Connecting Literacy Teacher Book 3 Sample Pages

Connecting Literacy targets whole-school literacy improvement for Secondary students and teachers. What is Connecting Literacy? A developmental literacy program for Secondary schools, including: -3 student folios -3 teacher books -100s of video lessons hosted by literacy consultant, Hayley Harrison. Who is Connecting Literacy for? Secondary school students and teachers who: -are embarking on whole-school literacy improvement, OR -integrate literacy skills in the English classroom, OR -attend a timetabled literacy block. How does Connecting Literacy work? With cumulative skill development over three books where students: -Model: read and annotate an ‘anchor text’ – an authentic piece of student writing -Practise: complete units of work in class or as homework with video support from Hayley Harrison, literacy coach -Apply: draft their own text directly into the writing pages included in each student folio. Why do you need Connecting Literacy? -Flexibility: Use the series over three consecutive years or use the student folios in parallel to differentiate, support and extend. -Support: Video lessons, teacher books with answers and suggested programs, a literacy skills ‘toolkit’ and on-demand P.D. sessions will support experienced and out-of-discipline teachers alike. -Evidence: Student folios are designed as a learning pathway with built-in student reflection, metacognition and formative assessment (with developmental rubrics). -Whole-school: Use Connecting Literacy to underpin your whole school literacy plan and create a common metalanguage around literacy.

Connecting Literacy targets whole-school literacy improvement for Secondary students and teachers.

What is Connecting Literacy?

A developmental literacy program for Secondary schools, including:

-3 student folios
-3 teacher books
-100s of video lessons hosted by literacy consultant, Hayley Harrison.

Who is Connecting Literacy for?

Secondary school students and teachers who:

-are embarking on whole-school literacy improvement, OR
-integrate literacy skills in the English classroom, OR
-attend a timetabled literacy block.

How does Connecting Literacy work?

With cumulative skill development over three books where students:

-Model: read and annotate an ‘anchor text’ – an authentic piece of student writing
-Practise: complete units of work in class or as homework with video support from Hayley Harrison, literacy coach
-Apply: draft their own text directly into the writing pages included in each student folio.

Why do you need Connecting Literacy?

-Flexibility: Use the series over three consecutive years or use the student folios in parallel to differentiate, support and extend.
-Support: Video lessons, teacher books with answers and suggested programs, a literacy skills ‘toolkit’ and on-demand P.D. sessions will support experienced and out-of-discipline teachers alike.
-Evidence: Student folios are designed as a learning pathway with built-in student reflection, metacognition and formative assessment (with developmental rubrics).
-Whole-school: Use Connecting Literacy to underpin your whole school literacy plan and create a common metalanguage around literacy.


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<strong>Connecting</strong><br />

<strong>Literacy</strong><br />

‘… splendid and spectacular like I have glimpsed in the movies’<br />

Authored by<br />

Hayley<br />

Harrison<br />

and a team of students, just like you.<br />

sed in the movies’<br />

<strong>Teacher</strong><br />


<strong>Connecting</strong><br />

<strong>Literacy</strong><br />

<strong>Teacher</strong><br />

<strong>Book</strong><br />

Authored by<br />

Hayley<br />

Harrison<br />

and a team of students, just like you.<br />

‘… splendid and spectacular like I have glimpsed in the movies’

<strong>Connecting</strong> <strong>Literacy</strong><br />

<strong>Teacher</strong> <strong>Book</strong> 3<br />

1st edition<br />

Hayley Harrison<br />

Publisher: Catherine Charles-Brown<br />

Project editor: Naomi Saligari<br />

Copy editor: Naomi Saligari<br />

Proofreader: Kelly Robinson<br />

Cover and text design: Ana Cosma (anacosma.com)<br />

Typesetter: Paul Ryan<br />

Illustrator: QBS Learning<br />

The author and publisher are grateful to the following<br />

for permission to reproduce copyright material:<br />

Cover: Stocksy/Stacy Allen<br />

Alamy/imageBroker, 71; iStockphoto/no_limit_<br />

pictures (left), 86, /splendens, 57, /suprun (pie),<br />

154, /syntika, 51, / t_kimura (Ace of hearts), 154,<br />

/ Yaslex (right), 86. Extract from Defining Moments<br />

in the History of Abstract Art by Phillip Barcio and<br />

IdeelArt.com, 95.<br />

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Warning: It is recommended that Aboriginal and<br />

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viewing this publication as it may contain images of<br />

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Country and recognises their continuing connection to<br />

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to Elders past and present.<br />

First published in 2023 by Matilda Education Australia,<br />

an imprint of Meanwhile Education Pty Ltd<br />

Melbourne, Australia<br />

T: 1300 277 235<br />

E: customersupport@matildaed.com.au<br />

www.matildaeducation.com.au<br />

Copyright © Hayley Harrison 2023<br />

Copyright © Matilda Education 2023<br />

The moral rights of the authors have been asserted.<br />

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(the Act) and subsequent amendments, no part of<br />

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Publication data<br />

Author: Hayley Harrison<br />

Title: <strong>Connecting</strong> <strong>Literacy</strong> <strong>Teacher</strong> <strong>Book</strong> 3<br />

ISBN: 9780655091462<br />

A catalogue record for this<br />

book is available from the<br />

National Library of Australia<br />

Printed in Australia by Courtney Brands<br />


<strong>Connecting</strong><br />

<strong>Literacy</strong><br />

Contents<br />

Introduction to literacy .........................<br />

iv<br />

Unit 1: Persuasive literacy ..................... 2<br />

Unit 2: Procedural literacy ..................... 24<br />

Unit 3: Imaginative literacy .................... 48<br />

Unit 4: Informative literacy .................... 70<br />

Unit 5: Analytical literacy ...................... 94<br />

Unit 6: Reflective literacy ...................... 118<br />

Unit 7: Comparative literacy .................. 140<br />

<strong>Literacy</strong> How-to .................................. 164<br />

Comprehension ............................... 164<br />

Planning and writing ......................... 167<br />

Structures and features ...................... 174<br />

Vocabulary ..................................... 181<br />

Syntax ........................................... 183<br />

Punctuation .................................... 188<br />

Spelling ......................................... 191<br />

Speaking and listening ....................... 200<br />

Introduction to literacy<br />


Introduction to literacy<br />

<strong>Literacy</strong> is a complex amalgamation of skills that interweave and are applied when<br />

reading, writing, speaking, and listening. The goal of systematically and explicitly<br />

teaching individual literacy skills is to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of<br />

students’ communication. Mastering literacy skills requires a person to understand,<br />

consolidate, and build automaticity in individual skills and then combine these skills<br />

to develop as a critical reader, coherent writer, and confident speaker.<br />

The literacy skills and strategies presented in this book are designed to be individually<br />

taught, explored, consolidated, and built upon. This learning is then explicitly transferred<br />

beyond the classroom to help students in every part of their school and everyday<br />

lives. Teaching is supported by an instructional model that consists of prior knowledge<br />

activation, explicit teaching, collaboration, independent practise, and reflection. There<br />

are layers of teaching and learning support, including links to comprehension strategies,<br />

writing organisers, and formative assessment opportunities at a lesson and unit level.<br />

How to use <strong>Connecting</strong> <strong>Literacy</strong>: Model, practise, apply<br />

This book is divided into seven units – which are based on the different text types that students<br />

will encounter during school and beyond – and one <strong>Literacy</strong> How-to section, which is a complete<br />

reference guide that can be referred to throughout the book:<br />

• Unit 1: Persuasive literacy<br />

• Unit 2: Procedural literacy<br />

• Unit 3: Imaginative literacy<br />

• Unit 4: Informative literacy<br />

• Unit 5: Analytical literacy<br />

• Unit 6: Reflective literacy<br />

• Unit 7: Comparative literacy<br />

• <strong>Literacy</strong> How-to section.<br />

In each unit, the students model, practise, and apply specific literacy skills to a different text type.<br />

Model<br />

Each of the seven units begins with an anchor text. Each anchor text is a model that is<br />

designed to ‘anchor’ the students’ learning as they complete the activities in the unit.<br />

The anchor texts in this series were all written by students in years 7–10, from schools<br />

across Australia.<br />

Practise<br />

Each unit has eight lessons that focus on core literacy skills and strategies:<br />

1 comprehension<br />

5 syntax<br />

2 planning and writing<br />

6 punctuation<br />

3 structures and features<br />

7 spelling<br />

4 vocabulary<br />

8 speaking and listening.<br />

At the end of the book, there is a <strong>Literacy</strong> How-to section. This is a comprehensive<br />

literacy reference guide that is designed to support teachers and students by providing<br />

content, skills, and strategies that can be applied across the units. This section is<br />

designed to connect with prior knowledge activation, and to provide opportunities<br />

for clarification and extension of understanding and skill development.<br />

iv <strong>Connecting</strong> <strong>Literacy</strong> • <strong>Book</strong> 3

Apply<br />

In each lesson, comprehension strategies are suggested to help the students to complete the<br />

activities successfully. Each unit includes writing pages for students to use to draft and edit their<br />

own original texts. By containing their learning and application in the same book, students can<br />

build a comprehensive learning folio.<br />


Pause to<br />

wonder and<br />

connect.<br />

<strong>Connecting</strong> <strong>Literacy</strong><br />

Model, practise, apply<br />

Comparative texts<br />

SPEAKING &<br />


3 Apply<br />


2 Practise<br />


Persuasive texts<br />

Refllective texts<br />



1 Model<br />


A model text written<br />

by a student,<br />

just like you<br />

PLANNING &<br />




Procedural texts<br />

Analytical texts<br />

SYNTAX<br />


Imaginative texts<br />

Informative texts<br />


Your go-to literacy reference guide, to support your every step<br />

Reflect<br />

Unit confidence scores: At the start of each unit, students are invited to rate their confidence about<br />

reading, writing, speaking, and listening to the particular text type. The intention is that students will<br />

return at the end of the unit to score their learning confidence again and to celebrate their success.<br />

Lesson confidence scores: Every lesson in the <strong>Connecting</strong> <strong>Literacy</strong> series culminates in students<br />

giving themselves a score out of five: this self-assessment promotes students’ awareness of their<br />

learning and understanding. This self-assessment also provides an opportunity for teachers to note<br />

any areas that require further class time or clarification.<br />

The students’ learning in each unit is brought together with a learning ladder. Using this chart,<br />

the students can self-assess their final writing and speaking and listening task (these tasks have<br />

a speaking and listening icon in the margin) and reflect on their learning throughout the unit.<br />

Introduction to literacy<br />


Persuasive literacy<br />

http://mea.<br />

digital/CL3_1_0<br />

Persuasive writing is opinion writing that attempts to convince a reader of a particular<br />

point of view. It is non-fiction writing that intends to influence how the reader thinks, feels,<br />

acts, or makes decisions about a particular idea, issue, or proposal. These texts use various<br />

persuasive writing techniques to achieve their purpose; the techniques used are selected<br />

to have the most impact on the text’s particular audience. Many different text types can<br />

be persuasive, including speeches, advertisements, debates, essays, letters, reviews, flyers,<br />

and articles.<br />

Why do we create persuasive texts?<br />

The most important element of a persuasive text is that it is created to convince someone of the<br />

writer’s point of view. The text expresses how the writer thinks and feels about a topic, but its goal<br />

is to make the audience think and feel the same way as the author. People are inspired to write<br />

persuasive texts when they feel strongly about a topic, which is why persuasive writing is usually<br />

highly emotional. Authors of persuasive texts change the type of language and devices they use<br />

to persuade, depending on who they are addressing. This is why a persuasive text written for<br />

an organisation sounds very different from a persuasive text written for a friend.<br />

1 In your own words, explain why having good persuasive skills is important.<br />

Having good persuasive skills is important because these skills enable me to convince someone of<br />

my opinion. I can use different strategies and techniques depending on my audience and purpose.<br />

I also understand how to present my thoughts, beliefs, and ideas in a way where people will listen<br />

to me and understand what I’m saying.<br />

2 Where might you be asked to write persuasively in the future?<br />

In school, in English, I might be asked to write a persuasive oral presentation, or write persuasively<br />

about an issue. In other subjects, I might need to present in a debate, or present my opinion on<br />

a topic. Outside of school, I might need to write a letter to a company or organisation.<br />

Page 3<br />

3 Read the anchor text. This text is a model that will help you to ‘anchor’ your learning as you<br />

complete the activities in this unit. It will also assist you to draft your own persuasive speech.<br />

The anchor text was written by a student, just like you.<br />

Rate my<br />

confidence<br />

At the end of each lesson, you will rate how confident you are about your<br />

progress through the unit. Be as honest as you can; it’s your learning!<br />

4 How confident do you currently feel about reading, writing, speaking, and listening to persuasive<br />

texts? Give yourself a confidence score out of five. Come back at the end of the unit to score your<br />

learning confidence again.<br />

Start of the unit: DD \ MM \ YYYY<br />

End of the unit: DD \ MM \ YYYY<br />

1 2 3 4 5<br />

1 2 3 4 5<br />

Not very<br />

confident<br />

Somewhat<br />

confident<br />

Confident<br />

Highly<br />

confident<br />

Super<br />

confident<br />

Not very<br />

confident<br />

Somewhat<br />

confident<br />

Confident<br />

Highly<br />

confident<br />

Super<br />

confident<br />

2 <strong>Connecting</strong> <strong>Literacy</strong> • <strong>Book</strong> 3

Anchor text<br />

Persuasive speech<br />

Defend yourself 101<br />

Paragraph 1<br />

I’m hoping you all feel very safe, sitting here together today. But I’m sure you have all felt<br />

unsafe at some time in your life and I feel our school has a responsibility to help protect<br />

us, however possible. Hello, my fellow peers, you all know my name is Angela and I’m<br />

speaking with you today to try and protect you by explaining why I believe our school<br />

should offer self-defence classes. We need to know how to defend ourselves in school,<br />

on the streets, and at work – whether it be from physical, sexual, or other assault. So many<br />

people (especially us young people) feel hopeless when fighting against someone stronger,<br />

but we can change that feeling of hopelessness if only our school had self-defence classes.<br />

Exclusive language<br />

Generalisation<br />

Verb suffix<br />

Rule of three<br />

Adjective suffix<br />

Exclusive language<br />

Argument 1:<br />

Help to protect self<br />

Paragraph 5<br />

Paragraph 4<br />

Paragraph 3<br />

Paragraph 2<br />

Let me start by acknowledging that most people don’t feel like they have the strength or<br />

power to defend themselves properly. But the effect of self-defence classes is to give people<br />

the skills and confidence to protect themselves whenever necessary. Throughout history,<br />

sexual harassment rates have always been too high. In 2017, high schools in New South<br />

Wales collected survey results to discover that 30 per cent of boys and 32 per cent of girls<br />

experienced sexual harassment on school grounds! If we don’t start learning self-defence<br />

at a young age, how are we meant to defend ourselves in the very near and real future?<br />

But these vital classes are not just to protect the vulnerable victim. Dr Milkovic, head of<br />

psychology at the Royal Melbourne Hospital, explains how many concerned bystanders<br />

think of themselves as someone too weak and too powerless to make a change.<br />

Through participating in a life-changing self-defence class though, the next time we<br />

witness an innocent person being harassed, we will have the critical knowledge and<br />

confidence to step in. How can our school possibly say no to something that would<br />

benefit our life and the innumerable lives of those around us?<br />

I understand that some of you may fear you could get injured in this class. However,<br />

even in a normal PE class, there are chances of getting injured. In a PE class, our teachers<br />

support us in how to avoid getting injured, don’t they? Well, self-defence classes are<br />

literally a class about how NOT to get injured! Surely your parents would like you to be<br />

able to pre-empt and prevent an attack. They want you to be safe, don’t they?<br />

So, there seems no logical reason why our school shouldn’t start self-defence classes as<br />

soon as possible! Not only will these classes help students defend themselves against<br />

predators, but they will give us confidence to stop being bystanders and look after our<br />

friends in a safe and responsible way. At the end of the class, I encourage you to step up<br />

and sign the petition paper to bring self-defence classes on campus. With little effort,<br />

it can be your first step in knowing how to protect yourself properly.<br />

Noun suffix<br />

Verb suffix<br />

Exclusive language<br />

Statistics<br />

Alliteration<br />

Emotive language<br />

Argument 2:<br />

Help bystanders<br />

Repetition<br />

Emotive language<br />

Exclusive language<br />

Argument 3:<br />

Avoid injury<br />

Emphasis<br />

Rhetorical question<br />

Appeal to reason<br />

Adjective suffix<br />

Adjective suffix<br />

Student author: Angela (Wren) Truong<br />

Audience: Angela’s class<br />

http://mea.digital/<br />

CL3_1_A<br />

Persuasive literacy ~ Unit  1 3

1.1<br />

L E A R N I N G<br />

I N T E N T I O N :<br />

Persuasive comprehension<br />

To understand the overall<br />

purpose of a persuasive text<br />

Part A: Question the text<br />

http://mea.digital/<br />

CL3_1_1<br />

A great strategy to use with any text that you need to understand is to question the text: What is the<br />

text saying? How and why is this being said?<br />

Read the anchor text and then answer the following questions.<br />

Page 3<br />

1 How does Angela want to change her school?<br />

Angela wants her school to offer self-defence classes.<br />

F<br />


Ask questions<br />

to find answers.<br />

2 What are self-defence classes designed to do?<br />

F<br />

Self-defence classes are designed to give people the skills and confidence to protect themselves<br />

whenever necessary.<br />

3 Why does Angela think that sexual harassment rates ‘have always been too high’?<br />

There shouldn’t be any sexual harassment at all, so any rate of sexual harassment is ‘too high’.<br />

I<br />

4 What does Angela mean when she says, ‘… defend ourselves in the very near and real future’? I<br />

This phrase is referring to the fact that the possibility of students being sexually harassed is quite<br />

high so the students may need self-defence skills very soon.<br />

5 Why does Angela acknowledge ‘some’ people might not agree with her proposal?<br />

I<br />

Angela has considered the alternative perspective and is giving a reason why she thinks that point<br />

of view is inaccurate.<br />

6 Why would some people fear getting injured in the self-defence class?<br />

I<br />

Some people might think that they could get injured pretending to fight off someone; they don’t<br />

realise how safe the class would be.<br />

7 How can signing a petition be the first step in the students being able to protect themselves? I<br />

Signing Angela’s petition may lead to self-defence classes being offered at the school, which will<br />

teach the students how to protect themselves.<br />

8 a Answer the two questions in the table below.<br />

Questions<br />

Factual questions:<br />

The answers to factual questions<br />

are explicitly stated in the text.<br />

Interpretive questions:<br />

Interpretive questions can have<br />

more than one correct answer.<br />

To find the answer/s to an<br />

interpretive question, you need<br />

to ‘read between the lines’<br />

of the text.<br />

1 How does answering a factual question about a text help<br />

you understand that text?<br />

Answering a factual question about a text helps you<br />

understand exactly what the text said.<br />

1 How does answering an interpretive question about<br />

a text help you understand that text?<br />

Answering an interpretive question about a text helps you<br />

understand what the text implies; it helps you understand<br />

the text at a deeper level. Answering interpretive<br />

questions can also help you to connect the text to your<br />

learning outside of the text.<br />

4 <strong>Connecting</strong> <strong>Literacy</strong> • <strong>Book</strong> 3

Re-read Questions 1 to 7 opposite. Which questions are factual questions (F)? Which questions<br />

are interpretive questions (I)? Write the letter ‘F’ or ‘I’ next to each question.<br />

Part B: Contention and intention<br />

To fully understand a persuasive text, you need to consider the text’s overall purpose: Why was it<br />

written? What does the author want you to think after reading the text (the contention or main idea)?<br />

What does the author want you to do after reading the text (the intention or call to action)?<br />

Page 164<br />

Comprehension<br />

strategies<br />

9 Annotate the anchor text by numbering the paragraphs and labelling the three main arguments.<br />

10 In the table below:<br />

a write the three arguments you identified in the anchor text in Question 9.<br />

b summarise the evidence the author used to support each argument.<br />

c identify what type of evidence the author used (anecdote, statistics, expert opinion, etc.).<br />

Page 3<br />


Identify and<br />

understand<br />

the pieces<br />

of the text.<br />

Argument Evidence Type of evidence<br />

Argument one:<br />

Self-defence classes are needed<br />

because there is a very real threat<br />

of students being sexually harassed.<br />

‘… 30 per cent of boys and 32 per<br />

cent of girls experienced sexual<br />

harassment on school grounds’<br />

Statistics<br />

Argument two:<br />

Self-defence classes give bystanders<br />

the skills and confidence to do the<br />

right and safe thing in this situation.<br />

‘Dr Milkovic, head of psychology<br />

at the Royal Melbourne Hospital,<br />

explains how many concerned<br />

bystanders …’<br />

Expert opinion<br />

Argument three:<br />

Self-defence classes give people<br />

the skills to help them avoid getting<br />

injured.<br />

‘In a PE class, our teachers<br />

support us in how to avoid getting<br />

injured …’<br />

Anecdote<br />

11 These three arguments work together to build one overall argument or main idea. What is the<br />

anchor text’s contention?<br />

Contention: That Angela’s school should offer self-defence classes because these classes are<br />

a safe and vital way to ensure future victims and bystanders have the skills and confidence to<br />

protect themselves and others.<br />

Page 3<br />

12 What is the anchor text asking the audience to do? What is the text’s intention?<br />

The anchor text is asking the audience to sign a petition about starting self-defence classes<br />

at the school; the text’s intention is to convince the audience members to sign this petition.<br />

I understand the overall purpose of a persuasive text: / 5<br />

Next time you work with a long text in any subject, number and label the paragraphs.<br />

Challenge yourself to question the text and question your interpretation of the text.<br />

TAKE IT<br />

WITH YOU<br />

1.1 Persuasive comprehension 5

1.2<br />

L E A R N I N G<br />

I N T E N T I O N :<br />

Persuasive planning and writing<br />

To understand how to<br />

plan and develop my<br />

persuasive speech<br />

Part A: Develop your arguments<br />

http://mea.digital/<br />

CL3_1_2<br />

Page 20<br />

Writing a persuasive text is more than expressing how strongly you feel about a topic. You need to<br />

spend some time thinking about why the topic is important, what other people might think about<br />

the topic, and how you can be as convincing as possible in the time you have allocated.<br />

Your writing task for this unit is to write a speech, which will be similar to the anchor text<br />

in purpose, audience and length. In this speech, you will try to convince your classmates to<br />

sign a petition about making a particular change at your school.<br />

1 Use the concept map in Figure 1.1 below to brainstorm all the things you think should be changed<br />

at your school.<br />

Curriculum or classes or learning<br />

Classes in:<br />

• sign language<br />

• life skills<br />

• social media<br />

Other<br />

• No exams<br />

• Students get to choose<br />

their teachers<br />

Things that<br />

could be<br />

changed in<br />

my school<br />

Figure 1.1<br />

Resources or facilities<br />

• Coffee vending machines<br />

• Phone charging stations<br />

• A smash room<br />

Activities or events<br />

• Fashion show<br />

• School play<br />

2 Using the ideas you came up with in your brainstorm, decide which change you feel most passionate<br />

about. Next, write down three arguments or reasons why this change should happen.<br />

We should have a smash room at school:<br />

• so we have a safe space to let out our frustrations<br />

• for staff members and students<br />

• because this will promote recycling and expressing emotions safely.<br />

3 What could be a counter argument to your idea for a change at your school? Which of your<br />

arguments proves why the counter argument is invalid?<br />

A counter argument is that smashing things promotes violence and destruction. However, a smash<br />

room shows people when and how to let out their frustrations safely.<br />

4 Taking into consideration all your points, what are you arguing overall? What is the contention of<br />

your speech?<br />

My school should set up a smash room for staff members and students so they can safely let out<br />

their frustrations.<br />

6 <strong>Connecting</strong> <strong>Literacy</strong> • <strong>Book</strong> 3

Part B: Revise your text for your audience and purpose<br />

Keep in mind that your speech will be presented to your class; this will change the way you approach<br />

drafting your speech. The more clearly you can predict how your speech will make your classmates<br />

think and feel, the better you will be able to specifically and purposefully write your speech to<br />

achieve your intention.<br />

5 After listening to your speech, what do you want your audience to do? What is the intention<br />

of your speech?<br />

I want the people in my audience to sign a petition that asks for a smash room to be set up<br />

at school.<br />


Understand<br />

the purpose<br />

of the text<br />

or feature.<br />

6 How does your audience currently feel about your topic?<br />

The people in my audience have probably never thought about having a smash room at school.<br />

7 What else interests your audience? What do they care about? How can you use your audience’s<br />

interests in your speech?<br />

People in my audience care about their social lives, sport, fashion, school grades, and their safety.<br />

Their interest in their personal safety may make them interested in my speech.<br />

8 Using the information from Questions 5, 6, and 7, decide what evidence will connect to your<br />

audience most successfully, while supporting your arguments.<br />

Arguments<br />

Argument one:<br />

A smash room will provide<br />

people with a safe space<br />

to let out their frustrations.<br />

Argument two:<br />

The room will be for staff<br />

members and students.<br />

Argument three:<br />

The smash room will promote<br />

recycling and expressing<br />

emotions safely.<br />

Evidence<br />

• Expressing negative energy in the smash room burns<br />

emotions like anger and frustration in a way that is<br />

not harmful.<br />

• Adults and students both experience stress and can<br />

feel frustrated.<br />

• The whole school community would benefit from<br />

the school having a smash room.<br />

• Goods would be reused and recycled in the smash room<br />

rather than being thrown out.<br />

• Protective clothing must be worn in the smash room.<br />

Page 172<br />

Finding<br />

appropriate<br />

evidence<br />

Page 3<br />

9 Using the anchor text as a model and the arguments and evidence you identified in Question 8,<br />

write a draft of your speech. You can write your draft in the writing pages at the end of this unit.<br />

We will continue to revise your speech throughout the unit, so for now, write the first draft, knowing<br />

it doesn’t have to be perfect, but it is enough to start experimenting with.<br />

Page 20<br />

Page 172<br />

Turning a plan<br />

into a draft<br />

I understand how to plan and develop my persuasive speech: / 5<br />

Next time you are asked to write a specific text type in another class, first consider the<br />

text’s audience and purpose. Then, directly match your writing to the audience and<br />

purpose you have identified. This is particularly useful in assessments and exams.<br />

TAKE IT<br />

WITH YOU<br />

1.2 Persuasive planning and writing 7

1.3<br />

Persuasive structures<br />

and features<br />

L E A R N I N G<br />

I N T E N T I O N :<br />

To understand the key structural<br />

elements and language features<br />

of persuasive speeches<br />

Part A: Persuasive speeches<br />

http://mea.digital/<br />

CL3_1_3<br />

Page 3<br />


Identify and<br />

understand<br />

the pieces of<br />

the text.<br />

The structural elements and language features of a persuasive speech require the speech to be<br />

planned in a similar way to an essay but written quite differently. This is because the text is being<br />

written to be spoken and this is not a common way to write.<br />

1 In the table below, using the anchor text as a guide, identify the key structural elements and<br />

language features of the different parts of a persuasive speech.<br />

The structural elements of a persuasive speech<br />

Introduction Body paragraphs Conclusion<br />

• An engaging hook<br />

• Introduction of the topic<br />

• Introduction of<br />

the speaker<br />

• Introduction of the<br />

contention<br />

The language features of a persuasive speech<br />

• Introduction of the<br />

key arguments<br />

• Evidence to support the<br />

key arguments<br />

• Explanation of how<br />

the arguments prove<br />

the contention<br />

• A rebuttal of an<br />

alternative perspective<br />

• Synthesis of the arguments<br />

and the contention overall<br />

• The intention is made clear<br />

• A final, memorable<br />

statement<br />

• First-person perspective<br />

• Pause for effect<br />

• Present tense<br />

• Speaking directly to<br />

the audience<br />

• Signposts and transitions<br />

• Shifts in tone<br />

• Persuasive devices<br />

2 Considering the structural elements and the language features you identified in Question 1, what<br />

are the similarities and differences between a persuasive speech and a persuasive essay?<br />

Page 174<br />

Text forms<br />

Similarities<br />

• They both have paragraphs.<br />

They both:<br />

• have arguments<br />

• use evidence to support the arguments<br />

• use precise and persuasive language<br />

• have an introduction, a body, and<br />

a conclusion<br />

• have a contention (a main idea)<br />

• have an intention (a call to action)<br />

• use repetition<br />

• are written in the present tense.<br />

Differences<br />

• Speeches use personal pronouns (I, you, me);<br />

essays do not.<br />

• Speeches speak directly to the audience;<br />

essays usually do not.<br />

• Speeches use different persuasive devices<br />

that are more appropriate to spoken texts<br />

(for example: sarcasm, rhetorical questions,<br />

and inclusive language).<br />

• Speeches are written to be spoken, while<br />

essays are written to be read.<br />

Part B: Persuasive devices<br />

Persuasive devices are essentially rhetoric, which is the use and manipulation of language to<br />

convey a message. Strong persuasive texts use of a variety of rhetorical devices to sway or convince<br />

the audience or reader. Combined, these persuasive devices can make a text very convincing.<br />

8 <strong>Connecting</strong> <strong>Literacy</strong> • <strong>Book</strong> 3

One of the most powerful, yet subtle, uses of rhetoric is the appeal. Appeals use a variety of other<br />

persuasive devices to help achieve their goal: to connect to the intellectual, moral, or emotional<br />

responses of the audience. A persuasive text can appeal to anything. Aristotle categorised appeals<br />

into three main categories: ethos, pathos, and logos.<br />

Type of appeal<br />

Ethos: appeal to ethics<br />

Pathos: appeal to emotions<br />

Logos: appeal to logic<br />

What the appeal does<br />

The author builds credibility, so the audience trusts what they<br />

are saying.<br />

The author makes the audience feel certain emotions about specific<br />

people and things.<br />

The author uses reason and logic, facts, and experts to validate<br />

the arguments they are presenting.<br />

3 Match each example from the anchor text below to the type of appeal it is using.<br />

Example from the anchor text<br />

‘Hello, my fellow peers, you all know my name is Angela and<br />

I’m speaking with you today to try and protect you’<br />

‘… most people don’t feel like they have the strength or power<br />

to defend themselves properly’<br />

‘How can our school possibly say no to something that would benefit<br />

our life and the innumerable lives of those around us?’<br />

Type of appeal<br />

(ethos, pathos, or logos)<br />

Ethos<br />

Logos<br />

Pathos<br />

Page 3<br />

4 In the anchor text, highlight and label one example of each of the following persuasive devices:<br />

rule of three, statistics, generalisation, rhetorical question, emotive language, and alliteration.<br />

5 What other persuasive devices can you find in the anchor text? Highlight and label these devices.<br />

6 Persuasive devices rarely work in isolation, as shown by this sentence from the anchor text:<br />

‘How can our school possibly say no to something that would benefit our life and the innumerable<br />

lives of those around us?’<br />

Page 178<br />

Literary and<br />

persuasive<br />

devices<br />


Pause to<br />

wonder and<br />

connect.<br />

a How many devices can you identify in this sentence?<br />

Rhetorical question, emotive language, appeal to safety, positive and negative connotation,<br />

inclusive language, modality, generalisation, and hyperbole<br />

b Describe the effect of the persuasive devices working together in this sentence.<br />

By using emotive and hyperbolised language within a rhetorical question, the sentence appeals<br />

to the audience’s safety; this is also achieved through the use of inclusive language and the juxtaposition<br />

of the negative connotations of ‘innumerable’ with the positive connotation of ‘benefit.’<br />

7 Identify the structural elements and language features in your speech. What persuasive devices have<br />

you used in your speech? How could you make your speech more persuasive? Revise your draft.<br />

Page 20<br />

I understand the key structural elements and language features of persuasive speeches: / 5<br />

Persuasive devices are not just for persuasive texts. Can you use the ‘rule of three’ or<br />

emotive language in another piece of writing this week?<br />

TAKE IT<br />

WITH YOU<br />

1.3 Persuasive structures and features 9

1.4<br />

http://mea.digital/<br />

CL3_1_4<br />

Persuasive vocabulary<br />

Part A: Emotive language<br />

L E A R N I N G<br />

A text that makes someone feel something is far more likely to convince its reader or audience to<br />

think something or to do something. By using language that evokes emotion, writers connect to<br />

their readers in a way that is memorable and persuasive.<br />

I N T E N T I O N :<br />

To understand emotive<br />

language, denotation, and<br />

connotation in persuasive<br />

writing<br />

1 In the following sentences, highlight the emotive words and identify what emotion is being<br />

expressed by these words.<br />

a The innocent bystander stood frozen, unable to tear his eyes away.<br />

Fear, terror, shock<br />

b The vicious thug saw red and snapped as she lunged closer.<br />

Anger, frustration, rage, fury<br />

c The underestimated victim took a deep breath and concentrated on what they had learnt.<br />

Determined, assertive, firm, hardened, fierce<br />

2 Consider the three people in Question 1. What judgements did you make about these people?<br />

How did you interpret their situations? How are they feeling?<br />

a The bystander The bystander is too scared to do anything.<br />

b The thug<br />

<br />

The thug is so filled with rage that they have completely lost control.<br />

c The victim<br />

The victim knows they can’t escape the situation, so they are trying to calm<br />

themselves down and remember the techniques they can use to protect themselves.<br />

3 Underline the emotive words in paragraph three of the anchor text.<br />

Page 3<br />

4 The text below claims that selling junk food in a cafeteria is a terrible thing. Change the bolded<br />

emotive words so the text claims that selling junk food in a cafeteria is a great thing.<br />

delicious smell<br />

wafts<br />

I walk into the cafeteria and the stench of deep-fried oil slams into my face. I look across the bainmarie<br />

and all I can see are the greasy towers of processed food. It all looks like an oil factory ready<br />

gleaming<br />

pristine<br />

a paradise<br />

be experienced<br />

responsible<br />

to explode. I can’t understand why, in this day and age, we are still putting the lives of vulnerable<br />

villanising<br />

joy<br />

children at risk by normalising such rubbish as ‘food’ that is fit for consumption.<br />

Part B: Denotation and connotation<br />

Every word has a standard definition or a literal meaning, which is called a word’s denotation.<br />

Many words also have a connotation, which is the feeling evoked by the word; a connotation<br />

is a suggested or implied meaning.<br />

For example: The sandpaper is gritty. That side of town is gritty.<br />

(Denotation: having (Connotation: that side of town is rough; it’s a tough<br />

a rough texture)<br />

neighbourhood with high incidences of crime)<br />

10 <strong>Connecting</strong> <strong>Literacy</strong> • <strong>Book</strong> 3

A word’s connotation can be further classified as being either negative or positive.<br />

5 From the anchor text, choose a word with a negative connotation and a word with a positive<br />

connotation, then complete the following table.<br />

Word<br />

from the<br />

anchor text<br />

Positive or<br />

negative<br />

connotation<br />

Denotation (definition<br />

or literal meaning)<br />

Connotation (implied meaning)<br />

Page 3<br />

Vital Positive Something that is<br />

necessary<br />

Most important thing that will help<br />

your life<br />

Concerned<br />

Negative<br />

To worry about a situation<br />

Caring about a problem a lot<br />

Predators<br />

Negative<br />

Animals that kill other<br />

animals to survive<br />

People who try to use other people’s<br />

suffering to their own advantage<br />

6 For each of the words in the table below, identify a synonym that has a different connotation.<br />

Positive connotation Neutral connotation Negative connotation<br />

Infatuated Highly interested Obsessed<br />

Page 181<br />

Word meanings<br />

Assertive<br />

Reserved<br />

Mature<br />

Driven<br />

Generous<br />

Insistent or clear<br />

Quiet or shy<br />

Senior<br />

Focused<br />

Giving<br />

Aggressive or pushy<br />

Timid<br />

Elderly<br />

Pushy<br />

Extravagant<br />

7 Decide whether each of the following words shows someone is not very determined, or determined,<br />

or very determined.<br />

wavering, adamant, headstrong, faltering, inflexible, persistent,<br />

rigid, stubborn, tenacious, hesitant, unrelenting<br />

Not very determined:<br />

wavering, faltering, hesitant<br />

Determined:<br />

headstrong, inflexible, persistent, stubborn<br />

Very determined:<br />

adamant, rigid, tenacious, unrelenting<br />

8 How do you want your audience to feel during your speech?<br />

Page 20<br />

9 Revise your speech to appeal to your audience’s feelings. Experiment with your language choices<br />

to make them more emotive. Include more descriptive words so your audience knows how to feel<br />

about what you are talking about.<br />

I understand emotive language, denotation, and connotation in persuasive writing: / 5<br />

Challenge yourself to find and use emotive language, with both positive and negative<br />

connotations, in other subjects.<br />

TAKE IT<br />

WITH YOU<br />

1.4 Persuasive vocabulary 11

1.5<br />

Persuasive syntax<br />

L E A R N I N G<br />

I N T E N T I O N :<br />

To understand the differences between<br />

spoken and written language, including<br />

maintaining the subject–verb agreement<br />

Part A: Spoken versus written language<br />

http://mea.digital/<br />

CL3_1_5<br />

Page 202<br />

Spoken versus<br />

written language<br />

Page 3<br />

The differences between spoken and written language go beyond the different words and syntax<br />

(sentence structure) used in these two types of language. In written texts, we use punctuation to help<br />

convey the meaning of the words; whereas, in spoken texts, we use our voice and body language to<br />

assist us to convey our meaning to our audience. However, these differences become blurred when<br />

we write a text that is going to be spoken.<br />

1 What are the key similarities and differences between spoken language and written language?<br />

Similarities: Spoken and written language are both used to communicate ideas and feelings.<br />

Differences: Spoken language uses speaking and listening skills, it is less grammatically correct,<br />

and uses voice and body language to show expression and control pace. Written language, in<br />

contrast, uses reading and writing skills, is more grammatically correct, and uses punctuation<br />

and formatting to show expression and control pace.<br />

2 How have the following sentences in the anchor text been written to make them sound more<br />

like the way a person speaks?<br />

a ‘I’m hoping you all feel very safe, sitting here together today.’<br />

This sentence speaks directly to the audience; it connects the speaker to the audience<br />

as though they are having a conversation.<br />

b ‘So many people (especially us young people) feel hopeless when fighting against someone …’<br />

The use of brackets breaks up the sentence in a similar way to how we interject ideas in our<br />

spoken sentences.<br />


Connect with<br />

the language<br />

choices.<br />

3 a Record yourself speaking naturally about aliens for 10 seconds. Transcribe what you said exactly,<br />

and then revise it to fix the grammatical errors, repetitions, etc.<br />

b Reflect on your spoken and written texts about aliens. What are the differences between your<br />

spoken and written syntax?<br />

There are more pauses, repetition, and incomplete sentences in my speech than in my writing.<br />

This is maybe because I can speak much faster than I can write.<br />

A spoken text is not always informal. Although the structural elements and language features of<br />

a formal speech are similar to those used in a formal written text, there are still key differences<br />

between these two text types.<br />

4 What are the differences between a formal speech and a formal written text?<br />

Formal speech<br />

A formal speech:<br />

• has short sentences<br />

• repeats phrases, words, and ideas<br />

• uses signposting and transitions to help<br />

the audience through the speech<br />

Formal written text<br />

A formal written text:<br />

• has long, complex sentences<br />

• repeats phrases and ideas less frequently<br />

than spoken texts<br />

• uses simple transitions and paragraphing<br />

to break up ideas<br />

12 <strong>Connecting</strong> <strong>Literacy</strong> • <strong>Book</strong> 3

Formal speech (cont.)<br />

• uses tone of voice and pace to control<br />

emotion and present the ideas clearly<br />

• is less likely to use nominalisation than<br />

a formal written text<br />

• uses pictures and graphics to support<br />

the ideas in the speech<br />

• uses specific devices (such as rhetorical<br />

questions and inclusive language) to<br />

connect the audience to the speech.<br />

Formal written text (cont.)<br />

• uses punctuation to control the tone of<br />

the text and to present ideas clearly<br />

• is more likely to use nominalisation than<br />

a speech<br />

• is less likely to use pictures and graphics<br />

to support the ideas in the text<br />

• uses specific devices (expert opinion, logic<br />

and reason, statistics, etc.) to present ideas.<br />

Part B: Subject–verb agreement<br />

Every sentence needs a subject (someone or something doing something) and a predicate<br />

(which includes a main verb to show what the subject is doing). In English sentences, the subject<br />

and the verb must ‘agree’ with each other. What this means is:<br />

• if a subject is singular (one), the verb must also be singular For example: He suggests<br />

• if a subject is plural (more than one), the verb must also be plural. For example: They suggest<br />

Page 186<br />

Subject and<br />

predicate<br />

The exception is the first-person pronoun ‘I’, which uses a plural verb. For example: I suggest<br />

In the past tense, the subject–verb agreement stays the same regardless of whether the subject<br />

is singular or plural. For example: The teacher suggested we should sign the petition.<br />

The teachers suggested we should sign the petition.<br />

The further apart the subject is to the verb, the more difficult it can be to make sure they agree.<br />

Watch out for prepositional phrases, brackets, and appositives trying to distract you!<br />

Page 187<br />

Tense<br />

When there are multiple subjects in a sentence, you need to concentrate very specifically on the<br />

subject–verb agreement. To make sure the subjects and verbs agree, look at the subjects in the<br />

sentence and consider: Are the subjects all singular? Are the subjects joined with a conjunction<br />

(for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so)?<br />

5 In each sentence, underline the subject/s and circle the verb. Do the subjects and verbs agree?<br />

a The room of empty chairs waits for the bell to ring. Yes<br />

b The instructor, a specialist in self-defence, speak from experience. No<br />


Connect the<br />

subject and<br />

the predicate.<br />

c Either Elijah or Emilia is the class assistant today.<br />

Yes<br />

d The task and the resources is waiting for submission.<br />

No<br />

6 Does your speech read like a text that is intended to be spoken? How can you find the balance<br />

between writing formally and writing a text that is intended to be spoken to your class?<br />

Make sure your subjects and verbs all agree!<br />

Page 20<br />

I understand the differences between spoken and written language,<br />

including maintaining the subject–verb agreement: / 5<br />

Hearing and seeing the differences between formal spoken and written texts can help<br />

you build sophistication in your writing. Be courageous and experiment with writing in<br />

a way that is very different to the way you speak. And, as your sentences become more<br />

complex, don’t forget to check that your subjects and verbs still agree!<br />

TAKE IT<br />

WITH YOU<br />

1.5 Persuasive syntax 13

1.6<br />

L E A R N I N G<br />

Persuasive punctuation<br />

I N T E N T I O N :<br />

To understand the impact<br />

exclamation and question<br />

marks have on a written text<br />

Part A: Exclamation marks!<br />

http://mea.digital/<br />

CL3_1_6<br />

Exclamation marks show emphasis and emotion in writing. They are powerful punctuation marks –<br />

particularly in persuasive texts – but they need to be controlled to ensure the exclamation marks<br />

used have the greatest impact. The exclamation mark is often considered to be an informal<br />

punctuation mark, particularly when it is used repeatedly in a text.<br />

Page 188<br />

Types of<br />

punctuation<br />

Page 3<br />

1 Consider the following sentences from the anchor text that use exclamation marks. What impact<br />

does each exclamation mark have on the sentence?<br />

a ‘… high schools in New South Wales collected survey results to discover that 30 per cent of boys<br />

and 32 per cent of girls experienced sexual harassment on school grounds!’<br />

The exclamation mark emphasises how shocking it is that so many students had experienced<br />

sexual harassment at school.<br />

b ‘Well, self-defence classes are literally a class about how NOT to get injured!’<br />

The exclamation mark emphasises the ridiculousness of being scared about injuring yourself<br />

in a class that is teaching you how to protect yourself from being injured.<br />

2 Write a sentence, using an exclamation mark, to show each of the following emotions.<br />

a Frustration<br />

This isn’t working!<br />

b Passion<br />

Football is life!<br />

c Determination<br />

I can do this!<br />

3 Why is it beneficial to use exclamation marks in a written speech, considering that the audience<br />

will hear the speech and not read it (that is, the audience won’t ‘see’ the exclamation marks)?<br />

Using exclamation marks in a written speech makes it easier for the speaker to remember what<br />

tone, emphasis, and expression to use when they read the speech. Just like all punctuation,<br />

exclamation marks make texts, such as speeches, easier to read and interpret.<br />

Part B: Question marks?<br />

Questions in speeches are called rhetorical questions because the question is a statement; the<br />

answer is implied, and the speaker is not expecting an answer from the audience. Asking a rhetorical<br />

question is a powerful persuasive device that can be used in both written and spoken persuasive<br />

writing. However, they have to be controlled: asking a few rhetorical questions can be persuasive;<br />

asking too many can be overwhelming!<br />

Page 3<br />


4 In the anchor text, why did Angela choose to finish each body paragraph with a rhetorical question?<br />

By finishing each paragraph with a rhetorical question, Angela engaged the audience and prompted<br />

them to consider the key point she had just made in that section (paragraph) of her speech.<br />

Connect the<br />

punctuation<br />

to what is<br />

being said.<br />

14 <strong>Connecting</strong> <strong>Literacy</strong> • <strong>Book</strong> 3

When using question marks alongside quotation marks:<br />

• if the question relates to the quote, then the question mark stays inside the quotation marks<br />

• if the question is part of the sentence, then the question mark goes outside the quotation marks.<br />

For example: Then he asked, ‘Why are we doing this?’ Why did he say, ‘This has been done’?<br />

5 In the following sentences, decide whether the question mark should go inside or outside<br />

the quotation marks.<br />

a Has anyone ever asked, ‘Why haven’t we done this already’<br />

Has anyone ever asked, ‘Why haven’t we done this already?’<br />

b What do you do when someone says, ‘I can’t help you right now’<br />

What do you do when someone says, ‘I can’t help you right now’?<br />

c We need to ask each other, ‘Do you feel safe today’<br />

We need to ask each other, ‘Do you feel safe today?’<br />

Part C: The interrobang?!<br />

The interrobang is the combination of an exclamation mark with a question mark (for example,<br />

?! or !?! or any other combination). This punctuation mark is used to show that a question is being<br />

asked with significant emphasis or emotion. The interrobang is a non-standard form of punctuation<br />

that is becoming more acceptable in informal texts.<br />

6 List the different types of text where it would be appropriate to use an interrobang.<br />

An informal email, advertisements, a speech, creative writing, social media, gaming chats,<br />

sale materials, and text messages.<br />

7 The following sentences do not use an interrobang correctly. Explain why.<br />

a I think self-defence classes are a great idea!?!<br />

This sentence is not a question, so an exclamation mark on its own is all that is needed.<br />

b Dear Principal Le, why don’t we have self-defence classes already!?!<br />

This is a formal text, so it’s not appropriate to use an informal punctuation mark. Also, the<br />

interrobang makes the question sound too aggressive.<br />

8 a Revise your speech to use at least one exclamation mark for effect. Although the audience won’t<br />

see the exclamation mark, it will help you use the right tone when you deliver your speech.<br />

b Rhetorical questions are compelling in persuasive writing. Have you used any rhetorical questions<br />

in your speech? Revise your speech to include at least one.<br />

Page 20<br />

c Check you have used punctuation accurately in your speech. While the audience won’t see<br />

your punctuation, it will help you find the right pace, tone, and when to pause as you deliver<br />

your speech.<br />

I understand the impact exclamation and question marks have on a written text: / 5<br />

It is easy to overlook punctuation. Challenge yourself to notice punctuation such as<br />

exclamation and question marks in other subjects, and to observe how they are used.<br />

TAKE IT<br />

WITH YOU<br />

1.6 Persuasive punctuation 15

1.7<br />

Persuasive spelling<br />

L E A R N I N G<br />

I N T E N T I O N :<br />

To understand how prefixes<br />

and suffixes impact words<br />

Part A: Prefixes<br />

http://mea.digital/<br />

CL3_1_7<br />

A prefix is a group of letters that is added to the beginning of a word. Each prefix has its own<br />

meaning; this meaning does not change, regardless of what word the prefix is attached to.<br />

Adding a prefix to a word can make the word opposite (nonfiction) or negative (uncooked).<br />

Prefixes can be used to show time (preservice), manner (overpopulated), or an amount (biannual).<br />

1 Complete the following table and note the impact of adding prefixes to different words.<br />

Page 195<br />

Bases and affixes<br />

Prefix Prefix meaning Base<br />

word<br />

New word<br />

created<br />

Other words that use<br />

the prefix<br />


Consider the<br />

meaning and<br />

pronunciation<br />

of familiar<br />

parts of<br />

the word.<br />

pre<br />

e<br />

ex<br />

ec<br />

ef<br />

(These are all<br />

assimilated<br />

prefixes.)<br />

before<br />

(for example:<br />

‘preview’ means<br />

‘before viewing’)<br />

out of, from within,<br />

beyond<br />

(for example: ‘exit’<br />

means ‘out of it’)<br />

arrange<br />

fabricated<br />

destined<br />

motion<br />

change<br />

centric<br />

fort<br />

prearrange<br />

prefabricated<br />

predestined<br />

emotion<br />

exchange<br />

eccentric<br />

effort<br />

predetermine<br />

presoaked<br />

preowned<br />

preseason<br />

premature<br />

exclaim<br />

excessive<br />

erode<br />

eject<br />

ectomorphic<br />

effusive<br />

effervescence<br />

Page 3<br />

2 Consider the following words from the anchor text. Explain how the prefix in each word impacts<br />

the overall meaning of the word.<br />

a Prevent: To stop something happening ‘before’ it even happens<br />

b Effect:<br />

To change one thing by going ‘beyond’ another<br />

c Pre-empt:<br />

To prevent something from happening ‘before’ it is even possible<br />

3 ‘Predator’ starts with ‘pre’ but does not mean ‘before’. Why does predator start with ‘pre’?<br />

The word ‘predator’ comes from the word ‘prey’, which originally meant ‘something seized before’.<br />

4 The assimilated prefix ‘ob, op, of, oc’ means ‘against, in the way’. Decide which prefix is used<br />

to spell the following words.<br />

Note that we use ‘op’ before p, ‘of’ before f, ‘oc’ before c, and ‘ob’ before all other letters.<br />

e, ex, ec, ef ob, op, of, oc<br />

____tend ex<br />

____cur oc<br />

____ject e<br />

____ject ob<br />

____static ec<br />

____pose op<br />

____fective ef<br />

____fend of<br />

____ist ex<br />

____casion oc<br />

16 <strong>Connecting</strong> <strong>Literacy</strong> • <strong>Book</strong> 3

Part B: Suffixes<br />

A suffix is a letter or group of letters added to the end of a word to create a new word. Rather than<br />

changing a word’s meaning, a suffix changes the word’s function in a sentence. Just by noticing<br />

a word’s suffix, we know what the word is doing in the sentence.<br />

Suffixes can create a plural, or change the tense:<br />

For example: persuade + s = persuades; persuade + ed = persuaded; persuade + ing = persuading<br />

Suffixes can also completely change how the word can grammatically be used.<br />

For example: persuade + er = persuader (changes to a noun: a person)<br />

persuade + sion = persuasion (changes to a noun: a process)<br />

persuade + ive = persuasive (changes to an adjective: describing a noun)<br />

5 Change the verb ‘offend’ by adding appropriate suffixes.<br />

Original word Change to … New word<br />

offend<br />

past tense<br />

offended<br />

offend<br />

adjective<br />

offending, offensive<br />

offend<br />

noun<br />

offender<br />

Over 95 per cent of all suffixes used are ‘ed’ (past-tense verb), ‘ing’ (present-participle verb),<br />

‘ly’ (adverb), or ‘s/es’ (plural).<br />


Connect<br />

the word to<br />

its function.<br />

Page 195<br />

Bases and<br />

affixes<br />

6 Categorise these suffixes into the part of speech they indicate.<br />

age, ify, ful, dom, ise, al, ous, ate, ance/ence, y, ic, en, er, ment, ist, ion, ing, ish<br />

Noun Verb Adjective<br />

age, dom, ance/ence, ment,<br />

ist, ion<br />

ify, ise, ate, en, er, ing<br />

ful, al, ous, y, ic, ish<br />

7 In the anchor text, circle one noun suffix, one verb suffix, and one adjective suffix.<br />

8 Using the spelling rules outlined in the <strong>Literacy</strong> How-to section (page 191), work out the correct<br />

spelling for the following words and their suffixes. Explain why each word is spelled this way.<br />

a Control + er Controller: the final consonant is doubled when adding a vowel suffix<br />

b State + ing Stating: the ‘e’ is removed when adding a vowel suffix<br />

Page 3<br />

Page 197<br />

Spelling<br />

generalisations<br />

c Testify + ed<br />

Testified: the ‘y’ turns into a ‘i’ when adding a vowel suffix<br />

9 Check the spelling in your speech. Have you accurately used prefixes and suffixes? How many have<br />

you used? Are they positive or negative? Consider some synonyms and experiment with alliteration,<br />

puns, rhyme, or repetition in your speech.<br />

Page 20<br />

I understand how prefixes and suffixes impact words: / 5<br />

By changing a word’s suffix, you can use the word in a different context. You can<br />

change a word’s meaning by adding a prefix. See how powerful word choice can<br />

be by experimenting with different words in different subjects.<br />

TAKE IT<br />

WITH YOU<br />

1.7 Persuasive spelling 17

1.8<br />

Persuasive speaking and listening<br />

Part A: Voice and body language<br />

L E A R N I N G<br />

I N T E N T I O N :<br />

To understand<br />

how people speak<br />

persuasively for<br />

different audiences<br />

and purposes<br />

http://mea.digital/<br />

CL3_1_8<br />

Page 200<br />

Voice and body<br />

language<br />

Page 3<br />

There are two main things to focus on when giving a speech: your voice and your body language.<br />

This expression of your text can be supported with multimedia or images.<br />

1 Watch the video of the anchor text by scanning the QR code on page 3.<br />

2 Complete the following table by identifying how the speaker used her voice and body to<br />

be persuasive.<br />

Voice<br />

• Clear articulation and volume<br />

• Controlled pace<br />

• Purposeful intonation and expression<br />

Body<br />

• Eye contact with audience<br />

• Open posture, chest proud<br />

• Open and expressive hand gestures<br />

• Feet planted<br />


Identify and<br />

understand<br />

the pieces of<br />

the text.<br />

3 a Practise reading the first paragraph of your speech out loud. Each time you read the paragraph,<br />

focus on a different element of your voice or body:<br />

• Pace: How slow do you need to speak so your audience can follow what you’re saying?<br />

• Expression: Try speaking as if you are really happy or really frustrated.<br />

• Gestures: Put down your speech and experiment with what you can do with your hands.<br />

• Emphasis: Experiment with putting different levels of emphasis on different words.<br />

• Facial expressions: What happens if you smile as you speak? Or if you frown?<br />

• Volume: Try speaking quietly, and then loudly. Where do you project from?<br />

• Body positions: What does it feel like to cross your legs or lean against something?<br />

What position makes you feel the most confident?<br />

b How did the meaning of the paragraph change depending on how you spoke or moved your body?<br />

I didn’t think the paragraph would change much, but I discovered some words work well when<br />

I emphasised them and I came up with some hand gestures I can use.<br />

Part B: The active audience<br />

Our lives are filled with persuasive texts. We are constantly being told we should buy something,<br />

do something, think something, or feel a certain way about something. In some situations, it is<br />

obvious that someone is being persuasive (for example, if they are trying to sell us something);<br />

however, in other situations, it may not be so clear (for example, if someone is presenting an idea<br />

or belief). It is in these situations that we need to be not just an active listener, but a critical one.<br />

4 For each audience response in the table, identify a situation where the response is appropriate.<br />

Situation<br />

Someone giving a speech<br />

At a music festival<br />

At a comedy show<br />

At a protest march<br />

At a golf tournament<br />

Appropriate audience response<br />

Listening quietly, eyes focused on the speaker, clapping at the end<br />

Yelling, singing, talking, dancing, and clapping<br />

Laughing at appropriate sections, cheering at the end<br />

Talking, chanting, and clapping<br />

Being quiet during play, and then clapping and yelling after a shot<br />

18 <strong>Connecting</strong> <strong>Literacy</strong> • <strong>Book</strong> 3

5 How can you be an active listener during your classmates’ presentations? What is an appropriate<br />

audience in this situation?<br />

I can be an active listener during my classmates’ presentations by responding and paying attention<br />

with my ears, eyes, and body. The main thing is to not distract the person giving the speech.<br />

An appropriate response it to stay quiet while my classmate is speaking and then clap at the<br />

end to congratulate them.<br />

6 Imagine one of your classmates is giving their speech. You notice they are shaking, sweating,<br />

and losing control of their voice. As an audience member, how can you be even more supportive<br />

of a particularly nervous speaker?<br />

I can support the speaker by smiling at them, particularly if they look at me during their speech.<br />

I can laugh if they tell a joke or react if they want the audience to react; this will help them feel<br />

more confident about what they are saying. I can make sure I stay quiet during their speech, so<br />

I don’t distract them. I can also congratulate the speaker afterwards, which will help build their<br />

confidence so they will be less nervous next time they give a speech.<br />


Pause to<br />

wonder and<br />

connect.<br />

7 You have spent this unit revising your speech into a quality piece of writing. Now you need to<br />

rehearse your speech so it is ready to be presented to your class. You should rehearse or practise<br />

your speech until you know it well enough so you don’t have to read every word and you can make<br />

eye contact with members of your audience. Rehearsing your speech will also help you to find a<br />

good pace, know where the pauses are, what words need emphasis, and what tone of voice works<br />

best in which parts.<br />

Page 20<br />

8 Think about presenting your speech. What are you feeling most confident about?<br />

I’m confident about my topic; I’m confident that people will find my speech interesting. I’ve used<br />

some good examples and evidence that I think my audience will like.<br />

9 Think about presenting your speech. What are you most nervous about? How might you overcome<br />

these nerves?<br />

I’m most nervous about presenting my speech to the whole class. When I get nervous, I speak<br />

really fast, my knees shake, and I go really red, so it is obvious to the audience that I’m nervous;<br />

there is no way I can hide it. I might be able to focus on a friend as I speak and pretend I am<br />

speaking to them rather than to the whole class.<br />

I understand how people speak persuasively for different audiences and purposes: / 5<br />

Consider how you can use general class discussions and group work to improve both<br />

your speaking and listening skills. These are vital life skills, and you can use them in<br />

every subject, so noticing what someone is doing when they are speaking or listening<br />

really well (or badly!) can help reinforce your own speaking and listening development.<br />

TAKE IT<br />

WITH YOU<br />

1.8 Persuasive speaking and listening 19

1.9<br />

<strong>Teacher</strong> connections: Persuasive literacy<br />

A sample lesson sequence for a 50-minute class<br />

Timing Focus Actions Implementation guide<br />

5 minutes Establish<br />

the learning<br />

intention and<br />

connect to<br />

the students’<br />

prior<br />

knowledge<br />

5 minutes Explicit<br />

teaching<br />

5 minutes Collaborative<br />

learning<br />

10 minutes Independent<br />

learning<br />

• Read the<br />

learning<br />

intention and<br />

clarify the<br />

key terms.<br />

• Draw<br />

connections<br />

to prior units,<br />

lessons, class<br />

learning,<br />

and life.<br />

• Students<br />

document<br />

current and<br />

future learning.<br />

• Watch the<br />

video.<br />

• Read the<br />

workbook<br />

notes and<br />

clarify terms<br />

for Part A.<br />

• Connect to the<br />

students’ prior<br />

learning.<br />

• Students ask<br />

any questions<br />

they have.<br />

• Complete the<br />

first part of<br />

each activity<br />

as a class.<br />

• Students to<br />

complete the<br />

rest of each<br />

activity in pairs.<br />

• Students<br />

complete the<br />

activities in<br />

Part A.<br />

• Check their<br />

answers.<br />

Before you teach<br />

• Denotation, connotation, prefixes, and suffixes are likely<br />

to be the main words that will need deeper clarification,<br />

so check the students’ prior knowledge and experience.<br />

• Check the links to the <strong>Literacy</strong> How-to section prior<br />

to teaching to familiarise yourself with the supporting<br />

information.<br />

Prior knowledge activation<br />

• Use the ‘known and unknown’ strategy to question<br />

the students’ key vocabulary and content knowledge<br />

prior to them completing the activities.<br />

• 1.0 Introduction:<br />

– Before the students start Q1 and Q2, brainstorm how<br />

persuasive skills can be used in different ways and the<br />

different places persuasive writing is required.<br />

• 1.1 Comprehension:<br />

– Extend the students to consider Q1–Q7: What types of<br />

questions are being asked to elicit particular responses?<br />

The students consolidate this thinking in Q8.<br />

• 1.2 Planning and writing:<br />

– Give the class time to brainstorm ideas for the topic<br />

of their writing task (changes that could be made at<br />

their school).<br />

– Make sure each student has a clear topic for their<br />

writing task before moving forward.<br />

• 1.3 Structures and features:<br />

– Ensure you activate the students’ prior knowledge<br />

about structural elements and language features before<br />

this lesson and connect Q1 back to this learning.<br />

– Q2 can be completed as a class brainstorm or a team<br />

competition (which team can come up with the most<br />

similarities or differences).<br />

• 1.4 Vocabulary:<br />

– Focus on Q1 to build the students’ vocabulary and<br />

understanding of the subtle differences between<br />

word meanings.<br />

– Ask the students to share their responses to Q4<br />

with the class and extend the students to consider<br />

alternate responses.<br />

• 1.5 Syntax:<br />

– Allow time to activate the students’ prior knowledge<br />

about spoken and written language.<br />

– Q1 can be completed as a class brainstorm.<br />

– For Q3, if the students can’t easily record themselves<br />

speaking, they can give a single sentence answer<br />

to a simple question and have a friend attempt to<br />

transcribe exactly what they said.<br />

20 <strong>Connecting</strong> <strong>Literacy</strong> • <strong>Book</strong> 3

Timing Focus Actions Implementation guide<br />

• 1.6 Punctuation:<br />

– For an extension activity, ask the students to find<br />

examples of exclamation marks in different texts.<br />

– There are three sections to this lesson, so balance<br />

the class time so you can work through each section<br />

properly.<br />

• 1.7 Spelling:<br />

– Allow time for the students to share their responses<br />

to Q1 and add to their list of other words.<br />

– Ask the students to compare their answers to Q2 to<br />

definitions in a dictionary.<br />

– Q4 can be extended by asking the students to<br />

brainstorm other words with the same spelling patterns.<br />

• 1.8 Speaking and listening:<br />

– Ask the students to share and compare their answers<br />

to Q2 or complete this question as a class brainstorm.<br />

– Depending on the time available, Q3 can be consolidated<br />

for students to focus on a few, rather than all,<br />

of the dot points. The responses to Q3b can be shared<br />

in small groups.<br />

5 minutes Explicit<br />

teaching<br />

5 minutes Collaborative<br />

learning<br />

10 minutes Independent<br />

learning<br />

• Read the<br />

workbook<br />

notes and<br />

clarify terms<br />

for Part B.<br />

• Connect to the<br />

students’ prior<br />

learning.<br />

• Students ask<br />

any questions<br />

they have.<br />

• Complete<br />

the first part<br />

of each activity<br />

as a class.<br />

• Students to<br />

complete the<br />

rest of each<br />

activity in pairs.<br />

• Students<br />

complete the<br />

activities in<br />

Part B.<br />

• Check their<br />

answers.<br />

• 1.0 Introduction:<br />

– Q3 of the first lesson involves reading and engaging<br />

with the anchor text. This can be read aloud, or the<br />

class can listen to the audio version.<br />

– Save the video of the anchor text for the speaking<br />

and listening lesson.<br />

• 1.1 Comprehension:<br />

– Support the students to label the arguments in the<br />

anchor text succinctly but effectively (Q9).<br />

– Make sure the students have accurately identified three<br />

arguments in the anchor text before they start Q10.<br />

– Allow time for the students to compare their answers<br />

to Q11 and Q12.<br />

• 1.2 Planning and writing:<br />

– Make sure the students don’t get caught up in Q7;<br />

connect this question to how they can speak directly<br />

to their audience.<br />

– Leave as much time as possible for the students<br />

to work on their draft speeches (Q9).<br />

– Realistically, you might need to allocate a separate<br />

period for the students to complete their draft<br />

speeches before moving to the next lesson.<br />

• 1.3 Structures and features:<br />

– Try not to get too caught up with ethos, pathos,<br />

and logos; focus on using these categories to classify<br />

persuasive devices.<br />

– Q5 can be completed as a class; link this to Q6 so<br />

the students can see the connection.<br />

• 1.4 Vocabulary:<br />

– Make it clear that a single word can have a literal and<br />

implied meaning, be positive or negative, and express<br />

a specific emotion.<br />

– Students may need help with the connotations in Q5,<br />

or they can work in pairs or small groups to complete<br />

this question.<br />

– There are obviously alternative options for Q6 and Q7<br />

and these can be debated to a degree.<br />

1.9 <strong>Teacher</strong> connections: Persuasive literacy 21

Timing Focus Actions Implementation guide<br />

• 1.5 Syntax:<br />

– Depending on how confident they are, the students<br />

can be extended to compare how tense impacts<br />

subject–verb agreement.<br />

– To extend this lesson, you can ask the students to find<br />

other examples of extended subject–verb agreement<br />

in textbooks.<br />

• 1.6 Punctuation:<br />

– Discuss the use of capital letters alongside Q5.<br />

– See if the students can find examples of quoted<br />

questions in other texts (these can be compared).<br />

– Allow time to discuss the development of new<br />

punctuation (such as the interrobang). Are there any<br />

other new symbols that have been introduced into<br />

contemporary written language?<br />

• 1.7 Spelling:<br />

– Ensure the students understand the different parts of<br />

speech (or refer to the <strong>Literacy</strong> How‐to section) before<br />

working through this lesson.<br />

– The students will spend more time with the spelling<br />

generalisations from Q8 throughout the units; for now,<br />

explain enough about the topic so they can complete<br />

the activity (knowing the students will have time to<br />

consolidate later).<br />

• 1.8 Speaking and listening:<br />

– For Q4, the situations can vary, so these answers are<br />

interesting to share.<br />

– There is an opportunity for the students to share their<br />

own experiences, fears, and anxiety about speaking<br />

in public alongside Q6. They can also share what has<br />

helped (or not helped!) them to overcome their fear.<br />

– At least one other lesson will need to be allocated for<br />

the students to practise and present their speeches<br />

to the class.<br />

5 minutes Reflection • Connect the<br />

learning back<br />

to the learning<br />

intention.<br />

• Were the<br />

students’ initial<br />

questions<br />

answered?<br />

• What scores<br />

do the students<br />

give for their<br />

success and<br />

confidence in<br />

the lesson?<br />

• Read ‘Take it<br />

with you’; can<br />

the students<br />

add other<br />

situations to<br />

which they<br />

might be able<br />

to apply their<br />

learning and<br />

understanding?<br />

• Don’t sacrifice the reflection time to enable the students<br />

to complete the activities. Instead, prioritise the reflection<br />

as it can help the students to connect and transfer the<br />

skills covered to other areas.<br />

• Establish and support the routine of students scoring<br />

their learning confidence at the end of each lesson.<br />

• Allow the students to see and speak about the<br />

connections to other classes and situations; this will<br />

allow you to discover their interests and make future<br />

connections to other learning.<br />

22 <strong>Connecting</strong> <strong>Literacy</strong> • <strong>Book</strong> 3

Variation A: Two 20-minute sessions to teach one lesson<br />

Teach only Part A or Part B in one class and follow the sequence below. You will need to allow writing<br />

time between each lesson, so allocate an extra 20-minute block to complete each individual lesson.<br />

Variation B: One 20-minute session to teach one lesson<br />

Students could be asked to complete the writing revisions as homework or at another time.<br />

Explicit teaching would cover the entire lesson (Part A and Part B) before independent work.<br />

There would be little time for collaboration and sharing of results, but learning could be<br />

connected to mainstream teaching and learning to consolidate and extend.<br />

A sample lesson sequence for a 20-minute class<br />

Timing Focus Implementation guide<br />

2 minutes Establish the learning<br />

intention and connect to the<br />

students’ prior knowledge<br />

• Read the learning intention and clarify the key terms.<br />

• Draw connections to class learning and life.<br />

5 minutes Explicit teaching • Watch the video.<br />

• Read the workbook notes and clarify the key terms.<br />

• Connect the students’ prior learning to the<br />

expectations of the current activity.<br />

10 minutes Independent learning • Students complete the activities.<br />

• Check their answers.<br />

3 minutes Reflection • Connect the learning back to the learning intention.<br />

• What scores do the students give for their success<br />

and confidence in the lesson?<br />

• Read ‘Take it with you’.<br />

1.9 <strong>Teacher</strong> connections: Persuasive literacy 23

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