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Connecting Literacy Student Folio 2 Sample Pages

Connecting Literacy targets whole-school literacy improvement for Secondary students and teachers. What is Connecting Literacy? A developmental literacy program for Secondary schools, including: -3 student folios -3 teacher books -100s of video lessons hosted by literacy consultant, Hayley Harrison. Who is Connecting Literacy for? Secondary school students and teachers who: -are embarking on whole-school literacy improvement, OR -integrate literacy skills in the English classroom, OR -attend a timetabled literacy block. How does Connecting Literacy work? With cumulative skill development over three books where students: -Model: read and annotate an ‘anchor text’ – an authentic piece of student writing -Practise: complete units of work in class or as homework with video support from Hayley Harrison, literacy coach -Apply: draft their own text directly into the writing pages included in each student folio. Why do you need Connecting Literacy? -Flexibility: Use the series over three consecutive years or use the student folios in parallel to differentiate, support and extend. -Support: Video lessons, teacher books with answers and suggested programs, a literacy skills ‘toolkit’ and on-demand P.D. sessions will support experienced and out-of-discipline teachers alike. -Evidence: Student folios are designed as a learning pathway with built-in student reflection, metacognition and formative assessment (with developmental rubrics). -Whole-school: Use Connecting Literacy to underpin your whole school literacy plan and create a common metalanguage around literacy.

Connecting Literacy targets whole-school literacy improvement for Secondary students and teachers.

What is Connecting Literacy?

A developmental literacy program for Secondary schools, including:

-3 student folios
-3 teacher books
-100s of video lessons hosted by literacy consultant, Hayley Harrison.

Who is Connecting Literacy for?

Secondary school students and teachers who:

-are embarking on whole-school literacy improvement, OR
-integrate literacy skills in the English classroom, OR
-attend a timetabled literacy block.

How does Connecting Literacy work?

With cumulative skill development over three books where students:

-Model: read and annotate an ‘anchor text’ – an authentic piece of student writing
-Practise: complete units of work in class or as homework with video support from Hayley Harrison, literacy coach
-Apply: draft their own text directly into the writing pages included in each student folio.

Why do you need Connecting Literacy?

-Flexibility: Use the series over three consecutive years or use the student folios in parallel to differentiate, support and extend.
-Support: Video lessons, teacher books with answers and suggested programs, a literacy skills ‘toolkit’ and on-demand P.D. sessions will support experienced and out-of-discipline teachers alike.
-Evidence: Student folios are designed as a learning pathway with built-in student reflection, metacognition and formative assessment (with developmental rubrics).
-Whole-school: Use Connecting Literacy to underpin your whole school literacy plan and create a common metalanguage around literacy.

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Connecting

Literacy

‘… so I can grow into the person I am and will ultimately be’

Authored by

Hayley

Harrison

and a team of students, just like you.

Student

Folio


‘… so I can grow into the person I am and will ultimately be’

Connecting

Literacy

Student

Folio

Authored by

Hayley

Harrison

and a team of students, just like you.


Connecting Literacy

Student Folio 2

1st edition

Hayley Harrison

Publisher: Catherine Charles-Brown

Project editor: Naomi Saligari

Copy editor: Naomi Saligari

Proofreader: Kelly Robinson

Cover and text design: Ana Cosma (anacosma.com)

Typesetter: Paul Ryan

Illustrator: QBS Learning

The author and publisher are grateful to the following

for permission to reproduce copyright material:

Cover: Stocksy/Liliya Rodnikova

Alamy/Science History Images, 71; iStockphoto/

Kosolovskyy, 111, / Syntika, 51.

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holders or anyone with knowledge of copyright

holders to come forward.

Warning: It is recommended that Aboriginal and

Torres Strait Islander peoples exercise caution when

viewing this publication as it may contain images of

deceased persons.

Matilda Education Australia acknowledges all Aboriginal

and Torres Strait Islander Traditional Custodians of

Country and recognises their continuing connection to

land, sea, culture, and community. We pay our respects

to Elders past and present.

First published in 2023 by Matilda Education Australia,

an imprint of Meanwhile Education Pty Ltd

Melbourne, Australia

T: 1300 277 235

E: customersupport@matildaed.com.au

www.matildaeducation.com.au

Copyright © Hayley Harrison 2023

Copyright © Matilda Education 2023

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(the Act) and subsequent amendments, no part of

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Publication data

Author: Hayley Harrison

Title: Connecting Literacy Student Folio 2

ISBN: 9780655091424

A catalogue record for this

book is available from the

National Library of Australia

Printed in Malaysia by Vivar Printing

Oct-2022


Connecting

Literacy

Contents

Introduction to literacy .........................

iv

Unit 1: Persuasive literacy ..................... 2

Unit 2: Procedural literacy ..................... 24

Unit 3: Imaginative literacy .................... 48

Unit 4: Informative literacy .................... 70

Unit 5: Analytical literacy ...................... 94

Unit 6: Reflective literacy ...................... 120

Unit 7: Comparative literacy .................. 142

Literacy How-to .................................. 166

Comprehension ............................... 166

Planning and writing ......................... 169

Structures and features ...................... 176

Vocabulary ..................................... 183

Syntax ........................................... 185

Punctuation .................................... 190

Spelling ......................................... 193

Speaking and listening ....................... 202

Introduction to literacy

iii


Introduction to literacy

Literacy is a complex amalgamation of skills that interweave and are applied when

reading, writing, speaking, and listening. The goal of systematically and explicitly

teaching individual literacy skills is to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of

students’ communication. Mastering literacy skills requires a person to understand,

consolidate, and build automaticity in individual skills and then combine these skills

to develop as a critical reader, coherent writer, and confident speaker.

The literacy skills and strategies presented in this book are designed to be individually

taught, explored, consolidated, and built upon. This learning is then explicitly transferred

beyond the classroom to help students in every part of their school and everyday

lives. Teaching is supported by an instructional model that consists of prior knowledge

activation, explicit teaching, collaboration, independent practise, and reflection. There

are layers of teaching and learning support, including links to comprehension strategies,

writing organisers, and formative assessment opportunities at a lesson and unit level.

How to use Connecting Literacy: Model, practise, apply

This book is divided into seven units – which are based on the different text types that students

will encounter during school and beyond – and one Literacy How-to section, which is a complete

reference guide that can be referred to throughout the book:

• Unit 1: Persuasive literacy

• Unit 2: Procedural literacy

• Unit 3: Imaginative literacy

• Unit 4: Informative literacy

• Unit 5: Analytical literacy

• Unit 6: Reflective literacy

• Unit 7: Comparative literacy

Literacy How-to section.

In each unit, the students model, practise, and apply specific literacy skills to a different text type.

Model

Each of the seven units begins with an anchor text. Each anchor text is a model that is

designed to ‘anchor’ the students’ learning as they complete the activities in the unit.

The anchor texts in this series were all written by students in years 7–10, from schools

across Australia.

Practise

Each unit has eight lessons that focus on core literacy skills and strategies:

1 comprehension

5 syntax

2 planning and writing

6 punctuation

3 structures and features

7 spelling

4 vocabulary

8 speaking and listening.

At the end of the book, there is a Literacy How-to section. This is a comprehensive

literacy reference guide that is designed to support teachers and students by providing

content, skills, and strategies that can be applied across the units. This section is

designed to connect with prior knowledge activation, and to provide opportunities

for clarification and extension of understanding and skill development.

iv Connecting Literacy • Book 2


Apply

In each lesson, comprehension strategies are suggested to help the students to complete the

activities successfully. Each unit includes writing pages for students to use to draft and edit their

own original texts. By containing their learning and application in the same book, students can

build a comprehensive learning folio.

STRATEGY

Pause to

wonder and

connect.

Connecting Literacy

Model, practise, apply

Comparative texts

SPEAKING &

LISTENING

3 Apply

MY WRITING PAGES

2 Practise

COMPREHENSION

Persuasive texts

Refllective texts

SPELLING

PUNCTUATION

1 Model

ANCHOR TEXT

A model text written

by a student,

just like you

PLANNING &

WRITING

STRUCTURES &

FEATURES

Procedural texts

Analytical texts

SYNTAX

VOCABULARY

Imaginative texts

Informative texts

LITERACY HOW-TO

Your go-to literacy reference guide, to support your every step

Reflect

Unit confidence scores: At the start of each unit, students are invited to rate their confidence about

reading, writing, speaking, and listening to the particular text type. The intention is that students will

return at the end of the unit to score their learning confidence again and to celebrate their success.

Lesson confidence scores: Every lesson in the Connecting Literacy series culminates in students

giving themselves a score out of five: this self-assessment promotes students’ awareness of their

learning and understanding. This self-assessment also provides an opportunity for teachers to note

any areas that require further class time or clarification.

The students’ learning in each unit is brought together with a learning ladder. Using this chart,

the students can self-assess their final writing and speaking and listening task (these tasks have

a speaking and listening icon in the margin) and reflect on their learning throughout the unit.

Introduction to literacy

v


Persuasive literacy

Developing your literacy skills involves practising your ability to read, write, speak, or listen

to non-fiction texts that express a strong opinion. Persuasive texts try to convince a reader

or listener to adopt the writer’s or speaker’s point of view about a topic. These texts

use different persuasive techniques to achieve this purpose. Many different texts can be

persuasive, including speeches, advertisements, debates, essays, letters, reviews, and articles.

http://mea.

digital/CL2_1_0

Why do we create persuasive texts?

The most important thing to know about a persuasive text is that it is created to convince someone

to take up, or accept, the author’s opinion. A persuasive text shows how the author thinks and feels

about a topic. Often a person chooses to create a persuasive text because they feel passionate

about something. This is why persuasive texts are often highly emotional.

Understanding for whom a persuasive text is written is important because authors change the type

of language and devices they use to persuade, depending on the target audience. A persuasive

text designed to sway a friend will sound very different to a persuasive text created for your

school principal.

1 Explain in your own words why persuasive texts are created.

2 Give an example of a persuasive text you have read or written yourself. What made it persuasive?

Page 3

3 Read the anchor text. This text is a model that will help you to ‘anchor’ your learning as you

complete the activities in this unit. It will also assist you to draft your own persuasive speech.

The anchor text was written by a student, just like you.

Rate my

confidence

At the end of each lesson, you will rate how confident you are about your

progress throughout the unit. Be as honest as you can; it’s your learning!

4 How confident do you currently feel about reading, writing, speaking, and listening to persuasive

texts? Give yourself a confidence score out of five. Come back at the end of the unit and score your

confidence again.

Start of the unit: DD \ MM \ YYYY

End of the unit: DD \ MM \ YYYY

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

Not very

confident

Somewhat

confident

Confident

Highly

confident

Super

confident

Not very

confident

Somewhat

confident

Confident

Highly

confident

Super

confident

2 Connecting Literacy • Book 2


Anchor text

Persuasive speech

Superman: The ultimate hero

Our teacher encouraged us to present our point of view on something that we are

passionate about. Something that is important. Something life-changing. And what

could be more important than Superman vs Batman? The ultimate ongoing rivalry

between two superheroes within the super universe, dating all the way back

to 1964! Despite all the controversy among film fanatics, however, the title of

best superhero can only be bestowed to one, and that is … Superman. Now, Batman

supporters, don’t be disheartened and don’t set your torches and pitchforks at me yet.

From having extraordinary powers and unimaginable strength to being essentially

invincible, I, Thanh Do, wholeheartedly believe that, Superman outshines the dark

and gloomy Batman, and can assure you that, by the end of this speech, you too will

reconsider your love for the man of bat and realise that Superman conquers all!

To begin, Superman can fly! Need I say anything more? C’mon, let’s be real. No-one

would rather be saved in a boring ‘invisible’ Batmobile, when they can instead get

swooped into the sky as they’re falling off a building. Unlike Batman, Superman has

powers that are literally in his DNA, and don’t rely on any external gadgets to save

lives. Being a superhero is in his blood! Not only does he have the power of flight,

but also remarkable speed, incredible hearing, ridiculous strength, and, coolest of all,

solar‐hot lasers that come straight out of his eyeballs! And yes, I know, Batman

is strong too, but we don’t call him the Man of Steel for nothing.

Still not convinced? The man was born on another planet and as a human-looking

alien, the dude’s basically invincible! The only substance that is Superman’s weakness

is radioactive kryptonite and we can’t really get that from your local supermarket.

This means, against the average bank-robbing villain, Superman is guaranteed to win

and protect us all. Batman, on the other hand, not so much. Because … he is human,

and, like us, he is vulnerable to all the dangers that being a human brings. So are you

really willing to risk your life on some leather-clad human?

Now, exposing the fact that Superman has superpowers and is invincible barely

scratches the surface of Superman’s supreme awesomeness. It’s completely

illogical and possibly illegal if you have any remaining thoughts that Batman even

comes remotely close to the legend that is Superman. So quick quiz: who do YOU

prefer more?

Student author: Thanh Do

Audience: Thanh’s class

http://mea.digital/

CL2_1_A

Persuasive literacy ~ Unit  1

3


1.1

L E A R N I N G

I N T E N T I O N :

Persuasive comprehension

To understand the overall

purpose of a persuasive text

Part A: Question the text

http://mea.digital/

CL2_1_1

We often don’t have time to complete a close analysis of every text we encounter, but spending

time exploring key parts of a text can help us understand the text at a deeper level. One way to

do this is to question the text. Asking questions can help us uncover parts of the text that may

not have made sense, or that we missed, in our first reading.

1 What is the author of the anchor text passionate about?

Page 3

2 What dates ‘all the way back to 1964’?

3 How are Superman’s powers ‘literally in his DNA’?

STRATEGY

Skim and

scan the text

for specific

information.

4 Why is Superman ‘basically’ invincible?

5 Why is Superman ‘guaranteed to win’ while Batman is ‘vulnerable’?

6 The author refers to Batman as ‘some leather-clad human’. How does this make the reader feel

about Batman?

7 What questions could you ask to understand other parts of the anchor text? Think of six questions

that start with ‘Who’, ‘What’, ‘When’, ‘Where’, Why’ and ‘How’.

4 Connecting Literacy • Book 2


Part B: Contention and intention

To comprehend a persuasive text, we must understand the text’s contention (its main idea) and

the text’s intention (its call to action). The contention is what we are being asked to think, while

the intention is what we are being asked to do after reading or listening to a text. One way to

find the contention of a text is to list the text’s main arguments and underline the keywords in

those arguments. Next, draw together the keywords into a statement. This statement is the

text’s contention.

For example, imagine a persuasive speech titled ‘Cats: The ultimate pet’, which explores the

topic of cats being superior to dogs.

Page 166

Comprehension

strategies

The text’s main arguments with

keywords underlined

Evidence

1 Cats are self-sufficient. Listing all the tasks a dog owner needs

to complete in a day to entertain their pet

2 Cats are more affordable. Noting the price of expensive dog grooming

appointments and dog toys and treats

Contention (the main idea): Cats are better than dogs because they are more self-sufficient and

affordable pets than dogs.

Intention (the call to action): Persuading the audience to adopt a cat as a pet rather than a dog.

8 Annotate the anchor text by numbering the paragraphs and labelling the two main arguments.

9 Using the example above as a model, complete the table below for the anchor text. Hint: Underline

the keywords in the arguments to help you write the contention.

The text’s arguments with keywords underlined Evidence

1

Page 3

STRATEGY

Identify and

understand

the pieces

of the text.

2

Contention (the main idea):

Intention (the call to action):

I understand the overall purpose of a persuasive text: ______ / 5

Next time you are working with a challenging text in another subject, try numbering

and labelling the paragraphs. This may help you to ‘see’ the overall purpose of the text.

TAKE IT

WITH YOU

1.1 Persuasive comprehension 5


1.2

Persuasive planning and writing

Part A: Develop your arguments

L E A R N I N G

I N T E N T I O N :

To understand how

to plan and develop

my persuasive speech

http://mea.digital/

CL2_1_2

Page 20

Whenever you are asked to construct a persuasive text, you need to spend time understanding the

topic, considering alternative perspectives, and developing clear and strong arguments. How you

develop those arguments will determine how strong your persuasive text will end up being.

Your writing task for this unit is to write a short speech, which will be similar to the

anchor text in purpose, audience, and length. In this speech, you will present your point

of view on something you are passionate about.

1 Select a topic that you are passionate about. Select a topic that has different perspectives. What is it?

2 To help you brainstorm ideas that can be used as arguments in your speech, ask ‘why’ questions.

For example: Why do you think Superman is better than Batman? Why is he stronger? Why is

he invincible? Write answers to your why questions. These can help form the arguments in

your persuasive text.

Why ?

Why ?

Why ?

3 Using the answers to the why questions you developed in Question 2, select two main arguments

to use in your speech to convince your audience.

Topic:

Argument one

Argument two

4 Using your topic and the key words from your arguments, write the contention of your speech.

6 Connecting Literacy • Book 2


Part B: Revise your text for your audience and purpose

Your speech will be delivered to your peers. Knowing your audience is important because you

need to decide what language and evidence is appropriate for your audience and purpose.

5 What do you want the audience to do after listening to your speech? What is your call to action –

your intention? (Remember, you might want to change how they think about the topic, or you

might want them to do something after listening to your speech.)

6 How might your classmates feel about your topic?

7 Use your findings from Questions 5 and 6 to rewrite your arguments in the following table and then

choose evidence that will connect to your audience while supporting your arguments.

Arguments

Evidence

Argument one:

STRATEGY

Understand

the purpose

of the text

or feature.

Page 174

Finding

appropriate

evidence

Argument two:

Page 174

Turning a plan

into a draft

8 Using the anchor text as a model and the arguments and evidence you identified in Question 7,

write a draft of your speech. You can write your draft in the writing pages at the end of this unit.

We will continue to revise your speech throughout the unit, so for now, write the first draft,

knowing it doesn’t have to be perfect, but it is enough to start experimenting with.

Page 20

I understand how to plan and develop my persuasive speech: ______ / 5

We only asked ‘why’ three times during this lesson, but you can keep asking ‘why’

until you run out of answers. Try asking ‘why?’ next time you are brainstorming

ideas in another class.

TAKE IT

WITH YOU

1.2 Persuasive planning and writing 7


1.3

Persuasive structures

and features

L E A R N I N G

I N T E N T I O N :

To understand the key structural

elements and language features

of persuasive speeches

Part A: Persuasive speeches

http://mea.digital/

CL2_1_3

There are a lot of similarities between persuasive speeches and essays because we tend to plan

both texts in a similar way. However, writing a speech is different to writing an essay because

the structures and features of a speech are different to those of an essay.

1 On the anchor text, identify and label the following structural elements of a speech.

Page 3

Opening Body Closing

• An engaging hook

• Introduction of the topic

• Introduction of

the speaker

• Introduction of

the contention

• Introduction of the key

arguments

• Evidence to support the

arguments

• Explanation of how the

arguments prove the contention

• Synthesis of the arguments

in the contention

• The intention is made clear

• A final, memorable

statement

STRATEGY

Re-read the

text at a slower

pace to search

for specific

information.

2 What are some of the language features you can identify in the anchor text speech? (For example,

perspective, tense, tone, emphasis, word choice, etc.)

Language features:

Page 176

Text forms

3 What are the similarities and differences between the structural elements and language features

of a persuasive speech and a persuasive essay? (For example, consider what it looks like, what

language is used, what techniques are used, its audience and purpose, etc.)

Similarities

Differences

Persuasive speeches Persuasive essays

Part B: Persuasive devices

One of the most common features of persuasive writing is the use of persuasive devices. These

devices are language choices that make a text more persuasive. For example, repeating important

words or phrases makes it more likely that the audience will remember the key persuasive points.

8 Connecting Literacy • Book 2


4 In the anchor text, highlight a sentence that uses inclusive language and a sentence that uses

exclusive language. Explain how inclusive and exclusive language are different, but can both

be persuasive.

Page 3

Inclusive language:

Exclusive language:

How they are different and persuasive:

5 Highlight examples of the following persuasive devices in the anchor text. Explain what effect each

device has on the speech.

Persuasive

device

Repetition

Rhetorical

question

How to find it in a text

Look for the same word

or phrase repeated in a

paragraph, or throughout

the whole text.

Look for a question mark.

Example from the

anchor text

What effect does the

device have?

STRATEGY

Pause

to wonder

and connect.

Emotive

language

Look for descriptive

words.

Emphasis

Look for italics, words

written in CAPITAL

letters, words in bold

or colour.

6 What other persuasive devices can you find in the anchor text?

7 a Identify the structural elements and language features in your speech.

b What devices have you used in your speech?

c How could you make your speech more persuasive?

d Revise your draft by focusing on the structural elements and language features used throughout.

Page 20

I understand the key structural elements and language features of persuasive speeches: ______ / 5

Try noticing the similarities and differences in both the structural elements and the language

features of different writing types outside of this class. Can you identify any texts where you

find (or can use) persuasive devices even though the text isn’t persuasive?

TAKE IT

WITH YOU

1.3 Persuasive structures and features 9


1.4

L E A R N I N G

Persuasive vocabulary

I N T E N T I O N :

To understand emotive language,

denotation, and connotation

in persuasive writing

Part A: Emotive language

http://mea.digital/

CL2_1_4

Writers use emotive language to express their feelings. We can also use emotive language to appeal

to certain feelings in our audience.

1 How do the following emotive words make you feel about ‘the student’?

a The innocent student:

b The lethal student:

c The excessive student:

STRATEGY

Connect to

the feeling

of a word.

d The underestimated student:

e The humiliated student:

f The outstanding student:

2 Highlight the emotive words in paragraph one of the anchor text.

Page 3

3 How is the author making you feel about Superman? Quote words from the anchor text in

your answer.

4 How is the writer making you feel about Batman? Quote words from the anchor text in

your answer.

5 The following excerpt makes the reader feel sorry for left-handed people and angry towards

right‐handed people. Change the bolded emotive words so the reader feels frustrated towards

left‐handed people and supportive of right-handed people.

For years, many cultures have labelled innocent

left-handed people

as disadvantaged and have aggressively

tried to convert them.

Cruel right-handers forced left-handers to use their right

hands and any resistance was punished

. But left-handed people are said to use

the right side of their brain more, making them more creative, emotional and better at sports.

Such positive facts highlight that this ruthless vilification

actually comes from jealousy

more than anything else.

10 Connecting Literacy • Book 2


Part B: Denotation and connotation

Denotation is the standard definition of a word – what a word literally means – whereas connotation

is the feeling evoked by a word.

Denotation: To pour, to make liquid flow. For example: Please pour me a glass of water.

Connotation: To pour, the feeling of juggling too many things. For example: The work continued

to pour in.

We can classify connotations into either negative or positive. The power of understanding a word’s

connotation is that you can control how your reader feels about a topic, object or person. This is

where you can be powerfully persuasive!

6 Complete the following table by identifying how these words from the anchor text are used.

Word

Positive or

negative

connotation

Denotation (the word’s

definition or literal meaning)

Connotation (the word’s

implied meaning)

Page 3

Unimaginable Positive Impossible to imagine A hugely impressive amount

Swooped

Average

Risk

7 What is a synonym with an alternate connotation for each of for the following words?

Positive connotation

Unique

Curious

Vintage

Relaxed

Negative connotation

Weird

Stubborn

Difficult

Picky

Page 183

Word meanings

8 a How do you want your audience to feel during your speech?

b Revise your speech to appeal to your audience’s feelings. Experiment with your language choices

to make them more emotive. Include more descriptive words so your audience knows how to

feel about what you are talking about.

Page 20

I understand emotive language, denotation, and connotation in persuasive writing: ______ / 5

Notice how different texts use positive and negative language regardless of the subject.

Next time you are writing, experiment with emotive language and see how it changes

what you are trying to express.

TAKE IT

WITH YOU

1.4 Persuasive vocabulary 11


1.5

Persuasive syntax

L E A R N I N G

I N T E N T I O N :

To understand the differences between

spoken and written language, including

maintaining the subject–verb agreement

Part A: Spoken versus written language

http://mea.digital/

CL2_1_5

It is not just language choices that change depending on audience and purpose. Syntax (sentence

structure) changes too. This is even more evident between spoken and written texts. We know

spoken and written language sounds different syntactically but we have to write the way we want

to speak when writing a speech.

1 What are the key similarities and differences between spoken language and written language?

Page 204

Spoken versus

written language

Similarities

Differences

Spoken language

Written language

STRATEGY

Connect with

the language

choices.

Page 3

2 How have the following sentences in the anchor text been written to make them sound more like

the way a person speaks?

a ‘Now, Batman supporters, don’t be disheartened and don’t set your torches and pitchforks at

me yet.’

b ‘C’mon, let’s be real.’

c ‘And yes, I know, Batman is strong too …’

3 Change the following spoken sentences into formal written sentences.

a Awwww man, like everyone thinks soccer is totes better than football!

b I’d be shook if you peeps didn’t get what I’m putting down.

4 Record yourself talking about dinosaurs for 10 seconds. Transcribe what you said exactly, then

rewrite your words to make them sound more formal.

12 Connecting Literacy • Book 2


Part B: Subject–verb agreement

Every sentence needs a subject (someone or something doing something) and a predicate

(which includes a main verb to show what the subject is doing).

In English sentences, the subject and the predicate (or verb) must ‘agree’ with each other.

Page 188

Subject and

predicate

What this means is:

• if a subject is singular (one), the verb must also be singular

• if a subject is plural (more than one), the verb must also be plural.

For example: The research suggests that the benefits of treatments depend on their purpose.

5 Determine whether the following words are singular or plural, and subjects or verbs.

Word Singular or plural? Subject or verb?

author

presents

she

have

those

are

6 Rewrite the following sentences so that all the subjects and verbs agree.

a The graph show that 15 per cent of 13–18-year-olds has their phobia for life; however, only

one per cent of those with a severe phobia has it for life.

b Females is three per cent more likely to have a phobia for life than males and a 10–14-year-old

are two per cent more likely to have a lifetime phobia than a 15–18-year-old.

7 a Does your speech read like a text that is intended to be spoken?

b How can you find the balance between writing formally and writing a text that is intended

to be spoken to your class?

Page 20

c Make sure your subjects and verbs all agree!

I understand the differences between spoken and written language,

including maintaining the subject–verb agreement: ______ / 5

If you struggle to put your words into writing in any subject, try speaking the words

first and then play around with making them sound more formal depending on the text

type. Although spoken and written language are different, there are many similarities,

including the fact that the subject and the verb always agree.

TAKE IT

WITH YOU

1.5 Persuasive syntax 13


1.6

L E A R N I N G

Persuasive punctuation

I N T E N T I O N :

To understand the impact

exclamation and question marks

have on a written text

Part A: Exclamation marks!

http://mea.digital/

CL2_1_6

Page 190

Types of

punctuation

Exclamation marks allow us to show emphasis and emotion in a sentence. They can be powerful

in a written text in many ways but need to be controlled. Using too many is not more persuasive,

and often less formal.

1 In the following sentences from the anchor text, the author has emphasised particular emotions

and feelings by using exclamation marks. Identify these emotions and feelings.

a ‘… dating all the way back to 1964!’

b ‘Superman can fly!’

Page 3

c ‘… the dude’s basically invincible!’

2 Write a sentence, using an exclamation mark, to show the following emotions.

a Fear

b Joy

c Urgency

STRATEGY

Connect the

punctuation

to what is

being said.

Part B: Question marks?

Questions in a speech are called rhetorical questions. This is because the answer is assumed;

no response is expected or required by the audience. Rhetorical questions can be compelling in

persuasive texts (both written and spoken) because the writer or speaker controls how the audience

answers the question. However, like anything effective, rhetorical questions have to be controlled.

A few can be persuasive, too many can be overwhelming and you can end up not saying anything.

If your sentence includes a question mark and quotation marks, remember:

• if the question relates to the words in the quote, then the question mark stays in the

quotation marks

For example: She asked him, ‘If you really want to change the world, how are you going to do it?’

• if the question is part of the sentence rather than the quote, then it goes outside the

quotation marks

For example: What did you mean when you said, ‘Little changes make the greatest impact’?

• if it applies to both the words and the sentence, use it just once, inside the quotation marks.

For example: Did anyone ever ask you, ‘Do you like the world the way it is?’

14 Connecting Literacy • Book 2


3 Identify an example of a rhetorical question in the anchor text.

4 Why are rhetorical questions so persuasive?

Page 3

5 For each of the following sentences, decide whether the question mark should be placed inside or

outside the quotation marks.

a She raised her hand and asked, ‘If the tongue is so important, why don’t we learn more about it’

b When can we use a fact, such as ‘the tongue print is unique, just like fingerprints’

c What if I ask you, ‘What do you need to learn to make better life choices’

Part C: The interrobang?!

The interrobang is the combination of a question mark with an exclamation mark (?!) or the

combination of multiple question marks and exclamation marks (!?!). While the interrobang is

certainly not a formal technique, it is becoming more acceptable in informal written language. It is

still a non‐standard form of punctuation but it is used to show an exclamation that takes the form

of a question.

6 In which of the following texts is it appropriate to use an interrobang for emphasis?

An email or text message to a friend

An email or letter to the principal

An advertisement or marketing material

An information or research report

A speech to show emphasis

An analytical essay

7 Can you think of any other written texts where it is appropriate to use an interrobang?

8 a Revise your speech to use exclamation marks to evoke different emotions. Although the

audience won’t see them, they will help you use the right tone.

b Rhetorical questions are compelling in persuasive writing. Have you used any rhetorical questions

in your speech? Revise your speech to include at least one.

Page 20

I understand the impact exclamation and question marks have on a written text: ______ / 5

Notice the types of texts in other subjects that use exclamation and/or question marks,

particularly in quotes. Be inquisitive about how and why these marks are used.

TAKE IT

WITH YOU

1.6 Persuasive punctuation 15


1.7

Persuasive spelling

Part A: Prefixes

L E A R N I N G

I N T E N T I O N :

To understand how

prefixes and suffixes

impact words

http://mea.digital/

CL2_1_7

A prefix is a group of letters added to the beginning of a word to make a new word with a different

meaning. Each prefix has its own meaning. Adding a prefix to a word can make the word opposite

(nonsense), negative (unlikely), or show time (preschool), manner (overgrow), or an amount (monorail).

Even the word ‘prefix’ helps you know what it means:

pre = before fix = to join prefix = to join before a word

Understanding prefixes helps our spelling because we can see patterns in the way words work.

Page 197

Bases and affixes

Prefixes placed before freebase words (words that can stand on their own) generally make a lot

of sense. However, prefixes are often placed before bound bases (these cannot stand on their own).

These are more complex because we see the whole word and can miss the prefix.

For example:

Free base

dis = reverse/negative; respect = to admire

disrespect = to not admire someone/something

Bound base

de = reverse or change; struct = to build

destruct = to destroy something built

STRATEGY

Consider the

meaning and

pronunciation

of familiar

parts of

the word.

1 Complete the following table and note the impact of adding prefixes to different words.

Prefix

in

il

im

ir

(These are all

assimilated prefixes.)

dis

Prefix

meaning

not,

opposite

or without

reverse or

negative of

the word

Base word

possible

valuable

responsible

legal

credit

agree

cover

New word

created

Other words that use

the prefix

2 For each of the following bound bases, select which prefix is correct: in, il, im, or ir. As a rule,

il before l, im before p, m, or b, ir before r, and for all other letters use in.

a

proper

d

adequate

g

grown

b

balance

e

logical

h

sight

c

rational

f

legitimate

i

edible

Page 3

3 Explore the words in the table below from the anchor text. Work out the overall meaning of each

word, using your knowledge of the prefix.

Word Prefix meaning Base word meaning Overall meaning

disheartened

illogical

incredible

dis = reverse or

negative

il = not or

opposite

in = not or

opposite

heartened = to put

heart into

logic = based

on reason

credible = to believe

16 Connecting Literacy • Book 2


Part B: Suffixes

A suffix is a group of letters added to the end of a word to make a new word with a different

meaning. Unlike a prefix, which changes the meaning of a word, a suffix changes the grammatical

function of a word.

Suffixes can create a plural, or change the tense:

For example: declare + s = declares; declare + ed = declared; declare + ing = declaring

Suffixes can also completely change how a word can grammatically be used.

For example: ‘Declare’ is a verb, but add a suffix and suddenly it can be:

declare + er = declarer (changes to a noun = a person)

declare + ation = declaration (changes to a noun = a process)

declare + ative = declarative (changes to an adjective = describing a noun)

4 Change the verb ‘contend’ by adding appropriate suffixes.

Original word Change to … New word

contend past tense They …

contend adjective (describing a noun) They are …

contend noun (person) The …

STRATEGY

Connect the

word to its

function.

5 Using the spelling guide in the Literacy How-to section (page 193), work out the correct spelling

for the following words and their suffixes. Then, identify which spelling generalisation is used for

each word.

a begin + ing

b encourage + ment

c defy + es

d bore + ing

e cool + est

f awesome + ness

g bare + ly

Page 199

Spelling

generalisations

6 a Have you accurately used prefixes and suffixes and in your persuasive speech? How many have

you used?

b Edit your speech, focusing on your spelling throughout.

Page 20

7 Suffixes change the grammatical functions of words. Find an example in the anchor text of a word

that uses a suffix to function in the follow ways:

a Past tense

c Adverb

Page 3

b Adjective

d Noun

I understand how prefixes and suffixes impact words: ______ / 5

Observe how many prefixes and suffixes are used in all your subjects. Their meaning does

not change, so you can feel confident to experiment with changing the affix of different

words to see how many new words you suddenly have to choose from in your own writing.

TAKE IT

WITH YOU

1.7 Persuasive spelling 17


1.8

Persuasive speaking and listening

Part A: Voice and body language

L E A R N I N G

I N T E N T I O N :

To understand

how people speak

persuasively for

different audiences

and purposes

http://mea.digital/

CL2_1_8

Page 202

Voice and body

language

STRATEGY

Identify and

understand

the pieces of

the text.

You might have the most amazingly written speech ever created, but if it is not presented

convincingly, it will not persuade anyone of anything!

How a spoken text is presented has a lot to do with how persuasive it is. This comes down to

two things:

• our voice (tone, pitch, volume, pause, pace, emphasis, and expression

• our body language (eye contact, facial expressions, gestures, and posture).

A speaker can use punctuation and formatting (italics, bold, CAPITAL LETTERS) in their writing

to help them deliver a speech the way it was intended.

1 Read the third paragraph of the anchor text aloud to a classmate as follows (have fun with it!):

a Read it with no expression, don’t present it.

b Pretend your friend is on the other side of the oval and you don’t have a microphone.

c Read it as quickly as possible.

Page 3

d Choose six random words to emphasise while reading the paragraph.

e Film yourself presenting the paragraph using your best voice and body language.

2 What was the most surprising discovery you made while completing this experiment?

3 Which focus was the most effective, persuasive and engaging? Why?

4 Watch the video of the anchor text by scanning the QR code on page 3.

Page 3

5 List the different ways the speaker used their voice and body to be persuasive.

Voice

Body language

18 Connecting Literacy • Book 2


Part B: The active audience

We are surrounded by persuasive texts. People and companies are constantly trying to convince

us to buy something, do something, think something, or feel a certain way about something.

While some spoken and audio-visual persuasive texts are obvious in their intention (for example,

commercials are trying to sell us something), there are plenty of other situations where someone

is speaking persuasively.

An active listener is someone who gives their full attention to the speaker. They are polite, make eye

contact, and ask clarifying questions if appropriate. However, being an active listener is also about

understanding what the speaker is trying to say and knowing how to respond appropriately.

STRATEGY

Pause to

wonder and

connect.

6 Draw an arrow from each of the following situations to the appropriate audience response.

Situation

At a loud music concert

Someone presenting at an assembly

At a tennis match

At a political rally

Someone giving a wedding speech

Appropriate audience response

Being quiet during play and then clapping

and yelling at the winning point

Yelling, singing, talking, and dancing;

clapping at the end of songs

Laughing at appropriate sections, cheering

at the end

Listening quietly, eyes focused on the

speaker, clapping at the end

Talking, chanting, and clapping

7 What are the appropriate ways to be an active audience member when listening to a classmate’s speech?

8 You have spent this unit revising your speech into a quality piece of writing. Now you need to

rehearse your speech so it is ready to be presented to your class. You should rehearse or practise

your speech until you know it well enough so you don’t have to read every word and you can

make eye contact with members of your audience. Rehearsing your speech will also help you to

find a good pace, know where the pauses are, what words need emphasis, and what tone of voice

works best in which parts.

9 Think about presenting your speech. What are you feeling most confident about?

10 Think about presenting your speech. What are you feeling most nervous about? How might you

overcome these nerves?

I understand how people speak persuasively for different audiences and purposes: ______ / 5

How can you use your understanding of voice and body language to improve your speaking

skills in other subjects? How can you use your understanding of being an active listener to

improve your listening skills?

TAKE IT

WITH YOU

1.8 Persuasive speaking and listening 19


1.9

My persuasive speech draft

20 Connecting Literacy • Book 2


M Y P E R S U A S I V E S P E E C H D R A F T

1.9 My persuasive speech draft 21


1.9

My persuasive speech draft

22 Connecting Literacy • Book 2


Persuasive literacy learning ladder

Writing task: Write a persuasive speech on something you are passionate about.

1.5 I am confident

I can effectively

question a

persuasive text

to identify the

main contention,

intention, and

key arguments.

2.5 I am confident

I can develop

arguments to

build towards a

contention and

to use evidence

to support these

ideas when writing

persuasive texts.

3.5 I am confident I

can use appropriate

structural elements

and features

(including a variety of

persuasive devices)

when writing

persuasive texts.

4.5 I am confident

I can control my

use of language

to evoke specific

feelings in my

audience when

writing persuasive

texts.

5.5 I am

confident I can

control a variety

of appropriate

language features

(including subject–

verb agreement)

when writing

persuasive texts.

6.5 I am

confident I can

make informed

and conscious

decisions when

using punctuation

for effect when

writing persuasive

texts.

7.5 I am confident

I can use different

strategies to spell

unfamiliar words

(particularly those

using prefixes and

suffixes) when

writing persuasive

texts.

8.5 I am confident

I can rehearse and

present persuasive

texts that show my

understanding of a

variety of persuasive

and presentation

techniques.

1.4 I have

questioned my

speech to ensure

my contention,

intention, and

arguments

are clear.

2.4 I have

effectively

connected my

arguments with

my contention and

used evidence with

purpose to support

these ideas.

3.4 I have effectively

used appropriate

structural elements

and features

(including a variety of

persuasive devices)

for persuasive effect.

4.4 I have

effectively used

language to

evoke specific and

desired feelings in

my audience.

5.4 I have

effectively used

appropriate

language features

to write a text that

will be spoken.

6.4 I have

effectively used

punctuation to

improve the tone

of my speech

and add to its

persuasiveness.

7.4 I have used

different spelling

strategies to

accurately spell

unfamiliar words,

including those

with prefixes

and suffixes.

8.4 I have presented

a well-rehearsed

speech that showed

my understanding

and application

of persuasive

and presentation

techniques.

1.3 I have

experimented

with different

ways to make

my contention,

intention, and

arguments clear

in my speech.

2.3 I have

experimented –

during my

revisions – with

ways to connect

my evidence to

my arguments,

and my arguments

to my contention.

3.3 I have

experimented –

during my revisions –

with how best to

use the structural

elements and

language features of

persuasive writing

for effect.

4.3 I have

experimented –

during my

revisions – with

different ways to

use language for

emotional effect.

5.3 I have

experimented –

during my

revisions –

with ways to

use language

features to create

a spoken text.

6.3 I have

experimented –

during my

revisions – with

ways to use

punctuation to

enhance my

writing.

7.3 I have tried

spelling unfamiliar

words that use

prefixes and

suffixes.

8.3 I have

experimented –

during my

rehearsals – with

different ways to

present my speech

so it could be

as persuasive

as possible.

1.2 I have

explained my

contention,

intention, and

arguments

throughout

my speech.

2.2 I have used

appropriate

arguments

and evidence

to support my

contention overall.

3.2 I have followed

the structural

elements of a

persuasive speech

and included several

persuasive devices.

4.2 I have included

some words that

show a positive or

negative feeling

towards my topic.

5.2 I have shown

an understanding

of the difference

between written

and spoken texts

when creating

my speech.

6.2 I have

accurately used

a variety of

punctuation

independently.

7.2 I have

independently

edited my spelling

errors.

8.2 I have presented

my speech using

different voice and

body language

strategies.

1.1 I have

directly stated

my contention,

intention, and

arguments.

2.1 I have included

arguments and

evidence in my

speech.

3.1 I have followed

the structural

elements of a

persuasive speech

with support and

included a few

persuasive devices.

4.1 I have included

some emotive

words with

support.

5.1 I have written

a text that is

intended to

be spoken.

6.1 I have

accurately used

punctuation with

support.

7.1 I have edited

my spelling errors

with support.

8.1 I have presented

my persuasive

speech.

1.0 Not shown 2.0 Not shown 3.0 Not shown 4.0 Not shown 5.0 Not shown 6.0 Not shown 7.0 Not shown 8.0 Not shown

1 Comprehension 2 Planning and

writing

3 Structures and

features

4 Vocabulary 5 Syntax 6 Punctuation 7 Spelling 8 Speaking and

listening

Persuasive literacy learning ladder 23

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