Powertrain | Diesel International 2022-05

DIESEL OF THE YEAR KOHLER KSD 1403TCA: The smallest of the award-winning engines AUTOMOTIVE 2035? BMW, Toyota, Stellantis (and Ford) SCANIA: Super engine, Super efficiency FOCUS CATERPILLAR: The CHP seen from America OFF-HIGHWAY HONDA: e-GX and MPP AEM: EVs in US construction EVE Electric Vehicle Experience POWER GENERATION CUMMINS: The acquisitions summary COMPARISONS 1.1-1.5 LITERS: Cat, Hatz, Kohler, Kubota, Perkins, Yanmar TECHNO FPT INDUSTRIAL: E-axles ALLISON: Interview BORGWARNER: A large scale strategy UFI FILTERS: Hydrogen COLUMNS Editorial, Newsroom, Sustainable Techno

KOHLER KSD 1403TCA: The smallest of the award-winning engines
2035? BMW, Toyota, Stellantis (and Ford)
SCANIA: Super engine, Super efficiency
CATERPILLAR: The CHP seen from America
AEM: EVs in US construction
EVE Electric Vehicle Experience
CUMMINS: The acquisitions summary
1.1-1.5 LITERS: Cat, Hatz, Kohler, Kubota, Perkins, Yanmar
ALLISON: Interview
BORGWARNER: A large scale strategy
Editorial, Newsroom, Sustainable Techno


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winner<br />

Kohler wins <strong>Diesel</strong> of the Year for the third time - Scania<br />

Super puts ICE back in the lead on the road - Cat and CHP -<br />

Cummins acquisitions summary - Interview with Allison<br />


www.vadoetorno.com<br />

www.diesel-international.com<br />

www.dieseloftheyear.com<br />

ISSN 0042<br />

Press Register n. 4596 – April 20th 1994<br />

Poste Italiane Inc. – Mail subscription<br />

D.L. 353/2003 (mod. in L. 27/02/2004 n° 46)<br />

Art. 1, subsection 1, LO/MI<br />


May <strong>2022</strong>

POWER TO<br />



Offering more power with less complexity and less weight.<br />

This engine delivers the productivity you need to keep your<br />

equipment running. Proven in a wide range of industrial<br />

applications, its power increases to 326 hp / 243 kW<br />

enabling replacement of engines with higher<br />

displacement with no impact on productivity.<br />

To see how Cummins B6.7 sets the<br />

bar for performance go to:<br />

cummins.tech/powertraindieselmay<strong>2022</strong><br />


MAY <strong>2022</strong><br />

16<br />


ICE<br />


kWe ELECTRIC<br />

GAS<br />


diesel-international.com<br />


10. KOHLER KSD 1403TCA<br />

The smallest of the award-winning engines<br />


14. 2035?<br />

BMW, Toyota, Stellantis (and Ford)<br />

16. SCANIA<br />

Super engine, Super efficiency<br />

FOCUS<br />


The CHP seen from America<br />


24. HONDA<br />

e-GX and MPP<br />

34. AEM<br />

EVs in US construction<br />

36. EVE<br />

Electric Vehicle Experience<br />


26. CUMMINS<br />

The acquisitions summary<br />



30. 1.1-1.5 LITERS<br />

Cat, Hatz, Kohler, Kubota, Perkins, Yanmar<br />

26<br />

40<br />

TECHNO<br />


E-axles<br />

40. ALLISON<br />

Interview<br />

44. BORGWARNER<br />

A large scale strategy<br />

46. UFI FILTERS<br />

Hydrogen<br />


4. Editorial 6. Newsroom 48. Sustainable Techno<br />

Zero-emission commercial vehicles<br />

On Monday, 13 th June, <strong>2022</strong>, 3 PM CET,<br />

POWERTRAIN will talk about e-axles together with<br />

Allison, Brist, EVE, Meritor, Volta Trucks and ZF<br />

©<strong>2022</strong> Cummins Inc.<br />



by Fabio Butturi<br />


commercial vehicles. Is<br />

e-axle the leading solution for powertrain<br />

efficiency?” Are electric axles the best<br />

solution for accelerated electrification<br />

“Zero-Emission<br />

of trucks and LCVs? And what about<br />

repowering? However, is the layout based on e-axles the<br />

only viable solution to increase the vehicle efficiency and<br />

maximize performances? Which are the alternatives and<br />

the main challenges? This is the format of the event that<br />

will take place on Monday 13 June at 5 pm CES time on<br />

the POWERTRAIN and Sustainable Truck and Van online<br />

media channels. The market of electric trucks is getting<br />

increasingly bigger and definitely lively in the latest<br />

years. Both traditional manufacturers and newcomers<br />

are filling their portfolios with new full electric truck<br />

models, and some of them are already being produced. As<br />

a consequence, potential customers are getting more and<br />

more interested in zero-emission solutions for their fleets.<br />

Talking about powertrain design, electric trucks ensure<br />

a higher degree of freedom, especially when it comes to<br />

supplying power to the wheels. As the traditional layout<br />

based on an internal combustion engine, transmission<br />

and axles is not there anymore, the options are manifold.<br />

E-axles, then with the motor placed closer to the wheels,<br />

are in most cases the more appreciated option, and some<br />

new players are entering the truck market, indeed.<br />

However, a layout based on e-axles is the only viable<br />

solution to increase the vehicle efficiency and maximize<br />

performances? Which are the main challenges to deal with<br />

when talking about electrified axles?<br />

During the web event, we’ll go deeper into the subject by<br />

involving primary engineering companies, OEMs, as well<br />

as e-axle manufacturers on an international scale. They will<br />

provide their own point of view, answer our questions – as<br />

well as the questions coming from the audience – and will<br />

help us imagine the future of powertrain design for heavyduty<br />

transport. In the traditional powertrain, where the diesel<br />

engine rules, the axle is as essential as it is out of sight.<br />

How it might develop and what role it might play in the<br />

architecture of electrified commercial vehicles, we will ask<br />

our representatives. Allison, Brist, EVE, Meritor, Ricardo,<br />

Volta Trucks and ZF will certainly be among them.<br />



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#CUMMINS<br />


Other trends for Cummins<br />

in <strong>2022</strong>? The global<br />

emissions movement, the<br />

supply chain continuity,<br />

destination zero (with<br />

diesel for off-highway<br />

staying around for many<br />

years to come) and<br />

powertrain expansion<br />

6<br />

BETTER<br />

AND<br />

BETTER<br />

According to Eric Neal, Executive<br />

Director, Cummins<br />

Off-Highway Business, “It<br />

was a phenomenal year, more<br />

in the international markets (+27%)<br />

than North America (+17%) but<br />

equally distributed across all markets,<br />

whether that be on-highway or<br />

off-highway. Revenues for the full year<br />

were $24 billion, 21 percent higher<br />

than 2020. Unfortunately, we did not<br />

have the same trend on profitability<br />

side: most of that comes as a result of<br />

the supply chain constraints, elevated<br />

logistical costs and other material<br />

cost increases. In terms of Cummins’<br />

commitment to the future, we are<br />

spending over a billion dollars a year<br />

on R&D and that spending rate does<br />

not have any plans of coming down.<br />

In the engine business, which is our<br />

largest business (that’s about 20% of<br />

the total Cummins portfolio), we saw<br />

an increase of 4% ($2.4 billion) versus<br />

the fourth quarter of the previous<br />

year, but in the full year revenue was<br />

$10 billion (+24%) in duty truck, medium-duty<br />

truck pick-up business, but<br />

then also we saw strong sales in our<br />

off-highway construction business<br />

(+10%, $1.9 billion). Our JVs had a<br />

strong year from a growth perspective<br />

in China and India.” He added<br />

that “We’ve had lots of labor disruptions<br />

depending on when the pandemics<br />

were hitting different parts of the<br />

world and the shortage of labor based<br />

on illnesses. We have seen lower-tier<br />

suppliers struggling with keeping up<br />

with some of the component delivery<br />

that we’ve got. A good portion of<br />

my job has shifted into supply chain<br />

management, which in typical years<br />

has never been case.” So, answering<br />

what the main bottlenecks were, Neal<br />

said that “probably in the on-highway<br />

and automotive industries chips<br />

have been the biggest shortage. Most<br />

of the chips are produced out of Asia<br />

because of some limited Tier 2, Tier<br />

3 suppliers that support different<br />

components within the chip manufacturing<br />

that has sort of halted a lot<br />

of different segments. We call those<br />

electronic control modules (ECM).<br />

Sensors have also been a problem. We<br />

talked to all our customers, especially<br />

on the on-highway side, who also<br />

buy the same chips. Chips are used in<br />

cell phones, televisions, other electronic,<br />

so it’s not just specific to diesel<br />

engine industry. It’s a global shortage<br />

on electronic control chips that<br />

support various technologies, diesel<br />

engines included.” Finally, some<br />

forecasts about <strong>2022</strong>. “It’s going to be<br />

another good year for off-highway:<br />

we are forecasting a 6% up on 2021,<br />

but it’s also depending on what the US<br />

do with the sanctions against Russia.<br />

That might reopen some oil and gas<br />

segments, which is always good for<br />

North American construction markets.<br />

There is also an investment in infrastructure<br />

for the on-highway. I think<br />

the conflict in Russia is not going to<br />

have a major impact on Cummins”.<br />

KOHLER<br />

KSD<br />

1403TCA<br />







As of 15 May, Fredrik Högberg has been appointed President of Volvo Penta North America. “I am happy<br />

that Fredrik Högberg has decided to join the Volvo Penta team. Fredrik has an extensive experience as a<br />

leader in the Volvo Group, and he has successfully been driving big transformation programs with people<br />

and customers in focus. This will be especially useful for the Volvo Penta transformation journey and our<br />

ambition to grow the business in North America”, says Heléne Mellquist, President of Volvo Penta. Högberg<br />

joined the Volvo Group in 1994 and has held a broad range of leading positions within the Volvo Group,<br />

including areas such as digital services, retail development, and aftermarket sales. He currently holds the<br />

position of Senior Vice President Services, Solutions, Digital & IT for Mack and Volvo Trucks North America.<br />






EUROPE<br />



UP TO 35 BCM<br />

REPower EU is the name of<br />

the ambitious plan presented<br />

by the European Commission<br />

with the aim of focusing heavily<br />

on biomethane to reduce dependence<br />

on Russian gas. An issue that<br />

has dramatically shown its urgent<br />

character in the last few weeks after<br />

the start of hostilities in Ukraine. The<br />

plan presented by the Commission<br />

provides for an increase in biomethane<br />

production capacity up to 35<br />

billion cubic meters (bcm) by 2030<br />

within the European Union. The goal<br />

will be to replace 20 percent of Russian<br />

natural gas imports with a sustainable,<br />

cheaper and locally produced<br />

alternative. Biomethane also helps reduce<br />

exposure to the volatility of food<br />

prices because the fertilizer derived<br />

from digestate is a co-product of biomethane<br />

production and currently replaces<br />

expensive chemical fertilizers.<br />

Today the European Union produces<br />

3 bcm of biomethane. A scale-up to<br />

35 bcm requires, in fact, the mobilization<br />

of sustainable biomass raw<br />

materials, mainly waste and residues,<br />

plus the construction of about 5,000<br />

new biomethane plants. The consortium<br />

says that “from a technical point<br />

of view, all of this is achievable in<br />

the next eight years, and is also economically<br />

advantageous. About 80<br />

billion euros of capital investments<br />

are needed, European money spent<br />

in our internal economy. This allows<br />

us to produce biomethane at a much<br />

lower cost than the price of natural<br />

gas in recent months. In addition to<br />

building new integrated biogas-biomethane<br />

plants, methanation units<br />

could also be added, at low cost, to<br />

existing biogas plants. We also ask<br />

for a rapid commercialization of gasification<br />

technology, which allows<br />

the production of biomethane from<br />

wood residues”.<br />


Dana has received<br />

Leadership in Energy and<br />

Environmental Design<br />

(LEED) certification for its<br />

Sustainable Mobility Center,<br />

located in Maumee, Ohio,<br />

US. Dana’s state-of-the-art<br />

Sustainable Mobility Center<br />

serves as an engineering<br />

center of excellence for<br />

e-propulsion products,<br />

including the development<br />

of electric motors and<br />

upfitting of electric vehicles<br />

with complete e-propulsion<br />

systems.<br />

HYBRID<br />

MAN<br />


MAN Smart Hybrid Experience - Stage V: AGCO Power,<br />

Cummins and AS - Comparison: 170HP - Fish-Eye: asking<br />

Fincantieri Yachts - Sustainabilty by MTU, WRF, Earth300<br />


is now<br />

Isotta Fraschini Motori 16V170 G Engine Road Show -<br />

Comparison: 1.5 liters industrial engines - Fish-Eye: hybrid<br />


Huddig backhoe, with Cummins - Marine: Cannes and Genoa<br />

20M33<br />

Face to face with Baudouin - FPT Smart Hybrid Energy Hub -<br />

Bergen & Langley - Green AG in USA - Alternative Cummins -<br />

Comparison: 13 litre truck - Cat IPU & Perkins IOPU - UFI Filters<br />


NEW AGCO<br />

era<br />


www.vadoetorno.com<br />

www.diesel-international.com<br />

www.dieseloftheyear.com<br />

ISSN 0042<br />

Press Register n. 4596 – April 20th 1994<br />

Poste Italiane Inc. – Mail subscription<br />

D.L. 353/2003 (mod. in L. 27/02/2004 n° 46)<br />

Art. 1, subsection 1, LO/MI<br />


September 2021<br />

<strong>Diesel</strong> of the year 2021: John Deere 18.0L - AGCO Power: 100<br />

million euro to relaunch Linnavuori - Kohler: All about<br />

the engines division - Sustainability: e-SUV & more<br />


www.vadoetorno.com<br />

www.diesel-international.com<br />

www.dieseloftheyear.com<br />

ISSN 0042<br />


Press Register n. 4596 – April 20th 1994<br />

Poste Italiane Inc. – Mail subscription<br />

D.L. 353/2003 (mod. in L. 27/02/2004 n° 46)<br />

Art. 1, subsection 1, LO/MI<br />


Griffin<br />


www.vadoetorno.com<br />

www.diesel-international.com<br />

www.dieseloftheyear.com<br />

ISSN 0042<br />

November 2021<br />

Kohler Small Displacement - Sustainable Cat - H2 for<br />

Press Register n. 4596 – April 20th 1994<br />

Poste Italiane Inc. – Mail subscription<br />

D.L. 353/2003 (mod. in L. 27/02/2004 n° 46)<br />

Art. 1, subsection 1, LO/MI<br />


March <strong>2022</strong><br />

freight & passengers - Web event: Is offroad multitasking? -<br />

Deutz between ICE and alternatives - Scania Power Solutions<br />

www.diesel-international.com<br />


www.vadoetorno.com<br />

www.diesel-international.com<br />

www.dieseloftheyear.com<br />

ISSN 0042<br />

Press Register n. 4596 – April 20th 1994<br />

Poste Italiane Inc. – Mail subscription<br />

D.L. 353/2003 (mod. in L. 27/02/2004 n° 46)<br />

Art. 1, subsection 1, LO/MI<br />


July 2021<br />


www.vadoetorno.com<br />

www.diesel-international.com<br />

www.dieseloftheyear.com<br />

ISSN 0042<br />

Press Register n. 4596 – April 20th 1994<br />

Poste Italiane Inc. – Mail subscription<br />

D.L. 353/2003 (mod. in L. 27/02/2004 n° 46)<br />

Art. 1, subsection 1, LO/MI<br />


January <strong>2022</strong><br />




KOHLER KSD 1403TCA<br />

IT<br />

IS THE<br />


KOHLER KDI 2504TCR: DOTY 2012<br />

Once upon a time (Intermat Paris 2012). The KDI 2504TCR<br />

won the DOTY 2012 because it was able to accomplish the<br />

Tier 4 Final/Stage IIIB in an original way. The Kohler-designed<br />

4-cylinder engine does not require a DPF, which has undoubted<br />

advantages in terms of space requirements and fuel and oil<br />

consumption, while also ensuring longer service intervals.<br />

When it comes to cleaning the gases, the recirculation<br />

system and catalytic converter come into their own, the latter<br />

being available in two different versions to meet the specific<br />

installation requirements of OEMs. The focal point of this<br />

project is the injection system, entrusted to common rail for<br />

the first time on a Kohler industrial engine. It is available in<br />

the Denso 2,000 bar version which, thanks to pre- and postinjection,<br />

allows the fuel to be dosed to the millimetre, keeping<br />

fuel consumption at bay. Fuel consumption is 5 percent lower<br />

than that of a 1,600 bar electronic injection engine with<br />

DPF and 10 percent lower than that of an indirect injection<br />

engine with stand-alone DPF. The choice of a fixed geometry<br />

turbocharger and a distribution system made up of a train<br />

of gears, which do not require maintenance or replacement,<br />

should be read in the vein of robustness and reliability.<br />

KSD Series is currently made of three engine models: KSD 1403NA (naturally<br />

aspirated); KSD 1403TC (turbocharged); KSD 1403TCA (turbocharged with<br />

aftercooler).<br />

Kohler Engines was awarded<br />

<strong>Diesel</strong> of the Year for the third<br />

time, with the KSD 1403TCA,<br />

the smallest engine ever to win<br />

this prize. It should be noted that the<br />

award’s guiding star is the gradient of<br />

innovation, in all its many nuances,<br />

and that the privileged factor is the<br />

engine block conceived from a blank<br />

sheet. All the more so in a contest of<br />

stigmatisation of the internal combustion<br />

engine.<br />

All credit, then, to Kohler, which<br />

completes the range downwards: 1.4<br />

- 1.9 - 2.5 and 3.4 litres. “Do you want<br />

a first hint to help you understand<br />

why we are here?” said Fabio Butturi,<br />

POWERTRAIN and DIESEL magazines<br />

editor. “Here” means the Kohler<br />

Engines museum, where the award<br />

ceremony took place, which is also<br />

available on a short video. “Remember<br />

recent prophecies about ICE’s premature<br />

burial? We are here to prove<br />

they’re wrong and diesel still has a<br />

long future in front. The KSD Series<br />

is a demonstration of this. The most<br />

Kohler wins <strong>Diesel</strong> of<br />

the Year for the third<br />

time in ten years with<br />

KSD, the smallest<br />

engine ever to receive<br />

this award. Electronic<br />

control and power<br />

rating under 19 kW,<br />

with 120 Nm, to avoid<br />

after-treatment system<br />

intimate reason for the DOTY <strong>2022</strong> is<br />

precisely in the daring to have invested<br />

in such an engine platform, when<br />

diesel technology has been banished<br />

by some self-righteous Cassandras.<br />

What’s more, engine displacements<br />

below 2 litres and power ratings below<br />

19 kilowatts are the most exposed<br />

to the siren song of electrification,<br />

especially on the construction sites.<br />

A strategic segment, which competitors<br />

also believes in as demonstrated<br />

by the excellent design of the Kubota<br />

D902K.<br />

The KSD allows the implementation<br />

of the Kohler <strong>Diesel</strong> engines platform,<br />

which started with the KDI and<br />

which, we sincerely believe, is not<br />

over yet; Kohler has brought its portfolio<br />

to the global stage of the third<br />

millennium with targeted and massive<br />

investments, of which the <strong>Diesel</strong> of<br />

the Year <strong>2022</strong> winner is just one of the<br />

many examples.<br />

The KSD 1403TCA peak torque is<br />

120 Nm @ 1400 rpm, a displacement/<br />

torque ratio competitive with engines<br />

with the same displacement but power<br />

outputs, however, of between 30 and<br />

40 kilowatts. Let’s not neglect market<br />

inputs, the driver of emission standards<br />

and the polar star of downsizing.<br />

So, let’s talk about common rail. The<br />

indirect injection system with electronic<br />

management allows the recovery<br />

of an old friend of the Non Road<br />

Mobile Machinery, the prechamber,<br />

and provides an alternative solution<br />

to increased injection pressures. This<br />

means, among other things, less stress,<br />

lower consumption than traditional<br />

prechamber engines and greater reliability<br />

due to electronic control. The<br />

<strong>Diesel</strong> of the Year jury also appreciated<br />

the engine’s versatility and elasticity<br />

of features and configurations to<br />

simplify installation by OEMs. What<br />

else should I add?”.<br />

During the award ceremony, we concluded<br />

our speech with these words.<br />

Vincenzo Perrone, President of<br />

Kohler Engines, had more to say.<br />

“Thank you Mr Butturi. It’s always a<br />

pleasure and even more so when receiving<br />

this type of acknowledgment,”<br />

started Perrone.<br />

“We are enthusiastic and honored to<br />

receive this prestigious award now,<br />

for the third time in ten years.<br />

It is the demonstration of Kohler’s<br />

strong commitment to the business<br />

and continuous investment in new engines.<br />

As for the KSD, it really boils<br />

down to the three main characteristics<br />

of the engine: simple, yet advanced<br />

and versatile. It’s simple and can be<br />

easily customized to meet customers’<br />

needs while being fully compatible<br />

with existing machines, not requiring<br />

them to be modified or redeveloped.<br />

It’s advanced, allowing for personalized<br />

settings of the electronic features<br />

for any duty cycle and the exchange<br />

of data with CANbus communication.<br />

Furthermore, it can be integrated<br />

with the complex electronic systems<br />

of ever-evolving machines.<br />

And last, but certainly not of least importance,<br />

one of its greatest features<br />

is its versatility and range of application.<br />

This is thanks to its compactness<br />

and wide range of options.<br />

To sum up, the KSD checks numerous<br />

boxes that until now had not been<br />

10<br />




KOHLER KDI 3404TCR: DOTY 2015<br />

Once upon a time (Intermat Paris 2015).<br />

“Crossing the 56 kW threshold and finalizing the<br />

restyling of the range. Those 100 kilowatts (73 at<br />

maximum torque, corresponding to 500 Nm) at the top<br />

of the power curve are not just a psychological figure<br />

but a strategic factor for penetration into the liveliest<br />

sections of the off-road market. What is ‘meritorious’<br />

about the SCR Kohler formula? Compactness and,<br />

above all, perspective. The first can be explained by<br />

the length of the module, which houses the DOC and<br />

accommodates the DPF. And this is where the second<br />

reason comes in. How can the word perspective be<br />

justified? If the absence of the DPF has been the ace<br />

up sleeve, in view of Stage V the filter necessarily<br />

comes back into play. And that’s exactly what we’re<br />

looking at: 2019/2020, when manufacturers will have<br />

to present the bill to the European Union. And by that<br />

time, Kohler’s recipe shouldn’t be much different.<br />

P.S.: In the form, in addition to the DOC, there is<br />

already space for the DPF”.<br />

est displacement engine to have won<br />

the DOTY. Compact engines are a<br />

candidate for a major role in the transition,<br />

within hybrid packages. Guido<br />

Franchi, Product Manager <strong>Diesel</strong> Engines<br />

at Kohler Engines EMEA, explains:<br />

“As for ‘green-tinted’ engines,<br />

we’ve already scheduled for 2023 a<br />

hybrid version of the K-HEM fitted<br />

Eima<br />

2006<br />


DEERE<br />

Ptp Ptp 6090 6090<br />

Eima<br />

2007<br />



B3.3 B3.3<br />

Samoter<br />

2008<br />



F 32 32<br />

checked by other engines and engine<br />

manufacturers. It provides worldwide<br />

application potential by meeting global<br />

emission norms and the list of benefits<br />

and advancements really does<br />

go on. All of what has been accomplished<br />

is thanks to the hard work our<br />

world-class global team. Words can’t<br />

express how proud I am of the collective<br />

efforts made by all our associates<br />

in making KSD a reality. It is through<br />

their dedication, perseverance and<br />

teamwork, not to mention expertise<br />

and collective know-how, that this<br />

project came to fruition and has been<br />

and will continue to be a great success.<br />

Thanks to our team and thank<br />

you Mr Butturi and the editorial team<br />

of <strong>Diesel</strong> and <strong>Powertrain</strong> magazine<br />

for this award”.<br />

We mentioned the KSD as the smallwith<br />

a KSD that will run on 100%<br />

HVO and other alternative low-carbon<br />

fuels. The same platform will<br />

feature spark-ignition versions. For<br />

heavy duty applications, we believe<br />

internal combustion engines are still<br />

the answer.”<br />

This power band takes on added significance.<br />

Answering to our question<br />

Intermat<br />

2009<br />



1206E-E70Tta<br />

1206E-E70Tta<br />

Bauma<br />

2010<br />

DEUTZ<br />

DEUTZ<br />

Tcd Tcd 2.9 2.9 L4 L4<br />

Samoter<br />

2011<br />

JCB<br />

JCB<br />

Ecomax Ecomax<br />

Intermat<br />

2012<br />

KOHLER<br />

KOHLER<br />

Kdi2504Tcr<br />

Kdi2504Tcr<br />

Bauma<br />

2013<br />

MTU<br />

MTU<br />

6R 6R 1500 1500<br />

Samoter<br />

2014<br />



Cursor Cursor 16 16<br />

Intermat<br />

2015<br />

KOHLER<br />

KOHLER<br />

Kdi3404Tcr Kdi3404Tcr Scr Scr<br />

MAN<br />

MAN<br />

D3876 D3876<br />

Bauma<br />

2016<br />

Guido Franchi said: “Above 19 kW<br />

after-treatment is imperative. Some<br />

of our competitors’ strategy was to<br />

depower the existing engines, which<br />

took a toll on performance, especially<br />

regarding torque. We, instead, worked<br />

on real market needs, developing an<br />

innovative technology (this refers<br />

primarily to the injection system, editor’s<br />

note) which allowed us to set up<br />

an extremely compact platform – one<br />

of the features that has a strong appeal<br />

to installers”.<br />

A final statement about innovation.<br />

“The innovation lies in having created<br />

a common rail with direct injection,<br />

which provides benefits in terms of size<br />

and noise levels. To achieve this, we<br />

Samoter<br />

2017<br />



D9812 D9812<br />

DEUTZ<br />

DEUTZ<br />

Tcd9.0 Tcd9.0<br />

Intermat<br />

2018<br />

Bauma<br />

2019<br />

Munich<br />

KUBOTA<br />

KUBOTA<br />

V5009 V5009<br />

ConExpo<br />

2020<br />

Samoter<br />

worked on calibration and pre-chamber<br />

injections. As for injection, we<br />

tried to transfer a system that’s usually<br />

found on direct injection units onto<br />

a diesel engine with indirect injection<br />

– with several advantages: to begin<br />

with, a low-pressure rail that allows us<br />

to meet the needs of those user areas<br />

where fuel is of a cheaper quality”.<br />



F28 F28<br />

2021<br />


18.0L<br />

<strong>2022</strong><br />

KOHLER<br />

KOHLER<br />

KSD KSD 1403TCA 1403TCA<br />

12<br />





2035<br />

0R NOT<br />

2035?<br />


General Motors has been overtaken for the first time since 1931 by Toyota<br />

in the US sales in 2021. That is why Ford, a manufacturer that earned the<br />

title of World Best Selling Pick-Up 2021 thanks to its F series, has chosen<br />

to excel in <strong>2022</strong>. Even in the European market, where the Ranger pick-up,<br />

younger brother of the F-150, is the market leader with over 45,000 units<br />

sold. And in order to increase the sales even more in the Old Continent,<br />

the MY <strong>2022</strong> not only provides a thorough restyling of the bodywork, but<br />

also of the interior, infotainment (the 20-inch central display is reminiscent<br />

of Teslas) and 4x4 transmission (there is also permanent four-wheel<br />

drive). The Next Generation Ranger despite the green wave will be available<br />

with three diesel engines: the well-known two-litre four-cylinder turbo<br />

(in two powersteps) and extraordinary 230 hp, 597 Nm turbodiesel that already<br />

powers the F-150. While Ford doesn’t want to unveil anything about<br />

the power and torque of the three engines, which are still undergoing type<br />

approval, pointing out that the engine was developed specifically for the<br />

Ranger and that more than 5 million kilometres were covered during the<br />

tests, fans have already gone wild on the web. With fuel prices nosing up,<br />

it’s hard to imagine driving a diesel-powered pick-up, so it’s worth pointing<br />

out the extreme innovation of the F-150 DOHC engine, with its castiron<br />

monobloc and aluminium cylinder head, which was awarded one of<br />

the 10 best engines on the market in 2019 by WardsAuto.<br />

Frank Weber, BMW Development head: “A plug-in hybrid<br />

makes a lot of ecological sense when it uses electric power<br />

for many of its trips. Our statistics confirm that.”<br />

The first shoulder push came<br />

about 18 months ago. In<br />

mid-December 2020, on the<br />

occasion of the Toyota Group’s<br />

end-of-year press conference, its CEO<br />

Akio Toyoda declared: “Electric cars<br />

are overrated, the sector will collapse”.<br />

That was a clear answer to the<br />

European Union’s hypothesis of stopping<br />

producing ICE by 2035. But it<br />

was also a tsunami that severely affected<br />

the stock market quotations of the<br />

world’s leading car manufacturer.<br />

It took all the rallying experience of<br />

“Morizo”, the nickname that Toyoda<br />

uses when he races with his cars,<br />

to avoid a crash. And if that wasn’t<br />

exactly a Dakar, a race he loves, it is<br />

no coincidence that a year later, when<br />

presenting his 2002 global strategy,<br />

the Toyota president was on stage with<br />

five new electric models from the BZ<br />

(Beyond Zero) series. Akio, however,<br />

had not forgotten nor randomly uttered<br />

that little word “overrated” a year earlier.<br />

Although Toyota announced investments<br />

of the order of €30 billions to<br />

sell 3.5 millions of BEVs (battery-powered<br />

cars) by 2030, its CEO wanted to<br />

emphasise that not only does he intend<br />

to offer customers solutions which are<br />

tailored to their geographical area and<br />

country, but also that an equivalent<br />

amount of money will be made availa-<br />

BMW, Toyota and<br />

Stellantis still believe<br />

and invest in ICE<br />

technology<br />

ble for the development of battery alternatives:<br />

hybrids, extended range plugin<br />

hybrids, fuel cell-powered electrics<br />

and green hydrogen engines.<br />

With less fanfare than “Morizo” Toyoda<br />

and a lower profile, some European<br />

big names in the automotive world are<br />

showing signs of nervousness about<br />

the 2035 “halt”. The most British in the<br />

bunch is Carlos Tavares, number one of<br />

Stellantis, who confirmed the start of<br />

production of a new Euro 7 diesel engine<br />

by next year, during a recent visit<br />

to the historic ex-FCA engine plant in<br />

Pratola Serra, in Southern Italy. The<br />

electric transition? Absolutely, but “we<br />

are the fourth largest automotive group<br />

in the world and we want to keep on excelling”.<br />

And diesel engines, combined<br />

with environmental sustainability in the<br />

best possible way, do not seem to be out<br />

of play. A statement which was almost<br />

synchronised with a long interview<br />

given to the German press by Frank<br />

Weber, BMW’s Head of Development.<br />

The occasion? The “farewell” to the<br />

12-cylinder V engine born in 1986 to<br />

distinguish the Bavarian brand, which<br />

is leaving the scene together with the<br />

leading 7 Series with a Final Edition of<br />

the 750i. A farewell that allows Weber<br />

to relaunch, announcing that customers<br />

will be able to choose between a combustion<br />

engine and an electric motor<br />

for the new flagship product, but that<br />

BMW has no intention to develop any<br />

independent “full electric” model. After<br />

the initial phase of the i3 and i8, Munich’s<br />

“i” cars are destined to become<br />

battery-powered versions of modular<br />

models developed to make the best<br />

possible use of both electric motors<br />

and conventional engines. “Regardless<br />

of whether it is a combustion engine<br />

or an electric motor,” recites Weber’s<br />

mantra, “the goal is to satisfy our customers<br />

while minimising CO 2<br />

emissions.”<br />

And, the BMW top manager<br />

thus continues “an effective reduction<br />

can only be achieved with new-generation<br />

engines: petrol, diesel, six- and<br />

eight-cylinder engines. Just as with<br />

electric motors, where the evolution in<br />

terms of efficiency of power electronics<br />

used to control them is impressive”. A<br />

vision that, indirectly, receives a powerful<br />

assist from Herbert Diess, CEO<br />

of Volkswagen, who is notoriously<br />

pro electric transition. During a parallel<br />

interview for “The Verge”, the bible<br />

of new technologies, Diess began<br />

by saying: “The transition to electric<br />

cars has several constraints and the<br />

plan to reach 50 percent of BEVs by<br />

2030 is extremely ambitious.” First of<br />

all because, according to Diess, in order<br />

to achieve such a goal, it would<br />

be necessary for the European automotive<br />

sector to be able to set up and<br />

operate at least 30 giga factories (i.e.,<br />

two-kilometre-long and one-kilometrewide<br />

plants) for batteries in a few years.<br />

Not to mention the sources of electricity.<br />

“In countries where the electricity<br />

production is based on coal,” stressed<br />

Diess, “it makes no sense to sell BEVs.<br />

Poland is one example of this. Before<br />

that, the existing plants should be converted<br />

to renewables.” Hence, the conclusion,<br />

which certainly won’t please<br />

the Eurocrats in Brussels, is “before deciding<br />

to sell only electric cars, we need<br />

to convert 100 percent of the electricity<br />

production to renewable sources”.<br />

14<br />


ONROAD<br />



I'M A<br />

SUPER<br />

ENGINE<br />

Alexander Vlaskamp, Executive Vice President and Head of Sales and<br />

Marketing at Scania: “What we introduce today is not only an engine platform<br />

but a major initiative for strengthening Scania’s industry-leading position within<br />

sustainable transport for the rest of this decade.”<br />

It’s called Super and we don’t<br />

think Scania is guilty of presumption.<br />

Projected into the Euro6E<br />

orbit, in a range of four power<br />

ratings from 420 to 560 hp (the other<br />

two are comprised between 460 and<br />

500), the powertrain of Scania Super<br />

winks at the TCO. Fuel savings<br />

compared to the previous generation<br />

are estimated at 8% for a long haul.<br />

As in the best Scandinavian tradition,<br />

compatibility with biofuels and<br />

synthetic fuels is an integral part of<br />

this project. The HVO is compatible<br />

with the entire engine family, the<br />

mid-range power ratings from 460<br />

and 500 horsepower digesting Fame<br />

biodiesel. Other versions for non-European<br />

markets and biomethane will<br />

follow. The legitimacy of the “Super”<br />

onomastics, however, does not only<br />

come from diesel savings. Scania has<br />

nabbed Weichai, which two years ago<br />

announced 50 percent efficiency, in<br />

combination with Bosch. Södertälje<br />

has thus stepped on the European<br />

proscenium as a pioneer of this ambitious<br />

goal. Scania has also succeeded<br />

thanks to the Scania Twin SCR’s twin<br />

upper camshafts and AdBlue dosage.<br />

Torque is available at 900 rpm, anoth-<br />

Scania’s 13-litre<br />

truck upgrade, called<br />

Super, achieves 50%<br />

efficiency and saves<br />

8% fuel. Four power<br />

ratings: 420, 460, 500<br />

and 560 hp<br />

er factor that implements efficiency,<br />

both in terms of specific consumption<br />

and engine elasticity. This means limiting<br />

the number of injections delivered<br />

and the number of gear changes,<br />

in synergy with the G33CM and<br />

G25CM gearboxes. We will be clearer<br />

by getting into details. Here is the<br />

comment of Magnus Henriksson,<br />

Chief Engineer: “We knew from the<br />

very beginning that double overhead<br />

camshafts (DOHC) together with the<br />

single cylinder head technology with<br />

4-valve cylinders and SCR were a requirement.<br />

Once the DOHC solution<br />

was defined, we were able to develop<br />

the auxiliary compression release<br />

brake for the expected performance<br />

level. In addition, a precise control<br />

of the valves by the overhead cams is<br />

essential for Scania’s advanced SCR<br />

system with double urea dosage.”<br />

The compression ratio is 23:1, intake<br />

and exhaust are calibrated to ensure<br />

a good gas flow through the engine.<br />

The turbo and manifold connection<br />

were optimised for the same reasons.<br />

The peak pressure inside the cylinders<br />

can now reach 250 bars, a factor that<br />

together with the improved injectors<br />

and fuel pump ensures a precise and<br />

complete use of fuel energy. What<br />

about Twin SCR? Henriksson explains:<br />

“Our SCR Scania Twin Dosing<br />

system, first introduced in 2020<br />

with the new V8 engines, injects a first<br />

dose of AdBlue into the exhaust manifold,<br />

located after the engine brake,<br />

where exhaust gases are still very hot,<br />

thus dramatically increasing the total<br />

effectiveness of the aftertreatment<br />

system. The second dose is injected at<br />

the usual location, inside the silencer,<br />

where the peak levels of NOx are now<br />

lower. The particulate filter between<br />

the two SCR catalysts is regenerated<br />

without the subsequent injection of<br />

more fuel into the exhaust system.”<br />

However, our curiosity was not fulfilled,<br />

and we wanted to find out more.<br />

We asked, they answered.<br />

Where did this idea of revisiting engines<br />

which are already extremely<br />

efficient originate from?<br />

The starting point is the 13-litre engine,<br />

which has won the Green Truck<br />

Award for the past five years and has<br />

been at the top in terms of fuel economy.<br />

Although we believe in electrification,<br />

the diesel engine will continue to<br />

play a decisive role in this decade and,<br />

for some specific applications, even<br />

beyond it. In 2020, we were the first<br />

manufacturer to have our CO 2<br />

emissions<br />

reduction targets certified by an<br />

independent body called the Science<br />

Based Target Initiative (SBTi).<br />

Isn’t the reduction in fuel consumption<br />

also something that Scania<br />

should consider for Euro7?<br />

Certainly, the Super platform is<br />

intended for future evolutions of<br />

the Euro levels. These engines are<br />

equipped with the Twin Dosing System,<br />

with double urea dosage, the first<br />

immediately downstream of the combustion<br />

chamber, where hot exhaust<br />

gases, suitable for cold starts (one of<br />

the characteristics of Euro6E), are<br />

intercepted; the second location is inside<br />

the catalytic converter, where the<br />

reduction takes place in a conventional<br />

way. This new urea injection system,<br />

as well as making the reduction<br />

16<br />


ONROAD<br />


form made up of a powertrain and a<br />

new generation of chassis (Modular<br />

Architectural Chassis), both also designed<br />

from scratch, with a view to<br />

offer a total operating economy for<br />

the customer. We introduced more<br />

robust components to extend service<br />

intervals, and with the new chassis it<br />

is possible, when ordering, to specify<br />

the position of each component along<br />

the chassis.<br />

What has changed from a mechanical<br />

point of view?<br />

The double overhead camshaft is the<br />

novelty that also allowed to introduce<br />

the new auxiliary brake, the compression<br />

release brake, an option which<br />

can be combined or not with the hydraulic<br />

retarder: it is a brake with a<br />

maximum power of 350 kW and 1,500<br />

Nm that acts on one of the piston’s ex-<br />

process very effective at low temperatures<br />

and low workloads, allows nitrogen<br />

oxides to be abated over a wider<br />

range of engine use, and was also<br />

the key to optimising the combustion<br />

process, which is at the heart of the<br />

engine’s energy efficiency. Thanks to<br />

our in-house technology development,<br />

which has always been Scania’s hallmark,<br />

we were able to optimise every<br />

single detail. With this new platform<br />

we started from scratch, in 2016, with<br />

the objective of achieving 50 percent<br />

thermal efficiency: we have succeeded<br />

in it and now it is certified for the<br />

entire 13-litre range, and, in some<br />

applications, it even exceeds 50 percent,<br />

a goal which was unimaginable<br />

just a few years ago. I would like to<br />

emphasise one aspect: Super is not<br />

just a new engine, but a vehicle plathaust<br />

valves. When the piston reaches<br />

the top dead centre, the valve opens<br />

slightly, a portion of exhaust gases is<br />

released and this means that in the<br />

expansion phase the piston has less<br />

thrust, while that portion of exhaust<br />

gases gives a boost to the turbo, creating<br />

a supercharging. In the subsequent<br />

compression phase the piston finds<br />

more air mass, hence more resistance.<br />

The double camshaft was also the key<br />

to optimising the entire engine’s lubrication<br />

and cooling system.<br />

What are the power levels?<br />

There are four ratings: 420, 460, 500<br />

and 560 hp. For all engines, the maximum<br />

torque starts at 900 rpm, which<br />

is in line with Scania’s “low revs” philosophy<br />

and makes the engine elastic,<br />

economical and comfortable. The<br />

new gearbox, which was introduced<br />

last year with the V8 (at that time it<br />

was the G33CM), is called G25 and<br />

is designed for engines with a torque<br />

of up to 2,500 Nm. It is very quick to<br />

shift and therefore guarantees continuity<br />

in its torque delivery. We have<br />

also replaced the synchronisers with<br />

shaft brakes. The G25 only weighs 75<br />

kg, also thanks to the new aluminium<br />

housing, and this benefits the payload.<br />

Continuing along the powertrain, we<br />

have introduced a new retarder with<br />

4,700 Nm of braking torque, which is<br />

even more efficient at low speeds (plus<br />

30%), and a new axle, the R756, with<br />

new faster bridge ratios that allow the<br />

torque to be exploited at low revs.<br />

What does FOU stand for?<br />

It stands for Fuel Optimisation Unit,<br />

and it’s part of the new generation of<br />

chassis, the MAC. The aim is to maximise<br />

the use of the amount of carried<br />

fuel, thereby reducing any “dead<br />

weight”: for the same tank volume,<br />

we use 97 percent of it, which allows<br />

us to have a smaller volume with the<br />

same autonomy, optimising the tare<br />

weight. The new tanks will feature<br />

an innovative D-shape, which significantly<br />

improves their robustness,<br />

thanks to the C-shaped fixing brackets.<br />

The T-fitting with a separate and<br />

constant (but very limited) flow to the<br />

fuel optimisation unit allows to create<br />

a Venturi effect, which prevents the<br />

formation of air pockets that could<br />

block the flow between the two tanks<br />

to the main tank. The low-pressure<br />

fuel pump, the main fuel filter and<br />

the water separation filter have been<br />

removed from the engine itself and<br />

relocated into the separate fuel opti-<br />

misation unit. The unit is mounted on<br />

one side of the primary tank. This way<br />

Scania has finally solved the age-old<br />

problem of how to fully utilise the fuel<br />

in the tank.<br />

In view of off-road applications,<br />

how many PTOs are there?<br />

There is a programme of PTOs at the<br />

gearbox, linked to the new family of<br />

gearboxes, 4 single PTOs and 4 double<br />

PTOs of our own design, with renewed<br />

ratios and torques, a single or<br />

double output and different options of<br />

attachments (pump or flange). On the<br />

engine there is the ED10 power takeoff<br />

(1,000 Nm), which in its most powerful<br />

version can reach 238 kW, oilcooled,<br />

clockwise movement; the ED7<br />

(700 Nm). The offered range of solutions<br />

is quite wide. The applications<br />

will be visible in a few years’ time.<br />

18<br />


FOCUS<br />



FOR<br />




Caterpillar announced the introduction of the 310<br />

kVA Cat XQP310 generator set, meeting EU Stage V<br />

emission standards. The Cat XQP310 follows the launch<br />

of the 200 kVA Cat XQP200 mobile generator set in<br />

2021. With 12% more power than its predecessor,<br />

the Cat XQP310 is engineered for flexibility by easily<br />

switching between 50 and 60 Hz. It is equipped with<br />

Cat Connect technology to remotely track and manage<br />

the generator set and improve operational efficiency.<br />

Through a subscription, the telematics send realtime<br />

information on fuel level, AdBlue/DEF level,<br />

battery voltage, and run status. Cat mobile gensets are<br />

equipped with the EMCP 4.2B digital control panel and<br />

Programmable logic controller (PLC) functionality.<br />

They are designed with a dual-wall fuel tank with an<br />

open bund that helps to protect the environment by<br />

containing spills, while coastal ingress protection (CIP)<br />

enables operation in harsh conditions.<br />

These generator sets can use up to 100% HVO.<br />

Thomas Smith, North America Gas Segment Manager for Caterpillar’s Electric<br />

Power division: “By expanding our containerized CHP options, we have further<br />

simplified the process for customers to support their environmental, social, and<br />

governance initiatives quickly and economically.”<br />

We reported on Cat power<br />

generation in the January<br />

issue, about a data centre<br />

in Quincy, Washington,<br />

US. Now we tell you about a webinar<br />

in which Lou Signorelli, Caterpillar<br />

Electric Power, moderator, and Tom<br />

Smith, Caterpillar Gas Segment Manager,<br />

spoke about Caterpillar CHP.<br />

“We’re going to talk about what exactly<br />

CHP is,” Smith said. “CHP has<br />

been a reliable, sustainable energy<br />

solution since 1882, when one of the<br />

world’s greatest inventors, Thomas<br />

Edison, built the first CHP plant in<br />

New York City that was producing<br />

electric power for the downtown New<br />

York grid at the time. Over the years<br />

Caterpillar, with our sister company<br />

Solar Turbines, has put in over<br />

33,000 MW of CHP applications.<br />

What’s happening with all of the<br />

changes in the power industry, with<br />

transportation being electrified (in<br />

fact even with Caterpillar Equipment<br />

we’re electrifying mining equipment<br />

to obviously reduce greenhouse gases),<br />

is driving up the need for reliable<br />

clean energy. If you take a look<br />

at a conventional way a hospital<br />

gets electric power, you know you<br />

have a power plant that would be<br />

Tom Smith, Caterpillar<br />

Gas Segment Manager,<br />

spoke about Caterpillar<br />

CHP, introducing<br />

Caterpillar’s vision<br />

of cogeneration<br />

remote to the facility, there would be<br />

transmission and distribution losses<br />

before the electric power got to the<br />

site, then the site in order to produce<br />

heating would have a boiler for hot<br />

water or steam and that would require<br />

in a traditional power plant almost<br />

10,000 tons per year of CO 2<br />

. If<br />

you put a CHP system generating the<br />

electricity on site you’re using the<br />

waste heat, you’re seeing almost a<br />

51% reduction in greenhouse gases.”<br />

Lou Signorelli introduced the topic<br />

of energy saving and reduction of<br />

harmful emissions. How does CHP<br />

reduce emissions even when the engines<br />

are using natural gas as a fuel?,<br />

he asked.<br />

Tom White gets to the heart of the<br />

matter. “If you look at a CHP operating<br />

super efficiently, you are saving a<br />

lot of the greenhouse gases because<br />

you’re using all of the waste heat.<br />

That is going to be even more and<br />

more prevalent as we look at alternative<br />

fuels of the future like hydrogen,<br />

where you can have super efficient<br />

CHP facilities with zero emissions.<br />

A key consideration with any investment<br />

nowadays is it has got to make<br />

economic sense. CHP has always<br />

made economic sense in most areas<br />

because it’s very efficient. In the US<br />

we have investment tax credits and<br />

a lot of federal and local incentives.<br />

Taking a look at another key advantage<br />

of CHP, we’re seeing a lot of different<br />

weather events that occurred<br />

and knocked out power in a number<br />

of facilities all over the world, so<br />

having reliability is key and that’s<br />

one of the real benefits that CHP can<br />

offer. Any industry that could use that<br />

heat either to produce hot water or<br />

steam or converting it to chill water<br />

is a perfect fit for CHP: district<br />

energy facilities, hospitals, landfills,<br />

greenhouses, government facilities,<br />

data centers, water sewage plants,<br />

mining electric utilities… There’s<br />

just a vast amount of applications for<br />

CHP. When I got into the CHP business<br />

in the early 80s, a lot of the initial<br />

adopters of CHP were the high<br />

electric power users and people that<br />

had massive amounts of thermal energy,<br />

like oil refining and chemical<br />

manufacturing, now CHP is growing<br />

into other markets as we talked about<br />

greenhouses and hospitals because<br />

they’re looking at the resiliency. Historically<br />

data centers have looked at<br />

just having 100% backup provided<br />

by diesel engines and not using the<br />

waste heat because of efficiency, the<br />

need for capacity, the high volume<br />

of cooling that’s required in data<br />

centers. A couple of examples: we<br />

put a cogeneration project in the WR<br />

Grace Davison Chemical Division.<br />

They have over 22 plants throughout<br />

the world, one of their largest facilities<br />

in Curtis Bay, Maryland, had<br />

been in operation since 1910. They<br />

put a CHP plan that was basically<br />

sized for the thermal use that they<br />

had for the heating and some hot<br />

water requirements. Even though the<br />

plant had a peak load of almost 15<br />

MW, they installed a 5MW CHP plant<br />

with some of our engines capturing<br />

the waste heat for hot water production<br />

that’s used in the facility. It really<br />

helped WR Grace meet some of its<br />

20<br />


FOCUS<br />



By adding options with Cat G3512H and Cat G3516H naturalgas<br />

generator sets, Caterpillar delivers containerized CHP<br />

solutions with power modules ranging from 1.5 MW up to 2.5<br />

MW that simplify the design, installation, and commissioning<br />

of CHP applications while eliminating the need for outsourcing<br />

additional engineering or project management. Designed,<br />

assembled, and tested at Caterpillar facilities in the USA, the<br />

sound-attenuated, 63-foot-long solutions reduce the lead<br />

time to implement CHP capabilities by including all the major<br />

elements needed to support a cogeneration application,<br />

including the generator set, heat recovery and dissipation<br />

systems, combustion and ventilation air systems, master<br />

controls, and balance of plant components. The CHP solutions<br />

feature standardized configurations to reduce lead times<br />

while allowing for the customization of the radiator system,<br />

exhaust and air system, fuel system, and other components.<br />

Now available for purchase in the US, Canada, and Mexico,<br />

Caterpillar’s containerized CHP solutions feature a standard<br />

Caterpillar warranty, with a suite of additional Extended<br />

Service Coverage options available. They can be equipped with<br />

Cat Connect Remote Asset Monitoring, which provides data<br />

visualization, reporting, and alerts that are accessible from<br />

anywhere in the world through an easy-to-use web interface<br />

and mobile app.<br />

sustainability goals, reducing annual<br />

GHG emission of 14,415 tons.<br />

Another important market for CHP<br />

is the greenhouse market, which is expanding<br />

globally. These facilities require<br />

a lot of power all the time to keep<br />

the proper temperatures or lighting. In<br />

a project we did and in Poland (JMP<br />

Greenhouse, they’re Europe’s largest<br />

producer of orchids) we put a cogen<br />

system in an 18-acre greenhouse that<br />

produced over 4.5 MW of electric<br />

power and over 5.25 MW of thermal<br />

energy. It was a very cost-effective investment<br />

for the company and it also<br />

helped provide backup power in case<br />

there would be an outage from the<br />

utility. The greenhouse can capture<br />

some exhaust (CO 2<br />

) as well and use<br />

it to help stimulate plant growth. The<br />

other big market that we’re seeing is<br />

district heating systems whether it’s<br />

at a university or it’s at a downtown<br />

facility with the increased demand<br />

for energy. CHP provides continuous<br />

electric supply and the heat is used in<br />

the district heating system: you can<br />

see efficiencies approaching 90%,<br />

at the same time you’re lowering the<br />

emissions. In St Catharine, Ontario,<br />

at the Brock University, they put in at<br />

CHP system that produces 2 MW of<br />

power: they’re lowering their overall<br />

cost of energy and again providing<br />

resiliency to the campus.<br />

One of the other areas where there<br />

is a massive amount of interest in is<br />

hospitals. In the USA there is a consolidation<br />

of a lot of major health<br />

networks with new facilities being<br />

built and these facilities are very focused<br />

on being green, efficient, sus-<br />

tainable and have power 100% of the<br />

time. I guess you probably can’t think<br />

of an industry that’s more critical to<br />

have power than a hospital.<br />

We’re seeing a lot of CHP systems<br />

going into the hospitality industry:<br />

at Snowbird, Utah, there was a<br />

CHP plant that we built with one of<br />

our dealers called Wheeler Power<br />

Systems. It was a really great CHP<br />

project, it is 5.3 MW of cogen in a<br />

building, it provides the majority of<br />

the electric power for the resort. The<br />

system is used to heat and cool the<br />

lodges and hotels and it can provide<br />

backup power for the facility as well.<br />

The system originally went in in 1986<br />

and it was powered by some older<br />

Cat equipment producing a bit lower<br />

output of 1.9 MW versus a new one at<br />

5.3 but the facility operated so well<br />

that the owners of the resort decided<br />

to upgrade that.<br />

One of the other applications that<br />

has a big potential for CHP is in the<br />

wastewater treatment facility. In a<br />

lot of these facilities, you produce a<br />

waste gas that can be converted in an<br />

anaerobic digester that can produce<br />

gas that can actually be used to power<br />

a CHP. In the facility in Gresham,<br />

Oregon, they reached zero emissions<br />

in 2015 by putting in two 400 kW<br />

CHP systems that are powered on the<br />

waste gas and the heat of those systems<br />

is used to help run the digester<br />

and also to heat the rest of the facility.<br />

Probably the one of the biggest buzzwords<br />

that we’re hearing in the<br />

power industry today is microgrids.<br />

You can have a basic microgrid with<br />

one or two sources of energy or a<br />

more complex grid with solar, wind,<br />

energy storage, engine generators,<br />

combined heat and power systems<br />

in the grid providing the backup. If<br />

you can integrate all these technologies<br />

effectively and control them, you<br />

will be able to localize your power<br />

production and produce power more<br />

reliably cost effectively and avoiding<br />

expense for communities, industry,<br />

commercial applications, remote facilities<br />

like we’re doing in the mining<br />

sector in areas where you don’t have<br />

electric power.<br />

For sure we see a role for CHP in<br />

microgrids because having a CHP<br />

system or an engine connected to a<br />

localized microgrid would be perfect<br />

for that type of efficient operation. A<br />

little example of a case study that we<br />

had on a microgrid was in Califor-<br />

nia at an area called Taylor Farms,<br />

an agricultural facility where they<br />

already had solar and wind power.<br />

We added a cogen system to the facility<br />

to be able to operate when it’s<br />

not sunny and windy and that facility<br />

combined with the current solar and<br />

wind capacity that they had in recovering<br />

the waste heat through an absorption<br />

chiller to meet some of the<br />

cooling requirements at the facility.<br />

They were able to reduce their CO 2<br />

emissions by 94%.<br />

In the future those systems will be<br />

retrofitted to operate on either 100%<br />

hydrogen or partial blends of hydrogen<br />

to produce electric power, so we<br />

at Caterpillar are working on this<br />

with the Department of Energy. I<br />

think this really shows the sustainability<br />

of the CHP industry.”<br />

22<br />


kWe - OFF-HIGHWAY<br />



HONDA<br />

VISION<br />

2030<br />


Portable powerpacks are the lynchpin of electric drive, so it<br />

comes to small gensets and battery chargers for mobile applications.<br />

Komatsu provides its take on that by signing an agreement<br />

with Honda to use MPPs (Mobile Power Packs) to power<br />

micro-excavators. Joint development efforts will target Komatsu’s<br />

PC01 that’s going to be electrified with Honda’s MPP and<br />

eGX. In their cooperation, the partners will work on mini-excavators<br />

up to 1 ton and other building site machinery. Moreover,<br />

further down the road, Honda is considering the possibility<br />

of supplying electricity stored in MPPs to the power grid in<br />

case of a power shortage by connecting Honda Mobile Power<br />

Pack to the power grid. Since February 2019, Honda has been<br />

conducting demonstration testing in the Philippines for the<br />

utilization of surplus electricity using MPP and electric motorcycles<br />

for the purpose of realizing “local generation and local<br />

consumption” of electricity from renewable energy sources.<br />

William Walton, Vice President, Honda Power Equipment:<br />

“Steadily improving motor, battery, and charging technology allows<br />

OEMs and contracting professionals to expand their equipment<br />

inventory, providing more choices in how to work most efficiently<br />

and cost effectively. Ultimately, a wider choice helps them<br />

serve their customers, improve their bottom lines and build their<br />

businesses.”<br />

Almost a year has gone by since<br />

June 2021, when Honda put<br />

eGX on the Japanese market.<br />

From then on, the electric version<br />

of the GX platform reached the<br />

Western world, on both the European<br />

and the North American sides of the<br />

ocean. The eGX hit the stages of the<br />

World of Concrete Show in Las Vegas<br />

and EIMA in Bologna. Engines below<br />

19 kW have now become a fixed<br />

target of electrification; petrol-fuelled<br />

single-cylinder engines can’t escape<br />

the encirclement, either.<br />

In the recent past, Honda has managed<br />

to repel the attack on the stagecoach<br />

by its low-cost competitors (basically<br />

those Made in China shelf products)<br />

counting on quality and reliability.<br />

The competition from small electric<br />

engines, instead, can only be handled<br />

the separated type, the motor is compatible<br />

for use on rammer products.<br />

The motor’s PDU incorporates a silicone<br />

seal and durable condenser that<br />

contribute to resistance to water, dust<br />

and vibration for reliability and high<br />

output. The Honda eGX also meets<br />

IEC62841-1 compliance. To provide<br />

the Italian audience a better snapshot<br />

of this unit, we turned to Honda Motor<br />

Logistics. A first reassuring comment<br />

is about size. “The motor is interchangeable<br />

with conventional GX<br />

petrol engines with respect to engine<br />

flange mounting holes and dimensions<br />

in general. This applies to the 120cc as<br />

well as to the 160 and 200cc models.<br />

Designed with a lithium-ion battery<br />

pack that’s detachable and compatible<br />

with high-speed chargers, this motor<br />

was born with building sector applicathrough<br />

cooptation. The eGX boasts<br />

a three-phase brushless DC motor, an<br />

output of 1.8 kW, a high-rigidity sealed<br />

structure for vibration and dust resistance.<br />

It comes in an integrated and a<br />

separated version. Running at 3,000 to<br />

3,600 rpm, the 2kW class motor features<br />

internal and external cooling fans<br />

to dissipate heat. The integrated motor,<br />

power drive unit (PDU) and battery<br />

pack incorporate rubber mounts that<br />

absorb vibration resulting in less operator<br />

fatigue and longer product life. In<br />

Honda’s eGX is<br />

available in both<br />

integrated and<br />

separate versions<br />

tions in mind, and it is available as a<br />

separated version – featuring the motor<br />

and a separate battery pack holder<br />

– and an integrated one. It finds its natural<br />

home in construction applications,<br />

but tests are also being carried out with<br />

gardening units such as walk-behind<br />

leaf blowers, bio-shredders and motorized<br />

wheelbarrows. Right now, the only<br />

limit is our customers’ imagination.”<br />

So you kept the same footprint as<br />

other versions?<br />

Indeed, we used the space that’s left<br />

after removal of tank and air filter to<br />

place the battery in, thus creating an<br />

interchangeable product – despite the<br />

price tag still playing against the electric<br />

version. On the other hand, with<br />

standards imposing zero tailpipe emissions,<br />

the eGX becomes a mandatory<br />

solution.<br />

About applications, you were saying?<br />

The primary targets include vibrating<br />

plate compactors or vertical<br />

rammers, motorized wheelbarrows,<br />

walk-behind leaf blowers, scarifiers,<br />

bio-shredders.<br />

What about power sources?<br />

Honda tackles this crucial issue with<br />

a synergic, cross-cutting approach.<br />

The general idea is to develop portable<br />

powerpacks (see box). eGX motors<br />

are made in Japan, while the batteries<br />

and battery chargers are provided by<br />

a Chinese supplier based on Honda<br />

specifications. In Europe we offer a<br />

three-year warranty on motors and a<br />

two-year warranty on the battery and<br />

battery charger.<br />

What follows herebelow is the very<br />

voice of the Honda headquarters.<br />

“Today’s environment is shifting supply<br />

and demand toward zero emission<br />

products. But reducing operational<br />

greenhouse gas emissions is only part<br />

of the picture: battery powered power<br />

products must meet rugged performance<br />

standards required by owners<br />

while making the equipment easier for<br />

operators to use. With this new, advanced<br />

electrified power unit, Honda<br />

is supporting OEMs in commercial<br />

markets in their efforts to meet increasingly<br />

stringent regulatory standards<br />

while expanding their portfolios with<br />

strategic developments such as developing<br />

more battery powered products,<br />

enhancing service offerings, and expansion,<br />

collaboration and partnerships<br />

with customers and suppliers,”<br />

said William Walton, Vice President,<br />

Honda Power Equipment.<br />

24<br />


REPORT<br />



GLOBAL<br />

PLAY<br />

MAKER<br />


A Memorandum of Understanding provides the framework<br />

for Chevron and Cummins to initially collaborate on four<br />

main objectives: advancing public policy that promotes hydrogen<br />

as a decarbonizing solution for transportation and industry;<br />

building market demand for commercial vehicles and<br />

industrial applications powered by hydrogen; developing infrastructure<br />

to support the use of hydrogen for industry and<br />

fuel cell vehicles; and exploring opportunities to leverage<br />

Cummins electrolyzer and fuel cell technologies at one or<br />

more of Chevron’s domestic refineries.<br />

“Hydrogen is just one lower-carbon solution we are investing<br />

in that will position our customers to reduce the carbon<br />

intensity of their businesses and everyday lives. We’ve also<br />

invested in developing and supplying renewable natural gas,<br />

blending renewables into our fuels, coprocessing biofeedstocks<br />

in our refineries, and abatement projects that will<br />

reduce the carbon intensity of our operations,” said Andy<br />

Walz, president of Chevron’s Americas Fuels & Lubricants.<br />

Cummins Inc. Chairman and CEO Tom Linebarger: “We have a mission<br />

statement commitment and we also believe it is more profitable for Cummins<br />

to find solutions to these new challenges, not just keep offering older<br />

technologies.”<br />

Ecological transition and timeto-market.<br />

Two essential requirements<br />

that often do not<br />

go together. The most common<br />

solution is internalisation through<br />

M&A. Cummins is applying this<br />

strategy with an impressive shockwave,<br />

calibrating investments to each<br />

application and each energy source<br />

technology. Over the past 10 years,<br />

Cummins has completed many acquisitions,<br />

covering a wide range<br />

of expertise, with many supporting<br />

the pathway to decarbonisation. The<br />

range of solutions and technologies<br />

now available across the Cummins<br />

power portfolio is truly diverse, with<br />

significant advancements made across<br />

multiple technologies, but there are<br />

still further steps to be made to reach<br />

our global decarbonization ambitions.<br />

Broadening the power portfolio is essential<br />

to Cummins, with the development<br />

of diesel, natural gas, propane,<br />

hydrogen, fuel cell and battery systems<br />

all integral to curating a breadth<br />

of packages capable of powering all<br />

applications. This approach will support<br />

the decarbonization of multiple<br />

industries using a mix of lower emission<br />

internal combustion engines and<br />

CPC, Daimler,<br />

Efficient Drivetrains,<br />

Hydrogenics, JBS,<br />

Johnson Mattey,<br />

Loop Energy, Meritor,<br />

Momentum, NPROXX,<br />

Sion Power<br />

low-carbon technologies today, whilst<br />

funding further development of zero-emissions<br />

solutions for the future.<br />

The recipe for success is threefold –<br />

investment in innovative technologies<br />

supported by deep application knowledge<br />

and customer trust, all combined<br />

with the power of a 103 year old business.<br />

Cummins can’t walk this path<br />

alone and that’s reflected in its collaborative<br />

relationships with stakeholders<br />

and partners, as well as its current<br />

acquisition strategy. By acquiring,<br />

investing and agreeing MOUs with<br />

leading businesses in aftertreatment<br />

and zero-emissions technologies,<br />

Cummins has used its industry leading<br />

expertise in bringing products to market<br />

to increase accessibility for low/<br />

zero emission technology, building on<br />

strong customer loyalty and a reputa-<br />

tion of delivering reliable solutions.<br />

This expertise and reputation is also<br />

matched with global sales platforms,<br />

availability of integrated technologies<br />

(such as telematics software) and a<br />

global customer support network. In<br />

terms of how these entities are organized<br />

in line with research and development,<br />

Cummins spends circa $1bn<br />

on research and development (R&D)<br />

annually. This R&D is not centralized<br />

to one location or product area,<br />

products are designed by teams that<br />

work with each technology daily and<br />

that understand them – and customer<br />

demands – inside and out. Cummins<br />

R&D is cross functional, it is not isolated<br />

“inventors” in a lab. Cummins<br />

believes its internal combustion engine<br />

range will continue to grow for<br />

some time yet and is looking to expand<br />

its base business. Further development<br />

of fuel systems, aftertreatment<br />

and turbochargers all support<br />

emissions reduction and build on the<br />

latest generation of Cummins engines<br />

that are already ultra-efficient. This<br />

will become increasingly important<br />

as Cummins launches its innovative<br />

fuel agnostic platform, which boasts<br />

common blocks, core components<br />

and architecture for diesel, natural<br />

gas and hydrogen engines. As a result<br />

of R&D, product development and a<br />

series of acquisitions, Cummins globally<br />

has already supported the rollout<br />

of over 6,200 battery modules and<br />

packs and 2,000 fuel cell installations<br />

across key markets. Cummins is also<br />

committed to developing fuel of the<br />

future, with ambitious plans in place<br />

to develop the largest and most effi-<br />

cient PEM electrolyzers in the world.<br />

Matching power solutions to markets<br />

is key to decarbonization ambitions.<br />

Only through collaborative working<br />

and a partnership approach can Cummins<br />

develop a full understanding of<br />

which industries will benefit most<br />

from which specific solutions, based<br />

on what’s available now and what will<br />

be available in the near future. For example,<br />

BEV drivetrains are well suited<br />

to light commercial vehicles but<br />

not yet for heavy-duty agriculture or<br />

construction, whilst marine and power<br />

generation markets look more likely<br />

to benefit most from PEM and solid<br />

oxide fuel cells systems. We offer you<br />

a summary of recent key Cummins<br />

acquisitions, investments and MOUs.<br />

In February <strong>2022</strong>, Meritor entered<br />

into a definitive agreement under<br />

26<br />


REPORT<br />


Momentum Fuel Technologies<br />

In January <strong>2022</strong>, Cummins and Rush Enterprises, Inc. announced<br />

Cummins’ acquisition of 50% equity interest in Momentum Fuel<br />

Technologies from Rush Enterprises. The joint venture between<br />

Rush Enterprises and Cummins will seek to enhance production<br />

of near-zero emissions natural gas powertrains by manufacturing<br />

Cummins-branded natural gas fuel delivery systems for the<br />

commercial vehicle market in North America. The new company<br />

combines the strengths of Momentum Fuel Technologies’<br />

compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel delivery systems and<br />

Cummins’ powertrain expertise. When powered by renewable<br />

natural gas (RNG), using methane collected from organic waste<br />

as the primary fuel source, the engines can be credited with<br />

a neutral to negative carbon index, resulting in net greenhouse<br />

gas (GHG) emissions at or below zero.<br />

Amy Davis, Vice President & President - New Power: “Our New Power<br />

business is positioned to capture significant growth both in our core markets,<br />

as they transition to zero carbon solutions, and in new spaces presented by the<br />

global hydrogen economy. Through shorter development cycles, vehicle build<br />

capability, the infusion of outside talent, and operational autonomy, we will be<br />

able to enhance the value we can provide to all of our stakeholders.”<br />

which Cummins will acquire Meritor,<br />

a global leader of drivetrain, mobility,<br />

braking, aftermarket and electric<br />

powertrain solutions for commercial<br />

vehicle and industrial markets.<br />

This combined portfolio creates an<br />

attractive platform to deliver optimized<br />

powertrains as well as to advance<br />

electrification efforts through<br />

a combination of both businesses’<br />

capabilities.<br />

In February <strong>2022</strong>, Cummins signed<br />

an agreement to acquire Jacobs Vehicle<br />

Systems (JVS), a subsidiary of<br />

Altra Industrial Motion Corp., and a<br />

supplier of engine braking, cylinder<br />

deactivation, start and stop and thermal<br />

management technologies. The<br />

agreement brings the addition of new<br />

technologies to provide growth opportunities<br />

for Cummins’ current and<br />

future advanced diesel engine platforms.<br />

Engine braking and cylinder<br />

deactivation technologies will be key<br />

components in meeting current and<br />

future emissions regulations and the<br />

acquisition of JVS allows Cummins<br />

better integrate valuable components<br />

with its emissions leading mediumand<br />

heavy-duty engines.<br />

In February 2021, Daimler Truck<br />

AG and Cummins signed a Memorandum<br />

of Understanding, establishing<br />

a global strategic partnership for<br />

medium duty engine systems. As part<br />

of the memorandum, Cummins will<br />

establish an engine plant within the<br />

Mercedes-Benz Mannheim campus to<br />

produce medium-duty engines compliant<br />

with Euro VII emissions for<br />

Daimler Trucks and Buses.<br />

In June 2020, it was the time for an<br />

agreement to form a joint venture<br />

with NPROXX, a leader in hydrogen<br />

storage and transportation, for<br />

hydrogen storage tanks. The addition<br />

of hydrogen storage to Cummins’<br />

existing capabilities in hydrogen<br />

production and fuel cells enables the<br />

company to accelerate the viability<br />

and adoption of this technology in<br />

commercial markets. The joint venture<br />

provides customers with hydrogen<br />

and CNG storage products for<br />

on-highway and rail applications.<br />

In May 2020, Loop Energy, a leading<br />

provider of fuel cell electric range<br />

extenders for medium and heavy-duty<br />

transport applications, announced that<br />

the Company had received an additional<br />

investment from Cummins Inc.<br />

In June 2019, Cummins announced its<br />

acquisition of fuel cell and hydrogen<br />

production technologies provider Hydrogenics<br />

Corporation. The acquisition<br />

provides Cummins with both<br />

proton exchange membrane (PEM)<br />

and alkaline fuel cells electrolyzers to<br />

generate hydrogen. Owning both fuel<br />

cell and hydrogen generation from<br />

electrolysis capabilities enables Cummins<br />

to offer full hydrogen solutions<br />

– from start to finish, seamlessly integrated<br />

for its customers.<br />

In November 2021, Cummins entered<br />

into an agreement with Sion Power<br />

Corporation, a leading developer<br />

of high-energy rechargeable battery<br />

technology, to design and supply battery<br />

cells based on proprietary lithium<br />

metal technology for commercial<br />

vehicle applications. The investment<br />

allows Sion Power to further develop<br />

their lithium metal technology<br />

for the commercial vehicle market,<br />

and positions both companies for<br />

success in future commercialization<br />

of the technology. Under the agreement,<br />

Sion Power will design and<br />

supply large-format lithium metal<br />

battery cells for use in Cummins battery<br />

packs. The batteries developed<br />

by Cummins will be integrated into<br />

electric powertrains for commercial<br />

vehicles.<br />

In January 2018, the American company<br />

announced the acquisition of<br />

Johnson Matthey’s UK automotive<br />

battery systems business, a subsidiary<br />

of Johnson Matthey that specializes in<br />

high-voltage automotive grade battery<br />

systems for electric and hybrid vehicles.<br />

As part of the acquisition, Cummins<br />

and Johnson Matthey agreed<br />

to collaborate on the development<br />

of high energy battery materials for<br />

commercial heavy duty applications.<br />

In December 2021, Cummins and<br />

China Petrochemical Corporation<br />

(“Sinopec Group”) formed a<br />

50:50 joint venture – Cummins Enze<br />

(Guangdong) Hydrogen Technology<br />

Co., Ltd (“Cummins Enze”). The joint<br />

venture will accelerate the affordability<br />

and availability of green hydrogen<br />

through increased technological innovation,<br />

research and development,<br />

and manufacturing capacity. Initial<br />

investment will be in a manufacturing<br />

plant to produce proton exchange<br />

membrane (PEM) electrolyzers at the<br />

rate of 500 megawatts of electrolyzers<br />

per year upon completion in 2023.<br />

This will be gradually increased to<br />

one gigawatt of manufacturing capacity<br />

per year.<br />

28<br />






Speaking of competitors, how are<br />

they reacting?<br />

New entrants to this contest can’t<br />

but face Kubota, whose V15<strong>05</strong> – of<br />

equal rank – features an updated<br />

E-TVCS (Three Vortex Combustion<br />

System), one of the flags Kubota<br />

has planted on the engineering map.<br />

Their D902K, instead, gets confined<br />

in the box due to a displacement<br />

that’s a bit subdued compared<br />

to the average under scrutiny here.<br />

However, although the <strong>Diesel</strong> Index<br />

goes to Kohler and the H series<br />

from Hatz (always on top of podium<br />

in every contest it takes part in),<br />

you just have to scroll the density<br />

specs to get an idea of how good<br />

this monobloc is.<br />

Among them, the most celebrated<br />

BRAND<br />

MODEL<br />

INDEX<br />



C1.1<br />

HATZ<br />

3H50T<br />

KOHLER<br />

KSD 1403TCA<br />

KUBOTA<br />

V15<strong>05</strong>-E4B<br />

is its rated power to displacement<br />

ratio, but they all depend on the engine’s<br />

dimensions.This driver is by<br />

far the most competitive, with 0.12<br />

cubic meters, to which only Kohler<br />

manages to get close. A few expedients<br />

were used to reduce noise and<br />

vibration, e.g. the half-float valve<br />

cover and the MoS 2<br />

(Molybdenum<br />

disulfide) coated pistons.<br />

Perkins turns up with the odd-numbered<br />

cylinder engine from the 400<br />

series, a historical reminder of their<br />

collaboration with Shibaura which<br />

in the high end of the family has<br />

been revisited and recruited in the<br />

Syncro team (originally including<br />

the 3.6 and the 2.8 L). Again in this<br />

case – as it always happens when<br />

their respective product lists happen<br />

to intersect – Caterpillar and<br />

Perkins are walking at the same<br />

pace. The “yellow” team lines up<br />

the C1.1, a spectacular version of<br />

its British cousin which, as the<br />

name suggests, corresponds to a<br />

1.1 L (B&S 77x81 mm). Their performances,<br />

too, thus mirror each<br />

other, with 18.4 kW at 2,800 rpm<br />

and 86 Nm at 1,600. Their 1.1 L<br />

are the most compact, those with<br />

the smallest displacement, so they<br />

explicitly play with mean effective<br />

pressure to be able to sit down at<br />

the contenders’ table. Series 400<br />

enjoyed a remarkable upgrading<br />

at the end of 2014, when rotary<br />

pumps gave way to common rail on<br />

the biggest capacity units, such as<br />

the 2.2 L. One step down the Per-<br />


403J-11T<br />

YANMAR<br />

3TNV80FT<br />

Torque 13,5 14,9 17,8 7,5 13,5 9,5<br />

Performance 3,3 3,5 3,7 2,7 3,3 3,1<br />

Stress 5,8 6,3 6,7 4,6 5,8 5,3<br />

Lightness 8,2 9,5 9,3 6,6 10,3 10,5<br />

Density 37,3 20,7 35,6 27,5 27,4 22,9<br />

DIESEL INDEX 6,2 6 6 5,6 6 5,5<br />

kins’ engine ladder, we find the<br />

1.7 L (B/S 84x100 mm), labelled<br />

403J-17, standing below the margin<br />

line with 18.9 kW. The 600<br />

cc difference accounts for a 12%<br />

incremental torque, equal to 97.9<br />

Nm. Together with Hatz, Kubota<br />

completes the range with its 1.5 L<br />

V15<strong>05</strong>, delivering 33kW and 118.5<br />

Nm in its CR-T version, introduced<br />

at Intermat 2018, featuring<br />

a thousand rpm interval between<br />

max power and max torque. The<br />

dimensions get substantially larger<br />

if measured against the 19kW rating,<br />

with length alone featuring an<br />

extra 268 mm – as a percentage, it<br />

means 100 percent more – including<br />

because of the DOC/DPF module<br />

placed on the flywheel. As for<br />

the other Japanese – Yanmar – they<br />

put forward their 3TNV80FT, a bit<br />

weak torque-wise compared to other<br />

contestants; this does, however,<br />

change quickly as the engine reaches<br />

torque at max power. Peeking<br />

into Yanmar’s product list, we also<br />

find the odd-numbered 3TNV88C<br />

which is, however, above the 1.5 L<br />

threshold (B/S 88x90). This 1.6 L<br />

delivers 27.5 kW and touches 100<br />

Nm, thus falling outside the scope<br />

of this comparison.<br />

KUBOTA D902-K<br />

The D902-K by Kubota is proof that the cauldron below 19 kW is<br />

bubbling, and Kubota is particularly attentive to this segment – given<br />

its well-established presence among a few applications for which<br />

space is crucial, such as professional lawnmowers and garden tractors.<br />

The three-cylinder, 0.898 L D902-K , set for serial production from<br />

this year, is the first CAN controlled electronic engine developed by<br />

Kubota for output below 19 kW. It’s designed to meet Stage V, EPA<br />

Tier 4, China NR IV regulations as well as Chinese class III GB36886-<br />

2018 requirement on visible smoke, scheduled to get into effect in<br />

December <strong>2022</strong>. The D902-K is equipped with a newly designed TVCR<br />

combustion chamber matched to a common rail that fits well into<br />

its compact size. This system enhances engine performance while<br />

also reducing consumption by a 5% compared to the conventional<br />

model. Black smoke emissions are thus reduced to a barely visible<br />

quantity, including when starting, speeding up or at peak loads.<br />

Daniel Grant, Manager Marketing Intelligence at Kubota Business<br />

Unit Engine Europe, said: “The announcement of the new D902-K is<br />

part of Kubota’s commitment in responding to latest global emission<br />

regulations through innovation and design, ensuring we are providing<br />

our customers with compliant solutions. As part of our customer<br />

strategy, it’s crucial that these solutions exceed the needs of our OEM<br />

customers. That’s why the compact dimensions of our new D902-K<br />

diesel engine are compatible with conventional models. To compliment<br />

this, the intake and exhaust position, engine mount mounting position<br />

and PTO are also the same as conventional product. This means the<br />

D902-K can easily be incorporated into an OEM’s production processes<br />

without impacting on final product design and development”.<br />

Another key feature of Kubota’s D902-K is its ability optimise efficiency<br />

through telematics technology. The CAN interface and electric control<br />

enable rotation and torque adjustments that cannot be achieved on<br />

units with mechanical control.<br />



32<br />


kWe - OFFHIGHWAY<br />


AEM<br />



POWER<br />

Darrell Merritt, Casper Company Equipment Demolition Superintendent:<br />

“Casper wants to be a leader in the future of EVs and when the Volvo electric<br />

models become available, we look forward to being the first to get one.”<br />

The Association of Equipment<br />

Manufacturers (AEM) represents<br />

more than 1,000 companies<br />

in the agriculture and<br />

construction-related industry sectors<br />

worldwide. The equipment manufacturing<br />

industry in the United States<br />

contributes roughly $288 billion to the<br />

economy every year. The US is at the<br />

forefront of electrification processes<br />

(Nikola, for example, Cummins and<br />

Caterpillar, Dana Inc., Allison and<br />

Meritor, to name a few others). Who<br />

better to comment on decarbonisation<br />

among industrial applications than<br />

AEM? Casper Company, a concrete<br />

and demolition contractor based out of<br />

Spring Valley, owns six EVs – a fleet<br />

of Sherpa stand-behind skid steer loaders<br />

and Brokk radio remote control<br />

demolition machines – and for three<br />

of 48 V, a battery capacity of 20 kWh,<br />

and a peak electric motor of 24 hp. It<br />

has a maximum dump height of nine<br />

feet, eight inches (with the optional<br />

long arm) and a maximum dig depth<br />

of nine feet, one inch (with the optional<br />

long arm), and features a breakout<br />

force of 5,020 lb.-ft.<br />

“We used them in excavation applications,<br />

fitted the excavator with a hydraulic<br />

breaker, cutting out concrete<br />

with the loader, truck loading, grading,<br />

underground work to all things<br />

demolition,” says Casper Company<br />

Equipment Demolition Superintendent,<br />

Darrell Merritt. Both the electric<br />

and diesel versions can perform all the<br />

same functions and run all the same attachments<br />

without seeing a change in<br />

performance. “We got five to six hours<br />

of use out of the machines,” says Mermonths<br />

they demo’d the Volvo L25<br />

Electric compact wheel loader and the<br />

Volvo ECR25 Electric compact excavator.<br />

The L25 Electric features the<br />

newest Li-ion battery 48V technology<br />

with 39 kWh capacity. It is powerful.<br />

It provides a peak electric motor driveline<br />

of 48 hp and a peak electric motor<br />

working hydraulics of 43 hp. The<br />

ECR25 Electric is a zero-tail swing<br />

machine that features a battery voltage<br />

Five ways owning<br />

an electric machine is<br />

different from owning<br />

a diesel one, according<br />

to American Equipment<br />

Manufacturers<br />

ritt. “And, every night we transferred<br />

them back to our yard for charging.”<br />

The L25 has an indicative runtime of<br />

up to eight hours (depending on application)<br />

and an off-board charging time<br />

of about two hours. The ECR25 has an<br />

indicative runtime of up to four hours<br />

(depending on application) and can<br />

reach 80 percent of a full charge in 50<br />

minutes (both using the 400 VAC 32A<br />

charging system). “Toward the end of<br />

the three-month trial, we hooked up<br />

a tow-behind battery, and then got<br />

eight hours of work from them,” says<br />

Merritt. The on-board charging time<br />

for the L25 is about 12 hours and the<br />

on-board charging time for the ECR25<br />

is about five hours (both with the 230<br />

VAC 16A recharging system).<br />

The second major difference when<br />

owning EVs is the decreased maintenance.<br />

“We experienced no maintenance<br />

issues during the trial,” says<br />

Merritt. An electric engine has less<br />

components than a diesel engine,<br />

which means there is less to go wrong<br />

and less that needs servicing. There<br />

are no oil changes, no filter changes<br />

and no diesel exhaust fluid. Also, operators<br />

won’t accidentally put diesel<br />

in the DEF tank or DEF in the diesel<br />

tank since there are no tanks. Electric<br />

energy is clean in two ways; it’s better<br />

for the environment (depending<br />

on the energy source) and it is always<br />

free from contamination. With EVs,<br />

you don’t need to place orders for<br />

and then store large quantities of fuel<br />

for your fleet. And, you don’t have to<br />

worry about that fuel getting contaminated<br />

or ensuring it stays at the correct<br />

temperature. Electric energy is al-<br />

ways free from contamination, and it<br />

will never be wasted due to spoilage.<br />

Since a lot of EVs can work indoors<br />

and other spaces that diesel machines<br />

can’t work, these machines are often<br />

replacing manual labor.<br />

“Our jobs demand EVs,” says Merritt.<br />

“We work underground and inside<br />

buildings that are occupied, so diesel<br />

machines aren’t an option. In these cases,<br />

we often work by hand, but there is<br />

a huge gain in productivity by using an<br />

EV. An application that takes one hour<br />

by hand, we can complete in just 20<br />

minutes with an electric machine.” The<br />

Volvo L25 Electric and ECR25 Electric<br />

were demo’d by not just Casper<br />

Company, but three other companies<br />

in various applications in different climates<br />

across the US; the machines are<br />

expected to be available next year.<br />

34<br />


kWe - INTERVIEW<br />



A<br />

NEW<br />

EVE<br />


Agri-Eve is the specialty brand for agricultural and forestry<br />

machinery. The Evo series from Agri-Eve is a 4WD electric tractor<br />

platform specifically designed for use in vineyards, orchards,<br />

greenhouses, with multi-functional operation in mind. It can work<br />

up to eight hours on a single charge and feature a “battery swap”<br />

function to extend the operating time via the replacement of an<br />

exhausted battery pack with a new one. Thanks to the Evo Smart<br />

Charging technology, battery charging can be either done in Level<br />

2 (7 kW and 11 kW) or in 50kW fast-charging mode. “Precision<br />

agriculture and simultaneous remote controlling of multiple<br />

machines are now the standard for modern farms. Evo platforms<br />

are designed to meet these customers’ requirements,” says Massimo<br />

Galli. “Zero emission tractors have come into high demand these<br />

days as most of the farmers are required to curb pollution, improve<br />

on efficiency and cut fleet maintenance costs; these innovation and<br />

efficiency requirements are now unavoidable in farming businesses”.<br />

In addition to the Evo series tractors, Agri-Eve is building new<br />

strategic partnerships to develop further all-electric agricultural and<br />

forestry machines. To this aim, the company based in Rovereto, Italy,<br />

is selecting prospective partners for future projects. The Evo series<br />

products are now available for pre-order. Delivery is scheduled for<br />

the last quarter of <strong>2022</strong>.<br />

does feasibility studies<br />

for the development and<br />

integration of electric solutions;<br />

our customers in-<br />

“Eve<br />

clude municipal utilities, local public<br />

transportation and logistics companies,<br />

for both urban and long-distance<br />

haulage missions” states Eve’s CEO<br />

Massimo Galli.“We are consultants,<br />

and we have to deliver, therefore we<br />

sometimes advise against switching<br />

from diesel to electric, if it brings no<br />

advantages in terms of use, usefulness<br />

or costs. We have carried out in-depth<br />

studies on the strongpoints of IC engines,<br />

right because we need to know<br />

when it’s really feasible to replace<br />

them”. And what follows is not what<br />

you’d expect to hear from someone<br />

whose company name includes the<br />

word “electric”: “Ideally, if we could<br />

always use a diesel engine at a constant<br />

speed and match it to an electric<br />

motor, we’d get unrivalled efficiency<br />

with the current technology. Excluding<br />

urban mobility, it would be pretty<br />

hard to find an electric solution to replace<br />

Stage V/Euro6E diesel engines.<br />

We’ve got no problem with making a<br />

battery-operated truck with a 2000<br />

km driving range. So what’s the challenge?<br />

Cost – 10 to 20 times higher<br />

than that of a vehicle fitted with an IC<br />

Electrification<br />

consulting for all<br />

kinds of applications.<br />

Without disavowing<br />

the diesel engines<br />

engine; a gross vehicle weight of over<br />

30 tons, and recharge times. We’d need<br />

some 1MW megachargers, like those<br />

by Tesla, but there are currently just<br />

a few around, maybe at a handful of<br />

shopping malls. Does electric make<br />

sense, then, industry-wise? To date, I’d<br />

definitely say it doesn’t. I can’t see how<br />

it could make life simple for a shipping<br />

company five years from now. Electric<br />

vehicles work well for businesses like<br />

Coca Cola and Pepsi, making pointto-point<br />

deliveries with megachargers<br />

at every facility. If I was asked to give<br />

some sort of general rule, I’d say that<br />

batteries are the best option within a<br />

50 km driving radius, otherwise you<br />

need to opt for a diesel engine. Take,<br />

for instance, city buses (travelling at<br />

an average of 3 kph) or delivery vans<br />

(for which the average speed is about<br />

8 kph) whose dwell time accounts for<br />

45% of the total travelling time. We<br />

need to find “matched” solutions; we<br />

never rule out diesel a priori”.<br />

Then Massimo Galli goes on with<br />

what, to our ears, sounds like an unexpected<br />

ode to internal combustion engines<br />

with a 2.0 twist. “I am puzzled to<br />

see how manufacturers are approaching<br />

things. Engine makers could build<br />

generators with a very low consumption<br />

rate and extremely high efficiency.<br />

Take the studies we carried out on<br />

truck retarders in Thailand: with them,<br />

drivers could just forget about brakes.<br />

We also worked on Australian convoys:<br />

they usually draw energy from<br />

batteries even when they are supposed<br />

to generate it, so we set the retarder to<br />

work in the last 500 metres of the travel<br />

for smoother braking. I am thinking<br />

of a configuration including an electric<br />

motor on the trailer’s axle and a diesel<br />

engine in its own place, in the front<br />

overhang”. Galli ends his overview<br />

with a couple of applications from Europe<br />

and North America.<br />

“The Dancer Bus was devised by a<br />

Lithuanian company with experience<br />

in the wind-energy sector. With the<br />

support from the EU’s European Energy<br />

Efficiency Fund, they developed<br />

a sustainability project from scratch:<br />

electric drive, highly innovative lithium-titanium<br />

batteries, recycled-plastic<br />

materials. The Fund took care of<br />

the financial aspects, while Eve conducted<br />

the technical due diligence. We<br />

were tasked with checking whether<br />

the manufacturer’s specs (mechanical<br />

performance, torsional and bending<br />

stiffness… all the way down to<br />

the software, electrical components,<br />

project sustainability) were reflected<br />

in reality. In the USA we were asked<br />

by a big shipping company to check<br />

the data warehouse and tell them at<br />

which locations it would be possible<br />

to set up an electric integration prototype.<br />

Based on their data, we carried<br />

out tests to see where electric motors<br />

could be used and integrated, and in<br />

which percentage. Lastly, I’d like to<br />

mention our studies on the reintegration<br />

of electric buses that companies<br />

have bought in the past and then decommissioned”.<br />

So what does Eve do, in a nutshell?<br />

“We customize electrification options<br />

and the necessary modifications, including<br />

based on financial criteria,<br />

such as the customer’s willingness to<br />

renew their fleet.”<br />

36<br />






A MOVE<br />

ON<br />

Trevor Milton, CEO Nikola Corporation: “Nikola has<br />

the technology but needs a partner with a European network<br />

to achieve it in a timely manner.”<br />

From the partnership with Rockwell<br />

to configuring an electrified<br />

powertrain by Nikola. Because<br />

FPT Industrial doesn’t only mean<br />

engines and we clearly saw this at CES<br />

in Vegas. We’re talking about the axle<br />

for heavy vehicles 4x2 / 6x2 and gross<br />

vehicle weight of 44 tonnes. Data speak<br />

volumes: 840 kW and efficiency above<br />

92%. Upon the e-axle’s first appearance<br />

on Class 8 trucks in the US, FPT<br />

on-road product manager Andrea Abbà<br />

rewarded our curiosity.<br />

What’s the story behind the development<br />

of the electric axle for the Nikola<br />

Tre BEV?<br />

I’d say this e-axle for heavy applications<br />

was born from the Nikola-Iveco joint<br />

venture announced in September 2019.<br />

So it’s a project that was co-developed<br />

with Nikola themselves. We presented it<br />

at our booth’s On-road innovation area<br />

at CES in Las Vegas. The first vehicles<br />

fitted with our axles hit North America’s<br />

roads at the end of 2021.<br />

What do you mean by co-developed<br />

by FPT and Nikola?<br />

The idea was that development and<br />

design would be taken care of by FPT<br />

Industrial. Nikola, on their part, would<br />

come to rescue with identifying the<br />

demands and target segments of the<br />

We introduce you to<br />

the e-axle from FPT<br />

and Nikola, presented<br />

at CES in Las Vegas<br />

North American market.<br />

How do you diversify a product such<br />

as an electrified heavy vehicle to meet<br />

the demands of the American and<br />

European markets?<br />

We modified the axle’s gear ratio using<br />

two different ratios to meet specific<br />

performance requirements. Then we<br />

adjusted the electrified axle’s output to<br />

meet the different needs of the European<br />

and North American markets.<br />

A quick technical snapshot?<br />

It’s an axle with two electric motors, one<br />

speed, with a gear ratio that can deliver<br />

up to 840 kW of peak power (420 for<br />

each motor) and a torque of 900 Nm.<br />

The max axle load is 13 tonnes. It’s used<br />

on vehicles with a gross vehicle weight<br />

of 44 tonnes. The guaranteed life of the<br />

axle and of the powertrain at large is<br />

the same as with IC engines – i.e. about<br />

1 million 200 thousand kilometers. So<br />

we made sure we would provide our<br />

customers with a benefit.<br />

Is there any difference in using the<br />

axle with fuel cell vehicles – hence with<br />

the FCEV version of the Nikola Tre?<br />

There’s no substantial difference. The<br />

kinematic chain has remained unvaried.<br />

There’s a different power source,<br />

though, a battery in one case and a fuel<br />

cell – albeit matched to a battery for<br />

peak loads – in the other. So the difference<br />

lies in the power “generator”, but<br />

the axle is exactly the same. The truck’s<br />

layout, too, needs no modifications.<br />

What’s the difference vs conventional<br />

axles and what niches does it address?<br />

We’ve tackled heavy vehicles so far but<br />

we can broaden the range of interest<br />

to include other applications. At CES,<br />

for instance, we presented a prototype<br />

for light commercial vehicles and pickups.<br />

We also address other automotive<br />

niches, which can’t be done with conventional<br />

axles and this allows us to<br />

broaden the scope of applications we<br />

can accommodate.<br />

The specs for heavy vehicle axles are<br />

the ones just mentioned: max bearable<br />

load up to 13 tonnes and a gross vehicle<br />

weight of 44 tonnes. The light vehicle<br />

axle can withstand up to 7 tonnes<br />

and a gross vehicle weight of up to 10<br />

tonnes. Light vehicle axles are different<br />

in that they feature two coaxial motors,<br />

while those for heavy vehicles have an<br />

off-axis setup – which means a height<br />

offset between the motors.<br />

Where does FPT fit in this specific<br />

market niche with its electric axle<br />

offer?<br />

We’re in the early stage of heavy vehicle<br />

electrification. What we’re seeing<br />

is certainly that the layout is evolving.<br />

The first vehicles launched on<br />

the market featured a central drive,<br />

an adapted version of the existing<br />

layout with features of standard axles.<br />

They didn’t use an integrated axle<br />

like ours. We kept ahead of the game<br />

by launching a solution that will become<br />

widespread on the market in a<br />

few years.<br />

Is FPT aiming to be a supplier of<br />

e-axles on the free market?<br />

As with our IC engines, we’re looking<br />

for OEMs that may range from big<br />

manufacturers to small start-ups.<br />

38<br />





10<br />

OUT OF<br />

TEN<br />


Allison conducted a study on the TCO in collaboration with<br />

the Poly-Environment fleet of the Derichebourg Group.<br />

According to the collected data, Allison fully automatic<br />

transmissions reduce the TCO by 2 percent compared<br />

to an automated (or semi-automated) gearbox.<br />

The vehicle stop-start work cycles included more than<br />

1,100 bin pick-ups per day. The difference in TCO lies mainly<br />

in the significantly lower maintenance costs and maximum<br />

uptime. The area where the test was conducted is located<br />

in the northern suburbs of Paris, an area with more than<br />

250,000 inhabitants. Nineteen vehicles were monitored,<br />

seven with fully automatic Allison transmissions and twelve<br />

with automated gearboxes. These vehicles had been in<br />

operation for 28 months in this area prior to this study.<br />

For 12 months, all standard Poly-Environment data were<br />

compiled (over more than 9,600 shifts). During these 12<br />

months of collection, vehicles with Allison fully automatic<br />

transmissions collected an average load per shift that was<br />

more than 9 percent higher than vehicles with automated<br />

gearboxes.<br />

Seven Hyundai Xcient Fuel Cell trucks were delivered on the 7 th of October<br />

2020 in Switzerland, equipped with Allison transmissions, for distribution<br />

activities, including Migros supermarket chain. By 2025, 1,600 of these<br />

vehicles will be delivered in Europe. The H2 Xcient feature a 190kW fuel cell<br />

stack and seven high-pressure tanks that contain 32 kilos of hydrogen.<br />

For 1,600 vehicles, I could even<br />

learn to fly,” said Sergio Camolese.<br />

And yet, although Allison<br />

European sales director has no<br />

wings, we can assure you, the reference<br />

is far from being mythological.<br />

In fact, the contract has been drawn in<br />

black and white and provides for the<br />

equipping of 1,600 hydrogen-powered<br />

trucks used to supply Swiss supermarkets.<br />

Allison is moving barycentrically<br />

between present and future, which<br />

means that it is promoting the reasons<br />

for choosing an automatic gearbox<br />

amongst sceptics, and is trying to have<br />

it implemented outside its traditional<br />

truck ecosystem. The company also<br />

interprets decarbonisation without<br />

erecting mystifying barricades with<br />

respect to the endemic diffusion timing<br />

of the electric option.<br />

Amongst mobile industrial applications,<br />

which is Allison privileged<br />

field, the CE or the AG industry?<br />

Our focus has traditionally been on<br />

the construction field, where we have<br />

a strong presence amongst mobile<br />

crane and dumper manufacturers. We<br />

have a very good reputation at Terex<br />

and Bell, just to name a few of our<br />

customers, and we are trying to extend<br />

that reputation to the excavator world.<br />

Allison penetration in the<br />

off-highway market and<br />

alternative fuels. The<br />

first 10 trucks at Dakar<br />

were equipped with the<br />

American transmission<br />

This is a land we aim to conquer, and<br />

which has been colonised first by manual<br />

gearboxes and then by robotized<br />

ones, the latter having certainly<br />

reached an excellent performance<br />

and, mainly, featuring a much lower<br />

cost. We have been addressing our attention<br />

to the agricultural world, but it<br />

is a sector that requires an extra effort<br />

to convince its operators to radically<br />

change their technological approach.<br />

Is it a price battle then? Why choosing<br />

an automatic gearbox instead of<br />

a robotized one?<br />

It is clearly a question of price. The<br />

robotized gearbox is an electronically<br />

and pneumatically dependent manual<br />

transmission, and the cost substantial<br />

core is the same as the manual<br />

gearbox. And to answer your second<br />

question, I could simply use one single<br />

word: “Dakar”. If I had to coin a slogan<br />

to dispel any doubts about the advantages<br />

of an automatic gearbox with<br />

torque converter, even on sandy dunes,<br />

that would be “ten out of ten”, with<br />

reference to the final grid of the race.<br />

Being the transmission that has been<br />

winning the Dakar these last two years<br />

(last year we equipped eight trucks<br />

which ended up in the top ten, and this<br />

year we even made a full win), we are<br />

also firmly established in hybrid applications<br />

like Hino, beside trying to conquer<br />

the hydrogen-powered Gaussin.<br />

Let’s say the wind has changed. We no<br />

longer have to knock on anyone’s door;<br />

now the OEMs ask for our solutions<br />

directly. This also applies to “sui generis”<br />

models, the race teams that take<br />

part in the Dakar with alternative fuels.<br />

So, what are the gearboxes (by Allison)<br />

and what are the applications<br />

(for Allison)?<br />

As I said, we are on mobile cranes and<br />

all rigid and articulated dumpers. Regarding<br />

our product range, we start<br />

with the 3500, which is the typical<br />

on-highway gearbox for distribution<br />

trucks, then up to the 4000, till the<br />

off-highway models, the 5000, 6000<br />

and up to the 9000, which definitely<br />

belongs to a high product range, both<br />

in terms of price and performance. As<br />

for the durability, it would be enough<br />

for a quarry-site application to observe<br />

an articulated vehicle equipped<br />

with the 3500 to declare the 4000 as<br />

the best choice for its mission. It is<br />

clear that the harder the game gets,<br />

the more Allison starts to play (John<br />

“Bluto” Blutarsky’s quote is evoca-<br />

tive of the American imprinting, ed.<br />

note). Take one of our typical releases,<br />

such as Astra, which is used in<br />

the most challenging environments,<br />

where service is sometimes an almost<br />

impossible mission. Proper maintenance<br />

extends the gearbox life to the<br />

point it coincides with that of the vehicle<br />

itself. I can broaden the same<br />

expectations to Renault. In the past,<br />

we took the Kerax, which has evolved<br />

into the K series, to impervious areas<br />

such as Equatorial Guinea and the<br />

Middle East. Allison has become synonymous<br />

with bullet proof gearboxes<br />

for extreme environmental conditions.<br />

Talking about the diversification of<br />

our references, an internal marketing<br />

resource is in charge of examining all<br />

industrial applications, from lifting<br />

to excavation till agriculture. We are<br />

40<br />




currently assessing both traditional<br />

and electric gearboxes. We have been<br />

to GIS in Piacenza to evaluate what<br />

opportunities the market has to offer.<br />

Our product is a premium product,<br />

and this is an exploration phase for us.<br />

You have extolled the TCO benefits<br />

of Allison transmissions. In simple<br />

terms, are these limited to diesel<br />

savings?<br />

We have scrupulously focused on<br />

TCO, as proved by the agreement that<br />

we have signed with the third private<br />

waste collection company in France<br />

(see box). Together we have carried<br />

out an unprecedented series of tests,<br />

in terms of intensity and timing of<br />

measurements, as well as in terms of<br />

number of vehicles involved. The comparison<br />

has involved twelve vehicles<br />

with robotized gearboxes and seven<br />

vehicles with automatic transmissions,<br />

for a period of one year, on the field,<br />

while the assessment of service costs<br />

has lasted three years. If the vehicle<br />

has a demanding usage profile, over<br />

two or three shifts, the service costs<br />

are kept to a minimum. So far, nothing<br />

new. What interested us the most<br />

was the analysis of consumptions.<br />

We have been attacked on this point<br />

on several fronts, especially by those<br />

who have to defend a vehicle which<br />

is integrated with a robotized gearbox.<br />

The final result was a 5/6 percent<br />

consumption gap, due to the torque<br />

converter, thus far from the 15 percent<br />

claimed by some, without any supporting<br />

evidence. Bear in mind that these<br />

results are expressed in “consumed litres<br />

per hundred kilometres”, as used<br />

in France, rather than in “litres per<br />

tonne”, as referred to for waste collection.<br />

Despite that, the TCO, including<br />

all the parameters, has rewarded<br />

us with a 2/3 percentage point advantage,<br />

mainly because of the benefits<br />

in terms of assistance. At this stage,<br />

we haven’t considered productivity. It<br />

would have been a “no brainer” since<br />

the automatic gearbox enables operations<br />

to be carried out more quickly.<br />

There is currently no similar study for<br />

other applications, given the specific<br />

characteristics of certain vehicles.<br />

For example, for a quarry/construction<br />

truck operating in Madagascar,<br />

the maintenance status makes all the<br />

difference. If I stop the vehicle for<br />

about ten days while waiting for it to<br />

be repaired, the uniqueness of an Allison<br />

gearbox is not under discussion,<br />

as it never breaks down. If, on top of<br />

that, we consider the time saved and<br />

the extra tonnes transported, there<br />

is absolutely no contest. Allison has<br />

carried out rigorous and unbeliever-proof<br />

studies.<br />

“The torque output and the current<br />

engines elasticity allow to add value<br />

to the potential of Allison gearboxes.”<br />

Literally his words...<br />

The point is that the motoring trend<br />

is towards a maximum torque at the<br />

lowest rpm, elasticity and consistency<br />

of performance. If we cross the power<br />

and torque curves of an FPT Cursor<br />

13, for example, we can see that they<br />

are flatter than in the past. This goes<br />

to our advantage since, by shifting<br />

under torque without interrupting the<br />

power and torque curves, we guarantee<br />

the stability. This way, the potential<br />

of Allison gearboxes combines<br />

with the strategies of the engine manufacturers.<br />

Meritor has become a star in the<br />

Cummins galaxy. And Allison? Is<br />

aggregation in the powertrain inevitable<br />

in order to become a solution<br />

provider at these times of decarbonisation?<br />

It depends very much on the choices<br />

of the manufacturers. Allison has<br />

chosen to keep up with the times, by<br />

replicating what Cummins did with<br />

Meritor, even if in a minor way. We<br />

have made two strategic acquisitions,<br />

AxleTech and Vantage Powers, to fill<br />

the time gap. We are automatic gearbox<br />

specialists and we had to face the<br />

time-to-market to avoid falling into<br />

that unpleasant situation of big announcements<br />

followed by few reliable<br />

products. Trust me when I say that I<br />

have seen hybrids that wouldn’t move<br />

from the car park! In a relatively short<br />

time, we have gone from announcing<br />

the vehicle to testing it. Vantage Powers<br />

provides the electrification engineering<br />

for the vehicle. They carry<br />

out the integration study. AxleTech is<br />

focused on the product. That’s the expertise<br />

we needed, and it has allowed<br />

us to enter the field and play an active<br />

part in the game. In Europe we have<br />

a memorandum of understanding with<br />

Emergency One, one of the leading<br />

body builder manufacturers for emergency<br />

vehicles in the UK. In the US we<br />

collaborate with Hino that is making<br />

Class 6, Class 7 and Class 8 vehicles.<br />

A demo has almost completed the testing<br />

phase. So, when asked if it’s compulsory<br />

to merge or stand alone, these<br />

days, the answer is forced: you have<br />

to integrate a company that has the<br />

technology, and that is what we have<br />

done. The electric axle is the most<br />

popular solution, for reasons of space,<br />

weight, flexibility and efficiency, but<br />

until recently the trend was towards<br />

a central drive. Right now, from our<br />

point of view, the electric axle offers<br />

the greatest advantages. Not being an<br />

engine manufacturer is an advantage,<br />

as there is no distinction between captive<br />

and external customers.<br />

Does decarbonisation only rhyme<br />

with electrification? How is Allison<br />

approaching the conversion of its<br />

natural habitat: the truck?<br />

To simplify, I could answer affirmatively,<br />

in fact Allison provides on-highway<br />

gearboxes to all gas-powered vehicles,<br />

supporting the performance of engines<br />

that are less powerful than their diesel<br />

equivalents. We are thinking about<br />

a straightforward solution, unlike the<br />

electric vehicle, which costs three times<br />

as much as diesel, basically preventing<br />

the full conversion of a fleet, with some<br />

unresolved doubts in terms of reliability.<br />

If we consider the hydrogen, there is<br />

one manufacturer that is significantly<br />

ahead, and that is Hyundai (see box).<br />

Amongst the alternative manufacturers,<br />

I would also mention Hyzon, and<br />

Volta Trucks, with whom we have been<br />

confronting. We have selected some<br />

accounts that follow electric start-ups.<br />

We are present in all stages of powertrain<br />

evolution, and we are aware that<br />

some of them will disappear, but the<br />

massive spread of electrification is certainly<br />

not the one being emphasized at<br />

trade fairs. There are no problems in<br />

terms of effectiveness. The technology<br />

is mature. The issues to be resolved are<br />

linked to how to structure the service,<br />

as well as to the charging infrastructure<br />

and costs. There are also technical<br />

issues, such as high voltage, which<br />

will require appropriate training for<br />

the drivers. We may have some gaps in<br />

the hybrid segment, where we only offer<br />

the eGen Flex for buses, a successful<br />

application in the US, also thanks<br />

to the government subsidy. That is a<br />

market for 18-metre buses, whereas in<br />

Europe the market is characterized by<br />

12-metre buses.<br />

42<br />


TECHNO<br />



LARGE<br />

SCALE<br />



“Electrification is at the forefront of our strategy” is the slogan<br />

on BorgWarner’s website. Basically, a manifesto. With<br />

Qnovo’s focus on battery health measurement and fast<br />

charging, the investment deepens BorgWarner’s capacity<br />

to further its battery solutions portfolio by partnering with<br />

Qnovo, a company based in Newark, California. The intelligent<br />

software offers multiple benefits, including predictive<br />

safety measures, faster charging and extended battery life.<br />

Additionally, Qnovo’s software implements adaptive charging<br />

algorithms and predictive tools into an application that<br />

runs on AutoSAR or an equivalent vehicle operating system.<br />

Qnovo develops patented adaptive charging algorithms and<br />

battery data analytics that improve lifetime battery performance<br />

with enhanced health and safety.<br />

Here, the high-voltage<br />

SiC generator inverter.<br />

Right, hydrogen-injectionsystems<br />

and High-Voltage<br />

Coolant Heater.<br />

BorgWarner’s bar has definitely<br />

been raised. By the way, it<br />

does not mean only electrification<br />

as is demonstrated by its<br />

first hydrogen injection system production<br />

program for an off-road application<br />

by a European construction<br />

equipment manufacturer.<br />

“This business win strengthens the<br />

longstanding relationship with our<br />

customer. We’re glad to provide them<br />

with the full hydrogen injection system,<br />

including fuel injectors, rail, electronic<br />

control unit and system integration,”<br />

said Davide Girelli, Vice President<br />

and General Manager, BorgWarner<br />

Fuel Injection Systems. “BorgWarner’s<br />

offerings in the electric mobility<br />

segment have increased immensely in<br />

the last few years. Investing in the development<br />

of hydrogen applications is<br />

a further step toward creating a broad<br />

portfolio of clean and efficient propulsion<br />

technology.”<br />

As a solution provider for hydrogen<br />

technology, BorgWarner cooperates<br />

with OEMs in all vehicle segments<br />

and can supply them with either individual<br />

components or complete<br />

turnkey solutions that integrate the<br />

entire fuel injection system, including<br />

controller, software and calibration.<br />

Not only electrification, we said, but<br />

mainly battery packs, we can say that.<br />

BorgWarner hydrogen<br />

injection system; SiC<br />

based inverters; High-<br />

Voltage Coolant Heater<br />

Moreover, in the light of the conflict in<br />

Ukraine and the skyrocketing prices of<br />

diesel fuel and natural gas for domestic<br />

heating, public opinion in the Western<br />

world is pushing to speed up the<br />

adoption of electrified solutions that<br />

break free from the choices of OPEC<br />

and Moscow.<br />

BorgWarner has secured a contract<br />

with a major global OEM to supply<br />

high voltage generator inverters to be<br />

used in an innovative electrified architecture<br />

to charge the main batteries.<br />

The silicon carbide (SiC) based<br />

inverter is designed to provide high<br />

levels of continuous current and advanced<br />

cooling strategies to manage<br />

the application’s challenging thermal<br />

demands. “BorgWarner is extremely<br />

proud to secure this contract and continue<br />

building upon our collaborative<br />

and long-standing relationship with<br />

this customer,” said Stefan Demmerle,<br />

President and General Manager, Borg-<br />

Warner PowerDrive Systems. “We are<br />

eager to continue providing scalable,<br />

energy efficient and sustainable mobility<br />

solutions to support our customers<br />

as they shift toward fully electrified<br />

vehicle technology.”<br />

The power-dense inverters use Borg-<br />

Warner’s Viper family of scalable<br />

power modules coupled with enhanced<br />

thermal designs to allow<br />

continuous operation at 70% of peak<br />

current, whereas typical applications<br />

provide only 40-50% of peak current<br />

continuously. Additionally, the use of<br />

SiC power switches helps make these<br />

inverters more efficient than traditional<br />

silicon-based inverters. According<br />

to the company, BorgWarner’s inverter<br />

performance, robustness, scalable<br />

design, overall value, customer relationship<br />

and global manufacturing<br />

footprint are all factors that led to the<br />

business win. The inverter’s production<br />

is slated for 2024.<br />

Finally, we move on from hard and<br />

pure industrial applications to car<br />

passengers, the incubator and cradle<br />

of electrification technologies. Borg-<br />

Warner has provided its innovative<br />

High-Voltage Coolant Heater (HVCH)<br />

for the BMW Group’s iX and i4 fully<br />

electric architecture. The solution<br />

controls the battery’s thermal management<br />

and cabin heating and contributes<br />

to significantly enhancing the<br />

driving range and durability of the battery.<br />

“For more than 20 years we have<br />

successfully cooperated with the BMW<br />

Group, providing them with numerous<br />

solutions for combustion-powered vehicles,”<br />

said Joe Fadool, President and<br />

General Manager, BorgWarner Emissions,<br />

Thermal and Turbo Systems.<br />

Generally available in power variants<br />

from 3 to 10 kW for operating ranges<br />

between 250 and 500V, the HVCH<br />

supports OEMs in their vehicle development<br />

by providing a solution that<br />

features a compact modular design<br />

with reduced package size and weight.<br />

It has a high thermal power density and<br />

– due to its low thermal mass and high<br />

efficiency – enables fast response times<br />

when heating up. Key components of<br />

the HVCH are stainless steel thick film<br />

heating elements (TFE), which are<br />

housed in solid die-cast aluminum that<br />

offers electromagnetic shielding and<br />

resists thermal shock, vibration and<br />

mechanical stress.<br />

44<br />


H2 - TECHNO<br />



READY<br />

FOR<br />

H2<br />

UFI Filters’ take on filtration<br />

for fuel cells? Solid particulate<br />

matter filtration and gaseous<br />

pollutants adsorption are<br />

achieved by means of a dual layer<br />

solution.<br />

The first layer separates solid particles<br />

through a structure that’s by all means<br />

similar to a filter for IC engines. The<br />

synthetic material’s matrix and thickness<br />

are, though, different and feature<br />

absolutely specific adsorption properties<br />

that guarantee low system-related<br />

losses. In addition to dust – the sworn<br />

enemy of any filtering system – saline<br />

particles also get trapped here. The<br />

first layer is positioned so as to protect<br />

the second layer’s activated carbon<br />

component placed downstream<br />

– thus preserving its adsorption properties.<br />

So here we get to the second<br />

In summary, the basic difference between<br />

an ICE filter and a fuel cell filter<br />

lies right in the filtering material;<br />

in cathode filters, this combines the<br />

ability to trap particles with the adsorption<br />

of the gases present in ambient<br />

air. The toughest applications for<br />

cathode air filters are those with higher<br />

quantities of ambient air contaminants<br />

such as airborne dusts and gases<br />

– also found in ambient air – that may<br />

damage a fuel cell’s operation.<br />

Said gases – like for example SO 2<br />

–<br />

change according to the area the vehicle<br />

works in (city, rural, industrial)<br />

plus, applications can be influenced<br />

by weather conditions (e.g. the presence<br />

of O 3<br />

). Speaking of road applications,<br />

by the way, these types of<br />

filtering media are demanded by car<br />

and commercial vehicle manufacturlayer,<br />

which enables the chemical removal<br />

of gaseous pollutants through<br />

adsorption. The filtering medium here<br />

is nonwoven fabric imbued with several<br />

active carbon mixtures specially<br />

altered by UFI Filter via thermal and<br />

chemical inorganic salt-based reactions.<br />

Such surface treatment allows<br />

for different pore size.<br />

In hydrogen<br />

applications, the<br />

filtration of solid particles<br />

and the absorption of<br />

gaseous contaminants<br />

by UFI FIlters is<br />

achieved by means<br />

of a double layer<br />

ers alike. Now we’re going to take<br />

a step backward and elaborate on a<br />

point stressed by UFI Filters itself.<br />

The air that gets sucked into the system<br />

needs to be effectively filtered<br />

before entering the compressor and<br />

cell, removing not only particles, but<br />

also noxious gases like SOx, NOx,<br />

H 2<br />

S, CO, O 3<br />

and NH 3<br />

, as well as VOC<br />

(Volatile Organic Compounds) e.g.<br />

benzene and toluene. Said gases that<br />

may damage fuel cells are generally<br />

man-made compounds deriving from<br />

human activities; their concentration<br />

in air can vary according to geographical<br />

settings. A number of studies carried<br />

out over time show that even extremely<br />

low quantities of gas particles<br />

– not just PPMs, but even PPBs – can<br />

dramatically reduce a fuel cell’s performance<br />

and life.<br />

This is due to several causes including<br />

a crucial one such as the contamination<br />

of the catalyst – that is what<br />

triggers the reaction needed to turn<br />

hydrogen and oxygen into power and<br />

water.<br />

The catalyst is a key component of<br />

fuel cells and it’s made of platinum<br />

or other precious metals. Impurities<br />

can compromise its functional performance<br />

irreversibly causing gradual<br />

deterioration over time, so bad it can<br />

undermine the cell’s duration.<br />

As for the air system, we mustn’t forget<br />

the compressor is highly sensitive<br />

to solid air pollutants that can impair<br />

performance. Fuel cells take from the<br />

ambient the air they need for the oxygen-hydrogen<br />

electrochemical reaction.<br />

It is well known that air is not the<br />

same everywhere and its qualities de-<br />

pend on a number of local factors such<br />

as temperature, altitude, and pollution<br />

level. UFI has achieved a strongly<br />

customizable filter that’s forged based<br />

on the special requirements of hydrogen-fuelled<br />

systems.<br />

It is not simply a matter of filtering<br />

media, as explained earlier. Its special<br />

features also include different shapes<br />

and treatments to improve product<br />

performance, such as pleating: a<br />

pleated filter’s performance largely<br />

depend on how pleating is done.<br />

In addition to the dual layer structure,<br />

for some applications UFI Filters<br />

also provides pre-separation units designed<br />

for use in very dusty locations<br />

with high levels of solid particles,<br />

so that air can undergo preliminary<br />

treatment before getting to the cathode<br />

air filter.<br />

46<br />


TECHNO<br />



B<br />

ased in Somerset, in the South<br />

West of England, Ogab was<br />

launched publicly in August<br />

2020 after being initially<br />

founded in 2015. Project Manager<br />

Edward Richards-Bond answered a<br />

couple of questions.<br />



O<br />

ne of the barriers to the spread impact than existing melting furnace in the first quarter of 2023,” says Fredrik<br />

Pettersson, CEO of Stena Recy-<br />

of batteries is their end-of life technology, which produce high carbon<br />

dioxide emissions. In short, the cling Sweden.<br />

disposal. The average lifetime<br />

of a lithium-ion battery technology is based on grinding batteries<br />

“Electrification is a crucial piece of<br />

is about 8/10 years. And after that?<br />

An answer comes from Stena Recycling,<br />

that’s intensifying its work on<br />

the construction of the new recycling<br />

plant in Halmstad, South Sweden.<br />

The facility is expected to initially<br />

handle around 10,000 tonnes of batteries<br />

per year. This will include lithium-ion<br />

batteries from electric cars<br />

as well as industrial and consumer<br />

products. In addition, battery centers<br />

are being established around Europe<br />

to ensure an infrastructure for collecting<br />

the batteries. Stena Recycling<br />

has chosen a new technology for the<br />

recycling of lithium-ion batteries<br />

that is expected to provide a higher<br />

recycling rate and a lower climate<br />

in an inert environment. This is<br />

followed by an advanced process to<br />

separate the different fractions in order<br />

to recover valuable metals. From<br />

the black mass, which is one of the<br />

fractions from batteries, nickel, cobalt,<br />

and lithium, among others, are<br />

extracted in the next step. “We are<br />

very pleased that the Swedish Energy<br />

Agency has granted our application<br />

and see it as important and natural to<br />

contribute to closing the loop of valuable<br />

materials contained in batteries.<br />

We are introducing an advanced technology<br />

and it is exciting that we are<br />

now breaking new ground and setting<br />

the standard in battery recycling. Our<br />

goal is to have the plant operational<br />

the puzzle in the work for a fossil-free<br />

society where batteries will be a central<br />

part of the future energy system.<br />

This important project means that<br />

we can create a battery value chain<br />

that is sustainable and circular from<br />

environmentally and climate-smart<br />

production to recycling, so we are<br />

not just shifting emissions from one<br />

activity to another,” says the Swedish<br />

Energy Agency’s Director General<br />

Robert Andrén.<br />

Stena Recycling’s investment in battery<br />

recycling aims to meet the substantial<br />

increase of batteries predicted<br />

in society, and to stay ahead of<br />

the EU directive that is scheduled to<br />

come into force from 2025.<br />

48<br />

Let’s talk about Ogab Sustainable<br />

Braking System.<br />

It can work for commercial vehicles,<br />

trains, motorsport, airplanes and so<br />

on, as the concept can be extended<br />

to nearly all the vehicles which have<br />

a single disc braking system. What<br />

we look to enclose the brake caliper<br />

and use a suction device to remove<br />

any brake wear inside of this. Inside<br />

the enclosure, active cooling also<br />

takes place, direct to the surface of<br />

the discs. This not only prevents overheating<br />

and degradation, but also enables<br />

a number of other things. For<br />

instance, because you’re controlling<br />

the thermal environment within the<br />

brake assembly, you’re removing the<br />

issue of heat escalation. It also re-<br />

moves several things in the design<br />

process, for example the need for<br />

brake ducts, allowing a more streamlined<br />

design that can have a positive<br />

effect on the aesthetics of the vehicle<br />

as well as aerodynamic performance.<br />

It can even give the potential of covering<br />

the wheels.<br />

How can all this affect sustainability?<br />


Essentially, we’re trying to reduce<br />

the particulate emissions from brake<br />

wear, which is a huge factor in traffic<br />

related air pollution. Particularly<br />

when it comes to heavy goods vehicles<br />

(HGVs), where it is sometimes underestimated<br />

how much the braking system<br />

actually affects emissions. We’re<br />

trying to get to a net-zero braking<br />

concept, which we are putting across<br />

the whole transport sector.<br />

EdiLog log stacker embraces sustainability Twin Disc AM365 Pump Drive. The approximate savings are around 5% by<br />

re-utilizing kinetic energy, 5% by reducing idling and 25% with a more efficient start and stop. The recorded results<br />

are a fuel saving of 28%, lower operating and maintenance costs, reduced CO 2<br />

emissions by 120 tons annually.<br />

Pump Drive family by Twin Disc is well known for milestones such as M080 Rear Engine Power Take-Off (REPTO)<br />

drive. This REPTO drive has a maximum power rating of 1,533 hp (1144kW) at 2,200 rpm. It’s built for severe<br />

applications, including driving hydraulic pumps, grinders, crushers, dredgers, chippers, shredders and drills. It<br />

complements a full system of Twin Disc products that work in conjunction with each other including power takeoffs,<br />

marine gears, and transmissions. A key enhancement of the AM080 is its high-power capabilities. Each pump tower<br />

has a 400 hp (298kW) maximum capacity and a combined 450 hp (336kW) capacity for both towers. The drive is<br />

rotatable by 0°, 45°, 90°, either clockwise or counter-clockwise and 180° which makes it adaptable for clearance in<br />

any installation. The pads and splines are easily interchangeable in the field to accommodate varying pump sizes.<br />



www.vadoetorno.com<br />

Art. 1, subsection 1, LO/MI<br />



www.vadoetorno.com<br />

Art. 1, subsection 1, LO/MI<br />



www.vadoetorno.com<br />

Art. 1, subsection 1, LO/MI<br />



www.vadoetorno.com<br />

Art. 1, subsection 1, LO/MI<br />



QUOTE<br />



I'm<br />


<br />

The<br />

BOSS<br />

Fpt Industrial F28 <strong>Diesel</strong> of the year 2020 - Briggs&Stratton -<br />

Comparisons: 2-2.5 liters - Interviews: Cummins - Deere - MTU - Perkins<br />

JCB&Cummins - Conexpo&Off-Road - MEE Dubai&PG - Europe&China<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

FPT F28 <strong>Diesel</strong> of the year 2020 - Interview: Nanni Energy CEO -<br />

Report: SCR - Fish-Eye: MCY and MAN V8 - Comparisons: 100 HP<br />

Hybrid: Hyundai Seasall, Huracan, Mercury - N igata - Kohler Power<br />

2000<br />

HP<br />




www.vadoetorno.com - ISSN 0042<br />

Poste Italiane s.p.a.<br />

Sped. in a. p. - D.L. 353/2003<br />

(conv. in L. 27/02/2004 n° 46)<br />

art. 1, comma 1, LO/MI<br />


March 2020<br />

F28 <strong>Diesel</strong> of the year 2020: also hybrid - Interview: Dana INC. -<br />

Report from Conexpo: JD, Kubota - Comparisons: 1-cylinder<br />

and 9 liters - Lindner&Perkins - MEE Dubai - LNG - DPFs<br />

<br />

<br />


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D.L. 353/2003 (mod. in L. 27/02/2004 n° 46)<br />

Art. 1, subsection 1, LO/MI<br />


August 2020<br />

<br />

<br />

<strong>Diesel</strong> of the year 2020: an abstract of the FPT F28 - MAN Engines for<br />

buses: off-road, with Torsus, and CNG hybrid - Weichai and Bosch<br />

for the peak of efficiency - Cat, MTU and the 24-32L marine engines<br />

Hydrogen: Could it be the elixir of life for ICE? - FPT F28: DOTY 2020<br />

- Efciency: a case study - Comparison: from 6 to 7 liters -<br />

Fish-Eye: Doosan&Perkins - Alternatives: John Deere’s recipe<br />



THIS IS<br />

MAN<br />


<strong>Diesel</strong> of the year 2021: John Deere 18.0L - MAN: cover story -<br />

Comparisons: between 1.5 and 1.9 liters - Alternatives: F28<br />

biomethane - Marine: MTU, Cummins, Hug Engineering, Vulkan<br />


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Art. 1, subsection 1, LO/MI<br />


January 2021<br />


back, Deere<br />

<strong>Diesel</strong> of the year 2021: John Deere 18.0L - MTU Series 500 -<br />

Interviews: Yanmar Europe and NGV <strong>Powertrain</strong> - Comparison:<br />

from 9 to 11 liters - Fish-Eye: Massey Ferguson and Iseki - Hydrogen<br />


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Art. 1, subsection 1, LO/MI<br />



www.vadoetorno.com - ISSN 0042<br />

Poste Italiane s.p.a.<br />

Sped. in a. p. - D.L. 353/2003<br />

(conv. in L. 27/02/2004 n° 46)<br />

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www.diesel-international.com<br />

May 2021<br />

NEW AGCO<br />

era<br />


<strong>Diesel</strong> of the year 2021: John Deere 18.0L - AGCO Power: 100<br />

mi lion euro to relaunch Linnavuori - Kohler: All about<br />

the engines division - Sustainability: e-SUV & more<br />

May 2020<br />


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ISSN 0042<br />

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Art. 1, subsection 1, LO/MI<br />


November 2020<br />

www.diesel-international.com<br />

www.dieseloftheyear.com<br />




HYBRID<br />

MAN<br />

MAN Smart Hybrid Experience - Stage V: AGCO Power,<br />

Cummins and AS - Comparison: 170HP - Fish-Eye: asking<br />

Fincantieri Yachts - Sustainabilty by MTU, WRF, Earth300<br />

www.diesel-international.com<br />

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Griffin<br />


September 2021<br />

ISSN 0042<br />

Pre s Register n. 4596 – April 20th 1994<br />

Poste Italiane Inc. – Mail subscription<br />

D.L. 353/2003 (mod. in L. 27/02/2004 n° 46)<br />

March 2021<br />


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is now<br />

Isotta Fraschini Motori 16V170 G Engine Road Show -<br />

Comparison: 1.5 liters industrial engines - Fish-Eye: hybrid<br />


Kohler Sma l Displacement - Sustainable Cat - H2 for<br />

freight & passengers - Web event: Is offroad multitasking? -<br />

Deutz between ICE and alternatives - Scania Power Solutions<br />

Huddig backhoe, with Cummins - Marine: Cannes and Genoa<br />


www.vadoetorno.com<br />

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ISSN 0042<br />

Pre s Register n. 4596 – April 20th 1994<br />

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D.L. 353/2003 (mod. in L. 27/02/2004 n° 46)<br />

Art. 1, subsection 1, LO/MI<br />


January <strong>2022</strong><br />


20M33<br />

Face to face with Baudouin - FPT Smart Hybrid Energy Hub -<br />

Bergen & Langley - Green AG in USA - Alternative Cummins -<br />

Comparison: 13 litre truck - Cat IPU & Perkins IOPU - UFI Filters<br />

Art. 1, subsection 1, LO/MI<br />


www.diesel-international.com<br />

www.dieseloftheyear.com<br />

ISSN 0042<br />

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www.diesel-international.com<br />

www.dieseloftheyear.com<br />

ISSN 0042<br />

Pre s Register n. 4596 – April 20th 1994<br />

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D.L. 353/2003 (mod. in L. 27/02/2004 n° 46)<br />

March <strong>2022</strong><br />

July 2021<br />

November 2021<br />

A<br />

ABBÀ, Andrea - 38<br />

AGRI-EVE - 37<br />

ALLISON - 4, 34, 40, 41, 42, 43<br />

B<br />

BAUMA - 12<br />

BMW - 14, 15, 45<br />

BORGWARNER - 44, 45<br />

BOSCH - 16<br />

BRIST - 4<br />

C<br />

CATERPILLAR - 20, 21, 23, 30,<br />

32, 33, 34<br />

CHEVRON - 27<br />


CORPORATION - 29<br />

CUMMINS - 6, 12, 26, 27, 28,<br />

29, 34, 43<br />

D<br />

DAIMLER TRUCK - 28, 29<br />

DANA - 8, 34<br />

DEMMERLE, Warner - 45<br />

DEUTZ - 12, 13<br />

DIESS, Herbert - 15<br />

E<br />

EIMA - 12, 24<br />

EVE - 4<br />

F<br />

FADOOL, Joe - 45<br />

FORD - 15<br />

FPT - 12, 13, 38, 39<br />

FRANCHI, Guido - 12, 13<br />

G<br />

GALLI, Massimo - 36<br />


GIRELLI, Davide - 44<br />

H<br />

HATZ - 30, 32, 33<br />

HOGBERG, Fredrik - 8<br />

HONDA - 24, 25<br />


TION - 29<br />

HYUNDAI - 41<br />

I<br />

INTERMAT - 12<br />

J<br />


JCB - 12<br />

JOHN DEERE - 12, 13<br />


K<br />

KOHLER - 10, 11, 12, 13, 30, 31,<br />

32, 33<br />

KOMATSU - 25<br />

KUBOTA - 13, 31, 32, 33<br />

L<br />

LIEBHERR - 13<br />

M<br />

MAN - 13<br />

MERITOR - 4, 27, 28, 34<br />

MERRITT, Darrel - 35<br />

MILTON, Trevor - 39<br />

MTU - 13<br />

N<br />

NEAL, Eric - 6<br />

NIKOLA - 34, 38, 39<br />

NPROXX - 28<br />

P<br />

PERKINS - 12, 31, 32, 33<br />

PERRONE, Vincenzo - 11<br />

PETTERSSON, Fredrik - 48<br />

R<br />

RICARDO - 4<br />

RICHARDS, Edward - 49<br />

S<br />

SCANIA - 16, 17, 18, 19<br />

SHIBAURA - 32<br />

SIGNORELLI, Lou - 20<br />


TION - 29<br />

SMITH, Tom - 20, 21<br />

STELLANTIS - 14<br />

STENA RECYCLING - 48, 49<br />

T<br />

TAVARES, Carlos - 14<br />

TOYOTA - 14<br />

TWIN DISC - 49<br />

U<br />

UFI FILTERS - 46, 47<br />

V<br />

VLASKAMP, Alexander - 17<br />

VOLKSWAGEN - 15<br />

VOLTA TRUCKS - 4<br />

VOLVO - 8, 34, 35<br />

W<br />

WALTON, William - 25<br />

WEBER, Frank - 15<br />

Y<br />

YANMAR - 31, 32, 33<br />

Z<br />

ZF - 4<br />

Engines and components for OEM<br />

Culture, technology, purposes<br />

And market of <strong>Diesel</strong> engines<br />

Established in 1986<br />

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Electronically-Controlled Small <strong>Diesel</strong> Engine<br />

D902-K<br />

The Kubota D902-K is an all-in-one electronically-controlled diesel engine below 19kW. With its<br />

new proprietary TVCR combustion technology and unique fuel injection, it meets a wide range of<br />

needs, facilitating easy model upgrades without increasing development costs for the customer.<br />

Black smoke is reduced to an invisible level<br />

Fuel efficiency improved by about 5 % compared to conventional model<br />

Highly efficient and stable operations; integrated/intelligent control<br />

China's national<br />

smoke regulations<br />

Category III*<br />

China's national<br />

smoke regulations<br />

Category III*<br />

China's national<br />

smoke regulations<br />

Category III*<br />

* Limits and Measurement Methods for Exhaust Smoke from Non Road Mobile Machinery Equipped with <strong>Diesel</strong> Engine<br />



+<br />

S E R V I C E<br />

+<br />

S U P P O R T<br />

+<br />


+<br />

D I S T R I B U T O R S<br />




There’s an unbreakable bond between John Deere products and<br />

the people who choose them. It gives you the power to take your<br />

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