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Fitness Assistant (sample manual)

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EQF LEVEL

2

Active IQ

Fitness

Assistant

MANUAL

VERSION IQ001001


Muscles – the structure and function of the muscular system

Section 2

Section 2: Muscles – the

structure and function of the

muscular system

There are over 700 skeletal muscles in the human body. Skeletal muscles cross over joints via a tendon and create

the movement of the body. They help to maintain correct posture and keep the joints stable and in the correct

position and alignment. They work voluntarily and are under our ‘conscious’ control. The main ones are:

Pectoralis

major

Deltoid

Trapezius

Latissimus

dorsi

Obliques

Rectus

abdominis

Quadriceps

Tibialis

anterior

We also have two other types of muscle:

Biceps

Abductors

Adductors

Gluteus maximus

Triceps

Hamstrings

Gastrocnemius

Smooth muscle tissue is found in the internal systems of the body, including the digestive, circulatory, urinary and

reproductive systems. Smooth muscle works involuntarily; it is not under our ‘conscious’ control.

Principles of anatomy and physiology for fitness and physical activity

Cardiac muscle is only found in the heart. It

works continuously to pump blood and oxygen

around the body. It works involuntarily, that is,

it is not under our conscious control.

Muscles account for much of our body weight:

around 40% of male body weight and slightly

less for females, because women have a

higher proportion of essential fat mass

(needed to maintain the menstrual cycle and

assist reproduction).

Copyright © 2022 AIQ International Qualifications. Not for resale 8


Nervous system

anatomy

Healthy eating and hydration

Energy

1046kJ

250kcal

13%

Check the label on

packaged foods

Each serving (150g) contains

Fat Saturates Sugars Salt

3.0g 1.3g 34g 0.9g

LOW LOW HIGH MED

4%

7%

38%

15%

of an adult’s reference intake

Typical values (as sold) per 100g: 697kJ/ 167kcal

Choose foods lower

in fat, salt and sugars

Frozen

peas

Use the Eatwell Guide to help you get a balance of healthier and more sustainable food. It

shows how much of what you eat overall should come from each food group.

Fruit and vegetables

Chopped

tomatoes

Eat at least 5 portions of a variety of fruit and vegetables every day

Raisins

Eatwell Guide

Lentils

Potatoes

Whole

grain

cereal

Choose wholegrain or higher fibre versions with less added fat, salt and sugar

Cous

Cous

Porridge

Potatoes, bread, rice, pasta and other starchy carbohydrates

Whole

wheat

pasta

Bagels

Rice

6-8

a day

Water, lower fat

milk, sugar-free

drinks including

tea and coffee all

count.

Limit fruit juice

and/or smoothies

to a total of

150ml a day.

Tuna

Beans

lower

salt

and

sugar

s Low fat

oft cheese

Spaghetti

Crisps

Plain

nuts

Chick

peas

Lean

mince

Semi

skimmed

milk

Soya

drink

Plain

Low fat

yoghurt

Veg

Oil

Lower fat

spread

Sauce

Eat less often and

in small amounts

Beans, pulses, fish, eggs, meat and other proteins

Eat more beans and pulses, 2 portions of sustainably

sourced fish per week, one of which is oily. Eat less

red and processed meat

Dairy and alternatives

Choose lower fat and

lower sugar options

Per day 2000kcal

Oil & spreads

Choose unsaturated oils

and use in small amounts

2500kcal = ALL FOOD + ALL DRINKS

Source: Public Health England in association with the Welsh Government, Food Standards Scotland and the Food Standards Agency in Northern Ireland © Crown copyright 2016

Every system depends on other

systems for optimal functioning.

CARBOHYDRATE

ENERGY

The body is a living structure comprised of many

finely integrated and interconnected systems.

Each system can be described independently and

separately, but it is important to remember that they

are actually interdependent.

PROTEIN

GROWTH AND REPAIR

Skeletal anatomy

FAT

ENERGY AND INSULATION

GOOD FATS

Oily fish

Avocado

Olive oil

Pumpkin seeds

BAD FATS

Crisps

Cheese

Red meat

Cream

Copyright © 2022 AIQ International Qualifications. Not for resale


The principles of training

Section 2

KEY

POINT

Muscular fitness

training goals:

2-3 days a week, with

rest days between

working the same

muscles, 1 set of 8-12

repetitions, moderate

resistance, moderate

speed.

Muscular strength is: ‘the ability of the muscles to contract forcefully and maximally

to lift heavy weights’. Maximal strength is the amount of weight that can be lifted for

one repetition, e.g. an olympic power lift.

Muscular endurance is: ‘the ability of the muscles to contract repeatedly over a

given period of time without fatigue’. It is being able to lift a lower weight for more

repetitions.

Examples of activities requiring muscular strength and endurance include: all

sporting events such as: power lifting and heavy weight training (strength) or running,

cycling, circuit training (endurance); daily activities, lifting and moving heavy objects

(strength), carrying bags (endurance).

KEY

POINT

Flexibility training

goals:

At least 3 days a week,

all muscles. We can

stretch every day. Only

stretch muscles when

they are warm.

Examples of activities requiring muscular strength and endurance

Flexibility is: ‘the ability to move the joints through their full range of movement’.

Examples of activities requiring flexibility include: gymnastics, trampolining, dance,

yoga and daily activities where we need to reach and bend.

Principles of active, healthy living

Examples of activities requiring flexibility

Motor skills include: balance, co-ordination, speed, power, reaction time. All activities will require a combination of

motor skills. Some activities use some skills more than others.

For example: walking a tightrope will require lots of balance; a choreographed dance routine will require lots of coordination;

a sprint start from the blocks will require good reaction time; a javelin throw will require power.

Examples of activities requiring use of motor skills

Copyright © 2022 AIQ International Qualifications. Not for resale 12


The main components of a fitness and activity session

Section 2

Assessing health and fitness

Simple assessments can be conducted at the start or at certain points throughout a fitness programme. These

assessments can be used to check any changes that may occur.

There are many different assessments that can be used. These include:

Health

assessments

Physical fitness

assessments

• Height and weight

• Body mass index

• Waist-to-hip ratio

• Muscular strength

• Muscular endurance

• Cardiovascular

Health assessments

Height and weight

Height and weight tables provide guidelines for a healthy body weight. They are also a valid method of gauging body

mass index (BMI).

To ensure that accurate measurements are gathered the following steps must be adhered to.

Test guidelines

WEIGHT

ASSESSMENT

HEIGHT

ASSESSMENT

Body mass index (BMI)

• Resting heart rate

• Blood pressure

• Use calibrated scales, make sure the participant removes

shoes and heavy clothing and ensure all retests are

scheduled for the same time of day.

• Flexibility

• Make sure the participant removes shoes and stands tall.

Take the highest part of the head as the measurement (be

aware that height decreases as the day goes on).

• Motor skills

Assist in the delivery of a fitness or physical activity session

BMI is the standard measure used for clinical diagnosis of obesity.

It predicts health risks for most people accurately. It is not a reliable

indicator for strength athletes and bodybuilders (around 2% of the

population) because it only takes height and weight into account –

not body composition. Bodybuilders with very low levels of fat are

often classified as ‘obese’ by this method.

BMI is a quick and easy gauging method. A BMI reading of 30 or

more is classified as obese.

BMI (kg/m 2 )

Description


Exercise library

Appendix 1

STEP UPS

Start Finish Teaching points

• Keep close to the step/bench

• Make sure the whole of the foot is in contact with

the step

• Stand up tall at the top of the movement

• Keep abdominals engaged

• Knees are soft

Muscles worked

• Quadriceps

• Gluteus maximus

• Gastrocnemius

RESISTANCE BAND- LOW ROW

Start

Finish

Options

• Use a small step

• Hold a weight

Teaching points

• Sit up straight with the abdominals engaged

• Keep the knees slightly bent

• Ensure that the resistance band is safely around the

middle of the feet

• Palms of the hands facing in

• Keep the elbows soft and tucked into the waist

Assist in the delivery of a fitness or physical activity session

Muscles worked

• Trapezius

• Latissimus Dorsi

• Biceps

Options

• Perform the exercise whilst standing. Wrap the band

around something secure

• Perform a single arm row

Copyright © 2022 AIQ International Qualifications. Not for resale 46

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