Maintworld Magazine 1/2022

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1/<strong>2022</strong> maintworld.com<br />

maintenance & asset management<br />

Reliability in<br />

Maintenance<br />

p 28<br />

The Hellenic<br />

Maintenance<br />

Society<br />

of Greece<br />

p 40<br />

Teaching<br />

and Learning<br />

Energy-<br />

Efficiency<br />

p 22<br />

The<br />

Digital<br />

Butterfly Effect on<br />

Maintenance p 10


It is Certain that<br />

Nothing is Certain<br />

THE ENERGY STRATEGIES of many countries<br />

and economies will see a switch from fossil<br />

fuels to renewable energy sources in the decades<br />

to come. Dramatic developments in the<br />

situation in Eastern Europe will have fundamental<br />

consequences for energy supplies and<br />

prices.<br />

We can expect that European countries<br />

will further diversify their energy product<br />

supply chains and will prioritize energy independence<br />

as regards to supplies from outside,<br />

which may further accelerate the trend for<br />

using renewable energy sources.<br />

It is therefore clear that in energy production,<br />

supplies and consumption even greater<br />

emphasis will be placed on minimizing any production<br />

losses, while modern technologies will<br />

be deployed with the aim of maximizing output<br />

and reducing total energy production costs.<br />

THE CRUCIAL FACTOR in this regard is the<br />

ability to have an immediate overview of the<br />

state of resources, a possibility to effectively<br />

evaluate changes in the trend of available<br />

resources and, in the process of maintaining<br />

them, a chance to plan and implement corrective<br />

measures to minimize unscheduled outages.<br />

Besides increasing machine reliability,<br />

making optimal use of machines can reduce<br />

energy consumption. For instance, by correctly<br />

adjusting the optical settings of rotary<br />

machine shafts, energy consumption can be<br />

cut by as much as 17 percent.<br />

Nowadays, the technology used to monitor<br />

machines can detect mechanical faults while<br />

the machine is running, with no need to disassemble<br />

the equipment. This means that not<br />

only can undesirable faults be avoided, but<br />

the operation of the machine can also be optimized,<br />

resulting in a potential reduction in<br />

the consumption of energy and the lubricants<br />

used to reduce friction on metal surfaces, and<br />

extending the lifetime of the associated machine<br />

components.<br />

THE DIGITALIZATION in machinery maintenance<br />

made available techniques for monitoring<br />

the status of machine and subsequently<br />

evaluating operating data. The investment<br />

needed to purchase these technologies is far<br />

lower now than what it was ten years ago,<br />

thus, a wide range of machines can be efficiently<br />

monitored. However, for certain<br />

sectors the costs of purchasing and maintaining<br />

these systems are still factors that hinder<br />

their implementation.<br />

The business environment is becoming ever<br />

less predictable. Manufacturing companies<br />

are carefully considering each investment and<br />

its return. This means that we are seeing more<br />

and more business models where the investor<br />

has full control over the financial aspects<br />

of the project. Rather than spending CAPEX,<br />

just pay as you go for outputs at regular intervals<br />

when the agreed KPIs are achieved. Can<br />

you imagine paying a monthly fee for the reliability<br />

and low energy consumption of rotary<br />

machines?<br />

Tomáš Kozelský, SKF CZ<br />

REP-Center Eastern Europe Manager<br />

Service Manager - Czech Republic, Slovakia<br />

We can expect<br />

that European<br />

countries will<br />

further diversify<br />

their energy<br />

product supply<br />

chains and<br />

prioritize energy<br />

independence.<br />

Issued by Promaint (Finnish Maintenance Society), Messuaukio 1, 00520 Helsinki, Finland, tel. +358 29 007 4570 Publisher Omnipress Oy,<br />

Väritehtaankatu 8, 4. kerros, 01300 Vantaa, tel. +358 20 6100, omnipress.fi Editor-in-chief Nina Garlo-Melkas, tel. +358 50 36 46 491, nina.garlo@media.fi<br />

Advertisements Tuija Hellman, Sales Director, tel. + 358 (0)50 3822 008, tuija.hellman@media.fi. Tiia Heikkilä, Sales Director, tel. +358 (0)40 351 784,<br />

tiia.heikkilla@media.fi Layout Menu Meedia, www.menuk.ee Subscriptions and change of address members toimisto@kunnossapito.fi, non-members<br />

tilaajapalvelu@media.fi Printed by Reusner, www.reusner.ee Frequency 4 issues per year, ISSN L 1798-7024, ISSN 1798-7024 (print), ISSN 1799-8670 (online).

Monitoring the creepfatigue<br />

of pressurised<br />

components saves<br />

operating and<br />

maintenance costs.<br />

16<br />

Metal<br />

components in chemical plants are<br />

often exposed to high temperatures or<br />

cyclic pressure and temperature loads,<br />

making them increasingly vulnerable to<br />

material fatigue.<br />

2 Editorial<br />

10<br />

14<br />

16<br />

The Digital Butterfly<br />

Effect on Maintenance<br />

Improving Safety by Using<br />

Ultrasound for Gas Leak Detection<br />

Reliable Monitoring<br />

of Pressurised Components<br />

20 Confucius –<br />

the Maintenance Manager<br />

22<br />

24<br />

26<br />

28<br />

32<br />

Teaching and Learning<br />

Energy-Efficiency<br />

Reality Centered Maintenance<br />

Management RCMM<br />

Industrial Maintenance<br />

in the Age of Industry 5.0<br />

Reliability in Maintenance<br />

The significance of Maintenance<br />

Body of Knowledge<br />

26<br />

The term INDUSTRY 5.0<br />

is still relatively new<br />

for many despite the<br />

fact that it was launched<br />

already more than six<br />

years ago.<br />

4 maintworld 1/<strong>2022</strong>

In this<br />

issue<br />

1/<strong>2022</strong><br />

36<br />

Corporate<br />

leadership should<br />

support building the Process<br />

Guide by including plant<br />

leadership experts.<br />

=<br />

40<br />

The<br />

Hellenic Maintenance<br />

Society was founded in 2007,<br />

but even before that, an annual<br />

maintenance conference<br />

“Maintenance Forum” was held<br />

in Greece, paving the way for<br />

the establishmentof Greece’s<br />

own Society.<br />

36<br />

40<br />

Modern Production Lines from<br />

Industrial Side Streams<br />

The Hellenic Maintenance Society<br />

of Greece emphasizes the social<br />

role of maintenance<br />

36<br />

In<br />

the future, human<br />

economies and industries<br />

should be integrated with the<br />

natural ecosystems.<br />

1/<strong>2022</strong> maintworld 5

In short<br />

The European Union has estimated that requiring<br />

new motors to provide at least IE3 premium<br />

efficiency will save 110 TWh annually by 2030.<br />

This is equivalent to 40 million tons of CO 2<br />

emissions and €20 billion in energy bills per year.<br />

New European Network<br />

for the Assessment<br />

of Risk from Chemicals<br />

THE EU is launching the Partnership for the<br />

Assessment of Risk from Chemicals (PARC) programme<br />

with a focus on chemical risk assessment.<br />

The partnership programme will establish<br />

an EU-wide competence network to support<br />

risk assessment and risk management authorities<br />

with current, trending and future challenges<br />

related to chemical safety. The Finnish parties<br />

involved are the Finnish Institute of Occupational<br />

Health, the Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare,<br />

the University of Oulu, the Finnish Food<br />

Authority, the Finnish Environment Institute and<br />

the Finnish Safety and Chemicals Agency.<br />

The PARC programme will develop shared and<br />

improved chemical risk assessment practices that<br />

can be applied in administrative chemical risk<br />

assessment.<br />

– In a risk assessment, it is important to consider<br />

the combined effects of different similarly<br />

acting substances and combined exposures from<br />

multiple sources, such as work-related exposures<br />

and exposure related to nutrition and consumer<br />

products. This support also EU “one substance<br />

one assessment” goals, says Research Professor<br />

Tiina Santonen from the Finnish Institute of<br />

Occupational Health, who specialises in occupational<br />

toxicology.<br />

An additional goal is to<br />

improve the flow of information<br />

from institutions that carry<br />

out risk assessments to authorities<br />

and decision-makers. This<br />

supports the protection of the<br />

environment and public health<br />

in Europe. The programme also<br />

makes it possible to reinforce<br />

the public’s trust in organizations<br />

responsible for risk assessments<br />

and risk management.<br />

The network will be launched as part of the<br />

Horizon Europe programme. The network consists<br />

of about 200 organizations throughout<br />

Europe. The project is co-ordinated by the French<br />

Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational<br />

Health & Safety (ANSES).<br />

The network will be<br />

launched as part of<br />

the Horizon Europe<br />

programme.<br />

6 maintworld 1/<strong>2022</strong>

2026<br />

Amid the COVID-19 crisis, the global market for Water Testing<br />

and Analysis estimated at US$3.2 billion in the year 2020,<br />

is projected to reach US$4.3 Billion by 2026.<br />

Hydrogen Generation<br />

Market Size Worth<br />

$184.23 Billion By 2028<br />

THE GLOBAL HYDROGEN generation market size is expected to reach<br />

USD 184.23 billion by 2028 according to a recent study by Polaris Market<br />

Research.<br />

The increasing use of the product in the areas of chemical processing<br />

along with fuel cells and oil and refinery will be the major forces behind the<br />

rapid growth of the global industry during the forecast period. The emergence<br />

of the green product will provide an opportunity for the further<br />

growth of this industry over the coming years.<br />

Fuel cells are being promoted worldwide as they have applications in<br />

electric cars and power production on a small scale for commercial buildings.<br />

Desulfurization will be another significant factor that will drive the growth<br />

of this industry over the coming years.<br />

Steam methane reforming is a widely used technology for production.<br />

In contrast, technologies such as water electrolysis are emerging technologies<br />

due to their ability to produce green products without the emission of<br />

greenhouse gases in traditional technologies such as steam methane reforming<br />

and coal gasification.<br />

Global Water Testing and Analysis<br />

Market to Reach US$4.3 Billion by<br />

the Year 2026<br />

ACCORDING to the "Water Testing and Analysis - Global Market<br />

Trajectory & Analytics" -report conducted by ResearchAndMarkets.<br />

com, the rapid pace of urbanization in emerging countries is also<br />

driving the need for water treatment management solutions.<br />

Another factor driving demand is the replacement of aging<br />

water infrastructure in developed markets including North<br />

America and Europe.<br />

Amid the COVID-19 crisis, the global market for Water Testing<br />

and Analysis estimated at US$3.2 Billion in the year 2020, is<br />

projected to reach a revised size of US$4.3 Billion by 2026,<br />

growing at a CAGR (Compound Annual Growth Rate) of 5.1 percent<br />

over the analysis period.<br />

Global Digital Twins<br />

Market to Reach US$35.5<br />

Billion by the Year 2026<br />

DIGITAL TWIN TECHNOLOGY is an advanced<br />

concept that bridges the gap between digital and<br />

physical worlds to help users coordinate and consolidate<br />

product lifecycle management.<br />

The Digital Twins market in the U.S. is estimated<br />

at US$2.6 Billion in the year 2020. The country<br />

currently accounts for a 39.6 percent share in the<br />

global market. China, the world`s second largest<br />

economy, is forecast to reach an estimated market<br />

size of US$6.5 Billion in the year 2026 trailing a<br />

CAGR of 51.4 percent through the analysis period.<br />

Among the other noteworthy geographic markets<br />

are Japan and Canada, each forecast to grow<br />

at 30.9 percent and 37.6 percent respectively over<br />

the analysis period. Within Europe, Germany is<br />

forecast to grow at approximately 32.3 percent<br />

CAGR while Rest of European market (as defined in<br />

the study) will reach US$3.8 Billion by the end of<br />

the analysis period.<br />

North America represents the largest regional<br />

market for digital twins, attributed to among others<br />

massive investments in research and development<br />

activities, presence of a large number of digital<br />

twin vendors, and significant developments and<br />

early adoption of advanced digital technologies,<br />

including digital twin, 3D printing, edge analytics,<br />

and smart sensors, in the region. Growth in Asia-<br />

Pacific region is attributed to the dense population,<br />

rising per capita income with large-scale urbanization<br />

and industrialization, and growing adoption of<br />

IoT technology, primarily in countries, such as China,<br />

India, South Korea, and Japan, a study shows.<br />

North America<br />

represents the<br />

largest regional<br />

market for digital twins.<br />

1/<strong>2022</strong> maintworld 7

IN SHORT<br />

International<br />

PulPaper<br />

Rescheduled<br />

to June<br />

STRING Facilitates Green<br />

Transition in the European<br />

Transport Sector<br />

LOCAL AND REGIONAL governments in Germany, Denmark, Sweden, and Norway together<br />

with six private companies have applied for EU/CEF funding to support a connected<br />

network of hydrogen fuelling stations from Hamburg to Oslo.<br />

The alternatives to fossil fuels are already here, and hydrogen fuel cell technology<br />

brings hope for a zero-emission revolution in road transport. STRING members are now<br />

planning to invest in the fuelling network that will make it all possible.<br />

A hydrogen vehicle refuels in 5-12 minutes, making it possible to transport goods and<br />

people without the logistical challenges of charging battery-operated alternatives. Moreover,<br />

hydrogen vehicles are silent, and their only by-product is water. However, to make hydrogen<br />

fuels a reliable alternative to petrol and diesel, we must make it available. This requires<br />

the establishment of fuelling infrastructure,<br />

STRING organisation notes.<br />

To solve the issue of fuelling infrastructure,<br />

STRING members and six private companies<br />

have initiated a cross-border public/<br />

private partnership to invest in a series of<br />

hydrogen fuelling stations, with the help of<br />

EU funding.<br />

If approved, the project GREATER4H<br />

will accelerate the deployment of hydrogen<br />

vehicles in the entire megaregion and<br />

make Northern Europe a global frontrunner<br />

in the green transition of road transport.<br />

The private partners – Denmarks’ Everfuel,<br />

Norway’s Hynion and Germany’s GP<br />

To make hydrogen<br />

fuels a reliable<br />

alternative to petrol<br />

and diesel, we must<br />

make it available.<br />

JOULE – will build and operate the refuelling stations, while Quantron from Germany will<br />

among other responsibilities supply hydrogen vehicles in different weight categories.<br />

The GREATER4H -project will act as catalyst in speeding up deliveries of hydrogen<br />

vehicles from vehicles manufacturers. In addition, Denmark’s Ørsted and RENOVA from<br />

Sweden have joined the project as associated partners.<br />

– A zero-emission transport sector is only possible with a zero-emission fuelling network.<br />

If we succeed, Greater4H will be a great leap forward for the green transition, and<br />

it will illustrate how we can achieve a full decarbonization of road transport, Minister<br />

of Justice, European Affairs and Consumer Protection, Claus Christian Claussen said in a<br />

statement.<br />


<strong>2022</strong> -event that is organised at Helsinki<br />

Expo and Convention Centre<br />

has been rescheduled from March to<br />

June due to challenges surrounding<br />

the Covid situation. The three-day<br />

event will be held from 7–9 June<br />

<strong>2022</strong> at Helsinki Expo and Convention<br />

Centre.<br />

Pulpaper <strong>2022</strong> was to take place<br />

29–31 March <strong>2022</strong>. However, many<br />

companies still have travel bans in<br />

early spring.<br />

– The forest industry’s PulPaper<br />

has previously been held in June, so<br />

the new date is excellent, says Business<br />

Manager Marcus Bergström at<br />

Helsinki Expo and Convention Centre.<br />

– After a long break, we want<br />

to organise a meeting place where<br />

visitors have the possibility to study<br />

developments within the forestry<br />

branch, new products, and information,<br />

he adds.<br />

Underhållsmässan<br />

Moved to a New Date<br />

DUE TO COVID19-restrictions the new dates<br />

for Underhållsmässan have been set to 31<br />

May – 3 June <strong>2022</strong>. The event will be held in<br />

in Gothenburg, Sweden.<br />

Underhåll ”the Maintenance Trade Fair and<br />

Conference” – is Europe’s largest and fastest<br />

growing meeting place covering all aspects<br />

of industrial operations and maintenance. An<br />

industry-wide forum where technicians and<br />

decision makers right across the maintenance<br />

value chain can see the technology of the<br />

future and share experiences.<br />

8 maintworld 1/<strong>2022</strong>

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The Digital Butterfly<br />

Effect on Maintenance<br />

Prediction is very difficult,<br />

especially the future!<br />

Maintenance engineers,<br />

managers and researchers<br />

agree that predicting the future<br />

state of a system or equipment<br />

is the holy grail of maintenance<br />

and has a long-lasting impact<br />

on the system performance and<br />

the outcome of the business.<br />

One of the main pillars of science and<br />

technology is determinism i.e., the possibility<br />

of prediction. This means that<br />

we try to lay the foundations of complex<br />

systems and unravel the laws of mechanics, electromagnetism<br />

and other branches of science, by<br />

offering a tool that enables predictions.<br />

Given a mechanical system, be it a machine tool or<br />

a vehicle, one can write down the equations governing<br />

their way of functioning and potential degradation. If<br />

one knows the present condition and operation of the<br />

10 maintworld 1/<strong>2022</strong>


system, one should simply solve a bunch of<br />

equations in order to determine the future<br />

condition and operational status. Of course,<br />

solving equations is not always a simple matter<br />

and sometimes we need numerical analysis<br />

and other simplification tools, but this<br />

implies at least the principle of determinism.<br />

The present situation determines the future<br />

and therefore predictive maintenance, and<br />

prognosis of systems and components is<br />

built on the basis of this determinism.<br />

Sensitivity to Initial Conditions<br />

In determinism there is one missing ingredient<br />

that cannot be neglected: The initial conditions.<br />

In predictive maintenance we claim<br />

that same causes will always produce the<br />

same effects trying to identify root causes<br />

to mitigate the risk of potential undesired<br />

effects. However, we must define what we<br />

mean by the same causes and the same effects,<br />

since it is manifest that no event ever<br />

happens more than once, so that the causes<br />

and effects cannot be the same in all respects.<br />

Indeed, when we say ‘That cause produces<br />

those effects’, this is only true when<br />

small variations in the initial circumstances<br />

produce only small variations in the final<br />

state of the system. In a great many physical<br />

phenomena this condition is satisfied;<br />

but there are other cases in which a small<br />

initial variation may produce a great change<br />

in the final state of the system, as when the<br />

displacement of shafts or gears in rotating<br />

equipment after a minor adjustment<br />

produce an extremely different vibration<br />

pattern and makes the maintenance analyst<br />

totally crazy.<br />

Prognosis and chaotic<br />

butterflies<br />

Can we conclude that if a tiny change of direction<br />

of a parameter is sufficient to cause<br />

a variation of the final outcome then pre-<br />

Little world<br />

= your model + data<br />

Event 1<br />


Event 2<br />


Model says<br />

something<br />

diction is not possible? So far, the idea that<br />

some physical systems could be complicated<br />

and sensitive to small variations of the initial<br />

conditions—making predictions impossible<br />

in practice deserves the attention of the<br />

maintenance and reliability community.<br />

Thanks to Lorenz, Poincare and others,<br />

we are aware of systems and characteristics<br />

that increase the vulnerability of our predictions<br />

and compromise our way of performing<br />

prognosis. If a single flap of a butterfly’s<br />

wing can be instrumental in generating a<br />

tornado, so all the previous and subsequent<br />

flaps of its wings introduce continuous distortions<br />

in the predictions and they are not<br />

discrete ones.<br />

Predicting the<br />

future state of a<br />

system or equipment<br />

is the holy grail of<br />

maintenance.<br />

Therefore, predictability is sensitive<br />

to the uncertainty in the initial condition<br />

and without knowledge of such conditions<br />

prediction might be rubbish and wellknown<br />

deterministic systems can be very<br />

unpredictable: small errors in the initial<br />

condition can grow exponentially in time.<br />

This phenomenon, now known colloquially<br />

as the butterfly effect, is clearly influencing<br />

predictive maintenance performance since<br />

our forecasts are impacted by chaos theory.<br />

This influence creates the so-called term<br />

prognosis obstruction i.e., the prognosis horizon<br />

where our predictions are acceptable<br />

in terms on uncertainty. This concept implies<br />

that not all timelines are valid for predictability.<br />

Predictability is often quantified<br />

Big world<br />

= entire reality<br />

Conclusion is<br />

drawn<br />

Action is taken<br />

in BIG WORLD<br />

in terms of the growth rate of errors in the<br />

initial condition. We can compute the time<br />

needed for small errors in the initial condition<br />

to double in size. In this way, a different<br />

growth rate of initial conditions will modify<br />

prediction. Therefore, prediction of failures<br />

in times close to the time of origin will be<br />

difficult due to our ignorance about initial<br />

conditions; in short, do not try to predict the<br />

next second of a vibration if you do not really<br />

know all boundaries and initial conditions.<br />

In the long-term the situation is similar;<br />

growth rates in the initial conditions show<br />

that for longer lead times the error growth<br />

follows a power law which systematically<br />

depends on the initial size of the error. For<br />

even longer lead times the error will be large.<br />

This unfortunately means that long term<br />

prediction make no sense and our prognosis<br />

horizon has some time range where predictive<br />

maintenance can be performed, and<br />

prognostics delivered. Again, do no try to<br />

predict a vibration in five years because an<br />

error in the prediction will kill any outcome<br />

of your algorithm.<br />

The digital butterfly and digital<br />

transformation<br />

The butterfly effect is a concept that small,<br />

seemingly trivial events may ultimately<br />

result in something with much larger consequences,<br />

in simple words, it may have<br />

a non-linear impact on a very complex<br />

system. Butterfly effect and chaos theory<br />

are in existence much earlier than digital<br />

transformation and the impacts of the above<br />

mentioned in digitized maintenance is even<br />

more dramatic. Digital transformation in<br />

maintenance has been a very complex process,<br />

and a fundamental aspect of Industry<br />

4.0 requires digitization and digitalization<br />

extended throughout the industries, making<br />

all sectors instrumented, interconnected<br />

and intelligent to some extent where every<br />

player both affects and is affected by the<br />

other players in the digital ecosystem.<br />

New maintenance models are emerging<br />

all the time in different sectors, with digital<br />

transformation as a key underlying factor.<br />

Indeed, Digital transformation means going<br />

beyond digitization so it is not simply<br />

about applying new technologies to old<br />

maintenance processes. That is why digital<br />

transformation tries to confront the annoying<br />

butterfly effect and its limitation which<br />

is "the Sword of Damocles" when forecasting<br />

failures. Is there a chance to get rid of this<br />

effect thanks to the 4th industrial revolution<br />

and smart application of Industrial AI?<br />

In this connected and instrumented<br />

industrial world, maintenance has found<br />

1/<strong>2022</strong> maintworld 11


new opportunities arising from unexpected<br />

connections and dependencies between<br />

assets within an industry or from different<br />

industrial sectors. Indeed, failure forecasting<br />

capabilities have increased dramatically<br />

thanks to the availability of huge amounts<br />

of disparate data being able to be fused and<br />

merged so predictions do not depend on<br />

one-dimension datasets anymore.<br />

Confronting the digital<br />

butterfly with AI<br />

The industries have been exposed to digital<br />

disruption during the whole industry 4.0<br />

decade, even though they have different<br />

levels of innovation. Maintenance has not<br />

changed and the function of maintenance<br />

has been under the spotlight to be reinvented<br />

and increase performance by using all<br />

the enabling technologies such as AI, IoT,big<br />

data, machine learning etc., whether the<br />

customers are the same or different. This<br />

will make our industrial assets more robust<br />

and resilient. This maintenance transformation<br />

has combined the traditional problems<br />

and tools with other newcomers to the sector<br />

with a hybrid approach as the outcome<br />

where tradition combines high tech. This<br />

is rather unique since maintenance has not<br />

been demolished by digital tools to create a<br />

new maintenance or define a new paradigm,<br />

but has been refurbished keeping key elements<br />

and ways of working powered by new<br />

technologies and creating a new way to do<br />

business in a natural way. Indeed, unsolved<br />

issues such as prognosis obstruction are<br />

benefited from upcoming technologies.<br />

We have seen that for decades the chaos<br />

theory states that “the flutter of a butterfly’s<br />

wing in one specific location can cause an<br />

Prognosis in<br />

the long term<br />

and short term<br />

are in actual fact<br />

compromised with<br />

chaos theory.<br />

earthquake far away”. Talking in terms of industrial<br />

systems we can conclude that as per<br />

the chaos theory, a very tiny change in one industry<br />

can cause big changes in a system level<br />

which are most likely negative, especially in<br />

terms of a lack of predictability and prognosis<br />

obstruction popping up as a limiting barrier<br />

for predictive maintenance. This means that<br />

digital ecosystems are fragile in terms of performance<br />

due to a potential digital butterfly<br />

flapping its wings, producing small change<br />

in a player and leading to disruption across<br />

other players and other industries. A single<br />

digital wing beat could make maintenance<br />

prediction meaningless and could compromise<br />

the whole maintenance strategy making<br />

a traditional company’s long-standing<br />

approach towards maintenance of no value<br />

at a time threatening their existence – a classic<br />

case is rail track in UK. Maintenance in a<br />

highly instrumented and connected industrial<br />

sector can be a victim of chaos theory<br />

where the “butterfly effect” makes long-term<br />

prediction impossible or at least less reliable.<br />

Even the smallest perturbation to a complex<br />

system can touch off a series of events that<br />

leads to a dramatically divergent future. The<br />

inability to pin down the state of these systems<br />

precisely enough to predict how they<br />

will play out, means we live under a veil of<br />

uncertainty.<br />

Artificial intelligence is supporting<br />

maintenance to overcome this issue and<br />

make predictions feasible and certain, but<br />

we need to deeply review our prediction<br />

methods. The usual approach to predicting<br />

a chaotic or unknown situation is to measure<br />

its conditions at one moment as accurately<br />

as possible, use this data to calibrate a<br />

physical model, and then evolve the model<br />

forward. That is why machine learning is “a<br />

very useful and powerful approach,”. Deep<br />

learning, while being more complicated and<br />

computationally intensive than traditional<br />

machine learning algorithms, will also work<br />

well for tackling chaos. However, to confront<br />

the butterfly effect you really need to be sure<br />

that your model is big enough comprising<br />

the boundary and initial conditions of your<br />

system. If by mistake we miss in our little<br />

model a relevant part of the influencing reality<br />

on the system, we will be totally blind to<br />

perceive any variation of such reality in my<br />

model and therefore prediction will not only<br />

be inaccurate but erroneous.<br />

Prognosis in the long term and short<br />

term are in actual fact compromised with<br />

chaos theory. The shorter it is, the touchier<br />

or more prone to the butterfly effect a system<br />

is, with similar states departing more<br />

rapidly for disparate futures. The longer it is,<br />

a growing error makes the prediction totally<br />

uncertain and erroneous. Chaotic systems<br />

are everywhere in industry, and can go haywire<br />

relatively quickly. Yet strangely, chaos<br />

itself is hard to pin down. It is controversial<br />

when people start saying something is chaotic<br />

and more so when we talk about chaos<br />

in our failure forecasting, but it grabs people’s<br />

attention while having no agreed-upon<br />

mathematical definition or necessary and<br />

sufficient conditions. It is not easy; in some<br />

cases, tuning a single parameter of a system<br />

can make it go from chaotic to stable or vice<br />

versa. The only solution to keep up with<br />

such complexity therefore, is to be sure that<br />

the model for prediction you are using is big<br />

enough and you do not neglect relevant facts<br />

or contextual properties which may modify<br />

substantively the behaviour of your system<br />

without noticing.<br />

The digital butterfly effects will be more<br />

visible as more and more industrial systems<br />

and associated maintenance processes are<br />

digitalized and go through the digital transformation.<br />

The task of prediction of failures<br />

and other unwanted events will be faced<br />

with new challenges both from an engineering<br />

and business point of view.<br />


• Lorenz, E. (1961). Chaos theory.<br />

• Galar, D., Goebel, K., Sandborn, P., & Kumar, U. (2021). Prognostics and Remaining Useful Life (RUL) Estimation: Predicting with Confidence. CRC Press.<br />

12 maintworld 1/<strong>2022</strong>




Leak Detection<br />

Bearing Condition Monitoring<br />

Bearing Lubrication<br />

Steam Traps & Valves<br />

Electrical Inspection<br />


CAT & CAT II Ultrasound Training<br />

Onsite Implementation Training<br />

Application Specific Training<br />


Free support & license-free software<br />

Online Courses<br />

Free access to our Learning Center<br />

(webinars, articles, tutorials)<br />


www.uesystems.com<br />

info@uesystems.com<br />




Improving Safety by<br />

Using Ultrasound for<br />

Gas Leak Detection<br />

Leaks can form practically anywhere in<br />

a plant. Detecting and repairing these<br />

leaks is extremely important in any<br />

industrial facility. Some gases, when<br />

leaking, can present a serious safety<br />

hazard, especially flammable gases.<br />

Ultrasound technology is one of the best<br />

tools available to detect even very small<br />

leaks. We will explain in this article how<br />

Ultrasound can be used to detect gas<br />

leaks and avoid safety issues.<br />


Industrial gases are critical for the<br />

operation of many industries, but at<br />

the same time they represent safety<br />

hazards, whether it is for their toxicity<br />

(carbon monoxide, for example) or<br />

for their flammability (natural gas, hydrogen).<br />

Having procedures in place to<br />

detect leaks of these gases is fundamental<br />

to ensure the safety of a plant and its personnel.<br />

Even though there are many different<br />

methods to detect leaks like tracer gas detectors,<br />

or using soap, ultrasound technology<br />

is one of the most safe and efficient ways of<br />

finding those leaks and avoiding potential<br />

disasters.<br />

Detecting and<br />

repairing leaks<br />

is extremely<br />

important in any<br />

industrial<br />

facility.<br />

How does Ultrasound for leak<br />

detection works?<br />

Leakage occurs when a material can move<br />

from one medium to another. In a pressure<br />

or a vacuum leak, the fluid (liquid or gas)<br />

moves from the high-pressure side through<br />

the leak orifice to the low-pressure side.<br />

When it enters the low-pressure point, a<br />

turbulent flow is produced. Turbulence<br />

disturbs the air molecules producing white<br />

noise, which contains both low- and highfrequency<br />

components. In most plant<br />

environments this noise can be masked by<br />

surrounding sounds. The audible component,<br />

being a larger waveform, can appear<br />

omnidirectional, which makes locating and<br />

identifying a leak source difficult.<br />

The ultrasonic component has attributes<br />

that make leak detection much easier. As a<br />

shortwave, weak signal, the amplitude falls<br />

off rapidly from the source. It also is a longitudinal<br />

waveform and is considered relatively<br />

directional. Since ultrasonic sensors do<br />

not detect the lower-frequency components,<br />

locating and identifying a leak can be very effective,<br />

even in noisy plant environments.<br />

What affects the detectability<br />

of a leak?<br />

There are several factors that make a leak<br />

detectable using ultrasound.<br />


There are two types of viscous flow:<br />

turbulent and laminar. Laminar flow<br />

14 maintworld 1/<strong>2022</strong>


can be defined as: ‘Fluid flow in which the<br />

fluid travels smoothly or in regular paths.<br />

The velocity, pressure and other flow properties<br />

at each point in the fluid remain constant’.<br />

Turbulent flow is defined as: ‘A fluid flow<br />

in which the velocity at a given point varies<br />

erratically in magnitude and direction’.<br />

Ultrasound will therefore not detect laminar<br />

flow (as found, for example, in air conditioning<br />

diffusers) but will detect turbulent<br />

flow. Most leak situations will produce a turbulent<br />

flow. However, there are other variables<br />

that must be taken into consideration<br />

to determine if there is enough turbulence<br />

to produce ‘detectable’ ultrasound for a leak<br />

to be found.<br />


Regardless of orifice size, it is important<br />

to remember that a smooth<br />

orifice will not produce as much turbulence<br />

as a jagged orifice. An orifice with multiple<br />

edges can affect fluid flow and produce more<br />

turbulence, which is referred to as the ‘reed<br />

effect’. A narrow ‘slit’ opening, such as a<br />

thread path leak, will not produce as much<br />

turbulence as a ‘pin hole’ leak.<br />


The viscosity of a fluid is its resistance<br />

to flow, a measure of the fluid’s<br />

internal friction. For example, if we compare<br />

the viscosity of water to steam, water has a<br />

higher resistance to flow. The factors that<br />

influence flow through leak sites are the<br />

viscosity of the fluid, the pressure difference<br />

causing the flow and the length and crosssection<br />

of the leak path. For example, at the<br />

same pressure, air will leak through a leak<br />

site significantly more than a fluid such as<br />

water or oil. This is important to understand<br />

should you be presented with a leak in which<br />

the fluid has a high viscosity but not enough<br />

pressure to produce a turbulent leak. For<br />

example, when presented with a water leak<br />

underground, changing the fluid to a gas will<br />

greatly assist in locating the leak.<br />


Pressure differential is a significant<br />

issue when performing most leak<br />

tests. A pressure differential is created when<br />

pressure across a leak is changed and the<br />

flow changes in proportion to the differences<br />

of the square of the absolute pressure.<br />

When performing airborne ultrasound leak<br />

inspection, it is important to consider the<br />

viscous flow of a given pressure differential<br />

acting across the leak.<br />


Another factor influencing the detectability<br />

of a leak is the distance<br />

from the leak. The intensity of the ultrasound<br />

signal decreases as the distance from<br />

the source sending the ultrasound increases.<br />

Intensity refers to the relative strength of a<br />

sound signal at a certain point.<br />

Accessibility to the leak<br />

Due to the shortwave nature of ultrasound,<br />

the amplitude of the emission drops exponentially<br />

as the sound travels from the<br />

source. Distance of detection becomes a factor.<br />

If an inspector cannot get within detection<br />

distance of a leak, it will be hard to find<br />

it. It is important that the leak is accessible.<br />

Providing it is safe, the closer an inspector<br />

can get to the leak the better the chances<br />

are of detecting and evaluating it. If a leak is<br />

buried behind several structures, it will have<br />

a tendency to reflect off the various structures.<br />

The ultrasound from the leak is then<br />

sent off in other directions, bouncing from<br />

one object to another and consequently confusing<br />

the inspector as to where the source<br />

of the leak is. In some cases, ultrasound may<br />

be hitting material that absorbs the sound<br />

waves. The further the leak has to travel,<br />

the more likely the leak is to attenuate and<br />

weaken. Get closer to the leak source, remove<br />

interfering objects and use aids to gain<br />

access to the leak, such as a contact probe for<br />

structure-borne sounds found in enclosed<br />

cabinets, a parabolic microphone or flexible<br />

probes.<br />

If a leak occurs in a confined space, be<br />

sure to follow all safety procedures. These<br />

are very hazardous conditions, and any mistake<br />

can be fatal.<br />

Finding the leak<br />

Specialised modules may be called for, such<br />

as a parabolic microphone for long-distance<br />

scanning, a close-focus module for close-up<br />

scanning or flexible probes for hard-toaccess<br />

scanning.<br />

The preferred method for locating a leak<br />

is called ‘gross to fine’. This is used to pinpoint<br />

and identify the location of leaks. Start<br />

at maximum sensitivity and scan by moving<br />

the probe around in all directions to locate a<br />

leak sound. This will be heard as a ‘rushing’<br />

noise. Follow the sound to the loudest point.<br />

As you move, the leak noise might increase,<br />

making it difficult to identify the direction of<br />

the leak. Reduce the sensitivity as you move<br />

closer to the area and listen for the loudest<br />

leak signal. Scan all around the suspected<br />

leak area. Whenever it is difficult to determine<br />

the direction of the leak sound, adjust<br />

the sensitivity up if the sound level is too low<br />

or down if the sound level is too high. It is<br />

possible to pinpoint the exact site of the leak<br />

if you scan completely around the area of<br />

interest. Once near the site, place the rubber<br />

focusing probe over the scanning module<br />

and continue to move in the direction of the<br />

leak. To confirm, if possible, press the tip of<br />

the probe over the suspected site. If the leak<br />

sound continues or increases in volume, you<br />

have found the leak; if the sound level drops,<br />

continue looking.<br />

1/<strong>2022</strong> maintworld 15

HSE<br />

Reliable Monitoring<br />

of Pressurised<br />

Components<br />

Creep-fatigue life prediction in flexible plant operation<br />

Metal components in chemical plants are often exposed to high temperatures or cyclic<br />

pressure and temperature loads, making them increasingly vulnerable to material<br />

fatigue. Consequently, the longer the service life of a component, the higher the risk<br />

of its failure and of production losses. What is needed, therefore, is a method for quick<br />

and realistic analysis of the component condition to enable timely intervention and<br />

optimum planning of maintenance measures to be effected.<br />


Monitoring the creep-fatigue of pressurised components saves operating and maintenance costs. (Image credits: TÜV SÜD)<br />

16 maintworld 1/<strong>2022</strong>

HSE<br />

Fig. 1:<br />

Workflow<br />

of offline<br />

calculation of<br />

service life<br />

(Image credits:<br />

TÜV SÜD)<br />

backward<br />

extrapolation<br />

no<br />

Measurement data<br />

from evaluation period<br />

Previous data<br />

available/evaluable?<br />

yes<br />

Calculation of the<br />

exhaustion progress<br />

of the previous periods<br />

no<br />

yearly<br />

Total<br />

pressurebearing<br />

components<br />

Selection of<br />

components<br />

for lifetime<br />

calculation<br />

Calculation of the<br />

fatigue progress in<br />

the evaluation period<br />

Is data about<br />

pre-exhaustion<br />

available?<br />

yes<br />

Calculation of the<br />

current total exhaustion<br />

yearly<br />

Illustration of the<br />

component e.g.<br />

Material, design<br />

Specification of<br />

applicable regulations<br />

(TRD301/3/508) or<br />

DIN EN 12952-3/-4<br />

Result report with<br />

• state of exhaustion<br />

• results documentation<br />

• component profile<br />

• recommendation for action<br />

Many chemical plants need to<br />

be operated at high temperatures<br />

under rapidly changing<br />

load parameters. These<br />

modes of operation may expose plant<br />

components to higher stresses, resulting<br />

in creep-fatigue degradation caused by<br />

pressure and/or thermal loads. In view<br />

of these developments, monitoring of<br />

component exhaustion is becoming increasingly<br />

vital. On the one hand, realistic<br />

knowledge of the state of creep fatigue<br />

plays an important role in comprehensive<br />

damage prevention; on the other, managers<br />

and operators must be able to make<br />

use of the full-service life offered by their<br />

plant components. And, monitoring also<br />

makes good sense because the results<br />

provide reliable information for condition-based<br />

maintenance.<br />

Creep-fatigue mechanisms<br />

Important degradation mechanisms acting<br />

on pressurised components include creep<br />

and fatigue, which are also referred to in<br />

technical literature as “high-temperature<br />

progressive deformation” and “progressive<br />

and localised structural damage under cyclic<br />

loading” respectively. The combination<br />

of these two degradation mechanisms is<br />

known as creep fatigue and are referred to<br />

in this article as “exhaustion” or the “state of<br />

exhaustion”. While creep is caused by static<br />

loads and depends on temperature and internal<br />

pressure, fatigue is caused by cyclic<br />

TSE allows the condition of a component<br />

to be determined in a highly efficient<br />

manner while at the same time limiting<br />

maintenance measures to the absolute<br />

minimum necessary.<br />

loads – in other words, changes in pressure<br />

and temperature. In the case of changes in<br />

temperature, fatigue increases in parallel to<br />

the rate of temperature changes. This is due<br />

to the following mechanism: as the thermal<br />

conductivity of the material is limited, steep<br />

temperature transients result in increasingly<br />

high temperature differences inside<br />

the component wall, which in turn give rise<br />

to mechanical stresses.<br />

Initially, the impacts of these stresses are<br />

hardly detectable because they first become<br />

apparent at the component’s inner surface,<br />

where they are difficult to identify by nondestructive<br />

test methods (NDT). Identification<br />

is only possible if the component is already<br />

affected by incipient cracking. Defects<br />

and failures are the result, even though the<br />

responsible parties assumed they had taken<br />

reliable precautions in the form of NDT.<br />

Many of these defects and failures could<br />

have been prevented by needs-based calculation<br />

of component life.<br />

Stress-strain analysis using TSE<br />

The TSE (temperature stress exhaustion)<br />

software developed by TÜV SÜD calculates<br />

component exhaustion (fatigue and creep)<br />

on the basis of pressure and temperature<br />

curves. The program uses algorithms<br />

aligned to the specific regulations and standards<br />

in encapsulated functions and is fully<br />

in conformity with the applicable codes and<br />

standards. The reports of the results thus also<br />

provide a reliable legal compliance report.<br />

Input data required by the software<br />

include data on component geometry and<br />

materials in addition to the measured<br />

temperature and pressure loads. Within<br />

the scope of the analysis, the program uses<br />

integrated non-stationary calculation of the<br />

temperature field to model the non-linear<br />

distribution of temperature across the component<br />

wall for a close network of interpolation<br />

points at any point in time throughout<br />

the analysis period. The software is also able<br />

to process temperatures measured on the<br />

component exterior. In other words, the<br />

TSE solution eliminates the need to perform<br />

complex temperature measurements on the<br />

interior wall of the component or the fluid,<br />

or even measurements of the temperature<br />

difference including determination of the<br />

temperature inside the wall. Even tempo-<br />

1/<strong>2022</strong> maintworld 17

HSE<br />

rary measurements can be included in the<br />

calculation.<br />

For plants in Germany, data analysis is<br />

aligned to technical regulations and standards<br />

harmonised across the EU. Using offline<br />

evaluation of the measured and saved<br />

data, the solution delivers proof of whether<br />

component exhaustion is below the critical<br />

thresholds defined in DIN EN standards.<br />

The intervals of this type of creep-fatigue<br />

life analysis should be based on the state of<br />

exhaustion determined in the most recent<br />

previous analysis and the mode of plant<br />

operation. In many cases, TÜV SÜD recommends<br />

annual evaluation cycles to ensure<br />

timely inclusion of new load phenomena in<br />

the evaluation.<br />

Offline evaluation offers significant<br />

benefits, particularly in the as-is analysis of<br />

the stresses acting on the component which<br />

is part of the first step of the evaluation,<br />

because monitoring over longer continuous<br />

periods enables stress patterns to be identified.<br />

To this end, appropriate pattern recognition<br />

routines have been implemented in<br />

the TSE program. They enable critical load<br />

events to be allocated reliably and – where<br />

necessary – changes to be initiated in the<br />

mode of operation for the purpose of reducing<br />

loads. In step two of the evaluation, the<br />

program determines the actual state of component<br />

exhaustion (Fig. 1) and the fatigue<br />

reserves of the components available at<br />

this stage. The TSE software thus provides<br />

information about the remaining number of<br />

load cycles and the extent to which further<br />

changes in the mode of operation can be<br />

realised.<br />

In a possible third step, the program<br />

models the fatigue progress resulting from<br />

new transient configurations and accumulates<br />

it with the degree of fatigue from previous<br />

operation. This approach allows experts<br />

to define optimised transients that ensure<br />

consistent use of fatigue reserves while<br />

keeping component exhaustion below critical<br />

thresholds. The software is thus designed<br />

to determine values that are as realistic as<br />

possible, while preventing the introduction<br />

of additional safety margins that are not<br />

justified from a physical perspective and not<br />

required by standards and regulations.<br />

Presenting creep-fatigue as<br />

realistically as possible<br />

The calculations performed by the TSE software<br />

do not use the temperature inside the<br />

component wall, but the physically correct<br />

integral mean wall temperature. If the program<br />

used the temperature inside the component<br />

wall, the calculated Delta T would<br />


(fatigue and creep)<br />

Permissible exhaustion according to<br />

TRD/DIN/ASME regulations<br />

Conservatively<br />

calculated exhaustion<br />

Additional<br />

potential for<br />

exhaustion<br />

be excessive, resulting in 50% higher fatigue<br />

values. This is one example demonstrating<br />

that the phenomenon of “fake fatigue”<br />

can be avoided by consistently relying on<br />

realistic analyses instead of more conservative<br />

methods – a necessary step for further<br />

improving the flexibility of plant operation<br />

(Figure 2).<br />

Important<br />

degradation<br />

mechanisms acting<br />

on pressurised<br />

components include<br />

creep and fatigue.<br />

Exhaustion calculated<br />

realistically with TSE<br />

The objective should not be to keep component<br />

exhaustion to a minimum, but to<br />

achieve controlled component exhaustion<br />

in line with the available fatigue reserves. To<br />

this end, experts could also carry out predictive<br />

“what-if” analyses calculating the respective<br />

progress of component exhaustion<br />

for various differing operating transients.<br />

Evaluation of the condition of<br />

steam crackers<br />

The following case study shows how TSE<br />

can be used for monitoring and calculating<br />

the remaining service life of components.<br />

TÜV SÜD was commissioned to evaluate<br />

the condition of the reactor pipes of a steam<br />

cracker. A steam cracker contains pipe coils<br />

with inside diameters of 90 to 120 mm and<br />

lengths of 60 to 80 m which are installed in a<br />

furnace-heated combustion chamber. Steam<br />

Controlled future<br />

by what-if analysis<br />

TIME<br />

Fig. 2:<br />

Controlled<br />

progression<br />

of the state<br />

of exhaustion<br />

based on<br />

realistic<br />

analyses<br />

(Image credits:<br />

TÜV SÜD)<br />

crackers use process steam to break down<br />

long-chain hydrocarbons into smaller unsaturated<br />

hydrocarbons which are needed<br />

for industrial processes such as PVC production.<br />

Process temperatures are extremely<br />

high, at around 850°C. In other words, the<br />

components of a steam cracker are exposed<br />

to very high thermal loads.<br />

The experts started by evaluating the<br />

available information about component<br />

temperatures in the past. These sources<br />

were evaluated to build a basis of reliable<br />

data providing information about components’<br />

lengths of exposure to specific<br />

temperatures. Other essential data concerned<br />

the geometry and materials of the<br />

components. These data were found in the<br />

installation documentation maintained by<br />

the plant manager. Next, the experts carried<br />

out a preliminary sensitivity analysis to<br />

identify which components were inherently<br />

affected by progressive degradation caused<br />

by temperature and pressure. For these<br />

components, the actual progress of degradation<br />

was then calculated by the TSE software<br />

based on specific evaluation of temperature<br />

and pressure data and considering the specific<br />

data of component geometry and material.<br />

The results delivered basic information<br />

not only about the state of exhaustion of<br />

individual components, but also about the<br />

state of the system and the transients that<br />

are particularly significant in fatigue progress.<br />

The experts also provided the plant<br />

manager with suggestions on how to reduce<br />

component load, and gave recommendations<br />

for condition-based NDT measures<br />

that are in conformity with the applicable<br />

standards and regulations.<br />

18 maintworld 1/<strong>2022</strong>


Confucius – the<br />

Maintenance Manager<br />


Confucius, the Chinese philosopher, taught us an important lesson in regard to cooperation,<br />

leadership and growth: ‘Tell me and I forget, show me and I remember, involve me<br />

and I understand’. Confucius died in 479 BC, so this was not about data, KPI insights<br />

and asset performance. However, it is well worth to philosophise about this.<br />

With KPIs (Key<br />

Performance Indicators)<br />

you can<br />

monitor, analyse<br />

and improve the<br />

performance of<br />

your organisation and your assets. But<br />

which KPIs are relevant? What does a<br />

certain number mean? And isn't drawing<br />

up a good KPI dashboard extremely<br />

labour-intensive?<br />

Seize opportunities<br />

To give an answer to the last question:<br />

No, it is actually very simple, provided<br />

the Enterprise Asset Management system<br />

(EAM) is properly filled. This starts<br />

with a solid Asset Register. A complete<br />

listing of your physical resources. Relevant<br />

information is linked to these assets,<br />

including technical characteristics,<br />

costs, failures and resolution times. But<br />

also, maintenance and inspection plans.<br />

This information is processed in the<br />

EAM system.<br />

The information we collect in our<br />

EAM system – whether this is complete<br />

or not – there is value in it, which we<br />

are not yet making sufficient use of. We<br />

have input from years, without extracting<br />

valuable output from it, says Mark<br />

Haarman, managing partner of Mainnovation.<br />

– When the EAM system is properly<br />

set up, the dashboard is automatically<br />

generated. ‘It is almost a matter of 'plug<br />

and play' for the existing EAM system.<br />

Back to Confucius. By the way, this is<br />

also the man who said: ‘Study the past,<br />

if you would define the future’ and 2.500<br />

years later this philosophy is surprisingly<br />

applicable. After all, with modern<br />

techniques we can study 'the past' well.<br />

The insights and knowledge about the<br />

current state and performance of the<br />

assets, provides tools to be able to define<br />

actions for the future.<br />

– By targeting KPIs, we uncover the<br />

improvement potential. We measure<br />

and monitor, register the required data<br />

and we can adjust and improve.<br />

Dashboard for the entire<br />

organisation<br />

Mainnovations VDM XL Control Panel<br />

(VCP) is a KPI dashboard not only for<br />

management, but for the entire maintenance<br />

and asset management department.<br />

The VCP is built in modern Business Intelligence-software,<br />

and it is integrated with<br />

the EAM system of the company.<br />

– With data from SAP EAM, IBM<br />

Maximo, Infor EAM or Ultimo, the 12<br />

20 maintworld 1/<strong>2022</strong>

KPIs are calculated and visualized in real<br />

time. In addition, the Control Panel contains<br />

a separate dashboard for six underlying<br />

PIs for each KPI, Haarman notes.<br />

The dashboard can be set up based on<br />

personal preferences.<br />

– A planner needs different insights<br />

than a mechanic, a maintenance manager<br />

or the CFO of a company. With this<br />

dashboard, everyone gets the control instruments<br />

that are relevant to him or her.<br />

The VCP can therefore be used at all<br />

levels of the company. And Confucius<br />

has very nicely indicated why this is important.<br />

‘ Tell me and I forget, show me and I<br />

remember, involve me and I understand ’<br />

he says.<br />

When employees understand why<br />

results are the way they are, they start<br />

thinking about how these results can<br />

be improved. So, by actively involving<br />

them, by giving them more insight, the<br />

technical department<br />

changes from<br />

a cost center to a<br />

business function<br />

that continuously<br />

adds value to the<br />

operating result. We<br />

strongly believe this,<br />

says Haarman.<br />

When employees<br />

understand why results<br />

are the way they are,<br />

they start thinking about<br />

how these results can be<br />

improved.<br />

Working<br />

together on<br />

value creation<br />

The dashboard, and all 72 (K)PIs incorporated,<br />

is based on Mainnovation's<br />

VDM XL methodology. This powerful<br />

control philosophy, which is aiming for<br />

creating value with good maintenance<br />

and asset management, has proven itself<br />

worldwide with large and small companies<br />

in various industries.<br />

With the valuable management information<br />

from the VCP, it is therefore<br />

possible to monitor and continuously<br />

improve and learn. The maintenance<br />

department thus becomes an improvement<br />

engine for the organisation and<br />

contributes to value creation.<br />

– This starts with insight and involvement.<br />

This leads to ownership and responsibility.<br />

Then improving and creating<br />

value is no longer a top-down affair,<br />

says Haarman.<br />

– The entire organisation is involved.<br />

Confucius was thus far ahead of his<br />

time. He would have been a very talented<br />

maintenance manager.




Teaching and Learning<br />

Energy-Efficiency<br />

Energy solutions and energy<br />

efficiency is a megatrend<br />

that cuts across the entire<br />

technology education<br />

industry.<br />

The energy sector employs a wide<br />

range of professionals with different<br />

educational backgrounds,<br />

but the development of the sector<br />

specifically requires engineers. As a<br />

University of Applied Sciences providing<br />

engineering education, we should therefore<br />

train professionals capable of developing<br />

the energy sector. In this article, the<br />

topics are primarily from the perspective<br />

of Electrical and Automation Engineering<br />

students.<br />

22 maintworld 1/<strong>2022</strong>


At first some basic information about our<br />

organization: Häme University of Applied<br />

Sciences (HAMK) is a multidisciplinary<br />

university that offers education in multiple<br />

fields of technology at both bachelor's and<br />

master's levels. The research is carried out<br />

in the HAMK Tech research unit, whose<br />

research areas include materials research,<br />

design and manufacturing technology research,<br />

construction research and energy<br />

efficiency research. Our strength - and our<br />

continuous development task - is to link<br />

teaching and research into a mutually supportive<br />

whole<br />

HAMK's pedagogical model is based<br />

on phenomenon learning. Underlying the<br />

thinking is a constructivist notion of learning,<br />

according to which the student always<br />

builds or constructs knowledge themself. It<br />

does not pass as such from teacher to student.<br />

Central to this is a multidisciplinary<br />

understanding of the phenomenon, interdisciplinarity,<br />

in which different fields come<br />

together. The phenomenon is viewed from<br />

the perspectives of different sectors, but in a<br />

way that the outcome is shared.<br />

Diverse students, diverse<br />

teaching methods<br />

The background of our students varies<br />

greatly. Some have a vocational degree, and<br />

some come straight from high school. Some<br />

of them have worked a long time in engineering<br />

or some other field. Some of them<br />

have next to no working experience. Some<br />

of them have a long time from their previous<br />

studies so their study skills may lack. Levels<br />

of motivation also varies, but in general the<br />

motivation to study is good. The heterogeneous<br />

background of students raises challenges<br />

on teaching implementation. This<br />

is offset by their motivation and interest in<br />

energy-related topics.<br />

Almost half of our students study for<br />

their degree while working at the same<br />

time. These students work in multitudes<br />

of positions, and they often have a strong<br />

competence related to the energy sector.<br />

With those students in particular, learning<br />

happens in interaction: students learn from<br />

each other, and the staff also learns.<br />

Distance learning methods and materials<br />

have been in development since before<br />

the pandemic, but naturally the pandemic<br />

accelerated the development of practices.<br />

E-learning requires a lot from teachers and<br />

students. Experience has shown that students’<br />

preparedness is high. Studying via the<br />

Internet requires a great deal of discipline to<br />

examine course materials and complete assigned<br />

tasks on time. The teachers’ role has<br />

Häme University<br />

of Applied<br />

Sciences (HAMK)<br />


SCIENCES (HAMK) is a multidisciplinary,<br />

workplace-orientated higher<br />

education institution located in Finland.<br />

HAMK’s seven campuses are<br />

situated centrally in the greater<br />

Helsinki metropolitan area of southern<br />

Finland. Ten of its degree programmes<br />

are taught in English.<br />

HAMK’s roots stretch back to 1840,<br />

when agricultural education began<br />

at the Mustiala Campus. The Evo<br />

Campus, meanwhile, is Finland’s<br />

oldest school of forestry. It was<br />

founded in 1862 and is still operating<br />

today, surrounded by its 1800<br />

hectares of observational forest.<br />

The energy sector<br />

employs a wide range<br />

of professionals with<br />

different educational<br />

backgrounds.<br />

changed from “transferrer of information”<br />

to more of a coach-like instructor. Guiding<br />

students via the Internet requires new ways<br />

of guidance. Teaching material and assignments<br />

need to vary. For example, watching<br />

online lectures or videos alone, and then<br />

completing assignments is not enough. You<br />

also need team assignments and conversation<br />

possibilities - deepening what has been<br />

learned. Energy-related topics has seemed<br />

suitable for this type of studying method.<br />

Extensiveness of the topic enables the designing<br />

of varied assignments with multiple<br />

levels of difficulty. Starting from energy solutions<br />

familiar to all and everyone’s experience<br />

with them, later delving deeper into the<br />

topic and raising difficulty.<br />

Learning in research projects<br />

Students take part in energy-efficiency<br />

research project testing and measuring.<br />

HAMK's Electrical and Automation Engineering<br />

students have over the years taken<br />

part in two particular energy sector research<br />

and development projects. The Energyefficiency<br />

with precise control project, that<br />

researched creating electricity on a small<br />

scale with wasted energy, and the Low carbon<br />

energy efficiency with micro-CHP technical<br />

project, that expanded and developed<br />

the hybrid module for small scale energy<br />

production built in the previous project. It<br />

integrates energy production utilizing waste<br />

heat generated by a burning process (CHP,<br />

combined heat and power) and a micro turbine.<br />

The second goal of the project focuses<br />

on optimizing the burning process and improving<br />

efficiency of the hybrid module.<br />

The mentioned hybrid module refers to<br />

a physical building, where various methods<br />

of energy production are tested. The building<br />

has an intelligent control system, that is<br />

used to determine which method of energy<br />

production is the most cost effective. Possible<br />

energy sources are solar heat, solar panel<br />

and bio boiler. Methods of heat storage are<br />

also examined. In addition to water phase<br />

transformation, materials are also used to<br />

enable storing greater quantities of heat.<br />

In addition to producing information, the<br />

building could be an energy source in itself.<br />

Some of the students continue deeper<br />

into projects and research unit operations.<br />

They can start working as a trainee, parttime<br />

or full-time. A natural continuation for<br />

trainees working in research projects is to<br />

choose one aspect of the project as their thesis<br />

topic, while deepening their understanding<br />

even more.<br />

Research projects offer students different<br />

levels of learning opportunities. It is<br />

essential that those that do not participate<br />

in the research still get a general picture of<br />

the University’s research activities and the<br />

process of emergence of knowledge. Growth<br />

to a professional of the energy sector can be<br />

described as a pyramid design: at graduation<br />

every student knows the basics needed by<br />

an engineer. Close connections to research<br />

projects create an opportunity to grow to a<br />

professional, that acts as an active developer<br />

in his/her working community, solving<br />

challenges related to energy and energyefficiency.<br />

1/<strong>2022</strong> maintworld 23


Reality Centered<br />

Maintenance<br />

Management<br />

RCMM<br />

MSC. EMIRO VÁSQUEZ , Maintenance Adviser/Manager<br />

Every day, the<br />

environmental controls on<br />

any manufacturing industry<br />

become more demanding.<br />

It is not a secret to anyone<br />

that one of the elements<br />

that most influences this is<br />

maintenance management.<br />

The importance of each<br />

industry seeking to improve<br />

its maintenance process is<br />

therefore the purpose of<br />

this article.<br />

10.<br />

Renew<br />

(Turnaround)<br />

9.<br />

Operate<br />

&<br />

Maintain<br />

11.<br />

Decommission<br />

1.<br />

Conceptualizati<br />

2.<br />

Basic<br />

Engineering<br />

3.<br />

Detail<br />

Engineering<br />

4.<br />

Procure<br />

Image 1 shows the different phases<br />

of a physical asset, and in each<br />

phase the Maintenance organization<br />

has both active and passive<br />

participation, but where it has a greater<br />

participation and responsibility is in<br />

operation and maintenance.<br />

The idea of this article is not to detail the<br />

maintenance participation in each phase<br />

of the physical asset, but as in my book, to<br />

help you learn more about Reality Centered<br />

Maintenance.<br />

That is why the Reality-Centered Maintenance<br />

Management methodology in<br />

the operational and maintainance phase<br />

is shown in the following image and covers<br />

two very important stages. These are the<br />

Audit stages, which have the final objective<br />

of diagnosing the current situation and issuing<br />

their recommendations. The Maintenance<br />

Management model, in which they<br />

must seek to implement the improvements<br />

proposed by the audit and thus achieve<br />

what would be called having World Class<br />

Maintenance.<br />

8.<br />

Start-Up<br />

7.<br />

Commissioning<br />

It is possible that the result of the audit<br />

is that maintenance is not being managed<br />

under this model and it is advisable to<br />

implement it. In another case, it is possibly<br />

implemented, but its operation is not giving<br />

the expected results, therefore this Audit-<br />

Manage methodology is a cycle of continuous<br />

improvement in search of Operational<br />

Excellence.<br />

6.<br />

Pre<br />

commissioning<br />

5.<br />

Construction<br />


This purpose of this model is to create<br />

a management tool that allows determination<br />

of maintenance management<br />

and to develop a measurement<br />

instrument to diagnose the degree of<br />

maturity, define priorities based on the<br />

influence and dependence of the variables<br />

and identify the areas of potential<br />

improvement of the maintenance<br />

organization. This allows management<br />

to take decisions that lead to strategies<br />

and an action plan to optimize the<br />

performance of the organization and<br />

the achievement of its objectives, guaranteeing<br />

operational continuity and<br />

efficient use of resources, leading management<br />

towards the best practices of<br />

24 maintworld 1/<strong>2022</strong>


World-Class<br />

Maintenance<br />

Management<br />

Current<br />

Maintenance<br />

Management<br />

CMMS<br />

1.<br />

Diagnosis<br />

Maintenance<br />

Engineering<br />

•ACT<br />

4. Strategies<br />

+<br />

Action Plan<br />

&<br />

5. Control<br />

+<br />

Monitoring<br />

1. Variables<br />

•PLAN<br />

4.<br />

Control<br />

&<br />

Following<br />

2.<br />

Planning<br />

&<br />

Programming<br />

•CHECK<br />

3.<br />

Gaps<br />

+<br />

Priorities<br />

2.<br />

Research<br />

+<br />

Diagnosis<br />

•DO<br />

•Engineering<br />

•Health, Safety &<br />

Environment<br />

(HSE)<br />

3.<br />

Execution<br />

•Procure<br />

•Human Resources<br />

(HR)<br />

•Hiring<br />

World Class Maintenance. This model<br />

is focused on Deming's Continuous Improvement<br />

Philosophy and its application<br />

is developed by determining the<br />

degree of maturity, proposing strategies<br />

and an action plan (activities, resources,<br />

time, and persons responsible) that must<br />

be implemented to direct its management<br />

to achieve World Class Maintenance<br />

supported by the Maintenance<br />

Management Model.<br />

The adoption of this audit model<br />

gives the ability to continuously determine<br />

the current situation of the maintenance<br />

management so as to make<br />

the pertinent adjustments that allow<br />

closing the existing gaps to ensure its future<br />

viability. This in turn implies the continuous<br />

learning of the organization, the<br />

follow-up of a philosophy management<br />

and active participation of all staff.<br />

The expected vision of the audit<br />

model is to be a management tool that<br />

allows determining the current situation<br />

of maintenance management and identify<br />

areas for potential improvement, allowing<br />

Management to make decisions<br />

that lead to optimizing the performance<br />

of the organization and the achievement<br />

of its objectives. This guarantees<br />

operational continuity and efficient use<br />

of resources.<br />

Additional, objectives contemplated<br />

by the model are to conceptualize the<br />

variables to be studied, design the<br />

measurement instrument for the audit,<br />

carry out the diagnosis of the current<br />

maintenance management, analyse<br />

the gaps and define priorities, develop<br />

strategies, create an action plan, close<br />

gaps and define key performance indicators<br />

for the control and monitoring of<br />

the action plan.<br />

The audit model complies with the four<br />

(4) phases of the Deming Circle or Continuous<br />

Improvement Circle, which are Plan,<br />

Do, Check and Act, as shown in image 2:<br />

PLAN:<br />

Variables: In this stage, the variables to be<br />

studied are defined and conceptualized.<br />

DO:<br />

Research + Diagnosis: All activities related<br />

to defining the measuring instrument and<br />

the diagnosis of the current situation of<br />

maintenance management are carried out.<br />

CHECK:<br />

Gaps + Priorities: In this stage, the existing<br />

gaps between the current situation<br />

of maintenance management and the<br />

ideal situation based on a World Class<br />

Maintenance Management are analysed,<br />

determining the degree of maturity, and<br />

establishing priorities study.<br />

ACT:<br />

Strategies + Action Plan: In this stage, the<br />

necessary strategies for closing gaps and<br />

the action plan are drawn up in Gantt format<br />

specifying the activities to be carried<br />

out including resources, time, and persons<br />

responsible.<br />

Control + Monitoring: The key performance<br />

indicators are defined to carry<br />

out continuous monitoring of the implementation<br />

of the action plan, based on<br />

obtaining benefits such as compliance in<br />

time to achieve the objectives, reassignment<br />

of resources and/or obtaining new<br />

resources.<br />

The designed model is reflected so<br />

that the input is the current management<br />

of the maintenance organization, the core<br />

process is the phases of the model explained<br />

above, obtained as an output of a<br />

world-class maintenance management.<br />


MODEL (MMM)<br />

Image 3 shows the different stages of the<br />

Maintenance Management Process in the<br />

operational and maintenance phase of the<br />

physical asset life cycle.<br />

This phase of operating and maintaining<br />

is the longest in the life cycle of the physical<br />

asset. In my 30 years’ experience, 25 of<br />

them I have been in this phase, fulfilling the<br />

role of Engineer, Supervisor, Superintendent,<br />

Manager and Maintenance Advisor, related<br />

to gas compression plants, wells, refineries<br />

and crude upgraders.<br />

In general, the first stage is Diagnosis,<br />

which includes Maintenance Engineering<br />

and where predictive inspections, and their<br />

respective analyses are carried out.<br />

Next, we have Planning and Programming,<br />

which is the brain department or subprocess<br />

of the Maintenance Organization.<br />

It determines the necessary resources and<br />

the necessary time (What, How and When?)<br />

for the execution of maintenance.<br />

The third stage is the Execution phase<br />

and is made up of the Preventative, Corrective<br />

and Major Maintenance (Overhaul)<br />

activities.<br />

The fourth stage is Control and Following;<br />

this is the stage that monitors the<br />

management indicators, whose department<br />

is very important for any Manager<br />

since they control both the operational and<br />

administrative indicators.<br />

More details of the Audit Model are in<br />

my article “Design of a Model for the Maintenance<br />

Management Audit” and details<br />

of the Maintenance Management Model<br />

are in my book “Reality Centered Maintenance”.<br />

1/<strong>2022</strong> maintworld 25


Industrial<br />

Maintenance<br />

in the Age of<br />

Industry 5.0<br />

INDUSTRY 5.0 was launched on December 1st, 2015. It<br />

was not born in a lab or on an Academic desk, but on<br />

the work floor, at GEMBA. Before delivery, 30+ years of<br />

on-hand experience and expertise, mainly connected<br />

to logistics, contributed and helped to understand that<br />

it was not a revolution that was needed, but the first<br />

industrial evolution ever led by man (human), in order to<br />

deliver true change and transformation.<br />


Founder of<br />

INDUSTRY 5.0<br />

The connection to industrial maintenance<br />

may not be visible at the<br />

first sight, but if you look closer<br />

you will see that the impact it will<br />

have is more significant.<br />

The reason is that INDUSTRY 5.0 is based<br />

on the principles of systematic waste prevention<br />

and maintenance. Generally speaking,<br />

it is trying to prevent waste, or stop further<br />

wastage as soon as possible after it has been<br />

discovered.<br />

There is a reason why industrial maintenance<br />

cannot be “renamed” to INDUSTRY 5.0<br />

and this is the scope and size of waste that<br />

INDUSTRY 5.0 prevents, which is:<br />





Industrial maintenance covers mainly<br />

process waste, but also sometimes (but not<br />

always) covers physical waste.<br />

The term INDUSTRY 5.0 is still relatively<br />

new for many despite the fact that it was<br />

launched already more than six years ago and<br />

was adopted officially on January 7, 2021. At<br />

the end of 2021 it was also discussed by the<br />

European Commission and United Nations.<br />

Let me explain INDUSTRY 5.0 more closely<br />

using some real-world case studies to understand<br />

its relation to the industrial environment<br />

and processes.<br />

26 maintworld 1/<strong>2022</strong>


Every single industry 5.0 project has to<br />

respect the following three principles, all of<br />

them, not just one or two.<br />



Already here we can understand that all<br />

three are equally important to maintenance;<br />

it is hard to maintain machinery or<br />

buildings for example if you do not know<br />

how they work, or how they are interconnected.<br />

This is why one of the tools adopted by<br />

INDUSTRY 5.0 is the technology of digital<br />

twins, which delivers great results on a<br />

small scale, or at the level of management<br />

of entire cities. It can help on the level of<br />

country governance or industry governance,<br />

but its application is limited by the large<br />

volume of “SECRETS” that are standard<br />

parts of any governing structure.<br />

A second important part of INDUSTRY<br />

5.0 projects is the utilization of the on-theground-mines<br />

or as some of the clients and<br />

partners call them existing resources.<br />

Once again I am sure almost all experts<br />

in maintenance know well that if the<br />

right tool is not available at the moment<br />

of urgent action, it can be temporarily<br />

exchanged for another which may not be<br />

perfect, but can serve the purpose until the<br />

new, original part arrives. At the same time,<br />

I am sure all know how “dangerous” such<br />

temporary exchange is, especially if everything<br />

works fine or even better than it did<br />

before, but this is another story.<br />

The third “tool” is the power of touch<br />

because no excel sheet or virtual drawing<br />

will stop oil from dripping, hands-on is best<br />

- experienced hands that have solved similar<br />

problems many times before and know<br />

exactly what to do. Here we enter into the<br />

segment of social waste, thanks to which<br />

the most experienced people are wasted<br />

because they are too old, or too young, or<br />

do not fit into the system.<br />

The entire development and global<br />

growth of INDUSTRY 5.0 can be followed<br />

thanks to more than 3.000 articles, 964<br />

of them in English. The impact on individual<br />

industries has been delivered in the<br />

form of more than 200 keynotes delivered<br />

to industries, students of more than<br />

180 universities, and schools all over the<br />

The term INDUSTRY<br />

5.0 is still relatively<br />

new for many<br />

despite the fact<br />

that it was launched<br />

already more than<br />

six years ago,<br />

globe because the industry 5.0 ambassadors’<br />

network is spread over 94 countries<br />

(<strong>2022</strong>.02.22).<br />

Let me pick up just three of many examples<br />

indicating how industrial maintenance<br />

topics have been solved using INDUSTRY<br />

5.0 0 principles and methodology.<br />


CRANE<br />

A large facility producing metal parts<br />

needs for a new project, a 12 MT crane.<br />

Standard in the factory were 5–7 MT<br />

cranes. At a production meeting in which<br />

I participated as an advisor I was asked if<br />

the crane being used is on offer. My question<br />

was: Why do you need a new crane if<br />

you have one?<br />

Because nobody believed me, I took<br />

the entire management and showed them<br />

that one of their unused cranes in production<br />

really has the capacity needed. The<br />

only step needed was to transfer it from<br />

one location to another one (cost 10.000<br />

Euros). The cost of the new crane on the<br />

other hand was 75.000 Euros. This was a<br />

project indicated as “REVERSE ROI” because<br />

instead of a new purchase, we discovered<br />

existing but forgotten technology<br />

available to the client.<br />


One industrial client, a producer of industrial<br />

machines and machinery systems, struggled<br />

with high costs related to dangerous<br />

waste clean-up (waste management cost).<br />

Regular oil spills and the use of standard<br />

sorbents resulted in increasing waste<br />

management costs and an impact on the<br />

environment, which resulted in a bad rating.<br />

Because the spills could not simply be<br />

stopped due to the setup of the process, we<br />

have found a natural sorbent solution produced<br />

in the US, which after application on<br />

oil spills does not create dangerous waste,<br />

but thanks to microorganisms it turns the<br />

oil into fertilizer, without any negative properties.<br />

Since that moment the company<br />

regularly utilizes the product of https://<br />

unireminc.com/, decreasing environmental<br />

impact and significantly decreasing waste<br />

management costs. At the same time they<br />

are able to work on a solution to further reduce<br />

the amount of spillage.<br />



It may seem like single-use packaging does<br />

not affect the industrial maintenance segment,<br />

but that is not completely true. It can<br />

affect in two ways.<br />

First is the space occupancy, waste volume<br />

and cost. Secondly, a lot of single-use<br />

packaging can be utilized for maintenance<br />

work and storage of components, as well<br />

as for the transportation. A good example<br />

is the single-use cable drums that serve in<br />

most of the factories as single-use packaging<br />

and end up in waste containers and on<br />

landfill sites.<br />

The application of the 6R methodology<br />

helped not only to identify the item but to<br />

turn trouble into treasure; from one factory<br />

project in one country, this project has<br />

expanded and is now available in Czech,<br />

Austria and Germany, and it continues to<br />

expand. A New OTGM supply chain was created<br />

and helped to generate the maintenance<br />

department’s first profit, reducing the<br />

financial burden of its own waste centre.<br />

INDUSTRY 5.0 is a very broad topic and<br />

thanks to the fact that the implementation<br />

does not require capital investment at<br />

the start, it is spreading globally, helping to<br />

deliver palpable sustainable results where<br />

circular economy, green deal, and other<br />

areas struggle.<br />

To learn more you can watch one of<br />

the latest keynotes delivered to an international<br />

audience or contact directly the<br />

INDUSTRY 5.0 FOUNDER, Michael Rada via<br />

LinkedIn.<br />

1/<strong>2022</strong> maintworld 27


Reliability in Maintenance:<br />

6 Steps to Unlocking<br />

Equipment Potential While<br />

Operating in Challenging<br />

Environments<br />


The oil and gas (O&G) industry,<br />

like other sectors, is challenged<br />

to ensure the flawless execution<br />

of critical business processes by<br />

operating technological assets at<br />

the highest levels of reliability.<br />

In this drive to excel, failure can<br />

come at an extremely high cost,<br />

risking the loss of revenue, equipment,<br />

or at worst, human life.<br />

Non-productive time (NPT) in<br />

O&G can result in operators<br />

often losing from hundreds of<br />

thousands to millions of dollars.<br />

The need to maximize productivity—without<br />

sacrificing safety—<br />

drives the relentless pursuit to minimize the number<br />

of incidents that result in process downtime.<br />

Operators aim to reduce NPT by continuously<br />

seeking opportunities to improve efficiency, which<br />

fuels the demand for new advancements in technology.<br />

This increases the complexity of the equipment<br />

used in hydrocarbon field development, and<br />

creates an even greater need for state-of-the-art<br />

technologies. But with each more complex system<br />

comes new failure modes that maintenance<br />

engineers have never seen before. Optimizing<br />

equipment potential requires that maintenance<br />

upgrades and processes are continuously keeping<br />

pace with equipment advances.<br />

Operating complex<br />

equipment on drilling<br />

rigs in extreme<br />

temperatures, such<br />

as this one in East<br />

Siberia, requires extra<br />

focus on assessments<br />

and controls to ensure<br />

reliability.<br />

28 maintworld 1/<strong>2022</strong>


THE DOWNHOLE environment has always<br />

been hostile for drilling, logging, and<br />

production equipment, yet operators<br />

continue to push the boundaries, trying<br />

to drill deeper, longer wells with complex<br />

profiles and higher pressures and<br />

temperatures. At the same time, profitability<br />

requires diligence in controlling<br />

overall project costs. These conflicting<br />

demands are complicated by the extreme<br />

variability in downhole conditions<br />

between basins.<br />

FOR EXAMPLE, when I was developing<br />

maintenance programs for equipment<br />

in the Gulf of Mexico, where some<br />

oilfields have downhole pressures exceeding<br />

25,000 psi and downhole temperatures<br />

close to or above 150 degrees<br />

Celsius (150 C), I had to tailor our maintenance<br />

tactics to meet the demands of<br />

the anticipated conditions. Electronic<br />

components had to pass rigorous examination<br />

and testing at temperatures close<br />

to the expected operating environment.<br />

Mechanical components underwent<br />

pressure testing at the expected pressure<br />

plus a safety factor, followed by<br />

dimensional and dye penetrant inspections<br />

to identify any plastic deformations<br />

or cracks.<br />

CONVERSELY, wells drilled in Sakhalin<br />

Island (Russia) presented different<br />

challenges. Several oil fields are located<br />

under the sea bed, close to the shore,<br />

so that the operators chose to develop<br />

them from on-shore drilling rigs. To<br />

reach the reservoir, well profiles had to<br />

include long horizontal sections, up to<br />

several thousand meters, however, the<br />

vertical depth of such wells remained<br />

relatively low, so that pressure and<br />

temperature were no longer a concern.<br />

Because equipment longevity became<br />

a higher priority, I adapted the maintenance<br />

program for these conditions<br />

with customizations including tighter<br />

dimensional tolerances for the mechanical<br />

parts, implementing local design upgrades<br />

so that the parts could withstand<br />

longer operating intervals, protecting<br />

components exposed to drilling fluid<br />

flow from erosion by applying erosionresistive<br />

coatings, and/or changing<br />

the parts that were in contact with the<br />

borehole to incorporate more abrasionresistant<br />

components.<br />

Operating oil and gas equipment at<br />

the highest level of reliability in a hostile<br />

environment requires development,<br />

implementation, and continuous improvement<br />

of a maintenance program<br />

adequate to the challenge, so that complex<br />

systems remain operational over<br />

extended periods of time. The following<br />

key components of a successful maintenance<br />

program will help engineers and<br />

operators unlock equipment potential<br />

and minimize failure rates.<br />

1. Configure the equipment<br />

to the project’s environmental<br />

requirements<br />

It is important to learn about operating<br />

conditions, especially when preparing<br />

equipment for a job in an unknown field,<br />

with little to no past experience. While<br />

it is impossible to exactly predict all<br />

operating parameters, the best estimate<br />

of key factors such as temperature, pressure,<br />

formation type, and planned mud<br />

type and chemistry plays a crucial role<br />

in the planning phase.<br />

Operations in remote regions with<br />

rough road surfaces, such as those that<br />

I encountered in Sakhalin, require rugged<br />

packaging/crating when equipment<br />

leaves the maintenance facility, to protect<br />

it during transit. When exposed to<br />

extremely low temperatures, elastomers<br />

may become brittle, fluids used in the<br />

equipment’s hydraulic systems may<br />

freeze, and grease may harden—making<br />

it difficult to unscrew threads. While<br />

drilling equipment is designed for operations<br />

above 0 C, it can be subjected to<br />

lower temperatures in transit or during<br />

storage, however, freezing conditions<br />

may be detrimental if the risks are not<br />

evaluated thoroughly.<br />

Ambient humidity is another factor<br />

that could affect the performance of<br />

electronic components if the mainte-<br />

nance facility is not climate-controlled<br />

in hot and humid environments. For<br />

some locations like the North Sea or<br />

Sakhalin, the summer period is very<br />

short and the overall exposure to humidity<br />

is low, while in others, like Southeast<br />

Asia or the Gulf of Mexico, electronics<br />

may start to deteriorate when stored<br />

in facilities with humidity exceeding<br />

60%. Assessing the environment in the<br />

workshop and implementing adequate<br />

controls (installing humidity monitoring<br />

devices and dehumidifiers) should<br />

be viewed as a required investment<br />

into equipment reliability. Maintaining<br />

state-of-the-art equipment that is<br />

expected to perform at the highest levels<br />

raises the bar for the maintenance facility<br />

standards.<br />

2. Monitor equipment performance<br />

on the job in real-time<br />

Self-diagnostic data or external sensors<br />

mounted on the equipment allow<br />

operators to monitor the health of the<br />

ongoing activity, and detect early signs<br />

of equipment malfunction. For example,<br />

if thermography identifies an unusually<br />

hot component on an electronic board<br />

during electronic cartridge maintenance<br />

(Figure 1), the board could be<br />

preemptively replaced before it fails<br />

on a drilling run and causes significant<br />

downtime and losses.<br />

For electronic components, parameters<br />

such as total current consumption<br />

and dissipated heat serve as good indicators<br />

of circuitry health. Mechanical<br />

components that are in motion can be<br />

evaluated by the noise or vibrations<br />

at the system level, or by the power<br />

demand required to set the system in<br />

motion.<br />

Figure 1:<br />

Hot spot on an<br />

electric circuit<br />

identified<br />

by infrared<br />

camera<br />

indicates a<br />

failure of<br />

one of the<br />

components.<br />

Source: Denis<br />

Eremenko<br />

1/<strong>2022</strong> maintworld 29


Bolt elongated due to excessive load<br />

Bolt with nominal lenght<br />

Figure 2: Stabilizer blade with conventional tungsten carbide tiles (left), and abrasion<br />

resistant TSP (thermally stable polycrystalline) tiles (right). Source: Denis Eremenko<br />

Figure 3: Attention to small details such as<br />

unusual bolt wear may yield great benefits<br />

by preventing costly equipment failures.<br />

Because the importance of health<br />

monitoring requirements increases<br />

with the complexity of the hardware and<br />

software, state-of-the art equipment<br />

often has self-diagnostic functions implemented<br />

at the design phase.<br />

3. Assess equipment condition<br />

after a job<br />

Even a failure-free operation of complex<br />

equipment provides ample opportunities<br />

to ensure flawless execution in the<br />

future.<br />

• Analyze recorded information:<br />

recorded sensor data may provide<br />

better resolution compared<br />

to real-time monitoring, due to<br />

higher data recording frequency,<br />

or a larger spectrum of recorded<br />

parameters. When analyzing bearing<br />

performance, I noticed that<br />

a failing bearing may induce additional<br />

vibrations that increase<br />

with time. It might be difficult to<br />

recognize when monitoring over a<br />

short interval, however, this indicator<br />

becomes more obvious when<br />

analyzing the trend over a longer<br />

period of time.<br />

• Check for out-of-spec environment,<br />

adjust maintenance based<br />

on exposure: at times, equipment<br />

operating environments can be<br />

extreme and change so drastically<br />

that assets are working in<br />

conditions beyond what they were<br />

designed for, yet this may not result<br />

in a hardware failure. Assets<br />

exposed to out-of-specification<br />

conditions during a job may sustain<br />

unusual wear, which can reveal<br />

weak points in the design. On one<br />

of the wells drilled in Sakhalin,<br />

drilling tools passed through a<br />

layer of extremely abrasive formation<br />

that accelerated wear on the<br />

equipment components in contact<br />

with the wellbore. Analyzing wear<br />

patterns from that interval provided<br />

valuable information on how<br />

to improve the design and extend<br />

the life of the parts even for regular<br />

application, allowing drilling for<br />

longer sections in less abrasive<br />

formations. One of the solutions<br />

that came out of this analysis was<br />

the application of improved wearprotective<br />

tiles on stabilizer blades,<br />

that stabilize the downhole tool<br />

assembly in the wellbore and are in<br />

contact with the formation (Figure<br />

2).<br />

• Evaluate mechanical components<br />

during disassembly or<br />

testing: benchmarking components’<br />

wear against typical wear<br />

seen on similar modules after an<br />

average job facilitates identifying<br />

parts that are exhibiting unusual<br />

and/or previously unseen wear<br />

patterns. As depicted in Figure 3,<br />

bolts that secure parts and modules<br />

together typically show little<br />

wear, but exposing equipment to<br />

high shocks and vibrations during<br />

downhole runs may result in bolts<br />

deformation and/or thread elongation.<br />

This serves as a first indicator<br />

of exposure to harsh environments,<br />

and is a trigger to replace all bolts<br />

before they fracture and fail—even<br />

those that are not yet showing any<br />

signs of deformation, but have<br />

accumulated some fatigue. Such<br />

vigilance allows maintenance technicians<br />

to recognize new failure<br />

modes before they result in an<br />

actual loss to operations, as equipment<br />

ages through its lifecycle.<br />

4. Adapt the maintenance program<br />

for early detection of potential<br />

failure onset<br />

Defining maintenance tasks, and time<br />

(or event) triggers for these tasks, is the<br />

foundation of any successful maintenance<br />

program. System function tests,<br />

equipment disassembly requirements,<br />

and oil replacement intervals should all<br />

have the underlying goal to identify and<br />

prevent a potential failure at its infancy.<br />

The detection techniques range from<br />

visual inspections and non-destructive<br />

testing, to condition-based monitoring<br />

– such as bearing vibration measurements<br />

or oil contamination analysis.<br />

The key is to establish a baseline for<br />

the monitored parameter during regular<br />

performance (for instance, certain<br />

vibration levels of an electrical motor,<br />

or the allowable amount of oil contamination<br />

in the lubricating system of the<br />

module), and a threshold, which - when<br />

surpassed - will trigger part replacement<br />

or an advanced level of disassembly<br />

and increased maintenance, to bring<br />

the system back to a “safe zone.”<br />

5. Develop and implement design<br />

improvements to extend operations<br />

in the “safe zone”<br />

Once the wear of the components or<br />

parts failure is identified and evidence is<br />

30 maintworld 1/<strong>2022</strong>


captured, the engineering team should<br />

explore the opportunities for design improvement.<br />

Limited resources allocated<br />

to equipment maintenance and reliability<br />

upgrades demand a well-considered<br />

implementation. The key is to define<br />

the initial plan, take into account the<br />

procurement process, parts lead time,<br />

and time required to implement the upgrade,<br />

and to perform periodic reviews<br />

to stay focused on the progress, readjusting<br />

the plan as needed. A simple<br />

spreadsheet can be sufficient to lay-out<br />

the plan and track the progress.<br />

Performance<br />

6. Successful maintenance program<br />

execution depends on people<br />

The most critical element of a successful<br />

maintenance organization is the team of<br />

people responsible for executing maintenance<br />

processes.<br />

• Develop, coach, and mentor<br />

maintenance technicians: sophisticated<br />

technology is unique<br />

and complex by design, requiring<br />

specialized knowledge and skill-sets<br />

that can only be gained through<br />

theoretical training and exposure.<br />

Mastering technical and workmanship<br />

skills may take years. A comprehensive<br />

training program will<br />

allow for new hires to absorb the<br />

required knowledge, and embrace<br />

the philosophy of adhering to established<br />

maintenance processes.<br />

To foster a culture of knowledge sharing,<br />

I implemented a system of knowledge<br />

champions within the maintenance department.<br />

Technicians with many years<br />

of experience in the specific technology<br />

were selected for these roles, with a<br />

set of objectives to drive the culture of<br />

excellence and act as the main point of<br />

contact for knowledge sharing for the<br />

respective technology, both within the<br />

local maintenance team and externally<br />

with the engineering center.<br />

Safe zone<br />

Risk zone<br />

Figure 4: The maintenance trigger must be set so that it would bring the system back to<br />

the safe zone, while not happening prematurely, which in turn may lead to maintenanceinduced<br />

errors and increased spend on consumables.<br />

New release from<br />

engineering team<br />

Early sign of failure<br />

Maintenance trigger to catch early sign of failure<br />

Management review<br />

with technicians on-site<br />

Review by remaining<br />

technicians<br />

Moment of failure<br />

Time<br />

Define<br />

implementation plan<br />

Sign-off<br />

to ensure<br />

no one got<br />

left out<br />

Figure 5: Communications workflow to review engineering releases with all<br />

maintenance technicians. Source: Denis Eremenko, icons by Freepik (flaticon.com).<br />

• Promote knowledge sharing<br />

with engineering: two-way communication<br />

is crucial between<br />

technicians and the engineering<br />

team, which relies on the feedback<br />

from the shop floor to understand<br />

common wear patterns. Implementing<br />

reliability improvements<br />

designed by the engineering department<br />

requires a knowledge<br />

sharing workflow that enables the<br />

timely review of updated documentation,<br />

communication to all<br />

members of the maintenance team,<br />

and adoption in the routine maintenance<br />

processes - like the one<br />

shown on Figure 5. Sign-off sheets<br />

help to ensure that no one is overlooked<br />

due to vacation or sick time.<br />


Developing a mature maintenance program<br />

with a focus on equipment reliability<br />

is a multi-year journey. Any organization<br />

committed to this journey must be<br />

willing to learn from the experience and<br />

continuously adjust, weaving the ongoing<br />

improvements into the maintenance<br />

processes. Multiple, intertwined building<br />

blocks are necessary for success, and when<br />

properly implemented the process will<br />

drive outstanding levels of asset reliability.<br />

These recommendations were developed<br />

from years of experience maintaining<br />

state-of-the-art equipment operated in<br />

hostile environments in oil and gas, however,<br />

these steps can provide the foundation<br />

for a maintenance organization in other<br />

industries in which the relentless pursuit<br />

of high equipment reliability will have a<br />

positive impact on the bottom line.<br />

1/<strong>2022</strong> maintworld 31


The significance<br />

of Maintenance Body<br />

of Knowledge<br />

The Maintenance Body of Knowledge (BoK) is an<br />

EFNMS initiative (European Federation of National<br />

Maintenance Societies) to describe the maintenance<br />

landscape, i.e., its scope, boundaries, content as well<br />

as its relationship to other domains. It constitutes<br />

a catalogue of maintenance knowledge including<br />

industrial issues, methods, techniques, practices, etc.,<br />

in relation to the activities concerned.<br />



The mission of EFNMS, a non-profit<br />

organisation created in 1970 and<br />

gathering the National Maintenance<br />

Societies (NMS) of 24 European<br />

countries, is to share experiences<br />

and collaborate to develop the maintenance<br />

profession and create a European maintenance<br />

culture.<br />

The maintenance activities are generally<br />

entrusted to a specific entity (e.g.: maintenance<br />

department) including technicians,<br />

engineers, maintenance managers and<br />

asset managers. They are also often partly<br />

entrusted to other entities of the company<br />

(e.g., operation, human resources, etc.)<br />

that participate in this generic process. All<br />

maintenance stakeholders, whatever their<br />

position, must have the required knowledge<br />

and competences to perform their maintenance-related<br />

activities and the BoK is a<br />

way of identifying them. It is independent<br />

of company organisations and intended for<br />

everyone involved in maintenance.<br />

A solid and shared maintenance culture<br />

is a guarantee of good communication between<br />

stakeholders and best efficiency of the<br />

actions carried out. Technical, administrative,<br />

and managerial actions that constitute<br />

maintenance must be performed by people<br />

that have a thorough understanding of the<br />

concepts used, knowledge of how to implement<br />

the methods, practices, etc. that are<br />

the basis of successful maintenance and also<br />

have appropriate basic knowledge and soft<br />

32 maintworld 1/<strong>2022</strong><br />

skills. They must also have a broad vision of<br />

maintenance and understand its place in the<br />

context of asset management.<br />

Morre concretely, the BoK consists of<br />

subjects which have been listed especially<br />

from Euromaintenance conferences, European<br />

standards, works of the EFNMS<br />

Committees and opinions of specialists. The<br />

subjects are described by texts written by<br />

European experts and validated by a Reading<br />

committee. These texts contain short<br />

and didactic outlines of the subjects and provide<br />

bibliographies which allows the reader<br />

to access much more detailed information.<br />

Over 75 subjects have been listed and<br />

briefly defined. They concern:<br />

• industrial issues (e.g., “Life cycle management”,<br />

“Maintenance & sustainability”,<br />

“Education and training in maintenance”,<br />

“Assessment of occupational<br />

risks in maintenance”, etc.),<br />

• methods or techniques (e.g., "Total Productive<br />

Maintenance", "Fault Diagnosis",<br />

"Root Cause Analysis", "FRACAS",<br />

"Remaining Service Life Assessment",<br />

"Benchmarking", etc.),<br />

• areas of knowledge and practices (e.g.,<br />

"Negotiation techniques and industrial<br />

relations", "Fundamentals of project<br />

management and control", "Preparation<br />

& scheduling of work", "Budget<br />

control", "Good practices in Health and<br />

Safety”, etc.).<br />

The links with the maintenance processes<br />

are indicated, which makes it possible<br />

to better identify the competences that are<br />

expected from maintenance personnel.<br />

The BoK project leads to propose a collaborative<br />

document intended to be regularly<br />

supplemented, updated and improved<br />

by any expert reader of a particular subject<br />

who wishes to propose changes, under the<br />

supervision of the Reading committee.<br />

The ambition of this work is to constitute<br />

a living reference that clearly explains the<br />

content of maintenance and its relationship<br />

with other processes of companies or any<br />

organisations, and thus contribute to the<br />

development of maintenance for the benefit<br />

of European and global populations.<br />

1. Connection between BOK,<br />

maintenance standards and<br />

certification frameworks<br />

The BoK is based on the European maintenance<br />

standards, to which EFNMS actively<br />

contributes, and in particular the terminology<br />

and standards that describe the maintenance<br />

process and its relationship within<br />

asset management. Indeed, it is built on the<br />

basis of these standards by combining the<br />

maintenance actions and the knowledge<br />

necessary to accomplish them.<br />

Maintenance concerns all industrial sectors<br />

as well as buildings and infrastructure<br />

and contains the activities that make it possible<br />

to avoid failures and to restore items<br />

to ensure availability, health and safety of


Management process<br />

Manage maintenance (strategy & improvement, human<br />

resources, continuous improvement, compliance, etc.)<br />

Realization processes<br />

Client’s<br />

needs<br />

Prevent undesirable events by<br />

avoiding failures and faults<br />

Restore items in required state<br />

Act<br />

preventively<br />

or correctively<br />

on the item<br />

Client’s<br />

Satisfaction<br />

Improve the items<br />

Support processes<br />

Guarantee Health and safety to individuals and preserve environment in maintenance<br />

Budget<br />

maintenance<br />

of items<br />

Deliver<br />

operational<br />

documentation<br />

Deliver<br />

spare<br />

parts<br />

Deliver tools,<br />

support equipment<br />

and Information<br />

system<br />

Provide<br />

needed<br />

infrastructures<br />

Provide<br />

internal Human<br />

resources<br />

Provide<br />

Maintenance<br />

services<br />

Deliver maintenance<br />

requirements during<br />

items design &<br />

modification<br />

Manage<br />

data<br />

Improve<br />

the results<br />

Figure 1: The maintenance process (from EN17007)<br />

people and the environment, durability, and<br />

controlled costs.<br />

These activities are especially described<br />

in the EN17007 ¹ which groups the processes<br />

into three types (figure 1):<br />

• A management process that establishes<br />

policy and strategy, defines the organisation,<br />

assigns responsibilities, negotiates<br />

budgets, manages actions, analyses<br />

data and leads a continuous improvement<br />

process.<br />

• Realisation processes which are the<br />

reason of being of the overall process<br />

and produce the expected results. They<br />

include preventive and corrective<br />

maintenance which share a common<br />

process including preparation, scheduling,<br />

and performing tasks on items, and<br />

a third process for improving reliability<br />

and maintainability of the items.<br />

- Support processes which are necessary<br />

for the realisation and management<br />

processes, and which include:<br />

- Risk management for personal health<br />

and safety and the environment when<br />

performing maintenance tasks.<br />

- The provision of the resources necessary<br />

for maintenance: spare parts, tools<br />

and information system, documentation,<br />

infrastructures, internal staff,<br />

external services.<br />

- Management of maintenance data and<br />

budget.<br />

- Analyses and actions to take maintenance<br />

into account in the design and<br />

modification requirements of items.<br />

- Process optimization as part of continuous<br />

improvement.<br />

This process breakdown thus delimits the<br />

maintenance scope and boundaries and<br />

specify its content. Certain specificities<br />

related to the building and infrastructures<br />

sector could also be considered referring to<br />

the EN13331 ² .<br />

But maintenance is not isolated, and in<br />

its landscape there are in particular three<br />

other domains in which it plays a leading<br />

role (figure 2):<br />

• The management of physical assets<br />

introduced in the ISO 55000 3 series<br />

which aims to translate the strategic<br />

objectives of companies and organisations<br />

into decisions and actions. Coordinated<br />

with other processes (design,<br />

¹ EN17007 :2017 – Maintenance process and related indicators<br />

² EN1331 :2011 – Criteria for design, management, and control of maintenance services for buildings<br />

³ ISO55000 – Asset Management 1/<strong>2022</strong> maintworld 33


Figure 2: the maintenance landscape<br />


Figure 3: Relationships between<br />

maintenance processes, knowledge,<br />

and personnel<br />



acquisition, production, modernisation,<br />

sale/disposal/dismantling) maintenance<br />

contributes to optimizing the<br />

value created. It participates in the definition<br />

of the objectives and the policy<br />

to manage the assets in an efficient and<br />

profitable way. These relations between<br />

maintenance and physical asset management<br />

are described in EN16646 ⁴<br />

and EN17485 ⁵ standards.<br />

• Risk management and dependability,<br />

to which maintenance contributes to<br />

constitute an essential preventative and<br />

protective control measure. By acting<br />

on the reliability and maintainability<br />

of items and on the logistic support,<br />

it helps prevent failures and reduce<br />

downtime which can have serious consequences.<br />

IEC60300-3-1 ⁶ explains the<br />

role of maintenance in dependability<br />

management.<br />

• Sustainable development of which<br />

maintenance is an essential pillar.<br />

Designing an item by developing and facilitating<br />

its maintenance, then by constantly<br />

maintaining it in good condition<br />

during its life cycle, is to ensure it a<br />

longer useful life. This therefore makes<br />

it possible to reduce raw materials and<br />

energy to rebuild it, which is beneficial<br />

both economically and to preserve the<br />

environment. It is also giving work locally,<br />

because maintenance is a set of<br />

local activities, which is a social advantage.<br />

The three characteristics of sustainable<br />

development are thus satisfied<br />

by maintenance. ISO 26000:2020 ⁷ confirms<br />

the contribution of maintenance<br />

to sustainability.<br />

If maintenance is a set of actions, it also encompasses<br />

the knowledge that enables them<br />

to be carried out. As stressed before, it is the<br />

need to perform the actions which is at the<br />

origin of the knowledge and skills that the<br />

people who carry them out must have. It is<br />

Maintenance processes<br />

& Key activities<br />

requires<br />

is used to<br />

Maintenance<br />

processes<br />


therefore from the actions to be performed<br />

that we must start in order to identify the<br />

necessary knowledge for those involved in<br />

maintenance (figure 3).<br />

The personnel performing maintenance<br />

activities must have knowledge, competences<br />

and abilities which are described in the<br />

European standard EN15628 8 . Knowledge<br />

is a body of facts, principles, theories, and<br />

practices that results from the assimilation<br />

of information through learning. Competences,<br />

for their part, are the intellectual and<br />

practical aptitudes to use this knowledge as<br />

well as the personal dispositions adapted to<br />

social behaviour.<br />

We thus find the different types of knowledge<br />

and competences that are required to<br />

carry out actions, and in particular to effectively<br />

contribute to maintenance activities:<br />

• Learning to know (basic knowledge) not<br />

specific to maintenance but essential for<br />

the personnel who carry out their activities<br />

(communication & writing, mathematics,<br />

physics, chemistry, etc.).<br />

Maintenance<br />

knowledge &<br />

competences<br />

Knowledge<br />

performs<br />

is known by<br />

Maintenance<br />

personnel<br />

• Learning to do (know-how) which<br />

contains maintenance methods, techniques,<br />

practices including Maintenance<br />

Engineering.<br />

• Learning to be and to live together which<br />

includes the human relations, goodwill,<br />

teamwork, respect of the rules, integration,<br />

curiosity, initiative, etc.<br />

The BoK mainly focuses on “learning to do”<br />

(know-how) although other knowledge and<br />

competences are also essential and should<br />

be carefully assessed when looking for qualified<br />

personnel.<br />

The EFNMS has been working for a long<br />

time on the competences of maintenance<br />

personnel and more particularly the European<br />

Certification Committee (ECC). The<br />

ECC has since 1993, developed and implemented<br />

a European certification for maintenance<br />

managers and maintenance technicians,<br />

and the European Training Committee<br />

(ETC) which notably participated<br />

in the European standard EN15628 on the<br />

qualification of maintenance personnel and<br />

⁴ EN16646 :2015 – Maintenance within physical asset management<br />

⁵ EN17485 :2021 – Framework for improving the value of the physical assets through their whole life cycle<br />

⁶ IEC60300-3-1: 2005 – Analysis techniques for dependability – Guide on methodology<br />

⁷ ISO 26000:2020 – Guidance on social responsibility<br />

⁸ EN15628:2014 - Qualification of maintenance personnel<br />

34 maintworld 1/<strong>2022</strong>


was one of the initiators of the European Euromaint<br />

project within the framework of the<br />

Leonardo program dedicated to education<br />

and vocational training.<br />

Regarding the knowledge we must also<br />

mention the International Euromaintenance<br />

Conference, created by EFNMS<br />

in 1974, which is the main European and<br />

international event where maintenance<br />

knowledge is presented and discussed. The<br />

development of the BoK is part of these<br />

activities and helps to gather and structure<br />

this knowledge.<br />

2. Who should utilize BOK and for<br />

which purpose?<br />

The BoK is a tool intended for maintenance<br />

stakeholders (companies, organisations,<br />

universities, vocational schools, etc.). Its<br />

main objectives are:<br />

• to define the issues and topics to be<br />

considered when developing, establishing,<br />

and developing maintenance<br />

process<br />

• to define the activities to be supported<br />

e.g., by IT and decision-making<br />

tools<br />

• to define the knowledge required to<br />

carry out the maintenance processes<br />

• to contribute to its acquisition<br />

through education and training<br />

• to attest, through a certification process,<br />

that this knowledge is correctly<br />

acquired according to the maintenance<br />

profile of the people involved.<br />

The European Training Committee and European<br />

Certification Committee of EFNMS<br />

are directly concerned by these objectives<br />

and the BoK development.<br />

Moreover, the BoK must be continuously<br />

enriched with new subjects and<br />

existing descriptions must be updated.<br />

So, experts who are familiar with certain<br />

subjects are invited to suggest additions<br />

or modifications and thus capitalize on<br />

the maintenance knowledge. This should<br />

encourage the academic world to increase<br />

research and development on maintenance<br />

subjects.<br />

Furthermore, this tool can be a starting<br />

point for other functionalities in close connection<br />

with the works carried out by the<br />

EFNMS committees. The BoK can be the<br />

way to gather additional and detailed information<br />

concerning the various subjects using<br />

the structure of the EN17007 standard.<br />

For example:<br />

• European Health safety and environment<br />

(EHSEC) committee has<br />

developed toolboxes, safety bulletins,<br />

safety cards<br />

• European Asset Management committee<br />

has developed materials for seminars<br />

and training, or assessment tools, and is<br />

in close connection with other international<br />

societies which disseminate information,<br />

in particular the Global Forum<br />

for Maintenance and Asset Management<br />

(GFMAM).<br />

• European Maintenance Assessment<br />

Committee (EMAC) produces maintenance<br />

indicators and surveys.<br />

• European committee Maintenance 4.0 is<br />

producing information related to digital<br />

technologies.<br />

The BoK also makes it possible to assist<br />

the CEN technical committee dedicated to<br />

maintenance (TC319) to identify relevant<br />

work items and develop a set of coherent<br />

and consistent standards.<br />

3. Some important contents of<br />

BOK to close the gaps between<br />

the future requirements within<br />

the life cycle management<br />

As said above, maintenance is a pillar of sustainable<br />

development and for this reason we<br />

can affirm that it will expand in the future.<br />

In addition, maintenance is a very good candidate<br />

for the application of new technologies<br />

(Big data, IoT, AI, etc.) that can bring<br />

great benefits.<br />

If certain subjects listed in the BoK are<br />

traditional (e.g.: Total Productive Maintenance,<br />

criticality analysis, RBI, spare part<br />

management, etc.), others are newer and<br />

will probably be developed further to meet<br />

the requirements of the smart industry. In<br />

particular, the following subjects in the field<br />

of Asset Management can be highlighted:<br />

• “Relations between maintenance and<br />

other processes” to align maintenance<br />

with the strategic plan of the organisation<br />

• “Maintenance process description<br />

– roles & responsibilities” which is a<br />

structured approach for assigning responsibilities<br />

and effectively managing<br />

the overall process and achieve critical<br />

success factors<br />

• “Life cycle extension” as a consequence<br />

of sustainability policies<br />

• “Maintenance, and investment decisions”<br />

to allow optimal choices between<br />

competing options<br />

• “Rebuilding & Reinvestment strategies”<br />

where maintenance can be a decisive<br />

element in choosing the best solution<br />

• “Uncertainty in maintenance management”<br />

which is a big challenge to take<br />

decisions with limited and uncomplete<br />

information considering the probability<br />

of regret and the possibility of change of<br />

strategy<br />

• “Regulations and relations with auditing<br />

& safety organizations” for its importance<br />

in a world where risks must be better<br />

controlled;<br />

• “Maintenance and Sustainability” which<br />

will be in the future an unavoidable and<br />

essential relationship<br />

• “Maintenance and industry 4.0” to<br />

develop and apply new technologies to<br />

maintenance.<br />

We can also mention other important subjects<br />

more centred on maintenance activities,<br />

as:<br />

• Decision making in maintenance<br />

• Maintainability studies<br />

• Maintenance data collection<br />

• Diagnosis & Prognosis and Predictive<br />

maintenance<br />

• Equipment health analysis<br />

• Modelling and simulation of maintenance<br />

strategies<br />

which are paramount to best manage assets<br />

throughout their life cycle and for which<br />

great progress can be expected.<br />

4. Conclusions<br />

The Maintenance Body of Knowledge<br />

(BoK) developed by EFNMS (European<br />

Federation of National Maintenance<br />

Societies) is a catalogue of maintenance<br />

knowledge (industrial issues, methods,<br />

techniques, practices, etc.), in relation<br />

to the activities concerned to enable<br />

maintenance stakeholders to perform<br />

the maintenance processes with the best<br />

efficiency.<br />

It is not a substitute to textbooks,<br />

standards, detailed descriptions of specific<br />

methods etc., but it gives an understandable<br />

and detailed framework for<br />

required knowledge within maintenance.<br />

Thus, it is more than just a list of subject<br />

matters or activities.<br />

Although BoK defines required knowledge<br />

within maintenance, it is an excellent<br />

reference for many other approaches and<br />

activities within maintenance such as 1)<br />

to define the knowledge required to carry<br />

out the maintenance processes 2) to define<br />

the issues and topics to be considered<br />

when developing, establishing, and developing<br />

maintenance process, and 3) to<br />

define the activities to be supported e.g. by<br />

IT and decision making tools.<br />

BoK will be updated continuously anytime<br />

when any of the contents requires<br />

updating, and therefore, it differs from<br />

textbooks and standards which are usually<br />

updated as a whole now and then.<br />

1/<strong>2022</strong> maintworld 35



Modern<br />

Production Lines<br />

from Industrial<br />

Side Streams<br />

Organic biomass side streams are waste<br />

materials that are formed in numerous<br />

industries. They can, however, also provide<br />

remarkable raw material sources, processed<br />

into useful products by micro-organisms<br />

and their enzymes. This sustainable<br />

approach makes it increasingly economic<br />

to treat the past, present and future wastes<br />

as valuable resources, not just tedious or<br />

costly objects.<br />

In current times, there is a trend and<br />

necessity to safeguard the liveability<br />

and viability of our planet and its biosphere.<br />

Nowadays, it is also a widely<br />

accepted principle that industries have<br />

a built-in responsibility for the environmental<br />

and climatological consequences<br />

of their products and processes. In accordance<br />

with this thinking, we can readily<br />

accept the idea that modern industrial<br />

maintenance includes taking care of the<br />

side streams, carbon sequestration, industrial<br />

ecosystems, and environmental<br />

health issues beyond the occupational<br />

health policies.<br />

Micro-organisms constitute the third<br />

major group of living things, after plants<br />

and animals. They have essential roles in<br />

the circulation of matter and elements, efficient<br />

rise of chemical energies as well as the<br />

maintenance of ecosystem balances. The<br />

use of microbial strains and communities<br />

for the industrial maintenance operations,<br />

clearly links manmade industries with the<br />

ecosystems and their balances, and their<br />

unrefined cycles.<br />

This fundamental consolidation of natural<br />

microbial ecosystems with the organic<br />

industrial processes could provide us with<br />

simple but effective solutions for several issues<br />

of topmost actuality:<br />

1. generation of sustainable industries<br />

2. circulation of organic matter in human<br />

agriculture, municipalities, and industrial<br />

ecosystems<br />

3. raw material quality and sufficiency<br />

4. clean energy production using biomasses<br />

and their chemical bondages including<br />

the energy gases<br />

5. circulation of elements in industries and<br />

beyond<br />

6. water purification and reuse<br />

7. soil maintenance and resilience of food<br />

production, health supply and climate<br />

recovery<br />

8. sustainable clean technologies and ecosystem<br />

engineering<br />

If these themes are considered from<br />

36 maintworld 1/<strong>2022</strong>


the microbiological perspectives, solutions<br />

could be found from their life-supporting<br />

machinery. The subjects are not often visible,<br />

but their beneficial influence is most<br />

evident.<br />

The “microbial kingdom” includes A. the<br />

procaryotic (without proper nucleus existing)<br />

common eubacteria, cyanobacteria<br />

(blue-green algae) and archaea (for example<br />

the methane-producing bacteria belong to<br />

this group), and B. the eucaryotic microbes<br />

(with true nucleus as a cell organelle), such<br />

as protozoans, algae and micro fungi (yeasts<br />

and moulds). Viruses are not considered as<br />

genuinely living things, although they produce<br />

offspring of their kind. However, they<br />

do not possess metabolic capabilities of their<br />

own, but are dependent on the living, metabolizing<br />

procaryotic or eucaryotic cells. Since<br />

the harmful microbes are most actively presented<br />

in the publicity, the vast majority of<br />

beneficial strains are often forgotten.<br />

To cast a view on the actual industrial<br />

functions of microbes as industrial sources,<br />

we now introduce some links of microbial<br />

metabolic processes into the production<br />

of foods, their ingredients, substitutes, and<br />

additives. In so doing, the understanding of<br />

proportions is important: as a single spoonful<br />

of yogurt, for example, contains roughly<br />

as many bacterial cells as there are human<br />

beings on Earth. Since the uptake of substrates<br />

into a bacterial or microbial cell takes<br />

In the future,<br />

human<br />

economies and<br />

industries should be<br />

integrated with the<br />

natural ecosystems.<br />

place through its surface layers and area, we<br />

can multiplicate the vast resources hidden<br />

in the microcosm of that spoonful. In fact,<br />

there is a huge potential for e.g., novel foods<br />

by fermentation and other microbiological<br />

techniques (Hakalehto, 2020).<br />

Treasures of microbial<br />

metabolism<br />

Any side stream from the process or food industries<br />

can be used as a bi-product and is a<br />

potent source for novel products or processes.<br />

These upgraded materials could lower<br />

the waste problems and provide new sources<br />

of income. One recent example of this new<br />

kind of recycling potential in industries is<br />

the Hiedanranta case in Tampere, Finland.<br />

The city of Tampere has decided to convert a<br />

former forest industry site (1913-2008) into<br />

a high-quality suburb for 25.000 thousand<br />

inhabitants on the shores of Lake Näsijärvi.<br />

Before this municipal development project<br />

can get into full speed, the residual cellulosic<br />

side streams must be removed from the lake<br />

bottom. These discarded fibres have sedimented<br />

and been preserved there as a “mattress”<br />

of up to 10 meters thick.<br />

This ecosystem engineering project for<br />

cleaning up the wastes of the past industries<br />

could provide valuable means for producing<br />

food-grade organic chemicals, such as<br />

lactate or mannitol, energy gases hydrogen<br />

and methane, as well as first-class organic<br />

fertilizers (Hakalehto et al. <strong>2022</strong>, Kivelä<br />

and Hakalehto <strong>2022</strong>). These processes,<br />

which are alternatives for the combustion<br />

of the wet fibres, have been piloted several<br />

times by Finnoflag Oy and the consortium<br />

of other enterprises as well as universities.<br />

This technological advancement could completely<br />

transform side streams from a waste<br />

1/<strong>2022</strong> maintworld 37


compartment into useful products, as it<br />

has been evidenced by the Pilot studies<br />

of Finnoflag Oy, funded by the city of<br />

Tampere and the Finnish Ministry of<br />

Agriculture and Forestry (Hakalehto et<br />

al. 2021). Besides the microbiological<br />

production of the biotechnical goods,<br />

their recovery also has been tested by<br />

the Mälardalen University of Technology<br />

(Västerås, Sweden) (Beckinhausen<br />

et al. 2019).<br />

Fermentative processes in food<br />

production and reuse<br />

In addition to environmental deposits, plant<br />

or animal derived food raw materials or byproducts<br />

could also be processed by using<br />

microbes and their enzymes. As a matter of<br />

fact, this is old industrial activity as various<br />

fermentations such as ethanol or lactic acid<br />

fermentations have been traditionally used<br />

all over the world (Adusei-Mensah et al.<br />

2021). Modern thinking could associate elevated<br />

health benefits with these traditional<br />

processes. For example, yogurt was originally<br />

produced by fermentation to obtain sour<br />

milk food with improved preservation into<br />

the saddlebags of some nomadic Central<br />

Asian people.<br />

One example of a traditional method<br />

that has hit the nail on the head is the old<br />

Finnish habit of having a frog in the cellar<br />

preventing the acidification of sour milk<br />

in its large container. As the surplus milk<br />

was poured into this container during the<br />

wintertime, it was first fermented by the<br />

lactic acid bacteria. The spoilage of restored<br />

sour milk was prevented by having<br />

a frog swimming in the fermented product.<br />

This prevented the further conversion<br />

of lactic acid to acetic acid. Nowadays, we<br />

know that the secret of the preservation by<br />

frogs was in the magainin peptides, natural<br />

antibiotics, of the amphibian skin (Samgina<br />

et al. 2012).<br />

Different organic acids have been<br />

produced from various industrial wastes<br />

such as potato and other plant materials<br />

(Den Boer et al. 2016, 2021), or from<br />

slaughterhouse wastes (Hakalehto et al.<br />

2016, Schwede et al. 2017). It is also the<br />

most recommended strategy for combining<br />

various mixed wastes into a raw<br />

material pool which could be utilized<br />

by the microbial strains or their communities<br />

(Hakalehto and Jääskeläinen<br />

2017). The simultaneous production of<br />

energy and chemicals could be a lucrative<br />

way for industries to handle their<br />

side streams in a modern and ecological<br />

manner (Hakalehto 2015a).<br />

As an outcome of<br />

microbiological<br />

biorefineries, feasible<br />

and sustainable products,<br />

such as biochemicals,<br />

polymers, energy gases<br />

and soil improvement<br />

agents will replace<br />

all organic waste.<br />

The organic acids could provide means<br />

for producing preservatives such as propionic<br />

acid, which is used in the meat, dairy,<br />

and cereal industries (Hakalehto 2015b).<br />

These simple SCFA’s (Short Chain Fatty<br />

Acids) could be further refined to various<br />

aroma compounds, fragrances, and other<br />

supplements. An interesting example of<br />

such an intermediary substance is valeric<br />

(pentanoic) acid which could be produced as<br />

a condensate of lactic and propionic acids in<br />

the industrial process broth (Schwede et al.<br />

2017, Den Boer et al. 2020).<br />

Another example of the effective production<br />

of a platform chemical for many<br />

uses, also for the cosmetic industries, is<br />

the 2,3-butanediol fermented by microbial<br />

processes from e.g., potato industry wastes<br />

(Hakalehto et al. 2013). This higher alcohol<br />

could subsequently be converted into synthetic<br />

rubber via butadiene, or into synthetic<br />

fibres or textiles, or anti-ice substances.<br />

This is a good example of the versatile use of<br />

microbial processes in complementing the<br />

repertoires of food, chemical and pharmaceutical<br />

industries.<br />

Microbes and biological materials<br />

in service of better health<br />

prospects<br />

Mannitol is a non-toxic, low calory sweetener,<br />

which could be obtained from an<br />

industrial microbiology process (Hakalehto<br />

et al. 2016). It has also been suggested and<br />

developed for a new exipient for the pharmaceutical<br />

industries. This is a sugar alcohol<br />

that can be compared to sorbitol or xylitol. It<br />

is a quickly dissolving future source of basic<br />

tablet and pill materials (excipients), which<br />

liberate the active medical molecules faster<br />

than the more traditional materials, such as<br />

lactose or cellulose derivatives. Hence the<br />

effective compounds are not degraded by<br />

intestinal microflora.<br />

38 maintworld 1/<strong>2022</strong>


In principle, many health applications<br />

could be designed based on human microbiome<br />

(Hakalehto 2012). Amazingly, the<br />

small but numerous micro-organisms in our<br />

digestive tract are important for food uptake<br />

and circulation, constitution of neural and<br />

hormonal signals as well as in the development<br />

of our immune capabilities. They also<br />

maintain the “Bacterial Intestinal Balance”<br />

in the gut. Therefore, the research on the<br />

probiotic microbial strains and communities<br />

has become increasingly important for<br />

the designing of health-associated products<br />

and services; passive immunization by<br />

chicken egg yolk antibodies for instance,<br />

could aid our microflora together with the<br />

natural defences and vaccinations to tackle<br />

the intruding harmful viruses, bacteria, and<br />

other microbes (Hakalehto 2021).<br />

Microbes and the industrial<br />

energy sector<br />

Biohydrogen is the clean, sustainable, and<br />

endless source of energy. The product<br />

of anaerobic bacterial fermentation, this<br />

source could and should be widely used as a<br />

side product of industrial waste processing.<br />

The biomass resources could then provide a<br />

platform for the industrial or traffic energy<br />

systems using Nature’s own way, without<br />

casting a burden on the global ecosystem or<br />

climate. The residual fraction of the oxidation<br />

of biohydrogen would be water. This<br />

process liberates the chemical energies of<br />

the organic hydrocarbons. This circumvention<br />

would then ensure the most sustainable<br />

energy source without any limits, obstacles,<br />

or drawbacks. Microbial metabolism could<br />

be harnessed to produce biohydrogen and<br />

other biological substances for sustainable<br />

energy production in variable scales and<br />

dimensions.<br />

Figure. Ongoing clean-up of a<br />

15 cubic meter pool-like pilot<br />

reactor in Tampere, Finland,<br />

during the test runs of the<br />

lake bottom fibre deposits<br />

of past industrial activities.<br />

The device is manufactured<br />

by Nordautomation Oy. It<br />

was used as a test platform<br />

in the project "Zero waste<br />

from zero fibre" in 2018-19,<br />

funded by the Finnish Ministry<br />

of Agriculture and Forestry.<br />

In this project, the organic<br />

biomass was fully converted<br />

into valuable chemicals,<br />

energy gases and organic<br />

fertilizers. Photo: Finnoflag Oy.<br />

1/<strong>2022</strong> maintworld 39

EFNMS<br />



The Hellenic Maintenance Society (HMS) is<br />

headed by an experienced chairman, Mr. George<br />

Effraimidis, who has been working in the<br />

Maintenance Industry for the last 25 years.<br />

The Hellenic Maintenance<br />

Society of Greece<br />

emphasizes the social<br />

role of maintenance<br />

The Hellenic Maintenance Society (HMS) is headed by an experienced<br />

chairman, Mr. George Effraimidis, who has worked in the maintenance<br />

industry for over 25 years. As he claims, the maintenance sector<br />

characterises him from the professional point of view.<br />

Mr. Efreaimidis´ interest in the<br />

field began when he started<br />

studying mechanical engineering,<br />

and maintenance<br />

was a part of an industrial<br />

management degree.<br />

Since graduation, Mr. Effraimidis has held<br />

various positions in the field of maintenance.<br />

Since 2010, he has served as General Manager in<br />

Atlantis Engineering. The company operates in<br />

the field of software maintenance services and is<br />

responsible for TPM, Maintenance Management<br />

and CMMS implementation projects in Southeast<br />

Europe and the Middle East.<br />

– Greece is a natural border of Europe with<br />

Asia but also is considered a commercial bridge<br />

between Europe and the Middle East. Our traditions<br />

and history are very close to the world in<br />

the Middle East, and we understand each other's<br />

way of acting and thinking, Mr. Effraimidis says.<br />

This is why he sees it natural to develop relations<br />

with the Arab world in the maintenance<br />

sector as well. During Efreaimidis ’presidency,<br />

HMS has been attending OMAITEC, an annual<br />

maintenance conference in the Middle East for<br />

four years now.<br />

– We can understand both and help connect the<br />

two worlds in a unique way, Mr. Effraimidis sees.<br />

According to Mr. Effraimidis, the biggest differences<br />

are in maintenance needs.<br />

– Nowadays Arab world is characterized by its<br />

spectacular and extensive infrastructure, such<br />

as airports, ports, numerous buildings and skyscrapers,<br />

and less by its industrial sector.<br />

40 maintworld 1/<strong>2022</strong>

EFNMS<br />

As a result, the maintenance needs and the facility<br />

management challenges are remarkable.<br />

HMS is aware of its responsibilities<br />

and actively provides information on<br />

the industry<br />

The Hellenic Maintenance Society was founded<br />

in 2007, but even before that, an annual maintenance<br />

conference “Maintenance Forum” was<br />

held in Greece, paving the way for the establishment<br />

of Greece’s own Society.<br />

One of HMS's tasks is to contribute to the construction<br />

and maintenance of the entire society. The<br />

aim is also to strengthen the Greek-speaking maintenance<br />

community. According to Mr. Effraimidis,<br />

HMS is constantly working to develop networking<br />

and connect universities and other research institutes<br />

with maintenance service providers.<br />

The main objectives of the maintenance association<br />

are based on the consulting. The aim is to<br />

collect and disseminate information to everyone<br />

who needs it, for example through the association's<br />

website.<br />

– Within 15 years, HMS has grown into a<br />

strong and active community in the field of<br />

maintenance. There are more than 300 active<br />

members, including several corporate members<br />

from the industrial sector, says Mr. Effraimidis.<br />

–We have a broad role as an operator in the<br />

maintenance industry and we have a responsibility<br />

for the entire maintenance community. That<br />

is why we strive to improve our Society by providing<br />

information not only to our members but<br />

to everyone.<br />

The association is active for its members by<br />

organizing at least six webinars a year on various<br />

maintenance issues, from technology to management.<br />

– As our goal is to pass on information to<br />

everyone who needs it, we strive to keep the webinars<br />

free not only for our members but also for<br />

everyone who works with maintenance, says Mr.<br />

Effraimidis.<br />

HMS is also systematically involved in collecting<br />

maintenance legislation, for example to<br />

improve safety and employment issues.<br />

The Hellenic<br />

Maintenance Society<br />

was founded in 2007.<br />

One of HMS's tasks<br />

is to contribute to<br />

the construction and<br />

maintenance of the<br />

entire society.<br />

1/<strong>2022</strong> maintworld 41

EFNMS<br />

In matters of employment, the association<br />

also is about to co-operates with recruitment<br />

companies and provides information on vacancies<br />

in the maintenance sector, for example, on<br />

its website.<br />

HMS actively participates in international<br />

events in the field and is always involved in initiatives<br />

for the maintenance community, such as,<br />

the Euromaintenance Conference in 2016.<br />

It is worth mentioning that, the most important<br />

event is the annual “Maintenance Forum”<br />

conference in Greece, which Mr. Effraimidis describes<br />

as “a meeting place for the entire Greek<br />

maintenance community”:<br />

– At the same time, it is also a meeting place<br />

for the international maintenance industry,<br />

where experts in the field can discuss and exchange<br />

experiences and information on new<br />

methods and practices.<br />

HMS agilely adopted new ways of<br />

interacting during the pandemic<br />

The Covid pandemic has disciplined the maintenance<br />

industry and has been reflected in the<br />

association’s operations. Yet the association has<br />

not been paralyzed, but events have been taken<br />

place in creative and alternative ways, within always<br />

the existing restrictions. For example, when<br />

the annual “Maintenance Forum” could not be<br />

held in the normal way for two years, it has been<br />

replaced by online meetings.<br />

There was also a desire to keep the annual<br />

museum tradition alive during Covid. HMS<br />

usually organizes a New Year's Event at the<br />

museum, the program of which includes a tour<br />

of the museum, after which the change of the<br />

year is celebrated with drinks and food. Because<br />

of Covid, the museum was visited remotely this<br />

time, as there was no desire to give up the significant<br />

event because of the pandemic.<br />

According to Mr. Effraimidis, choosing museum<br />

as a place to celebrate is to emphasize the<br />

fact that the maintenance sector is a clean job<br />

and “the clothes do not smell of oil and show dirt<br />

stains”, as he says.<br />

– The museum environment also refers to the<br />

Society's “role model” Parthenon. Through it, we<br />

want to maintain the idea that we have been able<br />

to do valuable maintenance work in Greece for<br />

almost 3,000 years, Mr. Effraimidis says.<br />

Within 15 years, HMS<br />

has grown into a<br />

strong and active<br />

community in the field<br />

of maintenance.<br />

42 maintworld 1/<strong>2022</strong>

EFNMS<br />

Greece is not known for<br />

its heavy industrial<br />

production. Instead, the<br />

country is a gateway to<br />

Europe for imports of<br />

goods.<br />

During the pandemic, the association also organized<br />

two webinars on how to protect the industry<br />

from Covid.<br />

– We invited doctors and the Chairman of the<br />

Occupational Health and Safety Committee to visit<br />

the webinar. This allowed us to discuss the situation<br />

in Covid in the field of maintenance and hear the<br />

latest updates on our work, Mr. Effraimidis says.<br />

New technology enables proactive<br />

maintenance<br />

Greece is mostly known for its industrial sector in<br />

dairy products and less for its heavy production.<br />

Moreover, Greece indeed operates as a natural port<br />

and a gateway for Europe, so there are remarkable<br />

challenges and needs for the viability of its ports.<br />

From this point of view, among other things,<br />

Mr. Effraimidis considers the transition from repair<br />

to preventive maintenance to be an important development<br />

in the sector.<br />

To this end, data collection and smart solutions<br />

need to be further developed. As Mr. Effraimidis<br />

sees, people working in maintenance should work<br />

with their brains, not by hand:<br />

– I think this issue will be even more important<br />

in the future. While technology is developing and<br />

the transition to preventive maintenance is being<br />

facilitated, we must still not forget that human is at<br />

the centre of our work.<br />

– The challenge for the next decades is, therefore,<br />

to combine these two parameters: human<br />

psychology and new technological possibilities,<br />

he says.<br />

1/<strong>2022</strong> maintworld 43

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