PuK - Process Technology & Components 2022

A technical trade magazine with a history of 60 years.

A technical trade magazine with a history of 60 years.


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1 2 3 4<br />

Network pressure Pressure Required pressure Pressure range limit Volumetric flow rate<br />

7.18 bar 99.56 bar 7.00 bar 8.40 bar 11.06 bar<br />

8.5<br />

8.0<br />

7.5<br />

7.0<br />

6.5<br />

C1<br />

C2<br />

C3<br />

C14<br />

08:45 08:55 08:55 09:00 09:05 09:10 Time<br />

12.0<br />

11.0<br />

10.0<br />

9.0<br />

8.0<br />

7.0<br />

6.0<br />

09:12:47<br />

30.10.2020<br />

EN 5<br />

i<br />

Analyse<br />

& learn<br />

Unlimited options<br />

Tracking<br />

& logging<br />

Compressors<br />

C1 - ASD 60 SFC<br />

C2 - ASK 40<br />

C3 - BSD 75<br />

SAM 4.0 / 4<br />

Pressure curve<br />

Automatic<br />

Pressure curve Current values History<br />

7.18 bar<br />

Status<br />

Messages<br />

Monitoring<br />

Energy & Costs<br />

C4 - BSD 75<br />

bar<br />

m³/min<br />

Maintenance<br />

Control<br />

Time Control<br />

Initial Start-up<br />

1,2,3, n<br />

Confi guration<br />

Status - Overview<br />

Contact<br />

Optimise<br />

Simulate<br />

& evaluate<br />

Complex analysis made easy<br />

Simulation-based optimisation process<br />

Tracking and logging: With the tracking and logging of compressed air consumption and system switching activities, a predictive approach is<br />

possible. Be proactive – not reactive.<br />

Analyse and learn: The simulation-based optimisation process produces a fully objective analysis of events in the compressed air system.<br />

Over time, the system learns the key factors influencing the behaviour of the station and its components. Apply knowledge, don’t waste it.<br />

1,2,3,n<br />

Unlimited options: With the scope for action and the learned technical and system behaviour, it is possible to predict future system behaviour<br />

and events. Think first, then act.<br />

Simulate and evaluate: Through the potentially unlimited number of future simulations, future energy needs are evaluated. This supports<br />

well-informed decision making based on the true costs of various options. Compressors are no longer operated under a fixed set of rules.<br />

The advantage: System switching operations are geared to the application at hand and the customer’s needs. Progress through innovation.<br />

Optimise the system: The simulation-based optimisation process individually adjusts compressed air system operation in real-time, based on<br />

specific power. This ensures maximum energy efficiency while adapting the system to all requirements. Know what needs to be done.<br />


1 2 3 4<br />

1 2 3 4<br />

12.01.2021<br />

SAM 4.0 / 4<br />

Automatic<br />

7.94 bar<br />

13.01.2021<br />

13:54:49 EN 2<br />

Station<br />

Status<br />

Compressors<br />

C1<br />

Power<br />

Volumetric flow rate<br />

116.04<br />

16.69<br />

kW<br />

m³/min<br />

Messages<br />

C1 - ASD 60 SFC<br />

Monitoring<br />

C2 - ASD 35<br />

C2<br />

D1<br />

F1<br />

Energy & Costs<br />

C3 - ASD 60<br />

DHS1<br />

Maintenance<br />

C4 - ASD 60<br />

Dryer<br />

D1 - TF 174<br />

D2 - TF 174<br />

Filter<br />

F1 - F184KE<br />

F2 - F184KE<br />

C3<br />

C4<br />

D2<br />

F2<br />

CT1<br />

R1<br />

100%<br />

Control<br />

Time Control<br />

Initial Start-up<br />

Confi guration<br />

Next<br />

Generation<br />

Status - Station<br />

Contact<br />

i<br />

SAM 4.0 / 4<br />

Mode manuel<br />

7.95 bar<br />

10:01:13 EN 2<br />

Station<br />

Compressors<br />

C1 - ASD 60 SFC<br />

C2 - ASD 35<br />

C3 - ASD 60<br />

C4 - ASD 60<br />

Dryer<br />

Oil filter in 450h 3000h<br />

Air filter in 150h 3000h<br />

Oil separator in 33h 3000h<br />

!<br />

! Belt/coupling inspection in 66h 35000h<br />

! Oil change in 112h 3000h<br />

! Electric equipment in 277h 36000h<br />

Bearing lube in 527h 36000h<br />

Valves in 2500h 36000h<br />

Bearing change in 2527h 12000h<br />

Group maintenance in 7058h 8550h<br />

Estimated due date for next service measure:<br />

25.12.2020<br />

Status<br />

Messages<br />

Monitoring<br />

Energy & Costs<br />

Wartung<br />

Control<br />

Time Control<br />

D1 - TF 174<br />

Initial Start-up<br />

D2 - TF 174<br />

Confi guration<br />

Filter<br />

F1 - F184KE<br />

F2 - F184KE<br />

Maintenance - Overview<br />

Contact<br />

i<br />

Efficiency has a name:<br />


Centralised controllers are now expected to do more than just optimise compressor operation in line with current demand. Efficiency<br />

is playing an ever-increasing role. The days of rigid rules are over. With clear and basic switching sequences, it is no longer possible<br />

to optimise energy efficiency while responding to constant fluctuations in compressed air demand. Any rule encoded in an algorithm<br />

limits the flexibility of the system controller and reduces the scope for action.<br />

The tracking and logging of past compressed air consumption patterns makes it possible to forecast future demand. Based on these<br />

demand projections, the set-up of the components themselves, and the accumulated knowledge on the equipment and system behaviour,<br />

the unique, simulation-based optimisation process can predictively identify the most efficient switching sequences.<br />

Be proactive – not reactive. Decisions are no longer dictated by a narrow pressure range. Now the decisive factor is how to achieve<br />

the lowest costs for the required compressed air output – while maintaining the required pressure level and staying within the maximum<br />

pressure setting (pressure margin). True to the motto: “More compressed air for less energy”.<br />


Editorial<br />

Hydrogen in the atmosphere<br />

Dear readers,<br />

If you were to look for the most common word in today’s tech magazines, it would be hydrogen. Green, blue, turquoise,<br />

grey, it doesn’t matter, everything has come into focus. But one aspect is always missing: hydrogen is a volatile gas<br />

that, once it reaches the free atmosphere, knows only one way, and that is upwards. However, what happens then? A<br />

discussion with atmospheric chemists and meteorologists led to the following conclusion:<br />

Of course, our planet also produces hydrogen. In total there are 0.5 ppm in our atmosphere, which means an average<br />

of 175 teragrammes/year production. About 70–90 teragrammes/year come from the earth’s surface and the other<br />

half comes from photo-oxidation in the atmosphere. But if this happens per year, then that means there is a continuous<br />

stream going up. If we now artificially add hydrogen, which can be achieved worldwide through leaks and<br />

accidental releases of a comparable magnitude, then this increases the lift and possibly also the speed and disturbs<br />

the previous “equilibrium”. I know that’s probably not twice as much in real terms. But we don’t know when an equilibrium<br />

will tip over here. Should we take the risk then? So we should ask ourselves what the hydrogen is doing “up<br />

there”. On the way it will react to the free ions like hydroxides and finally reach the stratosphere, where it will find an<br />

eager reacting partner, ozone. It will turn into water with the hydrogen and increasingly form cirrus clouds. At the same<br />

time, there are still stratospheric polar winds that generate mass transport in the polar direction and possibly further<br />

reduce the already reduced ozone there. Additional cirrus clouds could also create more shadows, thus counter acting<br />

the warming. Will the sun shine less often in our future, or will a process that has not yet been researched stabilise<br />

this situation?<br />

It should not be forgotten that hydrogen is one of the most important substances of life, next to carbon, and also the<br />

most important ingredient for the most important foodstuff, water. If all the energy in the world were generated with<br />

hydrogen (which of course would never be achieved), this would correspond almost exactly to the amount of water<br />

in Lake Constance. If we now only lose 10% of this hydrogen annually, then Lake Constance would be empty after 10<br />

years. This is of course just an exaggerated example calculation, but it also shows that hydrogen is not only essential<br />

for industry, but also for the living nature of which we are a part.<br />

This is not to say that I am against hydrogen as a green alternative to fossil fuels. I just think hydrogen is valuable in a<br />

number of ways and so shouldn’t be wasted. So, make your systems as leak tight as possible and handle the hydrogen<br />

in such a way that it can always become water.<br />

So, when we talk about seals in this issue, it’s meant to be an impetus to consider the leak tightness of hydrogen<br />

systems. At the same time, plasticising metallic seals are the best choice for this purpose and LOHC is a permanent<br />

memory without loss.<br />

Kind regards,<br />

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Eberhard Schlücker<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong><br />



Editorial Advisory Board<br />

Editorial Advisory Board <strong>2022</strong><br />

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Eberhard Schlücker, Institute for <strong>Process</strong> <strong>Technology</strong> and Machinery, University Erlangen-Nuremberg<br />

Head of the Editorial Advisory Board<br />

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Eberhard Schlücker was born in 1956 and studied mechanical engineering at the Heilbronn University of Applied<br />

Sciences and Chemical Engineering at the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg where he did his doctorate in 1993. His industrial<br />

activity comprised an apprenticeship as a mechanic, three years as a designing engineer, four years as head of the R&D department<br />

and five years as proxy in the Engineering division. Since the year 2000 he has been professor and has been holding<br />

the chair in “<strong>Process</strong> Machinery and System Engineering“ at the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg. His subject area includes<br />

layout and operation of systems, machines and plants for chemistry, water, food and biotechnological engineering as well as<br />

practical management. His research focus is on the pulsation problem and system dynamics in plants, the optimization and simulation of pumps,<br />

compressors and systems, the high-pressure component and process technology, the application of ionic fluids, the energetic optimization of<br />

systems and the research of wear processes. At the same time, he has been editor of magazines, member of several bodies and research associations,<br />

technical consultant for companies and lecturer in international training programs and since 2008 Vice Dean of the School of Engineering.<br />

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Andreas Brümmer, Head of Fluidics at Technical University Dortmund<br />

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Andreas Brümmer, born in 1963, studied aerospace engineering at the Technical University of Braunschweig<br />

where he received a doctorate at the Institute of Fluid Mechanics in the field of Flight of Birds. His industrial career started in<br />

1997 as Head of Department for Fluid Dynamics at Kötter Consulting Engineers KG. There, he gained first experiences in the<br />

physical analysis and elimination of flow-induced vibrations in industrial plants. In 2005, he became Technical Director of the<br />

company. Since 2066, he has been professor and Head of Fluidics at the Technical University of Dortmund. His research foci<br />

included the theoretical and experimental analysis of screw-type machines, both in compressor applications (e. g. refrigeration<br />

compressors and air compressors, vacuum pumps) and in expander applications (e. g. waste heat utilization). Furthermore,<br />

he researches the interaction between unsteady pipe flow and gas flow meters. From 2008 to 2011, he was Vice Dean and Dean of the Faculty<br />

of Mechanical Enginee ring and since 2012 he has been Senator at the Technical University of Dortmund. He is reviewer of several international<br />

journals, member of industrial advisory boards and scientific committees and scientific director of the VDI symposium “Screw-Type Machines”.<br />

Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Gerhart Hobusch, Project Engineer, KAESER KOMPRESSOREN SE, Coburg<br />

Gerhart Hobusch, born in 1964, studied mechanical engineering at the University of Applied Sciences in Schweinfurt, Northern<br />

Bavaria. He graduated with a degree in mechanical engineering and completed postgraduate studies with a degree in industrial<br />

engineering. He has been working as a project engineer at KAESER KOMPRESSOREN SE, Coburg, since 1989. His responsibilities<br />

include the planning of compressed air stations, the development of economical, energy-saving concepts for compressed<br />

air stations and the worldwide training of KAESER project engineers. As part of his job, he has worked on research projects<br />

such as the “Compressed Air Efficiency” campaign, the EnEffAH joint project, as well as FOREnergy and Green Factory Bavaria,<br />

and is active in the VDMA's compressed air technology department. The standard compliant implementation of volume flow<br />

and power measurements on compressors, also in connection with China Energy Label efficiency requirements, as well as compressed air quality<br />

measurements according to ISO standards are also part of his tasks. In addition to the specialist lectures on compressed air technology held<br />

over the years, he is participating in the development of the KAESER blended learning concept with the design of e-learning courses and the implementation<br />

of online training courses.<br />

Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Johann Vetter, Head of Integrated Management Systems, NETZSCH Pumps & Systems GmbH, Waldkraiburg<br />

Johann Vetter, born in 1966, studied mechanical engineering at the Technical Colleage of Regensburg. His diploma thesis<br />

dealt with the topic “Filters and filter materials“ in Environmental and <strong>Process</strong> Engineering. Prior to his studies, Mr. Vetter had<br />

completed an apprenticeship as machine fitter and thus created a practical basis for his later activities in the automotive industry,<br />

where he worked for 16 years as a quality engineer, development engineer, project manager and department manager<br />

for airbag systems. Mr. Vetter has shown outstanding achievements in the field of “gas generators“, where he has applied for<br />

several patents. Since 2013, Mr. Vetter has been responsible for special projects mainly for the oil and gas industry at NETZSCH<br />

Pumps & Systems, where he took over the position of Quality Manager after 3 years. Since October 2019 he has been responsible<br />

for the areas of integrated management systems and is also a member of the Management Board of NETZSCH Pumps & Systems.<br />

Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Sebastian Oberbeck, Manager Research & Development Backing Pumps, Pfeiffer Vacuum GmbH, Asslar<br />

Sebastian Oberbeck, born 1970, graduated at the University of Applied Sciences Mittelhessen in engineering and precision<br />

mechanics. His career startet as project engineer and later as project manager at the Fraunhofer Institute for Microsystems<br />

in Mainz developing mainly micro pumps, micro valves and microsystems (MEMS) in publically funded as well as in industry<br />

sponsored projects. From 1998 he was responsible for nano technically manufactured Pointprobe AFM sensors at Nanosensors<br />

GmbH in Wetzlar. In 1999 he became founding member and partner of the startup company CPC Cellular Chemistry<br />

Systems GmbH where he was responsible for developing micro chemical reaction systems in Laboratory and Pilot plant applications<br />

in the chemical and pharmaceutical industry. 2004 he took the product management responsibility for automotive<br />

drive shaft components of Daimler Chrysler and Getrag at tier 1 supplier Selzer Fertigungstechnik GmbH in Driedorf. Since 2009 he is employed<br />

at Pfeiffer Vacuum GmbH as R&D Manager for backing pumps and backing pump systems.<br />

6 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong>




LET’S TALK<br />

Dirk Koob, Geschäftsführer AERZEN Deutschland GmbH & Co. KG<br />

+49 5154 815666 dirk.koob@aerzen.com<br />

Especially with sensitive goods, pneumatic conveying must be absolutely<br />

risk-free. This is the only way to maintain purity and quality.<br />

However, not only the contamination of the bulk material, but also<br />

contamination of the entire system would have fatal consequences.<br />

Place your trust in AERZEN blowers and compressor packages:<br />

oil-free according to ISO 8573-1 (oil-free operation class O) and<br />

extremely robust and durable. AERZEN offers you the right product<br />

for every application - three technologies, maximum reliability.<br />



Contents<br />

Title<br />

Varied requirements governing pumps for the food industry<br />

Varied and challenging: the food industry, in particular, places<br />

precise demands on pumps, as they need to comply with<br />

exacting hygiene requirements and the media can often be very<br />

challenging.<br />

Comparing the WANGEN MX, Twin NG and Vario Twin NG pump<br />

ranges shows that progressing cavity pumps and twin screw<br />

pumps are ideally suited for different applications and for<br />

pumping a wide variety of media.<br />

You can read more about the wide range of applications for<br />

WANGEN pumps for different kind of media starting out on<br />

page 30.<br />

Contents<br />

Editorial<br />

Hydrogen in the atmosphere 5<br />

Leading article<br />

Hydrogen structure coupling with LOHC as storage medium 10<br />

Energy/Energy efficiency<br />

Optimise system efficiency with pumps and smart solutions 14<br />

Leak testing in fuel cell production 18<br />

Compact multi-gas analyser makes laboratory spectroscopy<br />

useable in industry 22<br />

Producing carbon-neutral e-kerosene with the help of a<br />

CO 2<br />

compressor 26<br />

New Magazine „Green Efficient Technologies" 28<br />

Cover story<br />

Varied requirements governing pumps for the food industry 30<br />

Pumps and Systems<br />

Intelligent pump control via app<br />

Increasing safety and efficiency 32<br />

Energy-saving conveying technology<br />

Invaluable for tasty liquid gold 34<br />

Leak testing on progressing cavity pumps<br />

New process developed for safe and reliable leak testing<br />

on progressing cavity pumps using compressed air 38<br />

Vacuum technology<br />

Report – Screw vacuum pump<br />

Pre-cooling lettuces reliably, thanks to cutting-edge<br />

vacuum technology 52<br />

Companies – Innovations – Products<br />

Pumps/Vacuum technology 54<br />

Index of Advertisers 69<br />

Impressum 69<br />

Trade fairs and events<br />

IVS – Industrial Valve Summit 70<br />

IFAT 72<br />

Pumps & Valves Dortmund 74<br />

ACHEMA 76<br />

Valve World Expo 78<br />

Compressors und Systems<br />

From the research<br />

Energetic profile optimisation of twin-screw compressors 80<br />

Test air supply system for energy research<br />

Research into energy system transformation 88<br />

Biomethane as a fuel<br />

Using biomethane as a fuel –<br />

making climate protection economical! 92<br />

Compressed air technology<br />

Container stations<br />

Compressed air from a container 96<br />

<strong>Components</strong><br />

Novel valve technology<br />

Novel valve technology for oscillating displacement pumps 100<br />

Innovative double-seat valve<br />

Next level safety: How products and processes<br />

get safer with innovative valve technology 102<br />

Seals<br />

The very highest levels of precision, even with large diameters 106<br />

Approval of gaskets for our drinking water –<br />

despite the transitional regulation, haste is required 110<br />

Report – Drive technology<br />

Six drives on one controller 114<br />

Companies – Innovations – Products<br />

Compressors/Compressed air/<strong>Components</strong> 117<br />

Technical Data Purchasing 123<br />

Diaphragm metering pumps<br />

Reduce manufacturing costs by 40 %: Pump design using<br />

the example of the ecosmart LCC and LCD units 42<br />

Report – Sine pump<br />

Pump makes transporting high-viscosity<br />

3D printing materials easy 46<br />

Report – Double diaphragm pump<br />

An optimal surface result 50<br />

8<br />


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to wear-resistant hose<br />

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Low lubricant requirement<br />

Insensitive to dry running<br />

Different variants for environmental<br />

industry, chemical, mining and food<br />

production<br />

NETZSCH Pumps & Systems<br />

Geretsrieder Str.1, D - 84478 Waldkraiburg<br />

Tel.: +49 8638 63 0<br />

info.nps@netzsch.com<br />


Leading article<br />

Hydrogen structure coupling with LOHC<br />

as storage medium<br />

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Eberhard Schlücker<br />

If a country wants to go into the<br />

future with hydrogen and thus secure<br />

the energy supply, synergetic<br />

solutions are required that raise the<br />

overall efficiency of hydrogen use to<br />

a maximum level. While in last year’s<br />

edition of the <strong>PuK</strong> the example of a<br />

sewage treatment plant as an energy<br />

centre showed a complete synergetic<br />

approach for decentralised structures,<br />

we are now listing other examples<br />

on a small to large scale, which<br />

can be exemplary for centralised<br />

but also decentralized structures.<br />

fits in with the heating oil infrastructure.<br />

This property allows us to think<br />

freely.<br />

Example residential buildings<br />

If someone has PV of sufficient size (10<br />

KWp is already sufficient in summer<br />

in Germany. In more southern countries<br />

the energy yield is even greater<br />

and less is enough) on his house roof<br />

and has the usual 10–14 KWh per day<br />

consumption and one can assume 8<br />

hours of sun (sunny day), then the<br />

ficiency in energy matters. However,<br />

if you want to produce and store hydrogen<br />

at home, you need an electrolytic<br />

cell and a hydrogenation system.<br />

There will be so little hydrogen<br />

between these two components that<br />

there will be no danger, and absolutely<br />

airtight components would be used<br />

for this purpose. The waste heat from<br />

the two components can be used<br />

for hot water, cooking (new form of<br />

cooking with steam), etc. in the summer.<br />

In the transitional periods, the<br />

heating is added. If this house now<br />

District heating<br />

of the<br />

companies from<br />

local data centre<br />

Waste wood,<br />

sewage sludge,<br />

residues<br />

Exhaust gas<br />

CO 2<br />

H 2<br />

Reactor<br />

Methane<br />

Water<br />

Tank H 2<br />

gas<br />

Elektrolysis<br />

Electric current<br />

O 2<br />

Q<br />

H 2<br />

Q<br />

Oven<br />

Steam<br />

Q<br />

Salt storage<br />

with integrated<br />

reactor<br />

Q<br />

Catering company<br />

Hydrogenation reactor<br />

LOHC<br />

Steam<br />

H 2<br />

LOHC<br />

H 2<br />

H 2<br />

Petrol station<br />

Tank LOHC<br />

Fuel cell<br />

Petrol station<br />

Water for<br />

electrolysis<br />

Electricity<br />

Energy logistics centre flow diagram. Red areas: products; red arrows: hot streams, gas, steam, hydrogen; yellow:<br />

LOHC area; green: power generation.<br />

The prerequisites for these considerations<br />

are that the LOHC based on<br />

dibenzenetoluene or benzyltoluene<br />

is absolutely non-flammable even<br />

when charged with hydrogen and<br />

can therefore be transported by anyone,<br />

for example in buckets or plastic<br />

canisters, but can also be pumped<br />

without any problems. It is therefore<br />

easy to use even for laypersons and<br />

private electric car can be charged<br />

additionally and still energy would be<br />

left, which one could save for the winter<br />

instead of feeding it into the grid<br />

for a fraction of the cost, which one<br />

pays for electricity oneself.<br />

Since energy prices are expected<br />

to continue to rise, the population will<br />

certainly strive to develop a certain<br />

degree of independence and self-sufhas<br />

an SOFC fuel cell that can also<br />

be used as an electrolysis cell (twoway<br />

operation), then the waste heat<br />

from the SOFC fuel cell (waste heat<br />

temperature approx. 800 °C) could<br />

be sufficient for dehydrogenating the<br />

hydrogen from the LOHC, which is<br />

then converted into electricity in the<br />

SOFC to supply the house. The heating<br />

energy for the residential building<br />

10<br />


Leading article<br />

would be included here (note: such a<br />

fuel cell is currently being developed<br />

(patented)). This means that a residential<br />

building could be self-sufficiently<br />

supplied all year round. As far<br />

as is known, this SOFC is being developed<br />

for four houses at once or for<br />

multi-family houses.<br />

Other models are also conceivable<br />

that combine several houses<br />

into energy units or cooperate with<br />

small businesses. In addition, however,<br />

homeowners could install<br />

even more PV on their house roof<br />

and thus become energy suppliers<br />

who could also supply LOHC or the<br />

centres or also produce electricity<br />

at home and feed it into the grid in<br />

times of shortage.<br />

Urban areas – energy logistic<br />

centres<br />

Cities and industrial areas don’t have<br />

it that easy. Of course you are supplied<br />

by energy suppliers (e. g. in Germany<br />

also by imports), but you can<br />

also produce a lot of energy yourself<br />

using PV. In this way, all roofs, but<br />

also parking lots, can be covered with<br />

PV. But if you pursue synergetic approaches,<br />

then even more is possible.<br />

A project that is currently being<br />

worked on in the preliminary planning<br />

is an energy logistics centre (Fig.<br />

1). This is to be built in the centre of<br />

an industrial area. About 1 square<br />

kilo metre industrial roof area is available<br />

there to be covered with PV.<br />

There is also a parking area of about<br />

0.5 km 2 that could have a roof put<br />

over it which could be also covered<br />

with PV. There is also a large data<br />

centre that produces a lot of waste<br />

heat and therefore has a high power<br />

requirement. Since a large proportion<br />

of the industrial buildings are<br />

warehouses and, with the exception<br />

of the data centre, there is no highperformance<br />

industry, the electricity<br />

that can be generated with PV should<br />

be almost sufficient. A nearby wind<br />

power plant can fill the gap that still<br />

exists, or small wind power plants can<br />

be retrofitted on the high company<br />

roofs. However, a storage concept is<br />

necessary for a certain self-sufficient<br />

supply throughout the year in order<br />

to be able to shift the excess electricity<br />

from day to night, from sunny days<br />

to rainy days and also from summer<br />

to winter.<br />

A catering company that supplies<br />

ready-to-eat meals is located in the vicinity<br />

of the building site for the energy<br />

logistics centre. On the other side<br />

is a bus company that is converting to<br />

hydrogen propulsion technology. The<br />

catering company cooks with steam.<br />

So the logistics centre is equipped<br />

with electrolysis cells and the hydrogen<br />

is stored in LOHC. The waste heat<br />

from the reactors and cells is used to<br />

generate steam and is used to supply<br />

the neighbouring company. Since<br />

cooking is preferred during the day,<br />

the required power density is limited<br />

to around 10 hours. Nevertheless,<br />

this heat is still not enough. Therefore,<br />

an additional natural material<br />

incineration plant for waste wood<br />

or sewage sludge is being built on<br />

this site, which works with pure oxygen<br />

from the electrolysis cell. Pure<br />

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oxygen has the advantage that the<br />

combustion temperatures are higher<br />

because the proportion of nitrogen<br />

in the air (79%) does not have to<br />

be heated. Thus, the efficiency is also<br />

significantly better. Enough steam is<br />

generated with this incinerator. It is<br />

only operated when required and the<br />

oxygen is temporarily stored. In addition,<br />

part of the plan is to also operate<br />

the fuel cells with pure oxygen to<br />

convert the hydrogen back into electricity<br />

in times of shortage. This also<br />

ensures a significantly higher degree<br />

of efficiency here. At the centre of all<br />

thermal processes and measures is<br />

a liquid salt storage tank, which levels<br />

the different temperatures of the<br />

individual components and makes<br />

them available as needed.<br />

A hydrogen filling station is being<br />

built for the bus company next door<br />

and for other customers. The hydrogen<br />

is of course kept in LOHC and in<br />

an intermediate tank there is always<br />

enough gaseous hydrogen at low<br />

pressure to enable a tank filling. The<br />

start-up time of the dehydrogenation<br />

is so efficient that hydrogen can be<br />

supplied after a few minutes.<br />

In addition, the large-scale data<br />

centre will sell its waste heat for<br />

heating purposes. Initial calculations<br />

show that almost the entire industrial<br />

area can be heated with it. If necessary,<br />

heat pump technology can also<br />

be used here in order to be able to<br />

supply the right temperature.<br />

At the same time, this logistics<br />

centre should also be available to<br />

buy or sell energy in any form (electricity,<br />

heat, hydrogen, LOHC). Sellers<br />

of loaded LOHC can be private individuals<br />

or companies that may have<br />

equipped themselves with an SOFC<br />

electrolytic cell and reactor and can<br />

produce loaded LOHC. Hydrogen can<br />

be traded well, easily and safely via<br />

the LOHC storage medium.<br />

Increasing the output of classic<br />

power plants<br />

It is well known that classic power<br />

plants are most economical when<br />

they are operated at the optimal operating<br />

point. With increasing grid input<br />

from renewable sources, whose electricity<br />

must then also be given preference,<br />

the base-load power plant is<br />

forced to down-regulate depending<br />

on the amount of renewable electricity<br />

(fluctuating). This means inefficient<br />

operation of the power plant. One<br />

possibility is to always let the power<br />

plant work in the optimal range and<br />

to convert the excess electricity into<br />

hydrogen and store it in LOHC.<br />

When needed, more power would<br />

then be available than from the power<br />

plant alone. A concrete estimate<br />

for a real power plant delivered about<br />

70% more power. It is also known<br />

that such power plants have large<br />

waste heat flows. With a few thermal<br />

and plant engineering measures, this<br />

waste heat could be used with only a<br />

small loss of efficiency to release the<br />

hydrogen from the LOHC and convert<br />

it into electricity. In this way, increasing<br />

the energy supply capability of the<br />

power plant would be relatively easy<br />

and efficient to implement. Buying<br />

additional electricity when needed, if<br />

available cheaply, is an additional option.<br />

This could even become a business<br />

model: to generate even more<br />

electricity when needed and sell it at<br />

a higher price. At the same time, however,<br />

other inefficient power plants<br />

could also be shut down without producing<br />

an energy shortage (decrease<br />

of overall carbon-dioxide output).<br />

In addition, it is also possible to<br />

set up the electrolytic cell and the<br />

reactor where the waste heat from<br />

these two components is needed. Or<br />

you can store the heat in salt storage<br />

and transport it to where it is needed.<br />

Chemical company with large heat<br />

requirements<br />

A chemical company needs appropriate<br />

heat sources for its high-temperature<br />

processes. There is one system<br />

that works at around 300 °C and another<br />

that works at around 500 °C.<br />

The concept now calls for PV to be installed<br />

on all roofs with a preferred<br />

southern exposure and a small wind<br />

turbine on the company’s high-rise<br />

building. The electricity generated in<br />

this way is converted into hydrogen,<br />

oxygen and heat in an electrolytic<br />

cell (SOFC). In addition, the hydrogen<br />

is stored in LOHC, which generates<br />

waste heat of up to 340 °C. This waste<br />

heat is used for the 300 °C range. The<br />

waste heat from the SOFC is pumped<br />

into the 500 °C system and at the<br />

same time waste wood is burned<br />

with the oxygen and the 500 °C system<br />

is supported. The stored hydrogen<br />

is used to refuel the delivering<br />

haulage vehicles or for reconversion<br />

and grid feeding or also sold as an energy<br />

source.<br />

These synergetic project approaches<br />

show how energetic optimisation<br />

can take place and at the same<br />

time maximum efficiency for hydrogen<br />

production can be achieved.<br />

The Author:<br />

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Eberhard Schlücker,<br />

Friedrich-Alexander-Universität<br />

Erlangen-Nuremberg, Institute of<br />

<strong>Process</strong> Machinery and Systems,<br />

Engineering (IPAT), Erlangen,<br />

Germany<br />

12<br />




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Energy/Energy efficiency<br />

Optimise system efficiency with pumps<br />

and smart solutions<br />

Operational excellence with smart secondary process pumps<br />

Anna Hofmann<br />

Rising material, energy and logistics<br />

costs as well as material shortages<br />

are posing new challenges for<br />

more and more industries. As a result<br />

they are having to find ways of<br />

making their processes both more<br />

flexible and more efficient. Fortunately,<br />

there are tried-and-tested<br />

solutions available on the market.<br />

Energy efficiency has become a major<br />

area of innovation for reducing costs<br />

and emissions in the context of the energy<br />

revolution. Optimising processes<br />

and systems, heat recovery, solar process<br />

heating, etc. can reduce energy<br />

consumption by more than 10 % [1].<br />

The pumps used are a good place<br />

to start. It is important to distinguish<br />

here between process and auxiliary<br />

pumps: in every production plant<br />

there are ‘primary processes’ (where<br />

the product – whether it be drinks or<br />

chemicals – is in direct contact with<br />

the process pump) as well as ‘secondary<br />

processes’. The latter might<br />

sound slightly less important. But<br />

they’re not: these are pumps and systems<br />

for water recovery as well as for<br />

wastewater removal and circuits for<br />

heating (maintaining temperature),<br />

cooling (supplying ice and cooling water)<br />

and cleaning (CIP, SIP) as well as<br />

for dosing.<br />

Grundfos has a range of secondary<br />

process pumps which is second to<br />

none in its breadth (diversity of design)<br />

and depth (material varieties,<br />

power levels). Planners can achieve<br />

surprisingly sophisticated system<br />

optimisations by intelligently combining<br />

speed-controlled pumps,<br />

power ful sensors and smart control<br />

algorithms.<br />

A classic auxiliary process is the<br />

supply of steam. Central steam boilers<br />

are typically used for this. The high<br />

pressures and temperatures make<br />

feeding the boiler one of the most<br />

demanding tasks for pumps. The numerous<br />

on/off switching cycles cause<br />

additional stress for feed pumps.<br />

Conventional boiler feed systems<br />

have a control valve, a bypass – and<br />

usually oversized pumps. The pump<br />

manufacturer has developed a boiler<br />

feed system that does not require<br />

a feed valve because a speed-controlled<br />

pump regulates the feed itself<br />

by way of a 4-20 mA level sensor fitted<br />

to the boiler. Because of the reduction<br />

in components – valves, bypass<br />

lines, mixing loops to limit flow<br />

– the operator benefits from lower<br />

investment, installation, energy and<br />

maintenance costs.<br />

Besides steam, cooling is traditionally<br />

required. Here, too, the system’s<br />

energy efficiency can be optimised<br />

using speed-controlled pumps.<br />

A smaller main circulator pump in<br />

combination with a small pump for<br />

each cooling unit can be installed in<br />

place of control valves. The main circulator<br />

pump should be set to constant<br />

pressure and the circulator<br />

pumps in the individual cooling units<br />

to constant temperature. The advantage<br />

is that the speed-controlled<br />

pump can react faster and more<br />

smoothly than a motor-operated<br />

valve. Dispensing with throttle valves<br />

reduces pressure losses and saves<br />

energy and money.<br />

FC-controlled and intelligent<br />

The speed of the pump is controlled<br />

by frequency converter (FC) and it<br />

should ideally also be able to smartly<br />

carry out specific functionalities.<br />

Here’s an example of why from the<br />

beverage industry: membrane separation<br />

technology is state of the art in<br />

beverage production, for example for<br />

treating mineral well water and for<br />

fine filtration. It involves passing the<br />

medium to be filtered along a semipermeable<br />

membrane under pressure.<br />

Speed-controlled pumps not<br />

only keep the filtration speed constant,<br />

they also record the pressure<br />

difference in the event of increasing<br />

filter resistance caused by a blockage<br />

and thus ensure a constant volume<br />

flow rate. If a constant produc-<br />

Pumps in secondary processes<br />

Fig. 1: Boiler feed with speed-controlled pumps and no feed valve.<br />

14 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong>

Energy/Energy efficiency<br />

Fig. 2: Reverse osmosis plants play an important role in water reuse.<br />

but experience shows that the pump<br />

installation itself is rarely adapted accordingly.<br />

How can the operator check the<br />

actual state of the installed pumps?<br />

An energy check by the pump supplier<br />

in accordance with ISO 14414<br />

on the energy rating of the pump systems<br />

(the result has a calculated accuracy<br />

of +/- 10 %) can show what the<br />

targeted use of high-efficiency pumps<br />

can actually achieve. The operator will<br />

discover in a surprisingly simple way<br />

(by comparing the performance data<br />

of the existing pumps with state-ofthe-art<br />

high-efficiency pumps) how to<br />

reduce operation costs (energy, water)<br />

while also cutting CO 2<br />

emissions.<br />

tive capacity is required, a flow meter<br />

delivers the current actual value and<br />

the pump corrects the rising back<br />

pressure by increasing the speed. In<br />

addition, changes in state at the suction<br />

end of the pump can be corrected,<br />

for example when converting to<br />

tanks with varying inlet heights.<br />

With the iSOLUTIONS concept,<br />

the supplier offers the right solution<br />

for such requirements. These<br />

are a combination of in-house and<br />

manufactured components ranging<br />

from hydraulics, drive solutions, sensors,<br />

control and security modules<br />

to measuring and communications<br />

units and a smart analogue digital hybrid<br />

system which adjusts to the requirements<br />

of various applications.<br />

Energy check and pump audit<br />

As long as technology works, its efficiency<br />

is rarely questioned – often<br />

because it is very difficult to record<br />

the energy consumption of each machine.<br />

The result is a bottomless pit<br />

Fig. 3: The Energy Check is a pump survey by the customer or a member of the pump<br />

supplier’s staff with subsequent analysis/calculation by the supplier.<br />

for the operator, but nobody knows<br />

that unless they properly look into it.<br />

Moreover, plants change over time as<br />

a result of production conversions,<br />

For complex plants and cases with<br />

significant savings potential, the company<br />

recommends a more in-depth<br />

survey in the form of a pump audit<br />

Our competence for your success.<br />

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Energy/Energy efficiency<br />

whereby the actual load profile of the<br />

pumps is calculated by way of specially<br />

developed measuring techniques.<br />

This means that the size of the pump<br />

can be determined exactly based on<br />

requirements and can uncover additional<br />

savings potentials.<br />

‘Machine Health’: A glimpse into the<br />

near future<br />

Making processes more efficient<br />

involves looking at the machine’s<br />

health and reducing downtime. This<br />

is where one of the greatest promises<br />

of digital transformation comes<br />

in: generating smart data from big<br />

data through analysis and pattern<br />

recognition. When it comes to maintenance,<br />

one very successful way of<br />

doing this is by recording the relevant<br />

data (temperatures, pressures,<br />

volume flow rates) over a long period<br />

of time and analysing them (trends,<br />

discrepancies). The fact that sensors<br />

are becoming increasingly efficient<br />

while dropping significantly in price<br />

supports this. Data mining then attempts<br />

to identify hidden patterns,<br />

trends and relationships in large volumes<br />

of data using sophisticated statistical<br />

and mathematical methods or<br />

algorithms.<br />

Fig. 4: This sensor provides the data for the ‘Machine Health’ solution, whereby the machine<br />

health is calculated and a diagnostic analysis is compiled.<br />

The company's ‘Machine Health’ concept<br />

is based on one of the world’s<br />

largest databases of typical machine<br />

noise, or vibration profiles, which enables<br />

extremely precise diagnostics.<br />

Moreover, machine data is translated<br />

into recommendations for action<br />

– thanks to real-time messages and<br />

algorithms that suggest suitable repairs<br />

and maintenance measures. The<br />

result is compelling: in practice the<br />

maintenance and repair costs are lower,<br />

and the operator can expect longer<br />

uptime thanks to far fewer outages.<br />

Reference<br />

[1] Beverage industry monitor, 2020,<br />

Hans Böckler Foundation<br />

The Author: Anna Hofmann,<br />

Senior Sales Developer, Digital – DACH,<br />

Industry Division, Grundfos GmbH,<br />

Erkrath. Germany<br />

16 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong>




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Energy/Energy efficiency<br />

Leak testing in fuel cell production<br />

Dr. Rudolf Konwitschny<br />

Leak tightness is a key quality and<br />

safety criterion for many components<br />

in fuel cell production. This<br />

applies to individual media-carrying<br />

anode, cathode and coolant channels<br />

of a bipolar plate and fuel cell<br />

stacks as well as components of the<br />

complete system assembly.<br />

Fuel cell - market of the future<br />

The hydrogen economy is gaining<br />

momentum. In December 2021, the<br />

European Union created a framework<br />

for a simplified transition to a<br />

sustainable and decarbonized gas<br />

economy with the “Hydrogen and decarbonised<br />

gas market package”. This<br />

package of measures has already<br />

been described as the entry into a<br />

“golden age of hydrogen”. At the national<br />

level, the German government<br />

has already drawn a positive conclusion<br />

one year after the launch of the<br />

National Hydrogen Strategy in June<br />

2020. In December 2021, the newly<br />

elected federal government allocated<br />

further funds in a supplementary<br />

budget for the transformation to a<br />

climate-neutral economy. These programs<br />

to expand the production, fullcoverage<br />

distribution and extensive<br />

use of hydrogen are now being implemented<br />

in a large number of projects.<br />

The focus of hydrogen use is the<br />

fuel cell – both in stationary applications<br />

and in mobility.<br />

In stationary applications, fuel<br />

cells are often used for combined<br />

heat and power generation in singleand<br />

multi-family homes. In addition,<br />

they can be used as backup power<br />

systems or emergency power supplies<br />

for important infrastructures.<br />

These include hospitals, civil protection<br />

organizations, fire departments,<br />

telecommunications and traffic control<br />

systems. A massive savings potential<br />

for CO 2<br />

emissions is seen in<br />

the steel industry by replacing carbon<br />

as a reducing agent with hydrogen.<br />

Fuel cells for forklift trucks have<br />

already established themselves in<br />

the logistics industry. According to a<br />

study by the Association of German<br />

Machinery and Equipment Constructors<br />

(VDMA), the market share of fuel<br />

cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) in road<br />

transport will increase to up to six<br />

percent in 2030 and to 12 % by 2040.<br />

This corresponds to a production volume<br />

of ten million vehicles per year.<br />

By 2036, battery-electric passenger<br />

cars and FCEVs are expected to be<br />

priced equally.<br />

In focus: leak tightness<br />

With the demand for fuel cells, the<br />

production capacities for their components<br />

such as bipolar plates will<br />

also grow. We are currently experiencing<br />

the upscaling of many production<br />

lines from demonstration operations<br />

with a few thousand or tens of<br />

thousands of bipolar plates per year<br />

to an industrial level with production<br />

figures in the millions per year. This<br />

is accompanied by a growing need<br />

for high-performance measurement<br />

technology for the tightness of manufactured<br />

components and complete<br />

systems. One of the reasons is safety<br />

motivated. The formation of an ignitable<br />

mixture in the environment of<br />

the fuel cell has to be avoided.<br />

“IEC 62282-2-100 Fuel cell technologies<br />

- Part 2-100: Fuel cell modules<br />

– Safety” describes gas leakage<br />

tests for both type and routine<br />

tests. For type tests, environmental<br />

conditions (e. g. temperature and<br />

test pressure) are defined and initial<br />

and repeat tests are described. Flow<br />

measurement methods and the pressure<br />

decay method are mentioned<br />

as test methods. The standard does<br />

not give any indication of practical<br />

limit values of the gas tightness test.<br />

The only numerical value mentioned<br />

in the standard is found in the paragraph<br />

on gas leakage repeat tests.<br />

Here, a maximum deviation from the<br />

originally stated value of 5 cm 3 /min<br />

is permitted. Although the standard<br />

speaks of a deviation from the original<br />

result, this value is often used as<br />

the basis for a specification of fuel cell<br />

stacks.<br />

In the case of routine tests, the<br />

above standard mentions tests with a<br />

leak detection fluid, but does not provide<br />

any information on limit leakage<br />

rates or test times. In “EN 1593 Nondestructive<br />

testing – Bubble emission<br />

techniques”, a sufficiently long<br />

test time is required after the application<br />

of a liquid film. In tabular form,<br />

the detection limit of the method is<br />

given as 10 -5 mbar l/s. However, this<br />

detection limit is accompanied by<br />

a test time of several minutes. For<br />

this reason, the detection limit of a<br />

bubble test is specified in “DIN EN<br />

1779 Non-destructive testing – Leak<br />

testing – Criteria for method and<br />

technique selection” as 10 -3 mbar<br />

l/s in the context of a test time during<br />

production. However, the test<br />

with a leak detection fluid is always<br />

a purely localizing and, in addition,<br />

test personnel- dependent test. Together<br />

with the ne cessary cleaning<br />

of the component, a bubble test thus<br />

does not meet the requirements for a<br />

production- accompanying, deterministic,<br />

quantitative and integral test<br />

method.<br />

These requirements are met by<br />

flow and pressure change methods.<br />

In IEC 62282-2-100, the calculation of<br />

the leakage rate for smaller stacks according<br />

to the ratio of the number of<br />

cells is explicitly anchored. In practice,<br />

these statements are often used as a<br />

basis for calculating the specification<br />

of a single bipolar plate. This reduces<br />

the requirement for the maximum<br />

allowed leakage rate to values below<br />

10 -3 mbar l/s and thus below the detection<br />

limit of air-based leakage test<br />

methods. Even if the available sensor<br />

technology would be capable of such<br />

detection limits, the requirements for<br />

volume and temperature constancy<br />

during the measurement make a series<br />

application of a flow and pressure<br />

change method for testing individual<br />

bipolar plates difficult.<br />

18 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong>

Energy/Energy efficiency<br />

With these requirements, the<br />

way into the world of tracer<br />

gas test methods is mandatory,<br />

although these methods are<br />

not explicitly mentioned in IEC<br />

62282-2-100. Tests according to<br />

the pressure technique by accumulation<br />

or the test of enclosed<br />

objects in vacuum offer<br />

themselves as quantitative, integral<br />

methods. These procedure<br />

terms according to DIN EN<br />

1779 are also known as accumulation<br />

test, sniffing envelope test<br />

or vacuum test. In these procedures,<br />

the test gas escaping from<br />

a leak in the component is collected<br />

in test chambers that are<br />

either under atmospheric conditions<br />

or under vacuum. In atmospheric<br />

conditions, the test time is<br />

determined, among other things,<br />

by the free internal volume of the<br />

chamber. This method is usually<br />

significantly slower than vacuum<br />

testing for the same detection<br />

limit. The domain of vacuum testing<br />

is rapid testing of individual<br />

bipolar plates at lowest detection<br />

limits down to 10 -3 mbar l/s or<br />

even lower. Accumulation testing<br />

at atmospheric conditions in the<br />

test chamber is mostly used for<br />

fuel cell stacks. After the quantitative<br />

integral test, if the test result<br />

is negative, a localizing sniffing<br />

test can be performed as a<br />

second step to locate the leakage<br />

and support repair or initiate corrective<br />

actions in production.<br />

An evaluation of the individual<br />

test methods is given in Table 1.<br />

In addition to the above criteria,<br />

the user must clearly define<br />

the objective of the test. In<br />

the rapidly developing market<br />

maturity of products, no industry<br />

standard has yet emerged.<br />

Thus, in addition to the detection<br />

limit, the scope of testing has<br />

not yet been clearly defined.<br />

Safety-driven approaches call<br />

for testing all potential leakage<br />

flows individually (red arrows)<br />

and integrally from the inside<br />

out (brown arrows), as shown<br />

in figure 1. Production-driven,<br />

Table 1: Comparison of integral, quantitative test methods for leak testing of fuel cell stacks and bipolar plates.<br />

Parameter Pressure decay Flow Accumulation Vacuum test<br />

Integral Yes Yes Yes Yes<br />

Quantitative Yes Yes Yes Yes<br />

Tracer gas Air Air Helium, Forming<br />

gas<br />

Calibratable Yes Yes Yes Yes<br />

Barrier to introduction<br />

Helium<br />

Low Low Medium High<br />

Automation Yes Yes Yes Yes<br />

Data storage and<br />

analysis<br />

Detection limit<br />

Influence temperature<br />

change<br />

Influence volume<br />

change<br />

Yes Yes Yes Yes<br />

Functional for<br />

stacks<br />

Fig. 1: Possible tests on a bipolar plate<br />

cycle- time-oriented<br />

Functional for<br />

stacks<br />

Functional for<br />

stacks with<br />

margin<br />

High Medium to high No No<br />

High Medium to high No No<br />

approaches<br />

often dispense with multiple<br />

tests, but at least with the test of<br />

media-carrying spaces in both directions.<br />

The thickness of the arrows<br />

is an indication of the maximum<br />

permitted leakage rate in an exemplary<br />

industrial test recipe.<br />

Contrary to popular belief, it is<br />

not the safety-relevant ingress<br />

of hydrogen into the oxidizer circuit<br />

that is the zone of the most<br />

stringent leak specification. The<br />

highest requirements are placed<br />

on leaks in the coolant circuit. A<br />

coolant leak would result in at<br />

least reduced efficiency of the<br />

fuel cell stack, and in extreme<br />

cases damage due to overheating.<br />

Gas bubbles in the coolant<br />

would also have negative effects<br />

on the temperature management<br />

of the stack and could also<br />

lead to corrosion of other components<br />

in the circuit.<br />

In the development of test<br />

methods and sequences, laboratory<br />

systems are used in which<br />

interchangeable plates allow adaptation<br />

to special geo metries<br />

Functional for<br />

stacks and BPP<br />

with margin<br />

of bipolar plates. An example is<br />

shown in figure 2.<br />


Brilliant rings for<br />

all occasions.<br />

The test chamber and the<br />

gas supply are designed for a<br />

maximum test pressure to be<br />

defined, usually in the singledigit<br />

bar range. The tracer gas<br />

Precision O-rings for diverse industrial<br />

applications and the highest demands.<br />


Energy/Energy efficiency<br />

Choosing the right test method<br />

Fig. 2: Test chamber for a bipolar plate<br />

Fig. 3: Test equipment for bipolar plates and stacks<br />

Laboratory testing provides important<br />

information for the development<br />

of industrial series testing.<br />

This applies both to the influences<br />

of the test object, flow resistances<br />

(conductance) or memory effects,<br />

and to the performance of the measurement<br />

technology used with very<br />

short cycle times.<br />

The spectrum of potential leak<br />

test technologies range from test<br />

methods using air as the test gas<br />

(pressure decay measurement and<br />

micro-flow) to highly sensitive and<br />

automated high-speed methods<br />

such as helium leak detection. Classical<br />

modeling of pumping and filling<br />

times often fail at very short cycle<br />

times. Therefore, laboratory tests or<br />

feasibility studies with direct comparison<br />

of the alternative measurement<br />

techniques are the optimal way<br />

to a production-accompanying test<br />

with the required short cycle times in<br />

large-scale production.<br />

supply can be implemented with one<br />

or more different test gases (e. g.<br />

helium and forming gas 95/5), compressed<br />

air and purge gases, and can<br />

include further measurement and<br />

control functions. The measurement<br />

technology can also be designed<br />

flexibly and, in addition to safety<br />

functions, include different detectors<br />

such as the mass spectrometric<br />

leak detectors shown in figure 3 or<br />

micro flow meters.<br />

The Author: Dr. Rudolf Konwitschny,<br />

Market Segment Industry,<br />

Leak Detection Application Team,<br />

Pfeiffer Vacuum GmbH,<br />

Asslar, Germany<br />

20 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong>

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Energy/Energy efficiency<br />

Simultaneous detection of a wide range of gases for hydrogen<br />

and natural gas suppliers<br />

Compact multi-gas analyser makes laboratory<br />

spectroscopy useable in industry<br />

Dr Alexander Stratmann<br />

A new gas analyser, the Optical Gas<br />

Spectrometer (OGS), immediately<br />

detects almost all relevant gases<br />

with which hydrogen may be<br />

contaminated in a single measurement<br />

process. Bosch developers<br />

have succeeded in transferring the<br />

capacity and performance of conventional<br />

laboratory spectroscopic<br />

equipment into a device the size of a<br />

shoebox. There is already an operational<br />

mobile OGS device, and it is<br />

currently being tested. The developers<br />

are currently looking for further<br />

development partners and beta testers<br />

for their pre-production device.<br />

This is because the industrialisation<br />

of optical spectroscopy makes it relatively<br />

easy to measure the concentration<br />

of a wide variety of gases simultaneously.<br />

This opens up the most<br />

diverse fields of application: from the<br />

hydrogen economy to natural gas<br />

supply and the chemical industry.<br />

Fig. 1: The new multi-gas analyser is suited<br />

for field use. (Photo © : Bosch)<br />

sent if it is to be used as a fuel, and<br />

lay down corresponding purity requirements.<br />

Until now, most detection<br />

methods required you to select<br />

them based on the specific gas you<br />

wanted to test for. The new gas detection<br />

method which is being tested<br />

in practice does not have this limitation.<br />

It detects hydrogen sulphide<br />

(H 2<br />

S) and sulphur dioxide (SO 2<br />

) as<br />

well as various other gases, for example<br />

H 2<br />

, O 2<br />

, N 2<br />

and NO 2<br />

, CO and CO 2<br />

,<br />

CH 4<br />

and H 2<br />

O. The technology makes<br />

it easy to identify hydrocarbons such<br />

as alcohols and aromatics. The major<br />

advantage of the new device is that it<br />

determines the exact concentration<br />

of all these gases simultaneously.<br />

Laboratory spectroscopy<br />

becomes handy<br />

The starting point for the development<br />

of the new multi-gas analyser was the<br />

search for a method to identify nitrogen<br />

leaks. As N 2<br />

cannot be measured<br />

using other methods, the Stuttgart-based<br />

supplier set out to scale<br />

down the spectroscopic measurement<br />

method, which had previously<br />

only been used in facilities in chemical<br />

laboratories that were several cubic<br />

metres in size and cost several<br />

hundred thousand euros, to the size<br />

of conventional 19-inch racks. In the<br />

process, the company succeeded in<br />

condensing a laboratory set-up developed<br />

over many years into a handy<br />

measuring system. This, among other<br />

things, was made pos sible by new<br />

semiconductor technology used in<br />

the OGS. To the developers' delight,<br />

however, the new device was not just<br />

suitable for detecting nitrogen; almost<br />

any other gases – with the exception<br />

of noble gases – can also be<br />

detected using this method.<br />

New semiconductor technology<br />

brings breakthrough<br />

Although the spectroscopic measurement<br />

method only has a low sensitivity<br />

by nature, the developers have<br />

succeeded in bringing the sensitivity<br />

to a practical level thanks to a special<br />

device design and through the new<br />

semiconductor technology. The current<br />

prototype measures concentrations<br />

in the ppm range within a few<br />

seconds. If the measurement duration<br />

is extended, correspondingly<br />

lower concentrations can be detected<br />

– this applies to all measurable<br />

components simultaneously. For example,<br />

the concentration of the vast<br />

Purity requirements for<br />

hydrogen suppliers<br />

Hydrogen is playing an increasingly<br />

important role as a source of energy<br />

– whether for vehicles with fuelcell<br />

drives or for natural gas supply.<br />

The challenge in producing hydrogen,<br />

however, is to obtain it with the required<br />

purity. Standards such as DIN<br />

EN 17124 and ISO 14687 define the<br />

quality of hydrogen that must be pre-<br />

Fig. 2: The Optical Gas Spectrometer method (OGS) measures the concentration of a wide<br />

variety of gases simultaneously. (Source: Bosch)<br />

22 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong>

majority of gases listed in DIN<br />

EN 17124 as impurities in hydrogen<br />

fuel can be determined<br />

using exactly the same online<br />

measurement process and<br />

read out via data interface as<br />

required.<br />

Uncomplicated field use<br />

The method has almost no interfering<br />

factors and also no<br />

mutual influences. The validation<br />

plan not only includes<br />

the determination of linearity<br />

and the recording of detection<br />

limits, but also investigations<br />

into the robustness of<br />

this new analytical technique.<br />

Humidity is not a problem for<br />

the meter and there is no risk<br />

of corrosion. The device is currently<br />

designed for an operating<br />

pressure of up to 10 bar,<br />

although measurements with<br />

gas pressures of up to 30 bar<br />

are also possible as an option.<br />

The temperature range for the<br />

measurement is between 10°<br />

and 40 °C. One current development<br />

goal is to make the<br />

method useable at even higher<br />

pressures and in a wider temperature<br />

range. It is also conceivable<br />

that devices for a wide<br />

range of specific application<br />

scenarios will be ready for series<br />

production in the future.<br />

Hydrogen as fuel<br />

One of these application scenarios<br />

is to determine the impurities<br />

in hydrogen for fuel<br />

cells. Due to the low limits that<br />

apply to impurities in hydrogen<br />

fuel, the analyses involve significant<br />

overhead. A mobile multigas<br />

analyser for field use promises<br />

to make things much easier<br />

in this regard. What's more the<br />

device is not just able to detect<br />

impurities, but also hydrogen<br />

itself. Bosch is currently developing<br />

the technology further<br />

as part of the publicly funded<br />

project "HyQ²Ra" specifically<br />

for high-pressure applications<br />

such as hydrogen refueling stations.<br />

The funding comes from<br />

the German Federa l Ministry<br />

of Economics and Climate Protection<br />

(BMWK), and the other<br />

project partners are Linde,<br />

RuboLab and Ruhr-University<br />

Bochum (RUB).<br />

A wide variety of application<br />

scenarios<br />

For industrialised optical spectroscopy,<br />

there are many other<br />

fields of application in which<br />

gas measurements are involved.<br />

For example, the specialty<br />

gases division produces<br />

special calibration gas mixtures<br />

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Fig. 3: Prototype of the OGS analyzer with various interfaces. (Photo © : Bosch)<br />

Find out more:<br />


Energy/Energy efficiency<br />

for exhaust gas measurements in the<br />

automotive industry with defined<br />

NO x<br />

and CO x<br />

concentrations. Here,<br />

the multi-gas analyser could help<br />

with quality assurance. In natural gas<br />

networks, the new method would be<br />

able to test the fuel value of the natural<br />

gas mixture. The compact spectroscopic<br />

devices would also be suitable<br />

for analysis of synthetic natural gas.<br />

Today it is already possible to add<br />

between 1 and 5 percent hydrogen<br />

to natural gas. In the next ten years,<br />

this concentration – of CO 2<br />

-neutral<br />

hydrogen production – could be increased<br />

to 30 percent. Even the analysis<br />

of medical gases or typically corrosive<br />

electronic gases are among the<br />

possible fields of application for the<br />

new technology. Countless analysis<br />

systems are also installed in chemical<br />

industry plants, for which the new<br />

method could offer a more efficient<br />

alternative.<br />

Development goal: even higher<br />

sensitivity<br />

Currently, the multi-gas analyser<br />

achieves a sensitivity in the ppm range<br />

with its spectroscopic measure ments.<br />

However, some gases and applications<br />

require measurement against<br />

limits thousands of times smaller. For<br />

example, the total sulphur content in<br />

hydrogen fuel may only be 4 ppb. It<br />

is not yet clear whether further development<br />

work will lead to the new<br />

method also reaching this detection<br />

limit. Even if the spectrometric part of<br />

such a device cannot identify sulphur<br />

compounds in the ppb range, the fact<br />

that numerous other gases would be<br />

measurable at the same time with<br />

such a combination device would<br />

nevertheless mean an enormous relief<br />

in many applications.<br />

A new paradigm in industrial gas<br />

metrology<br />

With the industrialisation of optical<br />

spectroscopy, the team has developed<br />

a method that promises great<br />

flexibility and robustness in field<br />

use. The new technology is still in<br />

the pre-production stage. What specific<br />

products will ultimately emerge<br />

from this still remains to be seen –<br />

the first measuring devices from series<br />

production could be available in<br />

2023. One thing is certain, however:<br />

the possible fields of application are<br />

huge. The new technology is likely to<br />

permanently change the face of industrial<br />

gas metrology.<br />

More testers wanted<br />

The developers plan to present their<br />

experiences with optical spectroscopy<br />

together at congresses as soon as<br />

they are able to take place again. The<br />

developers would also be delighted<br />

to make the pre-production version<br />

of the device available to interested<br />

third parties. After all, the whole variety<br />

of application scenarios for optical<br />

spectroscopy can only be explored<br />

if more development partners<br />

test the specific industrial application<br />

possibilities. If you are interested,<br />

please contact Franziska Seitz:<br />

Franziska.Seitz@de.bosch.com<br />

The Author: Dr Alexander Stratmann,<br />

Head of Development<br />

Robert Bosch GmbH,<br />

Stuttgart, Germany<br />

24 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong>

Energy/Energy efficiency<br />

Making the dream of climate-neutral air travel come true<br />

Producing carbon-neutral e-kerosene with the<br />

help of a CO 2<br />

compressor<br />

The German non-profit organisation<br />

Atmosfair has opened the world's<br />

first plant for the industrial production<br />

of carbon-neutral e-kerosene.<br />

The aviation fuel is produced using<br />

renewable energies as well as CO 2<br />

and H 2<br />

. An important component<br />

of the pilot plant is Sauer Compressors'<br />

HAUG CO 2<br />

compressor. The oilfree<br />

and hermetically gas-tight machine<br />

compresses atmospheric CO 2<br />

to be used as raw material for the<br />

green kerosene.<br />

Carbon-neutral flying – the air transport<br />

industry's dream to make the<br />

business flourish again despite forthcoming<br />

restrictions regarding CO 2<br />

emissions. According to the current<br />

state of technology, this only works<br />

on a large scale with e-kerosene,<br />

which is produced from renewable<br />

electricity. The so-called Power-to-<br />

Liquid fuels (PtL), a liquid combination<br />

of electrically generated H 2<br />

and<br />

CO2, are to be added to conventional<br />

kerosene. That's how the German<br />

government envisions it according to<br />

their PtL roadmap. However, PtL is<br />

currently still considered too expensive<br />

for widespread use.<br />

The non-profit organisation Atmosfair<br />

is mainly known for offering<br />

offsets for greenhouse gases.<br />

Since 2021, the company has also<br />

been producing synthetic e-kerosene<br />

with a plant in Werlte, North Germany.<br />

The special feature of the pilot<br />

plant is that it produces the first<br />

carbon-neutral PtL kerosene ever!<br />

The founder and CEO explains: “As<br />

long as airplanes use kerosene, no<br />

matter if from fossil or renewable resources,<br />

they cause emissions. But<br />

for our production process we use<br />

CO 2<br />

either from a biogas plant or directly<br />

extracted from the air. Thus,<br />

when the CO 2<br />

eventually gets back<br />

Fig. 1: Full view of the PtL plant in Werlte, Germany. (Photo © : Atmosfair)<br />

into the atmosphere while the kerosene<br />

is burned, the carbon footprint<br />

is offset.” With a capacity of 350 tons<br />

of synthetic crude oil per year, the<br />

operation by far exceeds the bench<br />

scale. It is the first plant worldwide<br />

producing crude oil for e-kerosene<br />

approved by ASTM International for<br />

commercial aviation. The crude oil is<br />

added to fossil fuels in a refinery and<br />

distributed to several airlines with a<br />

balance sheet certificate (TÜV seal of<br />

approval).<br />

Electricity, hydrogen and CO 2<br />

as<br />

raw materials<br />

The PtL plant uses the three main raw<br />

materials electricity, H 2<br />

and CO 2<br />

. The<br />

electricity comes exclusively from renewable<br />

resources without funding<br />

from the German Renewable Energy<br />

Sources Act (EEG). The hydrogen<br />

is produced from water by electrolysis<br />

using electrical energy. A proton<br />

exchange membrane (PEM) acts as<br />

the electrolyser and electrochemically<br />

splits water into hydrogen (H 2<br />

) and<br />

oxygen (O 2<br />

).<br />

One source of the CO 2<br />

needed<br />

for the process is an on-site biogas<br />

plant. As the substrates used<br />

by the plant only contain carbon dioxide<br />

that they have previously extracted<br />

from the atmosphere during<br />

growth phase, the operation would<br />

already be climate-neutral only by re-<br />

Fig. 2: Inside the Direct Air Capture module:<br />

The compressor in front, the buffer storage<br />

for the CO 2<br />

captured from the ambient air<br />

in the back. (Fig. 2-4 Photo © :<br />

Sauer Compressors)<br />

26 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong>

Energy/Energy efficiency<br />

leasing the CO 2<br />

. By reusing the waste<br />

CO 2<br />

, the synthetic crude oil of the<br />

PtL plant is even achieving negative<br />

CO 2<br />

emissions. The second source of<br />

CO 2<br />

is the adsorption of CO 2<br />

directly<br />

from the ambient air in the Direct<br />

Air Capture (DAC) process. An intake<br />

manifold sucks in air into a filter with<br />

a solvent that extracts the CO 2<br />

and<br />

then binds it to a solid sorbent. Heat<br />

is then applied to the sorbent to release<br />

the CO 2<br />

.<br />

Compressing the atmospheric CO 2<br />

The carbon dioxide captured via DAC<br />

is stored in a balloon-like buffer. For<br />

further processing in the synthesis<br />

unit of the plant, the gas has to<br />

be compressed to a final pressure<br />

of 4.5 barg, which is technologically<br />

challenging. The CO 2<br />

must not be<br />

contaminated, since the catalytic process<br />

requires pure gases without oil<br />

pollution that could permanently reduce<br />

or outweigh the process. Moreover,<br />

no CO 2<br />

must get lost during the<br />

compression process. The solution<br />

is a gas compressor developed by<br />

the long-established Swiss company<br />

HAUG Sauer Kompressoren AG. The<br />

compressor has already proven to<br />

meet the highest gas purity and process<br />

quality requirements in several<br />

industries and research institutes.<br />

Modular oil-free and gas-tight<br />

compressor<br />

Fig. 3: The oil-free and hermetically gastight<br />

compressor compresses the CO 2<br />

captured from the atmosphere.<br />

as well as intermittent operations,<br />

such as Atmosfair's application. Plus,<br />

it is hermetically gas-tight during operation<br />

and downtime, not allowing<br />

any CO 2<br />

leakage. The reason is<br />

the non-contact and wear-free magnetic<br />

coupling, an in-house development,<br />

which can be used in the gas<br />

compressor of the HAUG.Neptune<br />

series for suction pressures of up to<br />

14 barg. The modular concept of the<br />

compressor series allowed for an individual<br />

configuration to the requirements<br />

of the organisation. Pressure<br />

level and flow rate were therefore optimally<br />

adapted to the application via<br />

predefined cylinder modules.<br />

Synthetic crude oil for the refinery<br />

The last process step for the compressed<br />

CO 2<br />

is the synthesis. In the<br />

synthesis unit, carbon dioxide and hydrogen<br />

are converted into a syngas,<br />

which is then used to produce synthetic<br />

crude oil, the primary product<br />

for the e-kerosene. This is done with<br />

the Fischer-Tropsch process. At temperatures<br />

of 150°C to 300°C, longchain<br />

hydrocarbons are formed in<br />

the presence of metal catalysts and<br />

eventually processed into climateneutral<br />

kerosene in a refinery.<br />

Sauer Compressors, Kiel,<br />

Germany<br />

This compressor is a completely oilfree<br />

and dry-running piston compressor<br />

that can be used for continuous<br />

Fig. 4: The compressor prior to its delivery<br />

in the factory hall of the compressor manufacturer.<br />

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Energy/Energy efficiency<br />

On our own behalf<br />

New Magazine „Green Efficient Technologies“<br />

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Eberhard Schlücker<br />

The north pole pump that keeps the<br />

Gulf Stream alive is stuttering, the jet<br />

stream’s amplitude has already increased<br />

and it is wandering somewhat<br />

farther north, animate nature<br />

is suffering and resources are getting<br />

scarce. Thus we are long since in<br />

the midst of distorting global interrelations,<br />

with consequences that are<br />

not yet foreseeable. Meanwhile it is<br />

clear to just about everyone that all<br />

this is caused by our behaviour and,<br />

in particular, also by the established<br />

technologies, and that sustainable<br />

changes over the medium term are<br />

our only chance. To make matters<br />

worse, our numbers on this planet<br />

continue to increase and every human<br />

being causes entropy. On a positive<br />

note, a variety of activities can be<br />

observed in many places and a lot of<br />

technology already exists. Implementation,<br />

comprehensive concepts or<br />

simply the will of those in charge are<br />

most often lacking, but also a goaloriented<br />

focus of research and development.<br />

What we need is a green industrial<br />

revolution!<br />

Green hydrogen has become a buzzword.<br />

However, agriculture and<br />

energy- efficient production are also<br />

called green when they are sustainable.<br />

Unfortunately, far too few<br />

technological achievements are sustainable<br />

and optimised for energy<br />

efficiency today. They continue contributing<br />

to manoeuvring us into an<br />

even more critical situation that constitutes<br />

a danger to humanity as a<br />

whole. All of our technology, industry<br />

and society should – or actually<br />

must – become “green”. This applies<br />

in particular to all processes and industries<br />

that consume energy and<br />

raw materials, but also to many application<br />

products and production facilities<br />

and their sustainability. There<br />

is no doubt that this transformation<br />

is complex and should not proceed<br />

in contrary directions. Information<br />

and concepts are therefore needed.<br />

Which is exactly the reason for the<br />

new “Green Efficient Technologies”<br />

magazine. We want to accompany<br />

you on your journey to more sustainability,<br />

providing you with useful information<br />

and concept ideas along<br />

with insights into green technologies<br />

as well as efficient technological<br />

products and processes. Not least,<br />

we also want to present new ideas<br />

based on research. There is one thing<br />

we are certain of: This green industrial<br />

revolution is a great opportunity<br />

for a better world. But time is short<br />

and the changes must be implemented<br />

correctly.<br />

No doubt this is a Herculean task<br />

and will also cost a lot of money.<br />

Against the background of additional<br />

costs for the pandemic and the military,<br />

this is an even bigger challenge.<br />

Spending the money properly<br />

is therefore essential. Naturally, the<br />

energy supply comes first. It needs to<br />

be converted or expanded to electricity<br />

and hydrogen as resources, and<br />

in some countries also nuclear technology.<br />

When the latter is viewed as<br />

a bridging technology, the energy of<br />

the future requires land area. But we<br />

also want that for food and recreation.<br />

Efficiency is therefore key! Efficiency<br />

in energy generation, transformation<br />

and use, but also efficiency in<br />

the processes for the food chain, logistics<br />

and consumer goods, which<br />

must go hand in hand with habitat<br />

protection. Of course we also need<br />

resource management that produces<br />

little to no waste. Nothing is left out<br />

and everything is connected. We are<br />

therefore talking about completely<br />

different consumer behaviour, about<br />

a new and sustainable industry and<br />

society.<br />

Those are exactly the topics we<br />

want to address in “Green Efficient<br />

Technolo gies”. We want to accompany<br />

you in the inevitable development of<br />

a new industrialised society, providing<br />

comprehensive and competent information<br />

on all topics of technological<br />

rele vance, presenting solution proposals<br />

and sharing progressive ideas.<br />

28 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong>

lit modular casing<br />

UMPE<br />

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n request<br />

Differenzdruck-Begrenzungsventil<br />

Differential pressure limiting valve<br />

Spalttopfausführungen:<br />

E metallisch / nicht-metallisch<br />

E einschalig / doppelschalig<br />

Containment shell executions:<br />

E metallic / non-metallic<br />

E single / double shell<br />

WANGEN_<strong>PuK</strong>_Titelseite_216x182.indd 1 24.01.<strong>2022</strong> 15:23:40<br />

WANGEN_<strong>PuK</strong>_Titelseite_216x182.indd 1 24.01.<strong>2022</strong> 15:24:33<br />


isch Verlags GmbH<br />

traße 25<br />

uremberg, Germany<br />

+ 49 (0) 911 2018-0<br />

49 (0) 911 2018-100<br />

puk@harnisch.com<br />

www.harnisch.com<br />



<strong>2022</strong>/23<br />

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y<br />

Energy Oil Gas Hydrogen<br />

T AutoAdjust easily set the stator clamping of a progressive cavity pump to the optimal operating<br />

0<br />

Automotive PROZESSTECHNIK Shipbuilding Heavy Industry<br />

emotely from a control room or locally via SEEPEX Pump Monitor or the app. Life cycle costs are<br />


0<br />

Chemistry Pharmaceutics Biotechnology<br />

d at the push of a button.<br />

Food and Beverage Industry<br />

conveying capacity and productivity:<br />

ys operating at the optimal level<br />

ediate ETY. adaptation to changing process<br />

itions increases overall efficiency<br />

ITY.<br />

y integrated into process infrastructure<br />

N.<br />


• Reduced downtime Wasser through Abwasser predictive<br />

Umwelttechnik<br />

maintenance Energie via cloud Öl connection<br />

Gas Wasserstoff<br />

Fahrzeugbau Schiffbau Schwerindustrie<br />

• Extended lifespan due to adjustment<br />

Chemie Pharma Biotechnik<br />

of the stator clamping<br />

Lebensmittel- und Getränkeindustrie<br />

<strong>2022</strong><br />


<strong>2022</strong><br />

Water Wastewater Environmental <strong>Technology</strong><br />

The hygienic solution<br />

WANGEN VarioTwin NG<br />

Hygienisch fördern<br />

Independent magazine for Pumps, Compressors and <strong>Process</strong> <strong>Components</strong><br />

WANGEN VarioTwin NG<br />

Unabhängiges Fachmagazin für Pumpen, Kompressoren und prozesstechnische Komponenten<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong><br />

SEEPEX GmbH<br />

T +49 2041 996-0<br />

www.seepex.com<br />

Effcient pump technology<br />

from NETZSCH<br />

<strong>2022</strong><br />

www.netzsch.com<br />
























<strong>2022</strong><br />

Independent magazine for Green Efficient Technologies<br />



















Sustainable opportunities in process<br />

technology<br />

Circular economy in the industrial<br />

production process<br />

Topics H 2<br />

, Synthetic Fuels, Water,<br />

Solar & Photovoltaics, Wind Power,<br />

Bioenergy, Geothermal Energy, Battery<br />

<strong>Technology</strong>, System Integration and<br />

other alternative options<br />

Dr. Harnisch Verlags GmbH · Eschenstr. 25 · 90441 Nuremberg · Tel.: +49 (0) 911 - 2018 0 · info@harnisch.com · www.harnisch.com

Cover story<br />

Varied requirements governing pumps<br />

for the food industry<br />

Marcus Gutfrucht<br />

Varied and challenging: the food industry,<br />

in particular, places precise<br />

demands on pumps, as they need<br />

to comply with exacting hygiene requirements<br />

and the media can often<br />

be very challenging. Comparing<br />

MX, Twin NG and Vario Twin NG<br />

pump ranges from Pumpenfabrik<br />

Wangen shows that progressing<br />

cavity pumps and twin screw pumps<br />

are ideally suited for different applications<br />

and for pumping a wide variety<br />

of media.<br />

Decision-making criteria when it<br />

comes to choosing the right pump<br />

Key decision-making criteria for or<br />

against the use of certain pumps include<br />

the required pressure, need for<br />

gentle pumping, and non-contact operation.<br />

Further criteria include temperature<br />

requirements for certain<br />

media, the processing of the smallest<br />

residual quantities, and any required<br />

certification. Users can use the Twin<br />

NG series of twin screw pumps for<br />

non-contact pumping, as the spindles<br />

are separated from each other and<br />

from the housing by a gap. There is<br />

therefore no abrasion of elastomers.<br />

The Vario Twin NG is recommended<br />

if the medium is too thick, i. e. highviscosity,<br />

so that it can no longer be<br />

drawn in by suction. This pump complements<br />

the Twin NG and is an additional<br />

module with a hopper and<br />

screw conveyor that enables the medium<br />

to be pre-delivered in a way that<br />

is gentle on the product. The multistage<br />

pump sets of the MX series of<br />

progressing cavity pumps with pressures<br />

of up to 80 bar are appropriate<br />

if, on the other hand, the focus is on<br />

pressure rather than on non-contact<br />

pump operation. Their maximum capacity<br />

is 100 m 3 /h. These pumps are<br />

capable of pumping even the most<br />

viscous, thick media with ease if a<br />

hopper feed pump or a self-priming<br />

pump with a worm pre-conveyor is<br />

selected. A plug screw feeder is attached<br />

to the joint, which converts<br />

the rotary motion of the drive shaft<br />

to the eccentric motion of the rotor.<br />

It transports the medium into the stator-rotor-system,<br />

where the actual<br />

pumping process begins.<br />

Service-friendly design<br />

Twin screw pumps stand out on account<br />

of their service-friendly design.<br />

The pump housing is separated from<br />

the rest of the pump by loosening just<br />

four screws, with no need to disconnect<br />

it from the pipework. This is especially<br />

beneficial with heated pipework<br />

and pump housings, as it is not<br />

necessary to drain and then bleed the<br />

heating circuits once again. Once the<br />

pump has been separated from the<br />

housing, there is free access to the<br />

spindles and seals, which can then<br />

be easily and quickly serviced and replaced.<br />

In general, Twin NG pumps<br />

are capable of flow speeds of over 1.5<br />

m/s in the pipework. They are therefore<br />

also suitable as CIP pumps, as a<br />

sufficiently high flow speed is a criterion<br />

for CIP cleaning (Cleaning in Place).<br />

The ease of servicing of progressing<br />

cavity pumps series comes from<br />

their modular design. Great importance<br />

was attached to a straightforward<br />

design and ease of disassembly<br />

in the design of this pump. The MX 20<br />

series of pumps can be dismantled<br />

by manually removable clamp fastenings,<br />

obviating the need to loosen a<br />

multitude of individual connections.<br />

A torsion rod with no hidden cavities<br />

can be used in place of a cardan joint.<br />

The use of pre-tensioned mechanical<br />

seals provides for a low dead space<br />

design and the medium pumped in<br />

the pump is automatically displaced<br />

by the medium following on. The<br />

dwell times of the fluids in the pumps<br />

are correspondingly short. The dead<br />

space-free design and the possibility<br />

of cleaning the pump using an additional<br />

CIP pump ensures optimum<br />

cleanliness. When appropriate temperature-resistant<br />

elastomers are<br />

used, the pump can also be sterilised<br />

by SIP (Sterilisation in Place) using<br />

saturated steam at temperatures of<br />

up to 135 °C.<br />

Varied applications for the most<br />

diverse media<br />

Fig. 1: Hygienic pumping with the Twin NG VarioTwin NG series of twin screw pumps and MX<br />

series of progressing cavity pumps<br />

Both the twin screw pump series Twin<br />

NG and the progressing cavity pumps<br />

of the MX series are specifically used<br />

in the confectionery industry. Exam-<br />

30 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong>

Cover story<br />

Certified according to<br />

EHEDG standards<br />

Fig. 2: Twin screw pump Vario Twin NG: Designed to reliably pump low to highly viscous,<br />

volatile or gaseous products where maximum hygiene and efficiency is required<br />

ples of applications include the production<br />

of chocolate masses, creams<br />

and fillings for waffles, dairy pro ducts<br />

of all kinds, honey and gelatin, as well<br />

as soups and minced meat. Vario<br />

Twin NG pumps are primarily used<br />

in the food industry and pump media<br />

that cannot be drawn in by suction,<br />

including dough, ricotta cheese,<br />

apple strudel fillings, mashed potato,<br />

sweetcorn and minced meat. They<br />

are also used to make dough specifically<br />

in the baking industry. This involves<br />

the mixing of flour and water<br />

to produce a homogeneous, smooth<br />

dough without lumps of flour and ensure<br />

consistent hydration of the flour.<br />

“Beyond Meat”, that is meat-free<br />

products, represent a future growth<br />

market. Pumps can also be used in<br />

this sector. The Managing Director of<br />

the pumps manufacturer, explains:<br />

“As the world's population grows,<br />

the demand for food is increasing,<br />

but cannot be met by meat alone<br />

in view of its carbon footprint. Meat<br />

substitutes are therefore becoming<br />

increasingly important. Our pumps<br />

are capable of reliably pumping these<br />

high-viscosity vegetable masses in<br />

the food industry.”<br />

The twin screw pump Vario Twin<br />

NG is an example of a technical solution<br />

to a user problem encountered<br />

with suction. In the food industry,<br />

many media cannot be drawn in by<br />

suction as they are not free-flowing,<br />

but rather set like mashed potato.<br />

Twin screw pumps are nonetheless<br />

capable of pumping these media. The<br />

Fig. 3: Developed and produced in Wangen in the Region of Allgäu, Germany<br />

challenge here is to transport the medium<br />

to the pump. As soon as the medium<br />

is in the pump, the pump then<br />

increases the pressure, which then allows<br />

the medium to “flow”.<br />

This problem is solved with a<br />

worm pre-conveyor and a hopper on<br />

progressing cavity pumps. On these<br />

pumps, the worm pre-conveyor is<br />

attached to the pump joint and rotates<br />

at the same speed as the rotor.<br />

Overpumping or underpumping by<br />

the progressing cavity pump is avoided<br />

by the adjustment of the screw<br />

pitch. By contrast, with Vario Twin NG<br />

twin screw pumps, the pump speed<br />

and the speed of the screw conveyor<br />

are independent of each other due<br />

to them having separate drives. This<br />

means that media of different viscosities<br />

can be gently fed to the pump at<br />

the respective speed required.<br />

The Twin NG series of twin screw<br />

pumps are certified to EHEDG EL<br />

Class I (sizes 70 to 180) and to 3-A<br />

Sanitary Standards (sizes 70 to 130).<br />

They are also designed to be low dead<br />

space and self-draining. The wetted<br />

components are manufactured in<br />

the corresponding qualities of stainless<br />

steel (V4A, 1.4404) and the surface<br />

roughness is below 0.8 µm. The<br />

Twin NG pumps can also be used as<br />

CIP pumps and sterilised using saturated<br />

steam at temperatures of up<br />

to 135 °C. The MX series of progressing<br />

cavity pumps is currently undergoing<br />

a recertification process in line<br />

with the current EHEDG standards.<br />

Certification in accordance with the<br />

currently appli cable 3-A standards is<br />

planned.<br />

The Author: Marcus Gutfrucht,<br />

Application Engineer at<br />

WANGEN PUMPEN, Wangen i.A.,<br />

Germany<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong><br />


Pumps and Systems<br />

Intelligent pump control via app<br />

Cooling tower disinfection via app<br />

Increasing safety and efficiency<br />

SUEZ WTS France creates more safety<br />

for employees and realises an<br />

increase in efficiency in technical<br />

service thanks to intelligent pump<br />

control via mobile app.<br />

Suez Water Technologies & Solutions<br />

(WTS) France is part of the international<br />

Suez Group, which provides industrial<br />

services and solutions. With<br />

its experienced professionals and<br />

modern technology, the company<br />

works to solve the complex challenges<br />

of water scarcity and quality, productivity,<br />

environment and energy.<br />

As a service provider, the French<br />

company is responsible for the operation,<br />

maintenance and servicing<br />

of all kinds of plants with solutions<br />

and services, including evaporative<br />

cooling plants. In the case described<br />

below, it is not only responsible for<br />

the technical equipment and maintenance<br />

of the plant, but also for onsite<br />

technical service in the event of<br />

system failures or process malfunctions.<br />

In the area of evaporative cooling<br />

systems, chemical biocides are<br />

used to disinfect the cooling towers.<br />

The use of biocides is necessary to<br />

free the interior of the cooling towers<br />

from naturally accumulating legionella<br />

and to disinfect the cooling water. A<br />

solenoid driven metering pump from<br />

ProMinent has been used for years to<br />

feed the chemicals. SUEZ employees<br />

who check and adjust the settings of<br />

the pumps on site to ensure the hygienic<br />

operation of the evaporative<br />

cooling systems, have been exposed<br />

to high risks during every operation<br />

up to now.<br />

Therefore, the French service<br />

company has decided to increasingly<br />

rely on an intelligent metering pump<br />

with integrated Bluetooth module.<br />

The proven bestseller impresses<br />

with its operator-friendliness, an integrated<br />

pressure measurement and<br />

precise metering performance. The<br />

pump has an integrated Bluetooth<br />

module that enables remote control<br />

of the pump using its own app. All<br />

that employees need is an Apple or<br />

Android-based mobile device (smartphone<br />

or tablet) and the free app<br />

from the pump manufacturer.<br />

What does the mobile app do?<br />

With the support of the app, service<br />

technicians can easily control the<br />

solenoid driven metering pump via<br />

smartphone from a safe distance.<br />

The mobile app allows central access<br />

to all data of the connected devices.<br />

This means that the current performance<br />

data of the system can be<br />

called up remotely, settings can be<br />

adjusted in real time or the delivery<br />

rate and metering quantity can be<br />

regulated directly. This offers a great<br />

advantage especially in industrial application<br />

areas where pumps are<br />

Fig. 1: Service process of SUEZ WTS France before and after the use of the innovative pump with Bluetooth function and mobile app<br />

32 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong>

Pumps and Systems<br />

Intelligent pump control via app<br />

sometimes difficult to access or protected<br />

by high security measures.<br />

Efficient and secure: service processes<br />

with app<br />

The use of the mobile app not only increased<br />

safety for their service technicians,<br />

but also made the previously<br />

complex and time-consuming process<br />

considerably more efficient.<br />

Before using the intelligent pump,<br />

the service company first had to set<br />

up an action and safety plan in the<br />

event of a service call or fault/problem<br />

message and have it approved by<br />

the operator of the plant before a service<br />

technician could make his way to<br />

the plant. On site, the service technician<br />

had to identify himself, register<br />

at the plant and put on suitable protective<br />

clothing. Only after this was<br />

access granted. Now the service technician<br />

read out the pump values and<br />

settings and recorded them manually.<br />

After removing the protective<br />

clothing and leaving the plant, the<br />

manually recorded data then had to<br />

be transferred into a digital report.<br />

Up to 60 minutes time saving<br />

Since switching to the proven pump<br />

with mobile app, SUEZ WTS France<br />

has saved up to 60 minutes per service<br />

call. The service technician drives<br />

on site close to the factory building<br />

and, after authentification from the<br />

car, can establish a secure connection<br />

to the pump via his mobile device. He<br />

can access the pump values and settings<br />

via app and export all relevant<br />

Fig. 2: Smart pump control in the cooling tower: With the mobile app, SUEZ WTS France increases<br />

work safety and efficiency in technical service.<br />

data into a digital report at the push<br />

of a button. The entire creation and<br />

approval process within the framework<br />

of an action and safety plan in<br />

coordination with the plant operator<br />

is no longer necessary.<br />

Result<br />

For more than one year now, the<br />

French company has been using the<br />

proven solenoid driven metering<br />

pump with Bluetooth function for<br />

the safe and precise metering of biocides<br />

in evaporative cooling systems.<br />

Thanks to the innovative pump control<br />

via app, the service company was<br />

able to make the previously complex<br />

and time-consuming process significantly<br />

more efficient and to considerably<br />

shorten the operating and maintenance<br />

processes at serviced plants,<br />

thus saving time and costs. At the<br />

same time, safety for its own employees<br />

was increased and the risk during<br />

each service operation was significantly<br />

reduced.<br />

Additional safety thanks to Bluetooth<br />

connectivity<br />

Generally, in any application where<br />

hazardous chemicals are processed,<br />

pumps should be equipped with an<br />

appropriate safety cover to protect<br />

employees. Making changes to the<br />

pump settings or viewing the current<br />

performance data in these applications<br />

is always associated with a high<br />

safety risk for the service technician.<br />

Thanks to the Bluetooth function<br />

of the pumps from the Heidelberg<br />

pump manufacturer, such as the intelligent<br />

solenoid driven metering<br />

pumps, this risk can be reduced, thus<br />

increasing safety for every employee.<br />

ProMinent GmbH, Heidelberg,<br />

Germany<br />




since 1974<br />

▪ max. 3500 bar<br />

▪ max. 4700 l/min<br />

▪ max. 1500 kW<br />

water jetting | hydraulics | process technology www.KAMAT.de/en

Pumps and Systems<br />

Energy-saving conveying technology<br />

Smart Air Injection helps breweries save costs<br />

Invaluable for tasty liquid gold<br />

When processing barley or wheat to<br />

make delicious beer or spirits, breweries<br />

and distilleries do not stint<br />

on good ingredients. But the brewing<br />

industry is struggling with sales<br />

problems, which due to the corona<br />

pandemic have become even<br />

more pressing. Large companies<br />

in particular are challenged with<br />

the need to optimize their production<br />

facilities. How costs can be reduced<br />

while paying increased attention<br />

to sustainability has been<br />

successfully proved by the use of<br />

SEEPEX progressive cavity pumps<br />

with the patented Smart Air Injection<br />

(SAI) system when conveying<br />

spent grains.<br />

Technical know-how from the Ruhr<br />

area, Germany’s pilsner heartland, is<br />

also successfully contributing to the<br />

production of, for example, wheat<br />

beer and light beer since progressive<br />

cavity pumps with SAI are perfectly<br />

suited for conveying highly viscous<br />

materials over long distances. This<br />

is ideal, in particular, when the spent<br />

grains from beer production should<br />

Fig. 1: Smart Air Injection is the energysaving<br />

conveying technology for breweries<br />

and distilleries. (Photo © : Adobe Stock)<br />

Fig. 2: In large breweries, a daily energy<br />

consumption of 1,000 kWh and more for<br />

pneumatic conveying alone is not a rarity.<br />

(photos 2-6 Photo © : SEEPEX)<br />

be conveyed more efficiently than<br />

has previously been possible with<br />

conventional processes. After all, the<br />

patented system requires much less<br />

compressed air and energy to convey<br />

spent malt and hop grains. It compresses<br />

the by-products into huge<br />

plugs and transports them to the silo<br />

or storage tank by means of short<br />

pneumatic compressed air pulses.<br />

Considerable savings in terms of<br />

compressed air, energy and costs<br />

<strong>Process</strong> efficiency can thus be significantly<br />

increased. “Energy costs can<br />

indeed be sustainably reduced with<br />

the SAI conveying principle,” says the<br />

pump manufacturer’s Head of Product<br />

Management. “This conveying<br />

principle reduces the compressed<br />

air consumption by up to 90 percent<br />

thus leading to total energy savings<br />

of up to 75 percent. Our technology<br />

is totally convincing and effectively<br />

supports breweries and distilleries<br />

to produce at considerably reduced<br />

operating costs. When considering<br />

that large companies will easily be<br />

able to annually save a five to six figure<br />

sum of euros in this production<br />

area alone, our tailor-made solution<br />

is an economically attractive alternative<br />

for every brewery and distillery<br />

business.”<br />

Compared with a conventional<br />

pneumatic conveying system for wet<br />

spent grains, the energy costs for the<br />

pump operation are similar to those<br />

of the screw conveyor of a wet spent<br />

grains conveying system, whereas<br />

the compressed air consumption is<br />

significantly lower.<br />

The spent grains removal process<br />

becomes more reliable because<br />

potential fluctuations of the spent<br />

grains’ moisture content will no longer<br />

affect the conveying performance<br />

of the progressive cavity pump. According<br />

to the findings of the Bottrop<br />

experts, the time for spent grains removal<br />

will thus remain remarkably<br />

constant.<br />

Furthermore, piping wear can be<br />

reduced significantly – owing to the<br />

plug conveyance the flow rates are<br />

five fold lower than with the continuous<br />

pneumatic lean-phase conveying<br />

of wet spent grains in conventional<br />

conveying systems.<br />

The task: Convey the spent grains<br />

more efficiently<br />

As large breweries have to deal with<br />

several hundreds of tons of spent<br />

grains every day, the pneumatic conveyance<br />

of the material causes an<br />

energy consumption of up to 1,000<br />

kWh and more. So far, the by-product<br />

has been conveyed with conventional<br />

pneumatic conveying systems for<br />

wet spent grains that almost continuously<br />

need to be supplied with compressed<br />

air.<br />

After having lautered the liquid<br />

phase (wort) from the brew, solids<br />

from barley and hops remaining<br />

in the mash tun, lauter tun or mash<br />

filter should be discharged as soon<br />

as possible. Usually, these wet spent<br />

34 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong>

Fig. 3: Smart Air Injection is a tailor-made SEEPEX system solution, which combines<br />

progressive cavity pump with compressed air conveying for breweries<br />

and distilleries<br />

high compressed air consumption<br />

and eventually high<br />

energy costs for the brewery.<br />

The almost continuous provision<br />

of compressed air for<br />

the wet spent grains conveying<br />

system leads to high costs.<br />

Together with the energy consumption<br />

of the screw conveyor<br />

this incurs annual energy<br />

costs amounting to tens of<br />

thousands of euros – a big disadvantage<br />

in the highly competitive<br />

beer market. Large<br />

breweries operating 24/7 and<br />

using compressors with an output<br />

of around 100 kW for their<br />

pneumatic spent grains conveying<br />

will be able to save more<br />

than 100,000 euros per year by<br />

implementing SAI.<br />

The solution: Short pulses<br />

and long plugs<br />

Fig. 4: Smart Air Injection is a real all-rounder that is successfully used in various<br />

industries. The system consists of the combination of a progressive cavity<br />

pump and dense phase pneumatic conveying.<br />

Fig. 5: The SAI controller can visualize the entire SAI process,<br />

including fault diagnosis.<br />

grains have a moisture content<br />

of 75 to 85 percent and a<br />

temperature of approx. 55 to<br />

70 °C. After the spent grains removal<br />

the solids are frequently<br />

conveyed over a distance of<br />

up to several hundred meters<br />

to a silo at a higher level. From<br />

there the wet spent grains are<br />

transported by truck in order to<br />

be used as a resource in animal<br />

feed production or for power<br />

generation in biogas plants.<br />

The transport of the huge<br />

quantities of wet spent grains<br />

from the removal station to the<br />

silo is usually performed by a<br />

pneumatic conveying system<br />

for wet spent grains consisting<br />

of an integrated screw conveyor<br />

with subsequent pneumatic<br />

lean-phase conveying. The conventional<br />

system uses continuously<br />

flowing compressed air to<br />

suspend the spent grains in the<br />

line, which, however, means<br />

Short compressed air pulses<br />

in greater intervals can easily<br />

convey long plugs of wet spent<br />

grains. This is like the good old<br />

pneumatic tube mail system of<br />

days gone bye. With SAI, the<br />

screw conveyor of the conventional<br />

system is exchanged for<br />

a progressive cavity pump of<br />

hopper design that can seamlessly<br />

be integrated into the existing<br />

plant. For a period of several<br />

minutes, the progressive<br />

cavity pump fills the pressure<br />

line with plugs of wet spent<br />

grains until the perfect length<br />

has been formed. The plugs<br />

are then be conveyed by an injection<br />

of compressed air that<br />

takes only a few seconds. The<br />

pressure level in the conveying<br />

pipeline permanently remains<br />

at a very low level of less than<br />

four bar.<br />

Speeding up Irish whiskey<br />

Conveying the spent grains is<br />

an important production step<br />

not only for beer. Irish whiskey,<br />

for instance, also benefits from<br />

the technology of the pump<br />

manufacturer from Bottrop<br />

for optimal production speed.<br />


Pumps and Systems<br />

Energy-saving conveying technology<br />

retrofit the valve control system for<br />

compressed air injection with the system<br />

logic for plug conveyance. This<br />

fundamentally changes the type of<br />

pneumatic conveyance making it a<br />

lot more energy-efficient. Ultimately,<br />

these plants are run continuously<br />

to produce an uninterrupted flow of<br />

“liquid gold”. The Bottrop-based company<br />

has already supplied numerous<br />

applications of Smart Air Injection to<br />

operations all over Europe, in China<br />

and in the USA.<br />

Fig. 6: Thanks to the “plugs of spent grains”, Smart Air Injection makes the production<br />

process of breweries and distilleries more efficient without the need of stinting on good<br />

ingredients.<br />

SEEPEX GmbH,<br />

Bottrop, Germany<br />

Some of the largest manufacturers<br />

of premium Irish whiskey rely for the<br />

production of their precious firewater<br />

on technology from North Rhine-<br />

Westphalia. The progressive cavity<br />

pumps play a significant part in allowing<br />

the distilleries to considerably increase<br />

their production volume with<br />

no compromise on quality.<br />

Faster spent grains removal facilitates<br />

higher production utilization,<br />

so that the increasing demand for<br />

the noble liquor can be satisfied. In<br />

most cases the supplier replaces the<br />

screw conveyor of an existing pneumatic<br />

conveying system for wet spent<br />

grains by its progressive cavity pump<br />

with intake hopper. It can reliably<br />

convey both low and highly viscous<br />

products with low or high moisture<br />

content. Depending on the moisture<br />

content, the technology made in Germany<br />

reduces the time required for<br />

spent grains removal by up to 50 %.<br />

Further benefits include the compact<br />

design of the progressive cavity<br />

pumps and easy maintenance. Even<br />

for existing systems it is possible to<br />

Technical facts and figures<br />

During the individual process optimization phase the pump manufacturer team gradually<br />

establishes the optimal operating status for the brewery or distillery by successively<br />

adapting the plug length of the wet spent grains. The longer the plug, the rarer the system<br />

needs compressed air thus consuming fewer standard cubic meters. The operational<br />

reliability is not a problem here, since a sufficient pressure reserve is always available.<br />

The length of the spent grains plug is crucial for achieving the optimal operating<br />

point in terms of reliability and efficiency. For example, shorter plugs provide more reliability<br />

but inevitably increase the injection frequency, which leads to higher compressed<br />

air consumption and thus more energy demand. The challenge is to find the optimal setting<br />

for every application by balancing the magic triangle of high performance, reliability<br />

and costs. Lengthening the plug helps to gradually minimize the average compressed<br />

air consumption. Throttling the air volume flow rate may also help to optimize the pneumatic<br />

flow properties, because the plug flow becomes smoother so that the pulse forces<br />

can be reduced. In addition, the optimal air consumption (Nm 3 per injection) can thus<br />

be set more easily. Here, the required standard cubic meters of compressed air per injection<br />

are almost identical with the pipe volume so that only a slight overpressure is<br />

needed to push the plug to the silo, even over a long distance.<br />

SAI: Ideal system for long distances<br />

The tailor-made system solution is successful already in other applications and, for example,<br />

is seen as a recognized solution also in the environmental sector, where highly<br />

viscous media with a high consistency and a medium-to-high dry matter content are reliably<br />

conveyed over long distances of up to one kilometer. The system is a combination<br />

of product conveyance via a progressive cavity pump and dense phase pneumatic conveying.<br />

Its high process flexibility is ensured by the smooth media pumping with a variable<br />

moisture content of 60 to 85 percent - without compromising its efficiency. Moreover<br />

the system can easily be integrated into existing automation and control systems.<br />

36 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong>




KEY<br />


For initial<br />

information, scan<br />

the QR code or visit:<br />

vogelsang.info/int/<br />

industry-news<br />



So you don’t want to wait for ACHEMA to provide your company with the<br />

best equipment? Then stop by for a virtual visit with us and be among the<br />

first to benefit from groundbreaking efficiency and cost-effectiveness.<br />

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the company has long since proven itself in these industrial sectors as well.<br />

Nevertheless, the more elaborate and automated the process, the greater the<br />

demands on the machines. That’s why we’re introducing a new generation of<br />

pumps and equipment options for you in <strong>2022</strong> to support your efforts to lead your<br />

company into the future.<br />

Learn more about<br />

our innovations live<br />

and at the trade show:<br />

22 – 26 August <strong>2022</strong><br />



Pumps and Systems<br />

Leak testing on progressing cavity pumps<br />

New process developed for safe and<br />

reliable leak testing on progressing cavity<br />

pumps using compressed air<br />

Method decreases the risk of accidents and reduces<br />

the use of drinking water by saving 10 l per pump and test<br />

Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Johann Vetter<br />

The unique rotor-stator geometry<br />

of a progressing cavity pump makes<br />

it impossible to fully dry out the<br />

pump after a conventional leak test<br />

with water. The water-based test<br />

process can partially wash away the<br />

corrosion protection on the rotor.<br />

A subsequent complete application<br />

of preserving products due to the<br />

thread effect is hardly possible. This<br />

can lead to corrosion on standard<br />

pumps, which are often made of<br />

carbon steel. Another disadvantage<br />

water-based testing is the moisture<br />

that often remains on the floor of<br />

the test benches, where it poses an<br />

increased risk of accidents for the<br />

staff. This prompted the manufacturer<br />

NETZSCH Pumpen & Systeme<br />

GmbH to develop a compressed<br />

air solution for leak testing. The<br />

new process and the change of the<br />

test medium eliminate the slipping<br />

hazard for employees and the risk<br />

of corrosion. At the same time, the<br />

use of corrosion protection products<br />

can also be omitted. In addition<br />

to this, 10 l of drinking water<br />

are saved per pump and the test period<br />

was reduced from 1.5 to 5 min.<br />

The German company has been using<br />

the new test solution for pumps<br />

of the sizes NM 003 to NM 063 since<br />

August 2021 and the process is already<br />

used at the factory in Goa/India<br />

as well.<br />

When it comes to leak testing on progressing<br />

cavity pumps, the standard<br />

procedure is to introduce water under<br />

pressure over a defined period<br />

and then check for leaks. The manufacturer<br />

from Waldkraiburg in Germany,<br />

for example, tests its pumps<br />

at 7 bar for 5 to 15 min as a 100-%<br />

test, i. e. a leak can be 100 per cent<br />

excluded upon successful completion<br />

of the test. But this method also<br />

has drawbacks, so the pump manufacturer<br />

consequently set out to develop<br />

an alternative, settling on compressed<br />

air testing in March 2021.<br />

had to be made gas-tight, the relative<br />

differential pressure had to be determined<br />

and the appropriate filling and<br />

holding time had to be defined for<br />

each pump type or size.<br />

To find the correct specification<br />

and produce a practical test solution,<br />

Fig. 1: When it comes to leak testing on progressing cavity pumps, the standard procedure is<br />

to introduce water under pressure over a defined period and then check for leaks.<br />

Solution for compressed air testing<br />

developed in a pilot system<br />

The company based its development<br />

on other sectors such as the airbag<br />

industry. In the airbag manufacturing<br />

process, airbags are leak tested with<br />

gas as a standard. Two of the benefits<br />

of this procedure are that no media<br />

is transferred and that the test can<br />

be completed much more quickly. The<br />

latter is because the gas has a lower<br />

density than air, allowing leaks to be<br />

detected faster and with greater accuracy.<br />

However, the different viscosities<br />

of the two media also presented<br />

the manufacturer with challenges during<br />

the development of a test method.<br />

For example, the pumps to be tested<br />

the company experimented with a pilot<br />

system for the series-production<br />

assembly of small pump. Around<br />

200 comparison tests between water<br />

and compressed air were conducted<br />

until the experts settled on<br />

500 mbar test pressure, a maximum<br />

pressure drop of 50 mbar and a test<br />

duration of 25 s for the compressed<br />

air test based on this empirical investigation.<br />

In the second step, the successfully<br />

tested solution was transferred<br />

to a production test bench<br />

for the medium series with sizes up<br />

to NM 063 and verified successfully.<br />

Depending on the pump size, the<br />

test is conducted with different test<br />

programs to reach the corresponding<br />

overpressure. In addition, the<br />

38 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong>

Pumps and Systems<br />

Leak testing on progressing cavity pumps<br />

pressure in the complete interior is<br />

measured with a pressure gauge on<br />

the opposite side of the test. This ensures<br />

that the pressure is present<br />

during the whole test.<br />

For the test, the pump is always<br />

equipped with a flange on each intake<br />

side and delivery side, while<br />

the leak test device is connected to<br />

the intake side with a compressed<br />

air coupling and the pressure gauge<br />

is connected to the delivery side.<br />

The parameters for the pressure<br />

test have to be set according to the<br />

pump type and size. For an NM 063<br />

progressing cavity pump, for example,<br />

we fill the pump for 80 s, let the<br />

medium settle for 10 s, test for 25 s<br />

and then it takes 30 s to release the<br />

pressure. The subsequent test is automated.<br />

If the result is OK, the pressure<br />

gauge and the leak test device<br />

can be disconnected and the flanges<br />

can be removed. If the test results<br />

indicate a leak, however, a sniffer is<br />

used to determine the pressure difference<br />

in the pump, followed by a<br />

repair and re-testing of the pump.<br />

Fig. 2: After successfully completing of the<br />

test, the water has to be drained from the<br />

pump on the test bench. It runs onto the<br />

workshop floor and then through drainage<br />

channels into the sewer system, creating<br />

wet surfaces that are a slipping hazard and<br />

accident risk for personnel.<br />

Comparison with conventional<br />

testing with water<br />

One advantage of testing with compressed<br />

air over conventional testing<br />

with water is that the corrosion<br />

protection inside the pump remains<br />

fully intact after the test. Before the<br />

stator is installed in the progressing<br />

cavity pump, the rotor is covered<br />

in oil or grease, and this preservative<br />

can be partially removed and<br />

flushed away by the water during the<br />

test. After the test, the water can be<br />

expelled from the pump with compressed<br />

air and a preserving agent<br />

is applied to protect the unit against<br />

corrosion. But one problem remains:<br />

The test medium cannot be fully removed<br />

from inside the pump during<br />

drying out, which is due to the operating<br />

principle of progressing cavity<br />

pumps. This is similar to a screw<br />

thread, i. e. any liquid in the thread<br />

turns cannot be fully removed due to<br />

the cavities and the adhesion.<br />

A similar principle applies to applying<br />

preserving products: A relatively<br />

high level of corrosion protection<br />

can be achieved in the intake<br />

and delivery sides, as the remaining<br />

water is easy to remove there. However,<br />

inside the pump, the thread effect<br />

means that it is also harder to

Pumps and Systems<br />

Leak testing on progressing cavity pumps<br />

Fig. 3: To find the right specification and produce a practical test solution, the company experimented<br />

with a pilot system for the series-production assembly of small pumps.<br />

apply the preserving agent. While this<br />

is not a crucial issue on durable stainless<br />

steel pumps, standard pumps –<br />

which are often made of more inexpensive<br />

carbon steel – have an<br />

increased risk of corrosion on the rotor.<br />

The procedure also uses 10 l of<br />

test medium, which is critical considering<br />

the growing worldwide shortage<br />

of drinking water. Health and<br />

safety aspects should also be considered:<br />

After successfully completing<br />

the test, the water has to be drained<br />

from the pump in the test bench. It<br />

runs onto the workshop floor and<br />

then through drainage channels and<br />

into the sewer system, creating wet<br />

surfaces that are a slipping and accident<br />

risk for the staff.<br />

Other advantages of compressed<br />

air testing: saving resources while<br />

increasing safety and customer<br />

satisfaction<br />

While a leak test with water takes 5<br />

to 15 minutes, this period is reduced<br />

to 1.5 to 5 minutes when testing with<br />

compressed air. This reduces the processing<br />

time on the test bench by 30<br />

per cent overall – despite the installation<br />

of the equipment for a compressed<br />

air test requiring more time<br />

and greater precision. In addition, the<br />

10 l of drinking water needed per test<br />

can be completely omitted, saving not<br />

only water but also ensuring a clean<br />

and safe workstation – no more slipping<br />

hazards around the test bench.<br />

In addition to all this, the time required<br />

for drying the pump and applying<br />

corrosion protection to flanges and<br />

threads can be omitted entirely. Overall,<br />

the compressed air leak test developed<br />

by the pump manufacturer is a<br />

reliable, SAP-compatible process that<br />

can be conducted flexibly with a mobile<br />

test trolley while significantly reducing<br />

quality problems caused by<br />

corrosion.<br />

The purchasing costs for the system<br />

are just under 17,000 euros, resulting<br />

in a payback period of the investment<br />

costs for the manufacturer<br />

of only six months when all potential<br />

savings from the new test solution are<br />

taken into account. As the process for<br />

conducting the pressure tests with<br />

compressed air increases health and<br />

safety as well as customer satisfaction,<br />

the system has been used since<br />

August 2021 for testing all pumps of<br />

the sizes NM 003 and NM 063. It is only<br />

for pumps NM 076 and larger that the<br />

company still uses water as a test medium<br />

because the large empty volume<br />

means that test section cannot settle<br />

with compressed air within an adequate<br />

time. Since 1 October 2021, the<br />

Indian subsidiary in Goa has also successfully<br />

used the new process for leak<br />

testing. A changeover is scheduled for<br />

other factories worldwide.<br />

The Author:<br />

Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Johann Vetter,<br />

Director of Integrated Quality<br />

Management, NETZSCH Pumpen &<br />

Systeme GmbH, Waldkraiburg,<br />

Germany<br />

40 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong>

Let Your Inspiration Flow<br />

World’s Leading Trade Fair for the<br />

Beverage and Liquid Food Industry<br />

September 12–16, <strong>2022</strong><br />


Pumps and Systems<br />

Diaphragm metering pumps<br />

Reduce manufacturing costs by 40 %:<br />

Pump design using the example of the<br />

ecosmart LCC and LCD units<br />

Product development using state-of-the-art project management,<br />

design and simulation methods<br />

Thomas Bökenbrink<br />

Many areas of the chemical and oil<br />

and gas industries require pumps<br />

that operate reliably and deliver high<br />

output, but have low investment<br />

costs at the same time. The proven<br />

hydraulic actuated ecosmart diaphragm<br />

metering pump from LEWA<br />

GmbH, for example, was designed<br />

specifically for these requirements.<br />

Suitable for operating pressures up<br />

to 80 bar and flow rates up to 300 l/h,<br />

it has already been in use for several<br />

years in many industries and a wide<br />

variety of applications. In order to<br />

cover higher flow rates in the future,<br />

it is currently being supplemented<br />

with two more powerful variants,<br />

the LCC and LCD. For their development,<br />

the R&D department worked<br />

out a design concept based on an indepth<br />

evaluation of the LCA model,<br />

the use of proven diaphragm technology<br />

and the requirement of low<br />

investment costs. The latter could be<br />

achieved by using series parts from<br />

the existing modular system that is<br />

already cost-optimized, as well as by<br />

simplifying components and reducing<br />

the number of parts per pump.<br />

In addition to traditional simulation<br />

methods, such as strength analyses<br />

according to the FEM method<br />

and computational strength analyses<br />

according to the FKM guideline,<br />

for the first time, the company also<br />

used the smoothed particle hydrodynamics<br />

method (SPH for short).<br />

This method is used in the automotive<br />

industry, for example, to simulate<br />

fluid movements. The result of<br />

the development work was a new<br />

modular system consisting of three<br />

drive unit performance classes and<br />

the associated diaphragm pump<br />

heads. This development holds its<br />

own against the higher-priced hydraulic<br />

diaphragm metering pumps<br />

of the ecoflow series in terms of reliability,<br />

robustness and user-friendliness.<br />

Nonetheless, a 40 percent reduction<br />

in manufacturing costs was<br />

achieved in comparison.<br />

Fig. 1: In order to cover higher flow rates in the future, the LCA is currently being supplemented<br />

with two more powerful variants, the LCC and LCD. (all photos: LEWA GmbH)<br />

Fig. 2: The proven diaphragm technology<br />

with spring-supported suction stroke was<br />

used, which ensures high operational reliability<br />

and fatigue strength for the diaphragm<br />

as a core component.<br />

While numerous processes in a wide<br />

variety of industries, such as the<br />

chemical industry, require reliable<br />

units, relatively low discharge pressures<br />

in the low double digits also allow<br />

for less complex, more cost-effective<br />

pump technology at the same<br />

time. Therefore, pump manufacturers<br />

usually also have units in their<br />

portfolio that cover these reduced requirements.<br />

For example, in addition<br />

to the proven, highly flexible, hydraulic<br />

diaphragm metering pump series,<br />

the Leonberg-based company has<br />

also been offering a less expensive<br />

diaphragm metering pump for several<br />

years. With the LCA model, however,<br />

a flow rate of up to 300 l/h was<br />

previously only possible in the singlepump<br />

version at operating pressures<br />

up to a maximum of 80 bar. In order<br />

to be able to cover higher flow rates<br />

with this series, the pump manufac-<br />

42 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong>

Pumps and Systems<br />

Diaphragm metering pumps<br />

turer's engineers developed two additional,<br />

larger pump variants starting<br />

in 2019. The aim was to scale up the<br />

diaphragm metering pump to a higher<br />

capacity at the same proven safety<br />

level and using high quality own components,<br />

but without significantly increasing<br />

the low investment cost typical<br />

for this pump series. This was to<br />

be achieved by a consistent modular<br />

principle within the pump series, as<br />

well as a strict focus on the essential<br />

functions and features.<br />

Reducing costs while maintaining<br />

operational reliability and fatigue<br />

strength<br />

Fig. 3: The central, completely redesigned diaphragm drive, in which all hydraulic functions<br />

are now integrated, also plays key role in the technical design.<br />

For the development project, the engineers<br />

worked out a design concept<br />

based on the analysis and evaluation<br />

of the predecessor product, the<br />

LCA. It involves the use of proven diaphragm<br />

technology with spring-supported<br />

suction stroke, which enables<br />

the very high operational safety and<br />

service life of the diaphragm as a core<br />

component and thus contributes significantly<br />

to the great robustness and<br />

reliability of the diaphragm metering<br />

pumps. In addition, components and<br />

assemblies were to be largely simplified<br />

in order to achieve the targeted<br />

cost reduction compared to the ecoflow<br />

series. Among other things, the<br />

sealing concept of the pistons was<br />

changed from piston rings to a gap<br />

seal and the manufacturing process<br />

of the diaphragm bodies was adapted.<br />

In the future, manufacturing will<br />

change from the use of solid 316L<br />

material to investment casting, which<br />

enables the manufacturing costs of<br />

this component to be reduced by<br />

more than 50 percent. There is also<br />

an integrated pressure relief valve,<br />

which is made up of significantly fewer<br />

individual components. “Since fewer<br />

components produce fewer costs –<br />

including from a logistics and process<br />

perspective – reducing the number of<br />

parts is also an essential part of the<br />

design concept for the new pumps,”<br />

explains the Team Leader Research &<br />

Development Mechanics of the pump<br />

company. For example, the same oil<br />

was used for gear and hydraulic functions<br />

and the plunger was directly<br />

connected to the connecting rod of<br />

Fig. 4: In the future, the diaphragm bodies<br />

will no longer be made of 316L solid<br />

material but will be manufactured using<br />

the investment casting process, which has<br />

reduced the manufacturing costs of this<br />

component by more than 50 percent.<br />

the crank drive. The elimination of a<br />

plunger rod, typical of these pumps,<br />

was made possible by a clever rearrangement<br />

of the power-transmitting<br />

components. The central, completely<br />

redesigned diaphragm drive, in which<br />

all hydraulic functions are now inte-<br />

grated, also plays key role in the technical<br />

design.<br />

Existing series parts from existing<br />

modular systems were also used<br />

which, in terms of price/performance<br />

ratio, were clearly superior to a new<br />

design in small series production.<br />

This is where the effects of increased<br />

unit volumes have a positive impact.<br />

This applies to various components,<br />

such as worm gears, bearings, stroke<br />

adjustment and connecting rods, as<br />

well as product valves and customer<br />

connection adapters. At the same<br />

Fig. 5: There is also an integrated pressure relief valve, which consists of significantly fewer individual<br />

components (pictured: pressure relief valve from ecoflow above, from ecosmart below).<br />

time, the decision was made to transfer<br />

special customer requirements –<br />

for example with regard to the use of<br />

special materials such as Hastelloy or<br />

specialized designs for the pharmaceutical<br />

and food industries – to the<br />

more flexible ecoflow modular system<br />

in principle.<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong><br />


Pumps and Systems<br />

Diaphragm metering pumps<br />

The challenge of the<br />

shared oil bath<br />

In practice, the development<br />

work was accompanied by an<br />

FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects<br />

Analysis) and risk assessments<br />

according to MRL and ATEX. The<br />

design was carried out with the<br />

aid of an advanced 3D CAD system<br />

and was validated by the<br />

use of kinematic collision analyses.<br />

“In addition, we perform<br />

strength calculations in product<br />

development according to the<br />

classic finite element method<br />

(FEM) as well as computational<br />

strength verifications according<br />

to the FKM guideline (computational<br />

strength verification of<br />

machine components),” explains<br />

an RD Engineer, Research & Development<br />

Mechanics from the<br />

supplier. “FEM is known to be<br />

used to determine deformations<br />

of components under certain<br />

load boundary conditions,<br />

such as assembly forces, transport<br />

forces and accelerations,<br />

and operating forces and accelerations.”<br />

The strength verification<br />

according to the FKM guideline<br />

is then used to determine<br />

the load factor of the component<br />

under static and dynamic boundary<br />

conditions – and thus the operational<br />

strength. This enabled<br />

the German manufacturer to reduce<br />

the amount of testing on<br />

real components and thus shorten<br />

the development time for the<br />

LCC and LCD models. “These calculations<br />

are also particularly important<br />

for us because our units<br />

are often used to convey hazardous<br />

fluids,” adds another Engineer.<br />

“In the simulation, worstcase<br />

scenarios are considered<br />

that are sometimes very difficult<br />

to implement in tests. This way,<br />

the risk of accidents can be significantly<br />

minimized.”<br />

In accordance with the design<br />

concept, focus was not<br />

only on the safety and robustness<br />

of the units but also on reducing<br />

the number of parts. In<br />

the course of the project, for<br />

example, it was checked whether<br />

a shared oil bath and the direct<br />

connection of the plunger to the<br />

connecting rod, which could potentially<br />

eliminate five components,<br />

could be implemented<br />

in practice. “The compromise<br />

of using only one kind of oil for<br />

lubrication and the transfer of<br />

hydraulic energy is something<br />

we have verified in many thousands<br />

of hours of endurance<br />

testing,” the Engineer says. Many<br />

series-produced drive unit components<br />

could also be taken over<br />

due to their high volume and the<br />

resulting suitable costs. However,<br />

this also led to challenges.<br />

For example, in order use the series-production<br />

connecting rods<br />

and achieve an easy assembly,<br />

the positioning of the worm<br />

shaft in the drive element housing<br />

was changed which caused<br />

a change in the oil dynamics.<br />

During operation, the oil was distributed<br />

unevenly in the drive<br />

units of the triple pump and an<br />

oil wave formed. This impeded<br />

the oil exchange between the<br />

multiplex drive unit, which had<br />

an unfavorable effect on lubrication<br />

and hydraulics.<br />

Solution with the help of a<br />

simulation of oil movements<br />

with SPH<br />

“We were able to see the effect on<br />

the physical test object, but it was<br />

difficult to look inside the components<br />

to determine exactly what<br />

was happening there and how<br />

it could be fixed,” the Engineer<br />

said. Therefore, the engineers<br />

needed a simulation method to<br />

illustrate the processes within<br />

the drive unit. However, the CFD<br />

and CFX methods used to simulate<br />

pump behavior to date were<br />

not very suitable for figuring out<br />

the phenomenon, as they would<br />

have required an enormous<br />

amount of time, and thus money,<br />

for this problem. For this reason,<br />

the engineers decided to take a<br />

new approach and use a method<br />

originally developed to deal<br />

with astrophysical problems in<br />

three-dimensional space for the<br />

first time. SPH is a particle-based<br />

method and is generally used<br />

when highly dynamic and strong<br />

flows or free surface flows need<br />

to be simulated efficiently. Classic<br />

application areas include the<br />

simulation of oil flows in vehicle<br />

transmissions or the simulation<br />

of tank sloshing.<br />

“We had to do several cycles,<br />

including investigating a few<br />

hypo theses on the physical test<br />

object, but we ultimately obtained<br />

reliable simulation results very<br />

quickly that reproduced the observed<br />

flow behavi or well and in a<br />

usable way,” the RD Engineer explains.<br />

“The simulation has helped<br />

us tremendously in understanding<br />

the phenomenon.” Corrective<br />

measures were subsequently designed<br />

and implemented. Further<br />

simulations and the subsequent<br />

validation of the modifications<br />

used showed the desired homogeneous<br />

oil distribution and low<br />

oil movements on the surface.<br />

Fig. 6: Examination with SPH method: before – after<br />

During operation, the oil was unevenly distributed in the triple pump's drive units,<br />

forming an oil wave. To solve the oil wave problem, the engineers used SPH for<br />

the first time, a method originally developed to deal with astrophysical problems<br />

in three-dimensional space, now generally used when highly dynamic and strong<br />

flows or free surface flows need to be simulated efficiently. Pictured: Simulation oil<br />

distribution in a triple pump before/after<br />

New modular system with<br />

40 % reduction in manufacturing<br />

costs<br />

The development work was successfully<br />

completed in December<br />

2021. The result was a new<br />

ecosmart mo dular system consisting<br />

of three drive unit performance<br />

classes and the associated<br />

diaphragm pump heads. The new<br />

product range includes single and<br />

multiplex pumps, four gear ratios,<br />

a manual as well as an electric<br />

stroke length adjustment, ten<br />

plunger diameters in the hydraulic<br />

part and three material variants.<br />

Wear-related long-term tests<br />

and function-related short tests<br />

to determine the technical characteristics<br />

and the function under<br />

extreme challenging conditions<br />

(temperature, pressure, stroke<br />

frequencies, input speeds) had<br />

previously proven the robustness,<br />

durability and reliability of the new<br />

low-cost pump range.<br />

The BOM structure of the<br />

pump product was designed according<br />

to the requirements of<br />

the automated configuration software<br />

(drive element, pump head,<br />

drive flange, fluid valves, valve<br />

bodies as customer-provided connection<br />

adapters). At the same<br />

time, in addition to the technical<br />

targets, a 40 percent reduction in<br />

manufacturing costs was achieved<br />

compared to the high-pressure diaphragm<br />

pumps of the same size<br />

from the ecoflow series. “The experience<br />

we gained during this<br />

project through the engineering<br />

concept, the testing and the measures<br />

derived from it have provided<br />

us with some new insights and<br />

generated knowledge which we<br />

will also benefit from in future development<br />

projects,” the Team<br />

Leader Research & Development<br />

Mechanics sums up.<br />

The Auhtor: Thomas Bökenbrink,<br />

Lead Product Manager Pumps,<br />

LEWA GmbH, Leonberg, Germany<br />

44 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong>

Pumps and Systems<br />

Report<br />

Pump makes transporting high-viscosity<br />

3D printing materials easy<br />

Light-curing liquid materials are used<br />

in many 3D printing processes in the<br />

medical technology industry, especially<br />

in dentistry. However, processing<br />

and delivering these complex<br />

high-viscosity composites presents<br />

a considerable challenge for pump<br />

technology. DMG Dental-Material<br />

GmbH, based in Hamburg, Germany,<br />

relies on the sine pump from Maso-<br />

Sine, a division of Watson-Marlow.<br />

This innovative, high-performance,<br />

positive displacement pump not only<br />

protects high-viscosity materials,<br />

while delivering them effectively, but<br />

is also easy to clean and maintain.<br />

Hamburg-based DMG Dental-Material<br />

Gesellschaft mbH is synonymous<br />

with high-quality dental material. Their<br />

products not only beautify the smiles of<br />

countless patients, but also make the<br />

daily work with dental materials easier<br />

for dentists and laboratories in more<br />

than 90 countries worldwide. One of<br />

the company's specialist areas is the<br />

research and development of innovative<br />

materials and products combining<br />

inventiveness and a love of quality.<br />

With their R&D and production “Made<br />

in Germany”, The company claims to<br />

be the market leader in the field of innovative<br />

materials. And rightly so, as<br />

its more than 50-year history shows: In<br />

2009, for example, it launched the first<br />

product for drill-free treatment of incipient<br />

caries by caries infiltration.<br />

In order to ensure the easiest possible<br />

handling for a wide range of applications<br />

even before printing, the<br />

products are offered in plastic bottles<br />

of various sizes. Production and<br />

filling of the products take place in<br />

the state-of-the-art production building<br />

that was newly built only a few<br />

years ago. Some products in the<br />

light-curing 3D printing plastic family<br />

are offered in larger bottles containing<br />

1000 grams, in addition to the<br />

smaller containers. Smaller quantities<br />

were previously filled with a dosing<br />

pump, but for the larger containers,<br />

but also to increase the filling<br />

capacity, the Hamburg-based company<br />

had to go new ways.<br />

Therefore, a new filling station<br />

was designed for the liquid 3D materials.<br />

The products have to be dispersed<br />

in a container during the<br />

filling process, otherwise the components,<br />

i.e. fillers and solvents, could<br />

separate. The materials with a viscosity<br />

of - depending on the product<br />

– up to 10,000 mPas are pumped to<br />

the filling valve via an approximately<br />

5.5-metre-long ring line made of<br />

PTFE hoses. There, only a very small<br />

proportion of the mass is removed<br />

and filled into the bottles via a piston<br />

valve; the rest is pumped back into<br />

the dispersion tank.<br />

Highly viscous media and frequent<br />

product changes<br />

The ring line is fed via a positive displacement<br />

pump, which sucks in the<br />

highly viscous liquid during dispersion,<br />

i. e. it must have a sufficiently<br />

high suction capacity. The gentlest<br />

possible pumping is of particular importance:<br />

Strong pulsation peaks<br />

could theoretically lead to a lower<br />

precision of the filling valve and thus<br />

to more cumbersome filling or expensive<br />

overfilling. Due to the sensitive<br />

pumped media, strong shear<br />

forces during the pumping process<br />

should also be avoided. Since some<br />

of the pumped media are class IIa<br />

medical products, even the slightest<br />

abrasion, for example of hoses,<br />

must be excluded. Since several different<br />

products of the 3D material<br />

family are filled at the station, among<br />

others, the pump used must be suitable<br />

for more frequent product<br />

changes, i. e. enable maximum operating<br />

times with quick and easy main-<br />

Wide range of 3D dental<br />

printing materials<br />

The year 2017 marked another milestone<br />

for the company: They presented<br />

a new product family of liquid,<br />

light-curing plastics for dental 3D<br />

printing as well as matching 3D printers<br />

from a single source. This wide selection<br />

allows a variety of application<br />

areas in additive digital prosthetics to<br />

be covered, from individual impression<br />

trays to bite splints.<br />

Fig. 1: In addition to the smaller containers, some materials for 3D printing are offered in<br />

larger bottles containing 1000 grams, filling is performed via a ring line.<br />

46 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong>

Problem solver for<br />

process engineering<br />

and sewage technology<br />

www.eggerpumps.com<br />

May 30 - June 3, <strong>2022</strong><br />

Messe München<br />

Visit us!<br />

Hall B1 - Booth 345<br />

Turo ® Vortex series T and TA<br />

Suitable for high solids concentrations<br />

and shear sensitive products in<br />

the chemical industry and for clogfree<br />

pumping of raw sewage with<br />

fibres and sludge.<br />

Fig. 2: The ring line is fed via a sinusoidal pump from MasoSine, part of WMFTG<br />

tenance or cleaning. “Since we first flush<br />

the pump with a cleaning solution and<br />

then additionally perform manual cleaning,<br />

the effort for disassembly and assembly<br />

should naturally be as low as possible,”<br />

says the production technician of the dental<br />

material company.<br />

In the end, DMG therefore opted for a<br />

sine pump from the supplier, to feed the<br />

ring line. The company already used several<br />

products from the supplier for smaller<br />

volumes, so it made sense to turn to<br />

him again. The Sales Engineer Biopharm<br />

at the pump manufacturer, recommended<br />

pumping trials with a sine pump.<br />

Sine pump – efficient functional principle<br />

for high viscosities<br />

In this innovative type of positive displacement<br />

pump, developed and produced in<br />

the Swabian town of Ilsfeld, rotation of a<br />

sinusoidal rotor creates four equally sized<br />

chambers which are displaced as a whole<br />

– their volume therefore does not change<br />

during the process. The medium to be<br />

pumped is gently conveyed in these chambers<br />

from the inlet to the outlet. Sealing<br />

from the discharge to the suction side is<br />

ensured by a gate seated on the rotor. This<br />

simple but powerful design makes sinusoi-<br />

dal pumps particularly suitable for use with<br />

high viscosities, easily managing up to eight<br />

million mPas.<br />

Thanks to extensive certification including<br />

EHEDG EL Class I Aseptic and 3A as<br />

well as fast and easy cleanability through<br />

using clean in place (CIP) and sterilisation<br />

in place (SIP) cleaning processes, the sine<br />

pump is the benchmark among positive<br />

displacement pumps in terms of hygiene.<br />

But the pump also offers considerable advantages<br />

over other pumps such as rotary<br />

lobe pumps when it comes to manual disassembly<br />

and cleaning.<br />

Due to the design principle with only<br />

one rotor, one shaft and one seal, the number<br />

of wetted parts is reduced to a minimum.<br />

Disassembly and cleaning are thus<br />

much easier and faster. In addition, the design<br />

offers considerable energy advantages<br />

over comparable positive displacement<br />

pumps and thus significantly lower energy<br />

consumption.<br />

Sine pumps are available in various sizes<br />

for flow rates of up to 255,000 l/h at a<br />

maximum pressure of up to 15 bar. Depending<br />

on the model, the pumps are selfdraining<br />

and self-priming. The pump can<br />

be used in aseptic processes, is bacteriaproof<br />

and requires no additional steam<br />

connections.<br />

Iris ® Diaphragm Control Valve<br />

Highly precise and energy saving<br />

control of flow rate through concentric<br />

Iris ® diaphragms. For aeration airflow<br />

control in WWTP’s and for gases or<br />

liquids in industry.<br />


PUMPS SINCE 1947<br />

Switzerland<br />

Emile Egger & Cie SA<br />

Route de Neuchâtel 36<br />

2088 Cressier NE<br />

Phone +41 (0)32 758 71 11<br />

Germany<br />

Emile Egger & Co. GmbH<br />

Wattstrasse 28<br />

68199 Mannheim<br />

Phone +49 (0)621 84 213-0

Pumps and Systems<br />

Report<br />

Fig. 3.+3.1: Rotation of a sinusoidal rotor gently transfers the medium from the inlet<br />

to the outlet.<br />

DMG is also impressed by the easy<br />

disassembly and cleaning of the<br />

pump when changing products. The<br />

simple design with only one shaft<br />

and only one mechanical seal, which<br />

is particularly easy to access and dismantle,<br />

means that fewer parts are<br />

needed than with other pumps. This<br />

means that disassembly and reassembly<br />

only take about five minutes<br />

each. Mistakes are practically impossible<br />

thanks to the simple assembly.<br />

And maintenance is also very simple<br />

- even though no maintenance work<br />

has been necessary in more than<br />

nine months of operation.<br />

Thanks to the sine pump, the<br />

dental material company is prepared<br />

for steadily increasing production<br />

volumes and, if necessary, larger filling<br />

volumes for the innovative 3D<br />

printing solutions. “We have already<br />

carried out successful tests with<br />

higher filling volumes. Thanks to the<br />

sine pump's extensive certification,<br />

its outstanding performance and energy<br />

efficiency, its simple handling<br />

and the options for retrofitting cooling<br />

or heating elements to cope with<br />

temperature-sensitive media, we can<br />

be sure that our filling station will be<br />

future-proof for many years to<br />

come!” says the product technician<br />

enthusiastically.<br />

Disassembly and reassembly<br />

in just 5 minutes<br />

During an extensive test period, the<br />

Hamburg-based company was able to<br />

get an idea of the sine pump and its<br />

performance. “The sinusoidal principle<br />

really impressed us,” says the product<br />

technician. At 0.85 bar, the pump not<br />

only has more than enough suction capability<br />

for processing the highly viscous<br />

media, but also delivers the necessary<br />

reliability: The shear forces are<br />

extraordinarily low and any pulsation<br />

is almost undetectable, resulting in<br />

maximum accuracy at the filling valve.<br />

Watson-Marlow GmbH<br />

Rommerskirchen, Germany<br />

48 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong>










REDUCE<br />

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registered trademarks owned by The Grundfos Group. All rights reserved. © 2020 Grundfos Holding A/S, all rights reserved.<br />

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Pumps and Systems<br />

Report<br />

An optimal surface result<br />

For coating wood supplier relies on efficient<br />

double diaphragm pumps<br />

Olaf Beckmann<br />

In the wood coating industry the requirements<br />

are constantly increasing<br />

– process reliability as well as efficient<br />

and sustainable production<br />

are becoming more and more significant.<br />

In this regard, fluid pumps<br />

in coating equipment are a key factor,<br />

since precise surface results<br />

can be achieved with a double diaphragm<br />

pump and paints as well as<br />

varnishes can be used in a manner<br />

that is resource-friendly. The fact<br />

that an investment will be worthwhile<br />

over the long-term is evident<br />

in the example of engineered wood<br />

manufacturer EGGER Holzwerkstoffe<br />

GmbH at the Brilon site. The<br />

company invested in several double<br />

diaphragm pumps from Timmer<br />

GmbH. These pumps ensure highquality<br />

and uniform coatings, optimal<br />

processes and efficiency at the<br />

highest level.<br />

EGGER Holzwerkstoffe GmbH headquartered<br />

in the Austrian municipality<br />

St. Johann in Tirol is one of<br />

the largest and best-known manufacturers<br />

of engineered wood in Europe.<br />

The family company, which was<br />

founded in 1961, has approximately<br />

10,000 employees and produces<br />

engineered wood at 19 locations in<br />

nine countries with an annual production<br />

capacity of 8.8 million cubic<br />

meters. The product range includes<br />

chipboard, OSB-board, MDF-board<br />

and sawn timber for furniture manufacture<br />

and interior design, timber<br />

construction and for floors. Design<br />

requirements for living spaces<br />

and work spaces have become much<br />

more rigorous in recent years. To<br />

meet the needs of both processors<br />

and consumers, wood products must<br />

be visually and haptically impressive,<br />

as well as robust, durable and easy<br />

to maintain. In this regard the wood<br />

coating has particular significance because<br />

it ensures longevity and a flawless<br />

surface appearance. In addition,<br />

a production process with the utmost<br />

reliability that is resource-friendly<br />

and sustainable also plays an increasingly<br />

important role. To meet these<br />

requirements and in order to further<br />

optimise its own processes, the<br />

company invested in multiple fluid<br />

pumps.<br />

The coating of wood panels in<br />

painting lines involves various process<br />

steps. For pre-painting, first a<br />

primer is applied and hardened, before<br />

the wood material is sanded and<br />

enhanced with stylish decors and<br />

surfaces. The central component is<br />

the application roller that applies a<br />

medium on the engineered wood.<br />

The fluid pump ensures that a primer,<br />

a paint, a varnish or a base coat<br />

flows in between the application rollers<br />

from above. Because the previous<br />

pumps did not have the desired service<br />

life and due to the higher pulsation<br />

sometimes this caused a certain<br />

shadowing and bubbles on the wood<br />

Fig. 1: The modern double diaphragm<br />

pumps ensure high-quality coatings, optimal<br />

processes and efficiency at the highest<br />

level. (all photos Photo © : EGGER Group)<br />

Fig. 2: Due to the fast-switching times of<br />

the valve and the short stroke principle, the<br />

pump generates less pulsation so that the<br />

medium flows evenly through the application<br />

roller.<br />

surfaces, which required labour-intensive<br />

removal, the manufacturer of<br />

wood-based materials invested in the<br />

double diaphragm pumps from the<br />

pump manufacturer in Neuenkirchen.<br />

“For our second painting line, we<br />

needed pumps with process reliability<br />

that ensured an optimal surface<br />

result. Since several of the supplier’s<br />

pumps were being used successfully,<br />

we also trusted in its competence for<br />

our second line”, explains the woodbased<br />

materials company's coatings<br />

technologist. Today a total of 12<br />

pumps are used at the plant in Brilon.<br />

Efficient pump technology and a<br />

precise surface result<br />

With the supplier’s pump virtually all<br />

materials can be pumped. A great advantage<br />

offered by the double diaphragm<br />

pumps is the efficient technology;<br />

the solution has an extremely<br />

50 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong>

Pumps and Systems<br />

Report<br />

low start-up pressure. Conventional<br />

market variants require a<br />

start-up pressure between 1.5<br />

and 2 bar for the pump to even<br />

run at all; the solution requires<br />

only 0.7 bar to operate reliably<br />

even at 1 bar pressure. This results<br />

in significant medium- and<br />

long-term energy savings as<br />

well as efficiency benefits: Compared<br />

to market competitors,<br />

the double diaphragm pump<br />

from the supplier consumes up<br />

to 50 percent less compressed<br />

air. This results from optimized<br />

air channels, the ceramic spool<br />

snap-action valve and the shortstroke<br />

principle. Another advantage<br />

is sustainable use of materials.<br />

For application rollers the<br />

pumps work in a circulating system:<br />

The medium is pumped between<br />

the application roller and<br />

the dosing roller, excess material<br />

runs back into the tank and is<br />

reused. Thanks to the circulation<br />

system there is no paint loss and<br />

the manufacturer of wood-based<br />

materials saves valuable material<br />

and it also saves costs.<br />

Moreover, the proven control<br />

valve technology developed<br />

by the pump manufacturer and<br />

used in its pumps, enables lower<br />

pulsation and this is incredibly<br />

important for wood coating<br />

processes: high pulsation often<br />

results in an uneven paint pattern<br />

that causes shadowing on<br />

the engineered wood. Due to<br />

the fast changeover time of the<br />

valve and the short-stroke principle<br />

the pump generates a lower<br />

pulsation, so that the medium<br />

flows uniformly through the roller<br />

in a fine stream. This means<br />

that even minimal quantities can<br />

be input into the process; this is<br />

not the case with conventional<br />

double diaphragm pumps. “For<br />

our customers it is particularly<br />

important that the surface of the<br />

wood always has the same appearance<br />

– with a uniform paint<br />

application, the same layer thickness<br />

and the same colour pattern.<br />

Consequently, the high reproducibility<br />

that the pumps<br />

make possible is critically important<br />

for us”, states the technologist.<br />

The supplier’s solution enables<br />

the company to achieve far<br />

less microfoam in the paint system<br />

which can lead to the formation<br />

of small air bubbles that<br />

impair the surface result. The advantage<br />

is that the use of an additive<br />

is omitted, which protects<br />

the entire tubing and the paint<br />

flow. Now you don’t have to add<br />

anything and can work without<br />

foam. Even with low-viscosity<br />

fluids or varnish, there are significantly<br />

fewer medium splashes,<br />

thanks to the pumps from the<br />

supplier in Neuenkirchen.<br />

Maximum process reliability<br />

and easy maintenance<br />

Furthermore, the possibility of<br />

pump standstill is excluded.<br />

This is ensured by a special, lowwear,<br />

ceramic latching valve.<br />

All valve plates in the heart of<br />

the pump are made of ceramics<br />

in conjunction with precisionground,<br />

high-performance plastics.<br />

This results in minimum<br />

wear in the valve itself. In addition,<br />

a short-stroke principle is<br />

used; the diaphragm executes<br />

shorter strokes and therefore<br />

it is subject to less wear. Also a<br />

flow monitor indicates when varnish<br />

is no longer being pumped<br />

– this is a customer-specific function<br />

that is a special feature for<br />

the wood-based panel manufacturer.<br />

This prevents dry-run of<br />

the application roller.<br />

Another advantage: The<br />

double diaphragm pumps are<br />

extremely easy to maintain and<br />

they are quite simply structured.<br />

Because the valve is separated<br />

from the medium, the<br />

diaphragms can be quickly replaced<br />

when performing maintenance<br />

without having to replace<br />

the air valve. Ball replacement<br />

and cleaning are also quite simple.<br />

If specific pumps must be inspected,<br />

they can be removed,<br />

i. e. dismounted, very quickly<br />

and very easily. The pumps are<br />

so easy to maintain that they<br />

sustainably increase the process<br />

efficiency in the production and<br />

thus reduce costs long-term.<br />

Pump convinces<br />

The surface coating of wood elements,<br />

for which the high-performance<br />

double diaphragm<br />

pumps are important components,<br />

quickly led to the desired<br />

results: The company was able<br />

to optimise the quality and the<br />

appearance of the coatings and<br />

use the efficiencies to save valuable<br />

resources. The pumps were<br />

optimally tailored to the process.<br />

The product quality and the minimal<br />

service and maintenance effort<br />

required for the pumps convinced<br />

and in addition the short<br />

delivery times, the service and<br />

reachability. With this modernisation<br />

of the painting lines the<br />

wood-based panel manufacturer<br />

and the pump manufacturer are<br />

laying the foundation for further<br />

collaboration that will be continued<br />

and expanded in the future.<br />

“We are constantly developing<br />

our capabilities as a company in<br />

the wood coating industry. Naturally<br />

more systems and pumps<br />

will be required”, says the technologist.<br />

The Author: Olaf Beckmann,<br />

Head of Marketing,<br />

Timmer GmbH, Neuenkirchen,<br />

Germany<br />

Pumps, motors and digital solutions for<br />

industrial applications<br />

With a complete range of powerful pump solutions based<br />

on centrifugal pumps or screw pumps, we ensure more<br />

efficiency, more safety and more performance.<br />

BRINKMANN PUMPEN | K.H. Brinkmann GmbH & Co. KG<br />

T +49 2392 5006-0 | sales@brinkmannpumps.de | www.brinkmannpumps.de

Vacuum technology<br />

Report<br />

Pre-cooling lettuces reliably, thanks to<br />

cutting-edge vacuum technology<br />

Jasmin Markanic<br />

Vacuum cooling for vegetables and<br />

leafy greens directly after harvesting<br />

is a common approach to cool<br />

these foodstuffs quickly and reliably,<br />

and thus guarantee highquality<br />

products over an extended<br />

storage period. To achieve proper<br />

cooling, the company Heekeren<br />

GbR has first started using the<br />

modern screw vacuum pump from<br />

Busch Vacuum Solutions to pre-cool<br />

iceberg lettuce. The benefits of this<br />

technology are manifold: The vacuum<br />

pump is frequency-controlled,<br />

enabling its output to be adjusted<br />

to actual demand, as well as reducing<br />

cooling times and energy consumption.<br />

Thanks to its oil-free operation,<br />

any water vapor suctioned<br />

into the vacuum pump cannot mix<br />

with the oil – which has an exceptionally<br />

positive effect on the required<br />

maintenance effort.<br />

the vacuum, any moisture in and on<br />

the lettuce starts to evaporate and is<br />

extracted from the chamber as water<br />

vapor. Because the water's aggregate<br />

state changes from liquid to gas,<br />

heat is removed from it, thus cooling<br />

the lettuce. Depending on the external<br />

temperature and quantity, this process<br />

lasts between 20 and 35 minutes.<br />

The benefit of this method is that,<br />

apart from quickly cooling the lettuces<br />

to 3 °C, it cools them from the inside<br />

out, which speeds up the process once<br />

again. What’s more, less moisture is<br />

lost than in conventional air cooling.<br />

After the required cooling temperature<br />

is reached, the vacuum chamber<br />

is ventilated, the lettuce is removed<br />

and then transported to a refrigerated<br />

warehouse for interim storage. The<br />

challenge for the vacuum technology<br />

here is that water vapor is also suctioned<br />

out of the vacuum chamber<br />

along with the air. For this reason, the<br />

mixture of air and water vapor is fed<br />

through a cold trap upstream from<br />

the vacuum pump. Here the air is<br />

cooled, condensing out the water vapor<br />

(Fig. 2). The aim of this process is<br />

to ensure that no water vapor makes<br />

its way into the downstream vacuum<br />

pump. Given the size of the vacuum<br />

Farmer Heekeren developed his business<br />

to specialize in the cultivation of<br />

iceberg lettuce. In the space of one<br />

season, the company produces over<br />

10 million heads of iceberg lettuce. It<br />

also cultivates other varieties of lettuce,<br />

including romaine. The majority<br />

of the lettuces are sold wholesale<br />

within Germany and eventually make<br />

their way to shoppers via discount<br />

stores and supermarket chains.<br />

To guarantee the longest possible<br />

shelf life without any losses in quality,<br />

the farmer has been relying on vacuum<br />

cooling for eight years already.<br />

As soon as they are harvested, the<br />

lettuces are put in crates, which are<br />

then placed on pallets and transported<br />

to the vacuum chamber (Fig. 1).<br />

The vacuum chamber is designed to<br />

hold eleven euro pallets stacked with<br />

lettuce crates, reaching a total height<br />

of almost three meters. Once loading<br />

via a roller conveyor is complete, the<br />

chamber is closed, and vacuum is applied.<br />

This means that the air is suctioned<br />

out of the chamber. Due to<br />

Fig. 1: The vacuum chamber has space for eleven pallets, which can be loaded up to almost<br />

three meters in height.<br />

Fig. 2: Principle of pre-cooling with vacuum: 1. vacuum chamber, 2. cold trap (condensor),<br />

3. vacuum pump.<br />

52 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong>

Vacuum technology<br />

Report<br />

chamber at the farm, three parallel oillubricated<br />

rotary vane vacuum pumps<br />

were connected. With this setup, any<br />

water vapor that was not fully condensed<br />

out via the cold traps led to<br />

problems, as some of the water would<br />

mix together with the operating fluid<br />

oil in the vacuum pumps. As a result,<br />

more maintenance effort was needed<br />

due to oil and filter changes.<br />

In view of these circumstances,<br />

the farmer was looking for a way<br />

to improve his system. Working together<br />

with the supplier of the vacuum<br />

cooling system and the vacuum<br />

pump manufacturer from Maulburg,<br />

he found a solution. At the start of<br />

the harvesting season in April, a screw<br />

vacuum pump was installed so that it<br />

could be tested throughout the entire<br />

lettuce season. Because this type of<br />

vacuum pump does not require any oil<br />

lubrication in the compression chamber,<br />

there were no problems with water<br />

vapor. The pump ran for the entire<br />

season until the end of October without<br />

any disruptions. No maintenance<br />

work was needed. As such, there were<br />

no costs incurred by maintenance<br />

work or wearing parts. Since the pump<br />

is frequency-controlled, it adapts its<br />

pumping speed to actual demand. This<br />

means that, at the beginning of the<br />

vacuum chamber's evacuation phase,<br />

when as much air as possible needs to<br />

be quickly extracted, the motor runs<br />

at a high rotational speed. Once the<br />

pressure in the chamber drops, the<br />

Fig. 3: Screw vacuum pump<br />

vacuum pump automatically reduces<br />

its speed. This has the benefit that<br />

less energy is consumed than with an<br />

unregulated motor, which runs at full<br />

speed more or less the entire time. At<br />

50 Hertz with a nominal motor rating<br />

of 18.5 kilowatts, the screw vacuum<br />

pump needs less power than the rotary<br />

vane vacuum pump, which was<br />

driven by an unregulated 22-kilowatt<br />

motor. Control for the pump is connected<br />

to the overall system control.<br />

Once the operator has pressed the<br />

start button, the entire cooling process<br />

is completely automatic.<br />

Thanks to the demand-driven control,<br />

it was also possible to reduce<br />

cooling times. This means that the capacity<br />

of the vacuum cooling system<br />

was increased.<br />

For farmer Heekeren, it is the ideal<br />

vacuum pump for guaranteeing a long<br />

shelf and storage life for his lettuces,<br />

without any losses in quality.<br />

The Author: Jasmin Markanic,<br />

Global Press and Media Relations<br />

Busch Vacuum Solutions,<br />

Maulburg, Germany<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong><br />


Pumps/Vacuum technology<br />

Companies – Innovations – Products<br />

Reliable membrane filter press feed<br />

with compact diaphragm pumps at<br />

[k]nord GmbH<br />

[k]nord GmbH headquartered in Ganderkesee (Niedersachsen/Land<br />

of Lower Saxony) totals more than 35 years experience as a specialist<br />

in the development and implementation of innovative waste disposal<br />

technologies. Innovative services and products of this company allow a<br />

sustainable environment protection to be ensured. The range of activities<br />

of [k]nord GmbH includes waste disposal and environmental engineering,<br />

noise protection and logistics.<br />

The filling time and the pressing time take approx. 1 hour each. Consequently,<br />

after 2 hours, the filter cake has reached a solid content of up<br />

to 80 % and can be dumped into the container standing below the filter<br />

press. The weight of the filter cake amounts to approx. 2.7 t per batch.<br />

[k]nord GmbH is highly satisfied with the operation of the plant<br />

– it runs 24/7, entirely automatically and it is monitored with several<br />

cameras. Operating parameters can be both controlled and monitored<br />

directly on-site and via an app installed on a mobile phone.<br />

Next to the composting plant, there is a new, recently built, disposal<br />

plant for mineral and, in part, for organic drilling slurry as well: The<br />

drilling slurry with a solid content of 15-20% is brought to the plant<br />

in tank trucks from which it is pumped through a screening system<br />

(ensuring the separation of sand and stones) into 8 storage basins<br />

equipped with agitators. Each batch is analysed in the laboratory in order<br />

to determine the most suitable conditioning method for achieving<br />

the optimal filter cake.<br />

Fig. 3: Membrane filter press at [k]nord GmbH<br />

The use of ABEL CM pumps has quickly shown that the overall energy<br />

consumption of the plant was very low. According to [k]nord GmbH,<br />

20,000 tons slurry have been treated in 2020 with a power consumption<br />

of 22,000 kWh, this translates into a unit electricity consumption<br />

of 1.1 kWh/ton only!<br />

Fig. 1: Storage basins with agitators<br />

Dewatering with ABEL pumps and membrane filter presses<br />

In a 24/7 operation, 2 membrane filter presses are fed with 4 ABEL<br />

type CM-G-C262 compact diaphragm pumps (each pump delivers a<br />

flow rate of 10 m³/h). Before using ABEL CM pumps for this application,<br />

[k]nord GmbH tested a different type of pump which operated<br />

with a compressed air drive. However, the energy consumption of this<br />

pump turned out to be excessively high.<br />

CM pumps are in charge of filling the filter presses with abrasive<br />

slurries quickly and reliably/constantly. When the pressure of approx.<br />

8-9 bar is reached, the membrane filter presses take over from the<br />

pumps and continue the dewatering of the slurries until the pressure<br />

of approx. 13 bar is reached.<br />

Fig. 4: Fully automated plant monitoring<br />

The ABEL piston diaphragm pump is a crucial component for filter<br />

press feed. The advantages of ABEL pumps over other pump types are<br />

represented by:<br />

– a high wear resistance<br />

– a high robustness<br />

– very long maintenance intervals<br />

– a low energy consumption, which allows operating expenses of<br />

clients to be reduced<br />

Fig. 2: ABEL CM pumps<br />

ABEL GmbH<br />

Abel-Twiete 1<br />

21514 Büchen, Germany<br />

Phone +49 (0)4155 818-0<br />

abel-mail@idexcorp.com<br />

www.abelpumps.com<br />

54 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong>

Pumps/Vacuum technology<br />

Companies – Innovations – Products<br />

New Plunger Pump Portfolio –<br />

pump programme more tightened,<br />

standardised and easier<br />

Technical changes in the pump programme implicate more power<br />

input, standardisation and simplification<br />

Panta rhei – Everything flows! Same at KAMAT! As the pump manufacturer<br />

from Witten puts it they actively used the Corona-time to<br />

work at full speed on the development of their pump programme, in<br />

order to achieve further standardisations and hydraulic revisions at<br />

their plunger pumps. Now, KAMAT proudly present their new performance<br />

list. The pump range with all its technical data is summarised<br />

in an overview on a two-sided data sheet. In addition, an overview<br />

of the new pump programme is also available in an 8-sided Plunger<br />

Pump Portfolio leaflet with a new design. „Reason for our new leaflet<br />

are a number of eager efforts in the developments of our systems,<br />

aiming and achieving a higher grade of standardisation, maximum input<br />

power and further, more simplification“, says chief engineer and<br />

Managing Director Dipl.-Ing. Jan Sprakel.<br />

Now, the last final details of the planned modifications and their realisation<br />

are successfully completed. “We have decided to summarise<br />

all technical changes preliminary in this overview leaflet file, which we<br />

have already published last year. To be up-to-date, herewith, we have<br />

uploaded the leaflet’s online-version for all who are interested. We hope<br />

that the portfolio‘s new look, design and format will suit every body and<br />

what is more important to us, that it will be helpful to everybody who is<br />

looking for the most suitable pump. Much more we are pleased about<br />

the occasion for designing and publishing the new brochure and this is<br />

the rapid development of our pump programme, with the goal, to minimise<br />

the danger of cavitation even further“, says Sprakel.<br />

More outline: From now on out of previous 13 pumps only 11<br />

remain in the performance list<br />

What has changed in detail: The pump programme has been tightened,<br />

unified and has become easier. Out of the previous 13 pump types in<br />

the performance list only 11 remained, with no losses but optimisation.<br />

The current M-Head has been omitted without the loss of versatility in<br />

the available options. The MCH-Head was re-named as M, because it<br />

replaces the old M-Head. The MC-Head becomes M2-Head. The new<br />

M-Head and M2-Head will be available in any performance level with<br />

plate valves and soft valves. With the changeover all heads were reengineered<br />

with the objective to achieve lower NPSH-values and thus<br />

avoiding cavitation. Furthermore the gear boxes have been revised,<br />

with higher performance inputs resulting in generally increased performance<br />

level.<br />

New conversion kits not needed, pump-heads smaller and<br />

lighter in weight from now on<br />

From now on the heads are smaller in their design size and thus lighter<br />

in weight. The good news: New conversion kits are not needed and<br />

all previous mounting parts still fit. According to the manufacturer the<br />

gear geometry and intersection stayed the same too. A1- and A2-Head<br />

remain the same, just with standardisation of the suction hoses. The<br />

benefit to the customer is next to flexibility very clearly the NPSH optimisation<br />

with lower values. Furthermore, in each design size there is<br />

the opportunity to customise the valve design size depending on the<br />

fluid distributed. The integrated oil coolers remain available for the<br />

mining industry.<br />

The changes at a glance:<br />

Pump Performance<br />

K40000-3G/400 kW -> Upgrade to K45000-3G/ up to 450 kW<br />

K50000-5G/530 kW -> Upgrade to K55000-5G/ up to 550 kW<br />

K80000-5G/800 kW -> Upgrade to K100000-5G/ up to 1000 kW = 1 MW<br />

K120000-5G/1200 kW -> Upgrade to K150000-5G/ up to 1500 kW = 1.5 MW<br />

Pump Heads (A- and M-Head)<br />

M-Head omitted<br />

MCH-Head becomes M-Head<br />

MC-Head becomes M2-Head<br />

Both heads can get either plate valves or soft sealing valves.<br />

A-Head<br />

M2-Head<br />

If there are any questions don’t hesitate to contact KAMAT. Readers<br />

may also refer to the company’s website (www.kamat.de) where all information<br />

is updated continuously. The new pump performance list is<br />

also available on the website. Please note the company’s revised and<br />

updated online pump finder: (https://www.kamat.de/en/pump-finder/<br />

pumpfinder.html)<br />

KAMAT GmbH & Co. KG<br />

Salinger Feld 10<br />

58454 Witten, Germany<br />

Phone +49 (0)2302 8903-0<br />

info@KAMAT.de<br />

www.KAMAT.de/en<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong><br />


Pumps/Vacuum technology<br />

Companies – Innovations – Products<br />

Configuration instead of programming:<br />

Intelligent pump control bplogic offers<br />

editor for logic operations<br />

The integration of a logic module offers customers new possibilities to<br />

extend the smart pump control with their own functions.<br />

With the presentation of the intelligent pump control, BRINKMANN<br />

PUMPS has made it clear that the future of the manufacturer of technically<br />

sophisticated coolant pumps is digital. With the development<br />

of the smart pump control bplogic, the traditional company from Werdohl<br />

in Germany has taken a decisive step towards Industry 4.0.<br />

The bplogic is connected between machine tools, pumps, filter<br />

systems and other components and adapts perfectly to the existing<br />

system environment – no matter which variable frequency drives are<br />

used. The digital controller impresses with its wide range of functions,<br />

including predictive maintenance and energy monitoring. For example,<br />

the digital controller can easily determine the degree of wear of pumps<br />

and make a prediction until the next service interval. As a result, disruptions<br />

are avoided and service planning can be derived in an uncomplicated<br />

manner. Another great advantage is the fast and convenient<br />

execution of an energy consumption analysis. The bplogic takes<br />

over the monitoring of all operating data of the connected pumps via<br />

long-term logging (incl. Excel CSV export) and includes operating hours<br />

counters and current consumption displays.<br />

Fig. 2: Intelligent average detection: If a maximum flow rate is exceeded, a pipe<br />

break is signaled and the pump is switched off.<br />

output signals can be logically operated. The implementation of time<br />

elements is possible as well as the output of customer-specific error<br />

messages in different languages. Of great value in practice is an implemented<br />

online debugger. It supports the verification of manufacturerspecific<br />

functions during commissioning.<br />

“When integrating the edit function on bplogic, our developers<br />

placed great emphasis on usability,” explains Jörg Neemann, Head of<br />

Sales and Marketing at BRINKMANN PUMPS. “The developers' goal was<br />

to make the configuration intuitive, simple and easy to use. We succeeded<br />

in doing that.” Newly created functions are stored directly on<br />

the bplogic. From now on, the smart controller takes over the complete<br />

control of newly added functions. From the customer's perspective,<br />

this opens up completely new possibilities: Adjustments can be<br />

made at any time. The implementation of own functions in existing systems<br />

and the associated protection of the know-how succeeds within<br />

shortest time. This upgrades plants and prepares them for new requirements<br />

in a future-proof manner.<br />

The further development of bplogic increases the user's scope of<br />

action and enables extensive flexibility. Thus, bplogic remains true to<br />

itself as an innovative and smart pump control.<br />

Fig.1: Description of a single logic function (Photos © : Brinkmann Pumpen)<br />

The latest generation of the smart pump controller now offers additional<br />

new possibilities. The bplogic allows users extensive freedom<br />

and the possibility to combine their own know-how with the known<br />

functions of the pump control without programming knowledge. The<br />

spectrum ranges from the control of individual contactors and warning<br />

lights, to procedures for detecting pipe breaks, to the complete automation<br />

of partial and small systems. The extended control functions<br />

are made possible by the integration of an editor for logic operations<br />

directly on the digital interface of the bplogic.<br />

Without PLC programming knowledge and own software development<br />

environments, users can realize manufacturer-specific functions<br />

with the logic module of bplogic. The configuration is done via the user<br />

interface of the intelligent pump control. There, all available variables<br />

such as pressures, speeds and all other digital and analog input and<br />


K.H. Brinkmann GmbH & Co. KG<br />

Friedrichstr. 2<br />

58791 Werdohl, Germany<br />

Phone + 49 (0)2392 5006-0<br />

Fax + 49 (0)2392 5006-180<br />

kontakt@brinkmannpumps.de<br />

www.brinkmannpumps.de<br />

Eccentric screw pumps vs. compressed air diaphragm pumps<br />

More than a question of philosophy<br />

In addition to eccentric screw pumps, air-operated diaphragm pumps<br />

are also suitable for pumping highly viscous media. Which pumping<br />

principle ultimately convinces the customer depends not only on the<br />

customer’s own experience and preferences, but also in particular on<br />

the advantages of the respective design with regard to the specific<br />

application.<br />

56 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong>

Pumps/Vacuum technology<br />

Companies – Innovations – Products<br />

Numerous companies in the bottling, manufacturing or packaging industry<br />

have to transfer viscous liquids from containers or machines<br />

quickly, cleanly and as precisely as possible. In addition to vertical or<br />

horizontal eccentric screw pumps, more and more compressed airdriven<br />

diaphragm pumps are being used for such applications.<br />

For many years, a manufacturing company in the food industry has<br />

been using several horizontal eccentric screw pumps of the type JP-<br />

700 HL 50 L, which have an EPDM stator and milk thread connections<br />

according to DN40-DIN11851 on the suction and pressure sides. At a<br />

speed of 350 rpm, the pumps deliver approx. 40 l/min. The customer<br />

used the eccentric screw pumps for all their liquid handling, with very<br />

different use cases. In addition to thin to viscous food oils, sugar solutions<br />

were also pumped.<br />

The principle of the eccentric screw pump has proven itself for many<br />

decades in the beverage and food industry as the most frequently<br />

used displacement pump for pumping viscous media. With this type<br />

of pump, a rotor (a screw conveyor made of stainless steel) rotates<br />

in an oscillating manner in a fixed stator, which in the food sector is<br />

made of elastomers such as EPDM or NBR or also the solid material<br />

PTFE. Due to the precisely matched, coiled geometry of the rotor and<br />

stator, the rotation of the rotor between the two components results<br />

in equally sized conveying chambers. The chamber volume is always<br />

identical and is shifted evenly from the suction side to the pressure<br />

side of the pump during the pumping process. Due to the arrangement<br />

of the rotor and stator, this pumping principle produces hardly any<br />

pulsation and there are also no major shearing forces on the medium<br />

to be pumped. The flow rate is proportional to the speed of the motor,<br />

whereby the speed cannot be selected at will, but depends on the material<br />

used for the stator as well as on the viscosity and abrasiveness of<br />

the pumped medium.<br />

Initially, the advantages of the eccentric screw pumps were of great<br />

importance for the customer’s purchase decision. Consistent, low-pulsation<br />

and gentle conveying is particularly advantageous in the food<br />

sector. In addition, the compact pumps of the 50L series have achieved<br />

a high flow rate of up to 100 l/min (at 900 rpm), which could be regulated<br />

at any time via a frequency converter. The pumps of the type JP-<br />

700 HL 50 L were also able to convey solids with a grain size of up to 8<br />

mm due to the free passage and guaranteed a very high dosing accuracy<br />

due to the constant chamber volume. It was also very important<br />

for the customer that the eccentric screw pumps were a very quiet type<br />

of pump and that the energy consumption was also low.<br />

In addition, eccentric screw pumps have a high pumping speed and<br />

are therefore self-priming even from a depth of 6–9 m. The conveying<br />

direction can also be changed very easily in order to empty the pumps<br />

at the end. Horizontal eccentric screw pumps were therefore the customer’s<br />

preferred type of pump for many years when viscous media<br />

had to be pumped around or conveyed to feed the bottling plants.<br />

Many years ago, the customer’s processes were very simple and the<br />

bottling processes were not very automated.<br />

Of course, in addition to numerous advantages, every pumping<br />

principle also always has disadvantages by virtue of the nature of the<br />

matter.<br />

Over time, the customer had to pump more and more media with<br />

a temperature of up to 100 °C and also some very abrasive media. It is<br />

obvious that the elastomers of the stator in particular expand from a<br />

medium temperature of 40–60 °C and that the rotor and stator could<br />

become jammed if you did not work with an undersized rotor, but it<br />

does again at room temperature of the medium at the expense of dosing<br />

accuracy. In addition, dry running had to be avoided when using eccentric<br />

screw pumps, since otherwise both the stator and the mechanical<br />

seal between the pump and the drive motor would be damaged.<br />

In addition, when feeding the filling plant, it had to be ensured that<br />

the eccentric screw pumps, which are positive displacement pumps<br />

with an outlet pressure of 6 bar, did not pump against the closed gate<br />

valve, as otherwise the pump and the filling plant could be damaged<br />

or the user could be injured. Even when conveying very abrasive media,<br />

increased wear was observed with certain media despite the low<br />

pump speed.<br />

Due to the fact that the processes in the company became more<br />

and more complex over the course of time and that a certain degree of<br />

automation also went hand in hand with an expansion of production,<br />

the customer tested diaphragm pumps once after a visit to our trade<br />

fair stand in order to have a comparison with the previous eccentric<br />

screw pumps.<br />

Like the screw pumps, the air-operated diaphragm pumps we supply,<br />

model JP-810.170 and 400 Food, are capable of being used for<br />

several hours at a time, and are also capable of pumping viscous media.<br />

Due to their construction, these pumps are self-priming like the eccentric<br />

screw pumps. The performance of the pump can be regulated<br />

very easily via the compressed air supply. The big advantage for the<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong><br />


Pumps/Vacuum technology<br />

Companies – Innovations – Products<br />

New CHEM-LZ series from WITTE<br />

customer in certain applications, however, is that they can also run dry<br />

and work against a closed valve, so that no dry-run protection or a bypass<br />

or pressure relief valve to switch off the pump has to be installed<br />

on site. Due to its design, a diaphragm pump has the property of stopping<br />

automatically as soon as a shut-off valve on the pressure side is<br />

closed. As soon as the valve is opened again, the pump starts up again.<br />

In addition to these obvious technical advantages, the following<br />

aspects were decisive for the customer’s decision to use eight compressed<br />

air-driven diaphragm pumps in addition to the four eccentric<br />

screw pumps:<br />

The test pumps supplied have proven to be very robust and, in<br />

special applications, could also be cleaned more easily and quickly<br />

than eccentric screw pumps, which is very important in the food industry.<br />

The higher operating costs to be expected due to the high compressed<br />

air consumption were not significant for our customer, since<br />

the pumps are only used sporadically and not in continuous operation.<br />

Also, in view of the significantly lower purchase price of the pumps and<br />

the expected repair costs, the energy consumption argument for these<br />

customer applications is not important.<br />

An aspect of compressed air-driven diaphragm pumps that should<br />

not be neglected is the noise caused by the escaping compressed air<br />

or by the mechanical movement of the pump (beating of the balls).<br />

When large 1.5” to 3” pumps work at a full 7 bar air pressure, it is often<br />

difficult to hold a conversation next to them. Despite the numerous<br />

advantages of diaphragm pumps, these pumps cannot be regarded<br />

as optimal for all applications, since in addition to an above-average<br />

level of noise pollution, high air consumption and strong pulsation<br />

must be expected.<br />

Ultimately, the decision for the “right” pump depends on many<br />

factors that often only the customer knows because of their different<br />

production processes. A purchase decision for the respective pump<br />

principle always depends primarily on the specific application, in addition<br />

to the basic advantages and disadvantages of the respective<br />

pump type.<br />

The new CHEM-LZ series, a drop-in replacement for Hermetic-LZ gear<br />

pumps. WITTE PUMPS & TECHNOLOGY GmbH now offers all users and<br />

operators of Hermetic-LZ- gear pumps an alternative solution. The LZ<br />

series discontinued by Hermetic in 2018 is still in operation in many<br />

plants. However, replacement pumps from the original manufacturer<br />

are no longer available, nor are spare parts.<br />

Repair and spare parts supply for defective pumps or wear parts<br />

is no longer guaranteed by Hermetic. WITTE PUMPS & TECHNOLOGY<br />

GmbH, with its more than 35 years of expertise in the gear pump business,<br />

has now taken on this field of application.<br />

WITTE now offers all users and customers an alternative pump.<br />

In agreement and cooperation with Hermetic, WITTE PUMPS & TECH-<br />

NONOLGY GmbH continues this series and takes over the design and<br />

manufacturing of the pumps under its own name CHEM-LZ. The pumps<br />

offered under the new name are absolutely identical in terms of dimensions,<br />

but are equipped with internal parts from the WITTE modular<br />

system. The user can thus easily exchange the pumps as drop-in replacement<br />

without having to modify the system and connections.<br />

The quality and grade of the pumps and components correspond<br />

to the WITTE standard. The pumps have exactly the same connection<br />

dimensions and the same technical equipment. The CHEM-LZ is offered<br />

with a single and a double mechanical seal, a magnetic coupling<br />

and the matching coupling connection.<br />

The advantage of this new series is that the internal parts come<br />

from the company's own modular system for the established chemical<br />

pumps of the CHEM series. Gear shafts and friction bearings are identical<br />

to those of the WITTE chemical pumps. This brings another advantage<br />

for the customer in terms of spare parts stocking. In the future,<br />

spare parts can be used for both pump types, provided the material<br />

pairing and size are identical.<br />

In the event of a replacement where a CHEM-LZ is no longer to<br />

be used, WITTE also offers a modification of its own CHEM series. The<br />

company specializes in customer-specific solutions for conveying tasks<br />

with gear pumps.<br />

Drop-in-replacement chemical pump of the CHEM-LZ series with magnetic coupling.<br />


Jägerweg 5-7<br />

85521 Ottobrunn, Germany<br />

Phone +49 (0)89 6666 33-400<br />

Fax +49 (0)89 6666 33-411<br />

info@jesspumpen.de<br />

www.jesspumpen.de<br />


Lise-Meitner-Allee 20<br />

25436 Tornesch, Germany<br />

Phone +49 (0)4120 70659-0<br />

Fax +49 04120 70659-49<br />

info@witte-pumps.de<br />

www.witte-pumps.com<br />

58 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong>

Pumps/Vacuum technology<br />

Companies – Innovations – Products<br />

Intelligent pump systems<br />

Digital factory: Smart Monitoring<br />

tracks pump operation and provides<br />

operating figures<br />

The new monitoring system from LEWA lets operators sleep more<br />

soundly and makes pumps smart-factory-ready: In addition to detecting<br />

malfunctions and process deviations, Smart Monitoring also provides<br />

important key figures for the economic evaluation of the plant. LEWA<br />

provides additional support with operational analyses of the runtime<br />

data. Data sovereignty always lies with the operator.<br />

Fig. 2: The Smart Monitoring System is already cloud-ready and can be networked<br />

with other systems via the Microsoft Azure cloud.<br />

The continuous operation of pump systems in critical applications goes<br />

hand-in-hand with high expenditures for monitoring and maintenance.<br />

Recording plant operating parameters such as flow rate, temperature<br />

or pressure also often requires additional expensive and high-maintenance<br />

instrumentation. For this reason, LEWA GmbH, as a specialist<br />

for pump systems, has developed Smart Monitoring for its ecoflow<br />

and triplex models: A combination of sensors integrated into the<br />

pump and software-based evaluation provides the user with comprehensive<br />

information on the performance and condition of the pumps.<br />

Malfunctions and wear development are detected before they lead to<br />

unscheduled shutdown. This way, the service life of the pumps can be<br />

increased and maintenance can be planned more easily. LEWA also<br />

offers data analysis as a service. Here, customers not only receive a<br />

data-based assessment of the condition and operating efficiency of the<br />

pump, but also optimization recommendations for the entire system.<br />

More complex production processes require more pump know-how<br />

For reliable use of pumps and pump systems in everyday industrial applications,<br />

regular inspection of the units is absolutely essential. Wear<br />

and malfunctions must be detected before costly unplanned shutdowns<br />

occur. Time-consuming inspection rounds are thus the basis<br />

for repairs and maintenance work, but do not always capture all functional<br />

deviations. Because the requirements are increasing due to ever<br />

more complex production processes, the specific pump know-how of<br />

the operator is continuously decreasing. For these reasons, companies<br />

are turning to digital assistance systems to control and monitor the<br />

entire production line. But only if the plant components can also be<br />

integrated into these systems by means of interface integration and<br />

charac teristic value transmission, the step towards the smart factory –<br />

the digitized production facility – can be taken.<br />

Fig. 3: Thanks to the structure-borne sound characteristics, wear and tear on valves<br />

can even be detected before it becomes measurable in the flow rate of the system.<br />

Smart monitoring for networked pump monitoring<br />

To meet these challenges, LEWA GmbH, as a pump specialist with experience<br />

in critical applications, has developed a product for complete<br />

and networked pump monitoring: “Smart monitoring provides information<br />

about the performance and condition of the ecoflow and triplex<br />

metering and process diaphragm pumps based on up to 13,000<br />

sensor signals processed per second,” explains Sebastian Gatzhammer,<br />

Development Engineer at LEWA. “In the process, data on structure-borne<br />

noise, hydraulic pressure, temperature and angle of rotation<br />

is collected by multiple sensors and processed by our software to<br />

come up with meaningful key figures.”<br />

This system largely serves as a replacement for inspection rounds,<br />

since digital monitoring immediately detects wear and malfunctions on<br />

Fig. 1: The data is transferred via standardized interfaces such as OPC UA to process control systems for data acquisition and visualization. (Photos © LEWA GmbH)<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong><br />


Pumps/Vacuum technology<br />

Companies – Innovations – Products<br />

Fig. 4: The measured values come from a structure-borne sound transmitter<br />

located on the pump body, a pressure transmitter connected to a pressure<br />

measuring bore, and a rotary encoder adapted either directly via the crank shaft<br />

or the engine. Here you can see the pressure transmitter.<br />

30 different diagnoses,<br />

volume flow measurement without additional instrumentation<br />

However, detailed monitoring also results in other advantages such<br />

as better planning of maintenance intervals. The plant control center<br />

learns of any functional deviation in real time so that maintenance<br />

can be planned in advance and carried out in a controlled manner. In<br />

potentially explosive working areas, this also means a significant increase<br />

in safety: “Possible accidents are prevented and overall plant<br />

avail ability increases significantly,” reports Gatzhammer. “By monitoring<br />

up to 30 different diagnoses, the technical management always has<br />

an overview.” This was possible because the Smart Monitoring System<br />

is the product of more than 60 years of LEWA's pump expertise. “With<br />

the interaction of sensors and hardware, we can detect as little as a<br />

one percent drop in flow rate in each pump head,” Gatzhammer said.<br />

“But thanks to the structure-borne sound characteristics, we even detect<br />

signs of wear on valves at a very early stage, before they even become<br />

measurable in the flow rate of the system.”<br />

Added value through data analyses –<br />

data sovereignty with the operator<br />

LEWA offers data analysis for the smart monitoring systems. “We analyze<br />

and evaluate the operational data that a system has collected over<br />

a period of time. This allows us to do more than just provide the customer<br />

with data-based recommendations for maintenance planning<br />

based on wear patterns. The overall plant efficiency can also be optimized<br />

in this way,” explains Gatzhammer. The data is transferred via<br />

standardized interfaces such as OPC UA to process control systems for<br />

data acquisition and visualization. In addition, the Smart Monitoring<br />

System is already cloud-ready and can be networked with other systems<br />

via the Microsoft Azure cloud. However, this decision – and thus<br />

also the data sovereignty – always lies with the operator.<br />

After successful completion of the pilot phase, the LEWA Smart<br />

Monitoring was launched in mid October 2021.<br />

LEWA GmbH<br />

Ulmer Str. 10<br />

71229 Leonberg, Germany<br />

Phone +49 (0)7152 14-0<br />

Fax +49 (0)7152 14-1303<br />

lewa@lewa.de<br />

www.lewa.de<br />

Application areas for high-pressure<br />

pumps that span the globe<br />

Fig. 5: Smart Monitoring provides information on the performance and condition<br />

of the ecoflow and triplex metering and process diaphragm pumps based on up<br />

to 13,000 values processed per second.<br />

both the fluid and hydraulic sides and reports them to a process control<br />

system at the operator via the interface. “This means that around<br />

90 percent of malfunctions can be detected at an early stage: for example,<br />

overpressure in the hydraulics, worn plunger rings or incorrect<br />

closing behavior of valves,” says Gatzhammer. Faults in the entire system<br />

beyond the LEWA unit are also measured indirectly. “We can use<br />

the pump data to interpret changes in the condition of the pumped<br />

fluid, possibly due to contamination,” Gatzhammer adds.<br />

The globe: the symbol for global, world-spanning activities. The images<br />

contained on this globe show the most diverse areas of application in<br />

which high-pressure pumps are used: Whether power generation, municipal<br />

technology, chemical, food or heavy industry – whether process<br />

technology or high-pressure cleaning – you will also find topics of your<br />

industry in this illustration. Take a close look and find out what is relevant<br />

for you.<br />

It is precisely this colorful abundance that reflects the spectrum of applications<br />

for high-pressure pumps. A picture spanning the world and<br />

URACA shows the diverse tasks and application areas at a glance and<br />

stands for the mission and the entire portfolio of URACA: At your ser-<br />

60 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong>

Pumps/Vacuum technology<br />

Companies – Innovations – Products<br />

vice around the globe – worldwide active in all relevant disciplines and<br />

industries. From project planning to service. These are the basic ideas<br />

what URACA stands for in connection with high pressure technology.<br />

pending on the container size. The energy input is limited to the short,<br />

time-limited phases of pressure build-up; no significant pump power is<br />

required for all other phases.<br />

A DP724 pump unit is used for cyclic pressure testing. The heart of<br />

the system is a high-pressure plunger pump of type KD724, driven by a<br />

frequency-controlled electric motor. The unit is able to display a sinuslike<br />

pressure curve and – depending on the medium – delivers reproducible<br />

results for up to 150,000 test cycles. The pressure can be flexibly<br />

adjusted up to 1,300 bar. By means of a valve station installed in the<br />

unit, the required pressure increase and pressure decrease curves are<br />

realized. In addition to the unit, the complete system includes a water<br />

tank with booster pump for independent supply and a recooling system<br />

for the test medium used in the closed circuit. Installed in a soundinsulated<br />

container, the pressure test unit can be used flexibly. The<br />

electrical control system, which can be integrated into the operator's<br />

system, allows individual and flexible setting of the test parameters.<br />

Fig. 1: Application diversity of URACA products around the globe<br />

Two current examples illustrate the individuality and range of possible<br />

applications of high-pressure pumps.<br />

Initially, the focus will be on an industrial project from the current thematic<br />

world around the topic of mobility, in particular hydrogen: Gas<br />

tanks for the automotive industry are usually operated with a filling<br />

pressure of about 700 bar. Since these – like any other fuel tank – are<br />

to be refilled countless times, it is important within the scope of quality<br />

testing to ensure the property of pressure resistance with sufficient<br />

test cycles. For this purpose, special pressure test units are used which,<br />

by means of the reproducibility of the results over a large number of<br />

test cycles, make it possible to demonstrate the pressure resistance<br />

and thus the safety of the tanks in continuous use on exemplary tests<br />

for the respective production batches.<br />

Cyclic pressure testing is economically and ecologically advantageous<br />

for the tank manufacturer, since the average power consumption<br />

of these systems is only about 50 percent compared to other technical<br />

solutions, such as a system with a pressure converter.<br />

The cycle test describes an increasing, thresholding pressure load<br />

on the test object between a variably adjustable upper and lower<br />

limit. The set pressure is approached reproducibly with a tolerance<br />

of ±10 bar at maximum pressure and ±5 bar at minimum pressure.<br />

Shortly before reaching the set maximum value, the pressure increase<br />

rate is adjusted to achieve the sinusoidal characteristic. The pressure is<br />

held in the range of the maximum value. After a freely definable holding<br />

time, the pressure is reduced again via the relief time, which can<br />

also be set, and is also held for a certain time after the lower pressure<br />

level has been reached. Holding time and pressure relief can be defined<br />

in 0.1 second increments. The system reaches a maximum pressure<br />

of P max<br />

= 1,300 bar, while the minimum pressure can be set to<br />

P min<br />

= 10 bar. A total of 50,000 - 150,000 cycles per test object are run,<br />

whereby the maximum number is limited to 10 cycles per minute de-<br />

Fig. 2: High pressure pump unit KD724E for cyclic pressure testing<br />

Fig. 3: Flexible applicable pump unit as container design<br />

Key data at a glance<br />

Test pressure max.:<br />

1,300 bar<br />

Test pressure min.:<br />

10 bar<br />

Plant power:<br />

110 kW<br />

Number of test cycles: 50,000 – 150,000<br />

Pressure curve per cycle: Sinusoidal<br />

Test medium:<br />

Water<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong><br />


Pumps/Vacuum technology<br />

Companies – Innovations – Products<br />

A second example from the field of new, climate-friendly energy sources<br />

is the production of biodiesel: a fuel with many challenges.<br />

High-pressure pumps make an essential contribution towards the<br />

production of these environmentally friendly fuels. Biodiesel or fatty<br />

acid methyl ester (FAME) is a fuel that is equivalent in use to mineral<br />

diesel fuel. The chemical industry obtains biodiesel by transesterifying<br />

vegetable or animal fats and oils with monohydric alcohols such<br />

as methanol or ethanol. During production, the fatty acids contained<br />

in the oil are split off from the glycerol with the aid of a catalyst and<br />

chemically converted with methanol, i. e. esterified. In various steps,<br />

this process produces the fuel “biodiesel” as the main product and the<br />

by-product “glycerol”, which is used as a food additive and in medicine.<br />

The methanol is recycled back into the reactor.<br />

Fig. 5: Plunger pump P5-85 for the process industry<br />

Fig. 4: Electrically driven pump unit for the production of biodiesel<br />

In today's industrial, patented processes, so-called supercritical processes,<br />

various reactions take place simultaneously and within a few<br />

minutes. They achieve maximum yield and, thanks to the special process<br />

parameters, no longer require catalysts. For this purpose, highpressure<br />

pumps are used to pump methanol and fatty acids against<br />

high pressures. Depending on the production plant, pump capacities<br />

of up to several hundred kilowatts are required for these applications.<br />

The particular challenges for the high-pressure pumps lie in the properties<br />

of the pumped media: methanol, for example, has hardly any lubricating<br />

properties, while other media tend to crystallize early, which<br />

can severely disrupt pump operation and lead to reduced service lives.<br />

Local conditions, such as use in hazardous areas or particularly high<br />

or low temperatures, also place enormous challenges on the pump<br />

units and thus on their manufacturers. Compliance with local regulations,<br />

standards and certificates round off the requirement profile for<br />

the pump supplier.<br />

The many years of experience, the high level of expertise and the<br />

design refinements therefore characterize the robust and long-lasting<br />

pumps from URACA to the satisfaction of the customers.<br />

With an increasing variety of applications and growing requirements,<br />

the development of new products is of elementary importance.<br />

Based on this motivation, URACA has added compact pumps to the<br />

power ranges of 700 kW and 1200 kW with the two new pump types<br />

P3-85 and P5-85 and created a new pump series in the upper range.<br />

This adds two extremely compact plunger pumps to the product<br />

portfolio, the main features of which are their short design as well as<br />

the integrated gearbox. With a stroke of 100 mm and a rod load of<br />

280 kN, the average piston speed can be kept relatively low. The Px-85<br />

series enables an increase in performance compared to long-stroke<br />

machines of corresponding performance classes while at the same<br />

time complying with the API 674 limitation on average piston speed.<br />

The short design, the elimination of external gears and the simultaneous<br />

optimization of performance with respect to comparable gearless<br />

types enormously expand the range of applications to the benefit<br />

of the user. As a result, not only can several pumps be replaced by one<br />

in individual cases, the new series also opens up areas of application<br />

that previously had to be served by long-stroke and very slow-running<br />

types. In addition to saving space, these possibilities also lead to a reduction<br />

in costs compared to the complete ensemble with gearbox,<br />

converter and similar additional units.<br />

Key data at a glance: P3-85 P5-85<br />

Power P max<br />

700 kW 1,200 kW<br />

Stroke<br />

100 mm<br />

Rod load<br />

280 kN<br />

Flow rates up to approx. 2,100 l/min 3,500 l/min<br />

Gearbox<br />

integrated or with long shaft<br />

Just like the design of the new P3-19 high-pressure pump, its inner values<br />

are equally impressive. Powerful, lightweight, reliable and technically<br />

up to date in the usual high quality – this is how the new high-<br />

Fig. 6: High-pressure plunger pump P3-19 for high-pressure cleaning applications<br />

62 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong>

Pumps/Vacuum technology<br />

Companies – Innovations – Products<br />

pressure pump in the 80 kW level presents itself to its future users.<br />

With its compact design, it opens up a wide range of applications. As<br />

the European market leader for sewer flushing pumps, URACA attaches<br />

particular importance to high power density and the longest possible<br />

running times with robust operation of the pumps. The wide acceptance<br />

therefore is due to this fact and the high reliability.<br />

Decades of experience in the development and construction of<br />

high-pressure plunger pumps, state-of-the-art technology and highest<br />

manufacturing quality with maximum vertical integration have made<br />

URACA a leading company in the industry. The newly developed highpressure<br />

pumps are continuing this successful course.<br />

URACA GmbH & Co. KG<br />

Sirchinger Str. 15<br />

72574 Bad Urach, Germany<br />

Phone +49 (0)7125 133-0<br />

Fax +49 (0)7125 133-202<br />

info@uraca.de<br />

www.uraca.de<br />

Reducing production downtimes with<br />

OTTO digital services by Busch<br />

Production downtime is a big and expensive problem for factories and<br />

needs to be prevented. Intelligent IoT solutions can help to reduce<br />

production downtime and to save a lot of money. OTTO is the digital<br />

service innovation by Busch Vacuum Solutions. It combines condition<br />

monitoring of vacuum pumps with attractive service packages. For<br />

high process reliability and less cost of ownership in factories.<br />

The Busch IoT Dashboard and the Busch Vacuum App track vacuum<br />

pump data permanently. With the information at hand, the performance<br />

can be analyzed, and processes optimized. Busch installs a<br />

proprietary sensor package at the vacuum pumps, which collects and<br />

processes data. The data is stored in the Busch cloud via a mobile con-<br />

nection. The IoT box constantly monitors process state and vacuum<br />

pump conditions. For example, the ambient temperature, oil temperature<br />

and the remaining time until the next maintenance of the vacuum<br />

pump. The IoT dashboard provides all collected performance data<br />

24/7. The data is interpreted, and performance trends are shown. To<br />

optimize the production, Busch is providing a summarizing report as<br />

well as recommendations for more efficient operation. Based on data<br />

analysis, Busch is taking care of preventive maintenance and sends a<br />

service technician if needed.<br />

OTTO digital services by Busch come in three different packages<br />

tailored to the needs of the customer. Whether the customer wants to<br />

take care of the monitoring himself or wants Busch to take the lead.<br />

The suitable OTTO package detects appearing problems before they<br />

become a real problem. Risks and costs associated with unplanned<br />

downtimes are avoided and lead to optimum process reliability and<br />

higher productivity in factories. Even already installed vacuum pumps<br />

can be retrofitted with the Busch IoT kit.<br />

Busch Vacuum Solutions<br />

Schauinslandstr. 1<br />

79689 Maulburg, Germany<br />

Phone +49 (0)7622 681-0<br />

Fax +49 (0)7622 5484<br />

info@busch.de<br />

www.buschvacuum.com<br />

Qdos CWT pump delivers major advance<br />

in long-life chemical metering<br />

Watson-Marlow Fluid <strong>Technology</strong> Group (WMFTG) is unveiling the next<br />

performance level in its range of industry-leading Qdos chemical metering<br />

pumps. Qdos ® Conveying Wave <strong>Technology</strong> (CWT) extends the<br />

capabilities of peristaltic pump technology with its unique Fluid Contact<br />

Element. This innovative assembly is subjected to very low stress<br />

levels. Thus, Qdos CWT pump offers longer service life than traditional<br />

tube-based designs combined with superior accuracy in chemical<br />

metering and dosing tasks, and the elimination of expensive ancillary<br />

equipment. This makes Qdos CWT an ideal solution for a large variety<br />

of chemical metering and dosing tasks, for example in water treatment<br />

applications.<br />

Qdos ® CWT pumps do not achieve their peristaltic action by operating<br />

a traditional tubing but by an unique assembly, the “Fluid Contact<br />

Element”. It combines an EPDM element rather than a tube, which acts<br />

against a PEEK track. The fluid is contained between the EPDM element<br />

and the PEEK track, and the rotation of an eccentric rotor displaces the<br />

fluid forward.<br />

In effect, the Fluid Contact Element offers the same basic function<br />

as the tube of a conventional peristaltic pump. As well as the elimination<br />

of vapour locking, the element delivers stable, reliable performance,<br />

even with fluctuations in ambient temperature and pressure.<br />

Furthermore, the robust mechanical design provides consistently high<br />

accuracy for the life of the pump.<br />

Fig.: The new OTTO digital services by Busch Vacuum Solutions reduce production<br />

downtimes.<br />

Longer service life<br />

The fluid contact element is subjected to very low stress levels, meaning<br />

the Qdos CWT pump will deliver significantly longer service life than<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong><br />


Pumps/Vacuum technology<br />

Companies – Innovations – Products<br />

a traditional pump. Qdos CWT pumps offer outstanding chemical dosing<br />

accuracy in water treatment applications. The pumps introduce<br />

chemicals – including sodium hypochlorite for post-chlorination cycles<br />

– without the need to overdose, thus delivering consistently high accuracy<br />

for the life of the pump.<br />

Positive user feedback<br />

Among the pilot sites able to provide testimony is the San Luis Rey<br />

Water Reclamation Facility in Oceanside, California. The facility, which<br />

collects, treats and disposes of all of the city's sewage, favours the use<br />

of peristaltic pumps over diaphragm pumps for their ability to handle<br />

off gassing chemicals such as sodium hypochlorite.<br />

The installation of the Qdos CWT pump has enabled the site’s engineers<br />

to use peristaltic technology in an application where pressure<br />

spikes and off gassing affected more traditional pump types. Since<br />

installation the San Luis Rey facility has experienced a significant increase<br />

in pump life.<br />

The sealed CWT pumphead – which delivers accurate, linear and<br />

repeatable flow – is also highly safe as it minimises operator exposure<br />

to chemicals, while changeover is possible in less than a minute without<br />

the need for tools. Qdos CWT users can gain from further operational<br />

and environmental safety through leak detection software, failure<br />

alarms and fluid recovery capabilities that avoid chemical waste.<br />

user feedback that CWT will help to deliver operational efficiencies to a<br />

wide range of users. We look forward to introducing more of our customers<br />

to its benefits.”<br />

Like all pumps in the range, the Qdos CWT is available in a number<br />

of variants that provide different levels of control, from Manual, Remote<br />

and PROFIBUS, through to Universal (automatic and manual control)<br />

and Universal+ (automatic and manual control with configurable<br />

4-20 mA input and output).<br />

The new Qdos CWT range offers flow rates from 0.1 to 500 ml/min,<br />

and up to 7 bar RMS pressure. Flow control is up to 5000:1 with ±1 %<br />

accuracy. To ensure suitability for industrial environments, the Qdos<br />

CWT features an IP66 NEMA 4X rated casing. A three year warranty is<br />

standard.<br />

Launching Qdos CWT for chemical metering in the industrial sector<br />

marks only the beginning, as plans are already afoot to help a myriad<br />

of other applications enjoy the benefits available.<br />

Watson-Marlow GmbH<br />

Kurt-Alder-Str. 1<br />

41569 Rommerskirchen, Germany<br />

Phone +49 (0)2183 42040<br />

Fax +49 (0)2183 82592<br />

info@wmftg.de<br />

www.wmftg.de<br />

Robust rotary lobe pumps<br />

for demanding media<br />

Highly efficient and proven pumping technology<br />

Usability and control<br />

From a usability perspective, the pump features a high-visibility keypad<br />

and TFT display, along with direct connectivity capability to a range of<br />

external monitoring systems.<br />

“This is an exciting launch for us,” says Martin Johnston Strategic<br />

Business Development Director at WMFTG. “Qdos CWT is the next level<br />

in high performance for our industry leading Qdos ® range of chemical<br />

metering pumps. Our objective was to design a technology that<br />

delivers all the benefits of a traditional pump but with significantly<br />

longer service life than traditional tube designs. It’s clear from early<br />

Industrial processes often require the pumping and transport of demanding<br />

liquids. Therefore, robust and reliable pump systems are essential.<br />

They come into direct contact with media and play an important<br />

role in a variety of production processes. For extreme conditions,<br />

such as use in potentially explosive environments or pumping chemically<br />

aggressive and hot media, pumps must meet special industryspecific<br />

specifications and standards.<br />

Vogelsang GmbH & Co. KG from Essen (Oldenburg) is launching two<br />

new pump series to meet the high demands of industrial use: The EP<br />

series and VY series. The rotary lobe pumps of both series are made<br />

of a flow-optimized one-piece housing and are therefore particularly<br />

efficient. They reliably convey thin-bodied as well as highly viscous,<br />

64 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong>

Pumps/Vacuum technology<br />

Companies – Innovations – Products<br />

pure and solids-containing media at temperatures of up to 200 °C. The<br />

pumps are ATEX and TA-Luft compliant and thus suited for use in highly<br />

demanding areas such as the oil, gas and chemical industries.<br />

Thanks to increased efficiency and added seal versatility, Vogelsang<br />

is able to open up new areas of application for its proven pump<br />

technology. As the inventor of the elastomer-coated rotary lobe pump<br />

in 1970, Vogelsang has been for decades one of the world's leading<br />

companies in the field of pumps.<br />

rates the gearbox and the pump chamber, ensuring that in the event<br />

of a leak, liquid will drain out rather than entering the gearbox. The Air-<br />

Gap also protects the gearbox when pumping hot media.<br />

Seal versatility for increased flexibility<br />

A variety of different sealing systems can be used in the housing of the<br />

new pump series depending on the industry-specific standard and requirement.<br />

In addition to the Vogelsang Quality-Cartridge, a completely<br />

pre-assembled mechanical seal in a cartridge design, further special<br />

mechanical seals are available for the EP and VY series. Vogelsang<br />

worked with leading manufactures to develop this CoX-Cartridge and<br />

offer the right solution for a variety of applications, from use in oil and<br />

sugar production, to conveying hot, chemically demanding media or latex<br />

paints. The seal's robust design also makes it suited for high-pressure<br />

use. The new pump series can also be equipped with mechanical<br />

seals according to API 682 if required.<br />

Fig. 2: Exploded view EP series: A high-performance gearbox allows for a maximum<br />

pressure output of up to 18 bar.<br />

VY series: A highly efficient all-rounder<br />

VY series rotary lobe pumps are based on Vogelsang's proven VX series.<br />

Different seals can be used in a variety of ways in the new housing<br />

depending on industry-specific standards and requirements. The<br />

versatility of the VY series makes it suitable for use in the chemical industry,<br />

as well as in the paper and textile sectors. The performance<br />

spectrum ranges from 1 m³/h to 120 m³/h at a maximum pressure of<br />

10 bar. Integrated sensors provide all-important information about the<br />

pump's operating status. The VY series is also available with axial and<br />

radial wear protection for media with abrasive components.<br />

Fig. 1: The versatility of Vogelsang's new pump series makes them suitable for a<br />

wide range of applications.<br />

The EP series for extreme conditions and<br />

high-pressure performance<br />

The EP series is designed for extreme conditions and permanently<br />

high pressures. Its high-performance gearbox allows for a constant<br />

pressure output of up to 18 bar, making it unique on the market today.<br />

The pumps of the EP series consist of a one-piece housing made<br />

from either cast iron or stainless steel. Helical gears in the gearbox ensure<br />

smooth performance and reduce noise emissions. Pulsation-free<br />

transferring reduces wear on the adjacent pipeline to a minimum. The<br />

performance spectrum ranges from 1 m³/h to 120 m³/h at a maximum<br />

pressure of 18 bar. The free ball passage is 40 mm. The high-pressure<br />

performance and temperature limit of 200 °C along with its seal versatility<br />

make the EP Series suitable for applications for which companies<br />

previously used screw, gear and progressing cavity pumps. These<br />

include the oil and gas sector, tank farms, the petrochemical industry<br />

and the production of paints and varnishes, paper, glue and sugar. Rotary<br />

lobe pumps save more space and are more energy-efficient and<br />

service-friendly than other positive displacement pumps.<br />

Vogelsang has additionally equipped its EP series with an AirGap<br />

for increased operational reliability. This gap atmospherically sepa-<br />

Fig. 3: The performance spectrum of the VY series ranges from 1 m³/h to 120 m³/h<br />

at a maximum pressure of 10 bar.<br />

Service-friendly assembly and cleaning<br />

For increased ease of service, both pump series feature a quick connection<br />

in addition to a variety of seal options. Thanks to this, pipelines<br />

can be connected to pumps in a matter of minutes, thus minimising<br />

time, effort and costs for installation and conversion. Maintaining the<br />

pumps is also quick and easy. The Quick-Service cover allows access to<br />

all internal components. As a result wear parts can be replaced quickly<br />

without removing the pump from the pipeline. When designing the EP<br />

and VY series pumps, our engineers placed significant importance on<br />

easy cleaning. The pumps can be rinsed and disinfected according to<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong><br />


Pumps/Vacuum technology<br />

Companies – Innovations – Products<br />

the CIP (Cleaning in Place) and SIP (Sterilisation in Place) cleaning procedures.<br />

The housing design also reduces dead space to a minimum,<br />

thus preventing liquids from accumulating in gaps or uneven surfaces.<br />

The EP and VY series offer industrial companies a highly efficient,<br />

flow-optimised and service-friendly pump technology suited for a wide<br />

range of demanding applications.<br />

Vogelsang GmbH & Co. KG<br />

Holthoege 10-14<br />

49632 Essen (Oldenburg), Germany<br />

Phone +49 (0)5434 83-0<br />

germany@vogelsang.info<br />

www.vogelsang.info<br />

From positive displacement pump system provider to specialist<br />

for handling complex media:<br />

NETZSCH Pumps & Systems<br />

enters the peristaltic market with<br />

the PERIPRO pump<br />

NETZSCH Pumps & Systems, the internationally active pump manufacturer<br />

from Bavaria, expands its positive displacement pump offering<br />

with the PERIPRO peristaltic pump. The PERIPRO ® peristaltic pump<br />

delivers large flow rates at a wide range of pressures. This means that<br />

the system provider for positive displacement pumps is now establishing<br />

itself as a specialist for pumping complex and difficult media.<br />

90 % less lubricant than other peristaltic pumps and enable an extremely<br />

high metering accuracy. Depending on the field of application,<br />

the PERIPRO is offered in different versions to optimally cover the<br />

needs of customers.<br />

NETZSCH Pumpen & Systeme GmbH<br />

Geretsrieder Str. 1<br />

84478 Waldkraiburg, Germany<br />

Phone +49 (0)8638 63-0<br />

pr.nps@netzsch.com<br />

www.pumpen.netzsch.com<br />

Cost savings and increased<br />

availability by using magnetic coupled<br />

twin screw pumps<br />

Industry:<br />

<strong>Process</strong>:<br />

Product:<br />

Refinery<br />

Storage and loading facility<br />

Bitumen/Asphalt<br />

Application: Circulation, transfer & loading<br />

Solution:<br />

Location:<br />

The job<br />

Twin screw pump with magnet drive<br />

France<br />

The customer, a large refinery in France, was looking to extend its<br />

Bitumen handling capabilities by building a new Bitumen storage and<br />

loading facility. Existing installations utilized screw pumps from various<br />

manufactures. Shaft sealing was done with mechanical seals or gland<br />

packing, both with steam quench. Main objectives of the new project<br />

were to improve availability of the pumps and to substantially reduce<br />

OPEX, especially those associated with maintenance. Additionally, the<br />

solution should be up to date in regards to current and foreseeable<br />

health and safety and environmental regulations. Klaus Union provided<br />

engineering and technical studies, comparing different solutions for<br />

the customer’s application.<br />

The PERIPRO peristaltic pumps from NETZSCH in hygienic design or also<br />

in industrial design<br />

The PERIPRO expands the NETZSCH pump portfolio with its characteristics<br />

as particularly robust and powerful pump that can easily handle<br />

viscous and abrasive media even at high pressures. These pumps have<br />

a long operating life, are easy to use, and enable 30 % energy savings as<br />

compared to other hose pumps due to their inventive design.<br />

These peristaltic pumps have very few wear parts. There are no<br />

valves or mechanical seals; the only wear part is the hose, characterized<br />

by remarkable durability due to an innovative manufacturing process.<br />

In addition, the pumps are insensitive to dry running, require<br />

Operating data<br />

Fluid:<br />

Bitumen/Aspahlt<br />

Flow Rate:<br />

135 m³/h (594 gpm)<br />

Temperature: 140 ... 180 °C (284 ... 356 °F)<br />

Differential Pressure: 12 bar (174 psi)<br />

66 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong>

Pumps/Vacuum technology<br />

Companies – Innovations – Products<br />

Dynamic Viscosity: 104 ... 855 cP<br />

Kinematic Viscosity: 110 ... 900 mm²/s<br />

Specific Gravity: 0,95<br />

NPSH(A):<br />

4,9 m (16 ft)<br />

The solution<br />

SLM DSP-2CO 154B-208-25P14 Q2 Z H24<br />

SLM: Sealless Mag Drive<br />

DSP-2: Single Volute Twin Screw Pump<br />

C: Cartridge Design<br />

O: Oil Lubricated Bearing Support<br />

154: Outer Diameter of Drive Rotor (approx. 6“)<br />

B: Axial Split Modular Casing<br />

208: Pitch of Main Drive Rotor (approx. 8 1/5“)<br />

25: Magnetic Coupling Size (approx. 10“)<br />

P: High Powered Magnets<br />

14: Magnet Length<br />

Q2: Magnetic Coupling Designed for low and<br />

high viscosity application<br />

Z: Non-Metallic Containment Shell<br />

H24: Casing and Casing Cover Heated<br />

The result<br />

Two pumps were installed and have been in operation without any<br />

downtime for maintenance. The satisfied customer has started a project<br />

to replace his existing old pumps with Klaus Union magnet drive<br />

twin screw pumps.<br />

The thought process<br />

All existing Bitumen pumps in that refinery were classified as “bad actors”<br />

due to high leakage rates and short seal lifetimes. Based on this<br />

existing experience, the following iterations were taken during the preengineering<br />

phase of the project:<br />

– Bitumen/Asphalt is prone to cracking when it reaches the atmosphere.<br />

Accordingly, seals should be executed with API Plan 62 (steam<br />

quench), requiring additional utilities. Even under ideal conditions an<br />

API Plan 62 does not prevent leakage to the atmosphere, making the<br />

pump installation always a dirty spot. Additionally, Steam supply may<br />

sometimes fail or be outside permissible range, leading to regular seal<br />

damage and pump downtime.<br />

– Double acting mechanical seal with an API Plan 53 or 54 system were<br />

evaluated next. An API Plan 53/54 system does not have the same<br />

problems as a steam quench as it provides a stable, pressurized barrier<br />

system preventing any Bitumen leakage to the outside. However,<br />

with a Bitumen/Asphalt application the seal supply system would need<br />

to cover both sufficient pre-heating to prevent stocking of the product,<br />

as well as sufficient cooling capacity to prevent overheating of the barrier<br />

fluid system. This means to ensure a stable operation numerous<br />

signals (temperature, pressure, etc.) and utilities (cooling water or energy<br />

for an air cooler, nitrogen for API Plan 53, etc.) are required, making<br />

this an expensive investment if not for the pump, then for the site.<br />

– Based on existing experience in handling difficult to seal and even<br />

toxic liquid, Klaus Union recommended a solution for the customer’s<br />

needs, by executing the pump with seal less magnetic coupling system<br />

from Klaus Union. The magnetic coupling is equipped with a non-metallic<br />

isolation shell, to avoid eddy current losses and provides a pressure<br />

rating of 25 bar for the complete pump. The pump only requires<br />

two signals – a temperature transmitter on the isolation shell to provide<br />

a startup interlock to ensure proper pre-heating temperature,<br />

and a PT100 on the casing to ensure the maximum temperature for<br />

the pump is not exceeded. Otherwise no additional accessories are required,<br />

and the product is not contaminated by any auxiliary fluids.<br />

The benefits<br />

– Eliminating „bad actor“ no. 1: mechanical seal<br />

– Maintenance and Leak-free magnetic coupling, eliminating costs<br />

for steam quench or API Plan 53/54 Systems<br />

– Robust API 676 compliant pump design to increase MTBF<br />

– Pump design adaptive to customer requirements<br />

– Continuously high pump efficiency, even at large variations<br />

of pressure and viscosity<br />

– No timing required after maintenance, decreasing downtimes<br />

for maintenance<br />

– High standardization for fast availability of spares, many available<br />

directly from stock<br />

– Modular system for pump and magnetic coupling can be adapted<br />

to customer‘s and application requirements<br />

The SLM DSP-2C provides a simpler, cleaner solution to the customer’s<br />

needs for highly reliable and highly efficient positive displacement<br />

pumps.<br />

KLAUS UNION GmbH & Co. KG<br />

P.O. Box 10 13 49<br />

44713 Bochum, Germany<br />

Phone +49 (0)234 4595-0<br />

Fax +49 (0)234 4595-7000<br />

info@klaus-union.com<br />

www.klaus-union.com<br />

New Flexicon PF7+ pump<br />

provides no-waste solution<br />

for critical aseptic filling<br />

Watson-Marlow Fluid <strong>Technology</strong> Group (WMFTG) launches the new<br />

Flexicon PF7+ intuitive peristaltic filling pump to provide a no-waste solution<br />

and 21 CFR compliance for critical aseptic final fill applications.<br />

The PF7+ builds on Flexicon’s extensive expertise in peristaltic filling<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong><br />


Pumps/Vacuum technology<br />

Companies – Innovations – Products<br />

of high value products. The PF7+ offers filling precision from as low<br />

as 0.2 ml and repeatable filling accuracies of better than ±0.5 %. It ensures<br />

high-value products such as ATMPs, vaccines, and cell and gene<br />

therapies are protected from contamination and damage to viability.<br />

Bioprocessing needs are becoming increasingly complex with the development<br />

of novel biological therapies, so adopting smarter technologies<br />

for final fill processes is vital. The PF7+ extends the established<br />

capabilities of the industry leading PF7, making it the ideal pump for<br />

every stage of biopharmaceutical therapy development, from research<br />

and development to clinical trials and small batch production.<br />

a guard switch that becomes active only when both parts are securely<br />

in place. The pumphead is factory calibrated and designed without<br />

the need for adjustments over the life of the pump. Confidence in the<br />

PF7+ pump’s operating capabilities is further assured with critical IQ/<br />

OQ documentation and a 5-year warranty.<br />

Reducing waste of high value products<br />

The new final fill pump offers zero waste start-up and 100 % in-process<br />

weight checking when connected to a third-party balance, meaning<br />

more liquid can be used for viable product and less valuable product<br />

is wasted. In order to ensure accuracy in fill volumes, the PF7+ is<br />

set up with dynamic recalibration to automatically adjust if a series of<br />

consecutive fills deviates too far from the fill target. The PF7+ can also<br />

check the weight of individual fills and uses colour fill tolerance to indicate<br />

if the fill is within the acceptance criteria for easy vial rejection.<br />

These additional features build on the existing capabilities of the PF7<br />

to allow for precision filling from as low as 0.2 ml and repeatable filling<br />

accuracies of better than ±0.5 %. With gentle pumping action that eliminates<br />

foaming, splashing or dripping, costly overfilling is prevented.<br />

Easy to use<br />

The pump’s simple set-up and reduced user interaction combined with<br />

easy to clean surfaces, an ergonomic design and clear and intuitive<br />

display facilitate its use, even when gowned up in cleanroom environments.<br />

The addition of a USB keyboard further improves user experience<br />

and reduces risk of error, with the capability to define recipe parameters<br />

to improve repeatability.<br />

These additional capabilities are based on Flexicon’s extensive industry<br />

experience and designed to reduce waste, minimise contamination<br />

risk and improve user experience. This provides an accurate and<br />

reliable final fill pump for sensitive fluids in GMP production, to optimise<br />

high value fill processes.<br />

Improved traceability for audit confidence<br />

With its higher levels of product and production repeatability, the PF7+<br />

offers electronic batch reporting via Ethernet or USB and live audit<br />

trails via Ethernet for improved process traceability. This remote connection<br />

also removes the need to enter the cleanroom, reducing risk<br />

of contamination. The PF7+’s compliance with 21 CFR part 11 provides<br />

the necessary assurance, essential for regulatory approvals.<br />

Confidence in cleanliness and safety<br />

Flexicon pumps use peristaltic technology to remove the risk of potential<br />

cross contamination. Only the inner bore of the pump’s tubing<br />

comes into contact with the fluid, and the low shear, gentle pumping<br />

action ensures the product is transferred efficiently without compromising<br />

viability or quality.<br />

The new PF7+ is available with the QC14 pumphead which features<br />

a hollow core rotor and removable tray to further improve cleanability.<br />

A recessed locking lever and secure tube design enables single handed<br />

tube loading operation while ensuring that tubing is loaded correctly.<br />

The removable tray includes a safety switch for added safety, as well as<br />

Watson-Marlow GmbH<br />

Kurt-Alder-Str. 1<br />

41569 Rommerskirchen, Germany<br />

Phone +49 (0)2183 42040<br />

Fax +49 (0)2183 82592<br />

info@wmftg.de<br />

www.wmftg.de<br />

68 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong>


Index of Advertisers<br />

Index of Advertisers<br />

Aerzener Maschinenfabrik GmbH page 7<br />


Bayern International page 87<br />

BOGE Kompressoren page 109<br />


K.H. Brinkmann GmbH & Co. KG page 51<br />

Busch Dienste GmbH page 11<br />

CERTUSS Dampfautomaten GmbH & Co. KG page 113<br />

C. Otto Gehrckens GmbH & Co. KG page 19<br />

Emile Egger & Cie SA page 47<br />

GEA page 79<br />

GRUNDFOS GMBH page 49<br />

Hammelmann GmbH page 13<br />

Industrial Valve Summit page 105<br />

J. A. Becker & Söhne GmbH & Co. KG page 97<br />


3. cover page<br />

Kaeser Kompressoren SE<br />

Insert<br />

KAMAT GmbH & Co. KG page 33<br />

KLAUS UNION GmbH & Co. KG<br />

4. cover page<br />

KLINGER GmbH page 27<br />

LEWA GmbH page 23<br />

Messe Düsseldorf GmbH page 45<br />

Messe München GmbH page 41<br />

NETZSCH Pumpen & Systeme GmbH page 9<br />

Pfeiffer Vacuum GmbH<br />

2. cover page<br />

Pneumofore S. p. A. page 25<br />

Pumpenfabrik Wangen GmbH<br />

Cover page<br />

Sauer Compressors page 91<br />

Schwer Fittings GmbH page 35<br />

SEEPEX GmbH page 17<br />

SEW-Eurodrive page 95<br />

URACA GmbH & Co. KG page 21<br />

Vogelsang GmbH & Co. KG page 37<br />

Watson-Marlow GmbH page 53<br />


WOMA GmbH page 39<br />

Zwick Armaturen GmbH page 71<br />

Your media contact<br />

D-A-CH<br />

Thomas Mlynarik<br />

Tel.: +49 (0) 911 2018 165<br />

Mobile: +49 (0) 151 5481 8181<br />

mlynarik@harnisch.com<br />



Gabriele Fahlbusch<br />

Tel.: +49 (0) 911 2018 275<br />

fahlbusch@harnisch.com<br />

Impressum<br />

Publisher<br />

Dr. Harnisch Verlags GmbH in cooperation<br />

with the Editorial Advisory Board under the<br />

management of Prof. Dr.-Ing. Eberhard Schlücker<br />

©<br />

<strong>2022</strong>, Dr. Harnisch Verlags GmbH<br />

Errors excepted<br />

Reprinting and photomechanical<br />

reproduction,even in extract form, is<br />

only possible with the written consent<br />

of the publisher<br />

Editor<br />

Silke Watkins<br />

Advertisements<br />

Silke Watkins<br />

Responsible for content<br />

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Eberhard Schlücker<br />

Silke Watkins<br />

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Editorial Advisory Board <strong>2022</strong><br />

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Eberhard Schlücker,<br />

IPAT Universität Erlangen<br />

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Andreas Brümmer,<br />

TU Dortmund<br />

Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Gerhart Hobusch,<br />


Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Johann Vetter,<br />

NETZSCH Pumpen & Systeme GmbH<br />

Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Sebastian Oberbeck,<br />

Pfeiffer Vacuum GmbH<br />

Suppliers source<br />

Ursula Hahn<br />

Technical Director<br />

Armin König<br />

Printed by<br />

Schleunungdruck GmbH<br />

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D-97821 Marktheidenfeld<br />

ISSN 2364-723X<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong><br />


Trade fairs and events<br />

IVS – Industrial Valve Summit<br />

Preview of the 4. edition of<br />

Industrial Valve Summit in Bergamo<br />

Only a short time left until IVS –<br />

Industrial Valve Summit, the international<br />

fair dedicated to industrial<br />

valves and flow control<br />

technologies. The fourth edition<br />

will take place on May 25-26, <strong>2022</strong><br />

in Bergamo, Italy. A long-awaited<br />

event after the one-year postponement<br />

due to the Covid-19 emergency,<br />

and for which the interest of<br />

international companies and exhibitors<br />

is constantly growing.<br />

As we approach the summit, the<br />

markets keep recording the rush of<br />

crude oil. Demand has started growing<br />

again and large producers have<br />

ushered in a new round of investments.<br />

A proven mechanism for the<br />

Oil & Gas sector, set for a future in<br />

which global demand is destined to<br />

increase. In this market phase, the<br />

increase in production and the injection<br />

of new capital do not grow proportionally<br />

to the demand. The timid<br />

relaunch on fossil projects is partly<br />

due to the development of alternative<br />

energy sources.<br />

The issue of sustainability plays a<br />

central role in the investment strategies<br />

of Oil & Gas companies. Not only<br />

in terms of the environment, but also<br />

in terms of social and management<br />

aspects. In fact, the growth of the<br />

supply chain of industrial valves will<br />

go through the enhancement of ESG<br />

criteria, which have become a compass<br />

with which the big players measure<br />

and direct investments in the sector.<br />

The sustainability report of the<br />

companies in the supply chain becomes<br />

a crucial element for a company<br />

to be included in the vendor lists<br />

of contractors.<br />

The energy transition has been<br />

receiving great attention by the industry:<br />

the opportunities for the entire<br />

supply chain are concrete. Starting<br />

with the challenges posed by<br />

hydrogen, which requires new infrastructures<br />

for the transport of the resource.<br />

The topic is one of the hottest<br />

within the sustainability scenario, for<br />

which IVS – Industrial Valve Summit<br />

will play a leading role. The fair combines<br />

an exhibition vocation with a<br />

scientific value, which is expressed<br />

through the series of conferences<br />

that will be held during the Summit.<br />

Not only does IVS enable the major<br />

players in the global supply chain to<br />

come together, providing an opportunity<br />

to network and do business,<br />

but it also represents a showcase in<br />

which to discuss the changes taking<br />

place within the sector and analyse<br />

market trends.<br />

The conferences will discuss the<br />

scenarios and new applications of the<br />

latest innovations. Starting from Carbon<br />

Capture and Storage (CSS) technologies.<br />

Just think of two very topical<br />

projects, such as the Northern Lights<br />

plant, which will be realized by Equinor<br />

in Norway, and the maxi-project<br />

led by Eni, which will create one of<br />

the largest CO 2<br />

storage centres in the<br />

world in the Adriatic Sea. These infrastructures<br />

are of strategic value for<br />

the industrial valve supply chain: for<br />

the Norwegian plant, for example, a<br />

consignment of tubular products totalling<br />

105 kilometres of pipe lines<br />

was commissioned.<br />

IVS – Industrial Valve Summit<br />

www.industrialvalvesummit.com<br />

70 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong>


H2-Ready!<br />




Trade fairs and events<br />

IFAT Munich<br />

IFAT Munich:<br />

water-wise urban development<br />

as a task for the future<br />

– Municipalities between heavy<br />

rain and drought<br />

– Intermunicipal cooperation and<br />

legal situation to be optimized<br />

– Key topic of IFAT Munich from<br />

May 30 to June 3, <strong>2022</strong><br />

It is likely that our cities will have<br />

to cope with alternating periods of<br />

heavy rainfall and drought in the future,<br />

requiring a paradigm shift in<br />

how rainwater is handled, outlined<br />

by the buzzword “sponge cities.”<br />

IFAT Munich will be the opportunity<br />

to discuss challenges and obstacles,<br />

as well as to present solutions and<br />

best-practice examples. The world's<br />

largest trade fair for environmental<br />

technologies will be held in Munich<br />

from May 30 to June 3, <strong>2022</strong>.<br />

Many municipalities around the<br />

globe have to deal with the challenges<br />

of temporarily too much or too little<br />

rainwater. As a result of climate<br />

change, cities and municipalities in<br />

Germany will most likely be affected<br />

even more frequently and severely by<br />

heavy rain, flooding, heat waves and<br />

drought in the future.<br />

One of the most effective approaches<br />

to adaptation is the concept of the<br />

“sponge city”, which is based on the<br />

idea of urban planning to absorb as<br />

much rainwater as possible in green<br />

areas, wetlands and multi-functional<br />

storage areas instead of directly discharging<br />

it into sewers. Ideally, this<br />

will not only mitigate the effects of<br />

storms, but also store precious rainwater<br />

for subsequent dry periods<br />

and can then be used to keep trees<br />

and green spaces alive. Together with<br />

green roofs and facades, this helps to<br />

cool down and improve the air quality<br />

in the city.<br />

European pioneers:<br />

Copenhagen and Vienna<br />

Along with Asian forerunners such<br />

as Singapore and various cities in<br />

southern China, several European<br />

cities now also have ambitious sponge<br />

city projects. Copenhagen and Vienna<br />

are considered pioneers here: since<br />

2014, the Danish capital has had a<br />

corresponding water management<br />

system in place, including a network<br />

of underground relief tunnels and the<br />

irrigation of urban greenery with water<br />

from centrally located wastewater<br />

treatment plants.<br />

In the Austrian capital, a new district<br />

called Seestadt is being built on<br />

the former Aspern airfield. Waterwise<br />

measures implemented here<br />

include generous, contiguously designed<br />

root spaces that store precipitation<br />

water and release it to urban<br />

trees over long periods of time. In addition,<br />

seepage, filter and settling basins<br />

were integrated into the tree pits<br />

and planted with road salt-resistant<br />

bushes, thus acting like decentralized<br />

miniature sewage treatment plants.<br />

Germany: lots of projects in different<br />

stages and dimensions<br />

In Germany, Hamburg is a prominent<br />

example: according to the water supply<br />

company Hamburg Wasser new<br />

development areas have been created<br />

in the Hanseatic city in recent<br />

years where rainwater is almost completely<br />

decoupled from the sewerage<br />

system. Also, many other cities<br />

— Münster, Berlin, Munich, Ludwigsburg,<br />

Leipzig — have already implemented<br />

sponge city projects of varying<br />

scope. And many more are being<br />

planned and implemented — often<br />

with scientific support — and are carried<br />

out in intermunicipal networks:<br />

in the future initiative Klima.Werk, 16<br />

cities along the Emscher, a tributary<br />

of the Rhine, are working together<br />

with the Emschergenossenschaft water<br />

management association on the<br />

blue/green transformation.<br />

Essential: intermunicipal<br />

cooperation<br />

Water-wise cities—a central topic at IFAT Munich <strong>2022</strong> (Photo © : Messe München GmbH)<br />

For this change to succeed in as many<br />

other cities and municipalities as possible<br />

in the future, it is important that<br />

the various departments of the re-<br />

72 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong>

Trade fairs and events<br />

IFAT Munich<br />

spective municipality cooperate very<br />

closely—above all spatial and traffic<br />

planning and the green spaces department,<br />

in addition to urban drainage.<br />

“Ideally, this cooperation begins<br />

in phase zero, i. e. before the project<br />

actually starts,” emphasizes Johannes<br />

Lohaus, Executive Board Spokesman<br />

for the German Association for Water,<br />

Wastewater and Waste (DWA).<br />

Potential investors should also be<br />

brought on board at this stage, in his<br />

opinion.<br />

Legal framework still subject to<br />

improvement<br />

Legally, such projects are already<br />

possible today based on current law.<br />

The wastewater legislation of the Federal<br />

Water Act, the state water laws,<br />

and the Federal Building Code give<br />

priority to decentralized precipitation<br />

water management. “However,<br />

the legal framework needs to be further<br />

optimized in terms of a waterwise<br />

city of the future,” Lohaus says.<br />

This includes a clear legal mandate<br />

for the development of decentralized<br />

precipitation management in the Federal<br />

Water Act. In addition, the federal<br />

states should create possibilities<br />

for (co-)financing heavy rainfall risk<br />

Photo © : Alex Schelbert /Messe München GmbH)<br />

mana gement. According to the DWA ronment, the DWA and the German<br />

expert, the state laws currently do not Federal Environment Foundation<br />

sufficiently provide for this possibility. (DBU), will organize matching events<br />

in the fair’s conference program. Furthermore,<br />

Water-wise cities — a central topic<br />

at IFAT Munich <strong>2022</strong><br />

the German Association of<br />

Local Utilities (VKU) plans trade fair<br />

tours to present specific solutions for<br />

The water management adaptation<br />

of cities and municipalities to climate<br />

change is one of the core topics of<br />

the world's leading trade fair for water,<br />

heavy rain and flood prevention. IFAT<br />

Munich will take place from May 30<br />

to June 3, <strong>2022</strong> at Munich’s trade fair<br />

centre.<br />

sewage, waste and raw materi-<br />

als management: IFAT Munich <strong>2022</strong>.<br />

Partner institutions of the show, such<br />

as the Bavarian Ministry of the Envi-<br />

IFAT Munich<br />

www.ifat.de<br />

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www.harnisch.com/food/en/newsletter-sign-up<br />

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Trade fairs and events<br />

Pumps & Valves Dortmund<br />

Pumps & Valves in parallel with<br />

Solids & Recycling-Technik in June <strong>2022</strong> in Dortmund<br />

Trade Show-Trio pioneering the trend<br />

of the times<br />

On June 22 and 23, <strong>2022</strong>, representatives<br />

of industrial valves, pumps,<br />

solids and recycling technology will<br />

once again meet live on site in Dortmund.<br />

With key topics such as process<br />

automation and sustainability<br />

in production, the trade show trio<br />

Pumps & Valves, Solids and Recycling-Technik<br />

will once again show<br />

itself to be groundbreaking for the<br />

industries. 450 exhibitors have already<br />

booked their stand for the<br />

summer.<br />

After a break due to Corona, the<br />

Pumps & Valves, Solids and Recycling-Technik<br />

trade show will finally be<br />

inviting visitors to Dortmund again<br />

on June 22 and 23 for a personal exchange<br />

of ideas. 450 exhibitors have<br />

already booked their stand for the<br />

summer date and promise impulses<br />

on numerous topics that currently<br />

move the industries. “With this year's<br />

focal points such as process automation<br />

and sustainable production, we<br />

are hitting the nerve of the times,”<br />

knows Sandrina Schempp, Head of<br />

<strong>Process</strong>ing Cluster at trade show organizer<br />

Easyfairs Deutschland GmbH.<br />

Thus, trade visitors will not only find<br />

information on these two top topics,<br />

but also suggestions and solutions<br />

for fire and explosion protection, digital<br />

process optimization and many<br />

other current issues in the sectors.<br />

Solutions for increasing demands<br />

on the industries<br />

Every day, the changing times are reflected<br />

in the media. Companies are<br />

suffering from a shortage of skilled<br />

workers, raw materials are becoming<br />

scarce and expensive, supply<br />

chains are increasingly uncertain, and<br />

the need for sustainable solutions<br />

for industry and production is growing.<br />

Where individual processes have<br />

been automated up to now, complete<br />

process chains are to be networked<br />

and agilely adapted to changing requirements<br />

in the future. Decisionmakers<br />

are looking for ways and<br />

means to further optimize processes<br />

and to make their production not only<br />

sustainable, but also climate-neutral<br />

for future generations.<br />

Three trade shows, comprehensive<br />

and cross-thematic<br />

Photos © : Easyfairs Deutschland GmbH<br />

The industry get-together, which has<br />

been firmly scheduled for June, therefore<br />

combines for the first time all<br />

relevant industry sectors relating to<br />

the handling, processing and recycling<br />

of industrial bulk solids, liquids<br />

and gases. With the new trio of trade<br />

shows, organizer Easyfairs is responding<br />

to the current needs of the industries<br />

and offering visitors and exhibitors<br />

alike the opportunity to exchange<br />

ideas on a cross-thematic basis. This is<br />

also confirmed by Peter Eckhoff, Head<br />

of Marketing at EBRO ARMATUREN<br />

74 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong>

Trade fairs and events<br />

Pumps & Valves Dortmund<br />

Lecture Program<br />

Gebr. Bröer GmbH: “We have already<br />

been exhibitors at Solids Dortmund<br />

since 2014 and are still extremely<br />

satis fied with the quality of the trade<br />

visitors and the results in the followup.<br />

We very much welcome the firsttime<br />

combination of the two trade<br />

shows Soldis and Pumps & Valves. It<br />

allows us to reach an even broader<br />

spectrum of potential customers at<br />

one location. This synergy is an enormous<br />

added value for us. We are already<br />

very much looking forward to<br />

the fact that the industry will finally be<br />

able to meet in person again on June<br />

22 and 23 in Dortmund!”<br />

Strong partners and exhibitors from<br />

various branches of industry will enrich<br />

the information on offer. For example<br />

visitors will find answers to<br />

the questions about “digitalization”<br />

from the experts of Mittelstand-<br />

Digital Zentrum Ruhr-OWL or about<br />

“Condition Monitoring” by Pumpe DE.<br />

Furthermore, at the joint stand of the<br />

WFZruhr e.V., participants will receive<br />

valuable suggestions for the path to<br />

consistens recycling management.<br />

Therefore, anyone looking for solutions<br />

for current and future tasks can<br />

already make a note of the June date<br />

of Pumps & Valves, Solids and Recycling-Technik<br />

in their calendar.<br />

Get your free ticket with code 2530:<br />

https://www.pumpsvalvesdortmund.de/ihr-messeticket/<br />

Come and see for yourself:<br />

www.harnisch.com<br />

Perfectly positioned.<br />

The international specialist magazines from Dr. Harnisch Publications<br />

You can now explore our newly designed website, with a<br />

clear focus on responsive design and easily usable applications.<br />

Alongside the free-to-use digital magazine editions, you will<br />

fi nd bonus news coverage, events, subscription and<br />

general information on all our magazines. Take a look at<br />

www.harnisch.com for all relevant content.<br />

Our publications include:<br />

- <strong>Technology</strong> & Marketing -

Trade fairs and events<br />

ACHEMA<br />

ACHEMA <strong>2022</strong>:<br />

The global meeting place for the process<br />

industries on site in Frankfurt again<br />

After ACHEMA Pulse 2021 – the pioneering<br />

digital event for the process<br />

industries – ACHEMA <strong>2022</strong> is back<br />

in Frankfurt: once again from 22 to<br />

26 August <strong>2022</strong>, the Frankfurt Fairground<br />

will be the meeting place<br />

for the global process industries. In<br />

times of the pandemic, a comprehensive<br />

hygiene concept ensures<br />

that networking is possible in a safe<br />

environment on site.<br />

In <strong>2022</strong>, Trendsetting technology and<br />

global networking will continue to<br />

characterise the world's leading trade<br />

fair. Manufacturers and service providers<br />

from almost 50 nations will<br />

present their products and services<br />

for the chemical, pharmaceutical,<br />

biotechnology, energy and environmental<br />

sectors. Company founders<br />

and young entrepreneurs will meet<br />

in the Start-up Area. “After a two-year<br />

dry spell, the need for in-depth professional<br />

and personal exchange is<br />

palpable”, says Dr Thomas Scheuring,<br />

CEO of DECHEMA Ausstellungs-GmbH.<br />

With the focal topics “The Digital<br />

Lab”, “Product and <strong>Process</strong> Security”<br />

and “Modular and Connected Production”,<br />

ACHEMA <strong>2022</strong> will address<br />

the issues that are preying on the<br />

mind of the process industries.<br />

The Digital Lab<br />

Laboratories in industry and research<br />

are increasingly fitted with Internet<br />

of Things (IoT)-equipment. Robots<br />

that relieve staff from mundane and<br />

repetitive tasks such as serial pipetting<br />

are already state-of-the-art. Yet,<br />

smart digital workflows in a fully connected<br />

lab are still a long way off<br />

most of the time. Achieving this goal<br />

requires a powerful IT environment<br />

and a fully integrated equipment at<br />

least and could go as far as changing<br />

the layout of the lab space. Research<br />

labs and quality assurance labs may<br />

Fig. 1: Laboratory Systems – Workbenches (Photo © : DECHEMA e.V./Jean-Luc Valentin)<br />

follow different approaches. Thus a<br />

modular setup is as desirable for the<br />

lab as it is for production plants. Also,<br />

both lab types are generating a huge<br />

amount of data whose analysis calls<br />

for a big data approach.<br />

Product and <strong>Process</strong> Security<br />

IoT-devices are increasingly becoming<br />

part of operation and production<br />

processes. With every valve that<br />

has an IT interface and with every “intelligent”<br />

pump sending data to the<br />

cloud, IT- and cybersecurity is rising<br />

to the top of the list of things to<br />

be concerned about. While occupational<br />

safety systems are well established<br />

and the number of accidents in<br />

which a person is injured is decreasing<br />

steadily, cyberattacks are becoming<br />

all the more prevalent. Industry<br />

4.0 and IoT call for an intensified effort<br />

to make interfaces between the<br />

physical and the virtual world secure.<br />

Identifying, assessing and addressing<br />

the vulnerabilities of your business<br />

is the first step towards secure<br />

products and processes. In addition,<br />

the entire value chain needs to be<br />

Fig. 2: Complete combination of Changeover<br />

valve with two safety valves<br />

(Photo © : DECHEMA e.V./Helmut Stettin)<br />

covered, starting from the procurement<br />

of raw materials and reaching<br />

as far as the recycling of products at<br />

the end of their life.<br />

Modular and Connected Production<br />

Manufacturing processes in the<br />

chemical and pharmaceutical industry<br />

need to be flexible, fast and<br />

76 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong>

Trade fairs and events<br />

ACHEMA<br />

cost-efficient. This is best achieved<br />

with modular process skids, which<br />

can be pre-fabricated and tested in<br />

the workshop and then assembled<br />

on site. Skids are available with their<br />

own programmable logic controller<br />

or can be integrated into an overarching<br />

process control system. The<br />

automation industry is working on<br />

an open standard interface – such a<br />

module type package (MTP) will allow<br />

for true interoperability. Modular<br />

plants are the key to meeting the<br />

customers’ needs for small batches<br />

of varying products. They allow for an<br />

effortless adjustment of the plant design<br />

to ever-changing requirements<br />

and are also the way to change from<br />

batch to continuous production.<br />

In addition, the mega topics of<br />

digitalisation and climate neutrality<br />

are moving even more into the focus<br />

of ACHEMA with the “Digital Hub” and<br />

the “Green Innovation Zone”.<br />

Closer integration between exhibition<br />

and congress programme<br />

For the first time, ACHEMA <strong>2022</strong> will<br />

also fully integrate the congress into<br />

the exhibition programme: All lecture<br />

sessions will take place either on<br />

stages directly in the exhibition halls<br />

or in the immediate vicinity of the exhibition<br />

groups. Furthermore, there<br />

willl be five Theme Days at the congress<br />

instead of three as in previous<br />

years. This ensures that none of the<br />

topics that are of concern to the process<br />

industries will be left out.<br />

“True to the ACHEMA motto 'Inspiring<br />

Sustainable Connections', we are<br />

bringing together what belongs together,”<br />

says Dr Andreas Förster,<br />

Managing Director of DECHEMA and<br />

thus organiser of ACHEMA, “Application<br />

and research will go even more<br />

hand in hand at ACHEMA <strong>2022</strong> thanks<br />

to the closer thematic and spatial integration<br />

of the exhibition and congress<br />

programme.”<br />

Five instead of three Theme Days<br />

The “Hydrogen Economy” will kickoff<br />

on Monday (22 August <strong>2022</strong>): Hydrogen<br />

will play a pivotal role in the<br />

transformation of the process industries,<br />

transportation sector and the<br />

energy system towards greenhouse<br />

gas neutrality. The focus of the first<br />

Theme Day will therefore be how further<br />

potential can be leveraged in the<br />

future.<br />

Fossil-free production is an important<br />

and ambitious goal for reducing<br />

the process industries‘ greenhouse<br />

gas emissions. While the idea<br />

of fossil-free production is simple,<br />

there are many unanswered questions.<br />

These will be addressed by the<br />

“Fossil Free Production” Theme Day<br />

on Tuesday (23 August <strong>2022</strong>).<br />

The focal topic of ACHEMA “The<br />

Digital Lab” will touched upon on the<br />

Theme Day on Wednesday (24 August<br />

<strong>2022</strong>) with “Perspectives in Laboratory<br />

& Analytics”: The highlight session<br />

and the congress complement<br />

the visit to ACHEMA on this topic.<br />

The perennial topic of “Digitalisation<br />

in <strong>Process</strong> Industry” will be featured<br />

in the new exhibition group “Digital<br />

Hub” (Hall 12.1), as well as a focal<br />

point on the agenda of the congress<br />

programme on Thursday (25 August<br />

<strong>2022</strong>).<br />

The last day of the congress on<br />

Friday (26 August <strong>2022</strong>) will focus on<br />

“Novel Bioprocesses and Technologies”:<br />

New biopharmaceuticals, biobased<br />

fine chemicals or biotechnological<br />

recycling – they all demand<br />

novel (production) processes.<br />

ACHEMA <strong>2022</strong> will also be the global<br />

showcase for these developments.<br />

ACHEMA Congress <strong>2022</strong> with more<br />

than 115 sessions<br />

At the ACHEMA Congress, researchers,<br />

developers and users meet to<br />

discuss the latest technical developments<br />

and solutions for the current<br />

challenges of the process industries.<br />

All in all, the ACHEMA <strong>2022</strong> Congress<br />

will feature more than 115 sessions.<br />

While the congress sessions focus on<br />

application-oriented research and<br />

development from proof-of-concept<br />

to the threshold of market entry, the<br />

PRAXISforums focus on current issues<br />

from production, best practices<br />

and ready-to-use technologies in<br />

short presentations – always with the<br />

application in mind. Together with<br />

the exhibition and the closer integration<br />

of the congress in <strong>2022</strong>, ACHEMA<br />

offers the full 360-degree perspective<br />

on all trends and technologies in the<br />

process industries.<br />

ACHEMA<br />

www.achema.de<br />

Fig. 3: Panel Discussion: Plastic-Free Europe (Photo © : DECHEMA e.V./Jean-Luc Valentin)<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong><br />


Trade fairs and events<br />


VALVE WORLD EXPO <strong>2022</strong> in Düsseldorf<br />

Industrial valves sector looks forward to its leading trade fair<br />

in Düsseldorf in November <strong>2022</strong><br />

A mood of optimism within the industry:<br />

after a four-year break, companies<br />

in the industrial valves sector<br />

are once again longing for real<br />

encounters, a lively exchange of information<br />

and technological innovations<br />

to touch at the exhibition<br />

stands.<br />

Industrial valves and fittings play an<br />

indispensable role in almost all industries,<br />

regulating flow rates, separating<br />

different media and thus<br />

preventing liquid and gas spills. The<br />

exhibitors at VALVE WORLD EXPO<br />

live from 29 November to 1 December<br />

<strong>2022</strong> in Halls 1 and 3 of Düsseldorf<br />

Fairgrounds will show just how<br />

innovative the industry is.<br />

The response from the industry<br />

is correspondingly great. Key<br />

players such as MRC Global, KITZ,<br />

Emerson, Samson, AUMA, Omal/<br />

Actuatech, Zwick Armaturen, Pekos<br />

Valves, Böhmer, Ari Armaturen,<br />

Effebi, Hoerbiger, Galperti, Neles/<br />

metso, Neway and Crane are firmly<br />

behind the leading trade fair. Medium-sized<br />

companies are also<br />

clearly showing their colours in<br />

Düsseldorf. An overview of the registration<br />

status to date can be found at<br />

www.valveworldexpo.com. Interested<br />

companies can still register to take<br />

part in the fair.<br />

The accompanying Valve World Conference<br />

in Hall 1 and the Valve World<br />

Expo Forum in Hall 3 will ensure a<br />

balanced transfer of know-how between<br />

theory and practice. The Valve<br />

World Conference will celebrate its<br />

premiere in the new Exhibition Hall<br />

1, which is one of the world's trendsetters<br />

in the field of congresses and<br />

events in terms of architecture and<br />

technology. The organisation of the<br />

conference is again in the professional<br />

hands of KCI. In addition, there will<br />

be the Valve World Expo Forum with<br />

a free lecture programme on the first<br />

day of the fair. Here, Vulkan-Verlag is<br />

organising a one-day, German-language<br />

programme.<br />

The ecoMetals campaign for VALVE<br />

WORLD EXPO <strong>2022</strong> shows that topics<br />

such as sustainability, energy efficiency<br />

and resource conservation play a<br />

central role, especially in energy-intensive<br />

industries.<br />

Guided tours (ecoMetals-trails) to the<br />

stands of exhibitors who consciously<br />

produce sustainably are part of the<br />

daily trade fair programme. The starting<br />

point is a marked meeting point<br />

in the new South Entrance Area. Interested<br />

exhibitors can still register<br />

directly at the project department at<br />

exhibitor@valveworldexpo.de.<br />

Photos © : Messe Düsseldorf, Constanze Tillmann<br />


www.valveworldexpo.com<br />

78 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong>


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with the latest safety requirements and product trends. This is<br />

a time to be out ahead and in control.<br />

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world’s toughest product safety standards and open the door<br />

to cutting-edge efficiency, intelligence and sustainability in<br />

your liquid processing.<br />

GEA valve technology gives you next-level safety – and the<br />

peace of mind to focus on a whole new world of opportunities.<br />


Compressors and Systems<br />

From the research<br />

Energetic profile optimisation<br />

of twin-screw compressors<br />

Matthias Heselmann (MSc), Prof. Dr.-Ing. Andreas Brümmer<br />

Abstract<br />

In this article, the energy conversion<br />

of twin-screw compressors is considered<br />

and analysed to what extent this<br />

can be improved by choosing a suitable<br />

profile for the rotors. In general,<br />

the energy conversion in screw compressors<br />

is significantly influenced<br />

by gap flows between the working<br />

chambers. While the front and housing<br />

gaps are essentially influenced<br />

by the size, i. e. shaft diameter and<br />

length as well as the rotor twist, the<br />

choice of profile has a decisive effect<br />

on the blowhole and the inter-lobe<br />

clearance. The normal rack generation<br />

method according to Wu, which<br />

provides 12 free parameters, is used<br />

to generate the rotor profile. The indicated<br />

power related to the intake<br />

volume flow, also known as the specific<br />

indicated power, is chosen as a<br />

measure for the energy conversion.<br />

The key profile parameters are identified<br />

using a statistical test plan. The<br />

results indicate that only 4 parameters<br />

influence the energy conversion.<br />

Through their targeted setting, an optimal<br />

compromise between blowhole<br />

area and inter-lobe clearance width is<br />

achieved, which can reduce the specific<br />

indicated power by around 3 %.<br />

Due to their periodic working cycle,<br />

screw compressors can be classified<br />

in the group of positive displacement<br />

machines. The working chambers are<br />

formed by two rotors twisted in opposite<br />

directions, which are mounted<br />

in a housing that encloses them tightly.<br />

Due to significant improvements in<br />

the manufacture of the complicated<br />

rotor geometries, the compact design<br />

and the low-maintenance operation,<br />

this type of machine is now the most<br />

commonly used type of compressor<br />

in compressed air and re frigeration<br />

technology. In general, screw machines<br />

can be divided into dry-running<br />

and wet-running machines.<br />

The reason for the subdivision results<br />

from the torque to be transmitted<br />

from the female to the male rotor<br />

[Utr19]. In the case of wet-running<br />

machines, an auxiliary fluid (usually<br />

oil) is injected into the working chamber,<br />

which lubricates the rotors and<br />

thus reduces wear in direct contact<br />

between the rotors. In addition to lubricating<br />

the rotors, the auxiliary fluid<br />

partially seals the working chambers,<br />

reduces noise emissions and dissipates<br />

a significant part of the compression<br />

heat. As a result, wet-running<br />

screw machines can achieve a<br />

compression ratio of up to 20. Usually<br />

the oil has to be separated from the<br />

gas again downstream of the compressor,<br />

which is associated with increased<br />

effort. This is not necessary<br />

for dry-running screw machines. Instead,<br />

a synchronisation gear is required<br />

to transmit the torque between<br />

the rotors in order to avoid<br />

contact between them. Since the advantages<br />

of an auxiliary fluid do not<br />

apply, the achievable compression<br />

ratio is around 5. Due to the lack of<br />

hydraulic losses, dry-running screw<br />

compressors can be operated with<br />

a rotor-tip speed of approx. 100 m/s,<br />

which is twice as high as with the wetrunning<br />

type [Rin79].<br />

Working cycle of<br />

screw compressors<br />

As with all positive displacement<br />

machines, the periodically occurring<br />

working cycle can be classified<br />

into characteristic phases. The<br />

gas exchange work steps, consisting<br />

of suction and discharge, as well<br />

as the work phase are run through.<br />

With a screw compressor, this consists<br />

only of compression, since the<br />

screw machine works without deadspace.<br />

In order to evaluate the quality<br />

of the compressor, a pV diagram is<br />

often used, which can be represented<br />

ideally by isobaric gas exchange<br />

and isentropic compression (Fig. 1).<br />

The red arrows symbolise the direction<br />

of rotation and the red marked<br />

rotor surfaces symbolise the working<br />

chambers to which the mentioned<br />

phase refers.<br />

As already mentioned, the screw<br />

machine works without deadspace.<br />

This means that a working cycle begins<br />

when a working chamber is created<br />

and steadily increases in size<br />

from there. Axial and radial openings<br />

in the housing provide a con-<br />

Introduction<br />

Fig. 1: Idealised pV diagram of a screw compressor<br />

80 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong>

Compressors and Systems<br />

From the research<br />

nection to the low-pressure port (LP<br />

port) of the system. This connection<br />

usually exists until the working<br />

chamber reaches its maximum volume.<br />

The connection to the LP port<br />

is separated by driving over the LPside<br />

control edges. Now the working<br />

phase follows. During compression,<br />

the working chamber is encapsulated<br />

in that it is only connected to<br />

other working chambers via operational<br />

gap connections, but also temporarily<br />

to the LP and high-pressure<br />

side (HP side). The further rotation<br />

of the rotors causes the chamber to<br />

become continuously smaller, thereby<br />

increasing the energy content of<br />

the working medium in the form of<br />

pressure and temperature. The duration<br />

of the compression depends<br />

on the position of the HP-side control<br />

edges, which when passed over, create<br />

a connection to the HP port. The<br />

position of the HP-side control edges<br />

defines a chamber volume V compr,end<br />

at which compression ideally ends.<br />

Thus, if the maximum chamber volume<br />

V max<br />

is put into the ratio:<br />

(1)<br />

then the internal volume ratio v i<br />

is obtained,<br />

which is independent of the<br />

pressures in the suction and pressure<br />

ports and thus has a significant<br />

influence on the partial and overload<br />

behaviour of the system. If geometric<br />

variations are carried out, care<br />

should be taken to ensure that the internal<br />

volume ratio matches the rotor<br />

geometry used (profile, twisting, etc.),<br />

otherwise misinterpretations can<br />

quickly occur [Utr21]. The last step<br />

in the working cycle is the process of<br />

discharge, in which the working fluid<br />

is pushed into the HP port by further<br />

reducing the chamber volume.<br />

This process ends when the ejecting<br />

chamber disappears. The required<br />

indicated power P i<br />

of the compressor<br />

then results from the area formed<br />

in the pV diagram together with the<br />

number of working cycles (speed n ×<br />

number of lobes of the male rotor z):<br />

(2)<br />

If the required internal capacity is related<br />

to the suction conditions converted<br />

volume flow rate the volume<br />

flow rate related to suction<br />

conditions indicated power, E i<br />

of the<br />

compressor results:<br />

(3)<br />

This is the amount of energy that the<br />

compressor needs to bring a suctioned<br />

volume of fluid to the desired<br />

pressure level. This variable is very<br />

suitable for comparing the quality of<br />

compressors and should be as small<br />

as possible.<br />

Rotor profile<br />

The first patent for a screw machine<br />

dates back to 1878 [Kri78]. However,<br />

the symmetrical rotors developed by<br />

Krigar could not run due to the kinematic<br />

conditions of the gearing law.<br />

It was not until 1934 that the development<br />

of the screw machine was resumed<br />

by the chief engineer at Svenska<br />

Rotor Maskiner (SRM) Lysholm.<br />

The asymmetric profile he developed<br />

represents a further development of<br />

the pair of helical rotors patented by<br />

Krigar. These rotors were only able<br />

to run when using a synchronisation<br />

gear. In 1952, the upswing of the<br />

screw machine began with the screw<br />

profile patented by HR Nielsson (also<br />

SRM), which was no longer designed<br />

to be completely airtight at the contact<br />

lines (there is a gap there). This<br />

profile represented the starting point<br />

for many of today’s screw machine<br />

profiles [Rin87]. An overview of frequently<br />

used screw profiles is given<br />

in [Sto05].<br />

One possibility to generate rotor<br />

profiles of screw machines is the rack<br />

method. Fig. 2 shows an example of<br />

the rotors and the parameterised<br />

rack profile in the so-called normal<br />

plane (N-N). It is perpendicular to the<br />

profile pitch plane or the tooth flank.<br />

The front section plane is denoted<br />

by T-T. The angle β between the two<br />

planes is called the helix angle and is<br />

used to project the generated profile<br />

from the N-N plane to the T-T plane.<br />

The profile used here according to<br />

Wu [Wu08] consists of 9 segments<br />

that are continuously connected to<br />

each other at C 1 . Including the helix<br />

angle, there are 12 parameters with<br />

which this screw profile can be designed.<br />

Fig. 2: Representation of the parameters for<br />

designing a rotor profile using the normal<br />

rack generation method [Wu08]<br />

Gap situation<br />

During the operation of a screw machine,<br />

relative movements occur both<br />

between the rotors and between the<br />

rotor and the housing. For this reason,<br />

gaps are necessary between the<br />

components. When dimensioning<br />

these gaps, thermal expansion, mechanical<br />

deformation, bearing clearances<br />

and manufacturing tolerances<br />

of all components involved must be<br />

taken into account [Fos03]. On the<br />

other hand, gap connections cause<br />

undesired mass flow rates between<br />

the working chambers and partly<br />

from the HP side to the LP side. Depending<br />

on the boundary conditions<br />

at the gap, such as pressure ratio,<br />

rela tive movements and geometry,<br />

the influence of the gap varies greatly.<br />

Therefore, the investigation of gap<br />

flows for the simulation of screw machines<br />

is indispensable and is carried<br />

out in [Utr18a, Utr18b, Sac02, Pev07,<br />

Utr21], among others. There are four<br />

types of gaps found in a screw machine<br />

(Fig. 3.). The front and housing<br />

gaps are formed between the rotors<br />

and the housing and connect two adjacent<br />

working chambers. Their dimensions<br />

are essentially determined<br />

by the size and the wrap angle. The<br />

blowhole and the inter-lobe clearance,<br />

on the other hand, are strongly<br />

dependent on the selected profile<br />

shape. The calculation of the blowhole<br />

area is dealt with in [Nad17,<br />

Rin79, Sin88]. For rotor pairs that<br />

have a gap, the inter-lobe clearance<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong><br />


Compressors and Systems<br />

From the research<br />

runs along the line of the smallest distance<br />

between the rotors. A sugges-<br />

connections that occur are plotted<br />

gap connections and gas exchange<br />

tion for the calculation can be found against the angle of rotation. Since<br />

in [Nad17].<br />

the geometric change over the ro-<br />

Fig. 3: Representation of the gap types in a screw machine (greatly enlarged)<br />

Simulation and modelling<br />

Dry-running screw machines are<br />

usually simulated using numerical<br />

flow simulations (computational fluid<br />

dynamics – CFD) [Ran15, Joh05] or<br />

chamber models [Kau02]. Since CFD<br />

simulations are very computationally<br />

intensive, simulation using a multichamber<br />

model is often used when<br />

designing a screw machine. Multichamber<br />

simulation means that the<br />

interactions between the individual<br />

chambers are included in the calculation.<br />

This is ensured by an analysis<br />

of all geometry-describing parameters<br />

of the rotors [Tem07]. The calculation<br />

based on a chamber model is<br />

based on the assumption of a homogeneous<br />

state in the working chambers.<br />

The calculation is based on the<br />

conservation of mass and energy<br />

according to the first law of thermodynamics.<br />

(4)<br />

(5)<br />

tational speed is directly associated<br />

with the change over time, the only<br />

thing missing for the iterative solution<br />

of the equations is the determination<br />

of the mass flow rates that<br />

occur through the gap connections<br />

and gas exchange connections. In<br />

order to determine this within the<br />

chamber model simulation, an isentropic<br />

nozzle flow is usually used,<br />

which is then multiplied by a flow coefficient<br />

α to take the influence of friction<br />

into account:<br />

(6)<br />

In order to improve the mapping<br />

quality of the simulation, dimension-<br />

less numbers were determined in<br />

[Utr21] in order to adapt the flow coefficient<br />

to the actual boundary conditions<br />

(e. g. existing Reynolds number).<br />

This is not used in this work<br />

and instead a general flow coefficient<br />

of 0.8 is used [Sac02, Pev07].<br />

The required chamber models are<br />

created automatically, based on a<br />

front section analysis. The prerequisite<br />

is the provision of the inter-lobe<br />

clearance or line of contact. Since<br />

the profile family under consideration<br />

is an analytical description, it is<br />

automatically available following a<br />

concrete profile generation. An exception<br />

to the fully automatic creation<br />

of the chamber models has so<br />

far been the blowhole. The methodology<br />

proposed by Rinder [Rin79] is<br />

used to determine this.<br />

Boundary conditions<br />

The investigation of the profile family<br />

according to Wu with regard to the<br />

energy conversion quality assumes<br />

that all simulated screw compressors<br />

are comparable with each other. This<br />

affects both the physical and geometric<br />

boundary conditions as well as the<br />

internal volume ratio, which depends<br />

on the operating point and the rotor<br />

geometry. This is then optimised<br />

for each rotor geometry examined to<br />

ensure that the interaction of rotors<br />

and housing has no influence on the<br />

result achieved. Table 1 summarises<br />

the examined physical and geometric<br />

boundary conditions.<br />

Table 1: Geometric and physical boundary conditions<br />

Geometric boundary conditions Male rotor Female rotor<br />

Rotor diameter [mm] 72 70.56<br />

Lobe number [-] 4 6<br />

Rotor length [mm] 115<br />

Wrap angle [°] 275 -183<br />

Revolutions per minute [1/min] 25000<br />

Gap dimensions [μm] 81<br />

Internal volume ratio [-]<br />

respectively optimised<br />

To calculate the individual portions of<br />

the change over time in the internal<br />

energy dU/dt, technical work dW/dt,<br />

heat dQ/dt and the exchange of enthalpy<br />

flow rates the geometry<br />

of the working chambers and the<br />

Physical boundary conditions Value<br />

Low pressure [Pa] 101300<br />

Intake temperature [K] 293<br />

Compression ratio [-] 3.5; 5; 6.5<br />

Flow coefficient [-]<br />

0.8 (all gaps)<br />

82 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong>

Compressors and Systems<br />

From the research<br />

Statistical profile investigation<br />

With the 12 parameters to choose<br />

from, the rotor profile family has too<br />

many parameters, some of which<br />

have very little influence on the energy<br />

conversion quality, for direct optimisation<br />

of the parameters to make<br />

sense. Furthermore, the choice of an<br />

optimisation algorithm is problematic<br />

since it is not clear whether and<br />

to what extent the parameters interact<br />

with regard to the energy conversion<br />

quality. For this reason, a statistical<br />

evaluation (design of experiments<br />

– DOE) is used and the MINITAB software<br />

is used for this purpose.<br />

respective influencing variable. Often,<br />

α = 95 % is chosen as the expected<br />

range or confidence interval. The<br />

decision as to whether a parameter<br />

has a relevant influence on the target<br />

value can be recognised using the<br />

significance value. If the significance<br />

value is less than 1 – α, the parameter<br />

under consideration has a significant<br />

effect on the target variable. Another<br />

advantage of the DOE is that<br />

in addition to the linear influence of<br />

the parameters, quadratic influences<br />

and interactions are also taken into<br />

account [Mat05]. The results of the<br />

screening carried out indicate that<br />

parameters 1, 3, 7 and 11 as well as<br />

Table 2: Parameters and levels of statistical design of experiments, as well as direction of<br />

optimisation with regard to specific indicated power<br />

Number Parameter Low<br />

Level<br />

Reference<br />

profile<br />

High<br />

Level<br />

1 ρ 1<br />

1.6 2.4 2.4 ↓<br />

2 ρ 2<br />

1.4 1.9 2.4 ↔<br />

3 u n<br />

0.24435 0.24435 0.34907 ↓<br />

4 t 1 1 1,4 ↔<br />

5 s 0.6 0.6 1.2 ↔<br />

6 κ 1 1 4 ↔<br />

7 τ 1 4 4 ↑<br />

8 d 0.1 0.1 1.1 ↔<br />

9 γ 0.01745 0.05236 0.05236 ↔<br />

10 e a<br />

20 25 25 ↔ (↑)<br />

11 ν 0 0.34 0.34 ↑<br />

12 β 0 45.5 45.5 (↓)<br />

Optimisation<br />

direction<br />

the interaction between parameters<br />

11 and 12 have a significant influence<br />

on the energy conversion quality. As<br />

the compression ratio increases, parameter<br />

10 also gains in importance.<br />

Improvement of the screw<br />

compressor by the rotor profile<br />

In the following, the knowledge<br />

gained from the screening will be<br />

used to design a profile that has<br />

the lowest possible specific indicated<br />

power. For this purpose, the<br />

best profile configuration from the<br />

screening is used as a reference profile.<br />

The front section of this profile<br />

is illustrated in Fig. 4 . The figure also<br />

shows the blowhole area and the inter-lobe<br />

clearance. Changes in the<br />

profile parameters primarily affect<br />

these two types of gaps and therefore<br />

influence the energy conversion.<br />

The front gap, the width of which is<br />

limited by the crown circle and root<br />

circle, is constant due to the size.<br />

Since rotor length and wrap are also<br />

constant, the geometry of the housing<br />

gap is also constant. Although the<br />

maximum chamber volume also varies<br />

with the profile parameters, the<br />

influence of the gap flows on the specific<br />

indicated power is dominant.<br />

Before considering the results,<br />

the designation of the compared<br />

profiles should be explained with<br />

the help of Fig. 5. The designation<br />

re ference stands for the best machine<br />

from the screening. The pro-<br />

Part of the DOE is creating a large<br />

enough experimental design to produce<br />

trustworthy results. In order to<br />

first determine which parameters significantly<br />

influence the energy conversion<br />

quality, so-called screening is<br />

carried out. Here, a test plan is created<br />

in which two different levels are<br />

prescribed for the parameters to be<br />

examined, Table 2. The MINITAB software<br />

uses the number of free parameters<br />

to determine the tests to<br />

be performed [Mat05]. A regression<br />

analysis is then carried out during<br />

the statistical evaluation, which provides<br />

an expected range of the target<br />

variable. In addition to the expected<br />

range, the regression analysis provides<br />

a significance value p for the<br />

Fig. 4: Representation of the reference profile in the front section with marking of the<br />

projected blowhole area and the projected inter-lobe clearance<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong><br />


Compressors and Systems<br />

From the research<br />

file is fully represented in Fig. 4. The<br />

desig nation expected is intended to<br />

clarify how the minimisation of the<br />

blowhole area is usually done; namely,<br />

by moving the uppermost interlobe<br />

point as close as possible to the<br />

housing cusp. This makes the blowhole<br />

as small as possible, which can<br />

be seen in the middle of Fig. 5. The<br />

designation in bound stands for an<br />

optimisation of the parameters within<br />

the limits used for the screening<br />

(Table 2), whereas with the designation<br />

off bound the parameters<br />

were shifted beyond the limits of the<br />

screening until a meaningful profile<br />

could no longer be generated.<br />

The results in terms of changes<br />

re lative to the best machine of the<br />

screening (reference) are summarised<br />

in Table 3. In general, they show<br />

that the chosen statistical procedure<br />

leads to the desired result of an improvement<br />

in the specific indicated<br />

power. In particular, it has been<br />

shown that a targeted adjustment of<br />

the profile parameters in the direction<br />

of a small blowhole is not optimal.<br />

Accordingly, it is not only the<br />

blowhole area that should be chosen<br />

as small as pos sible. The width<br />

of the inter-lobe clearance must also<br />

be considered. This is evident from<br />

a variation in the compression ratio.<br />

Here it seems that the influence of<br />

the blowhole dominates at low compression<br />

ratios, so that the specific<br />

indicated power drops. With higher<br />

compression ratios, on the other<br />

hand, the inter-lobe clearance becomes<br />

more important, which means<br />

that further improvement by minimising<br />

the blowhole area alone does<br />

not seem possible.<br />

Ultimately, the “off bound” profile<br />

proves to be optimal, which leads to<br />

a reduction in the specific indicated<br />

power of around 3 %, especially with<br />

larger compression ratios, as a result<br />

of the compromise between blowhole<br />

area and width of the inter-lobe<br />

clearance. However, it should be noted<br />

at this point that, in addition to<br />

the profile, the wrap angle becomes<br />

more important as the compression<br />

ratio increases [Utr21]. This results in<br />

outlet throttling, which increases the<br />

power consumption of the compressor.<br />

Since the wrap angle was kept<br />

constant here, it is not clear to what<br />

extent the optimal profile parameters<br />

change when the wrap angle is<br />

optimised in parallel.<br />

Summary and outlook<br />

In this article, the influence of rotor<br />

profile design on the energy conversion<br />

of a dry screw compressor is investigated.<br />

The basis for profile generation<br />

is the normal rack generation<br />

method according to Wu [Wu08],<br />

which offers 12 parameters for profile<br />

design. The central question is<br />

how the parameters should be selected<br />

in order to design a screw<br />

compressor whose specific power<br />

consumption is as low as possible.<br />

In order to identify the decisive parameters,<br />

a statistical analysis is chosen,<br />

which provides the result that<br />

only 4 parameters have a significant<br />

influence on the specific power consumption.<br />

The targeted setting of these parameters<br />

means that the size of the<br />

blowhole is significantly reduced and<br />

the inter-lobe clearance is somewhat<br />

narrower. As a consequence, the specific<br />

power consumption for all investigated<br />

compression ratios is between<br />

1 % and 2 % lower than that of<br />

a screw compressor whose profile is<br />

designed with a small blowhole area<br />

in mind. In addition to the construction<br />

size, the wrap angle was kept<br />

constant in the analysis. It is known<br />

that this has a significant impact on<br />

the specific power consumption of a<br />

screw compressor. In future work, it<br />

must be clarified to what extent there<br />

is an interaction between the profile<br />

design and the wrap angle of a screw<br />

compressor and how it affects the<br />

specific power consumption.<br />

Fig. 5: Representation of the inter-lobe clearance in the xy plane (left) and the zy plane (right) as well as the blowhole cross section achieved<br />

(middle) for various profile parameters of the profile family from Wu [Wu08]<br />

Table 3: Summary of the optimisation results in relation to the reference machine<br />

Profile Blowhole Inter-lobe clearance Chamber volume<br />

Specific indicated power<br />

Π= 3.5 Π= 5 Π= 6.5<br />

reference 3.74 mm² 160.36 mm 71.54 cm³ 3.11 kWmin/m³ 4.45 kWmin/m³ 5.68 kWmin/m³<br />

expected -70 % +20 % +2.75 % -1.29 % -1.59 % -1.55 %<br />

in Bound -30 % -1 % -0.68 % -0.36 % -0.50 % -0.34 %<br />

off<br />

Bound<br />

-63 % 0 % -0.38 % -2.30 % -2.96 % -3.45 %<br />

84 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong>

Compressors and Systems<br />

From the research<br />

Bibliography<br />

[Fos03] Fost, C.: A contribution to improving<br />

the chamber filling of screw<br />

engines. Dissertation, University of<br />

Dortmund, 2003.<br />

[Joh05] John, B.; Voorde, V.; Vierendeels,<br />

J.: A Grid Manipulation Algorithm<br />

for ALE Calculations in Screw<br />

Compressors: 17th AIAA Computational<br />

Fluid Dynamics Conference,<br />

2005.<br />

[Kau02] Kauder, K; Janicki, M.; Rohe,<br />

A.; Kliem, B.; Temming, J.: Thermodynamic<br />

Simulation of Rotary Displacement<br />

Machines. VDI Berichte, 1715,<br />

2002.<br />

[Kri78] Krigar, H.: Use of a screw<br />

blower as a blower, pump, press, motor<br />

and measuring device. German<br />

Patent, No. 7116, 1878.<br />

[Mat05] Mathews, P. G.: Design of experiments<br />

with MINITAB. ASQ Quality<br />

Press, Milwaukee, Wis., 2005.<br />

[Nad17] Nadler, K.: Modelling and<br />

Analysis of Screw Vacuum Pumps in<br />

Blower Operation. Dissertation, Technical<br />

University of Dortmund. Logos<br />

Verlag, Berlin, 2017.<br />

[Pev87] Peveling, F.-J.: A contribution<br />

to the optimisation of adiabatic screw<br />

machines in simulation calculations.<br />

Dissertation, University of Dortmund,<br />

1987<br />

[Ran15] Rane, S.; Kovačević, A.; Stošić,<br />

N.: Analytical Grid Generation for accurate<br />

representation of clearances<br />

in CFD for Screw Machines. IOP Conf.<br />

Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng. 90 012008, 2015.<br />

[Rin79] Rinder, L.: Screw compressor.<br />

Springer, Vienna, Heidelberg, 1979.<br />

[Rin87] Rinder, L.: Special gearing for<br />

screw compressor rotors. VDI Reports<br />

640, pp. 137-150, 1987.<br />

[Sac02] Sachs, R.: Experimental investigation<br />

of gas flows in screw machines.<br />

Dissertation, University of<br />

Dortmund, 2002.<br />

[Sin88] Singh, P. J.; Bowman, J. L.:<br />

Calculation of Blow-Hole Area for<br />

Screw Compressors: International<br />

Compressor Engineering Conference,<br />

Purdue University, USA, 1988.<br />

[Sto05] Stošić, N.; Smith, I.; Kovačević,<br />

A.: Screw compressors. Mathematical<br />

modelling and performance calculation.<br />

Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg,<br />

2005.<br />

[Tem07] Temming, J.: Stationary and<br />

transient operation of an unsynchronised<br />

screw machine charger. Dissertation,<br />

University of Dortmund, 2007<br />

[Utr18a] Utri, M.; Brümmer, A.: Fluid<br />

Flow through Front Clearances of Dry<br />

running screw machines using Dimensionless<br />

Numbers: International<br />

Compressor Engineering Conference,<br />

Purdue University, USA, 2018.<br />

[Utr18b] Utri, M.; Höckenkamp, S.;<br />

Brümmer, A.: Fluid flow through male<br />

rotor housing clearances of dry running<br />

screw machines using dimen-<br />




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Compressors and Systems<br />

From the research<br />

sionless numbers: IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater.<br />

Sci. Eng., S. 12033, 2018.<br />

[Utr19] Utri, M.; Aurich, D. Brümmer,<br />

A.; Wittig, A.; Tillman, W.; Moldenhauer,<br />

H.; Debus, J.: Theoretical investigation<br />

of the mechanical rotor loading<br />

of unsynchronised, dry-running<br />

screw machines. <strong>Process</strong> <strong>Technology</strong><br />

& <strong>Components</strong>, 2019.<br />

[Utr21] Utri, M.: Potential of Non-Constant<br />

Rotor Pitch for Screw Compressors.<br />

Dissertation, Technical University<br />

of Dortmund. Logos Verlag, Berlin,<br />

2021.<br />

[Wu08] Wu, Y.-R.; Fong, Z.-H.: Rotor<br />

Profile Design for the Twin-Screw<br />

Compressor Based on the Normal-<br />

Rack Generation Method. Journal of<br />

Mechanical Design 4/130, 2008.<br />

Symbols and Abbreviations<br />

Symbol Unit Meaning<br />

E i<br />

Wmin⁄m 3 specific indicated power<br />

h J⁄kg specific enthalpy<br />

kg⁄s<br />

mass flow rate<br />

kg<br />

mass<br />

P i<br />

W indicated power<br />

p Pa pressure<br />

p - significance value<br />

Q J heat<br />

t s time<br />

J<br />

internal energy<br />

m 3<br />

volume<br />

- internal volume ratio [-]<br />

m 3 ⁄s<br />

volume flow rate<br />

W J technical work<br />

α - flow coefficient<br />

α - confidence interval<br />

β ° helix angle<br />

ρ kg⁄m 3 density<br />

The Authors:<br />

Matthias Heselmann (MSc),<br />

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Andreas Brümmer –<br />

Chair of Fluidics, TU Dortmund,<br />

Dortmund, Germany<br />

Index or abbreviation<br />

CFD<br />

compr, end<br />

DOE<br />

f<br />

HD<br />

j<br />

max<br />

ND<br />

N-N<br />

th<br />

T-T<br />

Meaning<br />

computational fluid dynamics<br />

compression end<br />

design of experiments<br />

delivered<br />

high pressure<br />

index<br />

maximum<br />

low pressure<br />

normal plane<br />

theoretical<br />

front section plane<br />

86 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong>

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company. The plant supplies the individual<br />

test benches with compressed<br />

air and meets the highest requirements<br />

for controllability, measuring<br />

accuracy, flow quality, repeatability<br />

and consistency. “Research into complex<br />

flow phenomena in high-performance<br />

turbomachines requires technologies<br />

that can precisely provide<br />

and repeat inlet and outlet conditions<br />

and mass flows. This is the only way<br />

to achieve the flow speeds and stage<br />

pressure ratios found in modern turbomachines<br />

as realistically as possible,”<br />

explains the Head of R&D at<br />

the application speciaist, and adds:<br />

“With our test air supply system, the<br />

test benches can be operated dynamically<br />

with almost freely selectable<br />

load ramps and investigations can<br />

be carried out under high load gradients<br />

over wide operating ranges. To<br />

generate aerodynamic similarity between<br />

reality and model test, both<br />

Mach and Reynolds number can be<br />

adjusted – independently of each<br />

other. The actual operation of existing<br />

and future turbomachines can<br />

thus be optimally mapped.” Thanks<br />

to the new possibilities, the TFD and<br />

the energy technolo gy research at<br />

Leibniz University are among the top<br />

10 leading research centres in the<br />

world in this field.<br />

Successful premiere: blower specialist<br />

as plant manufacturer<br />

For over 150 years the name of the<br />

mechanical engineering company<br />

from Lower Saxony has stood for innovative,<br />

efficient compressor technology<br />

that is precisely tailored to<br />

the respective process. For Garbsen,<br />

Fig. 1: The test air supply system of the mechanical engineering company from Aerzen meets<br />

the highest requirements for controllability, measuring accuracy, flow quality, repeatability<br />

and constancy. (Photos © : Aerzener Maschinenfabrik GmbH)<br />

88 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong>

Compressors and Systems<br />

Test air supply system for energy research<br />

the application specialists not only<br />

supplied the blower and compressor<br />

packages, but also appeared for the<br />

first time as plant engineers and were<br />

responsible for the design, planning,<br />

manufacture, assembly and commissioning<br />

of the entire plant, including<br />

the measurement and control technology.<br />

The business unit Special<br />

Purpose Machine Construction (<strong>Process</strong><br />

Gases) was in charge of the development<br />

and construction in close<br />

co operation with LUH and the TFD.<br />

They were supported by a multitude<br />

of external and internal partners.<br />

Maximum precision and flexibility<br />

The test air supply system (total<br />

dimensions: 82 x 15 x 9 m.) comprises<br />

a compressor station with a multistage<br />

compression, a cascaded bypass<br />

for fine control of the mass flow,<br />

a central mass flow measuring section,<br />

an air distribution system to and<br />

from the test benches including piping,<br />

valves, silencers, coolers, stilling<br />

chambers and supporting steel structure<br />

as well as a sophisticated control<br />

system for selecting different operating<br />

modes, types, configurations and<br />

test bench inlet conditions.<br />

The test benches work with expansion<br />

ratios between 1 and 6. The<br />

inlet pressure ranges from 1 to 8 bar<br />

(abs) with a maximum mass flow of<br />

25 kg/s (90,000 kg/h). Under all conditions,<br />

the inlet temperatures can be<br />

controlled between 60 and 200 °C.<br />

The system can be operated in both<br />

open and closed control loops, is designed<br />

for stationary as well as transient<br />

(± 30 % of the maximum volume<br />

flow per minute) operation and<br />

Fig. 3: Maximum flexibility: volume flow, temperature and pressure are freely definable and<br />

can be regulated independently and maintained constant.<br />

can be either pressure or mass flow<br />

controlled. Volume flow, temperature<br />

and pressure are freely definable and<br />

can be regulated independently. To<br />

achieve the desired flexibility and dynamics,<br />

and in particular to meet the<br />

requirement for extreme accuracy,<br />

the engineers were driven to deliver<br />

technical high performance. For example,<br />

the deviation of the volume<br />

flow is just 0.015 m 3 /s – and that with<br />

an effective maximum value of up to<br />

80,000 m 3 /s. The average static pressure<br />

can be set to an accuracy of 0.5<br />

millibar and the average static temperature<br />

fluctuates by a maximum of<br />

0.3 K, to give just a few examples.<br />

Make 5 out of 1<br />

The central mass flow measurement<br />

is also unparalleled, with a total uncertainty<br />

of only 0.55 percent. “The control<br />

requirements were higher than<br />

the inaccuracies of normal measurement<br />

technology,” emphasizes the<br />

Project Manager Supply <strong>Process</strong> Gas<br />

at the mechanical engineering company.<br />

The test air from the supply line<br />

in DN 700 is distributed via a diffuser<br />

to five parallel ultrasonic gas meters<br />

(4 x DN 500 and 1 x DN 200). The<br />

number of active lines depends on<br />

the flow rate and is auto matically regulated<br />

by the control system, so that<br />

all gas meters are operated with the<br />

lowest measurement uncertainty. In<br />

order to achieve an even distribution<br />

of the flow to the individual measuring<br />

sections and uniform velocity profiles<br />

at the gas meters, flow rectifiers<br />

were connected upstream of the individual<br />

gas meters and the diffuser<br />

including the upstream pipe bends<br />

were flow simulated. In addition, vortex<br />

generators are installed at the diffuser<br />

inlet and special components<br />

are fitted to reduce the outlet area.<br />

The splitting of the mass flow measurement<br />

section became necessary<br />

due to the size of the project. “There<br />

was simply no transportable gas meter<br />

in DN 700 for the in-situ calibration<br />

required by the TFD,” says the<br />

Project Manager.<br />

Multi-stage compression<br />

Fig. 2: The entire test air supply system has a size of 82 x 15 x 9 m.<br />

The thermodynamic treatment of the<br />

test air is carried out in the compressor<br />

1 station (total size: 27 x 15 x 9 m).<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong><br />


Compressors and Systems<br />

Test air supply system for energy research<br />

As a first stage, this uses two parallelconnected<br />

Roots blowers, each with stage consists of two parallel screw<br />

outlet pressure: 4.3 bar). The second<br />

an inlet volume flow between 9,600 compressors with an inlet volume<br />

and 48,600 m³/h and a maximum pressure<br />

difference of 0.8 bar (inlet pres-<br />

and a maximum pressure difference<br />

flow between 6,900 and 21,600 m³/h<br />

sures between 0.2 and 3.5 bar, max. of 10 bar (inlet pressures between 0.2<br />

Fig. 4: One of the two parallel connected screw compressors.<br />

and 3.5 bar, max. outlet pressure: 9<br />

bar). All four machines are driven by<br />

separate electric motors (690 V) with<br />

speed control and can be operated at<br />

variable speeds in single or tandem<br />

operation. Due to its modular design,<br />

the compressor station is extremely<br />

flexible and has an extraordinarily<br />

large control range. Low pressures are<br />

taken over by the positive displacement<br />

blowers, for medium pressures<br />

the screw compressors start up and<br />

high pressures can be achieved with a<br />

two-stage operation of the blower and<br />

screw compressor.<br />

The supplier has paid special attention<br />

to sound insulation. All four<br />

compressors have two reactive silencers;<br />

the positive displacement blowers<br />

are additionally equipped with two<br />

lambda quarter resonators. This largely<br />

reduces pulsations and their effects.<br />

“The large control range results in an<br />

enormously wide frequency spectrum.<br />

It was a bit of a challenge to get<br />

a grip on the sound,” admits the Head<br />

of R&D. In order to protect the surrounding<br />

research buildings, where,<br />

among other things, highly sensitive<br />

acceleration and vibration tests are<br />

carried out, the machine foundation<br />

was completely decoupled from that<br />

of the compressor room.<br />

Perfection down to the<br />

smallest detail<br />

Fig. 5: With the test air supply system the test benches (here air turbine) can be operated<br />

dynamically with almost freely selectable load ramps.<br />

A special feature of the system is that<br />

it was completely integrated into an<br />

existing building. The challenge was<br />

to deal with the limited space available<br />

and the already fixed statics of<br />

Fig. 6: Model of the compressor room with two screw compressors and two Roots compressors,<br />

which can be connected as required.<br />

Fig. 7: Blower group with numerous<br />

silencers.<br />

90 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong>

Compressors and Systems<br />

Test air supply system for energy research<br />

the building. For example, around<br />

190 tons of steel were used to dissipate<br />

the resulting forces. In addition,<br />

virtually all components and parts of<br />

the system were specially designed<br />

and manufactured – starting with the<br />

mass flow measuring section, the diffuser<br />

and the calming chambers in<br />

front of individual test cells. Even the<br />

pipelines – a good 500 metres in total<br />

(from DN 200 to DN 1,000) – and<br />

most of the pipe bends are anything<br />

but standard. Elaborate flow simulations<br />

and improved corrosion protection<br />

thanks to galvanisation are just a<br />

few of the points that make the difference<br />

here.<br />

Further step towards application<br />

orientation<br />

The two-year construction phase<br />

was preceded by a multi-year planning<br />

phase by the engineers from<br />

Aerzen and Hannover. Due to the<br />

demanding requirements regarding<br />

stability and reproducibility of<br />

the test air, a fully functional scaled<br />

functional model 2 with a power of<br />

300 kW was built for testing and pretesting<br />

the measurement and control<br />

technology. “We have many years<br />

of experience in the field of process<br />

gas technology, but this project was<br />

something special – and not just because<br />

of its size and complexity,”<br />

says the Project Manager. “For the<br />

first time, we were able to demonstrate<br />

our plant engineering competence,<br />

and that right away with a project<br />

of this magnitude. After all, this is<br />

the largest domestic order in the history<br />

of our company.” With success.<br />

Lower Saxony's Minister President<br />

successfully started the first run at<br />

the campus inauguration in September<br />

2019. Final commissioning followed<br />

in 2020.<br />

References<br />

1<br />

All details about development and<br />

construction of the compressor station<br />

in: H Fleige, M Henke 2019. Design<br />

and construction of a test air<br />

supply system for dynamic turbomachinery<br />

testing. International Rotating<br />

Equipment Conference 2019,<br />

Wiesbaden.<br />

2<br />

More information about the functional<br />

model in: L de Buhr, H Fleige, J<br />

Seume 2018. Model tests on the control<br />

behaviour of a test air supply system<br />

in open or closed-loop operation.<br />

IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng.<br />

425 012021.<br />

The Author: Sebastian Meißler,<br />

Marketing, Communication &<br />

Branding Maschinenfabrik Aerzen<br />

GmbH, Aerzen, Germany<br />

The right compressor solution for every gas<br />

Our comprehensive expertise and experience of more than 85 years in the compressed air and gas business<br />

ensure we can fulfil your requirements – whatever technical or process gas it may be. And if we can‘t offer a<br />

standard product to meet your needs, we will supply a tailor-made solution – wherever in the world you need it.<br />

Two hermetically gas-tight series in particular stand out from the extensive product portfolio, which were<br />

developed for the most modern gas applications:<br />

hermetically gas-tight<br />

up to 500 barg<br />

oil-free, dry-running & hermetically<br />

gas-tight up to 450 barg<br />

Inlet Pressure: 0.05 – 16 barg<br />

Final Pressure: 40 – 500 barg<br />

Max. Power: 105 kW<br />

Volume Flow: 120 – 400 m³/h<br />

Inlet Pressure: max. 30 barg<br />

Final Pressure: 100 – 450 barg<br />

Max. Power: 10 – 30 kW<br />

Volume Flow: 20 – 66 m³/h<br />

www.sauercompressors.com<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong><br />


Compressors and Systems<br />

Biomethane as a fuel<br />

Using biomethane as a fuel – making climate<br />

protection economical!<br />

Helai Haniss<br />

Since 01.01.2021, new rules apply in<br />

the area of renewable energy subsidies,<br />

which force operators of biogas<br />

production plants to rethink: The<br />

subsidy entitlement from the “Renewable<br />

Energy Sources Act” (EEG)<br />

for the first generation of so-called<br />

“renewable energy (RE) plants”,<br />

which were subsidized for the last 20<br />

years, has expired. This circumstance<br />

will affect an increasing number of<br />

sites in the future. However, for environmental<br />

and energy reasons, it<br />

would make absolutely no sense to<br />

discontinue operations. The good<br />

news is that despite the discontinuation<br />

of subsidies, operators have an<br />

economically interesting solution if<br />

they switch to an intelligent self-consumption<br />

concept. In this case, the<br />

fuel produced is not fully fed into the<br />

grid, as was previously the case, but<br />

is used – in a particularly attractive financial<br />

way – for tax-free refueling of<br />

the operator's own fleet.<br />

In recent years, the processing of biogas<br />

produced in the plant into biomethane<br />

has become increasingly<br />

established. As a CO 2<br />

-neutral alternative<br />

to fossil natural gas, it has great<br />

climate protection potential. The political<br />

and economic conditions are currently<br />

more favourable than ever: with<br />

around 10,000 biogas plants, Germany<br />

is the frontrunner in terms of production<br />

[as of 2021].<br />

The market is currently developing<br />

rapidly: biomethane had already<br />

been subsidized by means of feed-in<br />

tariffs for the last 20 years since the<br />

EEG 2000 decision came into force.<br />

The new resolution of 2021 stipulates<br />

that by 2050, electricity generated<br />

in Germany should be 100 % greenhouse-neutral.<br />

Furthermore, the EU's<br />

RED II27 (Renewable Energy Directive)<br />

sets a greenhouse gas reduction quota<br />

that requires companies to increase<br />

the share of renewable energy in fuels<br />

to 14 % by 2030.<br />

Refuelling solutions – climate protection<br />

with a system<br />

tegration into existing infrastructures.<br />

complicated installation as well as in-<br />

Tailored to the respective requirements,<br />

plant variants with low, me-<br />

As a premium manufacturer and pioneer<br />

in the field of natural gas compression<br />

with more than 40 years of available, as the following examples<br />

dium and high daily outputs are<br />

global experience, BAUER KOMPRES- illustrate:<br />

SOREN offers the necessary state-ofthe-art<br />

technology in the form of customized<br />

turnkey refuelling systems tion – A compact and particularly<br />

Waldkraiburg depot filling sta-<br />

from a single source. As a sustainability-oriented<br />

company certified in ac-<br />

economical solution<br />

cordance with ISO 14001, the highest The energy provider ESB Südbayern<br />

value is placed on actively promoting had a filling station designed here for<br />

the achievement of climate protection its Waldkraiburg depot to refuel its<br />

and energy transition goals. It therefore<br />

strongly supports the continued ing of natural gas-powered minivans.<br />

own customer service fleet, consist-<br />

operation of expiring RE plants in the Public refuelling was not planned. In<br />

biomethane sector. In general, the accordance with the customer's requirements,<br />

the supplier focused in<br />

supplier’s refuelling systems are designed<br />

for operation with biomethane<br />

as well as with classic natural gas. economic efficiency when designing<br />

particular on a compact design and<br />

They usually consist of a high- or medium-pressure<br />

compressor unit tai-<br />

The small and compact module<br />

the system.<br />

lored to the refuelling requirements, consists of a compressor with volume<br />

a gas drying and filter system, the appropriate<br />

storage solution and the 36.7 kg/h, intake pressures between<br />

flows between 11–51 Nm 3 /h, or 7.9–<br />

dispenser. The sophisticated modular 0.05–4 barg and an output pressure<br />

system design enables fast and un-<br />

of 300 bar. In continuous operation,<br />

Fig. 1: Waldkraiburg Mini Fill ECO 120 (B800, Fast fill post)<br />

92 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong>

Compressors and Systems<br />

Biomethane as a fuel<br />

the daily delivery rate of the compressor<br />

unit is between 190–880 kg<br />

in 24 h. The unit has integrated filter<br />

and post-drying cartridges installed<br />

on the high-pressure side, which<br />

clean the compressed gas and remove<br />

the residual moisture from it.<br />

The high-pressure gas storage<br />

system is made up of individual highpressure<br />

cylinders mounted together<br />

on a frame. The standard capacity<br />

is up to 42 high-pressure storage<br />

cylinders, each with a filling volume<br />

of 80 litres per storage module.<br />

Thus, capacities of 265 m 3 up to 1105<br />

m 3 natu ral gas geometric filling volume<br />

at 300 bar can be realized.<br />

Since no public refuelling is planned<br />

here, a “Fill post” is used as a<br />

dispenser. This model was specially<br />

developed for simple, temperaturecompensated<br />

and cost-saving refuelling.<br />

The dispenser series is very<br />

often used in natural gas fueling stations<br />

at depots, especially when they<br />

are not staffed.<br />

Depending on the fill size of the<br />

refuelling volume and the compressor<br />

model, refuelling times of about<br />

5 minutes are achieved when using<br />

the “Fast fill post” version used here.<br />

For applications where the refuelling<br />

time is not of primary importance,<br />

the Munich-based manufacturer offers<br />

as a variant the “Slow fill post”<br />

without integrated storage module.<br />

Here, the vehicles are refuelled directly<br />

from the compressor. For technical<br />

reasons, the refuelling times<br />

vary greatly. An ideal application scenario<br />

is the refuelling of vehicles during<br />

the night hours.<br />

duced biomethane. As there were no<br />

suitable refuelling facilities in the immediate<br />

vicinity, the company decided<br />

to build its own station near the<br />

factory premises and commissioned<br />

the Bavarian supplier to carry out<br />

the project planning and turnkey installation.<br />

The significantly higher refuelling<br />

volume required resulted in<br />

a completely different requirement<br />

profile: With a delivery volume of<br />

almost 500 m 3 /h, the station is designed<br />

to safely supply the company's<br />

current 20 semi-trailer trucks during<br />

ongoing operation and also offers<br />

generous reserves to easily cover the<br />

planned expansion of the fleet to 30<br />

trucks. Thanks to its modular design,<br />

the refuelling capacity can be further<br />

expanded at a later date by installing<br />

additional storage banks.<br />

Biomethane/natural gas complete<br />

refuelling systems, which are installed<br />

stand-alone, are built in container<br />

solutions.<br />

Fig. 2: B800 Storage module<br />

Fig. 4: Coesfeld CS 26.12 (B3360, Gilbarco dispenser)<br />

Fig. 3: Fast fill/slow fill post dispensing<br />

station<br />

Biogas filling station Coesfeld –<br />

Powerful stand-alone solution in<br />

container design<br />

The organic wholesaler Weiling<br />

GmbH from Coesfeld, west of Münster,<br />

is also consistently focusing on<br />

sustainability. In the future, the vehicle<br />

fleet for transporting products to<br />

customers throughout Germany will<br />

be powered by regeneratively pro-<br />

Compared to the installation in Waldkraiburg,<br />

the much larger and more<br />

powerful module consists of a compressor<br />

with a volume flow of 500<br />

Nm 3 /h, or 360 kg/h, an intake pressure<br />

of 3.9 barg and an output pressure<br />

of 300 bar. In continuous operation,<br />

the compressor module delivers<br />

8640 kg of biomethane in a 24-hour<br />

period. Integrated filter and post-drying<br />

cartridges installed on the high-<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong><br />


Compressors and Systems<br />

Biomethane as a fuel<br />

pressure side clean the compressed<br />

gas and remove residual moisture<br />

from it.<br />

As in most applications, the storage<br />

is used here as a 3-bank system<br />

consisting of three individual substorages,<br />

the high, medium and low<br />

banks. This division allows an optimum<br />

utilization rate. Thanks to the<br />

larger quantity of gas available, vehicle<br />

refuelling can be carried out in immediate<br />

succession.<br />

Fig. 5: B3360 Storage module<br />

The filling and refuelling control regulates<br />

the priority filling of the high-<br />

pressure accumulator and the sequential<br />

gas withdrawal from the high-pressure<br />

accumulator. It is pos sible to control<br />

one or more filling lines.<br />

Fig. 6: Priority order monitoring control<br />

(VRÜ)<br />

The dispensing device can be designed<br />

with a flow measuring device<br />

(display of the dispensed refuelling<br />

quantity in kg or m³) as well as a display<br />

field with the indication of the<br />

specific gas price as well as the total<br />

price in the desired currency. The filling<br />

and refuelling control system regulates<br />

the filling process and thus ensures<br />

economical refueling with short<br />

filling times at the same time.<br />

For the operation of a public service<br />

station, the use of a fuel dispenser<br />

is required by law. The display<br />

shows both the unit price, the<br />

quantity refuelled and the final price<br />

at the same time. The dispensers are<br />

available with one or two hoses and<br />

with one or two devices for mass flow<br />

measurement. This allows either separate<br />

or simultaneous vehicle refuelling<br />

on both sides of the dispenser.<br />

With an automatic fuel dispenser, it<br />

is possible to realize an accounting of<br />

the fuel data without a manned cashier's<br />

store. With regard to operation,<br />

the different fuel dispenser models<br />

can be optionally tailored to fleet<br />

card operation and/or credit card operation.<br />

All of the company’s large<br />

systems offer interfaces for optional<br />

connection to an Internet-capable PC<br />

or cell phone. This allows the operator<br />

to monitor the operating status<br />

remotely around the clock.<br />

Comprehensive and seamless<br />

project management – a core<br />

competence<br />

According to customer specifications<br />

and in close consultation, BAUER project<br />

engineers first select the best location<br />

for the filling station. Special<br />

focus is placed on exact compliance<br />

with applicable legal regulations.<br />

By minimizing explosion protection<br />

zones and tailoring the size of the refuelling<br />

systems, the supplier is able<br />

to find an optimal solution for installation<br />

even in difficult space conditions.<br />

After installation, the complete<br />

piping of the system including<br />

all pressure lines from the compressor<br />

to the storage tank and further to<br />

the dispensing point or dispenser is<br />

carried out according to the relevant<br />

guidelines. This is followed by an inspection<br />

by an approved acceptance<br />

organization, such as the TÜV. The<br />

Fig. 7: Dispenser unit with billing system<br />

project team coordinates the necessary<br />

scheduling with the companies<br />

and authorities involved.<br />

Service technicians carry out the<br />

electrical wiring of both the compressor<br />

unit and the dispenser/dispenser<br />

in accordance with the agreed<br />

plans. Only a high-voltage connection<br />

must be provided by the operator.<br />

After installation, the compressor<br />

unit is booted for the first time and<br />

thoroughly checked again.<br />

The supplier takes over the entire<br />

project organization. It ranges from<br />

the installation and commissioning<br />

of the compressor storage unit and<br />

the dispenser technology to the precise<br />

coordination of deadlines. As a<br />

result, commissioning can usually<br />

take place after just a few days. After<br />

a successful assembly at the installation<br />

site, the installation is inspected<br />

by an expert. This acceptance at the<br />

installation site is also carried out by<br />

the service team together with the respective<br />

supervisory authority. The<br />

comprehensive service also includes<br />

detailed instruction of authorized<br />

persons of the client in the technology<br />

and electrics of the system so that<br />

the operator of the system can carry<br />

out basic settings and simple maintenance<br />

work independently.<br />

On request, seamless monitoring<br />

of the compressor unit is offered in<br />

94 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong>

Compressors and Systems<br />

Biomethane as a fuel<br />

conjunction with a 24 h service<br />

and after-sales. Changes in settings<br />

or adjustments can then<br />

be made around the clock online<br />

via the Internet or via a mobile<br />

phone connection. Status<br />

reports on operating hours and<br />

sales of gas volumes sold can be<br />

transmitted via SMS or e-mail,<br />

as can maintenance requests or<br />

fault reports.<br />

References<br />

https://www.wemag.com/<br />

aktuelles-presse/blog/anstehende-eeg-novelle-waspassiert-nach-der-eegfoerderung#:~:text=Ab%20<br />

01.01.2021%20verlieren%20<br />

nun,PV%2DAnlagen%20betroffen.<br />

The Author: Helai Haniss<br />

Sales- and Project Engineer<br />

Fuel Gas Systems,<br />


Munich, Germany<br />

Biomethane injection – Munichbased<br />

company supplies the<br />

technology<br />

In addition to filling stations, the<br />

compressor manufacturer from<br />

Munich has also developed special<br />

compressor systems for the<br />

area of biomethane production<br />

based on its many years of expertise<br />

and has successfully established<br />

them on the market.<br />

Among other things, they are<br />

used for seasonal compensation<br />

of transport fluctuations and network<br />

overloads: In case of overload<br />

of a low-pressure pipeline,<br />

e. g. due to increased biomethane<br />

feed-in, the excess natural<br />

gas-biomethane mixture can be<br />

fed into a higher-quality network.<br />

In this way, existing buffer volumes<br />

in high-pressure transport<br />

networks are better utilized. Biomethane<br />

is fed into a natural<br />

gas network in different network<br />

types with pressure ratings from<br />

PN10 to max. PN100.<br />

Shaping the future today:<br />

Climate-neutral mobility with<br />

hydrogen!<br />

Based on its sustainability-oriented<br />

corporate philosophy, the<br />

company stands uncompromisingly<br />

for climate-friendly mobility<br />

concepts. For this reason, the<br />

technology-leading mechanical<br />

engineering group and member<br />

of the Center Hydrogen.Bavaria<br />

(H2.B), is consistently supporting<br />

the broad establishment of<br />

this energy carrier of the future<br />

with a recently launched development<br />

offensive for H 2<br />

filling<br />

station systems.

Compressed air technology<br />

Container stations<br />

Container stations<br />

Compressed air from a container<br />

Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Gerhart Hobusch, Daniela Koehler<br />

When contemplating dependable<br />

compressed air supply solutions,<br />

container stations are well-worth<br />

considering. They are lean, flexible<br />

and quick to use, yet offer the same<br />

efficiency, economy and reliability<br />

as permanently installed stations.<br />

Moreover, they are available in a<br />

vast range of configurations to meet<br />

every compressed air need.<br />

Container solutions offer an almost<br />

limitless range of possibilities,<br />

whether as prefabricated systems<br />

that can be deployed on site at short<br />

notice, or as custom-tailored systems<br />

that are configured and designed to<br />

meet an operator's specific requirements.<br />

They can also be used as a<br />

temporary solution to bridge compressed<br />

air bottlenecks, as an interim<br />

solution or as a permanently installed<br />

solution. Whether owned,<br />

rented or implemented on the basis<br />

of an operator model, their design<br />

is as versatile as their potential<br />

fields of application. Container solutions<br />

can be adapted to meet any<br />

need, including mining, offshore oil<br />

platforms, hot desert environments<br />

and every conceivable category of industrial<br />

production worldwide. Comfortable<br />

even in harsh conditions,<br />

they can be operated in temperature<br />

ranges from -20 °C to +45 °C and various<br />

companies throughout the world<br />

are already enjoying the benefits that<br />

these versatile compressed air supply<br />

solutions have to offer.<br />

One of the core advantages of<br />

these container solutions is that they<br />

can be installed almost anywhere<br />

on site, ready for operation, with reduced<br />

costs and minimised set-up<br />

time. This is particularly valuable<br />

when space is at a premium, or if a<br />

company is undergoing expansion,<br />

for example, and space is tight, since<br />

they can be placed on the roof or directly<br />

next to an existing building.<br />

They are also an interesting alternative<br />

as a supplement to an existing<br />

station or as a replacement for it. If,<br />

for example, the room in which the<br />

compressed air supply was previously<br />

located is required for production<br />

purposes due to capacity expansion,<br />

a container that is installed outside<br />

the building can free up available<br />

space within the building.<br />

As with spatially integrated stations,<br />

containers can be set up at different<br />

points throughout the plant<br />

and still be connected to one another.<br />

In such cases, the use of a master controller<br />

is recommended, but this will<br />

be covered in greater detail later on.<br />

Ready-to-run solutions<br />

The quickest option is to use prefabricated<br />

container solutions. These readyto-run<br />

solutions are ideal, particularly<br />

Fig. 1+1.1: Container solutions for compressed air generation are exceptionally versatile and<br />

can be used in all branches of industry and in virtually any location.<br />

96 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong>

Compressed air technology<br />

Container stations<br />

when it comes to bridging short-term<br />

compressed air bottlenecks or as an<br />

option if your own station needs to be<br />

converted or maintained, as they are<br />

also readily available on a rental basis<br />

at short notice.<br />

Mobile and space-saving, these<br />

containers house a complete compressed<br />

air station that provides<br />

a quiet and dependable supply of<br />

quali ty compressed air when- and<br />

wherever it is needed. These stations<br />

are well-suited for operators<br />

requiring especially high compressed<br />

air quali ty, such as in the pharmaceutical<br />

or food sectors, because the rotary<br />

screw compressor not only uses<br />

oil-free compression internally, but is<br />

also equipped with an integrated rotation<br />

dryer that achieves pressure<br />

dew points down to -30 °C. What is<br />

more, thanks to this innovative drying<br />

method, no condensate – or ice in<br />

winter – can form in the compressed<br />

air line downstream from the container.<br />

An additional mobile dryer<br />

module is therefore not necessary.<br />

Other compressed air treatment<br />

components such as activated carbon<br />

units and micro-fine filters can<br />

also be used if required. Standard<br />

container dimensions guarantee rapid<br />

and straightforward transportation<br />

of these “plug-and-play” stations.<br />

Thanks to an easy-to-use connector<br />

panel for pipes and cables,<br />

the container station can be put into<br />

immediate operation virtually anywhere,<br />

and can be up-and-running<br />

exceptionally quickly in the event<br />

of an operational emergency. Since<br />

Fig. 2: The container is home to a custom-made compressed air station.<br />

the container features sophisticated tainer solution, as offered by leading<br />

soundproofing, it can be operated in compressed air systems providers.<br />

city centres or in the vicinity of office For this variant, like with planning for<br />

or residential buildings without issue. any compressed air supply, actual demand<br />

and the application for which<br />

Furthermore, insulation and heating<br />

ensure that the station can be used in the compressed air is being used determine<br />

system design and the type<br />

almost all temperature and weather<br />

conditions.<br />

of components that are to be used<br />

Should more compressed air be in the resulting container station.<br />

required than a single station can supply,<br />

it is possible to connect several of should therefore be performed by<br />

All compressed air station planning<br />

these prefabricated container stations specially trained engineers in close<br />

in parallel and therefore cover almost consultation with the station operator.<br />

Professional expertise is impor-<br />

any compressed air demand.<br />

tant not because it is a case of simply<br />

Customised solutions<br />

placing a compressor in a container,<br />

but because there are many other aspects<br />

to consider when designing a<br />

Operators with special requirements<br />

for compressed air quality and volume<br />

can opt for a customised conready-mentioned<br />

matching of<br />

system like this. Starting with the al-<br />


Compressed air technology<br />

Container stations<br />

Fig. 3: When things are urgent, prefabricated container solutions can be on site quickly and<br />

easily and are ready-to-run.<br />

ponents, the process also involves<br />

planning for piping, cooling, heating,<br />

the controller with monitoring and<br />

much more. During this phase, in addition<br />

to the required operating parameters,<br />

the prevailing environmental<br />

conditions such as temperature,<br />

dust exposure, humidity and other<br />

specific characteristics are also scrutinised<br />

in detail.<br />

In an ideal case, the container itself<br />

is an insulated steel container<br />

that is statically designed in such a<br />

way that it can be lifted at the corners.<br />

It is completely piped and wired and<br />

includes a control cabinet with power<br />

distribution, an automatic ventilation<br />

system, heating and lighting. The precise<br />

implementation, however, depends<br />

on the respective operator's<br />

wishes and requirements.<br />

Insulation is necessary for several<br />

reasons. One of the most important,<br />

especially if the container is to<br />

be placed in inhabited areas, for example,<br />

is soundproofing. Compressors,<br />

dryers and above all fans for<br />

ventilation generate noise. Effective<br />

and well-thought-out insulation is<br />

therefore needed to ensure that this<br />

noise does not propagate outwards<br />

excessively and that all required specifications<br />

and stipulations are met.<br />

Insulation is also important if<br />

ambient temperatures are not constantly<br />

in a range that is optimal for<br />

compressed air generation. When<br />

temperatures outside are below 0 °C,<br />

the temperature inside the container<br />

should not drop below +3 °C to ensure<br />

that any condensate does not<br />

freeze and the viscosity of the oil<br />

in the components, for example, is<br />

maintained. This is where a standstill<br />

heater can help. Conversely, the<br />

same principle applies to hot temperatures,<br />

where an effective ventilation<br />

and cooling concept plays a major<br />

role in ensuring consistently high efficiency,<br />

economy and compressed air<br />

generation performance.<br />

Special consideration should also<br />

be given to environmental aspects.<br />

For example, the container floors<br />

should be able to be designed to<br />

act as an oil-tight pan so that harmful<br />

substances cannot seep into the<br />

ground. It also goes without saying<br />

that ecologically-responsible drainage<br />

of any condensate that may occur<br />

inside is also important.<br />

Operators who opt for a container<br />

solution are well advised to ensure<br />

that the provider has tested the completed<br />

station before delivery to confirm<br />

that the configuration works correctly<br />

and the station can therefore<br />

be operated immediately following<br />

installation at the factory premises.<br />

Even stronger together<br />

Just like their standard counterparts,<br />

customised container solutions can<br />

also be combined. In this case, care<br />

should be taken to ensure that they<br />

can be operated both individually<br />

and in combination with one another.<br />

This is made possible by a master<br />

controller.<br />

The master controller for all compressed<br />

air generation and treatment<br />

components not only controls and<br />

monitors the individual components<br />

or containers, but also optimises<br />

pressure performance, among other<br />

aspects, automatically adjusts compressed<br />

air station delivery rate in the<br />

event of fluctuating compressed air<br />

demand, optimises energy efficiency<br />

based on control losses, switching<br />

losses and pressure flexibility and<br />

also provides compressed air station<br />

capability for services such as predictive<br />

maintenance. Up-to-the-minute<br />

key figures for energy data are also<br />

generated and provide the basis for<br />

energy management according to ISO<br />

50001. This not only enhances operational<br />

reliability and efficiency, but<br />

also reduces energy costs. The controller<br />

can of course also be integrated<br />

with operators' existing control<br />

systems.<br />

Save money with heat recovery<br />

As self-contained complete systems,<br />

modern rotary screw compressors,<br />

boosters and blowers are particularly<br />

well suited for heat recovery and the<br />

same applies for container stations.<br />

In particular, direct use of waste<br />

heat via an exhaust air duct system<br />

opens up considerable potential for<br />

recycling of used energy. The heated<br />

cooling air from the compressor can<br />

be used easily and effectively to heat<br />

neighbouring rooms via ventilation<br />

ducts, for example. Up to 96 percent<br />

of the electrical power supplied to a<br />

compressor can be used for space or<br />

process heating, which in turn saves<br />

costs and energy thereby increasing<br />

profitability.<br />

The compressor waste heat can<br />

also be used to generate hot water.<br />

Depending on the type of compressor,<br />

this brings further potential for<br />

significant savings.<br />

All-round care in a package<br />

Operators who do not wish to maintain<br />

the station themselves can also<br />

have it monitored remotely. This is<br />

possible if the station has an appro-<br />

98 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong>

Compressed air technology<br />

Container stations<br />

priately capable management system.<br />

If it does, then the operator can<br />

enter into the world of predictive<br />

maintenance. This feature enables<br />

far more than optimum operatortailored<br />

station control. By monitoring<br />

key figures such as service costs,<br />

reserve level and specific package in-<br />

put power, the user is presented with<br />

a holistic view of the compressed air<br />

system. This ultimately leads to reduced<br />

compressed air generation<br />

and operating costs, as well as improved<br />

compressed air availability.<br />

In addition, compressed air system<br />

energy and life cycle management is<br />

possible throughout the station's entire<br />

service life.<br />

Real-time data management combines<br />

expert knowledge with predictive<br />

service to create intelligent solutions.<br />

This makes it possible to<br />

provide maximum compressed air<br />

supply at low life cycle costs without<br />

the need for additional investment.<br />

Innovative compressed air solutions<br />

providers are able to offer this service<br />

and are happy to help anyone who is<br />

interested by giving them all of the information<br />

they need.<br />

Pay only for the compressed air<br />

Operators who wish to go one step<br />

further no longer purchase the entire<br />

compressed air station, but enter into<br />

a contract with the provider – and it<br />

goes without saying that this is also<br />

the case for container stations. In this<br />

arrangement, the operator simply receives<br />

compressed air in the same<br />

way as a common utility, such as electricity,<br />

and pays only for the actual<br />

volume of compressed air consumed.<br />

Conclusion<br />

Fig. 4+4.1: A master controller not only controls and monitors the station, but is also a prerequisite<br />

for additional services.<br />

Container solutions are a sensible<br />

alternative when things need to be<br />

done in a hurry, where space is tight<br />

or if there is a particular special requirement.<br />

They can usually be installed<br />

without special permits, are<br />

easy to operate and offer the same<br />

performance as a station housed inside<br />

a building. And if the plant layout<br />

of a production company changes,<br />

then the container can simply be<br />

moved or expanded with security of<br />

investment in mind.<br />

Fig. 5: Approximately 96 percent of the energy used to generate compressed air can be reused<br />

for heat recovery, for example<br />

The Authors:<br />

Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Gerhart Hobusch,<br />

Project Engineer,<br />

Dipl. Betriebswirtin Daniela Koehler,<br />

Press Officer; both of Kaeser<br />

Kompressoren, Coburg, Germany<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong><br />


<strong>Components</strong><br />

Novel valve technology<br />

Novel valve technology for<br />

oscillating displacement pumps<br />

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Eberhard Schlücker, Daniel M. Nägel, Dr. Peter Kugel, Philipp Werhan, Michael Feist<br />

Solid-liquid mixtures always pose<br />

challenges for oscillating displacement<br />

pumps – performance depends<br />

on the only wear part, the<br />

check valves, and their condition.<br />

The high dynamics of the opening<br />

and closing processes and the excessive<br />

stress on the materials lead<br />

to wear and tear. Additionally, the<br />

constructions are prone to malfunctions,<br />

which cannot be avoided with<br />

conventional designs. The patented<br />

valve design presented in this article<br />

was developed by FELUWA Pumpen<br />

GmbH together with iPAT Erlangen.<br />

The objective was to avoid known<br />

weak points/phenomena and to increase<br />

the service life of the pumps.<br />

Classic valve technology and<br />

their weak points<br />

Ball, cone and plate valves are most<br />

commonly used in process technology,<br />

with ring plate valves also being<br />

used occasionally (Fig. 1). All valve<br />

types can be optionally equipped<br />

with or without a spring.<br />

The ball valve without spring is<br />

a popular valve for abrasive suspensions,<br />

due to the even wear, as the<br />

ball keeps turning slightly due to the<br />

asymmetric inflow. In fact, the ball<br />

valve may still operate reliably even<br />

when the ball has lost 10 % or more<br />

of its diameter. For precise dosing applications,<br />

double ball valves (Fig. 2)<br />

are used. As the size of the valves increases,<br />

the sealing body is more likely<br />

to be spring loaded to reduce the<br />

closing delay of the valve, but this<br />

results in the loss of ball rotation,<br />

making the function similar to that<br />

of a cone valve. On the other hand,<br />

balls up to 300 mm in diameter are<br />

used for slurry pumps, though these<br />

are hollow balls in order to keep the<br />

closing energy reasonably small here.<br />

Fig. 2: Double ball valve for increased<br />

dosing accuracy<br />

Close-fitting guide ribs ensure that<br />

the ball closes precisely, but at the<br />

risk of larger particles in the slurry<br />

blocking the ball and ball guide. The<br />

stroke frequencies achievable with<br />

ball valves are applicable in the range<br />

up to approx. 180 min -1 and at medium<br />

viscosities.<br />

The plate valve is only designed<br />

without a spring in exceptional cases<br />

(small or very inexpensive pumps).<br />

The spring usually serves as a plate<br />

guide and thus allows for a guide-free<br />

and simple valve casing. The sealing<br />

body mass of a valve plate and with it<br />

the closing energy are relatively small,<br />

which allows for high stroke frequencies.<br />

The freedom in the movement<br />

of the plate caused by the spring<br />

guide often results in an uneven or<br />

non-rotationally symmetrical touchdown.<br />

This leads to valve chattering<br />

and the consequent wear, and suddenly<br />

a small step has to be bridged,<br />

thus allowing leakage currents. This<br />

problem is avoided by using clear and<br />

raised contact surfaces and resistant<br />

or hard materials. The danger of uneven<br />

closing remains, however.<br />

The larger the valves, the greater<br />

the effect of the disadvantages described,<br />

which is why cone valves<br />

are usually used for larger configurations.<br />

They are always spring- loaded<br />

and require guides. This alone results<br />

in the biggest problem of their con-<br />

Fig. 1: Valve types<br />

Ball valve<br />

Cone valve<br />

Plate valve<br />

100 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong>

<strong>Components</strong><br />

Novel valve technology<br />

struction: the guide needs to be narrow<br />

enough in order to function as<br />

such. The guide diameter is significantly<br />

smaller than the diameter<br />

of the cone plate. If a particle now<br />

gets under the cone, a large bending<br />

moment acts on the transition<br />

between the guide pin and the plate<br />

(step), which can lead to rupture. The<br />

same occurs when the guide is of<br />

low quality: the sealing body touches<br />

down asymmetrically and centrally<br />

slips into the end position.<br />

For this reason, reinforcement<br />

rings made of elastic materials are<br />

used in cone valves. These are chambered<br />

by the installation groove and<br />

mating surface inside the cone and<br />

can buffer the described attacks. At<br />

the same time, this design makes for<br />

optimum use of elastomers, which<br />

also provide a certain degree of wear<br />

resistance when used with slurry.<br />

Fig. 3: Cone valve with additional reinforcement<br />

ring as a buffer for the ensuing positioning<br />

errors.<br />

The above illustrates that a ball valve<br />

without a spring would actually be<br />

the ideal construction for slurry, were<br />

it not for the large mass of the ball<br />

(closing energy and stroke frequency<br />

limitation). On the other hand, plate<br />

valves would be ideal if not for the<br />

problems described. Furthermore,<br />

for designs with guides, there would<br />

have to be a way to buffer the trapping<br />

of particles. Cone valves have<br />

therefore proven to be the best<br />

choice for critical applications with<br />

high flow rates.<br />

The ideal valve<br />

In negative terms, the fluid valves<br />

commonly used today are a necessary<br />

evil. That is, unless a design is<br />

possible that allows for precise closing,<br />

combined with perfect guidance<br />

Fig. 4: Novel valve with spoked diaphragms<br />

where required. When equipped with<br />

two spoked diaphragm guide elements,<br />

this kind of valve is possible.<br />

Fig. 4 shows the ideal valve with<br />

two spoked diaphragms (orange<br />

shown), one above and one below<br />

the sealing body. The spokes are connected<br />

with inner elastomer rings<br />

for clamping positioning in the valve<br />

guide and outer rings that can serve<br />

as sealing elements for the valve<br />

casing. The spokes replace the spring<br />

and at the same time ensure perfect<br />

guidance.<br />

Fig. 5: Novel spoked valve after 900 h of<br />

operation in iron oxide slurry<br />

Initial operating experience with iron<br />

oxide slurry (Miller number 140) led<br />

to astonishing results. After 900<br />

hours of operation, there were little<br />

to no visible signs of wear on either<br />

the spoked diaphragms or the sealing<br />

area. High-speed camera recordings<br />

confirm that this can be attributed<br />

to the flawless guidance through the<br />

spoked diaphragms. This makes this<br />

new type of spoked valve superior to<br />

the previously listed valve types, as<br />

the described functional faults will no<br />

longer occur.<br />

Summary<br />

The presented valve with novel<br />

spoked diaphragm technology (European<br />

patent no. 3497333) represents<br />

an important advance for valve technology<br />

in oscillating displacement<br />

pumps as well as other applications,<br />

and is an optimal solution for pumping<br />

abrasive solid-liquid mixtures. In<br />

contrast to steel components, the<br />

spoked diaphragms made of elastomer<br />

do not show any noticeable<br />

wear, thus have a longer service life<br />

and are suitable for critical applications.<br />

The first long-term tests prove<br />

that the novel design will increase the<br />

availability of positive displacement<br />

pumps and reduce operating costs.<br />

The Authors:<br />

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Eberhard Schlücker,<br />

Friedrich-Alexander University<br />

Erlangen-Nuremberg, Institute of<br />

<strong>Process</strong> Machinery and Systems,<br />

Engineering (IPAT), Erlangen<br />

Daniel Nägel, Managing Director<br />

<strong>Technology</strong>, FELUWA Pumpen GmbH<br />

Dr. Peter Kugel, Product Design,<br />

FELUWA Pumpen GmbH<br />

Philipp Werhan, Product Design,<br />

FELUWA Pumpen GmbH<br />

Michael Feist, PhD student iPAT<br />

Erlangen, Germany<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong><br />


<strong>Components</strong><br />

Innovative double-seat valve<br />

Next level safety: How products<br />

and processes get safer with innovative<br />

valve technology<br />

Hygienic planning of the product<br />

flow and the cleaning process in<br />

the food, beverage and dairy industries<br />

is getting more and more complex<br />

for plant operators. As quality<br />

demands and production loads increase,<br />

process technology requirements<br />

are intensifying. The new mixproof<br />

double-seat valve from GEA is<br />

a good example of how manufacturers<br />

can get more peace of mind and<br />

more control by protecting their sensitive<br />

products and processes even<br />

when something goes wrong.<br />

To meet these challenges, the supplier<br />

has designed the double-seat valve<br />

with a cavity chamber featuring a vacuum<br />

self-drainage as well as balancers<br />

on both valve discs. The design<br />

protects products from contamination<br />

and mixing even under excessive<br />

loads and when other safeguards fail.<br />

“Safe hygienic production protects<br />

consumers and prevents expensive<br />

opposite pipeline while a valve seat is<br />

lifted or during cleaning, even if one<br />

seal is defective. “We’ve got physics<br />

on our side – and we don't need any<br />

extra components for this,” explains<br />

the senior product manager.<br />

Put simply, the Venturi effect<br />

occurs when the static pressure of<br />

a liquid is reduced at the narrowest<br />

point of a cross-section. When<br />

Hygienic reliability is pivotal for the<br />

future viability of production facilities<br />

in the dairy, food, beverage and<br />

pharmaceutical industries: Product<br />

integrity and increasingly stringent<br />

hygiene requirements are the strongest<br />

innovation drivers. With the new<br />

double-seat valve, GEA is giving process<br />

valve users the technical means<br />

to meet the strictest safety standards<br />

for tomorrow’s requirements.<br />

Fig. 2: The leakage chamber’s physically optimized design creates a negative pressure that<br />

directs escaping product to the periphery immediately and without risk of contamination if a<br />

seal fails (Venturi effect).<br />

Fig. 1: With its innovative technology, the<br />

new double-seat valve transcends established<br />

product safety requirements.<br />

(Photos © : GEA)<br />

product recalls and the ensuing losses,”<br />

says an expert in hygienic valve<br />

technology. “Founder Tuchenhagen’s<br />

invention of the double-seat valve was<br />

already a step towards maximizing<br />

product safety, even at that time. Now<br />

we’re deploying our new technology<br />

to meet the challenges facing manufacturing<br />

companies in the future.”<br />

Preventing mixing when seals fail<br />

Double-seat valves are inherently<br />

mixproof. The special design features<br />

of the valve generate the Venturi effect<br />

when the valve seat is lifted, creating<br />

a vacuum at the opposite seal.<br />

This prevents pressure build-up at<br />

both sealing areas on lifting. As a result,<br />

no cleaning fluid can enter the<br />

a product flows through a smoothwalled<br />

pipe, the flow velocity increases<br />

at the narrowed cross-sectional<br />

area, while the local pressure at<br />

this point drops. The Venturi effect<br />

is named after the 18 th century Italian<br />

physicist Giovanni Battista Venturi.<br />

His discovery is based on Bernoulli's<br />

principle, which describes the<br />

conservation of mechanical energy<br />

in inviscid fluid dynamics: The velocity<br />

of an incompressible fluid passing<br />

through a constriction must increase<br />

according to the principle of mass<br />

continuity, while its static pressure<br />

must decrease. If a fluid gains kinetic<br />

energy due to its increased velocity<br />

when it passes through a constriction,<br />

this will be compensated by a<br />

decrease in pressure.<br />

102 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong>

<strong>Components</strong><br />

Innovative double-seat valve<br />

Double balancers to counteract<br />

overpressure<br />

With new units being built and set<br />

up under increasing time pressure,<br />

the risk of pressure surges and other<br />

overpressure situations during operation<br />

is on the rise. “We have to make<br />

sure that if there are pressure surges,<br />

the valve discs don’t move unexpectedly<br />

and generate an error message,”<br />

explains the expert in hygienic valve<br />

technology. To solve this problem,<br />

the supplier has equipped the valve<br />

discs in both pipelines with balancers<br />

that counteract the product pressure.<br />

The lower balancer neutralizes<br />

the forces acting in the opening direction.<br />

The closed valve can withstand<br />

pressure surges of up to 50 bar.<br />

Fig. 4: Up to four feedback signals provide<br />

the operator with the assurance that the<br />

valve’s operating status is accurately documented<br />

at all times.<br />

tenance-free. This means that service<br />

intervals are longer and processes<br />

are interrupted less frequently.<br />

<strong>Process</strong> control with a valve unit<br />

To ensure maximum control, the hygiene<br />

concept includes the entire<br />

valve unit, including the control head.<br />

Using control heads, the supplier integrates<br />

the double-seat valves into<br />

the automation design features of<br />

the units. This lets the operators<br />

monitor the exact switching position<br />

as well as the positions of the valve at<br />

any time and provides full transparency<br />

of the valve functions, which in<br />

turn makes processes more reliable.<br />

So far, not all industries are using<br />

this valve unit with a valve and<br />

control head. The digital monitoring<br />

and control functions in particular<br />

are a basic prerequisite for Industry<br />

4.0-capable production lines. The<br />

supplier wants to encourage manufacturers<br />

to take this step because<br />

control heads have immense potential<br />

for predictive maintenance and<br />

process sustainability. Digital control<br />

heads would also help plant operators<br />

boost the traceability and verifiability<br />

of the hygienic process chain.<br />

Safe worldwide<br />

Fig. 3: The valve is fitted with specially shaped balancers in both pipes, so it remains stable<br />

in the closed position even when subjected to water hammers. It even stays fully functional if<br />

the medium expands thermally.<br />

Thanks to the design features of the<br />

mixproof valve type, the company<br />

has already been able to pass the<br />

Customized BASIC and<br />

PLUS variants<br />

The new valve is available in two versions:<br />

a PLUS option with all the latest<br />

features in one complete package<br />

and a more economical BASIC variant<br />

with a smaller range of functions,<br />

without a balancer cleaning device.<br />

This feature ensures that the lower<br />

balancer is completely flooded from<br />

the outside when the seat lifts during<br />

CIP cleaning. All surfaces in contact<br />

with the product can be cleaned without<br />

any additional components, and<br />

the product is also protected from<br />

contamination.<br />

In keeping with the standard<br />

valve product range, the actuator unit<br />

of the valves is designed to be main-<br />

Fig. 5: The hygienic design of all components ensures maximum valve cleaning efficiency,<br />

with automatic cleaning of the outer balancer when the valve disc is lifted off the seat.<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong><br />


<strong>Components</strong><br />

Innovative double-seat valve<br />

strict guidelines of the U.S. Pasteurized<br />

Milk Ordinance (PMO) of the<br />

Food and Drug Administration (FDA).<br />

The supplier was the first manufacturer<br />

to supply American dairies with<br />

these PMO double-seat valves, which<br />

allowed milk processors to operate<br />

24 hours a day because production<br />

and cleaning are able to run in parallel.<br />

The tried and tested principle of<br />

the 24/7 PMO valve is a feature that<br />

is consistently applied in the new<br />

valve line and will thus be extended<br />

to new industries and regions beyond<br />

the U.S. dairy farming sector. With its<br />

standard dimensions, it is designed<br />

for worldwide use and meets hygienic<br />

production specifications.<br />

Reinforced safety net<br />

“Protecting sensitive products is already<br />

a top priority. Even so, we’re<br />

seeing producers facing more challenging<br />

conditions: Production speeds<br />

are increasing, regulations are becoming<br />

stricter, end customers are more<br />

informed, new applications in the<br />

plant-based or even new-food sector<br />

have even higher hygiene requirements<br />

– and all these circumstances<br />

call for more comprehensive safety<br />

concepts,” the expert in hygienic valve<br />

technology explains. “The new valve<br />

with its smart elements eases the burden<br />

on plant operators who are responsible<br />

for safety. The valve is basically<br />

a reinforced safety net for our<br />

customers. This gives them the peace<br />

of mind of knowing every day that<br />

their product has a reliable quality<br />

and meets customer expectations in<br />

terms of appearance, taste and consistency.<br />

We’ve set our sights high<br />

for our new double-seat valve: What<br />

we're showcasing today could become<br />

best practice tomorrow and the<br />

standard at some point in the future.”<br />

Fig. 6: The actuators are designed to be maintenance-free. The robust design facilitates uninterrupted<br />

processing and saves valuable time and operating costs.<br />

Technical data<br />

Material in contact with product 1.4404 (AISI 316L)<br />

Material not in contact with product 1.4301 (AISI 304)<br />

Sealing material in contact with product<br />


Ambient temperature 0 to 45 °C<br />

Air supply pressure<br />

Product pressure<br />

Safety against pressure surges<br />

Surface in contact with product<br />

Exterior surface of housing<br />

6 bar (87 psi)<br />

10 bar (145 psi<br />

50 bar<br />

Ra ≤ 0.8 μm<br />

Matte blasted<br />

Control and feedback system T.VIS ® M-20, T.VIS ® A-15<br />

Actuator type<br />

Connection fittings<br />

Identification<br />

Valve seat design<br />

Certificates<br />

Pneumatic actuator air/spring<br />

Welding ends<br />

Adhesive tag<br />

Welded seat ring<br />

CE, EHEDG, FDA<br />

GEA<br />

Düsseldorf, Germany<br />

104 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong>

<strong>Components</strong><br />

Seals<br />

The very highest levels of precision,<br />

even with large diameters<br />

A special endless vulcanisation production method<br />

makes it possible to produce precision O-rings, even in<br />

extreme special sizes in accordance with ISO 3601.<br />

Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Michael Krüger<br />

The O-ring is the world's most frequently<br />

installed seal. But what<br />

should the user do if large-scale installations<br />

need to be sealed? In<br />

various sectors there is demand for<br />

"XXL O-rings", and the market generally<br />

has only technically limited<br />

solutions to offer here.<br />

It can be very unsatisfactory for a design<br />

engineer or user when standard<br />

precision O-rings can no longer be<br />

used in an application over a particular<br />

size because the market simply<br />

has no high-quality technical solutions<br />

to offer. Technical downgrading<br />

is a bad choice in these cases<br />

because installing a technically inferior<br />

seal will either not satisfy the<br />

requirements of the application or<br />

mean a drastic reduction in the service<br />

life of the seal and a shorter replacement<br />

interval.<br />

In sealing technology, a distinction<br />

is made between O-rings made<br />

of extruded cord and precision O-<br />

rings. Both are used across a very<br />

wide range of industrial sectors. But<br />

only precision O-rings are capable of<br />

satisfying the most stringent requirements.<br />

However, economically viable<br />

production has to date only been<br />

possible up to a maximum diameter<br />

of approx. 1,400 mm. An innovative<br />

method now means that it is possible<br />

to produce larger diameter O-rings at<br />

a fair market price.<br />

Precision O-rings are seals with a<br />

circular cross-section which are made<br />

in special tools that use compression<br />

or injection methods to vulcanise<br />

carefully calibrated rubber mixtures.<br />

This makes it possible to produce O-<br />

rings within relatively narrow production<br />

tolerances and with good<br />

surface properties. The precision<br />

O-rings made in this way are graded<br />

in accordance with the ISO 3601 only this, but it is also extremely difameter<br />

of more than 1,400 mm. Not<br />

standard with the appropriate grading,<br />

which is either N or S. Based on and hard to carry out the subsequent<br />

ficult to handle such big tool moulds<br />

previously defined vulcanisation parameters,<br />

which can be exactly ad-<br />

diameter in a manner consistent with<br />

work on the O-ring across its entire<br />

hered to, compression and injection the standard. This is why most manufacturers<br />

do not offer O-rings with a<br />

methods can be used to manufacture<br />

O-rings which demonstrate invariably diameter of more than 1,400 mm.<br />

high mechanical quality levels across<br />

their entire circumference. It is only Growing demand<br />

with this high quality level that good<br />

sealing values can be achieved over a The demand for high-quality precision<br />

O-rings with internal diameters<br />

long period in actual use.<br />

However, this method does not over 1,400 mm has, however, steadily<br />

increased in recent years. The mar-<br />

make it possible to produce O-rings of<br />

any size economically. This is because ket is essentially dominated by two<br />

of the enormous amount of work and methods: to create O-rings of the required<br />

size, extruded round cords are<br />

associated expense required to make<br />

a tool which would bear no relation joined, either through gluing or shock<br />

to the reasonable market price that vulcanisation of the ends of the cords<br />

the manufacturer of this kind of precision<br />

O-ring would be able to ask the In the case of glued O-rings, the cord<br />

in a process that is mostly unreliable.<br />

customer to pay. This generally applies<br />

to any O-ring with an internal di-<br />

shock vulcanised O-rings, the cord<br />

ends are joined using adhesive. With<br />

Fig. 1: O-ring made using the endless vulcanisation method (Photo © : COG)<br />

106 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2022</strong>

<strong>Components</strong><br />

Seals<br />

either not at all or only to a very limited<br />

extent.<br />

Innovative production method<br />

Fig. 2: 4000 l vacuum chamber (type: process chamber for PECVD) from EDIS Anlagenbau<br />

GmbH (Photo © : EDIS Anlagenbau GmbH)<br />

The independent producer C. Otto<br />

Gehrckens has established an additional<br />

production method alongside<br />

compression and injection processes.<br />

This special endless vulcanisation<br />

production method makes it possible<br />

to produce precision O-rings with an<br />

internal diameter of up to 3,000 mm.<br />

These comply with the specifications<br />

of the ISO 3601 standard for precision<br />

O-rings. The company is currently<br />

offering O-rings produced using<br />

endless vulcanisation in various FKM,<br />

HNBR and NBR qualities with internal<br />

diameters ranging from 1,400 to<br />

3,000 mm. Greater cord thicknesses<br />

or larger internal diameters are also<br />

possible by arrangement. In this way<br />

the company has already succeeded<br />

ends are held together in special devices<br />

and then hot vulcanised with a<br />

suitable adhesive mixture.<br />

The disadvantages of these two<br />

processes are the significantly inferior<br />

physical properties of the shock vulcanised/glued<br />

area. For instance, the<br />

adhesive never has the same physical<br />

or chemically resistant properties<br />

as the seal material itself. With shock<br />

vulcanisation, this area of the material<br />

likewise has properties that differ<br />

from, and are not of the same high<br />

quality as, the rest of the O-ring. In<br />

technically challenging applications,<br />

this area is declared, as it were, to be<br />

a predetermined breaking point.<br />

A further disadvantage which is<br />

not insignificant for the user lies in<br />

the significantly greater tolerances<br />

of the round cords which are glued<br />

together or shock vulcanised. Compared<br />

to compression-moulded precision<br />

O-rings in accordance with ISO<br />

3601, these round cords reveal clear<br />

differences in dimensional stability<br />

and surface composition. This is because<br />

the process used in the production<br />

of round cords necessarily<br />

entails higher tolerances, due to the<br />

fact that the cord thickness increases<br />

at the point of exit from the extrusion<br />

jet and shrinkage and a certain resultant<br />

amount of deformation generally<br />

Fig. 3: Steam steriliser (Photo © : iStock_TotoRuga)<br />

occur during the subsequent vulcanisation<br />

process. This results in inferior<br />

sealing properties, particularly<br />

in those seals which are intended to<br />

have a longer service life. Moreover,<br />

in producing an FKM O-ring with an<br />

internal diameter of 6,000 mm.<br />

The O-rings manuf