroke increases<br />

the torque at low revs, which<br />

is decisive to guarantee smooth gear<br />

changes, thus resulting in an optimised<br />

specific fuel consumption even below<br />

1,000 rpm. The excuse for relaunching<br />

this crucial segment in the long-haul<br />

freight economy comes from Scania.<br />

“Developing a new engine platform<br />

of this magnitude is a once-in-a-lifetime<br />

opportunity for most engine<br />

platform engineers,” explains Mag-<br />

BRAND<br />


DAF<br />

FORD<br />


MAN<br />


MODEL<br />

X12<br />

MX-13 530<br />

ECOTORQ 12.7L<br />

CURSOR 13<br />

D2676 - 500<br />

OM 471 - 530<br />


SCANIA<br />

VOLVO<br />

DTI 13-520<br />

DC13 173<br />

D 13 K-540<br />

I. D.<br />

B x S mm - S/B 134 x 142 - 1,06 130 x 162 - 1,25 130 x 160 - 1,23 135 x 150 - 1,11 126 x 166 - 1,32 132 x 156 - 1,18 131 x 158 - 1,21 130 x 160 - 1,23 131 x 158 - 1,21<br />

N. cil. - dm 3 6 - 12,01 6 - 12,90 6 - 12,74 6 - 12,88 6 - 12,41 6 - 12,80 6 - 12,77 6 - 12,74 6 - 12,77<br />

Maximum power kW - rpm 373 - 2.000 390 - 1.675 368 - 1.800 419 - 1.900 368 - 1.800 390 - 1.850 382 - 1.800 412 - 1.800 397 - 1.800<br />

Mep at max power bar 19 22,1 19,6 21 20,1 20,1 20,3 22,0 21,1<br />

Piston speed m/s 9,5 9 9,6 9,5 10 9,6 9,5 9,6 9,5<br />

Maximum torque Nm - rpm 2.305 - 1.000 2499 - 1.000 2499 - 1.000 2400 - 950 2499 - 930 2597 - 1.100 2548 - 1.100 2.8<strong>03</strong> - 900 2597 - 1.000<br />

Mep at max torque bar 24,6 24,8 25,2 23,9 25,8 26 25,6 28,2 26,1<br />

% power at max torque (kW) 51,8 54,1 58 47,3 58 56,6 56,6 58,1 55,4<br />

Torque at max power Nm 1.784 2.225 1.950 2.107 1.950 2.009 2.029 2.185 2.107<br />

% power at max torque (kW) 64,8 (242) 67,10 (262) 71,20 (262) 57 (239) 66,20 (244) 76,80 (299) 76,90 (294) 64,20 (264) 68,50 (272)<br />


Specific power kW/dm 3 31 30,2 28,8 32,5 29,6 30,4 29,9 32,3 31<br />

Specific torque Nm/dm 3 191,8 193,6 196,1 186,3 201,2 202,7 199,4 219,9 2<strong>03</strong>,2<br />

Areal spec. power kW/dm 2 44,09 48,99 46,23 48,78 49,20 47,50 47,22 51,76 49,07<br />


Dry weight kg 930 1.000 - 1.197 1.114 1.126 1.115 1.100 1.134<br />

L x W x H mm 1.294x931x1.002 1.375x825x1.150 - 1.360x1.008x1.171 1.630x893x1.046 1.375x980x1.260 1.285x1.100x1.301 1.710x780x1.430 1.285x1.100x1.301<br />

Volume m 3 1,21 1,30 - 1,61 1,52 1,70 1,84 1,91 1,84<br />

Weight/power kg/kW 2,5 2,6 - 2,9 3,0 2,9 2,9 2,7 2,9<br />

Weight/displacement kg/dm 3 77,4 77,5 - 92,9 89,7 87,9 87,3 86,3 88,8<br />

Power density kW/m 3 308,3 300,0 - 260,3 242,1 229,4 207,6 215,7 215,8<br />

Total density t/m 3 0,77 0,77 - 0,74 0,73 0,66 0,61 0,58 0,62<br />

Displacement/volume dm 3 /m 3 9,93 9,92 - 8 8,17 7,53 6,94 6,67 6,94<br />

28<br />




to the ISX12, while also improving<br />

thermal management. This reduces<br />

the number of regeneration cycles,<br />

therefore requiring less maintenance,<br />

while meeting the standards of the<br />

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.<br />

VGT Cummins Holset,<br />

XPI and ECM come from the Jamestown<br />

(NY) plant, together with engine<br />

block and ATS.<br />

The Ford architecture is the classic inline<br />

6-cylinder, 2,500-bar common rail<br />

and Bosch control unit; VGT appears<br />

here too, with electronic actuator, and<br />

a 230-bar cylinder pressure. The enhancement<br />

of EGR contrasts with the<br />

change of direction of the European<br />

school. To optimise combustion, they<br />

have worked on the cylinder head; the<br />

pistons were forged from steel with the<br />

piston pin coated in DLC (Diamond<br />

Like Carbon), which increases resistance<br />

to friction. Another critical point<br />

has involved the cooling system, with<br />

a fan equipped with an electro-viscous<br />

BRAND<br />

MODEL<br />


X12<br />

DAF<br />

MX-13 530<br />

FORD<br />

ECOTORQ 12.7L<br />

coupling to regulate speed. The water<br />

pump is characterized by two speeds.<br />

An active control is provided to manage<br />

the alternator power demand.<br />

From a stress point of view, the 13-litre<br />

DAF aims for “moderation”, as can<br />

be seen from the piston speed, which<br />

is braked by 5/10 percent. It is different<br />

by just 2 mm in stroke from Ford,<br />

which has the same S/B as Scania,<br />

does not reject EGR and pushes the<br />

pressure to the maximum, in line with<br />

its competitors. The responsiveness of<br />

the 13-litre engine is demonstrated by<br />

its torque reserve. The compact graphite<br />

engine block houses the gear wheel<br />

on the fly-wheel side, it integrates the<br />

fluid channels and mounts the trapezoidal<br />

belt tensioner on the water<br />

pump housing.<br />

Renault’s DTI has a “trucker” pedigree,<br />

assisted in its gas exhaust management<br />

by the ACM control unit.<br />

The French have also opted for the<br />

“all inclusive” aftertreatment, with a<br />

FPT<br />

CURSOR 13<br />

MAN<br />

D2676 - 500<br />


OM 471 - 530<br />

vanadium coating for the SCR catalyst<br />

and a cobalt-based valve seat. Converted<br />

to common rail, it has relied<br />

on a high-pressure system with three<br />

pumps in the crankcase since Euro 6C.<br />

Our road test showed that: “The Renault<br />

Trucks T High 480 (editor’s note,<br />

equipped with the DTI13) is in fact the<br />

best and most balanced synthesis of<br />

power, performance and efficiency.”<br />

Another old acquaintance is MAN,<br />

with the D26, the most versatile ever:<br />

a road, off-road, stationary and marine<br />

engine. It has been lightened by 80 kilos<br />

for Euro 6D and simplified in its<br />

thermal management. Unlike Ford, the<br />

turbocharger has fixed geometry, with<br />

waste gate valve and air-to-air aftercooler.<br />

Optimisation is the key word,<br />

and this is the objective of the single-cylinder<br />

air compressor equipped<br />

with the ESS (Energy Save System),<br />

in combination with the revamped<br />

lambda sensor and the electronically<br />

controlled alternator. A common point<br />


DTI 13-520<br />

SCANIA<br />

DC13 173<br />


VOLVO<br />

D 13 K-540<br />

Torque 13,1 9,9 - 12,5 11,9 10,9 10,3 12,4 11,3<br />

Performance 6,9 7,1 7,1 6,9 7,3 7,3 7,2 7,7 7,3<br />

Stress 11,4 11,3 11,6 11,1 11,9 11,9 11,7 12,6 11,9<br />

Lightness 10,2 10,3 - 12,8 11,9 11,6 11,4 11,5 11,7<br />

Density 10,5 9,9 - 8 8,6 7,9 7,2 7,6 7,3<br />

DIESEL INDEX 8 7,7 - 7,7 7,7 7,7 7,7 7,9 7,7<br />

with Ford is gas recirculation, a technology<br />

in which the Lion is a pioneer.<br />

Still in southern Germany for a upper<br />

rank trucker which hides a dual offroad<br />

identity. Each OM corresponds<br />

to a specular mtu, alias Rolls Royce.<br />

Mercedes’ OM471 has been equipped<br />

for Euro 6D with a torque of 2,600 Nm,<br />

which is stable between 900 and 1,450<br />

rpm. According to the Star, 1,600 Nm<br />

are available at the top end of the scale,<br />

at 600 rpm, and 2,000 Nm only at 800<br />

rpm), partly because of the optimisation<br />

of the X-Pulse, the common rail<br />

that has a pressure booster built into<br />

the injector. Maximum pressure has<br />

been increased from 900 to 1,160 bars,<br />

with a stratospheric injection pressure<br />

of 2,700 bars. An upgrade also made<br />

possible by the changes in the injector<br />

which now has eight holes instead<br />

of seven. The compression ratio has<br />

been increased from 17.3:1 to 18.3:1<br />

and the percentage of exhaust gas processed<br />

by the EGR has been reduced to<br />

the benefit of comburent and chamber<br />

temperatures. The EGR throttle, which<br />

was previously located along the recirculated<br />

gas path, has been placed<br />

much further upstream in the exhaust<br />

manifold, just before the point where<br />

the exhaust gas enters the turbocharger,<br />

eliminating the need for the sensor<br />

in the Venturi tube and the downstream<br />

flow regulation. The recirculation rate<br />

rises to 50 percent during regeneration,<br />

with a progressive reduction of fuel injection<br />

in cylinders from one to three<br />

and its parallel increase in cylinders<br />

from four to six.<br />

The Cursor 13 makes its mark on both<br />

on- and off-road grids, with the common<br />

denominator of a double blower<br />

of an HI-eSCR formula, which surgically<br />

removes the EGR valve, in both<br />

the Cursor and NEF families. An engine<br />

that confirms a convincing acceleration,<br />

as per its family’s imprinting,<br />

and which is generally credited for its<br />

density, namely the relationship between<br />

volumetric indexes and power.<br />


FPT Industrial, Scania and Volvo are the key players in the CNG/<br />

LNG truck world. The first two manufacturers have ditched the<br />

common rail in favour of the injection ramp, while the third<br />

one has revolutionized the internal section to allow gas to<br />

flow through. 338 kilowatts for FPT and Volvo, 310 for Scania,<br />

torque peak capped at 2,000 Nm. MEP allows some margin to<br />

Scania and sees Volvo pressing the accelerator.<br />

The Volvo gearbox is characterized by 12 gears in sequence,<br />

without the slightest indecision or stalling, with the rev<br />

counter needle constantly between 1,000 and 1,500 rpm<br />

(green zone), with a few peaks towards 1,800 only for the first<br />

and second gear to tackle the most challenging slopes. Once<br />

at cruising speed, the engine hums at 1,100 rpm at 80 mph<br />

and reaches 1,250 for the canonical 90 mph. Therefore, it feels<br />

like driving the 460 diesel.<br />

The Iveco Stralis Np travels at less than 71 decibels and<br />

complies with Piek standards. With its two cryogenic liquid<br />

natural gas tanks, it offers a 1,600-km autonomy thanks to a<br />

consumption, which is 15 percent lower than diesel. It reduces<br />

TCO by up to 9 percent, compared to a maximum of 7 percent<br />

for the 294 kW (400 hp) Cursor 9. Along with the gas-powered<br />

Cursor 13, the Stralis Np 460 also features the 12-speed Hi-<br />

Tronix gearbox (the latest evolution of ZF’s Traxon), which is<br />

10 percent faster than the Eurotronic. Hi-Tronix decreases the<br />

noise by 6 decibels and extends maintenance time and service<br />

life by 25 percent. The 410-HP 12.7-litre engine is powered<br />

by LNG. Performances in line with the 6-cylinder diesel,<br />

which like the 9-litre five-cylinder engine meets Piek noise<br />

standards with a sound level of less than 72 decibels. Scania<br />

claims a driving autonomy of up to 1,100 kilometres for the<br />

liquid natural gas top level engine in case of a classic 40-tonne<br />

tractor/semi-trailer combination.<br />

30<br />





HYBRID<br />

DESERT<br />

FOXES<br />


Gaussin attended the Dakar <strong>2022</strong> with a hydrogen-powered<br />

truck in the experimental vehicle section. Developed<br />

on the Skateboard chassis (an existing mobile platform for<br />

self-driving trucks) and suitably modified, the H2 Racing<br />

Truck has a body designed by Pininfarina. The vehicle is<br />

equipped with two electric motors of 300 kW each, powered<br />

by 380 kW of fuel cells in combination with 82 kWh of<br />

batteries. Speed is limited to 140 km/h as per competition<br />

regulations. The H2 Racing Truck is equipped with tanks<br />

carrying 80 kg of hydrogen at 350 bar. The vehicle was refuelled<br />

at mobile hydrogen stations developed by Gaussin,<br />

placed along the routes of the special stages in the alternative<br />

energy category.<br />

KAMAZ: “The Russians have racked up eighteen victories with<br />

six different drivers since the dawn of the 21 st century, only bending<br />

the knee to Karel Loprais in 2001, Hans Stacey in 2007 and Gerard<br />

de Rooy in 2012 and 2016, and extended their hegemony in Saudi<br />

Arabia this year.”<br />

ASO (Amaury Sport Organisation)<br />

has set up a programme<br />

entitled “Dakar Future”,<br />

which envisages a gradual energy<br />

transition by 2<strong>03</strong>0. The players<br />

in the first steps of this transition are<br />

the Renault C460 Hybrid Edition of<br />

the Riwald Dakar Team and the Hino<br />

600-HYBRID of Team Sugawara.<br />

In 2020 Riwald team brought a hybrid<br />

truck, the Renault C460 Hybrid<br />

Edition, to the race for the first time.<br />

Developed in 2019 on the platform<br />

of the Renault Trucks C460, the Hybrid<br />

Edition project was created by<br />

the Riwald Dakar team itself in cooperation<br />

with MKR Technology, a<br />

Czech company specialized in tuning<br />

race trucks, and supported by partners<br />

ZF Friedrichshafen, Renault Trucks,<br />

Hendrickson, AxleTech and Euro l.<br />

The truck is equipped with a Renault<br />

Trucks DXI 13 diesel engine that,<br />

after being tuned by MKR Technology,<br />

provides around 1,040 hp. The<br />

endothermic engine works in tandem<br />

with a 205hp ZF CeTrax lite RS electric<br />

powertrain, which is powered by<br />

400V batteries that are recharged by<br />

the kinetic energy produced during<br />

release and braking. The system also<br />

saves the brakes and provides power<br />

for the extreme use required in a rally-race.<br />

The electric motor, specifical-<br />

Renault and Hino are<br />

the trucks that took<br />

on the Dakar with a<br />

hybrid powertrain<br />

ly developed by ZF for this application,<br />

supports the ICE by providing an<br />

additional 1,600 Nm of torque. The<br />

weight of the vehicle is 8.5 tonnes<br />

plus 700 kg for the hybrid system.<br />

The vehicle is also equipped with a<br />

ZF Ecomat 6hp automatic transmission.<br />

A ZF VG1600 torque divider<br />

distributes the power from the engines<br />

(mounted in series) and the gearbox to<br />

the front and rear axles. ZF also supplied<br />

the integrated power electronics<br />

and the hybrid control unit, including<br />

software that was programmed for the<br />

Dakar. After an unsuccessful participation<br />

due to electrical problems in<br />

the first two years, the Renault Trucks<br />

C460 Hybrid Edition has returned to<br />

the starting blocks of the Dakar <strong>2022</strong><br />

with a new suspension and cooling<br />

system, as well as a larger battery ca-<br />

pacity. Modifications have also been<br />

made to improve the reliability and<br />

performance of the engine as well as<br />

the management and delivery of the<br />

electrical power.<br />

The Japanese team Hino Sugawara<br />

was founded by Yoshimasa Sugawara,<br />

a famous Japanese rally driver,<br />

seven times on the podium of the Dakar<br />

in the truck category. Yoshimasa,<br />

known as “the iron man”, is the only<br />

Japanese to have raced the Dakar in<br />

three categories, motorbike, car and<br />

truck, from 1983 to 2019, the year<br />

he retired as a driver. Today, his son<br />

Teruhito leads the team. Since 2005,<br />

he has been competing in the Dakar<br />

Rally as a driver, alongside his father<br />

and driving a second truck. In 2007<br />

Teruhito scored his first class victory,<br />

winning the Dakar in the truck category<br />

up to 10 litres. This was to be<br />

the first of many victories. In 2021,<br />

the Japanese driver won his twelfth<br />

consecutive championship in the<br />

same class. In 2021, the Sugawara<br />

team set to work on developing a hybrid<br />

race truck based on the Hino 600<br />

truck, suitable for various applcations<br />

from distribution to construction. The<br />

truck’s light weight and agility have<br />

earned it the nickname “Little Monsters”<br />

in the Dakar world because<br />

of the “annoyance” it causes to the<br />

big teams. Given that Hino Motors<br />

(a Toyota Group brand) is a pioneer<br />

in the field of commercial hybrids,<br />

having started mass production in<br />

1991, creating a race truck on this<br />

base was certainly easier for the Sugawara<br />

team than the work done by<br />

the Riwald team, which started from<br />

scratch with hybrid technology. For<br />

the race truck, the team’s main goal<br />

was to emphasize the weight/power<br />

ratio. Composite materials and highstrength<br />

aluminium were used for<br />

the vehicle’s structure. The vehicle<br />

is powered by a 9-litre, six-cylinder<br />

in-line, turbo intercooled Hino diesel<br />

engine capable of developing, for<br />

this purpose, around 800 hp, coupled<br />

with a 206kW (around 280 hp) electric<br />

motor, a combination capable of<br />

generating a torque of 2,430 Nm @<br />

1,600 rpm. The Allison 3000 Series<br />

6-speed automatic transmission, specially<br />

designed for racing, is capable<br />

of delivering lightning-fast gear<br />

changes. Again, the electrical energy<br />

that powers the Hino nickel-metal hydride<br />

(NiMH) battery pack is generated<br />

during deceleration.<br />

32<br />


kWe - INTERVIEWS<br />




WITH<br />



fueled) and NGV-FP045 (4.5L, CNG/LNG fueled) engines<br />

just completed the beta-design phase and rolled out of R&D<br />

center.”<br />

NGV <strong>Powertrain</strong> has developed<br />

an approach that reconciles renewable<br />

sources and power supply.<br />

The key word is ‘ethanol’.<br />

“The first order comes from Germany<br />

and it’s a company that has won several<br />

contracts, including one with the German<br />

motorways,” says David Caponi,<br />

CEO of NGV <strong>Powertrain</strong>. “The main<br />

purpose is to provide electrical energy<br />

for recharging electric cars/vehicles in<br />

those areas that are not served by the<br />

national grid or where the national grid<br />

cannot support the (instantaneous and<br />

continuous) energy demand for EVs.”<br />

What changes have you made to the<br />

Cursor 9?<br />

The project involves a change in the<br />

9-litre engine, in its basic gas version,<br />

supplied by FPT Industrial. The main<br />

modifications concern the ignition and<br />

fuel injection system, the latter being<br />

patented like the fuel supply, and the<br />

engine control system. The engine is developed<br />

from stoichiometric combustion<br />

with an important focus on the management<br />

of the operating conditions in the<br />

most critical stages (i.e., ignition at low<br />

temperatures, warm-up phase in cold<br />

climates, which are both NGV <strong>Powertrain</strong>’s<br />

patented subject matters).<br />

How does the biomass conversion<br />

process work?<br />

Recharging EV<br />

passenger cars with<br />

methanol? NGV<br />

<strong>Powertrain</strong> does it<br />

The main process for bio-methanol is<br />

GTL from bio-methane. With the improvement<br />

of anaerobic digestion processes,<br />

the productivity of the chain<br />

is clearly improving. Ethanol can be<br />

obtained through the same method or<br />

by fermentation and subsequent distillation<br />

of sugary or starchy biomass. It<br />

is no coincidence that it is a very popular<br />

product in countries with a strong<br />

agricultural vocation, such as Brazil.<br />

But also in countries such as France<br />

and Germany.<br />

What are the differences between<br />

methanol and ethanol?<br />

The two fuels are, from an engine point<br />

of view, very similar. Methanol is the<br />

most efficient in the production chain,<br />

since its chemical formula (CH 3<br />

OH) is<br />

very close to that of the methane (CH 4<br />

)<br />

from which it is produced. Therefore,<br />

the energy required for the GTL (Gas<br />

To Liquid) process is lower. Furthermore,<br />

in the case of ethanol obtained by<br />

fermentation and distillation, the presence<br />

of 5 percent water (azeotrope ethanol-water)<br />

should always be expected.<br />

Such water is very costly to eliminate<br />

because this operation requires chemical<br />

processes other than distillation. It<br />

is important that the injection system is<br />

able to recognize these two different alcohols,<br />

thus adjusting the flow rates to<br />

the current fuel.<br />

CapEx and Opex?<br />

The cost of a charging station can<br />

range from 80,000€ to 150,000€ depending<br />

on the installed power, while,<br />

as an example, the installation of 100<br />

meters of medium voltage cables costs<br />

100,000€. To sum up, the operating<br />

costs for diesel engines are estimated at<br />

0.45 €/kWh, in line with those fuelled<br />

100% by bio-alcohol (0.44 €/kWh).<br />

These figures fall to 0.38 €/kWh for<br />

natural gas and biomethane engines.<br />

And even to 2.40€/kWh for hydrogen<br />

in all its forms (green, blue and grey).<br />

What does it mean that the system<br />

can be associated with renewables?<br />

It means that the system, as it has been<br />

developed, is very well suited to being<br />

equipped with innovative biofuel engines.<br />

A future-oriented concept for a<br />

renewable energy storage system is also<br />

being considered. During periods of excess<br />

production, electricity can be used<br />

to create e-fuels from hydrogen, e-methane<br />

and e-methanol. These fuels are in<br />

order of necessary energy expenditure,<br />

but also, energy density, since these<br />

factors are directly proportional. Due<br />

to its very low mass and energy density,<br />

e-hydrogen is only suitable for daily<br />

storage, thus competing with lithium<br />

batteries. E-methane is much denser<br />

and can liquefy in e-Lng, making it possible<br />

to consider a weekly storage, approximately.<br />

E-methanol is dense and<br />

liquid at ambient pressure and temperature,<br />

theoretically allowing seasonal<br />

storage. Imagine a photovoltaic field<br />

producing so much energy during summer<br />

that it can be stored as methanol.<br />

The NGV <strong>Powertrain</strong>’s engine, in this<br />

case, would be the tool competing with<br />

fuel cells to convert such stored energy<br />

back into electricity. But the investment<br />

cost compared to a fuel cell, with only a<br />

marginally lower efficiency, is lower by<br />

an order of magnitude.<br />

34<br />


H2 - ONROAD<br />


kWe - ONROAD<br />




GOLDEN<br />

STATE<br />

PEM<br />

Tom Linebarger, Cummins CEO: “Hydrogen<br />

technologies, particularly electrolyzers, will be<br />

a fast-growing and increasingly important part<br />

of our business over the next few years.”<br />

IN THE<br />

RIGHT<br />

MOOD<br />

At up to 500 Wh/kg, Licerion<br />

batteries are produced at scale<br />

in large-format cells.<br />

T<br />

he other green side of the moon<br />

is definitely hydrogen, which has<br />

one of the world’s sanctuaries in<br />

California. Cummins couldn’t<br />

pass up this opportunity and opened its<br />

Hydrogen Fuel Cell <strong>Powertrain</strong> Integration<br />

Center in West Sacramento, the<br />

capital city of US State of California,<br />

signaling its commitment to scaling the<br />

green hydrogen economy in the United<br />

States. As the newest tenant in the<br />

California Fuel Cell Partnership building,<br />

Cummins will continue its work to<br />

make zero-emissions fleets a reality for<br />

customers with its PEM fuel cell technology.<br />

“Our presence in West Sacramento<br />

is important to advancing hydrogen<br />

technologies while being a central<br />

part of the decarbonization conversation<br />

in the United States,” said Amy<br />

Davis, Vice President and President<br />

of New Power at Cummins. “With the<br />

most advanced hydrogen infrastructure<br />

system in the country, California provides<br />

a great ecosystem for advancing<br />

alternative power technologies.”<br />

Cummins is investing in two types of<br />

hydrogen fuel cells: proton exchange<br />

membrane (PEM) fuel cells and solid<br />

oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). At the West<br />

Sacramento facility, the focus is PEM<br />

fuel cells, which are considered a good<br />

solution for high-power transportation<br />

applications, like heavy-duty, longhaul<br />

trucks. “We’re investing heavily<br />

in alternative power solutions, particularly<br />

hydrogen fuel cells, batteries<br />

and electric drivetrains,” said Amy<br />

Adams, Vice President of Fuel Cell<br />

and Hydrogen Technologies at Cummins.<br />

“We have unique expertise and<br />

talent to bring these together and put<br />

Cummins has opened<br />

its Hydrogen Fuel Cell<br />

<strong>Powertrain</strong> Integration<br />

Center in West<br />

Sacramento, California<br />

trucks in our customers’ hands today.”<br />

The new 18,000 sq. ft. (5486,4 sq. m.)<br />

Cummins site is designed specifically<br />

for hydrogen innovation, including<br />

safety features, and will house fuel cell<br />

integration and fuel cell powertrain<br />

development and testing, controls and<br />

electrical engineering. Cummins will<br />

be the largest tenant at the California<br />

Fuel Cell Partnership facility, which<br />

is occupied by other alternative power<br />

innovators and technology companies.<br />

“Cummins’ commitment to the State<br />

of California and to innovating more<br />

sustainable industry is important to the<br />

growth of our hydrogen economy and<br />

maintaining our role as a global leader<br />

in addressing the climate crisis,”<br />

said Frank Ramirez, Deputy Director,<br />

Goods Movement and Sustainable<br />

Freight, Go-Biz. “We support the work<br />

they are doing in West Sacramento, as<br />

they partner with companies across the<br />

state to improve sustainability and protect<br />

our communities.”<br />

L<br />

ithium is not only one of the<br />

most famous songs of Nirvana<br />

rock band and a mood stabilizer,<br />

it is above all the basic chemical<br />

element for batteries. Cummins<br />

has added another piece to the mosaic<br />

of its electrification strategy. The<br />

American company has entered into<br />

an agreement with Sion Power Corporation,<br />

a developer of high-energy<br />

rechargeable battery technology, to<br />

design and supply battery cells based<br />

on their proprietary lithium metal<br />

technology for commercial vehicle<br />

applications. In connection with the<br />

agreement, Cummins has made an<br />

investment in Sion Power. The investment<br />

provides Cummins a minority<br />

stake in Sion Power, allows Sion<br />

Power to further develop their lithium<br />

metal technology for the commercial<br />

vehicle market, and positions both<br />

companies for success in the future<br />

commercialization of the technology.<br />

Under the agreement, Sion Power<br />

will engage in a multi-year development<br />

program to design and supply<br />

large-format lithium metal battery<br />

cells for use in Cummins battery<br />

packs. The batteries developed by<br />

Cummins will be integrated in its<br />

electric powertrains for commercial<br />

vehicles.<br />

“Our customers rely on Cummins to<br />

provide the most robust electric powertrains<br />

in the world”, said Amy Davis,<br />

vice president at Cummins and<br />

president of the company’s New Power<br />

segment. “We need battery technologies<br />

that will meet the performance<br />

and cost expectations for tough, com-<br />

Cummins has entered<br />

into an agreement<br />

with Sion Power<br />

Corporation, focused<br />

on battery technology<br />

mercial vehicle duty cycles.”<br />

Based on Sion Power’s proprietary<br />

lithium-metal anode technology and<br />

incorporating its patented manufacturing<br />

process, the cell provides a robust,<br />

long-lasting rechargeable battery for<br />

Cummins’ demanding applications.<br />

“Sion Power’s Licerion is an enabling<br />

technology for Cummins’ future electric<br />

commercial vehicle offerings,”<br />

said Tracy Kelley, chief executive<br />

officer at Sion Power. “Cummins is<br />

an ideal partner for Sion Power to<br />

enable this next generation of electric<br />

mobility and significantly support the<br />

decarbonization of the transportation<br />

industry. Together this strategic relationship<br />

sets us on a path to deliver<br />

the future of batteries.”<br />

Talking about Sion, Licerion technology<br />

is an advanced approach to lithium-metal<br />

batteries containing twice<br />

the energy in the same size and weight<br />

battery, compared to a traditional lithium-ion<br />

battery.<br />

36<br />








ATS and cooling package, all of them<br />

integrated. These are C2.8 and C3.6<br />

industrial power units (IPU).<br />



MADE<br />

IN<br />

POWER<br />

UNITS<br />

UK<br />

ATS mounting, integrated cooling<br />

system, full wiring harness and<br />

mounting for the ECM and fuel filter.<br />

D<br />

o you would like to understand<br />

more about the importance<br />

of doing R&D on a<br />

large scale and then diversifying<br />

the product to tailor it to users’<br />

needs? The 2.8 and 3.6 litre diesel<br />

engines from Cat and Perkins are<br />

proof of this. Caterpillar has opened<br />

the <strong>2022</strong> with the launch of two IPU<br />

(Industrial Power Units). Common<br />

rail direct injection engines with a<br />

turbocharged or turbocharged aftercooled<br />

air system, the C2.8 and C3.6<br />

meet EU Stage V, U.S. EPA Tier 4<br />

Final and Japan 2014 (Tier 4 Final)<br />

emission standards.<br />

According with Caterpillar or ease<br />

of installation, the IPUs which are<br />

targeted at the construction and materials<br />

handling industries, provide<br />

customers with full aftertreatment<br />

mounting, an integrated cooling system,<br />

a full wiring harness and mounting<br />

for the ECM and fuel filter.<br />

The engines are offered in ratings<br />

ranging up to 55 kW (74 hp) at 2,400<br />

rpm for the C2.8 and up to 100 kW<br />

(136 hp) at 2,200 rpm for the C3.6.<br />

What kind of applications is this<br />

“all-inclusive” package are designed<br />

for? A flexible design makes these<br />

lightweight and compact engines<br />

ideal for use in construction and materials<br />

handling, and across different<br />

environments. Just to mention a couple<br />

of these, in completely opposite<br />

environmental and weather conditions,<br />

Cat mentioned a compressor in<br />

Dubai or a crusher in Norway.<br />

“We’re really pleased to launch these<br />

new IPUs,” says Steve Ferguson,<br />

Caterpillar has<br />

launched a range<br />

of drop-in engines,<br />

the C2.8 and C3.6<br />

industrial power units<br />

Vice President Industrial Power Systems.<br />

“We know our customers will<br />

really value these compact and highly<br />

integrated engines, which thanks<br />

to the minimal engineering required,<br />

are ready to be put to work.”<br />

Following are some features of<br />

Cat’s IPUs. Fully engine mounted<br />

aftertreatment, in order to save<br />

machine installation time. A fully<br />

integrated cooling package which<br />

has been validated to work in tough<br />

conditions. Heavy-duty cooling<br />

pack incorporating a pusher fan and<br />

erosion screen. To support operations<br />

in challenging conditions the<br />

IPU is also available with heavy<br />

duty fuel filters with increased dirt<br />

holding capability. A pre-installed<br />

ECU and bespoke wiring harness<br />

provide easy access for the machine<br />

harness hook-up. The C3.6 also provides<br />

a multi-rating flash file which<br />

can be configured to suit many power<br />

nodes.<br />

neering or design. Whether customers<br />

need to replace a current power system<br />

or power a new product, the latest<br />

members of the 904 Series range are<br />

pre-installed with ECM, aftertreatment<br />

sensors and fuel filter compatible with<br />

a wide range of machine types. Here,<br />

find out a short comment by Jaz Gill,<br />

Perkins Vice President of global sales,<br />

marketing, service and parts. “With a<br />

highly integrated design that’s ready<br />

to plug in to a range of machine types,<br />

the 2.8 and 3.6 litre models are designed<br />

to save customers’ time with a<br />

power solution that requires minimal<br />

re-engineering to integrate into their<br />

equipment.” For reliable cooling per-<br />

Perkins enriches its<br />

current IOPU offering<br />

with the introduction of<br />

two new 2.8 and<br />

3.6 litre models<br />

P<br />

erkins’ Syncro series has gained<br />

market share in the agricultural,<br />

construction and material handings<br />

sectors. Now the 2.8 and<br />

3.6-litre displacement engines are also<br />

available in IOPU (Industrial Open<br />

Power Unit) versions.<br />

The new IOPUs, part of the Perkins<br />

904 Series family, have been designed<br />

to provide original equipment<br />

manufacturers in the agricultural and<br />

industrial sectors with access to plugand-play<br />

power solutions that meet<br />

EU Stage V, U.S and EPA Tier 4 Final<br />

emission standards. The turbocharged<br />

2.8 litre delivers up to 55 kW and 300<br />

Nm of torque at 1600 rpm, while the<br />

larger and more powerful 3.6 litre turbocharged<br />

aftercooled offering has a<br />

maximum output of 100 kW and 550<br />

Nm of torque at 1500 rpm. As with all<br />

Perkins IOPUs, the 2.8 and 3.6 litre<br />

models are highly integrated and ready<br />

to plug into a variety of machines, removing<br />

the need for extensive reengiformance,<br />

the fully integrated cooling<br />

package has been validated to operate<br />

in a range of<br />

territories, and to reduce the installation<br />

cost in the machine, the aftertreatment<br />

is fully engine mounted. “The IOPU<br />

is designed for those OEMs that wish<br />

to enjoy the advantages and advanced<br />

technologies of our engines with minimum<br />

re-engineering,” added Gill. “As<br />

a plug-and-play solution, the IOPU is<br />

an ideal way to power these machines,<br />

as they are ready to go. These two new<br />

additions to our range mean we’re now<br />

able to offer customers a choice of IO-<br />

PUs at the key power nodes from 15.1<br />

kW up to 225 kW.” Would you like to<br />

know some features of Perkins IOPUs<br />

as well? Full aftertreatment mounting,<br />

integrated cooling system, full wiring<br />

harness and mounting for the ECM<br />

and fuel filter. The 3.6 litre IOPU can<br />

be configured with either 12 or 24V<br />

electrics. Hydraulic tappets, multi-vee<br />

belts and 500 hour service intervals.<br />

38<br />


kWe - MARINE<br />



CLEAN<br />

40<br />


THEY'LL<br />

THE SEA<br />

opment activities, Volvo Penta and<br />

Danfoss Editron division will rapidly<br />

deliver robust, reliable, and efficient<br />

electrification packages to a<br />

broader part of the marine commercial<br />

market. By working together<br />

from the design phase right through<br />

to installation, commissioning, and<br />

aftermarket support, the desire is to<br />

secure a totally seamless experience<br />

of the delivery of vessels. “Ultimately,<br />

we want to create a sustainable<br />

solution and find the ideal fit for the<br />

market. The marine sector urgent-<br />

Volvo Penta and<br />

Danfoss Editron<br />

division have signed<br />

a partnership<br />

agreement to drive the<br />

transformation in the<br />

marine industry<br />

Heléne Mellquist, President of<br />

Volvo Penta: “Our vision is to<br />

become a leader in sustainable<br />

power solutions.”<br />

V<br />

olvo Penta and Danfoss Editron<br />

played another four-handed<br />

score. During the last year<br />

we saw two Danish new crew<br />

transfer vessels reach the Danish<br />

coast after 12,000 miles from China.<br />

MHO Asgard and MHO Apollo<br />

are powered by a fully integrated<br />

solution made up of a Danfoss Editron<br />

electric drivetrain supported by<br />

Volvo Penta variable speed gensets<br />

that drive two of the first Electric<br />

IPS units as well as two D13 IPS by<br />

Volvo Penta. The two Scandinavian<br />

partners speak a very similar language,<br />

so Volvo Penta and Danfoss’<br />

Editron division decided to establish<br />

a partnership agreement to take the<br />

industry’s electromobility development<br />

to the next level. By leveraging<br />

their combined strengths, the two<br />

companies will work to optimize<br />

offerings to provide electromobility<br />

solutions for the marine industry. By<br />

cooperating on research and develly<br />

requires zero-emission solutions<br />

that offer ultimate maneuverability,<br />

precision, and comfort capable of<br />

operating in robust commercial marine<br />

environments. Together, the two<br />

companies have the winning combination<br />

of skills and technology to<br />

create unique solutions and drive<br />

sustainability in the industries they<br />

operate in,” said Kimmo Rauma,<br />

Vice President of Danfoss Editron<br />

division.<br />

“We generally see strength in collaboration,”<br />

says Peter Granqvist,<br />

Chief Technology Officer, Volvo<br />

Penta. “This partnership makes us<br />

a true system integrator. Both our<br />

companies are strong players in our<br />

respective fields. Volvo Penta has an<br />

integrated helm to prop, full systems<br />

approach, combined with a strong<br />

service network. By adding Danfoss’<br />

expertise and strength in electrification,<br />

we will deliver a unique offer<br />

in the market.”<br />

THIS IS<br />

MAN<br />



<strong>Diesel</strong> of the year 2021: John Deere 18.0L - MAN: cover story -<br />

Comparisons: between 1.5 and 1.9 liters - Alternatives: F28<br />

biomethane - Marine: MTU, Cummins, Hug Engineering, Vulkan<br />

NEW AGCO<br />

era<br />



<strong>Diesel</strong> of the year 2021: John Deere 18.0L - AGCO Power: 100<br />

million euro to relaunch Linnavuori - Kohler: All about<br />


the engines division - Sustainability: e-SUV & more<br />

Griffin<br />

Kohler Small Displacement - Sustainable Cat - H2 for<br />

freight & passengers - Web event: Is offroad multitasking? -<br />

Deutz between ICE and alternatives - Scania Power Solutions<br />


www.vadoetorno.com<br />

www.diesel-international.com<br />

www.dieseloftheyear.com<br />

ISSN 0042<br />

Press Register n. 4596 – April 20th 1994<br />

Poste Italiane Inc. – Mail subscription<br />

D.L. 353/20<strong>03</strong> (mod. in L. 27/02/2004 n° 46)<br />

Art. 1, subsection 1, LO/MI<br />


May 2021<br />


HYBRID<br />

MAN<br />

MAN Smart Hybrid Experience - Stage V: AGCO Power,<br />

Cummins and AS - Comparison: 170HP - Fish-Eye: asking<br />

Fincantieri Yachts - Sustainabilty by MTU, WRF, Earth300<br />


www.vadoetorno.com<br />

www.diesel-international.com<br />

www.dieseloftheyear.com<br />

ISSN 0042<br />

Press Register n. 4596 – April 20th 1994<br />

Poste Italiane Inc. – Mail subscription<br />

D.L. 353/20<strong>03</strong> (mod. in L. 27/02/2004 n° 46)<br />

Art. 1, subsection 1, LO/MI<br />


July 2021<br />




is now<br />


www.vadoetorno.com<br />

www.diesel-international.com<br />

www.dieseloftheyear.com<br />

ISSN 0042<br />

Isotta Fraschini Motori 16V170 G Engine Road Show -<br />

Press Register n. 4596 – April 20th 1994<br />

Poste Italiane Inc. – Mail subscription<br />

D.L. 353/20<strong>03</strong> (mod. in L. 27/02/2004 n° 46)<br />

Art. 1, subsection 1, LO/MI<br />


January <strong>2022</strong><br />

Comparison: 1.5 liters industrial engines - Fish-Eye: hybrid<br />


Huddig backhoe, with Cummins - Marine: Cannes and Genoa<br />

www.diesel-international.com<br />


www.vadoetorno.com<br />

www.diesel-international.com<br />

www.dieseloftheyear.com<br />

ISSN 0042<br />

Press Register n. 4596 – April 20th 1994<br />

Poste Italiane Inc. – Mail subscription<br />

D.L. 353/20<strong>03</strong> (mod. in L. 27/02/2004 n° 46)<br />

Art. 1, subsection 1, LO/MI<br />


September 2021<br />


www.vadoetorno.com<br />

www.diesel-international.com<br />

www.dieseloftheyear.com<br />

ISSN 0042<br />

Press Register n. 4596 – April 20th 1994<br />

Poste Italiane Inc. – Mail subscription<br />

D.L. 353/20<strong>03</strong> (mod. in L. 27/02/2004 n° 46)<br />

Art. 1, subsection 1, LO/MI<br />


November 2021

H2 - MARINE<br />


H2 - MARINE<br />




DUAL<br />

FUEL<br />


SHAPE UK is a collaborative project<br />

comprising B4T, Connected Places Catapult,<br />

Cox <strong>Powertrain</strong>, Engas, IOTICS, KnowNow,<br />

Lloyd’s Register, the University of Brighton and<br />

the University of Portsmouth.<br />


BETTER<br />

THAN IMO<br />


The gas reformer<br />

produces hydrogen from<br />

natural gas for use as<br />

engine fuel, while the CO 2<br />

produced is captured and<br />

stored onboard.<br />

H<br />

ow to issue a “green” licence<br />

to the so much maltreated<br />

ICE? According to Cox Marine,<br />

it is also possible for outboard<br />

engines; the solution is dual-fuel<br />

hydrogen. Cox Marine, has joined<br />

SHAPE UK, a consortium looking to<br />

transition Portsmouth <strong>International</strong><br />

Port into the UK’s first zero-emissions<br />

maritime hub. As part of this project,<br />

Cox will be working with the University<br />

of Brighton to convert one of the<br />

company’s CXO300 diesel outboard<br />

engines to operate as a dual fuel hydrogen<br />

engine and to demonstrate the<br />

engine operating in the port environment.<br />

The conversion and demonstration<br />

form part of the wider Shipping,<br />

Hydrogen & Port Ecosystems UK<br />

(SHAPE UK) project which aims to<br />

demonstrate an achievable modular<br />

green hydrogen generation system<br />

within Portsmouth <strong>International</strong> Port<br />

(PIP). Maritime operations are paramount<br />

to the efficient movement of<br />

goods nationally and globally but are<br />

often high contributors of CO 2<br />

emissions<br />

and air pollutants. The adoption<br />

of decentralised energy systems offers<br />

the potential to support the necessary<br />

transition of ports and their operations<br />

to carbon net-zero operations.<br />

James Eatwell, Head of Research and<br />

Development for Cox <strong>Powertrain</strong> and<br />

SHAPE UK project lead for Cox said:<br />

“The maritime sector as a whole and<br />

Cox in particular, recognise the need<br />

to make a positive contribution to the<br />

significant challenges of reducing<br />

worldwide CO 2<br />

emissions. From Cox’s<br />

Cox Marine<br />

collaborates with clean<br />

maritime consortium to<br />

demonstrate the world’s<br />

first diesel-hydrogen<br />

fuelled outboard<br />

perspective, hydrogen represents a<br />

highly promising option for the reduction<br />

of marine CO 2<br />

emissions, and we<br />

are delighted to be a part of this exciting<br />

project, bringing together as it does<br />

such a comprehensive range of expertise<br />

from across industry.”<br />

What are the aims of the SHAPE UK<br />

project? For first, address the viability<br />

of a local hydrogen infrastructure<br />

through the installation and test of a<br />

modular hydrogen electrolyser. Then,<br />

demonstrate a use case for portside hydrogen<br />

through the hydrogen dual-fuel<br />

Cox outboard. It’s also necessary to<br />

generate a digital twin of the port as<br />

a tool to determine the economic and<br />

environmental suitability of deploying<br />

H2 systems within key stakeholder<br />

ports. Finally, assess the regulatory<br />

landscape around the generation and<br />

use of hydrogen in a port environment<br />

to determine where deployment can<br />

occur immediately and where regulations<br />

need to be addressed.<br />

bustion engines or fuel cells, without<br />

the need to be supplied and stored on<br />

board. The CO 2<br />

will be liquefied by the<br />

cryogenic stream of LNG that would<br />

be used as fuel anyway and stored on<br />

board for later disposal ashore for carbon<br />

storage and use. In case of tankers,<br />

the stored CO 2<br />

can also be used as<br />

inert gas. The equipment necessary to<br />

meet the IMO 2050 can easily be fitted<br />

on the deck of a commercial vessel in<br />

a progressive manner, at subsequent<br />

drydocks after ship’s delivery. The duration<br />

of the transition will depend on<br />

how far the owner wishes to remain<br />

A scalable and<br />

sustainable proposal<br />

with hydrogen as fuel<br />

to meet IMO2050<br />

targets by ABB and<br />

Wärtsilä<br />

Pressure is mounting to accelerate<br />

the transition to hydrogen,<br />

and the most viable route seems<br />

to be brown hydrogen. Class<br />

society RINA, together with technology<br />

providers ABB, Helbio (subsidiary<br />

of Metacon AB), the Liberian Registry,<br />

Wärtsilä and an Energy Major<br />

have entered in a common effort to deliver<br />

a solution with hydrogen as fuel<br />

that would exceed IMO 2050 targets<br />

for 70% reduction of carbon intensity<br />

without the need for extensive infrastructure<br />

investment, offering the<br />

shipping industry a low-carbon pathway<br />

in shorter timescales.<br />

By producing hydrogen on board and<br />

using affordable and readily available<br />

LNG the solution meets the very<br />

demanding IMO targets for 2050 in a<br />

much shorter time frame. The concept<br />

is based on combining the ship’s fuel<br />

(natural gas) with steam to produce<br />

hydrogen and CO 2<br />

. Hydrogen will<br />

then be used directly in internal comahead<br />

of the competition in terms of<br />

efficiency and sustainability and exceed<br />

the regulatory requirements.<br />

Only LNG bunkering will be required<br />

and, by progressively increasing the<br />

production of hydrogen, the consumption<br />

of fossil methane and associated<br />

methane slip will be reduced at the<br />

same rate. This revolutionary concept<br />

will support the shipping industry’s<br />

gradual transition from LNG to hydrogen,<br />

without any major transformation<br />

of technology on board a ship. Wärtsilä<br />

and ABB will support the application<br />

of hydrogen in powering internal<br />

combustion engines and fuel cells respectively,<br />

while Helbio will provide<br />

the technology and manufacturing of<br />

reformer. RINA and Liberian Registry<br />

will provide advice and guidance<br />

on the application of rules and regulations<br />

for novel concept alternative<br />

designs, based on Hazid/Hazop analyses,<br />

as well as specific rules for this<br />

kind of arrangement.<br />

42<br />





IT'S THE<br />

RIGHT<br />



Made by UFI Filters, the oil and diesel filters for the<br />

Weichai’s record-breaking GBVI 11- and 13-litre diesel<br />

engine ensure a reduction in diesel and carbon dioxide<br />

emissions of up to 8 percent while offering<br />

a thermal efficiency of more than 50 percent.<br />

Weichai’s H3 GBVI engine has multiple truck, bus and<br />

commercial vehicle applications for the Chinese market,<br />

including JAC, Yutong and Kinglong buses, Shann’Qi, FAW<br />

Qingdao and CNHTC. The UFI Filters’ oil module also<br />

contributes to its performance, thanks to the 5 integrated<br />

valves: check valve, safety valve, by-pass valve and service<br />

valve and, finally, the innovative thermostatic valve<br />

engineered by UFI Filters engineers, which guarantees<br />

high control of engine oil pressure and temperature. The<br />

UFI Filters’ diesel filter, with an aluminium body, consists<br />

of a pre-filter, which has a filtration efficiency of 90<br />

percent at 10 μm, while the second stage of fine filtration<br />

takes place inside the filter, which retains more than 98<br />

percent of particles down to 4 μm. The diesel module is<br />

also equipped with a diesel heater for cold starts, a water<br />

sensor, a clogging sensor and a pressure sensor.<br />

The name UFI Filters strongly<br />

evokes automotive suggestions.<br />

Here, however, we would like<br />

to emphasise its contribution to<br />

industrial applications, with Giovanni<br />

Menini, Group CTO of UFI Filters.<br />

He explains that “UFI Filters has a<br />

premium OE pedigree, with 95% of the<br />

world’s automotive manufacturers and<br />

50% of the world’s heavy-duty manufacturers<br />

choosing us. Since 1971 we<br />

have made history in filtration, being<br />

the first ones to introduce the polyurethane-framed<br />

panel air filter in the<br />

1970s. In these last years, we have also<br />

launched the revolutionary UFI Multitube<br />

technology, exploiting a diesel filtration<br />

innovation, the Water Eliminator<br />

filter, which protects common rail<br />

injection systems from water residues<br />

in the fuel.”<br />

Onroad in a glance?<br />

By definition, filtration is an operation<br />

which, through a porous element (i.e.,<br />

the filter), allows to separate suspended<br />

particles in a fluid, while the fluid itself<br />

is passing through the filter. When it<br />

comes to diesel filtration, for example,<br />

our products are designed to separate<br />

micro-particles of particulate matter<br />

and water from diesel fuel. It should be<br />

noted that, for heavy duty applications,<br />

the flows and pressures of the fluids to<br />

UFI Filters has a<br />

premium OE pedigree,<br />

with 95% of automotive<br />

manufacturers and 50%<br />

of heavy duty OEMs<br />

be handled are greater, therefore we<br />

need products of larger dimensions.<br />

This type of applications requires more<br />

complex modules integrating different<br />

functions, such as temperature sensors,<br />

pressure sensors, water sensors and<br />

heaters. In addition, it is important to<br />

have two types of filtration: a pre-filter<br />

before the low-pressure pump, filtering<br />

water and coarser particles from diesel,<br />

and a downstream filter for fine filtration<br />

of smaller particles. Regarding<br />

oil filtration, our products are designed<br />

to separate from the oil not only any<br />

solid particle resulting from wear of<br />

mechanical parts, but also all carbon<br />

residues created by the combustion process<br />

(soot). As with diesel filtration, the<br />

choice of an appropriate filter media is<br />

crucial. For example, should you need<br />

to filter a motor oil with excess water,<br />

UFI Filters’ technicians can select the<br />

right “formula” of synthetic media. It<br />

is also important for HGV applications<br />

to offer the best thermal management<br />

of the lubrication circuit, for which<br />

UFI Filters is able to introduce heat<br />

exchangers in aluminium, produced<br />

using water cooling and vacuum brazing<br />

techniques, to the OE market.<br />

Systems that are lighter, cheaper and<br />

cleaner, such as the entire oil module<br />

for the MAN D15.<br />

What about CE and AG applications?<br />

As OE suppliers for customers such<br />

as FPT and Liebherr, it is easy to find<br />

our filters on both construction vehicles<br />

(e.g., excavators) and agricultural<br />

ones (e.g., tractors or harvesters). We<br />

can boast an important OE pedigree,<br />

with our presence on engines such as<br />

the CURSOR 11 and 13 for Iveco and<br />

New Holland. Other Original Equipment<br />

customers, besides CNH Industrial,<br />

FPT and Liebherr, include MAN,<br />

Daimler, Kamaz, Mahindra, Ford,<br />

SAIC, SAME and in the Chinese market<br />

Weichai, CNHTC, Shaanxi, just to<br />

name a few. In the marine sector we<br />

supply Isotta Fraschini and FPT marine<br />

engines as original equipment.<br />

What are your development plans<br />

and target for the industrial sector?<br />

UFI Filters, in the on-road and offroad<br />

heavy-duty sector, foresees a<br />

great opportunity for business development,<br />

which will be predominant<br />

in the coming years and is expected<br />

to triple by 2025. There are important<br />

ongoing projects, such as the supply<br />

of the transmission oil heat exchanger<br />

for the electric motor of Daimler Truck<br />

AG, and for the engine oil of the SAME<br />

Deutz-Fahr KF T5, as for the agricultural<br />

applications, and other important<br />

projects that we will unveil later on.<br />

What has changed for UFI with the<br />

transition to Stage IIIB first, then to<br />

Tier 4 Final, and finally to Stage V?<br />

There has been a transition from simple<br />

screw-on filters (that could be found on<br />

Stage III engines) to full-fledged filtration<br />

modules which not only house the<br />

filter, but also a series of sensors and<br />

valves that “communicate” with the<br />

engine ensuring maximum efficiency.<br />

For example, referring to Stage V, we<br />

could mention the latest generation of<br />

FPT Industrial F28, F5, NEF and Cursor<br />

engines or Liebherr D964, D956<br />

and D966.<br />

44<br />




Giovanni Menini, Group CTO of UFI Filters<br />

What is your involvement in perspectives<br />

that require a waste of mechanical<br />

energy, high pressures and<br />

temperatures, such as the gasification<br />

of propellers?<br />

We are working with Scania at the 13-litre<br />

CNG engine, on which we have installed<br />

a CNG/LNG filter with 10 bar<br />

operating pressure and UN ECE R 110<br />

C Class, Cold Ambient and UN ECE<br />

R67/I-Class certification. We are also<br />

dealing with CNG filters with an operating<br />

pressure of 200 bars after the 16<br />

bar CNG tank before the injectors with<br />

Kamaz for 8/13 litre engines. Furthermore,<br />

there is an ongoing cooperation<br />

for the conversion of dual fuel and mono<br />

fuel CNG engines in genset applications<br />

up to 1000 hp powered by 10 bar operating<br />

pressure CNG, and conversions of<br />

CNG powered marine engines.<br />

How about the electrification?<br />

UFI Filters enters the electric-powered<br />

truck business with the original<br />

equipment supply of the cooling module<br />

(multi-heat exchanger) for the transmission<br />

oil of Daimler Truck AG’s first<br />

mass-produced fully electric truck. Two<br />

pairs of heat exchangers operating in<br />

parallel, assembled on a single aluminium<br />

body, which are essential for optimising<br />

the oil temperature of the transmission<br />

circuit. UFI has also developed<br />

filters with a FormulaUFI.Micron media<br />

in a compact design for high efficiency<br />

filtration, to meet the specific<br />

requirements of the hybrid transmission<br />

system (DHT). There are suction filters<br />

and pressure filters in the DHT system<br />

to fulfil this requirement. The suction<br />

filter has a compact filtration structure<br />

with a FormulaUFI.Micron media, and<br />

is equipped with a mesh designed for a<br />

coarse filtration function, and a fine filtration<br />

layer that can reach β14≥1000.<br />

To achieve such a high degree of efficiency,<br />

UFI Filters has developed a special<br />

synthetic fibre supporting element<br />

which can also maintain low pressure<br />

drops in a limited layout. In order to keep<br />

a compact structure, a new advanced<br />

process was introduced: laser welding<br />

of the plastic to avoid larger connection<br />

edges. This process also offers an<br />

advantage in terms of cleanliness: it<br />

avoids the generation of contaminating<br />

particles during friction welding. Cooperation<br />

with European and US Truck<br />

Makers is also under way to develop innovative<br />

concepts for ambient air filters<br />

as a reaction to the hydrogen oxidation<br />

process for the production of electricity<br />

through fuel cells.<br />

Could you please tell us something<br />

about the chemical processes of the<br />

materials used in UFI filters?<br />

FormulaUFI is the brand that embraces<br />

all UFI’s filtration know-how. The<br />

UFI.Extreme formula gives the name<br />

to the extreme performance filter media,<br />

even under the most difficult conditions.<br />

Synthetic-based filter material<br />

produced by Meltblown process whose<br />

efficiency is determined by the distribution<br />

and size of the fibres themselves,<br />

which may vary according to the needs<br />

of specific applications. FormulaUFI.<br />

Extreme guarantees a filtration efficiency<br />

of over 99.5% in the case of<br />

fuel filtration and is compatible with<br />

biodiesel. It can also be applied to oil<br />

filters, offering a reduction in pressure<br />

losses, and to air filters such as Multitube,<br />

for Porsche, Great Walls, Maserati<br />

applications, providing better<br />

filtration in a limited space and longer<br />

filter life.<br />

UFI.Stratiflex refers to the layered<br />

combination of different materials,<br />

such as cellulose, glass fibres and<br />

hydrophobic fabrics. UFI.Micron,<br />

on the other hand, is the filter media<br />

consisting of glass fibres, sometimes<br />

combined with other synthetic fibres,<br />

which offers a filtration capacity for<br />

smallest particles. Once applied to oil<br />

filters, such as the one in the Jaguar<br />

AJ133 engine, it reduces particulate<br />

matter in the oil deriving from the engine<br />

members friction, thus preventing<br />

filter clogging. Then UFI.Web is a wire<br />

mesh capable of capturing impurities,<br />

as in the automatic transmission system<br />

for ZF and the hybrid transmission<br />

system (DHT) for Geely. The steel wire<br />

mesh is solid and durable, compatible<br />

with high temperature fluids. It provides<br />

low pressure drops for high flow<br />

rates and is therefore suitable even for<br />

the most extreme conditions, such as<br />

racing applications. UFI.H2O, as the<br />

acronym says, identifies the filter material<br />

that offers a high water separation<br />

capacity thanks to a cellulose fibre<br />

base combined with synthetic or glass<br />

fibres, such as the diesel filter for Ford<br />

F-Max Euro 6. It can offer a filtration<br />

efficiency of up to 99.5% at 4 microns.<br />

Finally, UFI.Cell is made of a cellulose<br />

material combined with synthetic<br />

fibres or glass, as in the oil filter for the<br />

MAN D15 or Weichai H2, H3 and H5<br />

engines. It offers high filtration performance<br />

for both oil and petrol filters,<br />

but also for air, where it has important<br />

flame retardant capabilities.<br />

46<br />


TECHNO<br />



It is not only the big names in agricultural<br />

machinery, such as John<br />

Deere, who are pushing electrification.<br />

EVE (Electric Vehicle<br />

Experience) announced the launch of<br />

the all-new AGRI-EVE EVO series,<br />

electric tractors platform, a specially<br />

designed, narrow purpose-built model<br />

designed for easy handling and<br />

maneuverability on vineyards, orchards,<br />

greenhouses, and farm operations.<br />

The company focuses on the development<br />

of innovative solutions for<br />

electric mobility, both for on-road and<br />

off-road The AGRI-EVE EVO series<br />

are 4WD electric tractors designed for<br />

agricultural applications. With up to<br />

eight hours of operation from a single<br />

charge and the ability to extend that<br />

time via swappable battery packs options,<br />

EVO tractors allow operators to<br />

work more efficiently. Smart Charging<br />

Level 2, 7kW and 11kW, and fast<br />

charging 50kW also with a solar array.<br />

EVO products are now available<br />

AGRI<br />

EVE<br />

for pre-order. Delivery expected in<br />

the last quarter of <strong>2022</strong>. Implemented<br />

with highly innovative technology<br />

systems such as remote control and<br />

unmanned technology, the benefit is<br />

efficiency, “precision agriculture and<br />

remote control of more than one machine<br />

at the same time” are now the<br />

standard for modern farms.<br />

Said EVE CEO Massimo Galli: “Zero-emission<br />

electric tractors are in<br />

high demand as more and more governments<br />

are requiring that farmers<br />

cut emissions and reduce pollution.<br />

The EVO series are designed to meet<br />

the needs of these customers. The<br />

unique and multi-faceted new model<br />

will position AGRI-EVE to gain market<br />

share and compete very favorably<br />

with medium- and heavy-duty tractors<br />

in both agriculture and commercial<br />

tractor segments.”<br />

EVE consultancy is committed to establishing<br />

new strategic partnerships,<br />

selecting the companies with the best<br />

products in their sector in the Italian<br />

market for our future products. As a<br />

result of this commitment, we have<br />

built the first electric tractor “made in<br />

Italy”.<br />

Bergen Engines recently<br />

launched a comprehensive<br />

test programme towards zero<br />

carbon emission engines,<br />

allowing a gradual transition from<br />

liquid natural gas to 100% green<br />

hydrogen fuel, as and when it becomes<br />

commercially available. The<br />

first tests on a B-Series Bergen gas<br />

engine, running on a blend of 15%<br />

hydrogen and 85% natural gas, have<br />

been successfully completed without<br />

any hardware adjustments.<br />

It was confirmed that the power output<br />

was maintained according to<br />

specification at all load levels while<br />

the carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide<br />

emission were reduced. The<br />

lower unburned hydrocarbon levels<br />

and methane slip are also proven.<br />

Jon Erik Røv, Managing Director of<br />

Bergen Engines said: “This is a great<br />

first step in the decarbonization of<br />

our customer’s operations and a testament<br />

of the high fuel acceptance<br />

capability of our Bergen engines.”<br />

Hydrogen is by many considered<br />

the best suited energy carrier for<br />

renewable fuel production for land<br />

power generation, short sea and inland<br />

navigation. A blend of hydrogen<br />

and natural gas as fuel is a first<br />

step towards zero carbon emissions.<br />

Bergen Engines is aiming to have a<br />

commercial solution in the market<br />

that will accept hydrogen content of<br />

up to 60%, and solutions that can be<br />

further developed to accept 100%<br />

for new engines to come. The aim<br />

is for its current gas engine fleet to<br />


take low levels of hydrogen without<br />

any hardware changes. When there is<br />

viable access to green hydrogen, the<br />

intention is that the Bergen engines<br />

are ready and mature with higher<br />

levels of hydrogen. An applicable engine<br />

upgrade may be done as part of<br />

a main service revision that includes<br />

piston replacement, so that a portion<br />

of the expense can be offset into the<br />

normal service cost.<br />

Rolls-Royce Power Systems is currently working on mtu engines for use with methanol. The new high-speed<br />

four-stroke engines, which are based on mtu technologies, are planned to be available to customers as soon<br />

as possible for use in commercial ships and yachts. Methanol can be produced in a CO 2<br />

-neutral manner in the<br />

so-called power-to-X process, in which CO 2<br />

is captured from the air. The energy density of methanol is high<br />

compared to other sustainable fuels and, thanks to its liquid state, it can be easily stored and refuelled at<br />

ambient temperatures. Existing infrastructure can continue to be used in many cases. Unlike ammonia, methanol<br />

is not highly toxic and is environmentally safe. The combustion of methanol in a pure methanol engine can be<br />

climate-neutral with significantly reduced nitrogen oxide emissions, thus eliminating the need for complex SCR<br />

exhaust gas aftertreatment. Methanol tanks can be flexibly arranged in the ship and require significantly lower<br />

safety measures compared to hydrogen or ammonia. Besides the safety aspects and the lower complexity,<br />

the lower investment costs for users are a further upside of the methanol tank system.<br />

48<br />


50<br />

H2 - TECHNO<br />


The aim of the agreement between<br />

Mahle and Ballard Power<br />

Systemst is to manufacture complete<br />

fuel cell systems for several<br />

markets, from Europe to North America<br />

and Asia. During the first phase of<br />

the cooperation, Ballard will be primarily<br />

responsible for system design relating<br />

to the fuel cell stack, while Mahle<br />

is bringing its extensive experience in<br />

the areas of thermal management, power<br />

electronics, and packaging. This is<br />

not at all the first agreement signed by<br />

the Canadian specialist, which is already<br />

working with some primary players<br />

in the commercial vehicle industry,<br />

such as Forsee Power, Quantron<br />

or Eaton. During the first phase of the<br />

cooperation, Ballard will be primarily<br />

responsible for system design relating<br />

to the fuel cell stack, while Mahle is<br />

bringing its extensive experience in the<br />

areas of thermal management, power<br />

electronics, and packaging.<br />

“Climate neutral hydrogen is the energy<br />

carrier of the future and, at the<br />

same time, key for the achievement of<br />


climate targets for medium and heavy<br />

commercial vehicles”, said Jörg Stratmann,<br />

Chairman of the Mahle Management<br />

Board and CEO. “Through<br />

our cooperation with Ballard, we will<br />

provide a strong stimulus to the development<br />

of fuel cell drives that are suitable<br />

for large-scale production”.<br />

“Given increasing policy support for<br />

low-emission powertrains in particular,<br />

we are pleased to work with Mahle<br />

on driving forward our shared vision<br />

of carbon- neutral heavy-duty transport”,<br />

replied Randy MacEwen, CEO<br />

of Ballard Power Systems.<br />

According to Marco Warth, Mahle<br />

Director Corporate Advanced Engineering,<br />

“the big difference from the<br />

situation maybe five years ago is that<br />

public institutions around the world<br />

are now putting a tremendous amount<br />

of funding into fuel cell technology.”<br />

For instance, China plans to achieve<br />

an annual production capacity of 5.5<br />

million fuel cell systems and construct<br />

10,000 hydrogen refueling stations by<br />

2050.<br />



Engines and components for OEM<br />

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And market of <strong>Diesel</strong> engines<br />

Established in 1986<br />

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Contributors<br />

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There’s an unbreakable bond between John Deere products and<br />

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7 - 9 MARCH <strong>2022</strong> STAND H2.A10<br />


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