Scottish Literature by Alan Riach sampler

Bringing infectious enthusiasm and a lifetime’s experience to bear on this multi-faceted literary nation, Alan Riach, Professor of Scottish Literature at the University of Glasgow, sets out to guide you through the varied and ever-evolving landscape of Scottish literature. A comprehensive and extensive work designed not only for scholars but also for the generally curious, Scottish Literature: an introduction tells the tale of Scotland’s many voices across the ages, from Celtic pre-history to modern mass media. Forsaking critical jargon, Riach journeys chronologically through individual works and writers, both the famed and the forgotten, alongside broad overviews of cultural contexts which connect texts to their own times. Expanding the restrictive canon of days gone by, Riach also sets down a new core body of ‘Scottish Literature’: key writers and works in English, Scots, and Gaelic. Ranging across time and genre, Scottish Literature: an introduction invites you to hear Scotland through her own words.

Bringing infectious enthusiasm and a lifetime’s experience to bear on this multi-faceted literary nation, Alan Riach, Professor of Scottish Literature at the University of Glasgow, sets out to guide you through the varied and ever-evolving landscape of Scottish literature.

A comprehensive and extensive work designed not only for scholars but also for the generally curious, Scottish Literature: an introduction tells the tale of Scotland’s many voices across the ages, from Celtic pre-history to modern mass media. Forsaking critical jargon, Riach journeys chronologically through individual works and writers, both the famed and the forgotten, alongside broad overviews of cultural contexts which connect texts to their own times. Expanding the restrictive canon of days gone by, Riach also sets down a new core body of ‘Scottish Literature’: key writers and works in English, Scots, and Gaelic.

Ranging across time and genre, Scottish Literature: an introduction invites you to hear Scotland through her own words.


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an introduction<br />


<strong>Alan</strong> <strong>Riach</strong> is a poet and teacher. Born in Airdrie, Lanarkshire, in 1957, he<br />

studied English literature at Cambridge University from 1976 to 1979 and<br />

completed his PhD in the Department of <strong>Scottish</strong> <strong>Literature</strong> at Glasgow<br />

University in 1986. His academic career has included positions as a research<br />

fellow, lecturer, Associate Professor and Pro-Dean in the Faculty of Arts at<br />

the University of Waikato, New Zealand, and he has given scholarly lectures,<br />

keynote addresses and public talks and poetry readings at universities, festivals<br />

and other venues internationally. He has introduced and taught <strong>Scottish</strong> and<br />

other literatures in four continents and two hemispheres, from Bengal to<br />

Bucharest, from Singapore to Montenegro, the USA, Australia, China, France,<br />

Poland and Spain. The publication of <strong>Scottish</strong> <strong>Literature</strong>: an introduction in<br />

the centenary year of the first appearance in print of Hugh MacDiarmid and on<br />

the 10th anniversary of the long overdue formal provision of the literature of<br />

Scotland into <strong>Scottish</strong> schools, consolidates a working lifetime’s commitment<br />

to the subject he professes, and celebrates its subversive endurance despite<br />

institutional neglect and hostility. It was prompted <strong>by</strong> a conversation with<br />

Paul Henderson Scott of the Saltire Society in 2005 and brings together the<br />

astonishing diversity of Scotland’s national literature, in language, geography,<br />

historical periods, literary expressiveness and sheer quality.

Other books <strong>by</strong> <strong>Alan</strong> <strong>Riach</strong>:<br />

Poetry<br />

This Folding Map<br />

An Open Return<br />

First & Last Songs<br />

From the Vision of Hell: An Extract of Dante<br />

Clearances<br />

Homecoming<br />

Wild Blue: Selected Poems<br />

The Winter Book<br />

Translations<br />

Duncan Ban MacIntyre, Praise of Ben Dorain<br />

Alasdair mac Mhaighstir Alasdair, The Birlinn of Clan Ranald<br />

Criticism<br />

Hugh MacDiarmid’s Epic Poetry<br />

The Poetry of Hugh MacDiarmid<br />

Representing Scotland in <strong>Literature</strong>, Popular Culture and Iconography: The Masks<br />

of the Modern Nation<br />

Arts of Resistance: Poets, Portraits and Landscapes of Modern Scotland (with<br />

Alexander Moffat and Linda MacDonald-Lewis)<br />

Arts of Independence: The Cultural Argument and Why It Matters Most (with<br />

Alexander Moffat)<br />

Arts & the Nation: A critical re-examination of <strong>Scottish</strong> <strong>Literature</strong>, Painting, Music<br />

and Culture (with Alexander Moffat and John Purser)<br />

The Edinburgh Companion to Twentieth-Century <strong>Scottish</strong> <strong>Literature</strong> (co-editor)<br />

The International Companion to Edwin Morgan (editor)

<strong>Scottish</strong> <strong>Literature</strong><br />

an introduction<br />


First published 2022<br />

isbn: 978-1-910022-95-5<br />

The author’s right to be identified as author of this book<br />

under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 has been asserted.<br />

The paper used in this book is recyclable. It is made<br />

from low chlorine pulps produced in a low energy,<br />

low emissions manner from renewable forests.<br />

Printed and bound <strong>by</strong><br />

Severnprint Ltd., Gloucestershire<br />

Typeset in 11 point Sabon LT Pro <strong>by</strong><br />

Main Point Books, Edinburgh<br />

© <strong>Alan</strong> <strong>Riach</strong> 2022

‘Teaching is probably the noblest profession in the world – the most unselfish,<br />

difficult, and honourable profession, but it is also the most unappreciated,<br />

underrated, underpaid, and under-praised profession in the world.’<br />

Thus wrote Leonard Bernstein in his book Findings.<br />

This book is for the teachers, and of the best of my own: Edward Stead,<br />

Tim Cribb, Helena Shire, Marshall Walker and Douglas Gifford, in partial<br />

repayment of a debt I’ll never want to close.

Contents<br />

This is where we begin 13<br />

Preface 17<br />

Part One: Three Questions<br />

1 Why read <strong>Scottish</strong> literature? 20<br />

2 What is literature? 26<br />

3 Was there ever a ‘British’ literature? 33<br />

Part Two: Scotland Emergent<br />

1 The Gaelic tradition: the Three Great Cycles 44<br />

2 The Gaelic Otherworld 53<br />

3 Merlin, Arthur and Calgacus 57<br />

4 The Picts, The Gododdin and Columba 62<br />

5 From The Dream of the Rood to the Norse sagas 69<br />

Part Three: Approaches<br />

1 Performing Scotland: plays, drama and theatricality 76<br />

2 Poetry: how to read and what to read 84<br />

3 Stories and novels 89<br />

Part Four: Authors and Works<br />

1 Early Gaelic poetry: the Dean of Lismore and the MacMhuirichs 98<br />

2 Thomas Rhymer and Wyntoun’s Cronykil 103<br />

3 The Bruce, The Wallace, Bannockburn<br />

and the Declaration of Arbroath 106<br />

4 Love is all you need: James I, The Kingis Quair 113<br />

5 The rule of compassion: Robert Henryson 118<br />


scottish literature, an introduction<br />

6 Not energy ordered, energised order: William Dunbar 124<br />

7 Poet and translator: Gavin Douglas 128<br />

8 Early plays, Philotus and David Lyndsay’s Satyre of the Thrie Estaitis 133<br />

9 The Latin tradition and George Buchanan 145<br />

10 The Latin tradition and Arthur Johnstone 154<br />

11 Defy them all: Elizabeth Melville 159<br />

12 Mark Alexander Boyd and the ‘Castalian Band’ 163<br />

13 Sorrow in a deadly vein: William Drummond of Hawthornden 168<br />

14 The Border Ballads, Robert Kirk and the Marquis of Montrose 171<br />

15 Oddfellows: William Lithgow and Thomas Urquhart 176<br />

16 Gaelic poetry of the 17th century 183<br />

17 Gaelic poetry of the early 18th century 189<br />

18 More Gaelic poetry of the early 18th century 194<br />

19 <strong>Scottish</strong> Enlightenment authors: Stewart, Hume, Smith, Hutton,<br />

Ferguson 197<br />

20 In the eye of the storm: Alasdair mac Mhaighstir Alasdair /<br />

Alexander MacDonald 205<br />

21 The ecological eye: Donnchadh Bàn Mac an t-Saoir /<br />

Duncan Ban MacIntyre 213<br />

22 Gaelic poetry of the later 18th century 217<br />

23 James Macpherson and Ossian 222<br />

24 Ramsay’s The Gentle Shepherd, Home’s Douglas<br />

and Carstairs’s The Hubble-Shue 231<br />

25 Tender strengths: Robert Fergusson 245<br />

26 The politics of song: Robert Burns 249<br />

27 Poetry in English: from Thomson to Byron 258<br />

28 The doctor’s expeditions: Tobias Smollett 263<br />

29 What can this thing be?: James Hogg 268<br />

30 Divided loyalties, sympathies unbound: Walter Scott 273<br />

31 Domestic politics, fanatic extremes: John Galt 293<br />


contents<br />

32 The Tavern Sages and Ferrier, Baillie, Brunton,<br />

Oliphant, Cockburn and Reid 298<br />

33 Victorian Sages from Thomas Carlyle to Margaret Oliphant 304<br />

34 Gaelic poetry of the 19th century 310<br />

35 Prophet of modernity: Robert Louis Stevenson 315<br />

36 Stevenson’s contemporaries: from Charles Mackay to Florence Dixie 322<br />

37 Writers of the Industrial Revolution: from Thomas Campbell<br />

to Arthur Conan Doyle 327<br />

38 Gaelic poetry: from 19th century to the 20th century 332<br />

39 Beyond the Kailyard 338<br />

40 The internationalists: from R.B. Cunninghame Graham to Violet Jacob 352<br />

41 Gaelic poetry of the early 20th century 357<br />

42 Playwrights and plays: from Joanna Baillie to John Brandane 363<br />

43 Renaissance: Hugh MacDiarmid 369<br />

44 Questions of language: William Soutar and Edwin Muir 383<br />

45 Thin ice and voluminous works: Compton Mackenzie<br />

and Naomi Mitchison 389<br />

46 The morning star: Lewis Grassic Gibbon 394<br />

47 Matters of spirit: Neil Gunn 399<br />

48 Tragedy and comedy: Fionn Mac Colla and Eric Linklater 404<br />

49 Self-determinations: Catherine Carswell, Nan Shepherd and Willa Muir 409<br />

50 Playwrights and plays: Joe Corrie, James Bridie, Joan Littlewood<br />

and Ewan MacColl 413<br />

51 Edinburgh and Lochinver: Robert Garioch and Norman MacCaig 421<br />

52 Love and war: Somhairle MacGill-Eain / Sorley MacLean<br />

and Sydney Goodsir Smith 425<br />

53 Scouts of the limits: W.S. Graham<br />

and Deòrsa mac Iain Dheòrsa / George Campbell Hay 430<br />

54 Folk song and the dance of the intellect: Hamish Henderson<br />

and Edwin Morgan 437<br />

55 Deadliness and grace: Robin Jenkins and Muriel Spark 443<br />


scottish literature, an introduction<br />

56 Lords of the Isles: George Mackay Brown<br />

and Iain Mac a’ Ghobhainn / Iain Crichton Smith 448<br />

57 Gaelic poetry of the later 20th century 458<br />

58 Playwrights and plays: from Robert McLellan to John McGrath 463<br />

59 Literary fiction: from George Friel to Jessie Kesson 469<br />

60 Scotland and America: Alexander Trocchi and Gordon Williams 473<br />

61 Bestsellers: from Annie S. Swan to Nigel Tranter 476<br />

62 Resisting repression: James Kennaway, Agnes Owens,<br />

Archie Hind and Alasdair Gray 481<br />

63 An awkward squad: from David Lindsay to Andrew O’Hagan 485<br />

64 Gaelic prose fiction: from the 16th to the 20th centuries 489<br />

65 Gaelic prose fiction in English and the Ùr-sgeul initiative 493<br />

66 Modern Gaelic prose fiction: a flood of new novels 497<br />

67 Possible dancers: Irvine Welsh, Carl MacDougall and A.L. Kennedy 500<br />

68 Risky desires and natural needs: Iain Banks and Janice Galloway 505<br />

69 Scotland and further: James Robertson, Ali Smith and <strong>Alan</strong> Warner 509<br />

70 Forms of revival: Allan Massie, James Kelman and <strong>Alan</strong> Spence 513<br />

71 Scotlands (plural): from Janet Paisley to Kirstin Innes 517<br />

72 Gaelic fiction in the 21st century: satires, vexations and vicissitudes 522<br />

73 Playwrights and plays: from Robert Kemp to Liz Lochhead 527<br />

74 Plays: future prospects and past performance 533<br />

75 Plays in Gaelic: on the page and on the stage 541<br />

76 Plays, theatres and drama: a good night out 548<br />

77 Lowlander and Gael: Stewart Conn and Aonghas MacNeacail 553<br />

78 Three kinds of poet: Douglas Dunn, Tom Leonard<br />

and Liz Lochhead 557<br />

79 Nothing in uniform: from Veronica Forrest-Thomson to Jackie Kay 562<br />

80 Worlds of difference: from Tom Buchan to Kathleen Jamie 566<br />


contents<br />

Part Five: divagations<br />

1 Languages, literature, humanity and tragedy 572<br />

2 Big themes and new approaches 578<br />

3 Mongrel nation: freedom, history and geography 583<br />

4 Modernity and war: visions beyond violence 588<br />

5 Genres and forms: crime, science fiction, children’s literature, song 594<br />

6 <strong>Scottish</strong> literature at play 600<br />

7 Psychology, flyting, philosophy and speculation 607<br />

8 Religion and sport 612<br />

9 Radio, film and TV 617<br />

10 New media 622<br />

11 Travel writing 628<br />

12 Diaspora 633<br />

Part six: a loose canon<br />

1 The idea of a canon 640<br />

2 What a canon is 644<br />

3 What a canon is for 649<br />

4 A loose canon: significant authors and works of <strong>Scottish</strong> literature 654<br />

Part seven: a gazeteer of scottish literature<br />

Map 676<br />

101 places to visit 677<br />

Further reading 709<br />

A select bibliography of histories of <strong>Scottish</strong> literature 711<br />

Endnote 715<br />

Acknowledgements 716<br />

Index of author names 717<br />


This is where we begin<br />

The painting on the front cover of this book depicts a mountainous landscape,<br />

sensually presented in vivid colours, with deep seawater and freshwater lochs,<br />

long straths of land forming bays and peninsulas around inlets: a natural and<br />

ancient world, but with a scattering of houses: a populated landscape, far from<br />

cities but occupied <strong>by</strong> the lives of people, their loves, concerns, and particular<br />

dispositions through generations. The painting is ‘The Cuillins, Evening, April<br />

1964’ <strong>by</strong> John Cunningham (1926–98). The great Gaelic poet Somhairle MacGill-<br />

Eain or Sorley MacLean (1911–96) ends his poem ‘The Cuillin’ like this:<br />

Thar lochan fala clan nan daoine,<br />

thar breòiteachd blàir is strì an aonaich,<br />

thar bochdainn, caitheimh, fiabhrais, àmhgair,<br />

thar anacothruim, eucoir, ainneairt, ànraidh<br />

thar truaighe, eu-dòchais, gamhlais, cuilbheirt,<br />

thar ciont is truaillidheachd, gu furachair,<br />

gu treunmhor chithear an Cuilithionn<br />

’s e ’g èirigh air taobh eile duilghe.<br />

Here are the lines in MacLean’s English translation:<br />

Beyond the lochs of the blood of the children of men,<br />

beyond the frailty of plain and the labour of mountain,<br />

beyond poverty, consumption, fever, agony,<br />

beyond hardship, wrong, tyranny, distress,<br />

beyond misery, despair, hatred, treachery,<br />

beyond guilt and defilement: watchful<br />

heroic, the Cuillin is seen<br />

rising on the other side of sorrow.<br />

The poem was written in 1939, at the beginning of the Second World War.<br />

MacLean saw the rise of Fascism in Europe and imagined the mountain range<br />

of his native place as a geological opposition to human brutality, a permanent<br />

symbol of hope. He was born on the island of Raasay, beside Skye, and grew<br />

up looking over towards these mountains, climbing them as a young man.<br />

By the 20th century most of Scotland’s population was living in cities –<br />

Glasgow, Edinburgh, Aberdeen, Dundee. So we might begin with a recognisable<br />

image of Scotland as a place of natural beauty and symbolic authority, but we<br />

must deepen our understanding with a sense of the historical complexity of<br />


scottish literature, an introduction<br />

Scotland’s national identity before we can begin to fully encounter the richness of<br />

<strong>Scottish</strong> literature. The geological physicality, the potent imagery, the experience<br />

over many generations of both country and city, the religious histories of<br />

Catholic and Protestant dominions, the political priorities of communal or<br />

profit-based economies, and most recently the doubleness of British imperial and<br />

independent <strong>Scottish</strong> identities, and above all the interpretations made possible<br />

<strong>by</strong> different, but overlapping languages, pre-eminently Gaelic, Scots and English<br />

– all these help form the particular kaleidoscope of singularity we call Scotland.<br />

‘Scotland’ is a word that names a particular nation, defined <strong>by</strong> geographical<br />

borders. In the early 21st century, since the union of the crowns of Scotland and<br />

England in 1603 and the union of the parliaments of Edinburgh and London<br />

in 1707, this nation exists within the political state of the United Kingdom<br />

and Northern Ireland, with its global legacy of British imperialism. Scotland<br />

might be imagined in two different dimensions: as part of a political state with<br />

its imperial political legacy, and as a single nation of separate, multi-faceted<br />

cultural distinction, along with other nations in the world. As the American<br />

poet Charles Olson puts it in ‘Letter 5’ of The Maximus Poems:<br />

Limits<br />

are what any of us<br />

are inside of<br />

For people who grow up and live within the borders of this nation, certain<br />

things may be conferred <strong>by</strong> languages, geology, terrain, climate and weather,<br />

architectural designs, current behavioural habits and a history of cultural<br />

production, that might be different from such things elsewhere. The languages<br />

in which most <strong>Scottish</strong> literature is written – Gaelic, Scots and English – confer<br />

their own rhythms, sounds, musical dynamics, and the relations between them<br />

create their own character in the priorities of expression in speech and writing.<br />

Geography creates another range of characteristics. Growing up speaking in<br />

different languages and living in different parts of Scotland, generates different<br />

prospects and perspectives. In the Borders, you might look south to England;<br />

along the east coast, you might look across to other northern European nations.<br />

Things look different again in the archipelagos of the north, Orkney and Shetland,<br />

and of the west, the Inner and Outer Hebrides; and different again along the<br />

west coast of mainland Scotland, or in the north in Caithness and Sutherland,<br />

or in the central fertile farmlands of Perthshire and Kinross, or in the central<br />

belt where most people in the country now live, the industrialised, now postindustrial,<br />

Glasgow, and Scotland’s capital (or ‘capital-in-waiting’), Edinburgh.<br />

All these locations suggest the diversity of perspectives Scotland – and <strong>Scottish</strong><br />

literature – presents. Each one creates different ways of seeing. And such ways<br />


this is where we begin<br />

of seeing are not only a birth-right. They may also be learned. But as Hugh<br />

MacDiarmid points out:<br />

It requires great love of it deeply to read<br />

The configuration of a land…<br />

Where did this nation begin?<br />

Over half a millennium, from before Columba’s time in the 6th century, through<br />

Kenneth MacAlpin in the 9th century and Malcolm Canmore in the 11th century,<br />

different groups of people of different languages and cultural preferences got to<br />

know more about each other and began to live together in a comity of identity.<br />

Before them, there was birdsong. Before that, there was the ice.<br />

Identity is a function of position, and position is a function of power.<br />

This is where we begin.<br />


Preface<br />

this book is mainly concerned with retrieving and renewing, history brought<br />

into the present, the dead returned to the living. But above all it is a personal<br />

introduction. Its investment has been quite a lot of my life. It rests on a formidable<br />

quantity of scholarship, but it’s written with immediate attention to primary texts,<br />

and with relatively little reference to secondary critical material. <strong>Scottish</strong> literature<br />

has over long eras been neglected or deliberately obscured, so securing its place<br />

in the firmament is a kind of redress, a reclamation. To paraphrase a fictional<br />

character of diabolical intent, ‘Revenge is sweet, mine extends over centuries, and<br />

time is on my side.’ And all poets, as we know, are of the devil’s party.<br />

In this overview of major periods, themes, authors and works of <strong>Scottish</strong><br />

literature, I have chosen to emphasise certain authors, works, avenues of approach<br />

and aspects of consideration, which seem to me at this point in history to warrant<br />

emphasis. I hope the overarching story is accurate enough to the enormous and<br />

varied terrain, and I hope that what I say here works in the recognition that the<br />

terrain itself is always shifting, never entirely fixed, always open, never completely<br />

closed.<br />

Some people, over many generations, have denied the validity of <strong>Scottish</strong><br />

literature as a worthwhile area of study and attempted to tell the story of literature<br />

across the centuries as if there were only one central story to be told. For a long<br />

time, <strong>Scottish</strong> literature has been a neglected subject in our educational institutions.<br />

But as the great <strong>Scottish</strong> artist William Johnstone says in his book Creative Art in<br />

Britain (1950): ‘It is idle to blame teachers. My criticism of educational methods is<br />

aimed at certain consequences of the prevalent attitude to experience.’ And as Ezra<br />

Pound puts it in his ABC of Reading (1934): ‘the value of old work is constantly<br />

affected <strong>by</strong> the value of the new’. There is always a need to reassess work which<br />

the current ‘attitude to experience’ – especially as represented in most media every<br />

day – is urging us to neglect.<br />

I have not written exclusively for professional scholars and critics but for people<br />

who enjoy reading, looking at paintings and sculptures, listening to music, and<br />

learning about things. I have included reference details in the body of the book,<br />

giving only date of publication for works that are easily identified, and place,<br />

publisher and further information as well as dates for specific works whose details<br />

are less accessible. Dates for the lives of authors are given where they first appear<br />

or where their works are discussed extensively. I have not used notes in the hope<br />

that the book might be read fluently, and such information as may be needed is<br />

provided in the main text. I think it was A.R. Orage who advised writers for his<br />

periodical, The New Age, to read their work out loud before submitting it. If it<br />


scottish literature, an introduction<br />

doesn’t work read aloud, it shouldn’t be printed. Good advice.<br />

Marshall Walker, in his book <strong>Scottish</strong> <strong>Literature</strong> since 1707 (1996), confessed a<br />

‘partiality for a view of literary works as incontrovertibly human products’ created<br />

‘<strong>by</strong> real people with visions to impart according to more or less ascertainable<br />

aesthetic devices. Such works come from authors, not merely from other texts,<br />

but all texts are related in some way to a Zeitgeist.’ I agree with him.<br />

Angus Calder, in his book Russia Discovered (1976), wrote of the authors<br />

of that country words that apply just as well to those of Scotland: ‘These great<br />

writers have so much to teach us about the use of time, the search for the full<br />

potential of every second, and the obligatory rage against whatever denies that<br />

to us. And no other reading, surely, is less a waste of time.’<br />

My book is primarily concerned with such writers and makers of literature<br />

whose quality Calder describes but it is also ‘a view of literary works’ as Walker<br />

puts it, and therefore one among many acts increasing the possibility and extent<br />

of awareness of Scotland’s culture. A.P. Cohen, in an essay which ultimately<br />

addresses the relation between human awareness and ecology, ‘Oil and the<br />

Cultural Account: Reflections on a Shetland Community’, <strong>Scottish</strong> Journal of<br />

Sociology, 3 (1978), notes as follows: ‘Once one has become conscious of culture,<br />

it must be perceived and handled in a different way than previously.’<br />

Here’s hoping.<br />

<strong>Alan</strong> <strong>Riach</strong>, Alloway<br />

April 2022<br />


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What do we mean <strong>by</strong> ‘<strong>Scottish</strong> literature’?<br />

Why does it matter?<br />

How do we engage with it?<br />

Bringing infectious enthusiasm and a lifetime’s<br />

experience to bear on this multi-faceted literary<br />

nation, <strong>Alan</strong> <strong>Riach</strong>, Professor of <strong>Scottish</strong> <strong>Literature</strong><br />

at the University of Glasgow, sets out to guide you<br />

through the varied and ever-evolving landscape of<br />

<strong>Scottish</strong> literature.<br />

A comprehensive and extensive work designed not<br />

only for scholars but also for the generally curious,<br />

<strong>Scottish</strong> <strong>Literature</strong>: an introduction tells the tale of<br />

Scotland’s many voices across the ages, from Celtic<br />

pre-history to modern mass media. Forsaking critical<br />

jargon, <strong>Riach</strong> journeys chronologically through<br />

individual works and writers, both the famed and<br />

the forgotten, alongside broad overviews of cultural<br />

contexts which connect texts to their own times.<br />

Expanding the restrictive canon of days gone <strong>by</strong>,<br />

<strong>Riach</strong> also sets down a new core body of ‘<strong>Scottish</strong><br />

<strong>Literature</strong>’: key writers and works in English, Scots,<br />

and Gaelic.<br />

alan riach<br />

Few have such a vigorous<br />

and persuasive vision of<br />

what <strong>Scottish</strong> literature<br />

has been about…<br />


SUPPLEMENT on Arts of<br />

Resistance<br />

Not only educates but also<br />

fascinates readers.<br />


Arts and the Nation<br />

Ranging across time and genre, <strong>Scottish</strong> <strong>Literature</strong>:<br />

an introduction invites you to hear Scotland through<br />

her own words.<br />

Luath Press Ltd.<br />

543/2 Castlehill<br />

The Royal Mile<br />

Edinburgh eh1 2nd<br />

uk £25.00<br />

us $45.00<br />

www.luath.co.uk<br />




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