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Senior Design Expo 2022

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The Fu Foundation School of Engineering and<br />

Applied Science Presents the Ninth Annual<br />

Thursday, May 5 th | 12pm-3pm<br />

Roone Arledge Auditorium<br />

Columbia University


Table of Contents<br />

Applied Physics & Applied Mathematics<br />

Laser-Induced Crystallization of Multilayer Amorphous Si Thin Films (p.5)<br />

Laser Synthesis and Processing of Silicon Carbide (p.5)<br />

Characterizing nano-ceria particles by Pair Distribution Function analysis (pg. 6)<br />

Thermoreflectance based thermal microscope (p.6)<br />

Indigo as an ecofriendly electrode material in lithium-ion batteries with graphene oxide coated<br />

separator (p.7)<br />

NeuroNotice (p. 8)<br />

Biomedical Engineering<br />

deSTIgma: A Digital STI Test Recommendation Platform (p. 8)<br />

budDLS: Buddy for Daily Living Skills (p .9)<br />

LUMA (p.9)<br />

CAUTIcare (p .10)<br />

JawLign (p. 10)<br />

SleepSense (p. 11)<br />

CERV (p.11)<br />

Stabilitek (p.12)


The Inferno Arch Bridge (p. 13)<br />

Civil Engineering & Engineering Mechanics<br />

Governors Island Center for Climate Solutions (p. 14)<br />

The Lodge at Gore Mountain: Skiing Reimagined (p. 15)<br />

Lion’s Den Fitness and Wellness Center (p. 16)<br />

Earth & Environmental Engineering<br />

Feasibility of PFAS Destruction Through Catalytic Incineration (p. 17)<br />

Moss Could Save the Subway (p. 17)<br />

Hydrogen in the Transportation Sector: A Feasibility Study of Long-Haul, Hydrogen Fuel Cell<br />

Freight Trucks in the US & Southern California (p. 18)<br />

Electrical Engineering<br />

Obstacle Avoidance and Autonomous Landing Systems (p. 19)<br />

A Programmable Switched-Capacitor Analog Equalizer for Audio Signals (p. 20-21)<br />

Resilient Raspberry PI Power Backup (p. 22)<br />

Smart Pet Door System (p. 23)<br />

Digital Tug of War Game: Using Electromagnetic Resistance to Replicate Human Force (p. 24)<br />

Wired-to-Wireless Converter (p. 25-27)<br />

EMG Wrist-Set (p. 28-29)<br />

Wizard’s Chess (p. 30)


Mechanical Engineering<br />

Super Cool Underwater Frequency Emitter (p. 31)<br />

Rocket Payload Bay (p. 31)<br />

Chicken Friend (p. 32)<br />

Beach Cleaner Pro (p. 32)<br />

Adjustable Shelving (p. 33)<br />

KnitFix (p. 33)<br />

RollControl (p. 34)<br />

HydroHand (p. 34)<br />

CuttingBoard+ (p. 35)<br />

Calypso (p. 35)<br />

Equi-Table (p. 36)<br />

Speed-Star (p. 36)<br />

Boat Bath & Beyond (p. 37)<br />

TruckStop (p. 37)<br />

Small Oil-Spill Cleaner (p. 38)


Applied Physics & Applied Mathematics<br />

Laser-Induced Crystallization of Multilayer Amorphous Si Thin Films<br />

Jonathan Katz<br />

Laser recrystallization of amorphous silicon shows promise as an alternative pathway of GAA-<br />

FET manufacture, but further questions need to be answered to fully assess the viability of the<br />

approach. It appears that recrystallization of the silicon layers within a multilayer substrate is<br />

possible and could be consistently achieved with greater control of conditions and parameters. This<br />

process would further the development of transparent or in-situ display transistors, as well as<br />

providing an alternative pathway for GAA-FET manufacture within a laboratory environment.<br />

Laser Synthesis and Processing of Silicon Carbide<br />

Alexander Killips<br />

Advisor: James S. Im<br />

Laser induced synthesis and processing of silicon carbide (SiC) was studied by irradiating a thin<br />

carbon layer on top of silicon, as well as amorphous SiC (a-SiC). The carbon coated silicon was<br />

prepared by evaporating carbon threads onto amorphous Si. The amorphous SiC was procured by<br />

sputtering SiC onto a glass substrate. Each sample was then laser irradiated and studied via Optical<br />

and Raman spectroscopy. The carbon layer was delaminated when irradiated by the laser.<br />

Therefore, we were unable to synthesize SiC from the starting material. When the a-SiC was<br />

irradiated with the laser, above a threshold energy density, a color change and Raman spectral shift<br />

was observed. We suggest that the SiC underwent some crystallization to a nano-crystalline<br />

microstructure, based on what the observations indicate. Further research is required to<br />

demonstrate the feasibility of laser annealing of SiC for device use.<br />

Keywords: Silicon Carbide, Laser Irradiation<br />

5


Applied Physics & Applied Mathematics<br />

Characterizing nano-ceria particles by Pair Distribution Function analysis<br />

Haolan Sun<br />

Advisor: Prof. Siu-Wai Chan<br />

Cerium oxide, also known as ceria, has attracted serious consideration due to its utility in industrial<br />

and technical applications. In catalytic systems, ceria is used as an oxygen storage element in<br />

automotive converters. Over the years, it has become an essential component of three-way<br />

catalysts for the conversion of exhaust emissions in automobiles. In addition, cerium oxide has<br />

some specific chemical defects, including oxygen vacancies. Due to these vacancies, the material<br />

has a high oxygen ion conductivity, which is an important factor affecting the performance of solid<br />

oxide fuel cells. Doping of the ceria with different elements can vary the structural, electrical, and<br />

optical characteristics of nano-ceria particles. In this research, ceria was doped with different<br />

concentrations of Copper (Cu). The characterization technique used for the analysis of Cu doped<br />

ceria nanoparticles was the pair distribution function (PDF). PDF, which is obtained from Sine<br />

Fourier transformation of powder diffraction data, is the density function of atomic pair distance.<br />

Our samples were prepared by the co-precipitation method. The fitting algorithm is generally the<br />

Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. We are fitting the data with the perfect crystal in 20Å and 50Å.<br />

The PDF analysis on our samples shows that the particle size of our nano-ceria decreases as we<br />

increase the doping concentration of Copper. Interestingly, the lattice parameters decrease from<br />

0% concentration of copper to 1% concentrations of copper, and then increase monotonically. We<br />

can observe that the data fits very well with the difference between the observed PDF and the<br />

calculated PDF. Rw is a metric to describe how two PDF curves on the same r-grid are alike. In<br />

our fitting, Rw are 0.11 and 0.13 which are relatively small showing the goodness of fit. As the<br />

doping concentration increases, the fitting gets worse and worse. The relationships between the<br />

particle size, lattice parameters, and doping the concentration of Copper came out very well as we<br />

expected.<br />

Keywords: Nano-particles, Ceria, Cu-doped ceria, Pair distribution function<br />

Thermoreflectance based thermal microscope<br />

Shiyi Yuan, Yuxin Wang, Zicong Huang<br />

Advisor: Ioannis (John) Kymissis<br />

Thermoreflectance based thermal imaging is a technique to map the temperature distribution of<br />

small devices in a micro scale. This thermography technique, which is based on measuring the<br />

relative change in reflectivity of the device surface as a function of change in temperature, provides<br />

high-resolution thermal images that are useful for hot spot detection and failure analysis, mapping<br />

of temperature distribution, measurement of thermal transient, optical characterization of photonic<br />

devices and measurement of thermal conductivity in thin films. We used a 12-bit CCD camera to<br />

detect the changes in reflectivity from 333K to 393K of a gold sample. MATLAB is used in the<br />

process of calibration to produce the coefficient. It also contributes to overcome misalignment and<br />

use masks to separate areas of pictures. We got a thermoreflectance coefficient at the scale of 10 -<br />

4<br />

for gold.<br />

Keywords: Thermal Imaging, Heat profile, Gold, Electronic<br />

6


Applied Physics & Applied Mathematics<br />

Indigo as an ecofriendly electrode material in lithium-ion batteries with graphene oxide<br />

coated separator<br />

Ruiwen Zhang<br />

Principal investigator: Prof. Yuan Yang<br />

As Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) become more and more attractive as energy storage<br />

devices, they also raise many environmental concerns. The currently popular active materials in<br />

batteries’ cathodes involve elements like cobalt which are both toxic and expensive. In this way,<br />

the batteries are not only costly to be manufactured, but also harmful to the environment. Indigo<br />

carmine can be a solution to such problems. Indigo carmine, also called indigo, is an organic dye<br />

that can be obtained from plants and used for coloring objects like clothes. Indigo is a powerful<br />

candidate for the organic cathode material in lithium-ion batteries because it is cheap and eco<br />

friendly.<br />

One challenge of using indigo in batteries is that the reduced indigo ions dissolve in the<br />

liquid electrolyte. As the indigo ions diffuse in the electrolyte and are reduced and oxidized at<br />

different electrodes, energy is consumed. This internal consumption of energy can cause the<br />

coulombic efficiency of the batteries to be lower than 80% for the first 10 charging and discharging<br />

cycles. The discharging specific capacity would also drop to 15.5 mAh/g after 100 cycles, which<br />

is only 23.4% of the initial value. To solve this issue, a graphene oxide coated separator is used<br />

when building the cell. The negatively charged graphene oxide can produce an electric field to<br />

prevent the indigo ions from diffusing. The coating of graphene oxide nanosheets onto a polymer<br />

separator is done by vacuum filtration. The batteries with indigo as the active material and the<br />

graphene oxide coated separator show excellent performance. The coulombic efficiency is<br />

typically above 97%, and the discharging specific capacity after 100 cycles increases to 69.4<br />

mAh/g. Therefore, the graphene oxide coated separator allows the performance of batteries with<br />

indigo as the active material to be greatly improved. With this method, indigo, a cheap and eco<br />

friendly material, becomes more applicable in energy storage devices.<br />

Keywords: organic cathode material, indigo dye, graphene oxide, batteries, sustainable.<br />

7


Biomedical Engineering<br />

NeuroNotice<br />

Golda Daphna, Luis Muncharaz Duran, Kalsoum Mbacke,<br />

Rhea Sablani, Elaine Tan<br />

Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is a common consequence of diabetes marked by damage to peripheral<br />

nerves. PN usually originates in the extremities (hands and feet,) and if left undiagnosed can lead<br />

to infections, amputation, and life-threatening illness. Current diagnostic procedures include<br />

electromyograms and nerve conduction studies. However, the high cost, inconvenience, and<br />

invasiveness associated with these procedures may deter at-risk patients from regularly getting<br />

checked for PN. We propose NeuroNotice, an affordable, at-home, and user-friendly solution that<br />

allows patients to monitor symptoms of PN. NeuroNotice is a size-adjustable device that randomly<br />

stimulates, via vibration, regions of the foot. Users respond based on whether they detect the<br />

stimulation, indicating potential loss of sensation that would occur with PN. Acquired data will be<br />

presented in a simple graphical interface. Initial prototype testing demonstrates that NeuroNotice<br />

can successfully determine a difference between healthy and simulated symptomatic feet, thereby<br />

allowing for frequent tracking of PN and supporting physicians’ continuous monitoring of<br />

neuropathy.<br />

deSTIgma: A Digital STI Test Recommendation Platform<br />

Susanna Baek, Katharyn Fatehi, Andy Garcia, Vivian Shi, Ruxandra Tonea<br />

Despite the many medical advances of the last decade, sexually transmitted infections and diseases<br />

(STIs) continue to pose a significant public health issue, with cases increasing continuously for 7<br />

years up to 2020. STI testing, which typically requires an in-person clinic visit, can be inaccessible<br />

due to time, travel, and financial limitations. Due to a lack of education and awareness, STIs are<br />

also highly stigmatized. The deSTIgma STI Test Recommendation Digital Platform streamlines<br />

the STI test-seeking process with a test recommendation questionnaire, clinic map, and educational<br />

resources in an app and website. The questionnaire uses relevant medical history, sexual activity<br />

history, and symptoms to inform and guide users to appropriate tests and resources in NYC. The<br />

machine-learning-based algorithm, stored on a HIPAA approved platform, may be trained with<br />

real patient data, pending IRB approval. deSTIgma aims to make STI testing an easily accessible<br />

component of regular healthcare for all.<br />

8


Biomedical Engineering<br />

budDLS: Buddy for Daily Living Skills<br />

Kaitlin Abrantes, Amy Jang, Hyunjee Lim, Kelly Pu, Joa Yun<br />

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability affecting 1 in 44 children in the<br />

U.S. Although symptoms vary, ~90% of children with autism struggle to learn daily living skills<br />

(DLS) like hand washing and toileting due to difficulties with task sequencing, transferring skills<br />

from school to home, and initiating independently. In particular, atypical sensory behavior can<br />

result in excessive playing or avoidance of household liquids. The burden is on caregivers to<br />

supervise or use hand-over-hand assistance to ensure successful and safe completion of DLS.<br />

Children with ASD and their caregivers need a solution that enhances independence during<br />

household tasks requiring the use of hygienic liquids. The budDLS dispenser provides a<br />

multimodal solution: (1) a dispenser that locks to prevent excess pumping, (2) combination-locked<br />

liquid reservoir to prevent pouring liquids out of a bottle, and (3) built-in screen that displays stepby-step<br />

instructions and responds to user interactions to teach DLS.<br />

LUMA<br />

Jui Buamahakul, Leanne Pichay, Justin Saintil,<br />

Pavin Sethbhakdi, Joanne W. Wang<br />

A root canal procedure is a mechanical and chemical intervention that treats dental pulp infections.<br />

It relies on chemical irrigants such as sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) to sterilize the canal after the<br />

removal of infected material. However, NaOCl’s cytotoxicity prevents dentists from irrigating<br />

within 2-4 mm of the tooth’s apex, where the majority of bacteria resides, leading to a 35%<br />

reinfection and retreatment rate. To address these shortcomings, our Luma device leverages<br />

photodynamic therapy, using the combination of a photosensitizer with a high-powered laser to<br />

eradicate bacteria. The Luma device seamlessly integrates into the root canal protocol, clamping<br />

onto the dental dam isolating the tooth. Here, it irradiates the root canal over a period of minutes,<br />

effectively disinfecting the tooth without adverse effects to surrounding tissue. Initial testing<br />

indicates that Luma is capable of reaching the energy density required to eliminate more than 97%<br />

of most reinfection-causing dental bacteria.<br />

9


Biomedical Engineering<br />

CAUTIcare<br />

Ozgenur Celik, Michaela O’Donnell, Neil Kennedy,<br />

Prithi Chakrapani, Emma Glajchen<br />

The most common and severe complication of indwelling catheterization is the inoculation of<br />

bacteria into the body, leading to catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs). Patients<br />

are not regularly tested for CAUTIs due to time and resource restrictions. Undetected CAUTIs<br />

cause further kidney and bladder infections and lead to increased length of hospitalization, excess<br />

healthcare costs, and increased mortality: The estimated cost per year for CAUTIs in the United<br />

States is $340 – $450 million. CAUTIcare proposes a way to provide automated screening to detect<br />

CAUTIs earlier in the infection progression. Our system uses a bimodal approach for the rapid<br />

detection of infections. First, we measure urine cloudiness (turbidity),, which is an early clinical<br />

indicator of infection. Turbid urine is then directed to a testing chamber, where a secondary,<br />

analyte-based test is performed to confirm infection. Turbidity detection triggers alarms to notify<br />

healthcare providers that a possible infection is present, drawing attention to the results of the<br />

dipstick test and requiring further medical care if needed.<br />

JawLign<br />

Joshua Fuller, Isabella Leite, Joseph Borison, Yeji Cho, Miranda Wang<br />

Up to 5% of the United States population has facial deformities such as temporomandibular joint<br />

disorders and cleft palates, which require orthognathic surgery to correct. Orthognathic surgery<br />

can have a relapse rate of 10% - 40%, in which the jaw moves back into the pre-surgical position.<br />

Relapse often occurs after patients have stopped coming in for frequent checkups, but can be<br />

remedied through orthodontics if identified early. Therefore, there is a need for patients to monitor<br />

their relative jaw position post-surgery without coming into the physician’s office. JawLign aims<br />

to create a platform to allow patients to track their jaw position at home, allowing for early<br />

detection of relapse. The JawLign platform uses dental impressions which can be analyzed in an<br />

app to track relative jaw position over time. Initial tests have demonstrated that wax molds can<br />

accurately measure jaw displacement, underlying their ability to be used in our device.<br />

10


Biomedical Engineering<br />

SleepSense<br />

Keni Chen, Eileen Choi, Olimpia Gavaudan, Michelle Kim, Michael White<br />

Excessive Daytime Sleepiness (EDS) is characterized by falling asleep in an uncontrollable<br />

fashion, and is a major cause for accidents in high-risk situations. A reported 16.5% of fatal car<br />

crashes are attributed to people falling asleep. Uncontrollable sleepiness can often lead to<br />

unpredictable incidents, such as falling down while walking. However, current sleep pattern<br />

monitors focus primarily on recording and predict behaviors during nighttime. Safety devices<br />

related to EDS are only applicable to limited activities. SleepSense addresses the ambulatory need<br />

to track fatigue and uncontrolled sleeping throughout the day and alerts when sleepiness is<br />

detected. From our prototype testing, SleepSense was able to identify potential bouts of daytime<br />

sleepiness through changes in heart rate variability (HRV) and detection of stereotypical<br />

movements when falling asleep. As a lightweight, wearable, our device will allow for ambulatory<br />

monitoring and alerting of unregulated sleep, helping users combat falling asleep during critical<br />

activities<br />

CERV<br />

Hannah Ballard, Aala Nasir, Kiarra Lavache, Joyce Liu, Emme Pogue<br />

In the United States, 12% of children are born preterm, a leading contributor to infant mortality.<br />

During pregnancy, the cervix remodels to prepare for vaginal delivery by softening and shortening.<br />

Although cervical length is the clinical standard for diagnosing cervical insufficiency, research has<br />

shown premature cervical softening to be a more consistent indicator. We propose a biomechanical<br />

device to measure cervical stiffness, allowing patients the ability to monitor their risk of preterm<br />

birth more confidently and affordably. Our speculum-free device entails small-scale cervical<br />

compression to determine tissue stiffness. Proof of concept testing for circumferential compression<br />

of cervix phantoms has produced promising results for statistically distinguishing between<br />

different stiffnesses. We are confident that the successes of our proof of concept will translate<br />

directly into our final design and support risk detection of preterm labor.<br />

11


Biomedical Engineering<br />

Stabilitek<br />

Erik Emsbo, Shivanni Ramdass, Adi Shastry, Elizabeth Thomas, Micah Woodard<br />

Falls are the leading cause of injury death for the geriatric population, resulting in 3,000,000 older<br />

adults being hospitalized each year. With only 37% of physicians assessing fall risk and standard<br />

assessments being time-intensive, there is a lack of evaluation for severity over time. This limits<br />

understanding of patient stability, progression of neuromuscular diseases and cognitive decline,<br />

and effects of medication changes, all of which can put patients at an increased risk for falls and<br />

hospitalization. Stabilitek aims to address this limitation by measuring a person's fall risk at home<br />

over an extended period of time through the use of motion sensing insoles. By integrating force<br />

sensors and an inertial motion unit, Stabilitek provides an innovative wearable that can be<br />

integrated into the patient’s daily life. The detection device records data in a format that is able to<br />

be easily interpreted by users and physicians in order to quantify how fall risk is changing over<br />

time.<br />

12


Civil Engineering & Engineering Mechanics<br />

The Inferno Arch Bridge<br />

Joelle Sherlock, Julian Briggs, Haya Ghandour, Luke Ciarelli, Devin Hart<br />

Advisor: Tom Panayotidi<br />

Within the context of New York City, over 6.6 million people are underserved by the<br />

existing transit structure due to living in boroughs other than Manhattan. Having safe, efficient,<br />

and reliable public transportation is proven to have numerous benefits on the mental and physical<br />

wellbeing of commuters, increasing their access to resources—such as healthcare centers and<br />

educational facilities—and opportunities. Thus, in assessing this pressing need for more<br />

comprehensive and accessible public transport in New York City, fast and reliable connections<br />

between the Bronx, Queens, and Brooklyn are a priority. The proposed design is that of a threetrack,<br />

network arch bridge between Queens and Ward and Randall’s Island northeast of the<br />

existing Hellgate Bridge in order to facilitate the construction of subway lines that would connect<br />

Astoria, Queens to the South Bronx and present an opportunity for the creation of an inter-borough<br />

line that connects Brooklyn, Queens, and the Bronx without relying on Manhattan transfers.<br />

Hence, the Inferno Arch bridge will provide the needed infrastructure to proceed with the proposed<br />

subway line construction project that aims to benefit underserved communities.<br />

The Inferno Arch Bridge was designed to carry three additional railroad tracks in parallel<br />

to the existing tracks on the Hellgate Bridge. Seeing as the design is for a railroad bridge, a network<br />

arch bridge was chosen for this project due to the increased torsional and lateral stiffness provided<br />

by the structure in comparison to something like a cable-stay or suspension bridge. The structure<br />

spans the width of the Hellgate strait from Astoria, Queens to Randall’s Island with a span length<br />

of 1000 ft. Following AASHTO guidelines in determining the necessary clearances between<br />

tracks, the three-track bridge will have a width of 72 ft. The bridge will be placed on land using<br />

delta frames, adjusting for the height difference between the two sides with a concrete cap on the<br />

Astoria end.<br />

Therefore, the construction of the Inferno Arch Bridge will have a myriad of benefits both<br />

on the human and environmental levels. Shifting the focus to a safe, efficient, and reliable railroad<br />

promotes more eco-conscious decisions while also prioritizing the needs of the local communities<br />

that the bridge connects. The Inferno Arch Bridge will play an integral role in the historic creation<br />

of subway lines connecting the boroughs of Queens, Brooklyn, and the Bronx.<br />

13


Civil Engineering & Engineering Mechanics<br />

Governors Island Center for Climate Solutions<br />

Christine Roa, Selena Tan, Chana Tropp, Elisha Zhao<br />

Advisor: Tom Panayotidi<br />

In September 2020, then-Mayor Bill de Blasio announced plans to develop a Center for Climate<br />

Solutions on Governors Island to place New York City at the forefront of the race to combat<br />

climate change. The center would house labs, classrooms, a convention center, and other facilities<br />

to conduct research, develop sustainability solutions, and engage the visiting public with<br />

pioneering findings. Our Columbia Climate School Research Center is our response to the City of<br />

New York and the Trust for Governors Island’s allocation of $150 million to a global competition<br />

to design, build, operate, and maintain an imperative facility. Our building will be situated on the<br />

Island’s Western Development Zone, a prime location with views of the New York Harbor and<br />

the Statue of Liberty and immediate ferry access to Manhattan and Brooklyn. As part of our efforts<br />

to make our building as environmentally conscious as possible, our design includes a cumulative<br />

footprint of 25,600 square feet of tiered rooftop gardens and green decks to mitigate stormwater<br />

runoff and reduce the heat island effect. This, along with a water harvesting and reuse system, onsite<br />

solar production, optimization of energy performance via demand response and energy<br />

metering, and life-cycle impact analyses of construction materials, have allowed us to certify our<br />

building with LEED Gold. We also emphasized flood mitigation in our design, due to the<br />

building’s location directly on the shore of the Upper New York Bay. Sitting atop an artificial hill<br />

constructed with imported soil, the facility will be raised to a design flood elevation of 14 feet over<br />

the 100-year floodplain, with sloped landscaping buffered by seawalls to provide a dual use of<br />

public recreational space.<br />

The structure is three stories tall with a 33,200 square footprint, rendering it flat and wide to<br />

minimize the stress on the low quality soil in Governors Island. It contains a steel frame with<br />

diagonal bracing to protect the building from seismic, wind, rain, and snow loads. Supporting the<br />

loads beneath the structure is a 100-feet-deep end-bearing pile foundation consisting of 136 steel<br />

pipe piles. The exterior walls are made from high performance Low-E glass to offer the facility’s<br />

occupants abundant sunlight and views of the surrounding greenery in addition to improving the<br />

building’s energy efficiency. Given the facility’s maximum occupancy rate of approximately 300<br />

people at any given time, we incorporated a large auditorium in our building to host conferences<br />

and gatherings. We also included glass interior walls, modern offices and classrooms, and outside<br />

workspaces on the green decks, giving occupants convenient access to greenery. The structure was<br />

conceptualized in AutoCAD and then designed and analyzed in SAP2000. Scheduling was<br />

determined using a work breakdown structure, critical path network diagram, and Gantt Chart.<br />

Construction is expected to commence in 2023. Keywords: Governors Island, research facility,<br />

green roof, LEED, flood mitigation, end-bearing deep foundations, water reuse system,<br />

concentrically braced frame, high-performance glass, hill<br />

14


Civil Engineering & Engineering Mechanics<br />

The Lodge at Gore Mountain: Skiing Reimagined<br />

Maria Talero (Team Captain), Ricardo Aguilar, Daniel (Tak) Sohn, Andrew Zhang<br />

Advisor: Tom Panayotidi<br />

Our group proposes the redevelopment of the Gore Mountain base village in North Creek,<br />

New York. Gore Mountain ski resort is owned by New York State and operated by the Olympic<br />

Regional Development Authority. As the demand of new purpose-built ski resorts rises, this alpine<br />

resort in the Adirondack Mountains is redesigned to not only meet the future needs of skiers but<br />

also to support year-round operations. Our ski resort consists of upscale overnight<br />

accommodations for an unparalleled experience alongside daily regular ski operations, including<br />

ski rentals, a diner-style café, and gathering areas for taking a break from the slopes. The new ski<br />

resort will be roughly 225,000 square feet and contains state-of-the-art amenities, such as a spa,<br />

infrared sauna, remote work spaces, and yoga studios.<br />

Our proposal was developed considering the following fundamental aspects of civil<br />

engineering: Structural Engineering, Geotechnical Engineering, Environmental Engineering, and<br />

Construction Management. The structural components adhere to the applicable building codes and<br />

design requirements outlined in ASCE/SEI 7-16 and the Building Code of New York State. In<br />

addition, various loading configurations were considered to provide a resilient design to meet<br />

service life needs. The geotechnical slab foundation was designed based on an analysis of the<br />

strength of the area’s existing bedrock and soil components. The ski resort is compliant with a<br />

LEED Gold Certification and contains a rainwater harvesting system. Lastly, the construction of<br />

the resort used a <strong>Design</strong>-Build delivery method and leveraged the use of technological advances,<br />

such as a Building Information Modeling (BIM) execution plan, 4D construction scheduling, and<br />

virtual reality (VR).<br />

Keywords: Building Information Modeling (BIM), Virtual Reality (VR), LEED Certification, Ski<br />

Resort, Steel Structure, Slab Foundation, Infrastructure, New York State, Structural <strong>Design</strong>,<br />

Geotechnical <strong>Design</strong>, Construction Management, 4D Modeling, <strong>Design</strong>-Build<br />

15


Civil Engineering & Engineering Mechanics<br />

Lion’s Den Fitness and Wellness Center<br />

Noufel Benteftifa, Spencer Good, Alison Selman, Rachel Wolf, Maen Yusuf<br />

Advisor: Tom Panayotidi<br />

New York City is recovering from the global pandemic, and people are moving back to New York<br />

with a renewed dedication to maintaining their personal health. Wellness is coming to the forefront<br />

of people’s priority lists, and fitness classes and gym memberships are recovering after fitness was<br />

moved online. In an effort to capitalize on the health craze, we propose constructing a high-end<br />

fitness and wellness center on the west side of Manhattan. In the heart of Hell’s Kitchen at 354 W<br />

52nd St, there is currently an available lot of .35 acres. The plot has a frontage on 51st and 52nd<br />

street, and the proposed gym will be a 4 story building with a rock wall extending to the roof.<br />

There will be a basement with a pool, as well as a green roof with a small garden, and a soccer<br />

field.<br />

The objective of this project is to develop a profitable fitness center, while also considering<br />

sustainability in construction and operations. The main structure dimensions are 75 ft by 102 ft<br />

and the height above ground will be 56 ft and 13 ft extending below ground. This totals 527,850<br />

square feet of gym space. A main feature of the gym is the 4-story rock wall, which will be one of<br />

the tallest rock walls in New York City. The basement houses a pool and mineral baths, while the<br />

first floor houses a smoothie bar and cafe area, as well as a beautiful lobby check-in space. The<br />

second floor will be the locker rooms, and the third floor will contain the cardio machines, weight<br />

area, and gym equipment. The fourth floor will house the studios that will be used for spinning,<br />

yoga, dance, and pilates classes. The main floor will have a walkway extending from the 51st street<br />

frontage and the walkway will be a 99 ft glass archway that is 20 feet in diameter with greenery<br />

and seating for the smoothie bar.<br />

The structural design was executed using the software SAP2000 for the structural component. The<br />

structure consists of steel framing and bracing with concrete slabs. The geotechnical component<br />

was completed using hand calculations. For the environmental component, LEED standards will<br />

be met. A component of this is the green roof that was designed to capture rainwater as well as<br />

vertical hydroponic greenery that is placed throughout the building. Construction Management<br />

components of the schedule, cost estimate, and delivery method were completed and detailed in<br />

the report. A physical model of the building was constructed using a scale of 1:25, with the main<br />

building dimensions being approximately 3’x4’x3’.<br />

Keywords: structure, steel frame, concrete, combined footing, LEED, green roof<br />

16


Earth & Environmental Engineering<br />

Feasibility of PFAS Destruction Through Catalytic Incineration<br />

Isabela Yepes, Brooke Bakish, Charmane Gabriel, Griffin Deans<br />

Per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) are a group of man-made chemicals that<br />

contain a fluorinated carbon backbone which makes them exceptionally resistant to degradation,<br />

resulting in their widespread use in water, heat, and stick-resistant consumer products. Despite<br />

the fact that they present a direct risk to human health and ecosystems, these chemicals continue<br />

to be manufactured and accumulate in the environment. Thermal destruction at temperatures above<br />

900 o C is currently the only commercially viable method to destroy PFAS at scale. Unfortunately,<br />

such higher temperatures result in higher energy consumption, costs, and greenhouse gas<br />

emissions. Drawing from research on the use of calcium compounds to catalyze PFAS destruction,<br />

we propose the use of a catalytic oxidizer with a calcium oxide bed and 500-700 o C operating<br />

temperature to destroy fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) volatilized from an industrial fabric<br />

coating process. This design is compared to a conventional, non catalytic thermal oxidizer with a<br />

750-1000 o C operating temperature using a simplified life cycle matrix analysis (SLCA). Results<br />

show that the use of calcium oxide would lead to reductions in energy consumption and produce<br />

a less hazardous final fluorine residual (calcium fluoride as opposed to hydrogen fluoride). As for<br />

costs, the catalytic system requires greater capital investment than the non catalytic system,<br />

indicating that further research is required to lower calcium oxide catalytic oxidizer system costs.<br />

Finally, more research is needed to determine the effectiveness of calcium compound-catalyzed<br />

thermal destruction for a greater diversity of PFAS and characterize the effects of co-contaminants<br />

and operating parameters. This would enable the design of systems for catalytically treating PFAS<br />

volatilized from contaminated soils and other media.<br />

Moss Could Save the Subway<br />

Abigail Cawley, Justin Paik, Melissa Emerson, Zico Gharrafi, Perfect Eadric<br />

As one of the world’s most frequented subway systems, the air quality in the NYC subway stations<br />

is of utmost importance. High levels of particulate matter in the stations may put the health of<br />

riders and MTA employees at risk. In most stations, filtration is reliant on the mechanical air<br />

circulation caused by the movement of the trains; however, researchers and anecdotal evidence<br />

suggest that ambient circulation might not be enough. In this project, we explore the viability of<br />

moss, a nature-based solution as a more environmentally friendly filtration method in the subway<br />

system. Within the Union Square subway station, we first conducted air quality testing for heavy<br />

metals in the air at various sample locations. Analyzing this data showed that heavy metals were<br />

not the PM category of most concern, so we requested additional testing in the future for the<br />

PM2.5 category. We followed these results with comparative designs of moss filtration and<br />

conventional filtration where we looked at required materials and filtration rates of PM2.5 in the<br />

station air. Our findings suggest that moss is a potentially suitable filtration method in terms of<br />

filtering ability and cost; however, limited literature on the efficacy requires additional lab testing.<br />

Therefore, our report also outlines lab modeling and proposes simulation designs to test the<br />

efficacy of moss in the future.<br />

17


Earth & Environmental Engineering<br />

Hydrogen in the Transportation Sector: A Feasibility Study of Long-Haul, Hydrogen Fuel<br />

Cell Freight Trucks in the US & Southern California<br />

Peter Cruz-Grace, Madison Ingling, Joshua Solomon, Alexandria Urbina<br />

As the world progresses towards its decarbonization goals, the transportation industry is a key<br />

sector in need of zero-emissions technologies. The trucking sector, because of the higher power<br />

vehicles and demand for faster fueling, requires additional technologies than traditional battery<br />

vehicles. Hydrogen fuel cell trucks are a developing technology to meet industry demand. This<br />

study investigates the underlying technology for hydrogen fuel cells, analyzes the potential market,<br />

and considers the California market as a case study to investigate hydrogen fuel cell integration<br />

into the trucking industry.<br />

18


Electrical Engineering<br />

Obstacle Avoidance and Autonomous<br />

Landing Systems<br />

Michael McGrath, Zhenguo Sun, Muhammad<br />

Faseeh Farrukh<br />

Professor David Vallancourt, Department of Electrical<br />

Engineering, Columbia University<br />

Introduction<br />

Drones are currently being used in many<br />

applications, including delivery services,<br />

emergency rescue, agriculture, and military<br />

applications to name a few. Drone<br />

technology has evolved from the simple<br />

remote-control drone to models<br />

incorporating more complex autonomous<br />

designs. For this project we explored<br />

different autonomous systems, such as<br />

object avoidance and autonomous landing.<br />

Drone<br />

Our first task was to construct the drone. We<br />

assembled the motors, propellers, remote<br />

controller, the remote controller receiver,<br />

compass, frame, electronic speed controllers<br />

(ESCs), battery, and flight controller (FC).<br />

The battery powers all of the drone’s<br />

components. In most drones, when the user<br />

moves the joystick of the remote controller,<br />

instructions are sent via radio waves to the<br />

remote controller receiver, which then sends<br />

these instructions to the FC. The FC’s<br />

software creates a new set of commands<br />

which are sent to each motor via the ESCs.<br />

In our implementation, we insert an Arduino<br />

micro-controller between the remote<br />

controller receiver and the FC.<br />

Obstacle Avoidance System<br />

The Arduino has object-avoidance software<br />

installed and six HC-SR04 ultrasonic<br />

distance sensors, which use ultrasonic waves<br />

to measure the distance between that sensor<br />

and the nearest obstacle (detects obstacles<br />

up to about half a meter away). As an input,<br />

the Arduino takes the outputs of all six<br />

sensors and the output of the remote control<br />

(RC) receiver, which outputs the instructions<br />

given by the RC controller (controlled by<br />

the user on the ground). Each sensor points<br />

in a specific direction of the drone (front,<br />

back, left, right, up, and down). These<br />

sensors output their results to the Arduino<br />

and the software decides if there is an<br />

obstacle at any side of the drone and then, if<br />

necessary, alters the instructions given by<br />

the user on the ground on how the drone<br />

should move. It then sends these altered<br />

instructions to the FC which controls the<br />

motors. If the user directs the drone too<br />

close to an obstacle, the Arduino will force<br />

it to move in the opposite direction to avoid<br />

contact. Our obstacle avoidance system is an<br />

alternative implementation of the idea<br />

presented by DIYLIFEHACKER. [1]<br />

Autonomous Landing System<br />

The autonomous landing system uses a<br />

camera, a landing zone (LZ), autonomous<br />

landing software and an altitude sensor. The<br />

camera is attached to the bottom face of the<br />

drone, aiming downward. The LZ can be<br />

constructed from any material, but must be<br />

one solid color, circular, and flat. The LZ<br />

must be placed on level ground and its color<br />

should be different than the ground on<br />

which it sits. The autonomous landing<br />

software is a program which uses an open<br />

source computer vision algorithm to identify<br />

any circles in images captured by the<br />

camera. [2] The program uses functions from<br />

the Image Processing OpenCV library. [3]<br />

When more than one circle appears in an<br />

image, the altitude sensor is used to<br />

determine which circle’s radius matches the<br />

landing zone.<br />

References<br />

[1] DIYLIFEHACKER. Obstacle Avoidance<br />

(part 1). (Jan. 18, 2020). Accessed: Apr. 14,<br />

2020. [Online Video].<br />

[2] HK Yuen, John Princen, John Illingworth,<br />

and Josef Kittler. Comparative study of hough<br />

transform methods for circle finding. Image and<br />

Vision Computing, 8(1):71–77, 1990.<br />

[3] Image Processing. (4.5.5). OpenCV.<br />

Accessed: Apr. 14, <strong>2022</strong>. [Online]. Available:<br />

https://docs.opencv.org/4.x/d7/dbd/group__imgp<br />

roc.html<br />

19


Electrical Engineering<br />

A Programmable Switched-Capacitor Analog Equalizer for Audio Signals<br />

Cade Gleekel (cdg2159), Ethan Roberts (edr2126)<br />

I. ABSTRACT<br />

This design aims to implement a programmable analog audio<br />

equalizer with a second order switched capacitor filter. There<br />

are several advantages to utilizing switched capacitor<br />

technology for analog filter design, including higher power<br />

efficiency, smaller size requirements, and frequency dependent<br />

transfer function parameters. Specifically, the filter transfer<br />

function is characterized by the equivalent impedance of the<br />

switched capacitors; when the switching frequency f s is much<br />

larger than the signal frequency f (a condition given by Equation<br />

1), the switched capacitor impedance appears approximately<br />

resistive, with an equivalent resistance given by Equation 2.<br />

f s >>2πf (1)<br />

When the condition given by (1) holds, one may utilize the<br />

switching frequency of the switched capacitors as a means of<br />

programming the analog filter.<br />

In light of this important relation, a programmable audio<br />

equalizer is proposed. A high level overview of the design can<br />

be seen in figure 1 1 . The design includes a first-order<br />

antialiasing filter that will suppress any high frequency<br />

components from contaminating the signal, a second-order<br />

equalizer that utilizes the switched capacitor technology<br />

aforementioned, and another low pass filter for the purpose of<br />

smoothing the signal before it is sent out to its next destination.<br />

The design provides amplification to a variable band of<br />

frequencies specified in the design of the EQF filter, while<br />

passing all other frequencies at unity gain. By utilizing switched<br />

capacitors in the design, this amplification, or ”boost” band can<br />

be shifted by changing the frequency at which the capacitors are<br />

switched. When the boost band is shifted, the bandwidth f b and<br />

quality factor Q of the filter stay fixed. Consequently, varying<br />

the switching frequency serves to shift the boost band without<br />

changing its shape, thus providing uniform function relative to<br />

every band within the programmable range.<br />

(2)<br />

There are several filter topologies to choose from when<br />

implementing an analog filter. For the sake of versatility, and<br />

its wide variety of implementations, the design of the EQF<br />

component of the system was implemented using a TowThomas<br />

configuration (general topology given in figure 2). Figure 3<br />

shows the specific topology used, where the two phi values are<br />

two non-overlapping clock signals (square waves) of the same<br />

frequency (physical implementation of this is shown in figure<br />

4). This form of the biquad utilizes switch sharing, and a<br />

property of switched capacitors that approximates a negative<br />

resistance, allowing for only two op amps to be used for an<br />

efficient design (eliminating the need for the inverter at the end<br />

of the more traditional configuration in figure 2) [1]. Capacitor<br />

values were calculated in order to produce an equalizer with a<br />

center frequency gain of 12 dB, a quality factor of .667, and a<br />

two-octave bandwidth symmetrical about the center frequency.<br />

With a default switching frequency of 10 kHz, the center<br />

frequency of the equalizer rests at 125 Hz, and increases with a<br />

linear proportionality to the switching frequency. All values<br />

were chosen to boost frequency bands characteristic of standard<br />

audio equalizers. In order to ensure a desirable output sound,<br />

the filter’s effect on audio signals was simulated and listened to<br />

in Matlab prior to design implementation.<br />

The design was simulated in LTSpice, realized on a<br />

breadboard, and implemented physically on a 4 layered printed<br />

circuit board (PCB). Figures 3, 4, and 5 give an overview of the<br />

simulation, and realization process of the design.<br />

II. REFERENCES<br />

[1] Schaumann, R., Xiao, H., amp; E., V. V. M. (2011).<br />

Analog filter design. Oxford University Press.<br />

[2] Dickson, T. (2021, November). Integrator-Based<br />

ActiveRC Second Order Filters. Columbia University.<br />

[3] Two-phase non-overlapping clock generator. (n.d.).<br />

Retrieved April 13, <strong>2022</strong>, from<br />

://tams.informatik.unihamburg.de/applets/hades/webdemos/12<br />

-gatedelay/40tpcg/two-phase-clock-gen print.html<br />

1<br />

All figures are displayed in their own section at the end of the paper.<br />

20


Electrical Engineering<br />

III. FIGURES<br />

Fig. 5. <strong>Design</strong> Simulation Schematic<br />

Fig. 3. Non-Overlapping Clock Signals [3]<br />

Fig. 4. <strong>Design</strong> Block Diagram<br />

Fig. 7. Schematic of Component Layout on PCB<br />

21


Electrical Engineering<br />

Resilient Raspberry PI Power Backup<br />

Jules Gaston Comte<br />

Prof. Vallancourt, Electrical Engineering<br />

Following a turbulent time in Bitcoin history<br />

known as the "Blocksize War", it became<br />

widely understood that the best defense<br />

against malicious actors in Bitcoin is having<br />

as many users as possible running their own<br />

nodes to interact with the peer-to-peer<br />

network. As a result, since the conclusion of<br />

that period, the number of reachable Bitcoin<br />

nodes has more than doubled, to reach 15'000<br />

today. A significant fraction of these consists<br />

of the reference software implementation of<br />

Bitcoin running 24/7 on the well-known<br />

Raspberry PI hardware platform in<br />

residential settings, to which is attached a<br />

1TB SSD for the storage of Bitcoin data.<br />

While this network is strong and healthy<br />

today, a major vulnerability of these setups<br />

comes from sudden power outages. The<br />

Bitcoin software running on these Raspberry<br />

PIs is very robust, but no amount of software<br />

engineering can completely erase the<br />

possibility of memory corruption as a result<br />

of a sudden power cut. And in the case of<br />

Bitcoin, such a failure can be very impactful,<br />

as it would require the software to download<br />

about 450GB of data in order to be<br />

synchronized once again with the Bitcoin<br />

network.<br />

In order to solve this issue today, most<br />

Bitcoiners resort to buying an uninterruptible<br />

power supply from a well-known<br />

manufacturer, including a special-purpose<br />

proprietary battery. Nevertheless, the product<br />

literature clearly shows that these have been<br />

engineered with the goal of having<br />

downstream devices outlast the power outage<br />

entirely. This yields to very bulky and costly<br />

designs, and in the case of a prolonged power<br />

outage, results in the complete drain of the<br />

battery. Eventually, the user has to contact<br />

the manufacturer in order to have their<br />

specific battery shipped to them. In a time of<br />

increased power outages, and stressed supply<br />

lines, this isn't a sustainable situation. Even<br />

more importantly, the main worry of Bitcoin<br />

node runners isn't to outlast a power outage,<br />

but rather to avoid the memory corruption of<br />

their Bitcoin data.<br />

This project is an attempt to build a device<br />

that addresses this use case. The main design<br />

requirements are the following: first, the<br />

device should send a signal to the Raspberry<br />

PI whenever the mains power line is cut, so<br />

that the board may initiate the shutdown<br />

sequence. Second, the battery of the device<br />

should supply enough power to the<br />

Raspberry PI for two minutes, which is a<br />

conservative upper bound on the time it takes<br />

for a Bitcoin node to shutdown cleanly. And<br />

finally, the battery should be of a well-known<br />

and widely available standard, such that it<br />

can be easily replaced with a trip to a nearby<br />

convenience store. At every step in the design<br />

of this device, this project has sought to avoid<br />

manufacturer lock-in by using the most<br />

generic and elementary parts possible.<br />

This results in a project with two main<br />

components. The first is a voltage regulator<br />

that will take the variable 9V coming from<br />

the battery unit, and step it down to a constant<br />

5V supply needed by the Raspberry PI. And<br />

the second is a power multiplexer, which<br />

watches the mains power line, and<br />

immediately switches the drawn power to the<br />

battery unit as soon as a power outage is<br />

detected. With this device, this project hopes<br />

to offer a resilient, cheap, and reliable device<br />

that will help Bitcoiners power their nodes<br />

during the turbulent times ahead.<br />

22


Electrical Engineering<br />

Smart Pet Door System<br />

Leoni Lu, Mingyuan Zhang<br />

David Vallancourt, Electrical Engineering<br />

This system is an appliance designated for<br />

domestic use. It provides a secured gate for<br />

recognized pets to enter or exit the residence.<br />

The system has two major divisions: a<br />

powered part and a remote part. The powered<br />

part is to be installed indoors onto the pet<br />

door. The remote part is a pet identifier<br />

operating outside of the residence in<br />

proximity to the gate. This allows the lowpower<br />

outdoor sensor part to be fully battery<br />

powered, while the indoor higher-power<br />

processing and door activation part (locking<br />

or automatically opening the door using a<br />

high-torque brushless DC motor controlled<br />

by a Raspberry Pi) is run from a wall outlet.<br />

To utilize the system, the pet shall be tagged<br />

with Radio-frequency identification (RFID)<br />

transponder, which is a small-size device that<br />

can be easily integrated into a dog collar. The<br />

pet identifier will read the RFID tag and<br />

transmit that information to the other part<br />

which will lock or open the pet door<br />

depending on whether the animal was<br />

identified to be one of the registered pets. The<br />

two divisions of this system communicate<br />

wirelessly in order to enable installation<br />

without altering or damaging the structure of<br />

the building, which makes this system<br />

particularly attractive for rental residences.<br />

last long on battery to operate continuously<br />

for at least two week without charging.<br />

The wireless communication between two<br />

divisions of the system utilizes a radio system<br />

operating at medium frequency (~475kHz)<br />

within the amateur service band [1]. Each<br />

division of the system is equipped with a<br />

customized loop antenna with a diameter of<br />

25cm for signal transmission and reception.<br />

The radio system utilizes amplitude shift<br />

keying modulation to transmit serial data<br />

from the remote part to the powered part<br />

indoors. After demodulating the received<br />

signal by analog circuitry, the transmitted<br />

serial data would be sent into a Raspberry Pi<br />

for decision making, whether sending the<br />

opening or locking control signal to the<br />

motor.<br />

The indoor division contains a central<br />

controller implemented with Raspberry Pi<br />

which offers great future expansion<br />

capabilities. Modular add-ons such as feeders<br />

or water dispensers may be designed and<br />

installed in the future.<br />

References:<br />

[1] Report and Order, F.C.C. 17-33 (2017).<br />

The pet identifier reads EMID and<br />

ISO11784/11785 compliant transponder at<br />

134.2 kHz and transmits tag information<br />

wirelessly to the indoor division. This part of<br />

the system does not rely on microcontrollers<br />

and is implemented mostly by analog<br />

circuitry and therefore has minimal power<br />

consumption. The pet identifier is designed to<br />

23


Electrical Engineering<br />

Digital Tug of War Game: Using<br />

Electromagnetic Resistance to<br />

Replicate Human Force<br />

Jewel L Day, Morgan U Bakker<br />

Many companies including Tonal [1] are<br />

bringing exercise products to the market that<br />

use “digital weight.” These systems employ<br />

a combination of electromagnetic forces and<br />

a pulley system to accurately produce a<br />

force equivalent to a weight value.<br />

The natural progression of a technology like<br />

this is to eventually employ in a virtual<br />

reality system, used to digitally reproduce<br />

the resistances of motion. In doing so,<br />

games and other virtual reality applications<br />

can be made to replicate reality closely.<br />

As a proof of concept for the idea of digital<br />

weights in a game application, our project<br />

aims to replicate the childhood game of tugof-war<br />

through the use of electromagnetic<br />

resistance. In a multiplayer environment<br />

each player pulls on a rope attached to a<br />

digital system connected to the internet.<br />

This allows the systems and players to be<br />

distant from each other and still participate<br />

in the same game. When one player pulls<br />

the other receives resistance and the end<br />

goal is to fully pull the rope in your<br />

direction ala traditional tug-of-war.<br />

Each player’s system is composed of a rope,<br />

light sensor, electromagnet, metal wheel,<br />

crank attached to this wheel, power supply,<br />

and raspberry pi microcontroller all attached<br />

to a firm base to ensure no sliding of the<br />

system.<br />

crank, used to rewind the rope after every<br />

game.<br />

The portion of the rope inside the casing<br />

then connects to the metal wheel acting as<br />

the force generating object. Attached to this<br />

wheel are two instruments. First the<br />

electromagnets, which when current driven<br />

generate resistance for the pulling player.<br />

The second instrument is a light sensor used<br />

to detect the speed of the wheel which is<br />

then transmitted to the other system. The<br />

light sensor operates due to a consistent<br />

pattern of colored dots on the wheel, which<br />

the light sensor tracks. A dot per second<br />

count can then be calculated on the<br />

raspberry pi and transmitted to a competing<br />

system to determine resistance force.<br />

To generate necessary current through the<br />

electromagnet for resistant forces, a power<br />

supply is used and controlled by the<br />

raspberry pi system. The raspberry pi<br />

system is mounted with PiPython software<br />

to interact with IO pins. Python is also used<br />

to establish a server connection with the<br />

other system to generate a game.<br />

Altogether the individual pieces interact to<br />

create a fun proof of concept game for the<br />

power of digital weights<br />

References<br />

[1] Zavadsky V., Sherstyuk M. (2012).<br />

Method and apparatus for facilitating<br />

strength training (U.S. Patent No.<br />

8287434B2). U.S. Patent and Trademark<br />

Office.<br />

The outwards casing has two openings. The<br />

first opening is for the rope that interacts<br />

with the player. The second opening is for a<br />

24


Electrical Engineering<br />

Wired-to-Wireless Converter<br />

Jakob Hutter, Jakob Stiens, James Zeng,<br />

Richard Mouradian, Richard Thomson<br />

Prof. Vallancourt Columbia University,<br />

Department of Electrical Engineering<br />

The premise of our project is that, for a given cable,<br />

if we cut the cable in half and randomly route the<br />

exposed wires into both halves of the device, the<br />

device will automatically detect the identity of the<br />

individual wires and wirelessly transmit the signal<br />

from one end of the cable to the other. The first half<br />

collects the signals and wirelessly transmits them to<br />

the second half which reconstructs them (Figure 1).<br />

This allows us to wirelessly join two cables via<br />

WiFi without knowing what the specific wires are,<br />

nor having to worry about the specific type of data<br />

being sent over the wires. We have specifically<br />

focused on demonstrating the transmission of USB<br />

2.0 cables.<br />

The detector circuit (Figure 2) is designed with the<br />

USB 2.0 protocol in mind. This protocol has 4<br />

wires, 5V, D+, D-, and GND. These four wires are<br />

routed from the USB port of the host device (via a<br />

cut cable) into the detector circuit. During the<br />

detection phase, we take advantage of electrical<br />

properties (such as the added resistance to ground<br />

on the data lines) of these 4 wires to distinguish the<br />

identity of each unknown wire. The major detection<br />

components include multiplexers, comparators and<br />

a simple voltage divider. The voltage divider allows<br />

us to compare each of the mystery wires to a known<br />

voltage. We feed these known voltages and mystery<br />

wires into comparators and then a digital circuit to<br />

identify and interpret each mystery wire as a unique<br />

4 bit sequence. These 4 bit sequences contain at<br />

most one high bit which corresponds to the<br />

identification in this order: 5V, D-, D+, and GND.<br />

Each Nth bit (ex: first bit from each wire test) is fed<br />

into one of 4 encoders which output a unique 2 bit<br />

sequence. Each sequence is used to control the wire<br />

routing that maps the unknown wire inputs to<br />

known wire outputs. Additionally, this 2 bit<br />

sequence is stored in D-Flip-Flops so that we can<br />

maintain the connection mapping after the detection<br />

circuit turns off and transmission begins over the<br />

USB wires.<br />

Once the unknown wires are identified, the wires are<br />

passed to the WiFi chip. The WiFi chip is running a<br />

server written in C which reads the values on the<br />

datalines (such as the data seen in Figure 3) and<br />

packs these individual high and low values into<br />

packets. These packets are transmitted over a<br />

2.4GHz WiFi connection to another WiFi chip<br />

running a client. We choose to utilize a TCP<br />

connection for transmission to minimize the packet<br />

loss and resolve any out of order packets. Since TCP<br />

packets contain 30 byte headers, it is much more<br />

efficient to transmit a large number of samples<br />

within a single TCP packet instead of having a<br />

smaller packet size. Once the client receives the data<br />

packets, it then recreates the waveform at the<br />

required clock frequency and transmits it to the<br />

USB device. Because the USB data rate is<br />

~1.5Mb/s, we require a sampling rate of at least<br />

3MHz to prevent any aliasing effects. The TCP<br />

packet transmission is also done at around 4 times<br />

the packet decoding and USB signal rate which<br />

provides us room for dropped packets. This ensures<br />

a smooth and reliable wired to wireless connection.<br />

References:<br />

[1] Compaq, Hewlett-Packard, Intel,<br />

Lucent,Microsoft, NEC, and Philips. “Universal<br />

Serial Bus Specification”, 27-Apr-2000.<br />

[2] Postel, J., "Transmission Control<br />

Protocol",STD 7, RFC 793, DOI<br />

10.17487/RFC0793, September 1981.<br />

25


Electrical Engineering<br />

Figure 1: Block Diagram<br />

26


Electrical Engineering<br />

Figure 3: Sample Packet<br />

27


Electrical Engineering<br />

EMG Wrist-Set<br />

Daniel Addison, Ji Ku, Saul Partida,<br />

Talaya White, Marc Sorrentino<br />

David Vallancourt, Electrical Engineering<br />

EMG or Electromyography is a technique that<br />

evaluates and records the electrical activity<br />

resulting from skeletal muscle movement.<br />

Utilizing EMG has been useful to comprehend<br />

nerve dysfunction, muscle dysfunction or<br />

dysfunction between nerve<br />

and muscle [1,2] .<br />

This project aims to develop a wearable, sensing<br />

wristband that can avail the electrical signaling<br />

taking place near the wrists—a heavily<br />

innervated region of our bodies—to manipulate<br />

an external device. Potentially, we can transduce<br />

EMG sensors [3] (Fig.1.) into a digital signal—to<br />

be wirelessly transmitted to a computer (for<br />

processing and interpreting)—that we then relay<br />

to an arrow-based keyboard for applications such<br />

as video games. This wristband can also be used<br />

for early detection of abnormalities in motor and<br />

sensory nerves.<br />

The project begins with placement of electrodes<br />

on both sides of the forearms and retrieving<br />

measurements of arm muscles. Then, a switching<br />

circuit and Analog to Digital Converter (ADC)<br />

are used to convert analog electrode signals to 8<br />

bit digital signals to be read to an arduino device.<br />

The switching circuit multiplexes four<br />

independent signals into a single ADC.<br />

After digital conversion, signals are classified<br />

using a three-layered neural network<br />

(implemented using Tensorflow) [4] . The trained<br />

model is packaged into an arduino header file to<br />

be accessed in the arduino IDE and uploaded to<br />

the Machine learning enabled Arduino Nano 33<br />

BLE<br />

Sense. The classified signals are broadcasted to a<br />

videogame of choice for a comprehensive<br />

demonstration.<br />

Testing of the circuit shows successful<br />

discrimination of two key movements of the<br />

wrist: wrist flexion and extension (Fig. 2). The<br />

multiplexor cycles promptly and cleanly through<br />

multiple different waveforms (Fig. 3) passed<br />

simultaneously into the MUX-ADC circuit (Fig.<br />

4). These results demonstrate the feasibility and<br />

scalability of the intake of several sensors using<br />

limited resources (e.g. the use of a single ADC<br />

and 8 digital I/O pins of the arduino).<br />

Reference<br />

[1] D. Moores, “Electromyography (EMG):<br />

Purpose, procedure, and results,” Healthline,<br />

20-Mar-2018. [Online]. Available:<br />

https://www.healthline.com/health/electrom<br />

yography. [Accessed: 13-Apr-<strong>2022</strong>].<br />

[2] “Electromyography (EMG),” Mayo Clinic,<br />

21-May-2019. [Online]. Available:<br />

https://www.mayoclinic.org/testsprocedures<br />

/emg/about/pac-20393913.<br />

[Accessed: 13-Apr-<strong>2022</strong>].<br />

[3] AdvancerTechnologies, “Hack your<br />

muscles! A muscle (EMG) sensor for a<br />

Microcontroller,” Instructables Workshop,<br />

06-Jul-2011. [Online]. Available:<br />

https://forum.arduino.cc/t/hack-your-muscle s-amuscle-emg-sensor-for-a-microcontrolle<br />

r/65475. [Accessed: 13-Apr-<strong>2022</strong>]. [4] S. Mistry<br />

and D. Pajak, “Get started with machine learning<br />

on Arduino: Arduino documentation,” Arduino<br />

Documentation | Arduino Documentation, 11-<br />

Apr-<strong>2022</strong>.<br />

[Online].<br />

Available:<br />

https://docs.arduino.cc/tutorials/nano-33-ble -<br />

sense/get-started-with-machine-learning.<br />

[Accessed: 13-Apr-<strong>2022</strong>].<br />

28


Electrical Engineering<br />

Fig. 1. EMG circuit<br />

Fig. 2. Demonstration of MUX circuit<br />

alternating between the capture of a 1 Hz<br />

sine wave and the EMG output.<br />

Fig. 3. switching and Analog to<br />

Digital Converter (ADC) circuit<br />

Fig. 4 Demonstration of channel 2<br />

(green) spiking after wrist extension and<br />

channel 1 (yellow) spiking after wrist<br />

flexion.<br />

29


Electrical Engineering<br />

Wizard’s Chess<br />

Victor Sanchez, Tanvi Pande, Aisha<br />

Malik, Callan Hall, & Charles Escott<br />

David Vallancourt, Electrical Engineering<br />

Department, Columbia University<br />

Wizard’s Chess is a fully voice automated<br />

and touchless chess board. From set up to<br />

the end of the game, all the pieces will be<br />

controlled by the board, and involve no need<br />

for human intervention.<br />

The board is a standard 36” x 36” board,<br />

with a graveyard on one side to keep track<br />

of the pieces that have died. The pieces have<br />

small neodymium magnets a xed to the<br />

bottom of these personally designed pieces,<br />

and there is an accompanying magnet on the<br />

opposite side of the board to keep the piece<br />

steady. The magnet below is the primary<br />

method of moving the pieces across the<br />

board. They are moved via a CNC laser<br />

engraver that has been repurposed to move<br />

pieces magnetically. The head latches onto<br />

the magnet below, and moves the piece as<br />

need be.<br />

The computer system, controlled by a<br />

Raspberry Pi, is responsible for controlling<br />

the movements of the pieces, along with<br />

keeping track of the positions of the pieces<br />

and the validity of the moves. Through<br />

voice recognition, also powered by the Pi,<br />

the system will interpret the player's moves,<br />

and if valid, move the piece accordingly.<br />

The board also features an interactive LED<br />

set up, which shows the users the status of<br />

the piece. Each corner has a LED, and if a<br />

piece in that square has been killed, the<br />

square lights up red to con rm the kill. Fun<br />

sound e ects accompany the killing move,<br />

and discarded pieces are moved to the<br />

graveyard until the end of the game. A timer<br />

system also exists on the board, and assists<br />

to create an immersive chess experience.<br />

Controlled via an FPGA, the timer keeps<br />

track of turns. When the game is over, the<br />

board is capable of resetting itself, and<br />

placing the pieces back in starting position.<br />

The aim of providing chess in this manner is<br />

our desire to o er users a unique experience<br />

while playing the classic board game, and<br />

open the doors for physically disabled folks<br />

to play as well by eliminating the need for<br />

phy human intervention in any aspect of the<br />

game.<br />

References:<br />

1. IEEE Standard for Measuring<br />

Accessibility Experience and<br />

Compliance.<br />

2. Square O<br />

30


Mechanical Engineering<br />

Super Cool Underwater Frequency Emitter<br />

Thomas Danza, Ian Irish, Joseph Licht, James Haddad<br />

Advisor: Yevgeniy Yesilevskiy<br />

SCUFE is the Super Cool Underwater Frequency Emitter that was designed and created in order<br />

to direct fish towards specific directions underwater. The top portion has a solar panel on the very<br />

top to generate power. The solar panel rests on top of a buoy that houses the control system. The<br />

bottom portion is the waterproofed frequency emitter that’s connected to the top portion using an<br />

insulated wire.<br />

Keywords: Mechanical Engineering, acoustics, frequency, buoy<br />

Rocket Payload Bay<br />

Eduardo Mintzias, Alfonso Ussia, Talha Özemre<br />

Advisor: Yevgeniy Yesilevskiy<br />

Rocket Payload Bay is a cost-effective mechanical device which hosts small-scale biological<br />

experiments that fly on rockets to space to make student-led space biological experimentation more<br />

accessible. Our user-friendly design employs active temperature control to maximize research<br />

reliability and success, as well as extensive modularity to adapt to the dimensional constraints of<br />

space payloads. We hope that our project will make space research more ubiquitous and cut the<br />

high-cost barriers to small space research groups.<br />

Keywords: Mechanical Engineering, rocket, payload, space, research<br />

31


Mechanical Engineering<br />

Chicken Friend<br />

Augustus Devaul, Arachelle Harrison, Jessica Hernandez, Catherine Schmidtberger, and Simon<br />

Weisberg<br />

Advisor: Yevgeniy Yesilevskiy<br />

Chicken Friend is an all in one food and water system designed to meet the needs of both urban<br />

and rural chickens, while considering the threats of weather and pests. Chicken Friend provides<br />

access to clean water 24 hours, 7 days a week, while also warming the water to prevent freezing.<br />

The device also dispenses food at regular intervals, and then hides leftover food in a sealed<br />

compartment to keep pests out. With both battery and wall plug in options, Chicken Friend is<br />

versatile enough to serve the needs of chickens everywhere.<br />

Keywords: Mechanical Engineering, chicken, feeder, water, sealed<br />

Beach Cleaner Pro<br />

Evan Lien, Mik Lei, and Qingchen Zhang<br />

Advisor: Yevgeniy Yesilevskiy<br />

Beach Cleaner Pro is a novel device designed to assist humans in efficient beach clean-up.<br />

Equipped with innovative technological features, Beach Cleaner Pro is built to not only quickly<br />

dig through large amounts of sand, but also filter out and collect trash simultaneously. While a<br />

powerful screw picks up and moves sand along a tube, numerous holes at the bottom of the device<br />

filter out the sand, and a bag attached to the end of the tube collects sand-free trash for easy<br />

disposal. A green technology, Beach Cleaner Pro is powered through rechargeable batteries,<br />

making it an environmentally-friendly choice.<br />

Keywords: Mechanical Engineering, beach, cleaning, auger, pollution<br />

32


Mechanical Engineering<br />

Adjustable Shelving<br />

Cam Dillon, Joe Franzese, Michael Roussos<br />

Advisor: Yevgeniy Yesilevskiy<br />

This shelving unit is a manually operated device designed to increase storage in small living<br />

spaces. The user has the ability to raise and lower shelves at any desired height. Two support rods<br />

are included in order to hold the shelves in place as additional ones are raised and lowered.<br />

Keywords: Mechanical Engineering, shelving, adjustable, raise, lower, support<br />

KnitFix<br />

Nicole Harr, Lucinda Cahill, Blossom Parris, Agnes Thornberg, Mary Zaradich<br />

Advisor: Yevgeniy Yesilevskiy<br />

The KnitFix is the quick fix easy to use sew-lution that can alter the size of your clothing by swiftly<br />

adding an almost invisible elastic seam, ensuring flexibility and adjustability. The KnitFix is an<br />

at-home sewing device that is as easy and intuitive to use as a stapler. The KnitFix secures the<br />

thread with two crimped beads on each side of the thread, allowing the thread to stay in place.<br />

Keywords: Mechanical Engineering, knit, tailor, clothing, adjust<br />

33


Mechanical Engineering<br />

RollControl<br />

Delphine Lepeintre, Eric Xue, TaeHyung Kwon, William Xie<br />

Advisor: Yevgeniy Yesilevskiy<br />

RollControl is an assistive walking device that helps its users as they navigate through daily life,<br />

providing convenience through its modularity. The design is based on an existing push down<br />

rollator, with three main additional features. A set of modular handles allows users to switch<br />

between two walking positions, one with handles near the waist and another with handles that your<br />

arms rest on. Users can also adjust the braking force required to stop with a built-in spring<br />

tensioner, which is useful when the rollator is supporting heavy loads like laundry or groceries.<br />

Lastly, the eddy-current brake modules attached to the wheels prevent the device from rolling<br />

away too quickly, preventing accidents and falls stemming from this issue.<br />

Keywords: Mechanical Engineering, assistive, rollator, braking, adjustable<br />

HydroHand<br />

Nick Hall, Ben Klassen, Armand Pappas, Andrew Pomposelli<br />

Advisor: Yevgeniy Yesilevskiy<br />

HydroHand is an easily attached device in the reservoir of a hydroponics system that solves leaking<br />

problems and automates the tedious tasks of managing a hydroponics system. Community<br />

hydroponics operators can spend less time and money monitoring their systems and provide more<br />

fresh produce to local communities.<br />

Keywords: Mechanical Engineering, hydroponics, monitoring, pH, nutrients<br />

34


Mechanical Engineering<br />

CuttingBoard+<br />

Arielle Feder, Ahmet Karadeniz, Yehuda Lehrfield, Andrea Quinones<br />

Advisor: Yevgeniy Yesilevskiy<br />

CuttingBoard+ is a device which helps people slice food using the proper cutting technique. The<br />

device guides the user’s knife to cut in the proper slicing motion, increasing safety and efficiency<br />

during food preparation. The user simply clamps their own chefs knife to the guide, applies the<br />

cutting force and can cut like an expert. If desired, the user can remove the cutting guide and the<br />

CuttingBoard+ functions as a regular cutting board.<br />

Keywords: Mechanical Engineering, cutting board, knife, assistive<br />

Calypso<br />

Rohin Modi, Jayson King’ori, Pol Bernat<br />

Advisor: Yevgeniy Yesilevskiy<br />

Calypso is a solution to the problem of loud noises in apartments of New York City. It consists<br />

of a panel with an array of acoustic metamaterials that is meant to attach over your window to<br />

block out sound at specific frequencies while still letting air and light in. It works mechanically<br />

by Fano-like interference, a phenomenon that manipulates the phase of sound waves to force<br />

destructive interference.<br />

Keywords: Mechanical Engineering, acoustics, window, metamaterial<br />

35


Mechanical Engineering<br />

Equi-Table<br />

Estevan Mesa, David D’Ambrisi, Tzipora Hirsch, and McKenna Gillard<br />

Advisor: Yevgeniy Yesilevskiy<br />

The Equi-Table is a unique, space-conscious adult changing table that gives individuals with<br />

disabilities a private, safe, and sanitary public restroom experience. Not only can the Equi-Table<br />

fit in any ADA-compliant public restroom or stall, but also it is designed such that a caregiver has<br />

space to move in the bathroom and position a wheelchair for transfer. Operation for a caregiver is<br />

simple. The caregiver deploys the device with a light, consistent pull; gas springs return the Equi-<br />

Table to its unobtrusive storage location on the wall.<br />

Keywords: Mechanical Engineering, assistive, adult changing table, bathroom<br />

Speed-Star<br />

Deanna Duqmaq, Sophia Ladyzhets, Luis Pupo, Andrew Song, Nadine Wong<br />

Advisor: Yevgeniy Yesilevskiy<br />

Our game is a playground structure that allows children in wheelchairs to race mini car pieces<br />

around a game track. Children turn their wheels and transmit energy to rollers underneath that are<br />

coupled to the car pieces that progress forward. This solution takes inspiration from wheelchair<br />

treadmill designs and applies it in a fun, accessible way for kids to play with each other.<br />

Keywords: Mechanical Engineering, assistive, wheelchair, racing, playground<br />

36


Mechanical Engineering<br />

Boat Bath & Beyond<br />

Vittorio Bottoli, Rushawn Childers, Justin Donovan, Sean Dugan, Aidan O’Hara<br />

Advisor: Yevgeniy Yesilevskiy<br />

BoatBath&Beyond is an autonomous, easy-to-set up, robotic system designed to clean the hulls of<br />

boats ranging between 30ft to 150ft in length. The robotic system is comprised of 3 parts: a cabling<br />

system the extends around the edges of the boat, a robotic cleaning head that removes biofouling<br />

from the hull, and a slider that moves along the cabling system and control the position of the<br />

robotic head. This system was designed for affordability, portability, ease-of-use, and, most<br />

importantly, effective cleaning.<br />

Keywords: Mechanical Engineering, boat, clean, biology, robotics<br />

TruckStop<br />

Nate Coulibaly, Tobias Eegholm, Sabrina Guedes, Sarah Wilkinson<br />

Advisor: Yevgeniy Yesilevskiy<br />

TruckStop is a custom truck that has a built-in skateboard braking system for use on non-electrified<br />

skateboards. It consists of four servo motors and is controlled by a central computer. When the<br />

user presses the brake button on the handheld remote, the brake system will activate and gradually<br />

decelerate the rider to a stop. TruckStop was designed to make skateboarding safer and more<br />

enjoyable for beginners.<br />

Keywords: Mechanical Engineering, skateboard, braking, motors<br />

37


Mechanical Engineering<br />

Small Oil-Spill Cleaner<br />

Derek Jackson, Sakib Ahmet, Denver McCollum, Jonathan Cator<br />

Advisor: Yevgeniy Yesilevskiy<br />

The Small Oil-spill Cleaner(SOC) is a folding mechanism that uses absorbent pads to clean small<br />

oil accidents. SOC is a spring-loaded mechanism attached with these absorbent pads to soak oil<br />

that’ll automatically unfold when ready for deployment. SOC is then retracted using a winch to<br />

collect the oil filled pads and fold the mechanism compactly for storage.<br />

Keywords: Mechanical Engineering, oil spill, deployable, spring-loaded, cleaner<br />

38


Table Key

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