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Connecting Literacy Student Folio 3 Sample Pages

Connecting Literacy targets whole-school literacy improvement for Secondary students and teachers. What is Connecting Literacy? A developmental literacy program for Secondary schools, including: -3 student folios -3 teacher books -100s of video lessons hosted by literacy consultant, Hayley Harrison. Who is Connecting Literacy for? Secondary school students and teachers who: -are embarking on whole-school literacy improvement, OR -integrate literacy skills in the English classroom, OR -attend a timetabled literacy block. How does Connecting Literacy work? With cumulative skill development over three books where students: -Model: read and annotate an ‘anchor text’ – an authentic piece of student writing -Practise: complete units of work in class or as homework with video support from Hayley Harrison, literacy coach -Apply: draft their own text directly into the writing pages included in each student folio. Why do you need Connecting Literacy? -Flexibility: Use the series over three consecutive years or use the student folios in parallel to differentiate, support and extend. -Support: Video lessons, teacher books with answers and suggested programs, a literacy skills ‘toolkit’ and on-demand P.D. sessions will support experienced and out-of-discipline teachers alike. -Evidence: Student folios are designed as a learning pathway with built-in student reflection, metacognition and formative assessment (with developmental rubrics). -Whole-school: Use Connecting Literacy to underpin your whole school literacy plan and create a common metalanguage around literacy.

Connecting Literacy targets whole-school literacy improvement for Secondary students and teachers.

What is Connecting Literacy?

A developmental literacy program for Secondary schools, including:

-3 student folios
-3 teacher books
-100s of video lessons hosted by literacy consultant, Hayley Harrison.

Who is Connecting Literacy for?

Secondary school students and teachers who:

-are embarking on whole-school literacy improvement, OR
-integrate literacy skills in the English classroom, OR
-attend a timetabled literacy block.

How does Connecting Literacy work?

With cumulative skill development over three books where students:

-Model: read and annotate an ‘anchor text’ – an authentic piece of student writing
-Practise: complete units of work in class or as homework with video support from Hayley Harrison, literacy coach
-Apply: draft their own text directly into the writing pages included in each student folio.

Why do you need Connecting Literacy?

-Flexibility: Use the series over three consecutive years or use the student folios in parallel to differentiate, support and extend.
-Support: Video lessons, teacher books with answers and suggested programs, a literacy skills ‘toolkit’ and on-demand P.D. sessions will support experienced and out-of-discipline teachers alike.
-Evidence: Student folios are designed as a learning pathway with built-in student reflection, metacognition and formative assessment (with developmental rubrics).
-Whole-school: Use Connecting Literacy to underpin your whole school literacy plan and create a common metalanguage around literacy.

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Connecting

Literacy

‘… splendid and spectacular like I have glimpsed in the movies’

Authored by

Hayley

Harrison

and a team of students, just like you.

sed in the movies’

Student

Folio


Connecting

Literacy

Student

Folio

Authored by

Hayley

Harrison

and a team of students, just like you.

‘… splendid and spectacular like I have glimpsed in the movies’


Connecting Literacy

Student Folio 3

1st edition

Hayley Harrison

Publisher: Catherine Charles-Brown

Project editor: Naomi Saligari

Copy editor: Naomi Saligari

Proofreader: Kelly Robinson

Cover and text design: Ana Cosma (anacosma.com)

Typesetter: Paul Ryan

Illustrator: QBS Learning

The author and publisher are grateful to the following

for permission to reproduce copyright material:

Cover: Stocksy/Stacy Allen

Alamy/imageBroker, 71; iStockphoto/no_limit_

pictures (left), 86, /splendens, 57, /suprun (pie),

154, /syntika, 51, / t_kimura (Ace of hearts), 154,

/ Yaslex (right), 86. Extract from Defining Moments

in the History of Abstract Art by Phillip Barcio and

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Warning: It is recommended that Aboriginal and

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deceased persons.

Matilda Education Australia acknowledges all Aboriginal

and Torres Strait Islander Traditional Custodians of

Country and recognises their continuing connection to

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to Elders past and present.

First published in 2023 by Matilda Education Australia,

an imprint of Meanwhile Education Pty Ltd

Melbourne, Australia

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E: customersupport@matildaed.com.au

www.matildaeducation.com.au

Copyright © Hayley Harrison 2023

Copyright © Matilda Education 2023

The moral rights of the authors have been asserted.

All rights reserved. Except under the conditions

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(the Act) and subsequent amendments, no part of

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Publication data

Author: Hayley Harrison

Title: Connecting Literacy Student Folio 3

ISBN: 9780655091431

A catalogue record for this

book is available from the

National Library of Australia

Printed in Malaysia by Vivar Printing

Oct-2022


Connecting

Literacy

Contents

Introduction to literacy .........................

iv

Unit 1: Persuasive literacy ..................... 2

Unit 2: Procedural literacy ..................... 24

Unit 3: Imaginative literacy .................... 48

Unit 4: Informative literacy .................... 70

Unit 5: Analytical literacy ...................... 94

Unit 6: Reflective literacy ...................... 118

Unit 7: Comparative literacy .................. 140

Literacy How-to .................................. 164

Comprehension ............................... 164

Planning and writing ......................... 167

Structures and features ...................... 174

Vocabulary ..................................... 181

Syntax ........................................... 183

Punctuation .................................... 188

Spelling ......................................... 191

Speaking and listening ....................... 200

Introduction to literacy

iii


Introduction to literacy

Literacy is a complex amalgamation of skills that interweave and are applied when

reading, writing, speaking, and listening. The goal of systematically and explicitly

teaching individual literacy skills is to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of

students’ communication. Mastering literacy skills requires a person to understand,

consolidate, and build automaticity in individual skills and then combine these skills

to develop as a critical reader, coherent writer, and confident speaker.

The literacy skills and strategies presented in this book are designed to be individually

taught, explored, consolidated, and built upon. This learning is then explicitly transferred

beyond the classroom to help students in every part of their school and everyday

lives. Teaching is supported by an instructional model that consists of prior knowledge

activation, explicit teaching, collaboration, independent practise, and reflection. There

are layers of teaching and learning support, including links to comprehension strategies,

writing organisers, and formative assessment opportunities at a lesson and unit level.

How to use Connecting Literacy: Model, practise, apply

This book is divided into seven units – which are based on the different text types that students

will encounter during school and beyond – and one Literacy How-to section, which is a complete

reference guide that can be referred to throughout the book:

• Unit 1: Persuasive literacy

• Unit 2: Procedural literacy

• Unit 3: Imaginative literacy

• Unit 4: Informative literacy

• Unit 5: Analytical literacy

• Unit 6: Reflective literacy

• Unit 7: Comparative literacy

Literacy How-to section.

In each unit, the students model, practise, and apply specific literacy skills to a different text type.

Model

Each of the seven units begins with an anchor text. Each anchor text is a model that is

designed to ‘anchor’ the students’ learning as they complete the activities in the unit.

The anchor texts in this series were all written by students in years 7–10, from schools

across Australia.

Practise

Each unit has eight lessons that focus on core literacy skills and strategies:

1 comprehension

5 syntax

2 planning and writing

6 punctuation

3 structures and features

7 spelling

4 vocabulary

8 speaking and listening.

At the end of the book, there is a Literacy How-to section. This is a comprehensive

literacy reference guide that is designed to support teachers and students by providing

content, skills, and strategies that can be applied across the units. This section is

designed to connect with prior knowledge activation, and to provide opportunities

for clarification and extension of understanding and skill development.

iv Connecting Literacy • Book 3


Apply

In each lesson, comprehension strategies are suggested to help the students to complete the

activities successfully. Each unit includes writing pages for students to use to draft and edit their

own original texts. By containing their learning and application in the same book, students can

build a comprehensive learning folio.

STRATEGY

Pause to

wonder and

connect.

Connecting Literacy

Model, practise, apply

Comparative texts

SPEAKING &

LISTENING

3 Apply

MY WRITING PAGES

2 Practise

COMPREHENSION

Persuasive texts

Refllective texts

SPELLING

PUNCTUATION

1 Model

ANCHOR TEXT

A model text written

by a student,

just like you

PLANNING &

WRITING

STRUCTURES &

FEATURES

Procedural texts

Analytical texts

SYNTAX

VOCABULARY

Imaginative texts

Informative texts

LITERACY HOW-TO

Your go-to literacy reference guide, to support your every step

Reflect

Unit confidence scores: At the start of each unit, students are invited to rate their confidence about

reading, writing, speaking, and listening to the particular text type. The intention is that students will

return at the end of the unit to score their learning confidence again and to celebrate their success.

Lesson confidence scores: Every lesson in the Connecting Literacy series culminates in students

giving themselves a score out of five: this self-assessment promotes students’ awareness of their

learning and understanding. This self-assessment also provides an opportunity for teachers to note

any areas that require further class time or clarification.

The students’ learning in each unit is brought together with a learning ladder. Using this chart,

the students can self-assess their final writing and speaking and listening task (these tasks have

a speaking and listening icon in the margin) and reflect on their learning throughout the unit.

Introduction to literacy

v


Persuasive literacy

http://mea.

digital/CL3_1_0

Persuasive writing is opinion writing that attempts to convince a reader of a particular

point of view. It is non-fiction writing that intends to influence how the reader thinks, feels,

acts, or makes decisions about a particular idea, issue, or proposal. These texts use various

persuasive writing techniques to achieve their purpose; the techniques used are selected

to have the most impact on the text’s particular audience. Many different text types can

be persuasive, including speeches, advertisements, debates, essays, letters, reviews, flyers,

and articles.

Why do we create persuasive texts?

The most important element of a persuasive text is that it is created to convince someone of the

writer’s point of view. The text expresses how the writer thinks and feels about a topic, but its goal

is to make the audience think and feel the same way as the author. People are inspired to write

persuasive texts when they feel strongly about a topic, which is why persuasive writing is usually

highly emotional. Authors of persuasive texts change the type of language and devices they use

to persuade, depending on who they are addressing. This is why a persuasive text written for

an organisation sounds very different from a persuasive text written for a friend.

1 In your own words, explain why having good persuasive skills is important.

2 Where might you be asked to write persuasively in the future?

Page 3

3 Read the anchor text. This text is a model that will help you to ‘anchor’ your learning as you

complete the activities in this unit. It will also assist you to draft your own persuasive speech.

The anchor text was written by a student, just like you.

Rate my

confidence

At the end of each lesson, you will rate how confident you are about your

progress through the unit. Be as honest as you can; it’s your learning!

4 How confident do you currently feel about reading, writing, speaking, and listening to persuasive

texts? Give yourself a confidence score out of five. Come back at the end of the unit to score your

learning confidence again.

Start of the unit: DD \ MM \ YYYY

End of the unit: DD \ MM \ YYYY

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

Not very

confident

Somewhat

confident

Confident

Highly

confident

Super

confident

Not very

confident

Somewhat

confident

Confident

Highly

confident

Super

confident

2 Connecting Literacy • Book 3


Anchor text

Persuasive speech

Defend yourself 101

I’m hoping you all feel very safe, sitting here together today. But I’m sure you have all felt

unsafe at some time in your life and I feel our school has a responsibility to help protect

us, however possible. Hello, my fellow peers, you all know my name is Angela and I’m

speaking with you today to try and protect you by explaining why I believe our school

should offer self-defence classes. We need to know how to defend ourselves in school,

on the streets, and at work – whether it be from physical, sexual, or other assault. So many

people (especially us young people) feel hopeless when fighting against someone stronger,

but we can change that feeling of hopelessness if only our school had self-defence classes.

Let me start by acknowledging that most people don’t feel like they have the strength or

power to defend themselves properly. But the effect of self-defence classes is to give people

the skills and confidence to protect themselves whenever necessary. Throughout history,

sexual harassment rates have always been too high. In 2017, high schools in New South

Wales collected survey results to discover that 30 per cent of boys and 32 per cent of girls

experienced sexual harassment on school grounds! If we don’t start learning self-defence

at a young age, how are we meant to defend ourselves in the very near and real future?

But these vital classes are not just to protect the vulnerable victim. Dr Milkovic, head of

psychology at the Royal Melbourne Hospital, explains how many concerned bystanders

think of themselves as someone too weak and too powerless to make a change.

Through participating in a life-changing self-defence class though, the next time we

witness an innocent person being harassed, we will have the critical knowledge and

confidence to step in. How can our school possibly say no to something that would

benefit our life and the innumerable lives of those around us?

I understand that some of you may fear you could get injured in this class. However,

even in a normal PE class, there are chances of getting injured. In a PE class, our teachers

support us in how to avoid getting injured, don’t they? Well, self-defence classes are

literally a class about how NOT to get injured! Surely your parents would like you to be

able to pre-empt and prevent an attack. They want you to be safe, don’t they?

So, there seems no logical reason why our school shouldn’t start self-defence classes as

soon as possible! Not only will these classes help students defend themselves against

predators, but they will give us confidence to stop being bystanders and look after our

friends in a safe and responsible way. At the end of the class, I encourage you to step up

and sign the petition paper to bring self-defence classes on campus. With little effort,

it can be your first step in knowing how to protect yourself properly.

Student author: Angela (Wren) Truong

Audience: Angela’s class

http://mea.digital/

CL3_1_A

Persuasive literacy ~ Unit  1 3


1.1

L E A R N I N G

I N T E N T I O N :

Persuasive comprehension

To understand the overall

purpose of a persuasive text

Part A: Question the text

http://mea.digital/

CL3_1_1

A great strategy to use with any text that you need to understand is to question the text: What is the

text saying? How and why is this being said?

Read the anchor text and then answer the following questions.

1 How does Angela want to change her school?

Page 3

STRATEGY

Ask questions

to find answers.

2 What are self-defence classes designed to do?

3 Why does Angela think that sexual harassment rates ‘have always been too high’?

4 What does Angela mean when she says, ‘… defend ourselves in the very near and real future’?

5 Why does Angela acknowledge ‘some’ people might not agree with her proposal?

6 Why would some people fear getting injured in the self-defence class?

7 How can signing a petition be the first step in the students being able to protect themselves?

8 a Answer the two questions in the table below.

Questions

Factual questions:

The answers to factual questions

are explicitly stated in the text.

1 How does answering a factual question about a text help

you understand that text?

Interpretive questions:

Interpretive questions can have

more than one correct answer.

To find the answer/s to an

interpretive question, you need

to ‘read between the lines’

of the text.

1 How does answering an interpretive question about

a text help you understand that text?

4 Connecting Literacy • Book 3


Re-read Questions 1 to 7 opposite. Which questions are factual questions (F)? Which questions

are interpretive questions (I)? Write the letter ‘F’ or ‘I’ next to each question.

Part B: Contention and intention

To fully understand a persuasive text, you need to consider the text’s overall purpose: Why was it

written? What does the author want you to think after reading the text (the contention or main idea)?

What does the author want you to do after reading the text (the intention or call to action)?

Page 164

Comprehension

strategies

9 Annotate the anchor text by numbering the paragraphs and labelling the three main arguments.

10 In the table below:

a write the three arguments you identified in the anchor text in Question 9.

b summarise the evidence the author used to support each argument.

c identify what type of evidence the author used (anecdote, statistics, expert opinion, etc.).

Page 3

STRATEGY

Identify and

understand

the pieces

of the text.

Argument Evidence Type of evidence

Argument one:

Argument two:

Argument three:

11 These three arguments work together to build one overall argument or main idea. What is the

anchor text’s contention?

Page 3

12 What is the anchor text asking the audience to do? What is the text’s intention?

I understand the overall purpose of a persuasive text: / 5

Next time you work with a long text in any subject, number and label the paragraphs.

Challenge yourself to question the text and question your interpretation of the text.

TAKE IT

WITH YOU

1.1 Persuasive comprehension 5


1.2

L E A R N I N G

I N T E N T I O N :

Persuasive planning and writing

To understand how to

plan and develop my

persuasive speech

Part A: Develop your arguments

http://mea.digital/

CL3_1_2

Page 20

Writing a persuasive text is more than expressing how strongly you feel about a topic. You need to

spend some time thinking about why the topic is important, what other people might think about

the topic, and how you can be as convincing as possible in the time you have allocated.

Your writing task for this unit is to write a speech, which will be similar to the anchor text

in purpose, audience and length. In this speech, you will try to convince your classmates to

sign a petition about making a particular change at your school.

1 Use the concept map in Figure 1.1 below to brainstorm all the things you think should be changed

at your school.

Curriculum or classes or learning

Resources or facilities

Other

Things that

could be

changed in

my school

Figure 1.1

Activities or events

2 Using the ideas you came up with in your brainstorm, decide which change you feel most passionate

about. Next, write down three arguments or reasons why this change should happen.

3 What could be a counter argument to your idea for a change at your school? Which of your

arguments proves why the counter argument is invalid?

4 Taking into consideration all your points, what are you arguing overall? What is the contention of

your speech?

6 Connecting Literacy • Book 3


Part B: Revise your text for your audience and purpose

Keep in mind that your speech will be presented to your class; this will change the way you approach

drafting your speech. The more clearly you can predict how your speech will make your classmates

think and feel, the better you will be able to specifically and purposefully write your speech to

achieve your intention.

5 After listening to your speech, what do you want your audience to do? What is the intention

of your speech?

STRATEGY

Understand

the purpose

of the text

or feature.

6 How does your audience currently feel about your topic?

7 What else interests your audience? What do they care about? How can you use your audience’s

interests in your speech?

8 Using the information from Questions 5, 6, and 7, decide what evidence will connect to your

audience most successfully, while supporting your arguments.

Arguments

Argument one:

Argument two:

Evidence

Page 172

Finding

appropriate

evidence

Argument three:

Page 3

9 Using the anchor text as a model and the arguments and evidence you identified in Question 8,

write a draft of your speech. You can write your draft in the writing pages at the end of this unit.

We will continue to revise your speech throughout the unit, so for now, write the first draft, knowing

it doesn’t have to be perfect, but it is enough to start experimenting with.

Page 20

Page 172

Turning a plan

into a draft

I understand how to plan and develop my persuasive speech: / 5

Next time you are asked to write a specific text type in another class, first consider the

text’s audience and purpose. Then, directly match your writing to the audience and

purpose you have identified. This is particularly useful in assessments and exams.

TAKE IT

WITH YOU

1.2 Persuasive planning and writing 7


1.3

Persuasive structures

and features

L E A R N I N G

I N T E N T I O N :

To understand the key structural

elements and language features

of persuasive speeches

Part A: Persuasive speeches

http://mea.digital/

CL3_1_3

Page 3

STRATEGY

Identify and

understand

the pieces of

the text.

The structural elements and language features of a persuasive speech require the speech to be

planned in a similar way to an essay but written quite differently. This is because the text is being

written to be spoken and this is not a common way to write.

1 In the table below, using the anchor text as a guide, identify the key structural elements and

language features of the different parts of a persuasive speech.

The structural elements of a persuasive speech

Introduction Body paragraphs Conclusion

The language features of a persuasive speech

2 Considering the structural elements and the language features you identified in Question 1, what

are the similarities and differences between a persuasive speech and a persuasive essay?

Page 174

Text forms

Similarities

• They both have paragraphs.

Differences

• Speeches use personal pronouns (I, you, me);

essays do not.

Part B: Persuasive devices

Persuasive devices are essentially rhetoric, which is the use and manipulation of language to

convey a message. Strong persuasive texts use of a variety of rhetorical devices to sway or convince

the audience or reader. Combined, these persuasive devices can make a text very convincing.

8 Connecting Literacy • Book 3


One of the most powerful, yet subtle, uses of rhetoric is the appeal. Appeals use a variety of other

persuasive devices to help achieve their goal: to connect to the intellectual, moral, or emotional

responses of the audience. A persuasive text can appeal to anything. Aristotle categorised appeals

into three main categories: ethos, pathos, and logos.

Type of appeal

Ethos: appeal to ethics

Pathos: appeal to emotions

Logos: appeal to logic

What the appeal does

The author builds credibility, so the audience trusts what they

are saying.

The author makes the audience feel certain emotions about specific

people and things.

The author uses reason and logic, facts, and experts to validate

the arguments they are presenting.

3 Match each example from the anchor text below to the type of appeal it is using.

Example from the anchor text

‘Hello, my fellow peers, you all know my name is Angela and

I’m speaking with you today to try and protect you’

‘… most people don’t feel like they have the strength or power

to defend themselves properly’

‘How can our school possibly say no to something that would benefit

our life and the innumerable lives of those around us?’

Type of appeal

(ethos, pathos, or logos)

Page 3

4 In the anchor text, highlight and label one example of each of the following persuasive devices:

rule of three, statistics, generalisation, rhetorical question, emotive language, and alliteration.

5 What other persuasive devices can you find in the anchor text? Highlight and label these devices.

6 Persuasive devices rarely work in isolation, as shown by this sentence from the anchor text:

‘How can our school possibly say no to something that would benefit our life and the innumerable

lives of those around us?’

Page 178

Literary and

persuasive

devices

STRATEGY

Pause to

wonder and

connect.

a How many devices can you identify in this sentence?

b Describe the effect of the persuasive devices working together in this sentence.

7 Identify the structural elements and language features in your speech. What persuasive devices have

you used in your speech? How could you make your speech more persuasive? Revise your draft.

Page 20

I understand the key structural elements and language features of persuasive speeches: / 5

Persuasive devices are not just for persuasive texts. Can you use the ‘rule of three’ or

emotive language in another piece of writing this week?

TAKE IT

WITH YOU

1.3 Persuasive structures and features 9


1.4

http://mea.digital/

CL3_1_4

Persuasive vocabulary

Part A: Emotive language

L E A R N I N G

A text that makes someone feel something is far more likely to convince its reader or audience to

think something or to do something. By using language that evokes emotion, writers connect to

their readers in a way that is memorable and persuasive.

I N T E N T I O N :

To understand emotive

language, denotation, and

connotation in persuasive

writing

1 In the following sentences, highlight the emotive words and identify what emotion is being

expressed by these words.

a The innocent bystander stood frozen, unable to tear his eyes away.

b The vicious thug saw red and snapped as she lunged closer.

c The underestimated victim took a deep breath and concentrated on what they had learnt.

2 Consider the three people in Question 1. What judgements did you make about these people?

How did you interpret their situations? How are they feeling?

a The bystander The bystander is too scared to do anything.

b The thug


c The victim

3 Underline the emotive words in paragraph three of the anchor text.

Page 3

4 The text below claims that selling junk food in a cafeteria is a terrible thing. Change the bolded

emotive words so the text claims that selling junk food in a cafeteria is a great thing.

I walk into the cafeteria and the stench of deep-fried oil slams into my face. I look across the bainmarie

and all I can see are the greasy towers of processed food. It all looks like an oil factory ready

to explode. I can’t understand why, in this day and age, we are still putting the lives of vulnerable

children at risk by normalising such rubbish as ‘food’ that is fit for consumption.

Part B: Denotation and connotation

Every word has a standard definition or a literal meaning, which is called a word’s denotation.

Many words also have a connotation, which is the feeling evoked by the word; a connotation

is a suggested or implied meaning.

For example: The sandpaper is gritty. That side of town is gritty.

(Denotation: having (Connotation: that side of town is rough; it’s a tough

a rough texture)

neighbourhood with high incidences of crime)

10 Connecting Literacy • Book 3


A word’s connotation can be further classified as being either negative or positive.

5 From the anchor text, choose a word with a negative connotation and a word with a positive

connotation, then complete the following table.

Word

from the

anchor text

Positive or

negative

connotation

Denotation (definition

or literal meaning)

Connotation (implied meaning)

Page 3

Vital Positive Something that is

necessary

Most important thing that will help

your life

6 For each of the words in the table below, identify a synonym that has a different connotation.

Positive connotation Neutral connotation Negative connotation

Infatuated Highly interested Obsessed

Page 181

Word meanings

Assertive

Timid

Mature

Pushy

Giving

7 Decide whether each of the following words shows someone is not very determined, or determined,

or very determined.

wavering, adamant, headstrong, faltering, inflexible, persistent,

rigid, stubborn, tenacious, hesitant, unrelenting

Not very determined:

Determined:

Very determined:

8 How do you want your audience to feel during your speech?

Page 20

9 Revise your speech to appeal to your audience’s feelings. Experiment with your language choices

to make them more emotive. Include more descriptive words so your audience knows how to feel

about what you are talking about.

I understand emotive language, denotation, and connotation in persuasive writing: / 5

Challenge yourself to find and use emotive language, with both positive and negative

connotations, in other subjects.

TAKE IT

WITH YOU

1.4 Persuasive vocabulary 11


1.5

Persuasive syntax

L E A R N I N G

I N T E N T I O N :

To understand the differences between

spoken and written language, including

maintaining the subject–verb agreement

Part A: Spoken versus written language

http://mea.digital/

CL3_1_5

Page 202

Spoken versus

written language

The differences between spoken and written language go beyond the different words and syntax

(sentence structure) used in these two types of language. In written texts, we use punctuation to help

convey the meaning of the words; whereas, in spoken texts, we use our voice and body language to

assist us to convey our meaning to our audience. However, these differences become blurred when

we write a text that is going to be spoken.

1 What are the key similarities and differences between spoken language and written language?

Page 3

2 How have the following sentences in the anchor text been written to make them sound more

like the way a person speaks?

a ‘I’m hoping you all feel very safe, sitting here together today.’

b ‘So many people (especially us young people) feel hopeless when fighting against someone …’

STRATEGY

Connect with

the language

choices.

3 a Record yourself speaking naturally about aliens for 10 seconds. Transcribe what you said exactly,

and then revise it to fix the grammatical errors, repetitions, etc.

b Reflect on your spoken and written texts about aliens. What are the differences between your

spoken and written syntax?

A spoken text is not always informal. Although the structural elements and language features of

a formal speech are similar to those used in a formal written text, there are still key differences

between these two text types.

4 What are the differences between a formal speech and a formal written text?

Formal speech

Formal written text

A formal written text:

• has long, complex sentences

• repeats phrases and ideas less frequently

than spoken texts

• uses simple transitions and paragraphing

to break up ideas

12 Connecting Literacy • Book 3


Formal speech (cont.)

Formal written text (cont.)

• uses punctuation to control the tone of

the text and to present ideas clearly

• is more likely to use nominalisation than

a speech

• is less likely to use pictures and graphics

to support the ideas in the text

• uses specific devices (expert opinion, logic

and reason, statistics, etc.) to present ideas.

Part B: Subject–verb agreement

Every sentence needs a subject (someone or something doing something) and a predicate

(which includes a main verb to show what the subject is doing). In English sentences, the subject

and the verb must ‘agree’ with each other. What this means is:

• if a subject is singular (one), the verb must also be singular For example: He suggests

• if a subject is plural (more than one), the verb must also be plural. For example: They suggest

Page 186

Subject and

predicate

The exception is the first-person pronoun ‘I’, which uses a plural verb. For example: I suggest

In the past tense, the subject–verb agreement stays the same regardless of whether the subject

is singular or plural. For example: The teacher suggested we should sign the petition.

The teachers suggested we should sign the petition.

The further apart the subject is to the verb, the more difficult it can be to make sure they agree.

Watch out for prepositional phrases, brackets, and appositives trying to distract you!

Page 187

Tense

When there are multiple subjects in a sentence, you need to concentrate very specifically on the

subject–verb agreement. To make sure the subjects and verbs agree, look at the subjects in the

sentence and consider: Are the subjects all singular? Are the subjects joined with a conjunction

(for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so)?

5 In each sentence, underline the subject/s and circle the verb. Do the subjects and verbs agree?

a The room of empty chairs waits for the bell to ring.

b The instructor, a specialist in self-defence, speak from experience.

STRATEGY

Connect the

subject and

the predicate.

c Either Elijah or Emilia is the class assistant today.

d The task and the resources is waiting for submission.

6 Does your speech read like a text that is intended to be spoken? How can you find the balance

between writing formally and writing a text that is intended to be spoken to your class?

Make sure your subjects and verbs all agree!

Page 20

I understand the differences between spoken and written language,

including maintaining the subject–verb agreement: / 5

Hearing and seeing the differences between formal spoken and written texts can help

you build sophistication in your writing. Be courageous and experiment with writing in

a way that is very different to the way you speak. And, as your sentences become more

complex, don’t forget to check that your subjects and verbs still agree!

TAKE IT

WITH YOU

1.5 Persuasive syntax 13


1.6

L E A R N I N G

Persuasive punctuation

I N T E N T I O N :

To understand the impact

exclamation and question

marks have on a written text

Part A: Exclamation marks!

http://mea.digital/

CL3_1_6

Exclamation marks show emphasis and emotion in writing. They are powerful punctuation marks –

particularly in persuasive texts – but they need to be controlled to ensure the exclamation marks

used have the greatest impact. The exclamation mark is often considered to be an informal

punctuation mark, particularly when it is used repeatedly in a text.

Page 188

Types of

punctuation

1 Consider the following sentences from the anchor text that use exclamation marks. What impact

does each exclamation mark have on the sentence?

a ‘… high schools in New South Wales collected survey results to discover that 30 per cent of boys

and 32 per cent of girls experienced sexual harassment on school grounds!’

Page 3

b ‘Well, self-defence classes are literally a class about how NOT to get injured!’

2 Write a sentence, using an exclamation mark, to show each of the following emotions.

a Frustration

b Passion

c Determination

3 Why is it beneficial to use exclamation marks in a written speech, considering that the audience

will hear the speech and not read it (that is, the audience won’t ‘see’ the exclamation marks)?

Part B: Question marks?

Questions in speeches are called rhetorical questions because the question is a statement; the

answer is implied, and the speaker is not expecting an answer from the audience. Asking a rhetorical

question is a powerful persuasive device that can be used in both written and spoken persuasive

writing. However, they have to be controlled: asking a few rhetorical questions can be persuasive;

asking too many can be overwhelming!

4 In the anchor text, why did Angela choose to finish each body paragraph with a rhetorical question?

Page 3

STRATEGY

Connect the

punctuation

to what is

being said.

14 Connecting Literacy • Book 3


When using question marks alongside quotation marks:

• if the question relates to the quote, then the question mark stays inside the quotation marks

• if the question is part of the sentence, then the question mark goes outside the quotation marks.

For example: Then he asked, ‘Why are we doing this?’ Why did he say, ‘This has been done’?

5 In the following sentences, decide whether the question mark should go inside or outside

the quotation marks.

a Has anyone ever asked, ‘Why haven’t we done this already’

b What do you do when someone says, ‘I can’t help you right now’

c We need to ask each other, ‘Do you feel safe today’

Part C: The interrobang?!

The interrobang is the combination of an exclamation mark with a question mark (for example,

?! or !?! or any other combination). This punctuation mark is used to show that a question is being

asked with significant emphasis or emotion. The interrobang is a non-standard form of punctuation

that is becoming more acceptable in informal texts.

6 List the different types of text where it would be appropriate to use an interrobang.

7 The following sentences do not use an interrobang correctly. Explain why.

a I think self-defence classes are a great idea!?!

b Dear Principal Le, why don’t we have self-defence classes already!?!

8 a Revise your speech to use at least one exclamation mark for effect. Although the audience won’t

see the exclamation mark, it will help you use the right tone when you deliver your speech.

b Rhetorical questions are compelling in persuasive writing. Have you used any rhetorical questions

in your speech? Revise your speech to include at least one.

Page 20

c Check you have used punctuation accurately in your speech. While the audience won’t see

your punctuation, it will help you find the right pace, tone, and when to pause as you deliver

your speech.

I understand the impact exclamation and question marks have on a written text: / 5

It is easy to overlook punctuation. Challenge yourself to notice punctuation such as

exclamation and question marks in other subjects, and to observe how they are used.

TAKE IT

WITH YOU

1.6 Persuasive punctuation 15


1.7

Persuasive spelling

L E A R N I N G

I N T E N T I O N :

To understand how prefixes

and suffixes impact words

Part A: Prefixes

http://mea.digital/

CL3_1_7

A prefix is a group of letters that is added to the beginning of a word. Each prefix has its own

meaning; this meaning does not change, regardless of what word the prefix is attached to.

Adding a prefix to a word can make the word opposite (nonfiction) or negative (uncooked).

Prefixes can be used to show time (preservice), manner (overpopulated), or an amount (biannual).

1 Complete the following table and note the impact of adding prefixes to different words.

Page 195

Bases and affixes

Prefix Prefix meaning Base

word

New word

created

Other words that use

the prefix

STRATEGY

Consider the

meaning and

pronunciation

of familiar

parts of

the word.

pre

e

ex

ec

ef

(These are all

assimilated

prefixes.)

before

(for example:

‘preview’ means

‘before viewing’)

out of, from within,

beyond

(for example: ‘exit’

means ‘out of it’)

arrange

fabricated

destined

motion

change

centric

fort

Page 3

2 Consider the following words from the anchor text. Explain how the prefix in each word impacts

the overall meaning of the word.

a Prevent:

b Effect:

c Pre-empt:

3 ‘Predator’ starts with ‘pre’ but does not mean ‘before’. Why does predator start with ‘pre’?

4 The assimilated prefix ‘ob, op, of, oc’ means ‘against, in the way’. Decide which prefix is used

to spell the following words.

Note that we use ‘op’ before p, ‘of’ before f, ‘oc’ before c, and ‘ob’ before all other letters.

e, ex, ec, ef ob, op, of, oc

____tend

____ject

____static

____fective

____ist

____cur

____ject

____pose

____fend

____casion

16 Connecting Literacy • Book 3


Part B: Suffixes

A suffix is a letter or group of letters added to the end of a word to create a new word. Rather than

changing a word’s meaning, a suffix changes the word’s function in a sentence. Just by noticing

a word’s suffix, we know what the word is doing in the sentence.

Suffixes can create a plural, or change the tense:

For example: persuade + s = persuades; persuade + ed = persuaded; persuade + ing = persuading

Suffixes can also completely change how the word can grammatically be used.

For example: persuade + er = persuader (changes to a noun: a person)

persuade + sion = persuasion (changes to a noun: a process)

persuade + ive = persuasive (changes to an adjective: describing a noun)

5 Change the verb ‘offend’ by adding appropriate suffixes.

Original word Change to … New word

offend

past tense

offend

adjective

offend

noun

Over 95 per cent of all suffixes used are ‘ed’ (past-tense verb), ‘ing’ (present-participle verb),

‘ly’ (adverb), or ‘s/es’ (plural).

STRATEGY

Connect

the word to

its function.

Page 195

Bases and

affixes

6 Categorise these suffixes into the part of speech they indicate.

age, ify, ful, dom, ise, al, ous, ate, ance/ence, y, ic, en, er, ment, ist, ion, ing, ish

Noun Verb Adjective

7 In the anchor text, circle one noun suffix, one verb suffix, and one adjective suffix.

8 Using the spelling rules outlined in the Literacy How-to section (page 191), work out the correct

spelling for the following words and their suffixes. Explain why each word is spelled this way.

a Control + er

b State + ing

Page 3

Page 197

Spelling

generalisations

c Testify + ed

9 Check the spelling in your speech. Have you accurately used prefixes and suffixes? How many have

you used? Are they positive or negative? Consider some synonyms and experiment with alliteration,

puns, rhyme, or repetition in your speech.

Page 20

I understand how prefixes and suffixes impact words: / 5

By changing a word’s suffix, you can use the word in a different context. You can

change a word’s meaning by adding a prefix. See how powerful word choice can

be by experimenting with different words in different subjects.

TAKE IT

WITH YOU

1.7 Persuasive spelling 17


1.8

Persuasive speaking and listening

Part A: Voice and body language

L E A R N I N G

I N T E N T I O N :

To understand

how people speak

persuasively for

different audiences

and purposes

http://mea.digital/

CL3_1_8

Page 200

Voice and body

language

There are two main things to focus on when giving a speech: your voice and your body language.

This expression of your text can be supported with multimedia or images.

1 Watch the video of the anchor text by scanning the QR code on page 3.

2 Complete the following table by identifying how the speaker used her voice and body to

be persuasive.

Voice

Body

Page 3

STRATEGY

Identify and

understand

the pieces of

the text.

3 a Practise reading the first paragraph of your speech out loud. Each time you read the paragraph,

focus on a different element of your voice or body:

• Pace: How slow do you need to speak so your audience can follow what you’re saying?

• Expression: Try speaking as if you are really happy or really frustrated.

• Gestures: Put down your speech and experiment with what you can do with your hands.

• Emphasis: Experiment with putting different levels of emphasis on different words.

• Facial expressions: What happens if you smile as you speak? Or if you frown?

• Volume: Try speaking quietly, and then loudly. Where do you project from?

• Body positions: What does it feel like to cross your legs or lean against something?

What position makes you feel the most confident?

b How did the meaning of the paragraph change depending on how you spoke or moved your body?

Part B: The active audience

Our lives are filled with persuasive texts. We are constantly being told we should buy something,

do something, think something, or feel a certain way about something. In some situations, it is

obvious that someone is being persuasive (for example, if they are trying to sell us something);

however, in other situations, it may not be so clear (for example, if someone is presenting an idea

or belief). It is in these situations that we need to be not just an active listener, but a critical one.

4 For each audience response in the table, identify a situation where the response is appropriate.

Situation

Appropriate audience response

Listening quietly, eyes focused on the speaker, clapping at the end

Yelling, singing, talking, dancing, and clapping

Laughing at appropriate sections, cheering at the end

Talking, chanting, and clapping

Being quiet during play, and then clapping and yelling after a shot

18 Connecting Literacy • Book 3


5 How can you be an active listener during your classmates’ presentations? What is an appropriate

audience in this situation?

6 Imagine one of your classmates is giving their speech. You notice they are shaking, sweating,

and losing control of their voice. As an audience member, how can you be even more supportive

of a particularly nervous speaker?

STRATEGY

Pause to

wonder and

connect.

7 You have spent this unit revising your speech into a quality piece of writing. Now you need to

rehearse your speech so it is ready to be presented to your class. You should rehearse or practise

your speech until you know it well enough so you don’t have to read every word and you can make

eye contact with members of your audience. Rehearsing your speech will also help you to find a

good pace, know where the pauses are, what words need emphasis, and what tone of voice works

best in which parts.

Page 20

8 Think about presenting your speech. What are you feeling most confident about?

9 Think about presenting your speech. What are you most nervous about? How might you overcome

these nerves?

I understand how people speak persuasively for different audiences and purposes: / 5

Consider how you can use general class discussions and group work to improve both

your speaking and listening skills. These are vital life skills, and you can use them in

every subject, so noticing what someone is doing when they are speaking or listening

really well (or badly!) can help reinforce your own speaking and listening development.

TAKE IT

WITH YOU

1.8 Persuasive speaking and listening 19


1.9

My persuasive speech draft

20 Connecting Literacy • Book 3


M Y P E R S U A S I V E S P E E C H D R A F T

1.9 My persuasive speech draft 21


1.9

My persuasive speech draft

22 Connecting Literacy • Book 3


Persuasive literacy learning ladder

Writing task: Write a persuasive speech in which you try to convince your classmates

to sign a petition about making a particular change at your school.

1.5 I am confident

I can effectively

question a

persuasive text

to identify the

main contention,

intention, and key

arguments.

2.5 I am confident

I can develop

arguments to

build towards

a contention and

to use evidence

to support these

ideas when writing

persuasive texts.

3.5 I am confident

I can use appropriate

structural elements

and features

(including a variety of

persuasive devices)

when writing

persuasive texts.

4.5 I am confident

I can control my

use of language

to evoke specific

feelings in my

audience when

writing persuasive

texts.

5.5 I am

confident I can

control a variety

of appropriate

language features

(including subject–

verb agreement)

when writing

persuasive texts.

6.5 I am

confident I can

make informed

and conscious

decisions when

using punctuation

for effect when

writing persuasive

texts.

7.5 I am confident

I can use different

strategies to spell

unfamiliar words

(particularly those

using prefixes and

suffixes) when

writing persuasive

texts.

8.5 I am confident

I can rehearse and

present persuasive

texts that show my

understanding of a

variety of persuasive

and presentation

techniques.

1.4 I have

questioned my

speech to ensure

my contention,

intention, and

arguments

are clear.

2.4 I have

effectively

connected my

arguments with

my contention and

used evidence with

purpose to support

these ideas.

3.4 I have effectively

used appropriate

structural elements

and features

(including a variety of

persuasive devices)

for persuasive effect.

4.4 I have

effectively used

language to

evoke specific and

desired feelings in

my audience.

5.4 I have

effectively used

appropriate

language features

to write a text that

will be spoken.

6.4 I have

effectively used

punctuation to

improve the tone

of my speech

and add to its

persuasiveness.

7.4 I have used

different spelling

strategies to

accurately spell

unfamiliar words,

including those

with prefixes

and suffixes.

8.4 I have presented

a well-rehearsed

speech that showed

my understanding

and application

of persuasive

and presentation

techniques.

1.3 I have

experimented

with different

ways to make

my contention,

intention, and

arguments clear

in my speech.

2.3 I have

experimented –

during my

revisions – with

ways to connect

my evidence to my

arguments, and

my arguments to

my contention.

3.3 I have

experimented –

during my revisions –

with how best to

use the structural

elements and

language features of

persuasive writing

for effect.

4.3 I have

experimented –

during my

revisions – with

different ways to

use language for

emotional effect.

5.3 I have

experimented –

during my

revisions – with

ways to use

language features

to create a

spoken text.

6.3 I have

experimented –

during my

revisions – with

ways to use

punctuation to

enhance my

writing.

7.3 I have tried

spelling unfamiliar

words that use

prefixes and

suffixes.

8.3 I have

experimented –

during my

rehearsals – with

different ways

to present my

speech so it could

be as persuasive

as possible.

1.2 I have

explained my

contention,

intention, and

arguments

throughout

my speech.

2.2 I have used

appropriate

arguments

and evidence

to support my

contention overall.

3.2 I have followed

the structural

elements of a

persuasive speech

and included several

persuasive devices.

4.2 I have included

some words that

show a positive or

negative feeling

towards my topic.

5.2 I have shown

an understanding

of the difference

between written

and spoken texts

when creating

my speech.

6.2 I have

accurately used

a variety of

punctuation

independently.

7.2 I have

independently

edited my

spelling errors.

8.2 I have presented

my speech using

different voice and

body language

strategies.

1.1 I have

directly stated

my contention,

intention, and

arguments.

2.1 I have included

arguments and

evidence in

my speech.

3.1 I have followed

the structural

elements of a

persuasive speech

with support and

included a few

persuasive devices.

4.1 I have included

some emotive

words with

support.

5.1 I have written

a text that is

intended to

be spoken.

6.1 I have

accurately used

punctuation with

support.

7.1 I have edited

my spelling errors

with support.

8.1 I have presented

my persuasive

speech.

1.0 Not shown 2.0 Not shown 3.0 Not shown 4.0 Not shown 5.0 Not shown 6.0 Not shown 7.0 Not shown 8.0 Not shown

1 Comprehension 2 Planning and

writing

3 Structures and

features

4 Vocabulary 5 Syntax 6 Punctuation 7 Spelling 8 Speaking and

listening

Persuasive literacy learning ladder 23

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