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Connecting Literacy Teacher Book 2 Sample Pages

Connecting Literacy targets whole-school literacy improvement for Secondary students and teachers. What is Connecting Literacy? A developmental literacy program for Secondary schools, including: -3 student folios -3 teacher books -100s of video lessons hosted by literacy consultant, Hayley Harrison. Who is Connecting Literacy for? Secondary school students and teachers who: -are embarking on whole-school literacy improvement, OR -integrate literacy skills in the English classroom, OR -attend a timetabled literacy block. How does Connecting Literacy work? With cumulative skill development over three books where students: -Model: read and annotate an ‘anchor text’ – an authentic piece of student writing -Practise: complete units of work in class or as homework with video support from Hayley Harrison, literacy coach -Apply: draft their own text directly into the writing pages included in each student folio. Why do you need Connecting Literacy? -Flexibility: Use the series over three consecutive years or use the student folios in parallel to differentiate, support and extend. -Support: Video lessons, teacher books with answers and suggested programs, a literacy skills ‘toolkit’ and on-demand P.D. sessions will support experienced and out-of-discipline teachers alike. -Evidence: Student folios are designed as a learning pathway with built-in student reflection, metacognition and formative assessment (with developmental rubrics). -Whole-school: Use Connecting Literacy to underpin your whole school literacy plan and create a common metalanguage around literacy.

Connecting Literacy targets whole-school literacy improvement for Secondary students and teachers.

What is Connecting Literacy?

A developmental literacy program for Secondary schools, including:

-3 student folios
-3 teacher books
-100s of video lessons hosted by literacy consultant, Hayley Harrison.

Who is Connecting Literacy for?

Secondary school students and teachers who:

-are embarking on whole-school literacy improvement, OR
-integrate literacy skills in the English classroom, OR
-attend a timetabled literacy block.

How does Connecting Literacy work?

With cumulative skill development over three books where students:

-Model: read and annotate an ‘anchor text’ – an authentic piece of student writing
-Practise: complete units of work in class or as homework with video support from Hayley Harrison, literacy coach
-Apply: draft their own text directly into the writing pages included in each student folio.

Why do you need Connecting Literacy?

-Flexibility: Use the series over three consecutive years or use the student folios in parallel to differentiate, support and extend.
-Support: Video lessons, teacher books with answers and suggested programs, a literacy skills ‘toolkit’ and on-demand P.D. sessions will support experienced and out-of-discipline teachers alike.
-Evidence: Student folios are designed as a learning pathway with built-in student reflection, metacognition and formative assessment (with developmental rubrics).
-Whole-school: Use Connecting Literacy to underpin your whole school literacy plan and create a common metalanguage around literacy.

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Connecting

Literacy

‘… so I can grow into the person I am and will ultimately be’

Authored by

Hayley

Harrison

and a team of students, just like you.

Teacher

Book


‘… so I can grow into the person I am and will ultimately be’

Connecting

Literacy

Teacher

Book

Authored by

Hayley

Harrison

and a team of students, just like you.


Connecting Literacy

Teacher Book 2

1st edition

Hayley Harrison

Publisher: Catherine Charles-Brown

Project editor: Naomi Saligari

Copy editor: Naomi Saligari

Proofreader: Kelly Robinson

Cover and text design: Ana Cosma (anacosma.com)

Typesetter: Paul Ryan

Illustrator: QBS Learning

The author and publisher are grateful to the following

for permission to reproduce copyright material:

Cover: Stocksy/Liliya Rodnikova

Alamy/Science History Images, 71; iStockphoto/

Kosolovskyy, 111, / Syntika, 51.

Every effort has been made to identify copyright

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holders or anyone with knowledge of copyright

holders to come forward.

Warning: It is recommended that Aboriginal and

Torres Strait Islander peoples exercise caution when

viewing this publication as it may contain images of

deceased persons.

Matilda Education Australia acknowledges all Aboriginal

and Torres Strait Islander Traditional Custodians of

Country and recognises their continuing connection to

land, sea, culture, and community. We pay our respects

to Elders past and present.

First published in 2023 by Matilda Education Australia,

an imprint of Meanwhile Education Pty Ltd

Melbourne, Australia

T: 1300 277 235

E: customersupport@matildaed.com.au

www.matildaeducation.com.au

Copyright © Hayley Harrison 2023

Copyright © Matilda Education 2023

The moral rights of the authors have been asserted.

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(the Act) and subsequent amendments, no part of

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Publication data

Author: Hayley Harrison

Title: Connecting Literacy Teacher Book 2

ISBN: 9780655091455

A catalogue record for this

book is available from the

National Library of Australia

Printed in Australia by Courtney Brands

Oct-2022


Connecting

Literacy

Contents

Introduction to literacy .........................

iv

Unit 1: Persuasive literacy ..................... 2

Unit 2: Procedural literacy ..................... 24

Unit 3: Imaginative literacy .................... 48

Unit 4: Informative literacy .................... 70

Unit 5: Analytical literacy ...................... 94

Unit 6: Reflective literacy ...................... 120

Unit 7: Comparative literacy .................. 142

Literacy How-to .................................. 166

Comprehension ............................... 166

Planning and writing ......................... 169

Structures and features ...................... 176

Vocabulary ..................................... 183

Syntax ........................................... 185

Punctuation .................................... 190

Spelling ......................................... 193

Speaking and listening ....................... 202

Introduction to literacy

iii


Introduction to literacy

Literacy is a complex amalgamation of skills that interweave and are applied when

reading, writing, speaking, and listening. The goal of systematically and explicitly

teaching individual literacy skills is to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of

students’ communication. Mastering literacy skills requires a person to understand,

consolidate, and build automaticity in individual skills and then combine these skills

to develop as a critical reader, coherent writer, and confident speaker.

The literacy skills and strategies presented in this book are designed to be individually

taught, explored, consolidated, and built upon. This learning is then explicitly transferred

beyond the classroom to help students in every part of their school and everyday

lives. Teaching is supported by an instructional model that consists of prior knowledge

activation, explicit teaching, collaboration, independent practise, and reflection. There

are layers of teaching and learning support, including links to comprehension strategies,

writing organisers, and formative assessment opportunities at a lesson and unit level.

How to use Connecting Literacy: Model, practise, apply

This book is divided into seven units – which are based on the different text types that students

will encounter during school and beyond – and one Literacy How-to section, which is a complete

reference guide that can be referred to throughout the book:

• Unit 1: Persuasive literacy

• Unit 2: Procedural literacy

• Unit 3: Imaginative literacy

• Unit 4: Informative literacy

• Unit 5: Analytical literacy

• Unit 6: Reflective literacy

• Unit 7: Comparative literacy

Literacy How-to section.

In each unit, the students model, practise, and apply specific literacy skills to a different text type.

Model

Each of the seven units begins with an anchor text. Each anchor text is a model that is

designed to ‘anchor’ the students’ learning as they complete the activities in the unit.

The anchor texts in this series were all written by students in years 7–10, from schools

across Australia.

Practise

Each unit has eight lessons that focus on core literacy skills and strategies:

1 comprehension

5 syntax

2 planning and writing

6 punctuation

3 structures and features

7 spelling

4 vocabulary

8 speaking and listening.

At the end of the book, there is a Literacy How-to section. This is a comprehensive

literacy reference guide that is designed to support teachers and students by providing

content, skills, and strategies that can be applied across the units. This section is

designed to connect with prior knowledge activation, and to provide opportunities

for clarification and extension of understanding and skill development.

iv Connecting LiteracyBook 2


Apply

In each lesson, comprehension strategies are suggested to help the students to complete the

activities successfully. Each unit includes writing pages for students to use to draft and edit their

own original texts. By containing their learning and application in the same book, students can

build a comprehensive learning folio.

STRATEGY

Pause to

wonder and

connect.

Connecting Literacy

Model, practise, apply

Comparative texts

SPEAKING &

LISTENING

3 Apply

MY WRITING PAGES

2 Practise

COMPREHENSION

Persuasive texts

Refllective texts

SPELLING

PUNCTUATION

1 Model

ANCHOR TEXT

A model text written

by a student,

just like you

PLANNING &

WRITING

STRUCTURES &

FEATURES

Procedural texts

Analytical texts

SYNTAX

VOCABULARY

Imaginative texts

Informative texts

LITERACY HOW-TO

Your go-to literacy reference guide, to support your every step

Reflect

Unit confidence scores: At the start of each unit, students are invited to rate their confidence about

reading, writing, speaking, and listening to the particular text type. The intention is that students will

return at the end of the unit to score their learning confidence again and to celebrate their success.

Lesson confidence scores: Every lesson in the Connecting Literacy series culminates in students

giving themselves a score out of five: this self-assessment promotes students’ awareness of their

learning and understanding. This self-assessment also provides an opportunity for teachers to note

any areas that require further class time or clarification.

The students’ learning in each unit is brought together with a learning ladder. Using this chart,

the students can self-assess their final writing and speaking and listening task (these tasks have

a speaking and listening icon in the margin) and reflect on their learning throughout the unit.

Introduction to literacy

v


Persuasive literacy

Developing your literacy skills involves practising your ability to read, write, speak, or listen

to non-fiction texts that express a strong opinion. Persuasive texts try to convince a reader

or listener to adopt the writer’s or speaker’s point of view about a topic. These texts

use different persuasive techniques to achieve this purpose. Many different texts can be

persuasive, including speeches, advertisements, debates, essays, letters, reviews, and articles.

http://mea.

digital/CL2_1_0

Why do we create persuasive texts?

The most important thing to know about a persuasive text is that it is created to convince someone

to take up, or accept, the author’s opinion. A persuasive text shows how the author thinks and feels

about a topic. Often a person chooses to create a persuasive text because they feel passionate

about something. This is why persuasive texts are often highly emotional.

Understanding for whom a persuasive text is written is important because authors change the type

of language and devices they use to persuade, depending on the target audience. A persuasive

text designed to sway a friend will sound very different to a persuasive text created for your

school principal.

1 Explain in your own words why persuasive texts are created.

Persuasive texts are created so people can express their opinion on a topic. They are used to try to

convince a specific audience to agree with the author and hopefully take action after engaging with

the persuasive text.

2 Give an example of a persuasive text you have read or written yourself. What made it persuasive?

I wrote a persuasive speech in Year 7 to convince my class that soccer should be offered as a lunchtime

sport at school. It was persuasive because I had to include different examples and reasons why the

school should include soccer. I used lots of persuasive language to make the class agree to sign the

petition I had written for the principal.

Page 3

3 Read the anchor text. This text is a model that will help you to ‘anchor’ your learning as you

complete the activities in this unit. It will also assist you to draft your own persuasive speech.

The anchor text was written by a student, just like you.

Rate my

confidence

At the end of each lesson, you will rate how confident you are about your

progress throughout the unit. Be as honest as you can; it’s your learning!

4 How confident do you currently feel about reading, writing, speaking, and listening to persuasive

texts? Give yourself a confidence score out of five. Come back at the end of the unit and score your

confidence again.

Start of the unit: DD \ MM \ YYYY

End of the unit: DD \ MM \ YYYY

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

Not very

confident

Somewhat

confident

Confident

Highly

confident

Super

confident

Not very

confident

Somewhat

confident

Confident

Highly

confident

Super

confident

2 Connecting LiteracyBook 2


Anchor text

Persuasive speech

Paragraph one

Paragraph two

Paragraph three

Paragraph four

Superman: The ultimate hero

Our teacher encouraged us to present our point of view on something that we are

passionate about. Something that is important. Something life-changing. And what

could be more important than Superman vs Batman? The ultimate ongoing rivalry

between two superheroes within the super universe, dating all the way back

to 1964! Despite all the controversy among film fanatics, however, the title of

best superhero can only be bestowed to one, and that is … Superman. Now, Batman

supporters, don’t be disheartened and don’t set your torches and pitchforks at me yet.

From having extraordinary powers and unimaginable strength to being essentially

invincible, I, Thanh Do, wholeheartedly believe that, Superman outshines the dark

and gloomy Batman, and can assure you that, by the end of this speech, you too will

reconsider your love for the man of bat and realise that Superman conquers all!

To begin, Superman can fly! Need I say anything more? C’mon, let’s be real. No-one

would rather be saved in a boring ‘invisible’ Batmobile, when they can instead get

swooped into the sky as they’re falling off a building. Unlike Batman, Superman has

powers that are literally in his DNA, and don’t rely on any external gadgets to save

lives. Being a superhero is in his blood! Not only does he have the power of flight,

but also remarkable speed, incredible hearing, ridiculous strength, and, coolest of all,

solar‐hot lasers that come straight out of his eyeballs! And yes, I know, Batman

is strong too, but we don’t call him the Man of Steel for nothing.

Still not convinced? The man was born on another planet and as a human-looking

alien, the dude’s basically invincible! The only substance that is Superman’s weakness

is radioactive kryptonite and we can’t really get that from your local supermarket.

This means, against the average bank-robbing villain, Superman is guaranteed to win

and protect us all. Batman, on the other hand, not so much. Because … he is human,

and, like us, he is vulnerable to all the dangers that being a human brings. So are you

really willing to risk your life on some leather-clad human?

Now, exposing the fact that Superman has superpowers and is invincible barely

scratches the surface of Superman’s supreme awesomeness. It’s completely

illogical and possibly illegal if you have any remaining thoughts that Batman even

comes remotely close to the legend that is Superman. So quick quiz: who do YOU

prefer more?

Student author: Thanh Do

Audience: Thanh’s class

A final,

memorable

statement

Introduction

of the topic

Repetition

An engaging hook

Emotive words

Introduction of

the contention

Introduction

of the speaker

Exclusive language

Rhetorical question

A key argument

Evidence to support

the arguments

Argument one:

Superpowers

versus gadgets

An explanation of how

the arguments prove

the contention

A key argument

Argument two:

Invincible

versus human

Evidence to support

the arguments

Inclusive language

An explanation of

how the arguments

prove the contention

Synthesis of the

arguments in the

contention

Emotive language

Emphasis

The intention

is made clear

http://mea.digital/

CL2_1_A

Persuasive literacy ~ Unit  1

3


1.1

L E A R N I N G

I N T E N T I O N :

Persuasive comprehension

To understand the overall

purpose of a persuasive text

Part A: Question the text

http://mea.digital/

CL2_1_1

We often don’t have time to complete a close analysis of every text we encounter, but spending

time exploring key parts of a text can help us understand the text at a deeper level. One way to

do this is to question the text. Asking questions can help us uncover parts of the text that may

not have made sense, or that we missed, in our first reading.

Page 3

1 What is the author of the anchor text passionate about?

That Superman is better than Batman

2 What dates ‘all the way back to 1964’?

The rivalry between Superman and Batman

3 How are Superman’s powers ‘literally in his DNA’?

They are a part of who he is; nothing has happened to him; he was born this way.

STRATEGY

Skim and

scan the text

for specific

information.

4 Why is Superman ‘basically’ invincible?

Because he can be defeated by kryptonite, but this is not found on Earth, so he’s unlikely to die.

5 Why is Superman ‘guaranteed to win’ while Batman is ‘vulnerable’?

Nothing on Earth can kill Superman, because he is not human, but Batman is human so needs

technology to help him.

6 The author refers to Batman as ‘some leather-clad human’. How does this make the reader feel

about Batman?

Like he is trying too hard, pretending to be stronger than he really is.

7 What questions could you ask to understand other parts of the anchor text? Think of six questions

that start with ‘Who’, ‘What’, ‘When’, ‘Where’, Why’ and ‘How’.

1 Who encouraged the students to present their points of view?

2 What is Superman’s only weakness?

3 When should supporters of Batman set their torches and pitchforks at Thanh?

4 Where was Superman born?

5 Why doesn’t Superman rely on external gadgets?

6 How does Thanh finish her speech?

4 Connecting LiteracyBook 2


Part B: Contention and intention

To comprehend a persuasive text, we must understand the text’s contention (its main idea) and

the text’s intention (its call to action). The contention is what we are being asked to think, while

the intention is what we are being asked to do after reading or listening to a text. One way to

find the contention of a text is to list the text’s main arguments and underline the keywords in

those arguments. Next, draw together the keywords into a statement. This statement is the

text’s contention.

For example, imagine a persuasive speech titled ‘Cats: The ultimate pet’, which explores the

topic of cats being superior to dogs.

Page 166

Comprehension

strategies

The text’s main arguments with

keywords underlined

Evidence

1 Cats are self-sufficient. Listing all the tasks a dog owner needs

to complete in a day to entertain their pet

2 Cats are more affordable. Noting the price of expensive dog grooming

appointments and dog toys and treats

Contention (the main idea): Cats are better than dogs because they are more self-sufficient and

affordable pets than dogs.

Intention (the call to action): Persuading the audience to adopt a cat as a pet rather than a dog.

8 Annotate the anchor text by numbering the paragraphs and labelling the two main arguments.

9 Using the example above as a model, complete the table below for the anchor text. Hint: Underline

the keywords in the arguments to help you write the contention.

1

The text’s arguments with keywords underlined

Superman has inherent superpowers,

while Batman relies on gadgets.

Evidence

List the superpowers that are a part

of Superman’s DNA

Page 3

STRATEGY

Identify and

understand

the pieces

of the text.

2

Superman is invincible, while Batman

is human.

Kryptonite is the only substance that

can kill Superman.

Contention (the main idea):

Superman is better than Batman because he has superpowers and is invincible, while Batman

only has gadgets and is human.

Intention (the call to action):

The speech should make me think that Superman is way better than Batman.

I understand the overall purpose of a persuasive text: ______ / 5

Next time you are working with a challenging text in another subject, try numbering

and labelling the paragraphs. This may help you to ‘see’ the overall purpose of the text.

TAKE IT

WITH YOU

1.1 Persuasive comprehension 5


1.2

Persuasive planning and writing

Part A: Develop your arguments

L E A R N I N G

I N T E N T I O N :

To understand how

to plan and develop

my persuasive speech

http://mea.digital/

CL2_1_2

Page 20

Whenever you are asked to construct a persuasive text, you need to spend time understanding the

topic, considering alternative perspectives, and developing clear and strong arguments. How you

develop those arguments will determine how strong your persuasive text will end up being.

Your writing task for this unit is to write a short speech, which will be similar to the

anchor text in purpose, audience, and length. In this speech, you will present your point

of view on something you are passionate about.

1 Select a topic that you are passionate about. Select a topic that has different perspectives. What is it?

Pineapple is perfect on pizza.

2 To help you brainstorm ideas that can be used as arguments in your speech, ask ‘why’ questions.

For example: Why do you think Superman is better than Batman? Why is he stronger? Why is

he invincible? Write answers to your why questions. These can help form the arguments in

your persuasive text.

Why is pineapple so perfect on pizza

?

Pineapple adds a touch of sweetness to a savoury dish. This makes the overall dish more delicious.

Why do some people disagree

?

Some people don’t like sweet and savoury flavours together.

Why should people eat pineapple on pizza

?

Pineapple has vitamin C and minerals that help with digestion; this makes pizza healthier.

3 Using the answers to the why questions you developed in Question 2, select two main arguments

to use in your speech to convince your audience.

Topic:

Argument one

Pineapple adds sweetness to this savoury dish, which makes the whole dish

more delicious.

Argument two

Having pineapple on pizza makes this dish healthier.

4 Using your topic and the key words from your arguments, write the contention of your speech.

Pineapple should always go on pizza because it makes it healthier and more delicious.

6 Connecting LiteracyBook 2


Part B: Revise your text for your audience and purpose

Your speech will be delivered to your peers. Knowing your audience is important because you

need to decide what language and evidence is appropriate for your audience and purpose.

5 What do you want the audience to do after listening to your speech? What is your call to action –

your intention? (Remember, you might want to change how they think about the topic, or you

might want them to do something after listening to your speech.)

After listening to my speech, I want the members of my audience to try pineapple on pizza.

6 How might your classmates feel about your topic?

My classmates are likely to already strongly agree or disagree with my topic.

7 Use your findings from Questions 5 and 6 to rewrite your arguments in the following table and then

choose evidence that will connect to your audience while supporting your arguments.

Arguments

Argument one:

Pineapple adds sweetness

to this savoury dish, which

makes it more delicious.

Evidence

• Many savoury foods have been made more delicious by adding

sweetness (and vice versa). For example, peanut butter and

jelly, salted caramel, and chilli and chocolate.

STRATEGY

Understand

the purpose

of the text

or feature.

Page 174

Finding

appropriate

evidence

Argument two:

Having pineapple on pizza

makes this dish healthier.

There is vitamin C in pineapple; this vitamin:

• improves immunity

• helps digestion

• strengthens bones

• improves eye health.

Page 174

Turning a plan

into a draft

8 Using the anchor text as a model and the arguments and evidence you identified in Question 7,

write a draft of your speech. You can write your draft in the writing pages at the end of this unit.

We will continue to revise your speech throughout the unit, so for now, write the first draft,

knowing it doesn’t have to be perfect, but it is enough to start experimenting with.

Page 20

I understand how to plan and develop my persuasive speech: ______ / 5

We only asked ‘why’ three times during this lesson, but you can keep asking ‘why’

until you run out of answers. Try asking ‘why?’ next time you are brainstorming

ideas in another class.

TAKE IT

WITH YOU

1.2 Persuasive planning and writing 7


1.3

Persuasive structures

and features

L E A R N I N G

I N T E N T I O N :

To understand the key structural

elements and language features

of persuasive speeches

Part A: Persuasive speeches

http://mea.digital/

CL2_1_3

There are a lot of similarities between persuasive speeches and essays because we tend to plan

both texts in a similar way. However, writing a speech is different to writing an essay because

the structures and features of a speech are different to those of an essay.

1 On the anchor text, identify and label the following structural elements of a speech.

Page 3

Opening Body Closing

• An engaging hook

• Introduction of the topic

• Introduction of

the speaker

• Introduction of

the contention

• Introduction of the key

arguments

• Evidence to support the

arguments

• Explanation of how the

arguments prove the contention

• Synthesis of the arguments

in the contention

• The intention is made clear

• A final, memorable

statement

STRATEGY

Re-read the

text at a slower

pace to search

for specific

information.

2 What are some of the language features you can identify in the anchor text speech? (For example,

perspective, tense, tone, emphasis, word choice, etc.)

Language features:

• First-person perspective

• Present tense

• Signposts/transitions

• Persuasive devices

• Pause for effect

• Speaking directly to the audience

• Shifts in tone

Page 176

Text forms

3 What are the similarities and differences between the structural elements and language features

of a persuasive speech and a persuasive essay? (For example, consider what it looks like, what

language is used, what techniques are used, its audience and purpose, etc.)

Similarities

• Answer a question

• Have a contention

• Use evidence to support ideas

• Have introduction, body, and

conclusion paragraphs

Differences

Persuasive speeches

• Introduce yourself

in the introduction

• Have very different

features in writing

Persuasive essays

• Don’t use first-person

persepctive or speak

to the audience or

use many of the

persuasive devices

Part B: Persuasive devices

One of the most common features of persuasive writing is the use of persuasive devices. These

devices are language choices that make a text more persuasive. For example, repeating important

words or phrases makes it more likely that the audience will remember the key persuasive points.

8 Connecting LiteracyBook 2


4 In the anchor text, highlight a sentence that uses inclusive language and a sentence that uses

exclusive language. Explain how inclusive and exclusive language are different, but can both

be persuasive.

Inclusive language: ‘but we don’t call him the Man of Steel for nothing’

Page 3

Exclusive language:

‘are you really willing to risk your life on some leather-clad human?’

How they are different and persuasive:

Inclusive language uses words such as ‘us’ or ‘we’ so it makes the audience feel like they are

a part of the speech. Exclusive language uses words such as ‘I’ or ‘you’ to separate what the

author thinks from the audience and makes the audience question what they are doing differently.

5 Highlight examples of the following persuasive devices in the anchor text. Explain what effect each

device has on the speech.

Persuasive

device

Repetition

Rhetorical

question

Emotive

language

Emphasis

How to find it in a text

Look for the same word

or phrase repeated in a

paragraph, or throughout

the whole text.

Look for a question mark.

Look for descriptive

words.

Look for italics, words

written in CAPITAL

letters, words in bold

or colour.

Example from the

anchor text

‘something that …’

‘something that …’

‘something

life-changing’

‘Need I say anything

more?’

‘remarkable speed,

incredible hearing,

ridiculous strength’

‘Man of Steel’ (italics)

‘who do YOU prefer’

(capitalisation)

What effect does the

device have?

Repeating ‘something’ made

the last ‘life-changing’ word

stand out as important.

By asking questions and

not giving time to answer,

it seems the answer is what

the speaker wants.

Using words that make the

audience feel the way the

speaker wants them to feel.

By emphasising words, they

stand out as important and

show the tone of voice a

speaker might use.

STRATEGY

Pause

to wonder

and connect.

6 What other persuasive devices can you find in the anchor text?

alliteration, hyperbole, connotation, appeals, facts, reason and logic, variety of sentence lengths,

modality, tonal shifts

7 a Identify the structural elements and language features in your speech.

b What devices have you used in your speech?

c How could you make your speech more persuasive?

d Revise your draft by focusing on the structural elements and language features used throughout.

Page 20

I understand the key structural elements and language features of persuasive speeches: ______ / 5

Try noticing the similarities and differences in both the structural elements and the language

features of different writing types outside of this class. Can you identify any texts where you

find (or can use) persuasive devices even though the text isn’t persuasive?

TAKE IT

WITH YOU

1.3 Persuasive structures and features 9


1.4

L E A R N I N G

Persuasive vocabulary

I N T E N T I O N :

To understand emotive language,

denotation, and connotation

in persuasive writing

Part A: Emotive language

http://mea.digital/

CL2_1_4

Writers use emotive language to express their feelings. We can also use emotive language to appeal

to certain feelings in our audience.

1 How do the following emotive words make you feel about ‘the student’?

STRATEGY

Connect to

the feeling

of a word.

a The innocent student:

b The lethal student:

c The excessive student:

d The underestimated student:

e The humiliated student:

f The outstanding student:

they are a victim, they are little, vulnerable

they are brutal, they are dangerous, harsh

they are extravagant, they are too much, over the top

they are undervalued, they aren’t believed in

they are embarrassed, they feel shame

they are valued, they have achieved

2 Highlight the emotive words in paragraph one of the anchor text.

Page 3

3 How is the author making you feel about Superman? Quote words from the anchor text in

your answer.

That Superman is ‘incredible’, ‘remarkable’, and ‘awesome’

4 How is the writer making you feel about Batman? Quote words from the anchor text in

your answer.

That he is ‘dark and gloomy’ and ‘vulnerable to all the dangers’

5 The following excerpt makes the reader feel sorry for left-handed people and angry towards

right‐handed people. Change the bolded emotive words so the reader feels frustrated towards

left‐handed people and supportive of right-handed people.

For years, many cultures have labelled innocent trouble-making left-handed people

as disadvantaged and have aggressively meaningfully tried to convert them.

Cruel Kind

right-handers forced supported left-handers to use their right

hands and any resistance was punished re-educated . But left-handed people are said to use

the right side of their brain more, making them more creative, emotional and better at sports.

Such positive fictional facts highlight that this ruthless necessary vilification

actually comes from jealousy acceptance more than anything else.

10 Connecting LiteracyBook 2


Part B: Denotation and connotation

Denotation is the standard definition of a word – what a word literally means – whereas connotation

is the feeling evoked by a word.

Denotation: To pour, to make liquid flow. For example: Please pour me a glass of water.

Connotation: To pour, the feeling of juggling too many things. For example: The work continued

to pour in.

We can classify connotations into either negative or positive. The power of understanding a word’s

connotation is that you can control how your reader feels about a topic, object or person. This is

where you can be powerfully persuasive!

6 Complete the following table by identifying how these words from the anchor text are used.

Word

Positive or

negative

connotation

Denotation (the word’s

definition or literal meaning)

Connotation (the word’s

implied meaning)

Page 3

Unimaginable Positive Impossible to imagine A hugely impressive amount

Swooped

Positive

Move quickly downward

in the air

Safely caught and fly happily

through the air

Average

Negative

The typical version of

a group

Mediocre, not very good

Risk

Negative

Be exposed to danger

Choosing to put yourself

in danger

7 What is a synonym with an alternate connotation for each of for the following words?

Positive connotation

Unique

Steadfast/determined

Curious

Challenging/complex

Vintage

Meticulous/selective

Relaxed

Negative connotation

Weird

Stubborn

Nosy/busybody

Difficult

Decrepit/old/outdated

Picky

Lackadaisical/lazy

Page 183

Word meanings

8 a How do you want your audience to feel during your speech?

b Revise your speech to appeal to your audience’s feelings. Experiment with your language choices

to make them more emotive. Include more descriptive words so your audience knows how to

feel about what you are talking about.

Page 20

I understand emotive language, denotation, and connotation in persuasive writing: ______ / 5

Notice how different texts use positive and negative language regardless of the subject.

Next time you are writing, experiment with emotive language and see how it changes

what you are trying to express.

TAKE IT

WITH YOU

1.4 Persuasive vocabulary 11


1.5

Persuasive syntax

L E A R N I N G

I N T E N T I O N :

To understand the differences between

spoken and written language, including

maintaining the subject–verb agreement

Part A: Spoken versus written language

http://mea.digital/

CL2_1_5

It is not just language choices that change depending on audience and purpose. Syntax (sentence

structure) changes too. This is even more evident between spoken and written texts. We know

spoken and written language sounds different syntactically but we have to write the way we want

to speak when writing a speech.

1 What are the key similarities and differences between spoken language and written language?

Page 204

Spoken versus

written language

STRATEGY

Connect with

the language

choices.

Similarities

• Both use the same

language (i.e. English)

• Both are used to

communicate ideas and

feelings to other people

Differences

Spoken language

• Speaking and listening skills

• Less formal: lots of

repetition, incomplete

sentences, etc.

• May be less grammatically

correct

• Used between people in

the same place

• Uses tone, pitch, volume,

pace

• Is temporary, in

the moment

Written language

• Reading and writing skills

• Often more formal

• More grammatically

correct

• Often used to

communicate in different

time and place

• Uses punctuation,

formatting

• Is permanent and can

be kept

• An explicitly learned skill

Page 3

2 How have the following sentences in the anchor text been written to make them sound more like

the way a person speaks?

a ‘Now, Batman supporters, don’t be disheartened and don’t set your torches and pitchforks at

me yet.’

Talking directly to the supporters

b ‘C’mon, let’s be real.’

Using colloquial language

c ‘And yes, I know, Batman is strong too …’

Pretending to answer a question from the audience

3 Change the following spoken sentences into formal written sentences.

a Awwww man, like everyone thinks soccer is totes better than football!

Most people believe soccer is significantly better than football.

b I’d be shook if you peeps didn’t get what I’m putting down.

I would be surprised if anyone here didn’t understand my point of view.

4 Record yourself talking about dinosaurs for 10 seconds. Transcribe what you said exactly, then

rewrite your words to make them sound more formal.

12 Connecting LiteracyBook 2


Part B: Subject–verb agreement

Every sentence needs a subject (someone or something doing something) and a predicate

(which includes a main verb to show what the subject is doing).

In English sentences, the subject and the predicate (or verb) must ‘agree’ with each other.

Page 188

Subject and

predicate

What this means is:

• if a subject is singular (one), the verb must also be singular

• if a subject is plural (more than one), the verb must also be plural.

For example: The research suggests that the benefits of treatments depend on their purpose.

5 Determine whether the following words are singular or plural, and subjects or verbs.

Word Singular or plural? Subject or verb?

author

presents

she

have

those

are

singular

singular

singular

plural

plural

plural

subject

verb

subject

verb

subject

verb

6 Rewrite the following sentences so that all the subjects and verbs agree.

a The graph show that 15 per cent of 13–18-year-olds has their phobia for life; however, only

one per cent of those with a severe phobia has it for life.

The graph shows that 15 per cent of 13–18-year-olds have their phobia for life; however, only

one per cent of those with a severe phobia have it for life.

b Females is three per cent more likely to have a phobia for life than males and a 10–14-year-old

are two per cent more likely to have a lifetime phobia than a 15–18-year-old.

Females are three per cent more likely to have a phobia for life than males and a 10–14-year-old

is two per cent more likely to have a lifetime phobia than a 15–18-year-old.

7 a Does your speech read like a text that is intended to be spoken?

b How can you find the balance between writing formally and writing a text that is intended

to be spoken to your class?

Page 20

c Make sure your subjects and verbs all agree!

I understand the differences between spoken and written language,

including maintaining the subject–verb agreement: ______ / 5

If you struggle to put your words into writing in any subject, try speaking the words

first and then play around with making them sound more formal depending on the text

type. Although spoken and written language are different, there are many similarities,

including the fact that the subject and the verb always agree.

TAKE IT

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1.5 Persuasive syntax 13


1.6

L E A R N I N G

Persuasive punctuation

I N T E N T I O N :

To understand the impact

exclamation and question marks

have on a written text

Part A: Exclamation marks!

http://mea.digital/

CL2_1_6

Page 190

Types of

punctuation

Page 3

Exclamation marks allow us to show emphasis and emotion in a sentence. They can be powerful

in a written text in many ways but need to be controlled. Using too many is not more persuasive,

and often less formal.

1 In the following sentences from the anchor text, the author has emphasised particular emotions

and feelings by using exclamation marks. Identify these emotions and feelings.

a ‘… dating all the way back to 1964!’

emphasis, shock, amazement

b ‘Superman can fly!’

emphasis, amazement, excitement

c ‘… the dude’s basically invincible!’

emphasis, exaggeration, incredulity

2 Write a sentence, using an exclamation mark, to show the following emotions.

a Fear His knees trembled as he crept around the corner into darkness!

b Joy My heart sang!

c Urgency We need to do something about the state of our world, TODAY!

STRATEGY

Connect the

punctuation

to what is

being said.

Part B: Question marks?

Questions in a speech are called rhetorical questions. This is because the answer is assumed;

no response is expected or required by the audience. Rhetorical questions can be compelling in

persuasive texts (both written and spoken) because the writer or speaker controls how the audience

answers the question. However, like anything effective, rhetorical questions have to be controlled.

A few can be persuasive, too many can be overwhelming and you can end up not saying anything.

If your sentence includes a question mark and quotation marks, remember:

• if the question relates to the words in the quote, then the question mark stays in the

quotation marks

For example: She asked him, ‘If you really want to change the world, how are you going to do it?’

• if the question is part of the sentence rather than the quote, then it goes outside the

quotation marks

For example: What did you mean when you said, ‘Little changes make the greatest impact’?

• if it applies to both the words and the sentence, use it just once, inside the quotation marks.

For example: Did anyone ever ask you, ‘Do you like the world the way it is?’

14 Connecting LiteracyBook 2


3 Identify an example of a rhetorical question in the anchor text.

Still not convinced?

4 Why are rhetorical questions so persuasive?

Page 3

They force the audience to answer the question the way the speaker wants them to answer it,

making it feel like they are agreeing in their mind.

5 For each of the following sentences, decide whether the question mark should be placed inside or

outside the quotation marks.

a She raised her hand and asked, ‘If the tongue is so important, why don’t we learn more about it’

Inside

b When can we use a fact, such as ‘the tongue print is unique, just like fingerprints’

Outside

c What if I ask you, ‘What do you need to learn to make better life choices’

Inside

Part C: The interrobang?!

The interrobang is the combination of a question mark with an exclamation mark (?!) or the

combination of multiple question marks and exclamation marks (!?!). While the interrobang is

certainly not a formal technique, it is becoming more acceptable in informal written language. It is

still a non‐standard form of punctuation but it is used to show an exclamation that takes the form

of a question.

6 In which of the following texts is it appropriate to use an interrobang for emphasis?

An email or text message to a friend

An email or letter to the principal

An advertisement or marketing material

An information or research report

A speech to show emphasis

An analytical essay

7 Can you think of any other written texts where it is appropriate to use an interrobang?

Any creative writing task (poetry, short stories, scripts, etc.), any informal writing (social media,

gaming chats, etc.), any sales material (some brochures, billboards, etc.)

8 a Revise your speech to use exclamation marks to evoke different emotions. Although the

audience won’t see them, they will help you use the right tone.

b Rhetorical questions are compelling in persuasive writing. Have you used any rhetorical questions

in your speech? Revise your speech to include at least one.

Page 20

I understand the impact exclamation and question marks have on a written text: ______ / 5

Notice the types of texts in other subjects that use exclamation and/or question marks,

particularly in quotes. Be inquisitive about how and why these marks are used.

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1.6 Persuasive punctuation 15


1.7

Persuasive spelling

Part A: Prefixes

L E A R N I N G

I N T E N T I O N :

To understand how

prefixes and suffixes

impact words

http://mea.digital/

CL2_1_7

A prefix is a group of letters added to the beginning of a word to make a new word with a different

meaning. Each prefix has its own meaning. Adding a prefix to a word can make the word opposite

(nonsense), negative (unlikely), or show time (preschool), manner (overgrow), or an amount (monorail).

Even the word ‘prefix’ helps you know what it means:

pre = before fix = to join prefix = to join before a word

Understanding prefixes helps our spelling because we can see patterns in the way words work.

Page 197

Bases and affixes

Prefixes placed before freebase words (words that can stand on their own) generally make a lot

of sense. However, prefixes are often placed before bound bases (these cannot stand on their own).

These are more complex because we see the whole word and can miss the prefix.

For example:

Free base

dis = reverse/negative; respect = to admire

disrespect = to not admire someone/something

Bound base

de = reverse or change; struct = to build

destruct = to destroy something built

STRATEGY

Consider the

meaning and

pronunciation

of familiar

parts of

the word.

1 Complete the following table and note the impact of adding prefixes to different words.

Prefix

in

il

im

ir

(These are all

assimilated prefixes.)

dis

Prefix

meaning

not,

opposite

or without

reverse or

negative of

the word

Base word

possible

valuable

responsible

legal

credit

agree

cover

New word

created

Other words that use

the prefix

impossible impressive impassable

invaluable

irresponsible

illuminate illegible

inconvenient indecisive

irreplaceable irregular

illegal

discredit dissimilar discontent

disordered discolour

disagree

dismay disarm

discover

2 For each of the following bound bases, select which prefix is correct: in, il, im, or ir. As a rule,

il before l, im before p, m, or b, ir before r, and for all other letters use in.

a im proper

d in adequate

g in grown

b im balance

e il logical

h in sight

c ir rational

f il legitimate

i in edible

Page 3

3 Explore the words in the table below from the anchor text. Work out the overall meaning of each

word, using your knowledge of the prefix.

Word Prefix meaning Base word meaning Overall meaning

disheartened

illogical

incredible

dis = reverse or

negative

il = not or

opposite

in = not or

opposite

heartened = to put

heart into

logic = based

on reason

credible = to believe

Not having heart in something

Not having reason

Unable to believe

16 Connecting LiteracyBook 2


Part B: Suffixes

A suffix is a group of letters added to the end of a word to make a new word with a different

meaning. Unlike a prefix, which changes the meaning of a word, a suffix changes the grammatical

function of a word.

Suffixes can create a plural, or change the tense:

For example: declare + s = declares; declare + ed = declared; declare + ing = declaring

Suffixes can also completely change how a word can grammatically be used.

For example: ‘Declare’ is a verb, but add a suffix and suddenly it can be:

declare + er = declarer (changes to a noun = a person)

declare + ation = declaration (changes to a noun = a process)

declare + ative = declarative (changes to an adjective = describing a noun)

4 Change the verb ‘contend’ by adding appropriate suffixes.

Original word Change to … New word

contend past tense They … contended

contend adjective (describing a noun) They are … contentious

contend noun (person) The … contender

STRATEGY

Connect the

word to its

function.

5 Using the spelling guide in the Literacy How-to section (page 193), work out the correct spelling

for the following words and their suffixes. Then, identify which spelling generalisation is used for

each word.

a begin + ing

b encourage + ment

c defy + es

d bore + ing

e cool + est

f awesome + ness

g bare + ly

beginning

encouragement

defies

boring

coolest

awesomeness

barely

The doubling generalisation

The e generalisation

The y to i generalisation

The e generalisation

The doubling generalisation

The e generalisation

The e generalisation

Page 199

Spelling

generalisations

6 a Have you accurately used prefixes and suffixes and in your persuasive speech? How many have

you used?

b Edit your speech, focusing on your spelling throughout.

Page 20

7 Suffixes change the grammatical functions of words. Find an example in the anchor text of a word

that uses a suffix to function in the follow ways:

a Past tense bestowed

c Adverb barely

Page 3

b Adjective remarkable

d Noun

awesomeness

I understand how prefixes and suffixes impact words: ______ / 5

Observe how many prefixes and suffixes are used in all your subjects. Their meaning does

not change, so you can feel confident to experiment with changing the affix of different

words to see how many new words you suddenly have to choose from in your own writing.

TAKE IT

WITH YOU

1.7 Persuasive spelling 17


1.8

Persuasive speaking and listening

Part A: Voice and body language

L E A R N I N G

I N T E N T I O N :

To understand

how people speak

persuasively for

different audiences

and purposes

http://mea.digital/

CL2_1_8

Page 202

Voice and body

language

STRATEGY

Identify and

understand

the pieces of

the text.

You might have the most amazingly written speech ever created, but if it is not presented

convincingly, it will not persuade anyone of anything!

How a spoken text is presented has a lot to do with how persuasive it is. This comes down to

two things:

• our voice (tone, pitch, volume, pause, pace, emphasis, and expression

• our body language (eye contact, facial expressions, gestures, and posture).

A speaker can use punctuation and formatting (italics, bold, CAPITAL LETTERS) in their writing

to help them deliver a speech the way it was intended.

1 Read the third paragraph of the anchor text aloud to a classmate as follows (have fun with it!):

a Read it with no expression, don’t present it.

b Pretend your friend is on the other side of the oval and you don’t have a microphone.

c Read it as quickly as possible.

Page 3

d Choose six random words to emphasise while reading the paragraph.

e Film yourself presenting the paragraph using your best voice and body language.

2 What was the most surprising discovery you made while completing this experiment?

Student answers will vary, but they should notice that by taking things to the extreme, they could

see how a good speech can lose all impact if not presented properly.

3 Which focus was the most effective, persuasive and engaging? Why?

Student answers will vary, but hopefully it will be the final focus because they had rehearsed it

and thought about an effective way to present it. Of course some may say the others because

they were entertaining and more enjoyable to complete …

4 Watch the video of the anchor text by scanning the QR code on page 3.

Page 3

5 List the different ways the speaker used their voice and body to be persuasive.

Voice

Good pace

Speaks clearly

Uses tone and expression

Good volume

Uses pauses

Body language

Makes eye contact

Uses facial expressions

Makes gestures with her hands

Stands up straight

Faces the audience

18 Connecting LiteracyBook 2


Part B: The active audience

We are surrounded by persuasive texts. People and companies are constantly trying to convince

us to buy something, do something, think something, or feel a certain way about something.

While some spoken and audio-visual persuasive texts are obvious in their intention (for example,

commercials are trying to sell us something), there are plenty of other situations where someone

is speaking persuasively.

An active listener is someone who gives their full attention to the speaker. They are polite, make eye

contact, and ask clarifying questions if appropriate. However, being an active listener is also about

understanding what the speaker is trying to say and knowing how to respond appropriately.

STRATEGY

Pause to

wonder and

connect.

6 Draw an arrow from each of the following situations to the appropriate audience response.

Situation

At a loud music concert

Someone presenting at an assembly

At a tennis match

At a political rally

Someone giving a wedding speech

Appropriate audience response

Being quiet during play and then clapping

and yelling at the winning point

Yelling, singing, talking, and dancing;

clapping at the end of songs

Laughing at appropriate sections, cheering

at the end

Listening quietly, eyes focused on the

speaker, clapping at the end

Talking, chanting, and clapping

7 What are the appropriate ways to be an active audience member when listening to a classmate’s speech?

I can be a good audience member by not distracting the person who is presenting. I can laugh

or clap at the appropriate times and I can try my best not to look bored as they are speaking.

8 You have spent this unit revising your speech into a quality piece of writing. Now you need to

rehearse your speech so it is ready to be presented to your class. You should rehearse or practise

your speech until you know it well enough so you don’t have to read every word and you can

make eye contact with members of your audience. Rehearsing your speech will also help you to

find a good pace, know where the pauses are, what words need emphasis, and what tone of voice

works best in which parts.

9 Think about presenting your speech. What are you feeling most confident about?

I’m confident about getting up in front of my class and presenting. I like drama, so I can treat this

like putting on a performance.

10 Think about presenting your speech. What are you feeling most nervous about? How might you

overcome these nerves?

I’m most nervous about my classmates distracting me or putting me off, or that I might get lost

in the speech and forget what comes next.

I understand how people speak persuasively for different audiences and purposes: ______ / 5

How can you use your understanding of voice and body language to improve your speaking

skills in other subjects? How can you use your understanding of being an active listener to

improve your listening skills?

TAKE IT

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1.8 Persuasive speaking and listening 19


1.9

Teacher connections: Persuasive literacy

A sample lesson sequence for a 50-minute class

Timing Focus Actions Implementation guide

5 minutes Establish

the learning

intention and

connect to the

students’ prior

knowledge

5 minutes Explicit

teaching

5 minutes Collaborative

learning

10 minutes Independent

learning

• Read the learning

intention and

clarify the key

terms.

• Draw connections

to prior units,

lessons, class

learning, and life.

• Students

document current

and future

learning.

• Watch the video.

• Read the

workbook notes

and clarify terms

for Part A.

• Connect to the

students’ prior

learning.

• Students ask

any questions

they have.

• Complete the

first part of each

activity as a class.

• Students to

complete the rest

of each activity

in pairs.

• Students

complete the

activities in Part A.

• Check their

answers.

Before you teach

• Denotation, connotation, prefixes, and suffixes are

likely to be the main words that will need deeper

clarification; check the students’ prior knowledge of,

and experience using, these terms.

• Check the Literacy How-to links prior to teaching to

familiarise yourself with the supporting information.

Prior knowledge activation

• Use the ‘30-second hot-spot’ strategy on three

different students to get a quick assessment of the

class members’ understandings of vocabulary and

content.

• 1.0 Introduction:

– Brainstorm the different persuasive texts the

students are likely to have personally experienced.

– Get the students to share their answers to Q1

and Q2.

• 1.1 Comprehension:

– Extend the students to consider what type of

questions are eliciting different answers from

the comprehension questions and which questions

they find the most useful.

– Ask the students to share their answers to Q7.

• 1.2 Planning and writing:

– Give the class time to share their topic ideas for

the writing task.

– Make sure each student has a clear topic statement

before moving forward.

• 1.3 Structures and features:

– Ask the students to share their answers to Q1

to ensure there isn’t any confusion.

– Q2 can be completed as a class or in small groups

to ensure that the students use technical and

accurate language.

– For Q3, connect to the students’ prior knowledge to

ensure the similarities and differences are accurate.

• 1.4 Vocabulary:

– Be prepared to complete at least Q1a as a worked

example. Clarify vocabulary for the students before

they complete Q1.

– For Q5, have fun and push extension students

to come up with a variety of options.

• 1.5 Syntax:

– Q1 can be completed as a class or in small groups,

or the students’ responses can be shared with

the class after an individual brainstorm.

– Allow time for the class to discuss the students’

answers to Q2 and Q3.

– For Q4, if recording options are unavailable,

students can be divided into pairs, with one student

transcribing their partner’s words as accurately

as possible.

20 Connecting LiteracyBook 2


Timing Focus Actions Implementation guide

• 1.6 Punctuation:

– Emphasise synonyms and subtleties of language

for Q1.

– Get the students to share their answers to Q1

and Q2.

– Part A should not take long, so you have more

time for Part B and Part C.

• 1.7 Spelling:

– For Q1, complete the first row of the table as a class.

– For Q1, ask the students to share their answers for

‘other words that use the prefix’.

– Q2 can be extended to consider other words that

use these prefixes.

• 1.8 Speaking and listening:

– For Q1, divide the students into pairs, with each

pair tackling one part of Q1, and then presenting

their responses to the class. This will allow the

students to respond to Q2 and Q3 more effectively.

– Ask the students to share their answers to Q5 with

the class.

5 minutes Explicit

teaching

5 minutes Collaborative

learning

10 minutes Independent

learning

• Read the

workbook notes

and clarify terms

for Part B.

• Connect to the

students’ prior

learning.

• Students ask any

questions they

have.

• Complete the

first part of each

activity as a class.

• Students to

complete the rest

of each activity

in pairs.

• Students

complete the

activities in Part B.

• Check their

answers.

• 1.0 Introduction:

– Q3 of the first lesson involves reading and engaging

with the anchor text. This can be read aloud, or the

class can listen to the audio version.

– Save the video of the anchor text for the speaking

and listening lesson.

• 1.1 Comprehension:

– Before the students attempt Q8, spend time

working through and analysing the worked example

as a class.

– Ensure the students label the arguments effectively

(Q8) before they move on to Q9.

– Ask the students to share the contentions and

intentions they wrote for Q9, and discuss the

variations.

• 1.2 Planning and writing:

– As they are planning, extend the students to think

about what evidence will best connect with their

audience (Q7).

– Allow as much class time as possible for the students

to work on the draft of their speech. Realistically,

you might need to allocate a separate period for

the students to complete their draft speech before

moving on to the next lesson.

• 1.3 Structures and features:

– For Q5, ask the students to share the examples they

found in the anchor text.

– Ask the students to share the persuasive devices

they found for Q6; allow time to discuss the effects

of persuasive devices in different contexts.

– Q7a and Q7b can be a competition or treasure hunt

to see how many of each can be uncovered.

• 1.4 Vocabulary:

– Students may need help to deeply understand

connotation.

– To clarify Q6, provide example sentences that show

how the words can be used in different ways.

– Ask the students to share their answers to Q7;

there should be a variety of responses.

1.9 Teacher connections: Persuasive literacy 21


Timing Focus Actions Implementation guide

• 1.5 Syntax:

– Ask the students to share their answers to Q5, to

ensure their responses are accurate, before moving

forward.

– You can discuss the difference between single and

plural verbs as a class.

• 1.6 Punctuation:

– As a class, discuss punctuation of dialogue and

quotes before the students attempt Q5.

– Extend the students to look at punctuation more

holistically when revising their drafts.

• 1.7 Spelling:

– For Q4, refer the students to the spelling

generalisations in the Literacy How-to section.

– The spelling generalisations will be more explicitly

taught in other units; for now, see if the students

can apply the generalisations.

• 1.8 Speaking and listening:

– As a class, discuss the students’ answers to Q6.

– Set up expectations for the class presentations

through Q7.

– At least one other lesson will need to be allocated

for the students to practise and present their

speeches to the class.

5 minutes Reflection • Connect the

learning back

to the learning

intention.

• Were the

students’ initial

questions

answered?

• What scores do

the students give

for their success

and confidence

in the lesson?

• Read ‘Take it with

you’; can the

students add any

other situations to

which they might

be able to apply

their learning and

understanding?

• Don’t sacrifice the reflection time to enable the

students to complete the activities. Instead, prioritise

the reflection as it can help the students to connect

and transfer the skills covered to other areas.

• Establish and support the routine of students scoring

their learning confidence at the end of each lesson.

• Allow the students to see and speak about the

connections to other classes and situations; this will

allow you to discover their interests and make future

connections to other learning.

22 Connecting LiteracyBook 2


Variation A: Two 20-minute sessions to teach one lesson

Teach only Part A or Part B in one class and follow the sequence below. You will need to allow writing

time between each lesson, so allocate an extra 20-minute block to complete each individual lesson.

Variation B: One 20-minute session to teach one lesson

The students could be asked to complete the writing revisions as homework or at another time.

Explicit teaching would cover the entire lesson (Part A and Part B) before independent work.

There would be little time for collaboration and sharing of results, but learning could be connected

to mainstream teaching and learning to consolidate and extend.

A sample lesson sequence for a 20-minute class

Timing Focus Implementation guide

2 minutes Establish the learning

intention and connect

to the students’ prior

knowledge

• Read the learning intention and clarify the key terms.

• Draw connections to class learning and life.

5 minutes Explicit teaching • Watch the video.

• Read the workbook notes and clarify the key terms.

• Connect the students’ prior learning to the

expectations of the current activity.

10 minutes Independent learning • Students complete the activities.

• Check their answers.

3 minutes Reflection • Connect the learning back to the learning intention.

• What scores do the students give for their success

and confidence in the lesson?

• Read ‘Take it with you’.

1.9 Teacher connections: Persuasive literacy 23

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