1886 Railway Guide of N.S.W

1886 Railway Guide of N.S.W for use of tourists, excursionists, and others.

1886 Railway Guide of N.S.W for use of tourists, excursionists, and others.


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(!J;1t, !mitraliau A!ttual jlrovid,nt $ od,tu,.<br />

ESTABLISHED 1849,<br />


The Oldest .Mutual Life Office in Australia, and the Lar~est<br />

in the British Empire.<br />





JAS. R. FAIRFAX, EsQ.<br />

THE HoN. Srn JOHN HAY, K.C.M.G., M.L.C.<br />

J. P. AB.J30TT, EsQ., M.L.A.<br />

ACTUARY:<br />

MORRICE A. BLACK, F.l.A.<br />



BUSINESS IN FORCE AT 31 DEC., 1885:<br />

li9,207 Policies, assuring<br />

Annual Income ...<br />

Accumulated Funds<br />

£25,053,372<br />

£1,210,170<br />

£5,970,218<br />


Divideu as Cash Bonuses up to 31 Dec., 1883 .. .<br />

,, ,, ,, at 31 Dec., 1884 .. .<br />

,, ,, ,, ,, 31 Dec., 1885 .. .<br />

Total divided as Bo~rus in CA.SR<br />

£1,929,401<br />

2U2,435<br />

278,674<br />

£2,470,510<br />

The Divisions <strong>of</strong> Pr<strong>of</strong>it are made Annually, and the Bonuses allotted are larger than<br />

those <strong>of</strong> any other Office in the world. The Society's Policies arc freed from all<br />

harassing restrictions.<br />


The new business for the year ended 31 December, 1835, comprised- '<br />

11,257 Policies, assuring £4,016,211 with<br />

New Premiums <strong>of</strong> £152,627 10s. 2d.,<br />

being 80 per cent. in excess <strong>of</strong> the largest amount ever transacted in a single year by<br />

any other Life Office in the British Dominions.<br />


VICTORIA ... . .. 100, Collins-at. W., Melbourn.e ... N. MAINE, Res. Secretm:1. ,<br />

NEW ZEALAND ... Custom House Quay, Wellington E.W. LowE, ,,<br />

SOUTH AUSTRALIA. King William-street, Adelaide ... R. B. CAMERON, ,,<br />

QUEENSLAND ... Queen-street, Brisbane... . .. E. H. WEBB, ,,<br />

· TASMANIA... . .. Elizabeth & Collins Sts., Hobart N. C. HERRING, ,,<br />

WEST. AUSTRALIA Hay-street, Perth ... . .. F. J. JA.COBS, ,,

...<br />





Prinoipcd Office: George and Wynyard Streets, Sydney.<br />

@oitrll .<strong>of</strong> ~ired.on, :<br />

The Hon. J. B. WATT, M.L.C.,<br />

Chaii'inan.<br />

SAM DICKINSON, Esq.,<br />

Deputy-Chairman.<br />

F. T. HUMPHERY, Esq., M.P.<br />

W. J. TRICKETT, Esq., M.P.<br />

RUSSELL BARTON, Esq., M.P.<br />

JOHN DAVIES, Esq., C.M.G.,<br />

M.P.<br />

®.m.mtl Jjitnnnger :<br />

J. C. REMINGTON.<br />

ltlrinripal ~.ebi.rnl (l)ffi.c.er :<br />

H. N. MACLAURIN, Esq., M.D.<br />

@itnher.5 :<br />


WALES.<br />

s;oli.citori, :<br />

Messrs. FISHER, RALFE, AND<br />

SALWEY.<br />

J\,!1£>fohmt s;m.ehtr!J:<br />

JOHN W. RAIL.<br />



~irn:t.o:r..5:<br />

A. G. HORTON, EsQ., J .P . ;<br />



M.R.C.S., England.<br />



~ire.et.ow :<br />

THE HoN, W. REEVES, M.L.C.;<br />

H. R. WEBB, EsQ., J.P.<br />


EsQ., M.D.<br />



~ir.e.ct.ow:<br />

Tirn HoN. Sm S. W. GRIFFITH, K.C.M.G.,<br />

Q.C., M.L.A. ;<br />

J. F. BUCKLAND, EsQ., M.L.A.<br />


EsQ., F.R.C.S., England.<br />



~iredot:.l3':<br />

R. MURRAY SMITH, EsQ., C.M.G. ;<br />


W. H. CALDER, EsQ.<br />


B.M. Orr. M. EDIN.<br />



~ir.edow:<br />

TrrE HoN. 8m R. D. ROSS, M.P. ; W. H.<br />


EsQ., M.D., F.R.O.S., Eng., M.P.<br />


M.D.<br />





L OCAL AGE N T S<br />



The S econd O ldest M 1.itual L ife O ffice in Aus t ralasia . T he<br />

First to free Assurance from Restrictions, and the only<br />

one established within the last 38 years which has<br />

declared a Bon us on a P u re Premiu m<br />

V aluation.


@nglizht jtottizgt anh instra!ian<br />



Capital, with power to increase to £ r ,500,000<br />

Reserved liability <strong>of</strong> shareholders<br />

Reserved fund<br />

£720,000<br />

720,000<br />

220,000<br />

Total , .. £ I ,660,000<br />








BULLI<br />

MIL'l'ON<br />








(SYDNEY)<br />

NOWRA<br />








IN NE'W' SOUTH 'W' ALES,<br />

AND<br />


. Agents and correspondents in Tasmania, New Zealand, the United Kingdom,<br />

India and the East, Mauritius, the United States, South America, Berlin, Hamburg,<br />

Dresden, and Copenhagen.<br />

. The ~ank allows interest on deposits for fixed periods, and transacts all usual<br />

bankmg busmess.<br />






~l{.l~ ~otvn and (tonntru ,lf onrnal -<br />

Is the Most Popular "Weekly Newspaper<br />

in Australia, having a circulation DOUBLE<br />

that <strong>of</strong> any other.<br />

Subscription, 25s. per annum, in advance.<br />

~lte )tvett,ing ~ ew~<br />

Is an Afternoon Penny Paper with a<br />

culation <strong>of</strong> 55,000 copies daily.<br />

Subscription, 26s. per annum, in advance.<br />

.<br />

Clf-<br />





Has been used by the public for so many years that it does not rcq uire puffing.<br />

It has worked its way<br />

and still holds its own, and yet stands the<br />


The JOSEPHSON'S OINTMENT is purely vegetable, and guaranteed free from all poisonous<br />

qualities. No artificial colouring, as the green colour is extra cl eel from the pure green plant•, which<br />

defy imitation. We see published all kinds <strong>of</strong> preparations <strong>of</strong> the Eucalyptus in various forms, but the<br />

chief ingredient <strong>of</strong> the JOSEPHSON'S OINTMENT is tbe Eucalyptus, so that all these new-fangled<br />

productions are old in comparison with JOSEPIISON'S OINTMENT; in fact, they have been finding<br />

out "mares' nests," while the pure and unadulterated essence and colour <strong>of</strong> the Eucalyptus is fully<br />

embodied in JOSEPHSON'S OINTMEN'f. The following unsolicited testimonials speak volumes for<br />

the h ealing power <strong>of</strong> JOSEPHSON'S OINTMENT :-<br />

!Copy <strong>of</strong> Letter.] "Gally S\\'amp, 25th September, 1882.<br />

"GENTLEMEN,-! ha.Ye much pleasure in testifying to the wonderful curative effects <strong>of</strong> your Josephson's Ointment on<br />

my face and arms. About four weeks ago I was standing Uy 16lbs. <strong>of</strong> blasting powder, when a spark by some means ignited<br />

it, causing it to explode in my face and a1111s n.nd neck, burning them dreadfully. I was recommended to your Josephson's<br />

Ointment, and after using se,·en <strong>of</strong> your pots, I am completely healed.-(Signed) GEORGE DIGBY."<br />

[Copy <strong>of</strong> Letter received from James Ford, <strong>of</strong> bfacclesfield, England.]<br />

. "DEAR S1R,-I have to thank you for bringing Joscphson's Ointment under my notice. About a month ago (March 25)<br />

I burned mr hands severely. The first day or two I used lime water and linseed oil, and after that the Ointment. At first I<br />

only used the Ointment on one hand, but the ease which I experienced ea.used me to have both hands dressed with it. lt<br />

allayed the pain quickly, and caused to heal up and the new skin to form, which it has done with remarkable quickness, so<br />

much so that I am starting my work to·morrow.-To Josiah ~male, jun., Hollin Mills, :Macclesfield."<br />

The original letter may be seen at our <strong>of</strong>fices.<br />

Protect yourselves from fraudulent and injurious imitations by asking for JOSEPHSON'S<br />

OINTMENT, l s. per pot.<br />

EDWARD ROW & CO.<br />


Has no longer a place alone in the stable, but thousands <strong>of</strong> families now keep it as an invaluable<br />

embrocation in cases <strong>of</strong> accident.<br />

Dwellers in the interior should never be without a supply <strong>of</strong><br />


For over forty years nothing hns been introduced to the Squatter or Farmer that has come up to<br />


For it is to be relied upon ns a remedy in all kinds <strong>of</strong> accidents. It will cure Rhemati,m and Gout.<br />

Hundreds use it for Scalds and Sunburns. You can't apply it wrongly. The first Veterinary<br />

Surgeon _<strong>of</strong> the day recommends ROW'S EllfBROCATION as an infallible remedy for<br />

Sprams, Galls, Splillter,, Swellings, Stiff Joints iu Ilorses, Sore Udders in Cows,<br />

Foot-rot in Sheep, and the Mange in Dogs.<br />

~ For more than forty years this invaluable embrocation hns been before the .A.uetralian public, and<br />

has during tbat period gi,en the greatest satisfaction to nll who have used it.<br />

Sold by all CHEMISTS and STOREKEEPERS throughout the Colonies. 3s. 6d. per boUlc.<br />



Do you suffer from headache? Then try<br />


Do you complain <strong>of</strong> indigestion? Take a few closes <strong>of</strong><br />


Do you suffer from giddiuess? Spend one shilling, nncl be c'.ll'ecl bv<br />


Do you constantly suffer from biliousness? If so, remember<br />


Will soon rure you if taken as directed, being the BEST ANTIBILIOUS MEDICINE KNOWN.<br />

Are any <strong>of</strong> your children sick at any time, yon can safely give them one <strong>of</strong> these LOZENGES, for the<br />

small members <strong>of</strong> the human family TA.KE WELL TO LOLLIE, . Remember this, and<br />

always keep a box <strong>of</strong> this .aluable family medicine by you.<br />

Prepared only by the Proprietors,<br />


I<br />


OF<br />








<strong>1886</strong>.<br />

[3s.]<br />

Ob 1684-S6

fREFACE.<br />

Tms <strong>Guide</strong> Book is intended as a convenient volume <strong>of</strong> reference for<br />

excursionists and others who travel by <strong>Railway</strong> in New South Wales.<br />

The Introduction contains a short history <strong>of</strong> the <strong>Railway</strong> system<br />

<strong>of</strong> the Colony, and subsequent chapters furnish an outline <strong>of</strong> routes,<br />

and all information as to the various Stations. The illustrated Itinerary,<br />

for the use <strong>of</strong> the traveller in search <strong>of</strong> the picturesque, includes brief<br />

notices <strong>of</strong> places <strong>of</strong> interest which lie within easy reach <strong>of</strong> the<br />

<strong>Railway</strong> line, and the Tourists' Map shows the mountainous country<br />

traversed by the Great Western <strong>Railway</strong>, from the Nepean River to<br />

Bowenfels.<br />

The papers descriptive <strong>of</strong> the Fish River Caves, and explaining<br />

the geological formation <strong>of</strong> the Blue Mountains, contributed by Mr.<br />

C. S. Wilkinson, F.G.S., will be read with interest, as will also the<br />

treatise by Dr. Woolls, F.L.S., illustrated by Miss Harriet Scott, on<br />

the Flora <strong>of</strong> that part <strong>of</strong> the country. The other illustrations form a<br />

novel and interesting feature <strong>of</strong> the work; they are pictures from Nature,<br />

reproduced by the photo-mechanical processes recently introduced by<br />

Mr. Richards, ex-Government Printer.<br />

The Compiler has to acknowledge his obligations to Messrs.<br />

Burton, Tingle, Lyne, and Wells, from whose descriptive writings he<br />

has derived much valuable information, which he ventures to believe<br />

is now <strong>of</strong>fered to the public in a compendious and convenient form.



PAGE,<br />

1<br />

I!.-<br />



Routes on the Western Line<br />

Routes on the Southern Line .. .<br />

Routes on the Sydney to Richmond Subsidiary Line<br />

Routes on the Northern Line ...<br />

Routes <strong>of</strong> Subsidiary Lines to Northern Line<br />

Route <strong>of</strong> Main Branch, North-western Line<br />

6<br />

10<br />

12<br />

15<br />

17<br />

21<br />

21<br />


(!) Sydney to Granville<br />

(2a) Sydney to Waterfall ...<br />

(3) Parramatta to Bourke ...<br />

(4) Wallerawang to Mudgee<br />

(5) Granville to Albury<br />

(6) Junee to Hay ...<br />

(7) Sydney vid, Blacktown to Richmond<br />

(8) Newcastle to Glen Innes<br />

(9) Subsidiary Branch Lines to Northern Line<br />

(10) North-western Line ...<br />

22<br />

24<br />

32<br />

79<br />

81<br />

99<br />

101<br />

103<br />

119<br />

119<br />


The geological formations <strong>of</strong> the Blue Mountains<br />

Remarks on the Flora <strong>of</strong> the Blue Mountains<br />

The Fish River or Jenolan Caves ...<br />

<strong>Railway</strong> Maps<br />

127<br />

.. 128<br />

.. 144<br />



L<strong>of</strong>tus Heights, National Park to face page 1<br />

Lake George 14<br />

George's River ... 26<br />

<strong>Guide</strong> Map to National Park<br />

Nepean River ... 34<br />

Emu Plains, from Lucasville ...<br />

Residence <strong>of</strong> A. H. McCulloch, Esq., M.P.<br />

Wentworth Falls<br />

Cunimbla Valley ,,<br />

Katoomba Falls 46<br />

" Carrington Hotel " ...<br />

Jamison's Valley 46<br />

Govett's Leap ... 56<br />

Lithgow Valley Zigzag 65<br />

Menangle Bridge 83<br />

Fitzroy Falls<br />

Lake Bathurst ...<br />

"<br />

" "<br />

"<br />

"<br />

"<br />

"<br />

"<br />

" ,, "<br />

Mulwarrie Viaduct ,,<br />

Singleton Bridge<br />

MacDonald River and Bridge<br />

PAGE,<br />

27<br />

36<br />

38<br />

41<br />

45<br />

46<br />

,. 88<br />

"<br />

"<br />

" " "<br />

90<br />

90<br />

107<br />



THE favourable reception which the <strong>Railway</strong> <strong>Guide</strong> has met with, and<br />

the increasing demand for it, have made it necessary to publish a<br />

second edition. Advantage has been taken <strong>of</strong> the opportunity to bring<br />

the information to the latest date, and to include additional illustrations,<br />

witn the object <strong>of</strong> making the volume more useful and attractive.<br />

This work will be found to be a convenient and valuable volume<br />

<strong>of</strong> reference for excursionists and others who travel by <strong>Railway</strong> in<br />

New South Wales.<br />

The introduction contains a short history <strong>of</strong> the <strong>Railway</strong><br />

System <strong>of</strong> the Colony, and subsequent chapters furnish an outline <strong>of</strong><br />

routes and all information as to the various stations. The Illustrated<br />

Itinerary, for the use <strong>of</strong> travellers in search <strong>of</strong> the picturesque, includes<br />

brief notices <strong>of</strong> places <strong>of</strong> interest which lie within easy reach <strong>of</strong> the<br />

<strong>Railway</strong> Line.<br />

The papers descriptive <strong>of</strong> the Fish River Caves, and explaining<br />

the geological formation <strong>of</strong> the Blue Mountains, contributed by Mr.<br />

C. S. Wilkinson, F.L.S., will be read with interest, as will also the<br />

treatise by Dr. Woolls, F.L.S., illustrated by Miss Harriet Scott, on<br />

the Flora <strong>of</strong> that part <strong>of</strong> the country.<br />

As the <strong>Railway</strong>s are further extended, fresh editions will be<br />

issued, with additional illustrations and descriptions.

L<strong>of</strong>tus Heights, National PArk.



Early History.-The first combined movement<br />

on the subject <strong>of</strong> introducing <strong>Railway</strong>s<br />

into New South Wales took place in January,<br />

1846. On the 29th <strong>of</strong> that month a<br />

public meeting was held in Sydney, and a<br />

Committee appointed, who, on the 26th<br />

August, reported that, from the best ascertained<br />

data as to the products, population,<br />

and traffic, they believed that a line from<br />

Sydney to Goulburn might be constructed<br />

at £6,000 per mile, and that a net pr<strong>of</strong>it <strong>of</strong><br />

8 per cent. might be anticipated on the<br />

capital expended. In the beginning <strong>of</strong> 1848<br />

a survey <strong>of</strong> the line to Goulburn was completed<br />

by Mr. W oore. In April, in the<br />

same year, a petition, based on this report,<br />

was presented to the Legislative Council,<br />

and referred to a Select Committee, <strong>of</strong> which<br />

Mr. Charles Cowper* was Chairman. A<br />

report was brought up, and on the 15th<br />

June the Council passed a series <strong>of</strong> resolutions<br />

to the effect that the period had<br />

arrived for the formation <strong>of</strong> <strong>Railway</strong>s in the<br />

Colony, and that it was expedient for the<br />

Government to <strong>of</strong>fer some inducements to<br />

encourage private enterprise. The resolutions<br />

were transmitted to the Secretary <strong>of</strong><br />

State by the Governor-General, with a<br />

recommendation that the encouragement<br />

asked for should be granted. On the 11 th<br />

Septem her, 1848, a Provisional Committee<br />

was appointed, and in November the<br />

prospectus <strong>of</strong> the " Sydney Tramroad and<br />

<strong>Railway</strong> Company" was issued. The capital<br />

was £100,000, and interest for ten years at<br />

5 per cent. was guaranteed by the Government.<br />

The expressed intention <strong>of</strong> the projectors<br />

was that a main trunk line should<br />

* Afterwards the Hon. Sir Charles Cowper,<br />

K.C.M.G., now deceased.<br />

be carried from Sydney to the point from<br />

which it might afterwards he determined<br />

that the Southern and ·western or Northwestern<br />

branches respectively should diverge.<br />

Eventually it was intended to augment the<br />

capital in order to carry the line to Goulburn,<br />

and, if found practicable, to Bathurst<br />

also.<br />

On the 13th November, 1849, the first<br />

general meeting <strong>of</strong> the shareholders was<br />

held, and the Sydney <strong>Railway</strong> Company<br />

(incorporated by Act <strong>of</strong> 13 Victoria) then<br />

entered on its duties, and was managed by<br />

a Directory elected by the shareholders.<br />

The survey <strong>of</strong> the line from Sydney to<br />

Parramatta and Liverpool was completed in<br />

December, 1849, and on 8th January, 1850,<br />

the first report <strong>of</strong> the Directors was read.<br />

It congratulated the shareholders on their<br />

position and prospects ; and notwithstanding<br />

the apathy <strong>of</strong> some persons and the undisguised<br />

hostility <strong>of</strong> others, the Directors<br />

entertained the fullest confidence as to the<br />

ultimate success <strong>of</strong> the undertaking. The<br />

sum <strong>of</strong> £10,000, required by the Act to be<br />

raised before the Company could commence<br />

operations, having been paid into the<br />

Colonial Treasury, the Directors lost no time<br />

in breaking ground. On 3rd July, 18 0,<br />

the first turf <strong>of</strong> the first <strong>Railway</strong> in the<br />

Australian Colonies was turned by the<br />

Honorable Mrs. Keith Stewart, in the presence<br />

<strong>of</strong> her father, Sir Charles Augustus<br />

Fitz Roy, and a large concourse <strong>of</strong> inhabitants.<br />

The financial prospects <strong>of</strong> the Company,<br />

however, soon become so gloomy that the<br />

Directors found it necessary to make a<br />


2<br />


general reduction in the salaries <strong>of</strong> their<br />

<strong>of</strong>ficers. The Directors complained <strong>of</strong> the<br />

obstacles they met with, and stated that, but<br />

for the countenance and support <strong>of</strong> the<br />

local Government, they should feel disposed<br />

to abandon a post which was beset at. every<br />

stage with difficulties and discouragements<br />

<strong>of</strong> no ordinary kind. In this unpromising<br />

position <strong>of</strong> their affairs the first contract for<br />

41 miles from Haslern's Creek towards Sydney<br />

was accepted. The progress <strong>of</strong> the work<br />

continued satisfactory until the discovery <strong>of</strong><br />

gold in the Bathurst district upset the calculations<br />

<strong>of</strong> the contractor and the Directors,<br />

threatening the former with ruin and entailing<br />

much anxiety on the latter, from the<br />

sudden and unexampled rise in the price <strong>of</strong><br />

labour and materials. Under these circumstances<br />

the Directors ,vere induced to release<br />

the contractor from his agreement, without<br />

enforcing the penalties for non-fulfilment.<br />

The <strong>of</strong>fer <strong>of</strong> Mr. Randal, the contractor, to<br />

carry out the works to Ashfield, and subsequently<br />

to Parramatta, at a schedule <strong>of</strong> prices,<br />

was afterwards accepted, and as the attractions<br />

<strong>of</strong> the Gold-fields continued to diminish<br />

the supply <strong>of</strong> labour in Sydney, the Government<br />

agreed to import 500 labourers from<br />

England. An additional loan <strong>of</strong> £150,000<br />

was obtained from the Government, in the<br />

proportion <strong>of</strong> three-fifths <strong>of</strong> public money to<br />

two-fifths subscribed, on condition that the<br />

Government should have the power to name<br />

one-half <strong>of</strong> the Directors. The Company had<br />

- now reached the last stage <strong>of</strong> its existence,<br />

and its affairs were under the .direction <strong>of</strong> a<br />

Board, partly elected by the shareholders and<br />

partly nominated by the Government.<br />

At the first half-yearly meeting, on 17th<br />

January, 1854, the Directors stated that from<br />

the enormous rise in wages and materials<br />

tbti cost <strong>of</strong> the line to Parramatta would be<br />

increased from £218,420, as estimated in<br />

1853, to £320,000, besides £69 OOO for the<br />

Darling Harbour works. To l)rovide for<br />

this, the capital was increased by £100 OOO<br />

and an additional loan <strong>of</strong> £150,000 obt~inetl<br />

from Government, on the same terms as the<br />

former loan. The estimate <strong>of</strong> £320 OOO for<br />

the line to Parrarnatta was made id anticipation<br />

<strong>of</strong> a fall in the rate <strong>of</strong> wa()'es · but<br />

instead <strong>of</strong> falling they continued to ~·is:. and<br />

in January, 1855, the Engineer hac~ ~o<br />

increase his estimate to £500,000. This<br />

startling announcement must have satisfied<br />

the shareholders <strong>of</strong> the hopelessness <strong>of</strong> carrying<br />

out the works at a pr<strong>of</strong>it, and prepared<br />

them for a transfer <strong>of</strong> the property to the<br />

Government.<br />

W11ile the Sydney <strong>Railway</strong> Company was<br />

struggling with the unprecedented difficulties<br />

<strong>of</strong> the times, and leaning on the strong arm<br />

<strong>of</strong> the Government for support, a movement<br />

took place in 1853 for the construction <strong>of</strong><br />

a line <strong>of</strong> <strong>Railway</strong> between Newcastle ancl<br />

.J.f aitland.<br />

A Provisional Committee was appointed<br />

on 20th April, and a capital <strong>of</strong> £100,000<br />

subscribed on the spot. \Vith flattering<br />

anticipations, and the promise <strong>of</strong> aid from<br />

the Government, the Hunter River <strong>Railway</strong><br />

started into life; but after an existence <strong>of</strong><br />

little more than a year, which was necessarily<br />

exhausted in preliminary arrangements, this<br />

Company had also to yield to the pressure<br />

<strong>of</strong> the times, and be swallowed up by tho<br />

Government.<br />

<strong>Railway</strong>s <strong>of</strong> N. S. Wales when transferred<br />

to the Government.-Accordingly,<br />

under the Act 18 Victoria No. 4.0, the porperties<br />

<strong>of</strong> both the Companies wore transferred<br />

to the Government, the Hunter RiYer<br />

at par, and the Sydney <strong>Railway</strong> with a bonus<br />

<strong>of</strong> 7 per cent. added. From the elate <strong>of</strong> these<br />

transfers the <strong>Railway</strong>s became the property <strong>of</strong><br />

the Government, and have since been carried<br />

out under the superintendence <strong>of</strong> Government<br />

<strong>of</strong>ficers.<br />

The <strong>Railway</strong>s <strong>of</strong> New 'outh \Vales, though<br />

essentially one entire concern, as the property<br />

<strong>of</strong> the Government, are at present<br />

separated into two great divisions, viz., the<br />

Southern and \Vestern <strong>Railway</strong> and the<br />

Northern <strong>Railway</strong>-the one having its principal<br />

terminus at 'ydney, the other at ewcastle,<br />

upwards <strong>of</strong> 60 miles apart. Parliament<br />

has, however, authorized the construction <strong>of</strong><br />

a line to connect the Northern with the<br />

Southern system, and the work is now in<br />

progress. ·


The line from Sy


Valley, the Clarence tunmil, and the tunnels<br />

at Lithgow Valley Zigzag, Morangaroo, and<br />

under the Mudgee Road, and the bridges<br />

over Solitary Creek at Tarana, over the<br />

Macquarie River at Bathurst, "\V ellington,<br />

and Dubbo; on the Northern line-the<br />

handsome bridges over the Hunter at Singleton<br />

and Aberdeen, the bridge over the Macdonald,<br />

and the tunnels through the Liverpool<br />

and Moonbi Ranges.<br />

Summit elevations.-The summit elevations<br />

above high-water-mark at Sydney on<br />

the different lines are 2,357 feet on the<br />

Southern, 3,658 feet on the Western, and<br />

4,525 feet on the Northern.<br />

in the aid <strong>of</strong> electricity for that purpose.<br />

For the first mass 3-i tons <strong>of</strong> blasting powder<br />

were employed, and the Superintendent <strong>of</strong><br />

Telegraphs (Mr. E. C. Cracknell) succeed~d<br />

in firing the blast, which tore the moun~am<br />

asunder, heaving huge masses <strong>of</strong> rock mto<br />

the valley, and leaving the face <strong>of</strong> the parent<br />

mountain almost as smooth as if it had been<br />

cut with chisels. The removal <strong>of</strong> the second<br />

mass-the blowing up <strong>of</strong> a tunnel-for which<br />

3} tons <strong>of</strong> powder were used, was successfully<br />

accomplished also by galvanic agency; the<br />

electric spark having been communicated to<br />

the powder by the hand <strong>of</strong> the Countess <strong>of</strong><br />

Belmore, in the presence <strong>of</strong> His Excellency<br />

the Governor, and a large concourse <strong>of</strong> spectators<br />

who had assembled to witness the<br />

effects <strong>of</strong> the explosion.<br />

Zigzags at Emu Plains and Lithgow<br />

Valley.- The principal objects <strong>of</strong> interest on<br />

our <strong>Railway</strong>s are t.he Zigzags at Emu Plains<br />

and Lithgow Valley on the Western line.<br />

Since the opening <strong>of</strong> the line to Bowenfels<br />

thousands <strong>of</strong> tourists from all lands have<br />

visited these works, and expressed unbo.unded<br />

admiration at the rugged grandeur <strong>of</strong> the<br />

scenery, and the engineering skill and pluck<br />

displayed in designing and constructing these<br />

stupendous works, which are probably not<br />

surpassed on any Rail way in the world. But<br />

a description or even an inspection <strong>of</strong> the<br />

Lithgow Valley Zigzag gives only an imperfect<br />

idea <strong>of</strong> the difficulties that had to be<br />

encountered, and the vast amount <strong>of</strong> work<br />

that had to be performed, before it was hewn<br />

into its present shape. From the Clarence<br />

Tunnel to the bottom <strong>of</strong> the valley there is<br />

a descent <strong>of</strong> 470 feet, throucrh a deep and<br />

rugged ravine, where forme~·ly there was<br />

scarcely footing for the mountain goat, and<br />

where the surveyor's assistants had occasionally<br />

to be suspended by ropes in the performance<br />

<strong>of</strong> their perilous duties · but human<br />

skill and enterprise have open~d a pathway<br />

through these broken mountain ran cres for<br />

the railway train that now travers~s the<br />

sides <strong>of</strong> the mountain on a gradient <strong>of</strong> 1 in<br />

42. In the execution <strong>of</strong> these works two<br />

gigantic masses <strong>of</strong> rock-the one esLi~ated<br />

to contain 40,000 and the other 45,000 tons<br />

-had to be. l?lasted ; and the contractor,<br />

after calculatm.g the cost, determined to call<br />

StatisticalandDescriptive.-Thefollowing<br />

statistical and descriptive information will<br />

be read with interest. It forms the summary<br />

<strong>of</strong> the transactions for the year 1885, and is<br />

taken from the Report <strong>of</strong> the Commissioner<br />

for <strong>Railway</strong>s, Charles A. Goodchap, Esq. Mr.<br />

Goodchap reports that: "The expenditure for<br />

construction on lines open was £21,831,276.<br />

At the encl <strong>of</strong> December, 1885, 1,732 miles <strong>of</strong><br />

line were open for traffic, and 407 miles were in<br />

the course <strong>of</strong> construction, while an additional<br />

1,28.2 miles have been authorized. The rollinO'<br />

stock at the end <strong>of</strong> 1885 consisted <strong>of</strong> 390<br />

locomotives, 856 coaching an


Progressive Utility and Financial Con~<br />

dition.-The following carefully prepared<br />

and authentic Tabular View <strong>of</strong> the Progressive<br />

Utility and Financial Condition <strong>of</strong><br />

the <strong>Railway</strong>s <strong>of</strong> New South vV ales, from the<br />

opening <strong>of</strong> the trunk line to Parramatta in<br />

1855 to 31st December, 1885, will be appreciated<br />

by all thoughtful readers.<br />

rn<br />

8~ So 1'll<br />

i~ 00 O< H E-1 ~o<br />

0<br />

E-1<br />

gj<br />

.... "'<br />

Q)<br />

..... ~ >< ~<br />

Cl>Q) P.oi ~fa:10.<br />

~<br />

i::<br />

...,.,<br />

"Cl.<br />

.,i::<br />

oop.<br />

Cl) 0<br />

P.:-;:: ~~ be bn.£ ro ·e<br />

~ 00 0 •<br />

M"' ~~<br />

bl)OO ~<br />

i::i::<br />

i:: i:: .5 ~ =: ~:g ~.s d<br />

i] ]~<br />

~~ 'i§'§ .... ~ ~<br />

~~[a<br />

~f;,:1 ~E-1 ~fa:1E-i<br />

.., ·ai:: Q) d<br />

Q) ell 0<br />

il< z 0<br />

~o<br />

·- Q) ~ p.·~

6<br />




<strong>Railway</strong> System in New South Wales.<br />

-The <strong>Railway</strong> system <strong>of</strong> New South Wales<br />

consists <strong>of</strong> three trunk lines at present,<br />

one <strong>of</strong> which is unconnected with the other<br />

two: (1) The Great Southern line; (2)<br />

the Great Western line ; and ( 3) the Great<br />

Northern line. The Son them line starts<br />

from Sydney, and has, as a trunk line, a<br />

southerly direction from Granville;. up to<br />

which station it runs in common with the<br />

W estern. The W estern li:o.e also starts from<br />

Sydney, but diverges from the Sonthem line<br />

at Granville (13 miles distant from Sydney).<br />

The Northern line starts from Newcastle, and<br />

has its terminus at present at Glen Innes.<br />

(1) Taking the W estern line first, it may<br />

thus be briefly described :<br />

The Western line (by a north-westerly<br />

turn) passes through Parramatta, and has,<br />

for the most part, a westerly direction till it<br />

comes to Bathurst, 145 miles from Sydney.<br />

Its general direction is then north-westerly<br />

until it reaches Orange, 47 miles further.<br />

Thence the course <strong>of</strong> this line is due north to<br />

Wellington, and from Wellington north-west<br />

to Bourke. On the Western line there are,<br />

including the termini at Bourke and at<br />

Sydney,* eighty-two stations, and other occasional<br />

stopping places, for the dista,nce <strong>of</strong><br />

503 miles. At the Blacktown Junction the<br />

Blacktow1~ to Richmond branch joins the<br />

-Yf./ estern line. This subsidiary branch, 16<br />

miles in length, has a north-westerly direction<br />

from Blacktown, and has four distinct<br />

stations, and one platform or stopping-place.<br />

There is a second branch line from vV allerawang<br />

Station to Mudgee (85 miles). This<br />

branch takes a north-westerly direction from<br />

Wallerawang, and a third, recently opened,<br />

the Molong branch, running from Orange to<br />

* That is, taking in the trunk line from Sydney<br />

t o Parramatta Junction, common to both the<br />

\Vestern ancl Southern Lines.<br />

Molong, a distance <strong>of</strong> 21 miles. B sicl<br />

these branch lines there arc tramways that<br />

feed the line at intervals-with road m ta,1<br />

at Emu Plains, shale at Hartl y Vale sidiurr,<br />

and with coal at Lithgow and Katoomba.<br />

(2.) The Southern line has _for ah ut<br />

100 miles ( from Parramatta J unct10n to the<br />

neighbourhood <strong>of</strong> Marnlan) a south-s uthwesterly<br />

direction. From Maru]an t th<br />

station at Bethungra (about 154 mil s) th<br />

general direction <strong>of</strong> this lino is, for the m st<br />

part, westerly, with a marked south rly<br />

deflection, first for Yass, and finally towar ls<br />

Albury on the Murray. An important<br />

branch, called the South-west rn ]in , starts<br />

from Junee on the Great Southern lin , and<br />

thence runs to Hay, one <strong>of</strong> the most important<br />

towns in Riverina. The distance from Jun<br />

to Hay is 167 miles, and from ydnoy to<br />

Hay 455. In addition there is a branch<br />

from the South-western line, running from<br />

N arrandra to J erilderie, 65 miles. There are<br />

also three other branch lines, one running<br />

from Goulburn to Bungendore, 43 miles,<br />

being portion <strong>of</strong> the line to Cooma, a lin<br />

from Murrumburrah to Young being its first<br />

section <strong>of</strong> the line now under construction<br />

to connect the Southern and Vv estern systemR,<br />

and a line from Cootamundra to Gundagai.<br />

On the Southern and South-western line there<br />

are 116* stations, and other occasional stopping-places.<br />

( 3.) The Great Northern line ( the eastern<br />

terminus <strong>of</strong> which is at N ewca tle, about<br />

60 miles north <strong>of</strong> Sydney Heads) has, for the<br />

most part, a north-westerly direction, with a<br />

south-westerly deflection between ·west Maitland<br />

and Muswellbrook. Its extreme lenrrth<br />

from Newcastle to Glen Innes, the pr sent<br />

terminus, is 3:23 miles. On thi Northern<br />

line there are-includinrr the termini at 1 len<br />

* Including the uburl an line.


Innes and at Newcastle-sixty-one stations<br />

and other occasional stopping-places for the<br />

extreme distance traversed. On this line<br />

there is one main branch-the Northwestern-starting<br />

from W erris Creek, and<br />

terminating at N arrabri, a distance <strong>of</strong> 97<br />

miles. This branch has eight stopping-places.<br />

There are also three subsidiary branches :<br />

First, one from Newcastle to Bullock Island,<br />

vil1 Honeysuckle Point, to the northward,<br />

1 t mile ; second, one from Newcastle to<br />

Wallsend, on the southern side <strong>of</strong> the line ;<br />

and third, one from East Maitland to<br />

Morpeth, on the north side <strong>of</strong> the line, 4<br />

miles. (1.) The first subsidiary line is near<br />

Newcastle, and is used for mineral traffic.<br />

(2.) The second subsidiary branch (W allsend<br />

Junction), running south-westerly, commences<br />

l} mile west <strong>of</strong> the Waratah Station, and is<br />

in length 4! miles. The W allsend branch is<br />

principally used for mineral traffic. (3.) The<br />

third subsidiary branch is the Maitland and<br />

Morpeth branch, which rum from East Maitbnd<br />

to Morpeth (north-easterly) 4 miles.<br />

The <strong>Railway</strong>s <strong>of</strong> the Colony, with one<br />

exception, nre owned by tbe Stat0; the only<br />

private line in opemtion is that running<br />

frou1 Deniliquin in the Riveriua district to<br />

the town <strong>of</strong> Moama, on the banks <strong>of</strong> the<br />

Murray, where it connects with a branch <strong>of</strong><br />

the Victorian <strong>Railway</strong>s.· This line which<br />

since its inception has been very successful<br />

is laid on the same gauge as the Victorian<br />

system, viz., 5 feet 3 inches. The Government<br />

<strong>Railway</strong>s are laid to the standard gauge<br />

<strong>of</strong> 4 feet 8! inches. It is to be regretted<br />

that at the commencement <strong>of</strong> their <strong>Railway</strong><br />

history the adjoining Colonies <strong>of</strong> New South<br />

Wales and Victoria should have adopted<br />

different gauges; the inconvenience that this<br />

entails has been practically demonstrated<br />

since the <strong>Railway</strong> systems were connected<br />

on the banks <strong>of</strong> the Murray, at Albury, a<br />

transfer <strong>of</strong> the traffic between the Colonies<br />

being necessary at this junction.<br />

Further inconvenience will be felt very<br />

shortly when the Queensland and New South<br />

Wales <strong>Railway</strong>s will be connected, the<br />

Queensland lines throughout being laid to<br />

the narrow gauge <strong>of</strong> 3 feet 6 inches, and consequently<br />

it will be necessary to have a<br />

changing station at the border <strong>of</strong> the two<br />

Colonies, and transfer all passengers and<br />

goods.<br />

In addition to the <strong>Railway</strong> lines open,<br />

which will be fully described, the following<br />

brief particulars will be found interesting<br />

respecting the extensions which are now<br />

(June, <strong>1886</strong>) in progress.<br />

Starting from Sydney, the first extension<br />

met with is that from Sydney to the Illawarra<br />

district. The first section is open, while the<br />

remaining portion is under construction ; but<br />

it will be some time before the whole line is<br />

completed. From Homebush the line starts<br />

which is to connect the Southern with the<br />

Northern system at W amtah ; the distance<br />

between the two places is 93 miles, which<br />

is under construction. On this extension<br />

the most extensive bridges in the Colony,<br />

viz., across the river Hawkesbury, will require<br />

to be constructed. The sinking for<br />

the cy lindern is said to be the deepest in the<br />

world for bridge work.<br />

On the Southern line the first section ( 40<br />

miles) <strong>of</strong> the extension from Goulburu to<br />

Oooma is open, while tl1e remaining portion<br />

is under construction.<br />

The first section <strong>of</strong> the extension to conn.ect<br />

the Southern and Western <strong>Railway</strong>s, from<br />

Harden to Young, 18 miles, is open; the<br />

remainder is under construction.<br />

The Northern line is heing actively pushed<br />

forward from Glen Innes to Tentertield, 58<br />

miles, and should be ready for opening at<br />

the end <strong>of</strong> the year.<br />

The above complete analysis <strong>of</strong> the <strong>Railway</strong><br />

system <strong>of</strong> New South Wales, as it at present<br />

exists, may be illustrated (and will perhaps<br />

be rendered more easily understood) by a<br />

perusal <strong>of</strong> the Tabular View in pages following.


Tabular View in Analyst's <strong>of</strong> <strong>Railway</strong> Routes.<br />

The Western Trunk Line-<br />

(SYDNEY (Terminm)<br />

Eveleigh<br />

1,f'Donalp, Toten ..•,., ... ,., ... ,, .. , .• ,.. , .. ·,,,,.,,·, .. 1//awarra Section-­<br />

Newtown<br />

(St. Peters<br />

l<br />

. j Marrickville<br />

~ Tempe<br />

f;E~;;~ill<br />

~ Arnclifie<br />

E! Ashfield<br />

tl Rockdale<br />

tl -< Croyden<br />

i Kogarah<br />

Proposed Branch to con- ~ lBurwood<br />

nect Northern Line from i;<br />

lHurstville<br />

Redmyre<br />

t!<br />

here ...... •.. •.. , ...... · ;e Homebush<br />

Como<br />

:::: Sutherland<br />

CIJ Rookwood<br />

""' L<strong>of</strong>tus<br />

A.11b1irn<br />

Waterfall<br />

g~~ille ........... , .. The Southern Main Branch<br />


or<br />

The Southern Line-<br />

( 1,f errtJland8<br />

Guildford,<br />

Fairfield<br />

Canley Vale<br />

Cal>ramatta<br />

Liverpool<br />

Glenfield<br />

Macquarie Fields<br />

Jfinto<br />

Campbellto\Vl}<br />

Menangle<br />

Douglas Park<br />

Picton<br />

Picton Lake,<br />

Rush's<br />

Mittagong<br />

Bowral<br />

Burradoo<br />

j ~:;6;:;ite<br />

~ if!Z/:noon<br />

! Cable's Siding<br />

.:; Barber'B Creek<br />

.~ ~:~::<br />

0 .; • ~ Towrang<br />

..., s {Joppa Junction .... ,, .... f NGoourtLhBUGRoNulburn. (Line to Cooma under construction from here.)<br />

f] Bangalore ..,<br />

;e ., Lake Ba.thurst ~ Yarra<br />

;:::; ~ Tarn"'O g Breda/bane<br />

~ § BUNGENDORE CIJ Fish River<br />

i::q ~ Gunning<br />

Jerrawa<br />

';; t{<br />

0<br />

Demondrille Junction<br />

~ ;e Currawong<br />

1- .._o YOUNG<br />

~'"1<br />

~ -~ ( Brawlin ...... , . , , •• , , , , •, ..<br />

~ g, ) Mnttama<br />

§~) Colve<br />

!: § l GUNDAGAI<br />

~QI<br />

8~<br />

.~ Yass<br />

~ Bowning<br />

f Rinalong<br />

.., Galong<br />

~ Rocky Ponds<br />

g Cunningar<br />

••• • C/.2 HARDEN. (Line to connect the Southern nnd Western Lines under<br />

i Mur~~:i~~~n from here.)<br />

Wallendbeen<br />

Cootamundra.<br />

l,fullally's Siding<br />

Cungegong<br />

Bethungra<br />

i<br />

Illabo<br />

,Junee............ ...... .,<br />

Barefield '.~<br />

{Old Junee<br />

Bomen<br />

1,farrar<br />

"-I Coolaman<br />

W AOOA WAOGA f ;,;, Grong Grong<br />

Sandy Creek ~ ~ Narrandera •. ...• , . ~ .. {Colombo<br />

Hanging Rock : .l:l The Qttarry ·i:: • Widgiewa<br />

Yerong Creek ~ .S Hulong ~ ~ Coonong<br />

Culcairn ~ Darlington ~ ~ Bundure<br />

Gerogery 5 Carathool ,!i Yathong<br />

Yambla riJ HAY . ~ JERILDERIE<br />

Ettam-0gah<br />

ALBURY<br />

N.B.-Tbe ordinary places are in plain type, the more important tations in small capitals, and the platforms in italics.


9<br />

Tabular View z'n Analysis o/ <strong>Railway</strong> Routes-continued.<br />

The Western Line-<br />

Richmond Subsidiary (Seven Hills<br />

. Branch .. • ••••" • ••" •' BLACKl'OWN<br />

R1verstone<br />

Rooty Hill<br />

M1;1lgrave<br />

South Creek<br />

Wmdsor<br />

Parkes<br />

Clarendon<br />

Penrith<br />


Emu Plains<br />

Lucasville<br />

Glenbroolc late Brookdale<br />

Blaxland late Wascoe's<br />

The Valley ,<br />

Springwood<br />

I Faulconbridge<br />

Numantia<br />

Linden<br />

Woodford<br />

Lawson late Blue Moun.<br />

I<br />

I<br />

W ~f!orth Falls late<br />

Weatherboard<br />

Katoomba<br />

Black heath<br />


~ Hartley Vale-Tramway<br />

.se llfonnt Wilson<br />

.., I Clarence Siding<br />

§ Eskbanlc •<br />

&s Li:thgow-Trarr.way<br />


Subsidiary Branch '"' I llfarrangaroo<br />

to Mudgee ...... •· .. ~ Wallerawang .. . .. .. . . . . /Piper's Flat<br />

.:: Rydal ~ Ben Bullen<br />

t; Sodwalls ~ Capertee<br />

~ -< Tarana .., llford<br />

~ I Loclcsley late Loclce's & Rylstone<br />

Plat/ orin ~ Lue<br />

!5 Brewongle ..:: Bitnberra .<br />

~ Raglan "" Mudgee<br />

~ I ~!~I~URST<br />

f Orton Park<br />

~ Perth<br />

~ George's Plains<br />

""' Wimbledon<br />

~ Newbridge<br />

~ Blayney<br />

Spring Grove<br />

Spring :am<br />

Huntley ~<br />

~ANG,E .... ... , , . , .. , ..-~ { Cargo Road<br />

.M:u'Ilion Creek ~ Borenore<br />

Kerr's Creek<br />

· Warne<br />

~<br />

,s<br />

Amaros<br />

Molong<br />

lRONilARKS .;;<br />

I<br />

Springs<br />


.IJfaryvale<br />

llf urrumbidgerie<br />

DUBBO<br />

I<br />

Narramine<br />

Trangie<br />


Mitllengudgeon<br />

Nyngan<br />

Girilambone<br />

Coolabah<br />

Glengarij<br />

Byrock<br />

\_BOURKE<br />

"'I<br />

The Northern Trunk Line-<br />

Subsidiary Branch to (NEWCASTLE ( Terminus)<br />

Bullock Island ... ••• 1 Hon~ysuckle Point<br />

Subsidiary Branch to Hanulton<br />

JYall,end............ Waratah·<br />

Sandgate<br />

Hexham<br />

Tarro<br />

Woodford<br />

Subsidiary Branch to I Victoria-street<br />

JIIorpeth "" ••""'· 1 EAST MAITLAND JUNCTION<br />

High-street<br />


Farley<br />

Lochinvar<br />

Allandale<br />

Greta<br />

Branxton<br />

Belford<br />

I<br />

~<br />

Whitting ham<br />


Glennie's Creelc<br />

Ravensworth<br />

-~ ~~~:!iree<br />

MuswELLBROOK<br />

f Aberdeen<br />

:S IJ;i,n:<br />

8 Wingen<br />

~ Blandford<br />


E-t I Temple Court<br />

Doughboy Hollow<br />

Willow-tree (or Warrah)<br />

Braejield<br />

I<br />

I<br />

Quirmdi<br />

Quipolly<br />

Werris Creek ....... ./Gap<br />

Currabubula f Breeza<br />

I T,HIWORTII ~ Curlewis<br />

Moon bi .; Gunnedah<br />

llfacdona.ld Rii:er ~ -~ Emerald Hill<br />

Walcha Road ,S>.., Boggabri<br />

Kentucky 8 Baan Bah<br />

Uralla ~ Titrrawan<br />



Inverell<br />

I<br />

l~~~~~long<br />

Ben Lomond<br />

Glencoe<br />


under construction to<br />

Tenterfield and<br />

Queensland border.<br />

N.B.-The ordinary places are in plain type, the more important stations in sm:111 capitals, and the pfatforms in italics.


ROUTES.<br />


Route No. 1.-From Sydney to Bathurst:<br />

145 miles.-In this route, as on all<br />

others, remember to be at the station from<br />

which yon intend to start (especially should<br />

it be the Sydney terminus) in ample time,<br />

more particularly if you are not alone or have<br />

any luggage. Take the morning train if you<br />

wish to see the varied scenery along the line<br />

on the Blue Mountains* and particularly<br />

that <strong>of</strong> the First Zigzag near Emu P lains,<br />

and the Great Zigzag near Lithgow. Dine<br />

at Mount Victoria refreshment-rooms. The<br />

whole journey occupies about eight hours.<br />

Route No. 2-From Sydney to Oran ge :<br />

192 miles.-Follow directions for Route No.<br />

1, except that you should also take a hasty<br />

" tea" at the refreshment-room at Bathurst,<br />

and come provided with a rug to sleep in<br />

between Bathurst and Orang0. At Orange<br />

there are several excellent hotels. Omnibuses<br />

at the Orange station will convey you anLl<br />

your luggage b any <strong>of</strong> the principal hotels.<br />

Probable time for your journey by this route,<br />

about ten hours.<br />

Route No. 3- From Sydney to Lawson<br />

(formerly Blue Mountain) Station:<br />

58 miles.-Y ou can go by the morning or ·<br />

evening train to the "Blue Mountains." A<br />

fine prospect is ,-isible from the station itself;<br />

and there is diversified and beautiful scenery<br />

* The " Blue Mountains" were first crossed by<br />

Eur~pe.ans in May, 1813, by an adventurous party<br />

consIStmg <strong>of</strong> "Mr. Gregory Blaxland, Mr. \Villiam<br />

Wentworth, and Lieutenant Lawson, attended by<br />

four servants, five dogs, and four horses laden with<br />

provisions, ammunition, and other necessaries."<br />

~hey appear t~ have crossed pretty near the present<br />

line <strong>of</strong> the ra1lroad, previous ineffectual attempts<br />

having been made much further to the southward<br />

'l.'hey got back again to the N epean on the 6th <strong>of</strong><br />

Jt:ne, having apparently got past the Blue Mountarns<br />

as far as f':Ome <strong>of</strong> the plains beyond.-See<br />

J ournal qf a T~u7: <strong>of</strong> Discove1'y, &c., in the yea1'<br />

1813. [The Wilham Wentworth here mentioned<br />

afterwards became the celebrated Australian statesman.]<br />

on hoth sides <strong>of</strong> the line, within 2 mil s<br />

distance either way. On th north sicl arc<br />

Dante's Glen and three wat rfalls,


and Orange, which passes the platform at<br />

vVentworth Falls at an early hour in the afternoon.<br />

You may thus be back in Sydney at<br />

6 p.m., and congratulate yourself upon having<br />

had a short, pleasant, and inexpensive trip.<br />

By starting on a Friday evening, or on a Saturday,<br />

you can get a return ticket at a reduced<br />

rate, available until the Monday for return.­<br />

Time <strong>of</strong> journey, rather less than four hours.<br />

Route No. 5-From Sydney to Blackheath<br />

(i.e. "Govett's Leap"): 73 miles.­<br />

If you should desire to pay a hasty visit to<br />

the lovely and stupendous gorge and waterfall<br />

usually known by the curiously inexpressive<br />

name <strong>of</strong> "Govett's Leap" (and you do not<br />

particularly care whether you see any other<br />

spot on the occasion or not), take your place<br />

in the train for Blackheath. There are several<br />

accommodation houses here. Govett's Leap<br />

is situated about 1 mile from the line, on<br />

the north side; an easy walk, and an easy<br />

way to :find. Three passenger trains for<br />

Sydney pass Blackheath daily. If you :find<br />

yourself comfortable at Blackheath, and time<br />

permits, you can ride, drive, or walk thence<br />

to Mount Victoria and back, so as to see the<br />

numerom; breaks <strong>of</strong> scenery to the southward<br />

-away over the Cunimb~la Valley--to the<br />

greatest advantage. But you will :find it too<br />

far to visit the Hartley Vale from this standpoint.-Time<br />

<strong>of</strong> journey from Sydney to<br />

Blackheath, about four hours and a half.<br />

Route No. 6-Sydney to Katoomba.­<br />

A short time ago Katoorn ba was known to<br />

the general railway travellers as an unimportant<br />

platform; a few, however, were aware<br />

<strong>of</strong> the glorious views that were found in<br />

the neighbourhood, and occasionally tourists<br />

would come here and make their way to the<br />

waterfalls and dells. Subsequently a few<br />

houses were started, and now as if by magic a<br />

township has sprung into existence. A coalmine<br />

and saW··mill are worked, and the place<br />

is becoming one <strong>of</strong> the most important on the<br />

mountains. The traveller can leave town by<br />

any <strong>of</strong> the Western trains, and after a journey<br />

<strong>of</strong> about four hours reach Katoomba, where<br />

excellent accommodation may · be obtained.<br />

One <strong>of</strong> the largest hotels in the Colony-the<br />

"Great vVestern" (now "Carrington ")-has<br />

been opened here.<br />

Route No. 7-From Sydney to Mount<br />

Victoria: 77 miles.-Everything is clear<br />

before you in this route, according to the<br />

station lists in the Time-tables, until you<br />

arrive at your destiuation. Mount Victoria<br />

will be for you a good head-quarters, fr_om<br />

which Govett's Leap, at Blackheath, may<br />

conveniently be visited, either by driving in<br />

a buggy, by walking, or by taking advantage<br />

<strong>of</strong> the train. .The distance from Mount<br />

Victoria to Blackheath is only 4 miles by<br />

road or rail. Near Mount Victoria there is<br />

much beautiful and attractive scenery. The<br />

air, being very bracing and remarkably<br />

pleasant, is much recommended for invalids.<br />

In the immediate neighbourhood <strong>of</strong> Mount<br />

Victoria are found the Fairy Dell, the<br />

Engineer's Waterfall, the Little Zigzag ( overlooking<br />

the northern part <strong>of</strong> the Ounimbla<br />

Valley), Mount Piddington, Mount Piddington's<br />

Waterfall and Dell, and many other<br />

picturesque spots. From the back <strong>of</strong> Mrs.<br />

Perry's hotel, past the Protestant Church,<br />

the old road will take you down into the<br />

romantic and secluded vale <strong>of</strong> Hartley, the<br />

peculiar scenery <strong>of</strong> which will well repay a<br />

visit. There is at Hartley, near the two<br />

churches, a decent old-fashioned wayside inn,<br />

kept by Mrs. Evans. The little town, or<br />

rather village, <strong>of</strong> Hartley, on the borders <strong>of</strong><br />

the river Lett (a tributary <strong>of</strong> Cox's River),<br />

is quaint and pretty; and, from the bridge<br />

over the stream <strong>of</strong> the brawling Lett, an<br />

excellently kept road winds north-westerly<br />

up the valley towards Bowenfels-passing<br />

on its way under boldly defined and truly<br />

majestic rocks, known as "Hassan's Walls."<br />

Mount Victoria has a number <strong>of</strong> good hotels,<br />

one <strong>of</strong> which is very large and handsome,<br />

called "The Imperial." If you make Mount<br />

Victoria your head-quarters-as many do-a<br />

day can be set apart for visiting the -YVeatherboard<br />

Gorge and Campbell Cataract, Blackheath,<br />

or Katoomba. Excursions are also<br />

frequently made from Mount Victoria to the<br />

Fish River Caves, the distance being about<br />

30 miles.<br />

Route No. 8-From Sydney to Lithgow<br />

and Bowenfels : 96-97 miles.­<br />

Starting from the Sydney terminus, you can<br />

reach the busy, rising town <strong>of</strong> Lithgow in<br />

six hours j the train crossing between Mount


Victoria and Lithgow, the highest. point<br />

reached by the Western <strong>Railway</strong> - the<br />

Clarence Tunnel-and the celebrated Lithgow<br />

ZiO'zaO', From Lithgow you can make a pleasa~t<br />

10 miles' excursion by going right round<br />

the mountain to the westward and south-westward-where<br />

(thanks to Mr. Henry Cambridge,<br />

the road surveyor, and the energy<br />

and forethought <strong>of</strong> the Public Works Department)<br />

an excellently kept road, past<br />

Hassan's Walls, will bring you down the<br />

valley to Hartley. Or you can go down to<br />

Hartley by a shorter way (about 6 miles)<br />

right over "Brown's Gap" behind the<br />

easternmost end <strong>of</strong> Lithgow, up Clyde<br />

Valley. From the last road ( a very clever<br />

piece <strong>of</strong> practical engineering by Mr. Cambridge)<br />

there is a grand prospect to the<br />

southward, just as you come down into the<br />

valley from the Gap. There are a number<br />

<strong>of</strong> hotels at Lithgow where accommodation<br />

may be obtained.<br />

Note. - Weekly Tourists' Trains.­<br />

Once a week opportunities occur for conveniently<br />

visiting Lithgow and Bowenfels by the<br />

tourists' trains, which leave Sydney for<br />

Bathurst on Saturdays at 7 a.m., and return<br />

to the Sydney terminus on the following<br />

Monday morning. This weekly tourists'<br />

train is run at very cheap rates: 1st class 2d.<br />

and 2nd class ld. per mile return, and will<br />

enable persons from the Sydney side to visit<br />

either "Blue Mountains" (Lawson), the<br />

Weatherboard, Blackbeath (Govett's Leap),<br />

Mount Victoria, or Lithgow.<br />

[The above will, it is believed, be found to<br />

be the principal routes for tourists, from<br />

Sydney downwards, on the Main Branch<br />

Western Line. Others may possibly be<br />

suggested, when the different stations and<br />

stopping-places shall, in their respective places<br />

come to be particularized. J<br />

Route No. 9-From Sydney to Goulburn<br />

: 134 miles.-In this route, as on all<br />

others, be sure that you are at the station<br />

from which you intend to start (especially<br />

should it be the Sydney terminus) a full<br />

quarter <strong>of</strong> an hour before the train is to<br />

leave; more particularly so if you are not<br />

alone or have any luggage. Take the<br />

morning train if you wish to enjoy the<br />

varied scenery along the line. You will<br />

be able to dine at Mittagong, which you<br />

will reach about four hours after your train<br />

leaves the Sydney terminus. There is also<br />

a good refreshment room at Goulburn. Be<br />

sure that you get into a carriage that is going<br />

to Goulburn, or to some other placR on the<br />

Southern line ; otherwise, you will have<br />

to look out (sharply) at Gram-ille, and<br />

change into a carriage going South. The<br />

guards-uniformly a civil, trustworthy, and<br />

respectable class <strong>of</strong> men-always warn the<br />

passengers <strong>of</strong> every necessary change, and<br />

occasional stopping-place ; but passengers<br />

(especially ladies) are <strong>of</strong>ten inattentive,<br />

and get " carried on" in consequence-to<br />


the annoyance <strong>of</strong> themselves, and the vexation<br />

and worry <strong>of</strong> everybody else. Goulburn<br />

(a fine, thriving, inland city, the capital<br />

<strong>of</strong> the south-west, with plenty <strong>of</strong> good hotel<br />

accommodation) is a healthy and pleasant<br />

place, and one <strong>of</strong> the prettiest towns in the<br />

Colony. It is the centre <strong>of</strong> a wealthy and<br />

important district, and lies on the border <strong>of</strong><br />

rich and extensive plains.-Time <strong>of</strong> journey<br />

from Sydney to Goulburn, six hours.<br />

Route No. 10-From Sydney to Gunning<br />

: 165 miles.-Follow directions for<br />

Route No. 9. Change your carriage at<br />

Granville for one going on the Southern<br />

line, if you ham not (more wisely) got into<br />

your right carriage at the Sydney terminus.<br />

Dine at the refreshment-rooms at Mitta()'ona<br />

or Goulburn. The district <strong>of</strong> Gunn~()' i~<br />

agricu.ltural and past~ral; the country ~urroundrng<br />

the town berng mountainous with<br />

undulating plains. Probable time <strong>of</strong> jo~rney,<br />

seven hours.


Route No. 11-From Sydney to Campbelltown:<br />

34 miles.-A cheap and quiet<br />

but delightful jaunt may be improvised by<br />

any tourist from Sydney to Campbelltown,<br />

on the Southern line-distant from the<br />

Sydney terminus only 34 miles. There are<br />

numerous hotels at Campbelltown. It is one<br />

<strong>of</strong> the oldest towns in the Colony, and is<br />

situated in a hilly, well cleared, agricultural<br />

district, celebrated for the salubrity <strong>of</strong> its<br />

climate. The scenery round Campbelltown is<br />

very pretty, especially in the spring and early<br />

summer. From it there are many agreeable<br />

rides and drives, in all directions. The<br />

roads to Camden and to Appin wind, each <strong>of</strong><br />

them, through many charming bits <strong>of</strong> rural<br />

scenery, now, by the general public, neglected<br />

and well-nigh forgotten. A tramway has<br />

also been constructed from Campbelltown to<br />

Camden, 8 miles. The tram runs in conjunction<br />

with the <strong>Railway</strong>, meeting all<br />

pas::;enger trains. Nine miles to the northwestward,<br />

near Camden ( where, in a commanding<br />

situation, there is a magnificent<br />

Anglican church, built by the MacArthur<br />

Family), the country will be found highly<br />

cultivated, undulating, and extremely pleasing.<br />

There is good hotel accommodation at<br />

Camtlen. The district adjacent to Camden is<br />

occupied by graziers and agriculturists; and<br />

there are also, round it, many dairy farms.<br />

Close to that township there is a fine bridge<br />

over the N epean. At Appin, 9 or 10 miles<br />

from Campbelltown, in an opposite direction,<br />

on the Illawarra Road, there are two hotels.<br />

Near this secluded villaae will be found<br />

much curious river scffiery, and (a few<br />

miles south from its two churches) a<br />

singularly wild and rocky pass, adjoining<br />

to which is a deep stream with a dangerous<br />

ford. The water supply for Sydney is to be<br />

drawn from this locality, and the extensive<br />

works are now in progress. Time <strong>of</strong> journey<br />

to Campbelltown from Sydney, rather better<br />

than one hour and a half.<br />

Route No.12-From Sydneyto Menangle<br />

: 40 miles.-(See Route No. 9.)-­<br />

This is a station on the Southern Line, G<br />

miles further than Campbelltown. It has<br />

some characteristic park-like scenery, the<br />

country being more open than usual in this<br />

part <strong>of</strong> the Colony. Menangle is much<br />

visited by Sydney excursionists, and deserves<br />

its popularity. Cultivation and grazing farms<br />

on a limited flat and fertile area. You can<br />

go to Menangle from the Sydney terminus in<br />

a very short time, and return in the evening.<br />

The surrounding country is elevated, and<br />

undulates to the foot <strong>of</strong> the mountain range.<br />

The steep ridge known as " Razorback" lies<br />

about 3 miles to the westward. The l<strong>of</strong>tiest<br />

peak in the neighbonrhood is Mount Hunter.<br />

Time <strong>of</strong> journey from Sydney to Menangle,<br />

nearly two hours.<br />

Route No. 13-From Sydney to Picton<br />

: 53 miles.-Y ou can reach Picton by<br />

the train from the Sydney terminus by a<br />

short and pleasant trip. If you require a<br />

cheerful rest and a reviving repose for a few<br />

days, you may secure what you want by a railway<br />

trip to this picturesque village, formerly<br />

known as "Stonequarry." There are three<br />

hotels here suitable for visitors. The viaduct<br />

over the Stonequarry River is a grand piece<br />

<strong>of</strong> masonry. The scenery at Picton chiefly<br />

consists <strong>of</strong> precipitous hills, grassy glades, and<br />

straggling woods. A ramble down the winding<br />

rock-enclosed course <strong>of</strong> the "Stonequarry"<br />

has delighted and astonished many an artist<br />

and man <strong>of</strong> cultivated taste. Near this little<br />

township the train passes through the Gibraltar<br />

tunnel, 572 yards in length. This tunnel is<br />

the longest in the Colony. Time <strong>of</strong> journey<br />

from Sydney to Picton, two hours and a half.<br />

Route No. 14-From Sydney to Mittagong<br />

: 77 miles.-(See Route No. 8.)­<br />

y ou can reach Mittagong from the Sydney<br />

terminus after a comparatively short and<br />

agreeable tra:jet. Grand and impressive views<br />

in tl1is neighbourhood, at the Gibraltar Pass,<br />

and pleasing scenery at Bowral and at Bong<br />

Bong. Near Bowral (a thriving township<br />

with a station 3 miles from Mittagong) there<br />

is a long and admirably constructed tunnel.<br />

Between Bowral and Moss Vale a platform<br />

has been established and denominated Burradoo.<br />

The district around is extremely<br />

fertile and pretty, and as it lieR 2,168 feet<br />

above sea-level, the air is pnre and bracing.<br />

This place is much resorted to by families<br />

seeking change <strong>of</strong> air. Time <strong>of</strong> journey from<br />

Sydney to Mittagong, about three hours and<br />

a half.


Route No. 15--From Sydney to Moss<br />

Vale : 86 miles.-(See Route No. 9. )-The<br />

Sydney tourist to Moss Vale had better take<br />

his wayside refreshment at the Mittagong<br />

station, and secure such hotel accommodation<br />

as he may require here on his arrival. Moss<br />

Vale is considered to be one <strong>of</strong> t.he prettiest<br />

districts in the Colony. The country around<br />

is undulating, very fertile, and has the<br />

appearance <strong>of</strong> an immense English park.<br />

Here a country seat has been secured for the<br />

Governor <strong>of</strong> the Colony, and in the vicinity<br />

are fo-qnd the country seats <strong>of</strong> many influentia1<br />

gentlemen. Good accommodation can be<br />

secured either at Moss Vale or at the township<br />

<strong>of</strong> Sutton Forest, 3 miles out. Moss Vale, on<br />

account <strong>of</strong> its climate, is very much resorted<br />

to by invalids, while those in search <strong>of</strong> the<br />

picturesque will be satisfied by the views <strong>of</strong><br />

glen and waterfall that are to be seen within<br />

easy distance <strong>of</strong> the station. Sportsmen<br />

also may, by journeying some little distance<br />

away, get a splendid day's shooting after either<br />

the marsupials or after the feathered game<br />

that is found in the district. Time <strong>of</strong> journey<br />

from Sydney, rather better than five hours.<br />

Route No. 16-From Sydney to Bungendore:<br />

174 miles.-The recent opening<br />

<strong>of</strong> the <strong>Railway</strong> to Tarago and Bungendore<br />

has opened up a unique and delightful district<br />

to the people <strong>of</strong> Sydney and the Colony.<br />

The principal want in the matter <strong>of</strong> scenery<br />

inland is the varied charm that is imparted<br />

to a landscape by the presence <strong>of</strong> water either<br />

in the form <strong>of</strong> lakes or picturesque views, but<br />

in one district this want has been supplied<br />

by the splendid sheets <strong>of</strong> water, known as<br />

Lakes Bathurst and George, which are more<br />

fully described in the itinerary. 'rrains run<br />

daily from the metropolis to the stations<br />

named, and the locality is one <strong>of</strong> much beauty<br />

and fertility, the land in the vicinity <strong>of</strong><br />

the lakes sloping gracefully to meet their<br />

waters, the lakes being also <strong>of</strong>ten thick with<br />

flocks <strong>of</strong> wild fowl and abound with fish. In<br />

addition to the enjoyment that is derived in<br />

viewing the delightful scenery about the<br />

lakes and from boating, fishing, and shooting<br />

on its waters, the district possesses a splendid<br />

climate and will no doubt attract, as facilities<br />

are <strong>of</strong>fered, thousands <strong>of</strong> visitors in search <strong>of</strong><br />

health, sport, and change <strong>of</strong> scene.<br />

N ote.--Weekly Tourists' Trains.­<br />

Once a week opportunities oceur for conveniently<br />

visiting Campbelltown, Menangle,<br />

Mittagong, Bowral, Moss Vale, at cheap fares,<br />

by the Tourists' Trains, which leave Sydney<br />

for Goulburn on Saturdays at 8·30 a.m., and<br />

return to Sydney terminus on the following<br />

Monday morning, at a convenient hour.<br />

This train will enable persons from Sydney<br />

to visit either <strong>of</strong> the five above-mentioned<br />

places; but the excursionist should wisely<br />

elect before hand as to which <strong>of</strong> those places<br />

he will stop at, until the return <strong>of</strong> this train<br />

to Sydney.<br />

[The above will, it is believed, be found to<br />

be the principal routes for tourists from<br />

Sydney downwards, on the Main Branch<br />

Southern Line. Others may possibly be<br />

suggested when the different stations and<br />

stopping-places shall, in their regular and<br />

consecutive order, come to be particularized.]



Route No. 17-From Sydney to The<br />

Hawkesbury, Wiseman's Ferry, and the<br />

Macdonald River, via Windsor: 100<br />

miles.-If the Sydney tourist wishes to visit<br />

the Haw kesbury* and the Macdonald Rivers,<br />

at a small expenditure <strong>of</strong> time and money,<br />

he had better get a railway ticket to Windsor<br />

at the Sydney terminus some afternoon-say<br />

on a Saturday--and he may then, about<br />

two hours afterwards, find himself in the<br />

pleasant old town <strong>of</strong> Windsor, elsewhere<br />

described. Three miles from the Windsor<br />

Station stands Pitt Town, to the vicinity <strong>of</strong><br />

which the tourist may either walk or go by an<br />

omnibus. From that point on the Hawkesbury,<br />

so reached, a steamer starts. If the<br />

excursionist, avoiding the numerous sinu-<br />

. * ~he Hawkes bury (Deerubbum) is remarkable for<br />

its smgularly tortuous course. Its basin has three<br />

distinct slopes in the eastern watershed-a southern,<br />

eastern, and western. The main stream comes from<br />

the southern slope, and is first called The W ollondilly.<br />

It successively receives the Mulwarree, the<br />

Cookbundoon, the Wingecarribee, the Guinecor<br />

Creek, and the N attai and Cox Rivers, and is then<br />

ca.lled 'The W arragamba. ·when the Cowpasture<br />

River has next contributed its waters the river<br />

becomes known as The N epean, a name which it<br />

bears until its junction with the Grose, which flows<br />

down into the main river through a cleft in the<br />

Blue Mountains. The river so constituted is, from<br />

that point, known as The Hawkesbury, a name first<br />

bestowed in order <strong>of</strong> time on this stream <strong>of</strong> many<br />

aliases. After receiving the South Creek at<br />

Windsor, and then the Colo and the Macdonald<br />

Rivers, the Mangrove Creek and other minor<br />

streams next become its tributaries; the Hawkesbury<br />

finally discharging itself in the Pacific, at<br />

Broken Bay. The entire length <strong>of</strong> the Hawkesbury<br />

is generally estimated at 330 miles (130 miles longer<br />

than the river Severn, in Great Britain), and it<br />

drains a much disconnected area <strong>of</strong> about 9,000<br />

miles. Owing to the immense area drained by the<br />

Hawkesbury, and the flatness <strong>of</strong> the country in the<br />

lower portion <strong>of</strong> its stream (but chiefly, perhaps, in<br />

consequence <strong>of</strong> the confined and winding channel<br />

below Windsor, through which the enormous<br />

volume <strong>of</strong> accumulated waters cannot always with<br />

sufficient velocity be discharged), the lower course<br />

<strong>of</strong> this river is liable to sudden and dangerous floods.<br />

The Hawkesbury received its name from the first<br />

Governor <strong>of</strong> this Colony, Captain A. Phillip, R.N.,<br />

in honour <strong>of</strong> Lord Hawkesbury.<br />

(Connected with the Western Line.)<br />

osities <strong>of</strong> the Hawkesbury, prefers to walk<br />

(or ride) along the road to vViseman's Ferry,<br />

he will .find his line <strong>of</strong> transit about half<br />

the distance-from 24 to 25 miles only.<br />

The scenery, both on the river and on the<br />

road to the east <strong>of</strong> it, is, for the most part,<br />

extremely interesting; but the best way to<br />

see the Hawkesbury is, <strong>of</strong> course, to see it<br />

from the river itself. Portland Head and<br />

Sackville Reach are much admired; but all<br />

along the banks <strong>of</strong> the Hawkesbury, from<br />

vVindsor to Wisernan's Ferry, the frequent<br />

farms and flourishing homesteads give a<br />

cheerful British air to the ever changing<br />

scene. A little way <strong>of</strong>f the road the traveller<br />

by land-at a place known as "Stone<br />

Chimney," about half . way-will .find an<br />

excellent stream <strong>of</strong> water. The " Maroota"<br />

road, on which he journeys, having been<br />

joined by the Great Northern Road, crosses<br />

the Hawkesbury near its celebrated confluence<br />

with the Macdonald, at a place called<br />

Wisernan's Ferry. From the "Ferry" the<br />

Northern Road stretches away northerly,<br />

through a wild and desolate country, to W ollombi.<br />

Two miles before reaching the<br />

Hawkesbury the traveller, by land, has to<br />

keep along a l<strong>of</strong>ty ridge, which, descending<br />

abruptly to the river, discloses a most enchanting<br />

prospect. The Hawkesbury, about a<br />

quarter <strong>of</strong> a mile wide here, sweeps round in<br />

a semicircle; its calm, deep, lake-like expanse<br />

being enclosed on all sides by forest-clad,<br />

precipitous hills. At vViseman's Ferry the<br />

traveller-whether he arrives by the road or<br />

in the little steamer-will find cleared land,<br />

an inn, a school-house, and an old ruined<br />

church. The entrance to the Macdonald<br />

River is about a mile or so below this picturesque<br />

but decayed township. The still<br />

waters <strong>of</strong> the little known Macdonald are<br />

navigable by small craft up to the wharf near<br />

St. Alban's, about 12 miles from the Hawkesbury.<br />

The adjacent levels and banks <strong>of</strong> the<br />

Macdonald are remarkably fertile and beautiful.<br />

8t. Alban's-the only township in the<br />

valley <strong>of</strong> the Macdonald-is secluded and


picturesque. The houses are built on the<br />

sides <strong>of</strong> the hills surrounding this quaint<br />

little town, in which will be found a stone<br />

church, stores, a smithy, and a comfortable<br />

inn, known as " The Settlers' Arms." From<br />

this convenient stand-point an adventurous<br />

tourist might, after crossing the" Ferry," pay<br />

a visit ( via Snodgrass Valley) to the " Mangrove,"<br />

in the Brisbane Water district. From<br />

the Sydney terminus to Windsor the distance<br />

by rail is 34 miles j from Windsor to Pitt<br />

Town, where the steamer starts on her<br />

riverine voyage, 3 miles j from Pitt Town to<br />

Wiseman's Ferry (by the windings <strong>of</strong> the<br />

Hawkesbury) about 50 miles j from Wiseman's<br />

Ferry to the Wharf near St. Alban's<br />

(on the Macdonald), rather more than 12<br />

miles. Total distance from Sydney (say) 100<br />

miles. The steamer returns from St. Alban's<br />

to Pitt Town almost immediately after her<br />

arrival. This route seems to suggest the<br />

cheapest and most convenient way for any<br />

family or party <strong>of</strong> friends to view the grand<br />

and ever-changing scenery <strong>of</strong> the Vale <strong>of</strong> the<br />

Hawkesbury and <strong>of</strong> that <strong>of</strong> the Macdonald.<br />

The scenery on the Hawkesbury was much<br />

admired by the celebrated novelist Anthony<br />

Trollope, who considered that it compared<br />

favourably with that <strong>of</strong> the Rhine. Excursionists<br />

from Sydney and Parramatta can<br />

easily reach Windsor by the train, and be<br />

conveyed thence to where the steamer liesusually<br />

at Pitt Town. Excursionists for the<br />

Hawkesbury may also leave Sydney by<br />

steamer to Manly, then travel overland to<br />

Newport, from whence steamers start at<br />

intervals, and run up the Hawkesbury. The<br />

visitor can then return to Sydney from<br />

Windsor by rail. Time <strong>of</strong> journey (by rail)<br />

from Sydney to Windsor, about two hours.<br />

Route No. 18-From Sydney to the<br />

Kurrajong Heights, &c., via Richmond:<br />

41 miles :-The Sydney tourist intending to<br />

visit the Kurrajong Mountains (a northeasterly<br />

<strong>of</strong>f-shoot <strong>of</strong> the Blue Mountains commonly<br />

so-called) will do well to possess<br />

himself <strong>of</strong> a ticket at the Sydney terminus<br />

some fine afternoon, and tu.king his seat in a<br />

railway carriage he will find himself, about<br />

two hours and a half afterwards, in Richmond,<br />

a very pretty little country town,<br />

elsewhere described. At the Richmond<br />

railway station he can readily hire a commodious<br />

car, in which he may-for a few<br />

shillings-be whirled <strong>of</strong>f, with all due expedition_,<br />

to one <strong>of</strong> the many comfortable<br />

accommodation houses to be found near the<br />

top <strong>of</strong> the Kurrajong. This car, after<br />

leaving Richmond by the cutting near the<br />

Anglican Church, passes over a wide, dreary,<br />

alluvial flat, at the northern limit <strong>of</strong> which<br />

flows the Hawkesbury River (just after the<br />

junction <strong>of</strong> the N epean with the Grose)<br />

and here running easterly. Crossing the<br />

river by an excellent bridge, the traveller<br />

is first taken past the little hamlet q_f Enfield,<br />

through some miles <strong>of</strong> an agreeable, undulating<br />

country, with homesteads, orange<br />

orchardR, and farms j over Wheeney Creek,<br />

past "Lamrock's," and then up the steep<br />

mountain side until he reaches his destination,<br />

Belmore Lodge, or wherever else it<br />

may be that he is determined to go. The<br />

ascent <strong>of</strong> the road after Wheeney Creek is so<br />

sudden that the alteration <strong>of</strong> the atmosphere<br />

to a more bracing and healthy climate<br />

becomes very perceptible, and is, moreover,<br />

strikingly evidenced by a concurrent change<br />

in the vegetation. From the windows <strong>of</strong> his<br />

bedroom on the following morning the tourist<br />

will find himself looking down upon a broad<br />

and partly ·wooded expanse <strong>of</strong> hill country,<br />

on the misty plains beyond which the<br />

Hawkesbury is, here and there, to be seen<br />

winding along towards the Pacific. The<br />

towns <strong>of</strong> Richmond, Windsor, Pitt Town,<br />

Wilberforce, Castlereagh, and Penrith-are<br />

more or less visible j and even the exact site<br />

<strong>of</strong> the metropolis, with its wide-spread<br />

suburbs and adjacent coast ridge, can be<br />

traced (beyond the blue hills <strong>of</strong> Parramatta)<br />

in the extreme distance. In fact nearly<br />

the whole <strong>of</strong> the broad county <strong>of</strong> Cumberland-hemmed<br />

in towards the west and<br />

south by far-<strong>of</strong>f shadowy mountains-lies<br />

before the enraptured view <strong>of</strong> the visitor to<br />

the Kurrajong. At the back <strong>of</strong> Belmore<br />

Lodge an abrupt ascent brings the visitor<br />

to a well-known sylvan seat, whence the<br />

prospect <strong>of</strong> the lower country can be seen<br />

to the greatest advantage. On the summit<br />

<strong>of</strong> the ridge a pretty sheltered path, trending<br />

ea.sterly, leads through the woods to Mr.<br />

Comrie's residence, from the grounds <strong>of</strong><br />

which there is a grand view to the south-


ward. When staying at the Kurrajong<br />

the tourist should seize the opportunity <strong>of</strong><br />

visiting "the Vale <strong>of</strong> A voca"; so called from<br />

the "meeting <strong>of</strong> the waters" <strong>of</strong> the Grose<br />

with those <strong>of</strong> a large mountain stream,<br />

unnamed, flowing out <strong>of</strong> one <strong>of</strong> the many<br />

wild ravine1:1 <strong>of</strong> the Kurrajong. The best<br />

way to view this lovely landscape is to hire<br />

a horse and guide on the Kurrajong, and so<br />

to make a day <strong>of</strong> it. The tourist will first<br />

have to descend the mountain as far as<br />

Lamrock's, and then to turn <strong>of</strong>f and travel<br />

for several miles in a westerly direction.<br />

The Vale <strong>of</strong> A voca 1:1hould be approached<br />

through a gum-tree forest, on a gradual<br />

elevation from the southward, so that<br />

nothing can be anticipated, and thus the<br />

full grandeur and singular beauty <strong>of</strong> the<br />

prospect allowed to burst suddenly upon you.<br />

The Grose comes rapidly down its own<br />

dreadful precipitous gorge to the left, and<br />

the nameless stream hastening to meet it<br />

rushes from the heavily wooded crags <strong>of</strong> the<br />

Kurrajong, down before you from the right.<br />

The last.mentioned stream sweeps onward<br />

past the base <strong>of</strong> the rock on which the<br />

spectator stands, and a mile or so away<br />

unites with the Grose on its headlong course<br />

to the Hawkesbury. In front, many hundred<br />

feet below, a broad densely timbered<br />

green peninsula---the colours s<strong>of</strong>tened by the<br />

dizzy distance, as it rises from the water's<br />

edge into a gentle eminence-contrasts<br />

agreeably with the more sombre outlines <strong>of</strong><br />

the rude dark cliffs and l<strong>of</strong>ty, forest-clad<br />

mountains on either side, forming the frame,<br />

as it were, to this charming picture. "The<br />

meeting <strong>of</strong> the waters" is deemed by all who<br />

have seen it to be well deserving <strong>of</strong> its distinguished<br />

and poetic name: No tourist<br />

should, if possiule, omit to pay a visit to this<br />

locality. There are many agreeaLle rides<br />

and drives about on the Kurrajong, commanding<br />

a great variety <strong>of</strong> mountain and<br />

forest scenery. Time <strong>of</strong> journey (by rail)<br />

from Sydney to Richmond, about two hours<br />

and twenty minutes.<br />


I<br />

l<br />

Route No. 19-From Newcastle to<br />

Tamworth: 182 miles.-The tourist who<br />

leaves the Newcastle terminus for Tamworth<br />

will in five hours and three-qun.rters reach<br />

Murrurundi. If he starts by the first train<br />

in the morning he had better take his breakfast<br />

at Singleton, where there is a refreshment-room,<br />

and where all passenger trains<br />

stop for fifteen minutes. If he takes his<br />

departure from Newcastle by the 9 o'clock<br />

morning train (passengers and goods) he may<br />

conveniently dine at Singleton at l ·35 p.m.,<br />

before proceeding to Murrurnndi-which he<br />

will, in that case, reach at about 10 minutes<br />

past 7 in the evening. He will find Murrurundi<br />

a prosperous inland town, situated on<br />

the Page River, which ( conjoined with the<br />

Isis) forms a western tributary to the Hunter.<br />

Leaving M urrurundi he has then before him a<br />

journey <strong>of</strong> 62 miles, and to pass eight stations<br />

and stopping-places before he arrives at his<br />

destination. The first <strong>of</strong> these is Temple<br />

Court Platform, 1 mile from Murrurundi;<br />

the second is Doughboy Hollow, a platform<br />

5 miles further on; the third, Willow-tree<br />

( or Warrah), a station 8 miles further ; the<br />

fourth, Braefield Platform, 6 miles further ;<br />

the fifth, Quirindi station, 4 miles further;<br />

the sixth, Quipolly station, 6 miles further;<br />

the seventh, W erris Creek station, 5 miles<br />

further ; the eighth, Currabubula station,<br />

9 miles further. 18 miles beyond Currabubula.<br />

ttation Tamworth is situated. Of<br />

these stations and stopping-places it may<br />

here be remarked that Quirindi lies on the<br />

northern slope <strong>of</strong> the Liverpool Range, 24<br />

miles from Murrurundi, on the banks <strong>of</strong> the<br />

Quirindi Creek, an eastern tributary <strong>of</strong> the<br />

Namoi River. The line penetrating the<br />

Liverpool Range arrives at Quirindi through<br />

a well-formed tunnel 528 yards long, lined<br />

with brickwork set in Portland cement.<br />

Tamworth stands to the northward from<br />

Quirindi, 38 miles ; Breeza is a small town,<br />

west <strong>of</strong> Quirindi, 25 miles ; and W allabadah,<br />

a pastoral and agricultural settlement, is 16<br />

miles away to the eastward. 1.'ime <strong>of</strong> journey<br />

from Newcastle to Tamworth, eight hours.<br />

.<br />



Route No. 20-Newcastle to Glen<br />

Innes: 323 miles.-Following the directions<br />

given in Route No. 19, the traveller<br />

will after a journey <strong>of</strong> about nine hours from<br />

Newcastle arrive at Tamworth. Leaving<br />

Tam worth, the line passes through very<br />

pretty scenery, running along the valley <strong>of</strong><br />

the Cockburn until Moonbi is reached. Here<br />

the ascent <strong>of</strong> the Moonbi Range is commenced,<br />

and from this station onwards the<br />

line runs almost on a continuous upward<br />

grade, rising over 2,000 feet in 22 miles.<br />

The scenery is wild and diversified throughout,<br />

the mountains clothed with timber<br />

rising bold and majestic on either side. The<br />

.Macdonald River, mileage 217, is crossed by<br />

a substantial iron girder bridge. After a<br />

journey <strong>of</strong> over twelve hours the traveller<br />

arrives at Armidale, the capital and cathedral<br />

city <strong>of</strong> the New England district. From<br />

Armidn1e onward the line rapidly ascends<br />

until it reaches the culminating point at Ben<br />

Lomond, 4,525 feet above sea level, this<br />

being the highest point that the rails are<br />

laid in Australia. The districts passed<br />

through are fertile, and largely qevoted to<br />

agricultural purposes, the climate and surrouudings<br />

almost leading one to imagine he<br />

was back in England-thus leading to the<br />

adoption <strong>of</strong> the title "The New England<br />

District," the produce and fruits common to<br />

England growing here luxuriantly. Glen<br />

Innes is a thriving town, and with the prospect<br />

<strong>of</strong> the railways to Inverell and the Clarence<br />

must become an important centre. It<br />

is a clean-looking place, possessing many<br />

good buildings, and the district <strong>of</strong>fers many<br />

advantages to those journeying for change <strong>of</strong><br />

air, pretty scenery, or health. It is; further,<br />

an important mining centre, large quantities<br />

<strong>of</strong> tin being forwarded from here to the seaboard.<br />

Glen Innes is 110w the terminus <strong>of</strong><br />

the Great Northern <strong>Railway</strong>, but the extension<br />

is in progress to T~nterfield, while<br />

approval has been given for the further<br />

extension to the Queensland border.<br />

Route No. 21-From Newcastle to<br />

Murrurundi: 120 miles.-For directions<br />

on leaving Newcastle for Murrurundi see<br />

Route No. 19 as to dining at SinglEfon, &c.,<br />

&c. Murrurundi-at an elevation <strong>of</strong> 1,546<br />

fees above the sea-level-lies 192 miles north<br />

<strong>of</strong> Sydney, at the foot <strong>of</strong> the Liverpool<br />

Range, 94 miles distant from the nearest<br />

portion <strong>of</strong> the coast from the Pacific. This<br />

town, which has a population <strong>of</strong> 350 souls, is<br />

the centre <strong>of</strong> an extensive and progressive<br />

district, principally devcted to pastoral<br />

pursuits, but endowed with a varied amount<br />

<strong>of</strong> mineral wealth not yet fully developed.<br />

The land is in many parts <strong>of</strong> an excellent<br />

quality, and, year by year, as the population<br />

becomes more numerous, agriculture also<br />

becomes more general, and, what is better, is<br />

found to pay well. The local newspaper is<br />

the Miirruruncli Tirnes. There is much fine<br />

scenery in this district, especially in the more<br />

elevated portions <strong>of</strong> it, for the Liverpool<br />

Range is a magnificent chain <strong>of</strong> mountains-­<br />

from 3,000 to 4,000 (sometimes even as much<br />

as 5,000) feet high-rising, at irregular intervals,<br />

into l<strong>of</strong>ty detached peaks, with rugged<br />

cliffs, and traversed by deep precipitous gorges.<br />

Some <strong>of</strong> these picturesque localitiesare heavily<br />

timbered, and some are well nigh denuded <strong>of</strong><br />

vegetation. Murrurundi Gap is 2,314 feet<br />

above the level <strong>of</strong> the sea. One <strong>of</strong> the<br />

highest and most remarkable mountains near<br />

Murrurundi is Mount Murrulla, 3 miles<br />

E.E.s. <strong>of</strong> the township. Mount Murrulla,<br />

like Mount Wingen, is rather connected with<br />

the Liverpool Range than an :1etual part <strong>of</strong><br />

that chain, which runs across the country to<br />

the north <strong>of</strong> both. Mount Wingen, 1,820<br />

feet high, lying a few miles east <strong>of</strong> Mount<br />

M urrulla, is perhaps better known as "The<br />

Burning Mountain," from the supposed accidental<br />

ignition <strong>of</strong> a large coal seam beneath it.<br />

The places <strong>of</strong> note near Murrurundi are as<br />

follows :-Blackville, a pastoral settlement,<br />

45 miles distant ; Blandford, another settlement<br />

(agricultural as well as pastoral) on<br />

Page River and vVarland Creek, 3 miles<br />

south <strong>of</strong> Murrurundi; and The TVillow-tr ef3<br />

or Wm·rah, the well-known station <strong>of</strong> the<br />

· Australian Agricultural Company, 15 miles<br />

distant from Murrurundi. Haydonton is a<br />

suburb, now connected with Murrurundi<br />

(since 1864) by the" Arnold Bridge." Tinwr,<br />

on the river Isis, is a locality situated a<br />

few miles to the eastward <strong>of</strong> M urrurundi,<br />

and chiefly noticeable for its caves. "They<br />

present," we are told, "a series <strong>of</strong> extensive<br />

chambers, the floors <strong>of</strong> which are covered<br />

with stalagmites, while stalactites <strong>of</strong> all ages


depend from the ceilings." Time <strong>of</strong> journey<br />

from Newcastle to Murrurundi, rather less<br />

than six hours.<br />

Route No. 22-From Newcastle to<br />

Scone~ 96 miles.-The tourist leaving<br />

Newcastle by rail may, if he pleases, in less<br />

than five hours find himself at; Scone, having<br />

en route had the option <strong>of</strong> breakfasting or<br />

dining at Singleton, according to the train<br />

by which he may have come" down" the line.<br />

(See directions for Route No. 19.) Scone is<br />

rather a pretty little place, ::;ituated on the<br />

banks <strong>of</strong> a stream oddly called the "Kingdon<br />

Ponds," which, with the Darkbrook, forms a<br />

western tributary <strong>of</strong> the Hunter, falling into<br />

that river about 9 miles above the township<br />

<strong>of</strong> Aberdeen. Scone, at an elevation <strong>of</strong> 680<br />

feet above the sea-level, is reckoned to be<br />

167 miles north <strong>of</strong> Sydney by the postal<br />

route. It has a population <strong>of</strong> 600 souls.<br />

It lies 7 miles west <strong>of</strong> Page River, and 7<br />

miles north-west <strong>of</strong> the Hunter. The country<br />

round Scone is mountainous, the adjacent<br />

district being chiefly occupied for pastoral<br />

purposes. Near the township is a plain,<br />

on which are found quantities <strong>of</strong> fossil<br />

wood, the rooted trunks <strong>of</strong> large fossil trees<br />

standing in the ground, as if still in their<br />

places <strong>of</strong> growth. Besides Aberdeen, abovementioned,<br />

the principal places near Scone<br />

are Bunnan and Rouchelbrook. In the<br />

mountains and highland glens near Scone<br />

there is much wild and picturesque scenery.<br />

-11- beautiful spot there, called "Flat Rock,"<br />

1s spoken <strong>of</strong> as well deservinO' <strong>of</strong> a visit.<br />

Time <strong>of</strong> journey from Newcastle to Scone,<br />

four and three-quarter hours.<br />

Route No. 23-From Newcastle to<br />

Musclebrook: 80 miles.-(For directions<br />

as to place <strong>of</strong> stopping for breakfast or dinner<br />

on this journey see Route No. 19.) The<br />

traveller by rail from N ewcastl6 to Musclebrook<br />

(or Muswellbrook) arrives at his destination<br />

in about four hours after leaving the<br />

Newcastle terminus. Muscle brook ( 47 b feet<br />

above the sea-level) lies on the margin <strong>of</strong> the<br />

lVIusclebrook and the Hunter, that river<br />

skirting the township on its western side.<br />

It is, by postal route, 152 miles north <strong>of</strong><br />

Sydney, and contains about 1,100 inhabitants.<br />

There is a very handsome Anglican Church<br />

here, noteworthy as being one <strong>of</strong> the finest<br />

ecclesiastical edifices at present erected in the<br />

northern portion <strong>of</strong> the Colony. The visitor<br />

should go and see it, especially the interior.<br />

The country around Muswellbrook is favourable<br />

to the growth <strong>of</strong> wheat, maize, sugar,<br />

tobacco, and the vine. Denman is a small<br />

town, lying 16 miles south <strong>of</strong> Musclebrook,<br />

about 2 miles above the confluence <strong>of</strong> the<br />

Goulburn and Hunter Rivers, on the main<br />

road from Maitland to Merri wa, Cassilis, and<br />

Mudgee. The other settlements in the neighbourhood<br />

<strong>of</strong> Musclebrook are Goorangoola,<br />

Grass-tree, Gungal, Kayuga, and Wybong.<br />

Time <strong>of</strong> journey from Newcastle to Musclebrook,<br />

three hours.<br />

Route No. 24-From Newcastle to<br />

Singleton : 49 miles.-Singleton, the centre<br />

<strong>of</strong> the rich and flourishing district <strong>of</strong> Patrick's<br />

Plains, is an agreeable, well-planned country<br />

town, on the Hunter River, 123 miles<br />

north <strong>of</strong> Sydney by the postal route. Tbe<br />

station is 135 feet above the sea-level. Here<br />

there is a good refreshment-room, and trains<br />

carrying passengers stop fifteen minutes.<br />

Singleton is a wealthy, thriving place, with<br />

comfortable inns, several churches, and other<br />

handsome public edifices. The Court-house<br />

is one <strong>of</strong> the finest buildings <strong>of</strong> the kind in<br />

the Colony. The town (which has a good<br />

local newr-ipaper) contains nearly 2,000 inhabitants.<br />

The district, in which Singleton holds<br />

the chief place, has many advantages for<br />

pastoral and agricultural pursuits. The vine<br />

is largely cultivated, quantities <strong>of</strong> good wine<br />

being produced ; copper, iron, freestone, and<br />

limestone are found in the adjacent country.<br />

Jer1·y's Plains is a township on the Hunter,<br />

19 miles west <strong>of</strong> Singleton, on the road from<br />

Singleton to Cassilis. Coal abounds in its<br />

neighbourhood, and other valuable mineral<br />

deposits. The noticeable settlements nerrr<br />

Singleton are :-Belford ( on the line 10 miles<br />

south-east from Singleton), Bridgeman, Camberwell,<br />

Glendon Brook, Howe's Valley,<br />

Ravensworth, Scott's Flat, Sedgefield, St.<br />

Clare, Vere, W arkworth, and vV est brook.<br />

Time <strong>of</strong> journey from Newcastle to Singleton,<br />

about two and a half hours.<br />

Route No. 25- From Newcastle t o<br />

West Maitland : 20 miles.-Maitland (by<br />

many once not unfairly ranked next after the

------.<br />

~ - )'{• ..<br />


capital <strong>of</strong> the Colony, for its wealth and importance)<br />

is divided into East Maitland and<br />

West Maitland by Wallis Creek, over which<br />

there is an excellent bridge. East Maitland<br />

was the original Government township; but<br />

when " Maitland" is now spoken <strong>of</strong> West<br />

Maitland is generally meant-it being, <strong>of</strong> the<br />

two, by far the larger and more important<br />

place. Maitland lies low-only 124 feet above<br />

the sea-level. Maitland is 12 miles south<br />

<strong>of</strong> Paterson, the chief town <strong>of</strong> the Paterson<br />

District. Maitland is also reckoned to be<br />

95 miles from Sydney, by the ordinary postal<br />

route, 20 miles by rail from the Newcastle<br />

Terminus, and 29 miles from Singleton. West<br />

Maitland contains several good hotels and<br />

fine public buildings, with many commodious<br />

churches and schools. The population <strong>of</strong><br />

-West Maitland in 1881 was 5,703 souls.<br />

The townships, villages, and settlements<br />

near East and West Maitland are: Anvil<br />

Creek, Bishop's Bridge, Branxton, Buchanan,<br />

Creswick, Elderslie, Farley, Greta (late<br />

Farthing's), Hinton, Largs, Lochinvar,<br />

},[orpeth, Mount Vincent, Rothbury, and<br />

W oodville. Of these, Lochin var, Greta, and<br />

Branxton are stopping-places on the Great<br />

Northern <strong>Railway</strong>, to the west <strong>of</strong> Maitland ;<br />

and Morpeth is to the north-eastward, at a<br />

distance <strong>of</strong> 6 miles. Morpeth is the head<br />

<strong>of</strong> the navigation <strong>of</strong> the Hunter River, and<br />

steamers constantly ply between it and<br />

Sydney.<br />

Route No. 26-From Newcastle to<br />

East Maitland: 18 miles.-East Maitland<br />

station-reached by the railway traveller<br />

after a trip <strong>of</strong> rather less than one hour's<br />

duration-is situated in a pleasant spot, with<br />

rising ground near it, the station itself being<br />

not more than 18fe et above the sea-level. E ast<br />

Maitland is considered to be one <strong>of</strong> the best<br />

laid out towns in the Colony, and when the<br />

numerous trees, so judiciously planted, shall<br />

have grown up, it will be one <strong>of</strong> the most<br />

picturesque. In its wide and well kept<br />

streets there are many excellent and substantial<br />

buildings, churches, banks, hotels,<br />

and shops. The Government gaol and the<br />

adjacent Court-house are both fine and commodious<br />

buildings, standing on a gentle<br />

eminence to the north-east <strong>of</strong> the township.<br />

The population <strong>of</strong> East Maitland in 1881<br />

was 2,302 persons. Courts <strong>of</strong> Quarter<br />

Sessions and Circuit Courts are held here.<br />

You can go from East Maitland direct by<br />

the subsidiary line, which starts from here<br />

to Morpeth. Near East Maitland (to the<br />

eastward) are Morpeth, Wickham, Woodford,<br />

and Hinton. Time <strong>of</strong> journey, about fiftyfive<br />

minutes.<br />

Route No. 27-From Newcastle to<br />

Waratah: 4 miles.-Waratah is a busy<br />

thriving township, only 4 miles west <strong>of</strong> Newcastle,<br />

and not more than 13 feet above highwater-mark.<br />

It is said to have a population<br />

<strong>of</strong> about 3,000 souls, the principal industries<br />

being coal-mining, stone-quarrying, and<br />

copper-smelting. Coal is shipped from shoots<br />

into vessels lying in the lower waters <strong>of</strong> the<br />

Hunter at Point W aratah. At the distance<br />

<strong>of</strong> about l} mile west <strong>of</strong> Waratah the<br />

Wallsend subsidiary line joins on to the<br />

Great Northern <strong>Railway</strong>. There is no particular<br />

beauty in any <strong>of</strong> the surroundings <strong>of</strong><br />

Waratah, but it is outside <strong>of</strong> the "great coal<br />

city" into something like the country, and<br />

the place is consequently a favourite resort<br />

to the citizens <strong>of</strong> N ewcastle, from which it<br />

lies about 10 minutes' distance, by rail.<br />

Besides Waratah the places near N ewcastlo<br />

are Stockton, Honeysuckle Point, Hamilton,<br />

Lam bton, Minmi, New Lambton, Plattsbnrg,<br />

Wallsencl, Brookstown, H exliani, Alnwick,<br />

Adamstown, Charlestown, Onoygamba, and<br />

Tighe's Hill. W allsend and H exham are<br />

connected (by rail) with the terminus at<br />

N ewcastle.



There are three sn bsidiary lines to the<br />

Northern line, but they are not <strong>of</strong> such<br />

length and importance as the subsidiary<br />

line from Blacktown to Richmond, or the<br />

line from Wallerawang to Mudgee. 1. The<br />

fi1·st <strong>of</strong> these is the subsidiary li1rn from<br />

Newcastle to Bullock Island ; 1} mile. This<br />

joins the main line at Honeysuckle Point,<br />

just outside Newcastle. It is not much used<br />

for passengers, but is used for the conveyance<br />

<strong>of</strong> coal and other mineral products. Over<br />

1,000,000 tons <strong>of</strong> coal are carried over the line<br />

annually and shipped at the steam cranes here.<br />

2. The second <strong>of</strong> these subsidiary lines to<br />

the Great Northern line runs from Newcastle<br />

(westerly) to Wallsend-a distance <strong>of</strong><br />

8 miles. There is a morning and afternoon<br />

train every day (including Sundays) and the<br />

trajet is made in 35 minutes. The trains<br />

between Newcastle and W allsend call, either<br />

way, at Waratah (at Hamilton only if required)<br />

and at Honeysuckle Point. Wallsend,<br />

the terminus <strong>of</strong> this subsidiary line, is<br />

a busy, rising, incorporated town, with<br />

adjacent collieries. It already numbers at<br />

least 5,000 inhabitants. Wallsend is 20<br />

miles north-east <strong>of</strong> Cooranbong, by which,<br />

after a journey <strong>of</strong> 32 miles to the southward,<br />

Gosford, tl1e pretty chief township <strong>of</strong> Brisbane<br />

Water, may conveniently be reached. There<br />

is a good road, and the telegraph line runs<br />

along the same all the way. Cooranbong can<br />

ahio be reached by a road southerly from<br />

Maitland. 3. The third subsidiary line-­<br />

that frdrn East Maitland to Morpeth-is, in<br />

its extreme length, 4 miles long. There are<br />

several trains on it every day (including<br />

Sundays) and the trajet is made in half an<br />

hour. The trains between East Maitland<br />

and Morpeth call at Northumberland-street,<br />

which is the only intermediate stopping-place<br />

on the line. This subsidiary line is one <strong>of</strong><br />

great practical use to the inhabitants <strong>of</strong> the<br />

towns it connects, especially when it is<br />

remembered that Morpeth is the head <strong>of</strong> the<br />

navigation <strong>of</strong> the Hunter River.<br />


The North-western line leaves the main<br />

Northern Rail way at W erris Creek and<br />

runs to N arrabri, a distance <strong>of</strong> 97 miles.<br />

vVerris Creek is 155 miles from Newcastle,<br />

and N arrabri is consequently 252 miles from<br />

the seaport. The line was opened to<br />

Narrabri in October, 1882, but at times<br />

between the 15th March, 1879, when the first<br />

section from vV erris Creek to Breeza ,va.s<br />

completed, various sections have been opened<br />

for traffic. The line passes through the<br />

well known Liverpool Plains District, which,<br />

although almost entirely at present devoted<br />

to pastoral purposes, may, now that the<br />

<strong>Railway</strong> has reached the district, be in tirne<br />

devoted to agriculture, the soil, it is said,<br />

being very suitable for wheat-growing, and<br />

it is confidently expected that a system <strong>of</strong><br />

irrigation can be carried out on these plains.<br />

The stations on the North-western branch<br />

are Breeza, Gunnedah, an important town,<br />

containiug 1,331 inhabitants, Boggabri and<br />

N arrabri. The line will at some future date<br />

be extended to the river Darling, the Government<br />

having promised to submit a proposal<br />

to Parliament to construct .a line from<br />

N arrabri to the town <strong>of</strong> W algett on the<br />

river named, and it is anticipated that little<br />

or no opposition will be raised to this<br />





I .-S Y D N E Y T O G RA N V I L L E .<br />


N.B.-" Suburb::m Trains" to the Town <strong>of</strong> PARRAMATTA, I mile beyond Granville to the N.,v.<br />

Eveleigh 1 mile; 70 feet above sealevel.-Eveleigh,<br />

only a short distance to the<br />

left, beyond the Redfern <strong>Railway</strong> Tunnel, is<br />

reckoned a mile from the Sydney Terminus.<br />

Short as this distance is by rail, this platform<br />

is found to be very convenient for persons residing<br />

at Alexandria, Redfern, and Waterloo.<br />

As the passenger leaves the Sydney terminus<br />

he may have a good view <strong>of</strong> three handsome<br />

stone edifices near the line-the <strong>Railway</strong><br />

Mortuary Station, with the Wesleyan Church<br />

to the right, and St. Paul's Anglican Church<br />

and Tower to the left. The <strong>Railway</strong> workshops<br />

at Eveleigh, now in course <strong>of</strong> construction,<br />

will bewhencompleted the mostextensive<br />

south <strong>of</strong> the Equator, a~cl are to. be £tted up<br />

with all the most modern appliances for the<br />

construction and repair <strong>of</strong> engines and other<br />

rolling stock. The buildings on the lefthand<br />

side are the boiler, steam-hammer, and<br />

smiths' shops, and foundry, under one ro<strong>of</strong><br />

300 feet long, in four bays <strong>of</strong> 60 feet each;<br />

the next block, 550 feet by 300 feet, will<br />

comprise the other worshops in connection<br />

with the locomotive department. The engine<br />

running-shed is 303 feet by 300 feet, and is<br />

capable <strong>of</strong> accommodating 126 engines <strong>of</strong> the<br />

largest type. On the right side <strong>of</strong> the line<br />

are situated the carriage and waggon repairing<br />

shops, in a block <strong>of</strong> buildings 600 feet by<br />

351 feet ; also, the rail way stores and other<br />

buildings. At night the yard is lit up with<br />

the electric light.<br />

M'Donald Town 1! mile; 80 feet<br />

above sea-level.- Having passed Eveleigh,<br />

the passenger by the train has, at once,<br />

to tl:e left, a fine prospect <strong>of</strong> Botany<br />

Bay in the distance, across a level, open,<br />

country, with the church and viJlage <strong>of</strong> St.<br />

Peter's on elevated ground to the westward.<br />

On the right <strong>of</strong> the line can now be seen the<br />

grand architectural outlines <strong>of</strong> the Sydney<br />

University-to the west <strong>of</strong> which ( on the<br />

ridge <strong>of</strong> the hill, close to Newtown) stands<br />

the Deaf, Dumb, and Blind Asylum-a<br />

curious red brick building, in marked contrast<br />

to its more pretentious neighbour. The<br />

M'Donald Town Platform is placed at a<br />

siding, just where the Railroad winds to the<br />

right before it enters Newtown. It is between<br />

Eveleigh and M'Donald Town that the <strong>Railway</strong><br />

to Illawarra joins the Main Southern<br />

<strong>Railway</strong>.<br />

Newtown Station, 2 miles ; 96 feet<br />

above sea-level.-The Railroad, ascending<br />

gradually from the terminus, now runs under<br />

a bridge and through the pleasant suburban<br />

township <strong>of</strong> Newtown. Emerging from the<br />

shadow <strong>of</strong> a second bridge, the traveller<br />

usually finds that the train halts for a few<br />

moments at the Newtown Station, close to a<br />

pretty Gothic church erected by the Roman<br />

Catholic communion. Appointed time for<br />

train to reach the N ewt,own Station after leaving<br />

the Sydney terminus, about six minutes.<br />

Stanmore, 2! miles ; about 100 feet<br />

above sea-level.-This platform stands<br />

about half-wav between Newtown and<br />

Petersham St~tions, and is for the convenience<br />

<strong>of</strong> the residents <strong>of</strong> Stanmore. In<br />

the neighbourhood is the vV esleyan Training<br />

College, N ewington.


Petersham Station, 3 miles ; 100 feet<br />

above sea-level.-Having left Newtown,<br />

the traveller by the train is pleased to observe<br />

an excellent and comprehensive view stretching<br />

away to the northward-to the heights<br />

<strong>of</strong> the picturesque surburban hamlet <strong>of</strong><br />

Balmain, the church towers and houses <strong>of</strong><br />

which here first become plainly visible.<br />

Beyond Balmain the North Shore hills<br />

extend in the extreme distance. On the<br />

southern side <strong>of</strong> the line, houses, villas,<br />

gardens, and slowly developing streets are<br />

successively presented; where (not long since)<br />

there was nothing but open country, or shady<br />

" bush." On approaching Petersham Station<br />

a forn view over the country unfolds itself to<br />

the right-the celebrated "Blue Mountains "<br />

becoming visible far away to the westward.<br />

Petersham Station is now the centre <strong>of</strong> a<br />

thickly populated suburban district, and on<br />

the slopes around it are many really delightful<br />

villas and gardens. Usual time <strong>of</strong> tmjet<br />

from Sydney to Petersham, about twelve<br />

minutes.<br />

Summer Hi11, 4 miles; about 90 feet<br />

above sea-level.-A few years ago Summer<br />

Hill formed one large estate (Underwood's).<br />

It was subsequently subdivided and sold,<br />

and from its proximity to the city, commanded<br />

a ready sale. Houses were soon<br />

built and a platform established, and now<br />

the traffic to and from this place is very<br />

considerable. Quitting the Petersham Station<br />

the Railroad for a while traverses a rolling<br />

country, numerously inhabited. The burialground<br />

and Roman Catholic Church <strong>of</strong> St.<br />

Mary and St. Joseph then stand together for<br />

a moment near the advancing train to the<br />

right ; and, after that, the old village <strong>of</strong><br />

Petersham comes directly in view, down in<br />

the hollow, lying on the side <strong>of</strong> the Parramatta<br />

Road. The course <strong>of</strong> the train brings the<br />

tourist next, somewhat abruptly, by a viaduct<br />

over Long Cove Creek, a stream which flows<br />

along the bottom <strong>of</strong> the gorge, down whichaway<br />

towards the Parramatta River-is suddenly<br />

disclosed .a long v.ista <strong>of</strong> picturesque<br />

woods. The slender spire <strong>of</strong> St. David's<br />

Presbyterian Church is seen amongst the<br />

trees to the north-west in the mid distance.<br />

Ashfield Station, 5 miles ; 86 feet<br />

above sea level-A mile from Summer Hill<br />

the important suburb <strong>of</strong> Ashfield is reached.<br />

After leaving Summer Hill the southern edge<br />

<strong>of</strong> the old Ashfield Racecourse is gained, with<br />

the old Southern Road from Sydney on the<br />

right hand ; and so, passing under a briJge<br />

and through a deep cutting between houses,<br />

orchards, and gardens, the train comes<br />

thundering into Ashfield. Ashfield is the<br />

centre <strong>of</strong> a very populous district. To the<br />

left, about 2 miles distant, is the old township<br />

<strong>of</strong> Canterbury, situated on the Cook's River.<br />

The suburb contains many residences with<br />

very tastefully laid out gardens, while the district<br />

around contains many charming drives<br />

and bits <strong>of</strong> scenery. Time between the<br />

Sydney and Ashfield Stations, about fifteen<br />

minutes.<br />

Croydon Station, 6 miles ; 86 feet<br />

above sea-level.-The railway passenger,<br />

on leaving Ashfield Station, is now (for about<br />

a mile) hurried past an agreeable bit <strong>of</strong> home<br />

scenery, diversified by gardens and trees,<br />

with a wide, uneven space on either side <strong>of</strong><br />

the road in the back gronnd, where Nature<br />

has not yet been ruthlessly h11provecl away.<br />

Streets (for the most part mere lanes) intersect<br />

this tract, whereon stand villas and<br />

gardens belonging to Sydney people, displaying<br />

a considerable amount <strong>of</strong> domestic comfort,<br />

originality, and even elegance <strong>of</strong> design.<br />

Vistas <strong>of</strong> plen,sant country roadways-green,<br />

and as yet innocent <strong>of</strong> dust and mirestretch<br />

up the gentle eminences to the left<br />

and right.<br />

Burwood Station, 7 miles; 68 feet<br />

above sea-level.-After passing Croydon<br />

platform, the railway traveller will at first<br />

only see a continuation <strong>of</strong> such scenery as<br />

he has been observing between Ashfield and<br />

Croydon. Nevertheless (just before he arrives<br />

at the prosperous village <strong>of</strong> Burwood) he may<br />

catch a passing view <strong>of</strong> the Congregational<br />

Church to the right, near the Burwood<br />

Station ; and he may likewise-beyond that<br />

pretty little ecclesiastical edifice-observe the<br />

Anglican Church on the Parramatta Road,<br />

with a good view <strong>of</strong> Balmain and the North<br />

Shore hills in the distance. To the left he<br />

will doubtless notice another handsome


Anglican Church (with an adjacent schoolhouse)<br />

on Burwood heights ; also more bush<br />

sceneE", presenting a series <strong>of</strong> gardens and<br />

woodland glades. Near Burwood, on the<br />

line, he may likewise get a hasty glimpse .to<br />

the north-west <strong>of</strong> the hill country near Parramatta.<br />

The p9,ssenger traffic at Burwood<br />

is largely fed by the residents <strong>of</strong> Enfield and<br />

Bankstown on the one side, and <strong>of</strong> the district<br />

between Burwood and the south bank <strong>of</strong> the<br />

Parramatta River on the otlrnr. Appointed<br />

time from Sydney to Burwood, usually about<br />

twenty-four minutes.<br />

Redmyre Platform, 7! miles; 60 feet<br />

above sea-level.-A half-mile beyond Burwood,<br />

to the westward, is a platform named<br />

Redmyre, for the convenience <strong>of</strong> residents in<br />

the adjacent honses and villas. The line to<br />

connect the Southern with the Northern<br />

Rail way system will join the Great Southern<br />

<strong>Railway</strong> between Redmyre and Homebush.<br />

The works are now in progress.<br />

Homebush Station, 8 miles; 32 feet<br />

above sea-level.-Between Burwood and<br />

H omebush there is a considerable descent on<br />

the line, amounting to not less than 36 feet.<br />

After passing the Redmyre platform the<br />

railway traveller has a distant view <strong>of</strong> the<br />

country to the north-west, across an open<br />

range <strong>of</strong> forest. The hills beyond Parramatta<br />

now more plainly appear; and there is<br />

also an unexpected prospect <strong>of</strong> the long<br />

settled country about Ryde across the Parramatta<br />

River. The tops <strong>of</strong> the Blue Mountains<br />

are again visible to the westward. On<br />

the right the traveller (if a sporting man)<br />

may observe, with some interest, the old<br />

Homebush Racecourse-which, before the<br />

establishment <strong>of</strong> Randwick, was the one<br />

great arena for race-horses, jockeys, and<br />

bookmakers. Homebush, like Summer Hill,<br />

was until recently thinly populated, on<br />

n.ccount <strong>of</strong> the land in the vicinity being<br />

locked up. After the subdi-rision <strong>of</strong> the land<br />

in 1878 houses commenced to spring up on<br />

all sides, and Home bush is now fast becoming<br />

well peopled. In the vicinity several works<br />

have been establishetl. A little beyond the<br />

station extensive cattle yards have been corn<br />

pleted The yards are capable <strong>of</strong> holding<br />

1,200 cattle and 12,000 sheep, and have cost<br />

upwards <strong>of</strong> £60,000. They cover not less<br />

than 40 acres <strong>of</strong> ground, and are intersected<br />

throughout by . <strong>Railway</strong> sidings, and everything<br />

has been arranged that can make them<br />

convenient. The yards were built under the<br />

supervision <strong>of</strong> the City Council.<br />

Rookwood Station, 10 miles ; 55 feet<br />

above sea-level.-Between Homebush and<br />

Rookwood Station-a distance <strong>of</strong> 2 milesthe<br />

country adjacent to the Railroad is <strong>of</strong> a<br />

dreary character, somewhat suitable to the<br />

locality approached-the great Metropolitan<br />

Cemetery or N ecrop<strong>of</strong>oi, at Haslem's Creek.<br />

The grounds have been laid out with great<br />

taste, and present to the passing traveller a<br />

cheery picture, taking away the melancholy<br />

thoughts that would arise in viewing the city<br />

<strong>of</strong> the dead were it not relieved by tasteful<br />

parterres and shrubs and handsome mausoleums.<br />

The buildings connected with this<br />

cemetery are really handsome edifices-the<br />

Mortuary House, or Station, at the end <strong>of</strong> the<br />

siding on the ground particularly so. The<br />

Jewish Burial-ground adjoins that appropriated<br />

to all the various denominations <strong>of</strong><br />

Christians, who here sleep peacefully together.<br />

This station was once known as "Haslem's<br />

Creek," but it has assumed the name <strong>of</strong><br />

"Rookwood"-a name borrowed, it would<br />

appear, from Harrison Ainsworth's wellknown<br />

"deadly-lively" romance. The trains<br />

reach Rookwood from Sydney in half an<br />

hour. Funeral trains stop at Rookwood,<br />

and are shunted into the cemetery sidingwhich<br />

is about a quarter <strong>of</strong> a mile long.<br />

Auburn Platform, 12 miles; about 40<br />

feet above sea-level-Auburn is a platform<br />

recently established. The locality was<br />

formerly covered with scrub, but now buildings<br />

are going up rapidly, and the scrub is<br />

fast making way for the erection <strong>of</strong> handsome<br />

villas and the laying out <strong>of</strong> ornamental<br />

grounds. A mile beyond Auburn, Duck<br />

River is reached, and here numerous manufa.ctories<br />

have been started. On the banks <strong>of</strong><br />

the river or creek, the extensive range <strong>of</strong> buildings<br />

for Hudson Brothers Company have been<br />

erected. These buildings are for the manufacture<br />

<strong>of</strong> <strong>Railway</strong> rolling stock, and are the<br />

largest and best works <strong>of</strong> the kind in the<br />

Colonies. The erection <strong>of</strong> these works has


necessarily created population, and now<br />

numbers <strong>of</strong> workmen's houses are fast being<br />

put up. There are also in the vicinity other<br />

important works-Ritchie's <strong>Railway</strong> Stock<br />

Works, Thompson, Maxwell & Co.'s fellmongery,<br />

Messrs. Bergin's tweed manufactory,<br />

meat-preserving works, and numer~us<br />

brickworks. A platform has also been established,<br />

denominated Clyde.<br />

Granville Station, 13 miles; 32 feet<br />

above sea-level.-'I 1 his Junction is 1 mile<br />

from the Parramatta Station, and is a place<br />

which owed its existence originally to the<br />

Rail ways. Here the Southern Main Branch<br />

joins the Western Trunk Line; the Trunk<br />

Line itself turning to the N.W., to go through<br />

the old town <strong>of</strong> Parramatta. The suburban<br />

trains go past the Junction into the town <strong>of</strong><br />

Parramatta, and stop there/ but in all other<br />

trains there is a change here for passengers<br />

or goods destined to go South. The suburban<br />

trains, <strong>of</strong> course, travel more slowly than<br />

the other trains, but the usual time for the<br />

journey between Sydney and Granville is<br />

reckoned to be rather more than half an hour.<br />

Through the establishment <strong>of</strong> the works<br />

in its vicinity Granville is rapidly rising to<br />

be a place <strong>of</strong> some importance, and has been<br />

incorporated.<br />


In 1881, Parliament approved <strong>of</strong> the<br />

extension <strong>of</strong> the <strong>Railway</strong> to the lllawarra<br />

district, the line approved <strong>of</strong> running almost<br />

parallel with the coast. The <strong>Railway</strong> was<br />

soon afterwards commenced, and in 1884 the<br />

first section viz; from Sydney to Hurstville,<br />

10 miles, was thrown open for pnblic traffic.<br />

Other sections <strong>of</strong> the line are in progress<br />

but it will be 1888 before the wholo is<br />

finished. The route traversed is one <strong>of</strong> tlie<br />

deepest interest both on account <strong>of</strong> the<br />

magnificent scenery passed through, and<br />

for the extensive mineral resources it will<br />

develope. In regard to scenery there is first,<br />

the view at Como on the George's River,<br />

the <strong>Railway</strong> crossing the river by a handsome<br />

iron bridge <strong>of</strong> 900 feet in length. The<br />

crossing is at a spot where two rocky promontories<br />

approach each other, but on either side<br />

the river widens into broad reaches, and from<br />

the bridge a magnificent view is obtained, on<br />

the east <strong>of</strong> a long stretch <strong>of</strong> river, the banks<br />

rising in many parts abruptly from the water,<br />

while in other places the river is bounded<br />

by sandy bays ; on the west the mouth <strong>of</strong><br />

a tributary stream is first discernible at a<br />

sharp bend <strong>of</strong> the river, which a little further<br />

on appears as if shut in by the rugged hills<br />

that close upon it. Beyond Como the line<br />

touches the National Park <strong>of</strong> the Colony,<br />

a magnificent heritage <strong>of</strong> some 36,000 :wrcs,<br />

boasting an excellent port, a river, and glens<br />

that vie, in regard to scenic beauty, with<br />

a.nything in the world. There arc also the<br />

Bulli and the Il1awarra districts, which<br />

are admittedly the natural gardens <strong>of</strong> the<br />

Colony, while they possess splendid mineral<br />

resources, even now largely worked, and a<br />

large area <strong>of</strong> cultivated Janel. ·<br />

Returning to the opened portion <strong>of</strong> the<br />

Illawarra <strong>Railway</strong> it may be mentioned ,that<br />

the line branches from the Main <strong>Railway</strong> at<br />

Eveleigh, and the first station reached is<br />

Erskinville, one mile from Sydney. This<br />

proves <strong>of</strong> great convenience to a large<br />

body <strong>of</strong> workmen who have homes in the<br />

vicinity.<br />

St. Peters Station, 2 miles ; 35 feet<br />

above sea-level-St. Peters proper is a<br />

municipality touching the adjacent boroughs<br />

<strong>of</strong> Alexandria, Newtown, and Marrickville.<br />

The municipal population <strong>of</strong> the borough,<br />

which was proclaimed in 1871, is 778 and<br />

the annual value <strong>of</strong> property, £24,576. St.<br />

Peters boasts <strong>of</strong> two Post Offices, a Telegraph<br />

Office, Money Order and Savings' Bank, six<br />

hotels, five places <strong>of</strong> public worship, two<br />

schools, and a private Lunatic Asylum. St.<br />

Peter's is the centre <strong>of</strong> the brickmaking in-

~<br />


dustry and to the left nearing the station may<br />

be seen numerous kilns bespeaking the extent<br />

<strong>of</strong> the works carried on.<br />

Marrickville, 3 miles ; 13 feet above<br />

sea-level.-The principal features <strong>of</strong> this<br />

not very attractive Suburb are market gardens<br />

and brickvards. To the west lies the more<br />


(/J<br />

#" or L,fh 0.8G. /9<br />

GuIDEMAP<br />

shewing<br />



The part open to 30~h June <strong>1886</strong> ._--.. __ .. -_~,~<br />

1<br />

\<br />

and- -the ·;-<br />

N AJ JO NAL PARK '<br />


New South Wales<br />

/'.;rh Bound,Jr!J slu:wn thus ·--·--·<br />

IILOO<br />




11.ANOWICK<br />

BOTANY<br />

Pt:-flfNu11sr<br />

HCICNT<br />

1;<br />

,J,'<br />

,;:~~<br />

j<br />

i: ..,<br />

t:::,.r; : {"~1,~<br />

,,, ............ ----~-,;.;1r.......... J ... ,1'<br />

Ii<br />

,, ,.<br />

1.Y<br />

Scale 2 lr1iles t.o Or.e Inch<br />

, z


magnificent bridge which spans George's<br />

River. There area Public School, Post Office,<br />

Branch <strong>of</strong> Bank <strong>of</strong> Australasia, and two hotels<br />

here, while the residential population is rapidly<br />

increasing. Between Kogarah and Hurstville<br />

the line rises 150 feet, the latter station<br />

commanding an extensive view over Botany,<br />

while the white sands <strong>of</strong> Cronulla Beach are<br />

seen glistening to the eastward. George's<br />

River is two miles from Hurstville Station.<br />

Como, 13 miles ; 50 feet above sealevel.<br />

-After leaving Hurstville, the line<br />

passes through a locality which is commencing<br />

to show the benefit <strong>of</strong> railway extension,<br />

as numerous substantial dwellings have been<br />

or are being erected ; and to provide for the<br />

people in the neighbourhood, a platform is<br />

now being erected at Penhurst, about one<br />

mile from H urstville. Between this and<br />

Como there are few signs <strong>of</strong> settlement, and<br />

the land stands in its natural state ; provision<br />

has, however, been made for a platform<br />

at Oatley's, midway between Penhurst and<br />

Como. Shortly after passing Oatley's some<br />

pretty glens are seen, the country becoming<br />

more broken, sloping to the river, and the<br />

shrubs and trees more varied. Soon the<br />

river is seen gleaming through the trees, and<br />

the train speeds on, bringing the traveller to<br />

the river, which is crossed by a handsome,<br />

iron-lattice bridge <strong>of</strong> 900 feet in length.<br />

The view from the carriage is a very fine<br />

one, the river below and above the bridge<br />

being a majestic stream <strong>of</strong>fering a long,<br />

straight course, which will no doubt, in time,<br />

be the scene <strong>of</strong> many aquatic contests. On<br />

either side the river brP-aks into many miniature<br />

bays and picturesque woodlands, while<br />

to the right may be seen the junction <strong>of</strong> the<br />

W oronora with the main river, this tributary<br />

running for many miles back, in places parallel<br />

with the railway. Como is situated on<br />

the banks <strong>of</strong> the main stream, near the<br />

junction, and the land here is the property<br />

<strong>of</strong> the Holt-Sutherland Company. The owners<br />

have done much to make the surroundings<br />

pleasant, and it is now a favourite pleasure<br />

resort, being within such easy reach <strong>of</strong><br />

Sydney. Boats are always obtainable, and<br />

fish are plentiful, and excellent picnicking and<br />

camping grounds are available.<br />

Sutherland Station, 15 miles ; 360<br />

feet above sea-level- At about }-mile<br />

from Como Station the line turns southeasterly,<br />

bringing again into view that<br />

excellent example <strong>of</strong> engineering work, the<br />

Como railway-bridge, and the enchanting<br />

scenery <strong>of</strong> the bays and inlets <strong>of</strong> George's<br />

River. The line then proceeds · southerly,<br />

continuing up a steep incline <strong>of</strong> 1 in 40 till<br />

Sutherland is reached; and here the line first<br />

touches the National Park. It contains an<br />

area <strong>of</strong> 36,300 acres, and extends along the<br />

main Illawarra railway-line from within 200<br />

yards <strong>of</strong> Sutherland Station to the range 800<br />

feet above sea-level, bounding the southerly<br />

watershed <strong>of</strong> Waterfall Creek, and 800 yards<br />

beyond Waterfall station, 24J miles from<br />

Sydney. The railway-stations within the<br />

park upon the main line are Heathcote, 630<br />

feet above sea-level at 20 miles, and Waterfall,<br />

730 feet above sea-level at 24 miles from<br />

Sydney. The situation <strong>of</strong> the National Park<br />

relatively with Sydney, Botany, &c., is shown<br />

upon the map in appendix. The Park has<br />

7} miles frontage to the ocean (including a<br />

boat-harbour at W attamolla, and inlets with<br />

ocean beaches at Marley Beach, Little Marley<br />

Beach, Curracurrong, and Garie) and 4 miles<br />

frontage to the southerly side <strong>of</strong> Port Hacking<br />

River. Within the park, Port Hacking<br />

River flows for 9! miles, including 5! miles<br />

navigable for boats, namely, 4 miles fresh<br />

water above the dam at Audley, and l!<br />

miles salt water below that dam. Kangaroo<br />

Creek, fresh water, flows into Port<br />

Hacking River at Audley, and is similarly<br />

navigable for 1 i mile.<br />

The land in the National Park rises from<br />

sea-level to table-lands, at altitudes varying<br />

from about 350 feet to over 800 feet, and<br />

from which excellent and extensive views are<br />

from many points observable. The tablelands<br />

are partly fair land, and partly barren<br />

stony heaths. The table-lands are generally<br />

separated by deep valleys.<br />

The valleys <strong>of</strong> the principal watercourses,<br />

notably at Port Hacking River and Bola<br />

Creek to a large extent abound in rich<br />

foliage, including cabbage-tree and bangalo<br />

palms, tree-ferns, christmas, myrtle, and<br />

other handsome shrubs, numerous well grown<br />

black-butt, woolly-butt, turpentine, and<br />

other noble forest-timber trees rising, at the

j<br />


southerly and south-easterly part, above the<br />

confluence <strong>of</strong> Bola Creek with Port Hacking<br />

River, to heights up to nearly 200 feet, and<br />

bordering adjacent beautiful streams, having<br />

occasionally long reaches <strong>of</strong> deep and shaded<br />

fresh water.<br />

Principal features in the :Park are Port<br />

Hacking River and Kangaroo Greek, each<br />

vastly improved by works instituted by the<br />

park trustees, and carried out under their<br />

directions. One important and very necessary<br />

improvement effected is the removal<br />

<strong>of</strong> thousands <strong>of</strong> tons <strong>of</strong> fallen timber and<br />

detached rocks from the streams. Prior to<br />

such improvements, boat-navigation <strong>of</strong> the<br />

most beautiful parts was very difficult,<br />

except at high tide, and impossible at low<br />

tide. Now, as the result <strong>of</strong> the removal <strong>of</strong><br />

obstructions and construction <strong>of</strong> the dam<br />

near Audley, a long length <strong>of</strong> the river and<br />

Kangaroo Creek are 11t all times navigable<br />

for very large boats and small steam-launches.<br />

Bola Creek, an important confluent. <strong>of</strong><br />

Port Hacking River, South-west Arm Creek,<br />

and Cabbage-tree Creek, each will repay<br />

inspection, Bola Creek on account <strong>of</strong> the<br />

richness <strong>of</strong> the foliage and the other creeks,<br />

mainly owing to the beautiful, bold, and<br />

varied scenery. Further detailed information<br />

will be found under the headings, L<strong>of</strong>tus,<br />

Heathcote, and Vl aterfall Stations.<br />

In the park, within}-mile east <strong>of</strong> Sutherland<br />

Station, a grand, extensive, and very beautiful<br />

view <strong>of</strong> the waters and valley <strong>of</strong> W oronora<br />

River is visible, and <strong>of</strong> the land as far as<br />

Peakhurst Heights. Standing at the easterly<br />

margin <strong>of</strong> the gorge, 300 feet above, and not<br />

m:)re than 400 yards distant from the river<br />

at its confluence with Forbes Creek, the<br />

spectator cannot fail to be pleased with the<br />

prospect. If time permits, the walk should<br />

be continueJ to the confluence <strong>of</strong> Forbes<br />

Creek, where there are excellent bathing<br />

places ; the water (salt) clear as crystal,<br />

shallow or deep as may be desired, with<br />

good diving and landing places.<br />

L<strong>of</strong>tus 17} miles; 390 feet above sealevel.-At<br />

1 i mile beyond Sutherland, a<br />

branch line leaves the main line and proceeds<br />

south-easterly, for l} mile, over the<br />

clear area <strong>of</strong> 220 acres recently (April, <strong>1886</strong>)<br />

used as the military encampment and review<br />

ground, and from which very beautiful views<br />

are obtained <strong>of</strong> Redfern, Randwick, Botany<br />

Bay, Captain Cook's landing place, La Perouse,<br />

the Ocean, Cronulla Beach, Jibbon<br />

Beach at Port Hacking. The branch line<br />

terminates at L<strong>of</strong>tus Station, 17 ! miles from<br />

Sydney, 390 feet above sea-level. At this<br />

place a hotel has been erected, now kept by<br />

Mr. Sebastian Hodge.<br />

Before proceedi1{g to the river, it will<br />

well repay the visitor to walk easterly about<br />

-i-mile along the summit or range, between<br />

Port Racking River and Temptation Creek.<br />

The views therefrom <strong>of</strong> the river and ocean<br />

are superior, and looking back, the large<br />

cleared area intersected by the branch railway<br />

line, and bounded upon the north-west<br />

by the main railway line and the southwesterly-the<br />

upper side-by scrub and<br />

forests presents decidedly an effective picture.<br />

Returning to the vicinity <strong>of</strong> L<strong>of</strong>tus Heights,<br />

the visitor should next proceed to the river<br />

by the zigzag pathway laid out for the convenience<br />

<strong>of</strong> pedestrians and equestrians.<br />

Upon reaching the river, the use <strong>of</strong> a<br />

boat should be obtained if the visitor desires<br />

sport with a fishing-line upon the salt<br />

water, or to enjoy an exploration <strong>of</strong> the<br />

many pretty bends and inlets <strong>of</strong> the river<br />

and port. As there are several shallow fiats<br />

at this part, it is well to look to the tide, as<br />

transit with the tide is naturally more expeditious,<br />

and at very low tides the difficulties in<br />

rowing are very largely increased. A -!--mile<br />

below the zigzag, upon the left-hand side <strong>of</strong><br />

the river, a rocky precipice, prettily marked<br />

with ferns, mosses, &c., rises upwards <strong>of</strong> 200<br />

feet, and presents a striking appearance. A<br />

mile lower down and opposite Mangrove<br />

Creek-a pretty little inlet-is a remarkably<br />

hollow rock jutting into the stream, and<br />

known as Swallow Rock. One mile still<br />

further down, and most charmingly situated,<br />

opposite Mangrove Island-a pretty isletis<br />

a substantial hut known as Fountain<br />

Cottage, where a Park Ranger resides upon<br />

the National Park, in the midst <strong>of</strong> the<br />

deer park. Upon the right-hand side <strong>of</strong><br />

the river, 100 yards southerly from the<br />

cottage, a fountain gushes out <strong>of</strong> the rock<br />

into a miniature bay; boats can readily<br />

come alongside the fountain, and the pure,<br />

fresh water is easily obtained without the


necessity <strong>of</strong> landing. The fountain and<br />

cottage are within the deer park, upon which<br />

are running and thriving a number <strong>of</strong> deera<br />

donation from the trustees <strong>of</strong> the Parramatta<br />

Park. The deer park has a waterfrontage<br />

<strong>of</strong> nearly 2 miles, and contains 135<br />

acres, in the main well grassed, with a never<br />

failing supply <strong>of</strong> fresh water. In the positions<br />

indicated upon the map, and opposite the<br />

National Park, are the extensive inlets known<br />

as North-west Arm, Gymea, Ewey, Burranear,<br />

and Gunnamatta Bays, and within the<br />

boundaries <strong>of</strong> the park are the South-west<br />

Arm and the charming inlet Cabbage-tree<br />

Creek; the latter can, however, only be<br />

entered by boat for about an hour before or<br />

an hour after high tide, as there is a sandshoal<br />

at the entrance. Persons who mn,y<br />

be able to spare the time are, however,<br />

strongly advised to watch the opportunity<br />

and row up the creek to the head <strong>of</strong> boatnavigation,<br />

lf mile-the scenery is varied<br />

and beautiful. After proceeding up a<br />

shallow channel f-mile, the visitor will be<br />

agreeably surprised by suddenly coming into<br />

a grand basin, nearly circular and about 400<br />

yards in diameter ; then the creek narrows<br />

and is bordered by varied foliage, including<br />

a few tree-ferns and some small, elegant<br />

cabbage-tree palms. Half a mile northwesterly<br />

from the entrance <strong>of</strong> Cabbage-tree<br />

Creek is Port Hacking sand-spit, about 600<br />

yards long, and which adds effect to the<br />

scenery, especially when viewed from the<br />

water on a bright day. Half a mile easterly,<br />

beyond the entrance <strong>of</strong> Cabbage-tree Creek,<br />

Mr. Simpson's accommodation house, "Tyreal<br />

House," is reached; next, and just beyond<br />

that commanding rise, Cabbage-tree Point,<br />

is the Yarmouth Estate, upon which is<br />

erected the comfortable bungalow <strong>of</strong> W. W.<br />

Richardson, Esq. On the frontage in this<br />

estate is an excellent beach <strong>of</strong> hard, clear,<br />

white sand. One mile further easterly is<br />

Port Hacking Point. At the entrance to<br />

Port Hacking, before reaching this point,<br />

there is another beautiful sand-shore known<br />

as Jibbon Beach, upon the frontage <strong>of</strong> the<br />

Government village reserve <strong>of</strong> 500 acres.<br />

Points <strong>of</strong> Interest along the Coast.­<br />

About 3} miles southerly from Port Hacking<br />

Point there is a Government reserve having<br />

frontage to the ocean at Marley Beach. Partly<br />

within this reserve and partly upon the<br />

National Park is a fine lagoon or lakelet,<br />

formerly a favourite resort for wild duck and<br />

other game; and as shooting is prohibited<br />

upon the park, game should ultimately<br />

again become plentiful in the neighbourhood.<br />

Half a mile southerly is Little Marley, a<br />

small ocean-beach. About lf mile further<br />

south-westerly, or 5! miles from Port Hacking<br />

Point, the pretty boat-harbour and good<br />

fishing-grounds <strong>of</strong> "\V attamolla are reached.<br />

"Within !-mile <strong>of</strong> W attamolla, still southwesrerly,<br />

there is the ocean inlet <strong>of</strong> Curracurrang,<br />

and at the south-eastern corner <strong>of</strong><br />

the park, and extending for !-mile northerly<br />

therefrom, is the beautiful ocean-beach Garie.<br />

It is :fittingly backed by charming valleys,<br />

bedecked with cabbage-tree palms, tree-ferns,<br />

myrtles, &c. Garie beach, which adjoins Mr.<br />

Collaery's Garie Estate, is distant in a direct<br />

line 9 miles from Port Hacking Point, 10<br />

miles by road from Simpson's "Tyreal House"<br />

or from the Spit, and 8 miles by road from<br />

Audley (National Park camp). At frequent<br />

intervals the views from those roads, which<br />

are generally along the summits <strong>of</strong> ranges<br />

which intersect the park, splendid and extensive<br />

views are visible.<br />

The beautiful bays <strong>of</strong> Port Hacking, Cronulla<br />

Beach, Botany Bay, the Ocean, Bulgo<br />

Mountain, &c., are seen to advantage.<br />

Starting again from the foot <strong>of</strong> the zigzag<br />

path below L<strong>of</strong>tus Station, the visitor may<br />

now (as a result <strong>of</strong> the judicious improvements<br />

effected under tho direction <strong>of</strong> the park<br />

trustees, including the construction <strong>of</strong> the<br />

dam at Audley, Lady Carrington Road, &c.,<br />

and clearing Port Hacking River and Kangaroo<br />

Creek <strong>of</strong> snags ( fallen timber) and<br />

detached rocks formerly in the channels)<br />

comfortably inspect the beautiful foliage, landand<br />

water- scapes <strong>of</strong> the valleys <strong>of</strong> these<br />

streams, and <strong>of</strong> Bola Creek, &c., either upon<br />

foot or riding, driving, or for over 5 miles by<br />

boat-the latter, perhaps, the most enjoyable<br />

means so far as can be availed <strong>of</strong>. The dam,<br />

300 feet across, solidly constructed <strong>of</strong> clay,<br />

stone, &c., with a roadway 33 feet wide on<br />

top, is a great advantage; and its successful<br />

construction, with the result <strong>of</strong> converting<br />

insignificant, salt-water streams, which<br />

could not be rowed over in the smallest boats

- ~ .<br />


at low tide, practically into a charming freshwater<br />

lake, 5} miles in length, and continu- ·<br />

ously navigable at all times by the largest<br />

boats or by small steam-launches, is an<br />

achievement in respect <strong>of</strong> which the park<br />

trustees may well be congratulated. Vegebtion<br />

characteristic <strong>of</strong> fresh-water rivers is<br />

now thriving, and will in the future aflord<br />

fine cover for game, which will increase in<br />

number, as shooting in the park is strictly<br />

prohibited. The trmitees have caused to be<br />

introduced to the river trout and English<br />

perch, obtained from Lake Wendorure, at<br />

Ballarat, thanks to the kindness <strong>of</strong> the<br />

municipal authorities <strong>of</strong> that city.<br />

Three hundred yards above the dam, at<br />

the confluence <strong>of</strong> Kangaroo Creek with the<br />

Port Hacking River, Audley, the main<br />

National Park camp, is charmingly situated,<br />

and is well worthy <strong>of</strong> a visit. When in the<br />

vicinity <strong>of</strong> the main camp, the visitor should<br />

proceed about 200 yards up the hill, towards<br />

L<strong>of</strong>tus, and at a rocky pass, known as<br />

" The Demon's Gate," inspect a very remarkable,<br />

hollow sandstone-rock, which, externally,<br />

has an appearance <strong>of</strong> solidity, but<br />

internally is honeycombed in a marvellous<br />

manner. This hollow rock formed an excellent,<br />

dry, gunpowder-and-fuse store when the adjacent<br />

park-roads were under formation.<br />

At present, the most comfortable way <strong>of</strong><br />

exploring the navigable part <strong>of</strong> Kangaroo<br />

Creek is by boat ; the bordering foliage<br />

<strong>of</strong> this creek is not so varied as that on the<br />

banks <strong>of</strong> the main river. There are, however,<br />

on its banks num.erous specimens <strong>of</strong> handsome<br />

pine-trees, christmas-bush, &c., which<br />

present a pretty appearance. The many<br />

beauties <strong>of</strong> Port Hacking River above the<br />

dam and its immediate surroundings may be<br />

seen to equal advantage from the road as<br />

from a boat ; the road is at a level generally<br />

<strong>of</strong> about 20 feet above the water. It may<br />

not be amiss here to describe the road along<br />

the right, back <strong>of</strong> Port Hacking River, from<br />

the dam to the southernmost boundary <strong>of</strong> the<br />

park. This road is named Lady Carrington<br />

Road.<br />

Proceeding southerly from the dam, the<br />

road which forms a pretty walk or drive,<br />

skirts the easterly margin <strong>of</strong> a fine flat <strong>of</strong><br />

about 10 aeres; to the left, the newly constructed<br />

road towards the deer park and<br />

Garie branches <strong>of</strong>f. At half a mile from the<br />

dam, on Lady Carrington Road, two beautiful<br />

canopies <strong>of</strong> wide-spreading tree ferns<br />

upon the second flat are passed.<br />

At i-mile this road passes under . thB<br />

picturesque cliff named Gibraltar, and 100<br />

yards further southerly Mullion (Eagle)<br />

Brook is crossed. In the early summer time<br />

the valley <strong>of</strong> this small brook usually appears<br />

gay with torch-lily plants in flower, a truly<br />

striking spectacle.<br />

At vVarrul (Bee) Brook, about 1 mile from<br />

the dam, tall christmas-bushes 30 feet high<br />

are in view, and in some seasons the topmos3<br />

branches bend over nearly to the ground with<br />

the weight <strong>of</strong> the blossoms. At this part<br />

fine views are presented <strong>of</strong> the luxuriant flat<br />

upon the opposite side <strong>of</strong> the river, and from<br />

which are growing cabbage-tree palms, tree<br />

ferns, vines, numerous mimosre, myrtle, and<br />

several specimens <strong>of</strong> the specially beautiful<br />

plant or small tree, aralia panax. Throughout<br />

the road beautiful glimpses <strong>of</strong> the river<br />

are frequently seen.<br />

Two miles from the dam, Karoga (White<br />

Crane) Brook, opposite a charmingly picturesque<br />

curve in the river, is reached. The<br />

road then traverses a pretty . jungle at the<br />

base <strong>of</strong> a fine cliff, and at 2-l- miles the river<br />

again comes into view, with some splendid<br />

foliage on each bank. Upon the left bank the<br />

vista is especially fin~. The cabbage-palms<br />

at this part are very beautiful; the dense,<br />

glossy vines, with occasional tree ferns, the<br />

lillypilly plants, and turpentine trees showing<br />

in becoming contrast. At 3} miles Birumba<br />

(Plover) Brook is attained. Opposite, across<br />

the river, is the patch <strong>of</strong> rich brush-land<br />

known as the Lower Peach Trees, where forty<br />

years back some sawyers planted some peach<br />

seeds, and for many years afterwards fine<br />

peach-trees :flourished ; but nearly all have<br />

<strong>of</strong> late been destroyed by bush-fires. At<br />

3f miles distant the locality <strong>of</strong> the Upper<br />

Peach Trees is reached. This also was a<br />

sawyer's camp. At Dumbul (Crow) Brook,<br />

4 miles southerly from the dam, the river<br />

Lends to the south-west, and at 4f miles<br />

from the dam, in the dense brush upon the<br />

left-hand side <strong>of</strong> the river, and seen to<br />

advantage from Lady Carrington Road, is<br />

perhaps the finest and most varied foliage<br />

within 100 miles from Sydney. The tall


forest-trees, upwards <strong>of</strong> 100 feet in height,<br />

are covered with beautiful vines, some <strong>of</strong><br />

which bear immense numbers <strong>of</strong> creamcoloured<br />

flowers towards the end <strong>of</strong> September.<br />

Intermixed are magnificent specimens <strong>of</strong><br />

Bangalo palms (seaforthia elegans), cabbagepalms,<br />

birds-nest ferns, tree ferns, several<br />

specimens <strong>of</strong> aralia panax, with a number<br />

<strong>of</strong> lillypilly, myrtle, and mimosa bushes.<br />

Through the vines, marvellously long native<br />

canes are in places growing to the height <strong>of</strong><br />

about 100 feet, and the spectacle is simply<br />

entrancing.<br />

For some distance further along the road<br />

the scenery, except at the creeks, which are<br />

all crossed by extra-strong, well constructed<br />

bridges, is not specially interesting until<br />

Polona (Hawk) Brook, at 5-!- miles is reached.<br />

At the easterly side <strong>of</strong> the road, a few yards<br />

from the creek, stands a handsome, majestic,<br />

turpentine tree, upright as an arrow, and<br />

fully 120 feet high. Between Polona Brook<br />

and Bola Creek Bridge, the latter 6 miles<br />

from the dam, the foliage immediately adjoi1:ing<br />

each side <strong>of</strong> the road is singularly<br />

varied; tree ferns, and cabbage-tree ferns are<br />

very numerous, and occasional specimens <strong>of</strong><br />

aralia panax come into view, and at all times<br />

the perfume from the shrubs and flowers at<br />

this place is very marked and pleasant.<br />

Upon each side <strong>of</strong> Bola. Creek there are<br />

majestic forest-trees, principally blackbutt<br />

and turpentine. Midway between Polona<br />

Brook and Bola Creek, Lady Carrington<br />

Road diverts from the river bank, and after<br />

crossing Bola Creek over an admirably constructed<br />

timber bridge <strong>of</strong> great strength,<br />

built mainly <strong>of</strong> turpentine piles and girders,<br />

deeply embedded, mortised, and fixed into<br />

the hard, smooth rock at creek bed. The<br />

road still diverts from Port Hacking river,<br />

and keeps for half a mile under the easterly<br />

side <strong>of</strong> the isolated high hill known as the<br />

Island. At 6-l- miles, the crest <strong>of</strong> the saddle<br />

between the Island and the range dividing<br />

the waters at Bola Creek from Port Hacking<br />

River is crossed, and the road by an easy grade<br />

again decends southerly towards that river.<br />

At 6! miles is marked, to branch to the<br />

west, a line for a road to cross Port Hacking<br />

River, and to lead to Waterfall Station. At<br />

7 f miles from the dam, Lady Carrington<br />

Road crosses by a substantial bridge a lovely<br />

glen, fitly named. Palm Creek from the<br />

numerous cabbage-palms growing there.<br />

·within 100 yards southerly from the bridge,<br />

between the road and the river, is an<br />

unusually fine red-cedar tree, upwards <strong>of</strong> 70<br />

feet high. The red cedar is one <strong>of</strong> the few<br />

Australian trees which shed its leaves in the<br />

winter; and at 8} miles the southernmost<br />

boundary <strong>of</strong> the park is reached. Near the<br />

corner tree is a very fine blackbutt conspicuously<br />

marked 43 over N.P.R. This road<br />

will, probably, be continued by private enterprise<br />

through private lands until it reaches<br />

the Illawarra railway at about 29f miles<br />

from Sydney, near Otforcl, and about 41<br />

miles beyond the southernmost boundary <strong>of</strong><br />

the National Park.<br />

Heathcote, 630 feet above sea-level,<br />

20} miles.-Beyond the junction <strong>of</strong> the<br />

branch line the main Illawarra railway curves<br />

to the south-west, and proceeds in a direct<br />

line for 2! miles ; then a southerly course is<br />

takeni passing Messrs. Rowe & Smith's brickworks<br />

at 19! miles, and Mr. Riggison's<br />

bee-farm, Bottle Forest, at 20 miles, and<br />

Heathcote station is reached 20k miles from<br />

Sydney. The platform is a few yards easterly<br />

from the main road, where the park<br />

boundary joins Mr. Harber's estate. Half a<br />

mile further east, at the northerly side <strong>of</strong><br />

Still Creek, there is rich brush-land, partly<br />

upon the park and partly upon Bottle Forest<br />

freehold land. One mile north-easterly from<br />

the platform, upon a hill 700 feet above sealevel,<br />

excellent views are outained on clear<br />

days. The ocean and Port Hacking are<br />

visible from this hill-summit. Joining the<br />

westerl,y side <strong>of</strong> the main road, immediately<br />

opposite Heathcote Station, a Government<br />

village, to be known as the village <strong>of</strong> Heathcote,<br />

has recently been surveyed (May, <strong>1886</strong>)<br />

in suitable allotments, and extending northerly<br />

and southerly from Bottle Creek. About<br />

600 acres have been subdivided into 130<br />

suburban portions from about 2 to 10 acres.<br />

The lands surveyed and cleared (by the<br />

unemployed) are at altitudes from about 500<br />

to 700 feet above sea-level, and will form<br />

very healthy residential sites. Early in<br />

September next (<strong>1886</strong>) the allotments and<br />

portions "Vl'ill be <strong>of</strong>fered for sale at auction<br />

upon the ground.

- ~ .<br />


Waterfalls Station, 24 miles, the<br />

present terminus <strong>of</strong> the Illawarra <strong>Railway</strong>,<br />

730 feet above sea-level.-From<br />

Heathcote the line proceeds south-westerly for<br />

li mile to the railway water-tanks at 720 feet<br />

above; thence the direction is southerly to<br />

Waterfall Station at 24 miles 32 chains-the<br />

first crossing,at 23 miles,highest level 780feet,<br />

<strong>of</strong> the Illawarra railway. Direct west f-mile<br />

from Waterfall Station is erected the Trigonometrical<br />

Station, at the altitude <strong>of</strong> 880 feet<br />

above sea-level, upon the summit <strong>of</strong> Mount<br />

W estmacott, a most conspicuous land-mark.<br />

Between the railway station and that mountain<br />

a deep gorge intervenes, the base <strong>of</strong> which is<br />

about 600 feet below the Trigonometrical Station.<br />

·within the National Park, and immediately<br />

easterly from Waterfall Station, is a<br />

source <strong>of</strong> Waterfall Creek which, after running<br />

! -mile easterly, is joined by a northerly<br />

afiluent; thence it becomes a permanent brook<br />

with a succession <strong>of</strong> fine pools <strong>of</strong> the purest<br />

fresh water. One <strong>of</strong> these pools, at li mile<br />

from the railway, affords an excellent bathingplace<br />

with a clear, smooth, rocky bottom and<br />

a miniature sand-beach at the lower end.<br />

One mile further easterly the waterfalls are<br />

reached. The first, a sheer fall <strong>of</strong> 46 feet,<br />

and the second 111 feet. The scenery at<br />

this part is well worthy <strong>of</strong> inspection, and is<br />

<strong>of</strong> a bold and varied description. From the<br />

summit <strong>of</strong> the second fall an uninterrupted<br />

view <strong>of</strong> the excellent forest in the Valley<br />

Creek, and extending beyond Port Hacking<br />

River, is obtained. immediately below the<br />

falls the foliage is richly varied, comprising<br />

tree ferns, birds' -nest ferns, and other ferns,<br />

cabbage-tree palms, coach wood, and turpentine<br />

trees, with a few sassafras trees. Three<br />

quarters <strong>of</strong> a mile northerly from Waterfall<br />

Creek, upon each side <strong>of</strong> Port Hacking River,<br />

there is probably the finest forest within 100<br />

miles <strong>of</strong> Sydney. Within it are blackbutt<br />

trees attaining to the height <strong>of</strong> about 200<br />

feet, and turpentine trees np to 150 feet.<br />

To the waterfalls, and through the forest in<br />

the valley <strong>of</strong> the creek below, a line for a<br />

roadway has recently (June, <strong>1886</strong>) been<br />

marked upon the ground, to cross Port Hacking<br />

River and join Lady Carrington Road,<br />

about fmile north-easterly from Palm Creek<br />

bridge. This road will shortly be cleared,<br />

and doubtless will become a favourite resort<br />

<strong>of</strong> pedestrians or horsemen.<br />


p ARRAMATTA.<br />

Parramatta Station, 14 miles; 49 feet<br />

above sea-level.-The traveller proceeding<br />

from the Granville to the Parramatta<br />

Station, first (by a sharp turn and deep<br />

cutting) passe:::; through a short hilly piece<br />

<strong>of</strong> bush country, and then he has before him<br />

a charming view <strong>of</strong> Parramatta, with its<br />

many fine churches and other public buildings.<br />

Parramatta* (originally called "Rose<br />

Hill"), situated at the head <strong>of</strong> the navigation<br />

<strong>of</strong> Parramatta River, communicating<br />

directly with the waters <strong>of</strong> Port Jackson,<br />

is one <strong>of</strong> the oldest towns in the Colony.<br />

Indeed it was once, by all accounts, and<br />

curiously enough, intended for the capital,<br />

* Parramatta is connected with Sydney by<br />

steamers, plying to and fro daily on the Parramatta<br />

River. By these steamers, Subiaco, Newington,<br />

Ermington, Kissing Point or Ryde, Gladesville,<br />

Villa Maria, Hunter's Hill, Biloela, Fitzroy Dock,<br />

and other places on the said river (or rather estuary)<br />

may be most conveniently reached,<br />

or at least the chief seat <strong>of</strong> Government;<br />

in pro<strong>of</strong> <strong>of</strong> which it is alleged that St.<br />

John's Church was (somewhat pretentiously<br />

for those early days) built with its two<br />

towers-exactly copied from the "Reculvers"<br />

in Kent-to serve for a Cathedral. For<br />

many years the Governors continued to<br />

reside here, and the town flourished as the<br />

second place in the Colony. Then, for an<br />

interval, it not only made no progress,<br />

but actually appeared to be hastening to<br />

decay. The <strong>Railway</strong>, however (which is<br />

said to have destroyed some <strong>of</strong> the old<br />

inland towns) has most certainly given an<br />

invigorating impetus to the existence <strong>of</strong><br />

Parramatta; for it is now, year by year,<br />

extending, and becoming more and more a<br />

distant suburb (as it were) <strong>of</strong> our sea-side<br />

metropolis. Some fine houses have now<br />

been built near the <strong>Railway</strong> Station. The<br />

present population <strong>of</strong> Parramatta is about<br />

8,500 persons. It supports three local news-


papers (" The Cumberland Merwry," "The<br />

Independent," and "1'he Ouniberland Tirnes").<br />

There are numerous Government and charitable<br />

institutions at Parramatta, such as the<br />

Gaol, the Orphan Schools, the Lunatic and<br />

Benevolent Asylums, &c., &c. There are<br />

several good hotels. There are also in Parramatta<br />

a Free Public Library, a flourishing<br />

Mechanics' Institute, three Public Schools,<br />

and six Churches. The King's School, near<br />

Parramatta Bridge, was long the only grammar<br />

school in the Colony, and is still a most<br />

useful scholastic institution; revived <strong>of</strong> late<br />

years by the Rev. G. F. Macarthur. The<br />

old Government Domain, which is one <strong>of</strong> the<br />

prettiest in the Colony, is now utilized a a<br />

beautiful park, belonging to the townspeople.<br />

Mr. Purchase's and .Mr. Sheather's nurseries<br />

are also well worthv <strong>of</strong> a visit. Parramatta<br />

has been an incorporated municipality since<br />

the year 1861. The villages and places<br />

which are more or less connected with this<br />

town are--Castle Hill, Dural, Enfield, Field <strong>of</strong><br />

Mars, Gannon's Forest, Guildford, Hornsby,<br />

Liberty Plains, Pennant Hills, and Prospect.<br />

Seven Hills Station, 20 miles; 113 feet<br />

above sea-level.-After leaving the Parramatta<br />

Station the traveller in the " down<br />

train" (that is the train proceeding to the<br />

westward) passes over a viaduct, and along<br />

an embankment, from which there is a fine<br />

view <strong>of</strong> the town and <strong>of</strong> the neighbouring<br />

country to the north <strong>of</strong> it. The picturesque<br />

old Ge01·gian brick Parsonage may then be<br />

noticed, yet standing on the hills to the left ;<br />

whilst nearer still, lying only a few yards<br />

from the Railroad, the old Burial-ground<br />

claims a passing glance, as the resting-place<br />

<strong>of</strong> that well-beloved "stainless patriot" Robert<br />

Campbell, and <strong>of</strong> other historical celebrities.<br />

Further on, and to the right, a glimpse is<br />

next caught <strong>of</strong> the ci-devant Government<br />

House, with the adjacent undulating glades,<br />

gardens, and shrubberies <strong>of</strong> the Public Park<br />

-scenes <strong>of</strong> many a gay and festive event,<br />

and <strong>of</strong> some very sorrowful ones-the oaks,<br />

pines, and other choice trees, reviving pleasing<br />

recollections <strong>of</strong> a distant fatherland.<br />

Then comes a deep cutting, and the train<br />

sweeps past the site formerly occupied as<br />

the show place <strong>of</strong> the Australian Agricultural<br />

Association-when the yearly exhi-<br />

hitions <strong>of</strong> that body were more local than<br />

national ; chiefly confined to ploughing<br />

matches, and manifestations <strong>of</strong> cattle, horses,<br />

sheep, fowls, and dogs, and farmers' machinery.<br />

The country now becomes much<br />

more interesting, frequent orange groves <strong>of</strong><br />

dark green foliage, decked with "the golden<br />

fruit <strong>of</strong> the gardens <strong>of</strong> the Hesperides,"<br />

imparting a new and delightful charm to the<br />

beauty <strong>of</strong> an ever-changing landscape. In<br />

the centre <strong>of</strong> this district a platform called<br />

Toongabbie has been established. Well<br />

grassed apple-tree flats, with undulating and<br />

more open country, and farm-houses, gardens,<br />

and cottages succeed; until after a run <strong>of</strong><br />

6 miles from Parramatta the train stops for<br />

a moment, at the quiet little rural station<br />

<strong>of</strong> Seven Hil1s-a locality once, by early<br />

colonists (less ambitiously, and, after a comical<br />

outburst <strong>of</strong> vice-regal impatience, rather<br />

fcwetiously) designated as "Now here."<br />

Blacktown Station and Junction, 22<br />

miles; 183 feet above sea-level.-Two<br />

miles from the Seven Hills Station ( through<br />

a somewhat uninteresting but useful country)<br />

stands the station <strong>of</strong> Blacktown ; a locality<br />

owing its name to an institution which was<br />

unavailingly formed here many years ago by<br />

Governor Macquarie, for the education and<br />

civilization <strong>of</strong> the aborigines. In the<br />

country between Seven Hills and Blacktown,<br />

on either side <strong>of</strong> the road, numerous herds<br />

<strong>of</strong> cattle and flocks <strong>of</strong> sheep are usually to<br />

be seen, browsing in serene and blissful<br />

unconsciousness <strong>of</strong> their approaching fate;<br />

as though abattoirs were things that had no<br />

possible existence, and metropolitan butchers<br />

and their hungry city customers were<br />

nothing but nonentities. As you come<br />

along pretty bits <strong>of</strong> scenery may here and<br />

there be observed; open, partially wooded,<br />

hills-with occasional signs <strong>of</strong> cultivation,<br />

farms, ponds, orchards, and flats-appear to<br />

the right, and orange groves and pretty<br />

country residences are unfolded to the left.<br />

There is, however, nothing here calling for<br />

particular remark; except, perhaps, a quaint<br />

and unexpected piece <strong>of</strong> the Old Western<br />

Road, with its broken-down wayside inn,<br />

visible for just a moment, before the Railroad<br />

turns abruptly away to the right, so bringing<br />

the railway traveller to the Blacktown<br />



Station. At Blacktown there is a miniature<br />

terminus for the Richmond and Sydney subsidiary<br />

branch, which here joins on ~o the<br />

Western Trunk Line. Blacktown is at present<br />

a small place, chiefly depending on the <strong>Railway</strong>,<br />

with two or three stores and inns <strong>of</strong> a<br />

humble and unimportant character; but as<br />

land in the vicinity has recently been subdivided,<br />

and Blacktown forms the depot<br />

intended for goods going to the Prospect<br />

reservoir the place is rapidly waking up. As<br />

the train approaches the Blacktown Station<br />

you catch sight <strong>of</strong> a distant and limited view<br />

<strong>of</strong> the far-famed Blue Mountains.<br />

Rooty Hill Station, 25 miles ; 131 feet<br />

above sea-level.-After leaving the Blacktown<br />

station a lovely view <strong>of</strong> the Blue<br />

Mountains is disclosed to the right, peeping<br />

over the trees across a flat and uninteresting<br />

country. This tract, immediately adjoining<br />

the line, is but partially wooded, huts and cottages<br />

appearing occasionally, some with holdings<br />

and gardens, and some without. Before<br />

Rooty Hill is reached ( after an interval <strong>of</strong> 3<br />

miles) there is a grand outline prospect <strong>of</strong><br />

the Blue Mountains to the westward, across<br />

an open country, with the seat <strong>of</strong> Walter<br />

Lamb, Esq., in the distance. Large quantities<br />

<strong>of</strong> :firewood are hence despatched to Sydney.<br />

Through the instrumentality <strong>of</strong> that wellknown<br />

sportsman, Mr. Walter Lamb, a<br />

coursing ground has been established about l<br />

mile from the station, and at certain periods<br />

very successful coursing meetings, under tbe<br />

auspices <strong>of</strong> the Sydney Coursing Club, are held.<br />

St. Marys (formerly South Creek<br />

Station), 29 miles; 113 feet above sealevel.<br />

-The country on either side <strong>of</strong> the<br />

Railroad, after it paE'.ses by the Rooty Hill<br />

Station to the westward is, for the most<br />

part, open, flat, and poor. Here and there<br />

the line passes through the bush, but there<br />

are not many trees near it. Before arriving<br />

at the South Creek Station (which is 18 feet<br />

lower than Rooty Hill), the traveller may<br />

get another fine view <strong>of</strong> the Blue Mountain<br />

Range, which he is now approaching. St.<br />

Mary's Station is about 4 miles west <strong>of</strong> Rooty<br />

Hill, and about half a mile away to the north<br />

<strong>of</strong> St. Mary's-an old, pleasant, and prosperous<br />

village, on the Sydney and Penrith Road,<br />

chiefly dependent upon agricultural and<br />

grazing pursuits. Dairy farming, and wine<br />

making are also carried on. Large supplies<br />

<strong>of</strong> timber and firewood are likewise cut here,<br />

and forwarded by the line to Sydney, for use<br />

on the <strong>Railway</strong> and for sale. Tanning is<br />

largely carried on at this place, and a large<br />

number <strong>of</strong> bricks are also made. The principal<br />

hotAls are the "Commercial" and<br />

" Volunteer" kept by Messrs. Brynes and<br />

Cullen. Metropolitan sportsmen can <strong>of</strong>ten<br />

get a good day's shooting here, as hares, much<br />

to the annoyance <strong>of</strong> the farmers, are becoming-<br />

fairly numerous in the district. South<br />

Creek takes its name from a considerable<br />

tributary to the river Hawkesbury, into<br />

which it eventually flows near Windsor.<br />

Parkes Platform, 31 miles; about 100<br />

feet above sea-level.-After passing by the<br />

South Creek station a fine view <strong>of</strong> the Great<br />

Western Highlands is gained to the right <strong>of</strong><br />

the line and to the westward. There is then<br />

a flat partially wooded country for 2 miles<br />

until you arrive at the Parkes Platform and<br />

Siding, 3 miles from Penrith.<br />

Penrith Station, 34 miles ; 88 feet<br />

above sea-leve1.-Penrith, 12 miles west <strong>of</strong><br />

Blacktown, is a quaint old inland township,<br />

the last station reached by travellers in the<br />

so-called " down" trains before they begin to<br />

ascend the Blue Mountains. In the "coaching<br />

and bullock-driving days"-when the<br />

neighbouring river had to be crossed by<br />

vehicles in a punt-Penrith was a very bustling<br />

and flourishing place, and it appears<br />

sufficiently prosperous at present-certainly<br />

far from going back. It is surrounded by<br />

broad pasture lands, and alluvial plains, <strong>of</strong> a<br />

great extent and singular fertility; bounded<br />

westerly by the river N epean, soon to<br />

assume the better known name <strong>of</strong> the<br />

Hawkesbury. The town itself is a municipality,<br />

with ratable property reported to be<br />

<strong>of</strong> upwards <strong>of</strong> £120,000 value; the population<br />

<strong>of</strong> the township was in 1881 1,467 ; it<br />

has 45 miles <strong>of</strong> streets, roads, and lanes.<br />

There are four churches, belonging respectively<br />

to the Protestant Episcopalian, Roman


Catholic, Presbyterian, and Wesleyan Communions,<br />

and a fine Town Hall has recently been<br />

erected. The course <strong>of</strong> the N epean runs<br />

parallel to the town, at the distance <strong>of</strong> about<br />

a mile from the station, where it is crossed<br />

by a boldly designed and admirably constructed<br />

iron tubular bridge-supported by<br />

four huge piers <strong>of</strong> solid masonry, the two<br />

centre ones being 58 by 17 ! feet at their<br />

foundation, with an extreme height <strong>of</strong> 59<br />

feet. These piers are 186 feet apart. Altogether<br />

it is one <strong>of</strong> the finest works <strong>of</strong> the<br />

kind in the Oolony, and <strong>of</strong> itself worth going<br />

to Penrith to see. (See view <strong>of</strong> Nepectn.)<br />

5 miles to the south <strong>of</strong> the town the river<br />

flows down northerly through a tremendous<br />

gap in the hills ; and, the heights on either<br />

side being well-wooded, many charming effects<br />

are produced. The visitor will find good<br />

accommodation at Mr. Squire's private establishment,<br />

situated on the banks <strong>of</strong> the N epean.<br />

A steam launch is kept here, and by it the<br />

visitor will be enabled to take a trip up the<br />

river. The views <strong>of</strong> river scenery are<br />

unrivalled, and 12 miles from Penrith, near<br />

where the W arragamba flows into theN epean,<br />

you will reach the basin, an immense natural<br />

bath. The depth <strong>of</strong> the water in it has never<br />

yet been ascertained. A writer says, '' It<br />

would be difficult to conceive scenery more<br />

beautiful than that which characterises the<br />

junction <strong>of</strong> the N epean with the Warragamba.<br />

The Blue Mountains close in upon the rivers,<br />

while the latter winds round about all the<br />

points and corners as though loath to leave<br />

places so pleasant." There are several good<br />

inns in Penrith, one <strong>of</strong> these being not far<br />

from the station. Penrith is the place <strong>of</strong><br />

nomination for the N epean Electorate. The<br />

places near Penrith (besides those already<br />

mentioned as having been traversed by the<br />

line), are Mulgoa, Greendale, Regentsville,<br />

Luddenham, Bringelly, Castlereagh, and<br />

Emu.<br />

Emu Plains Station, 86 miles ; 87 feet<br />

above sea-level - The attention <strong>of</strong> the<br />

traveller by the train leaving Penrith for the<br />

mountains must ( even previous to his .arrival<br />

at the tubular bridge over the N epean) be<br />

agreeably occupied with the scenery before<br />

him to the westward, where he observes<br />

verdant plains, fringed in the distance by the<br />

winding edge <strong>of</strong> a rolling country, the grassy<br />

knolls <strong>of</strong> which are pleasingly dotted here<br />

and there with clumps <strong>of</strong> trees. Beyond this<br />

charming picture the majestic "Blue Mountains<br />

" rise abruptly, like a vast natural<br />

fortification, overgrown almost everywhere<br />

with sombre foliage, and extending for many<br />

miles from the south to the north towards<br />

Castlereagh, their base being washed by the<br />

N epean. ( See view <strong>of</strong> the Nepean-evening.)<br />

Along the broken face <strong>of</strong> this grand barrier,<br />

not cerulean here but dark, green, and grey,<br />

the <strong>Railway</strong> line may be seen winding upwards-past<br />

huge rocks and deep declivities,<br />

alternating with dense woods, the noble<br />

viaduct across Knapsack Gully being hence<br />

already distinguishable. The train sweeps<br />

noisily over the tnbular bridge above described<br />

; crosses the rich alluvial plain beyond<br />

the river and under cultivation-where grain,<br />

fruit, and vegetables appear to be the chief<br />

products-and at the distance <strong>of</strong> 2 miles from<br />

Penrith, quickly reaches the Emu Plains<br />

Station, where the first ridge <strong>of</strong> the mountain<br />

begins. This station commands a comprehensive<br />

view <strong>of</strong> the First Zigzag, by means<br />

<strong>of</strong> which the heights <strong>of</strong> Lapstone Hill are to<br />

be gained and passed. The immediate neighbourhood<br />

<strong>of</strong> the Emu Plains Station (having<br />

been successfully occupied as an agricultural<br />

settlement from the earliest day <strong>of</strong> the<br />

Colony) presents many pretty rural pictures<br />

<strong>of</strong> gardens, orchards, corn-fields, homesteads,<br />

and villages-assimilating, in many <strong>of</strong> its<br />

features, to portions <strong>of</strong> moorland scenery in<br />

the west <strong>of</strong> England.<br />

Lucasville Platform, 39 miles; about<br />

700 feet above sea-level.-Lucasville Platform-standing<br />

on the upper edge <strong>of</strong> the<br />

eastern face <strong>of</strong> the Blue Mountains, where<br />

the line turns <strong>of</strong>f to the westward-is merely<br />

a solitary spot at which the train stops when<br />

signalled for; but between it and the Emu<br />

Plains Station beneath there is a shifting<br />

series <strong>of</strong> panoramic views <strong>of</strong> all the lowland<br />

country in the county <strong>of</strong> Cumberland, such<br />

as for extent and beauty can hardly be surpassed.<br />

As you leave the Emu Plains Station<br />

and begin gradually to ascend the steep incline-away<br />

to the south towards Mu1goa,<br />

Greenda1e, and Luddenham-your eyes can<br />

first feast themselves for a moment on that


fair prospect in mid distance--the already<br />

mentioned Gorge <strong>of</strong> the N epean. Then, a<br />

few yards further on, as the train rises more<br />

slowlytowardsthe FirstZigzag,you arecarried<br />

past trees and woodland scenery to the left,<br />

with a deep gully (or "ghyll," as Wordsworth<br />

would have termed it) to the right; after<br />

which, "as from the stroke <strong>of</strong> an enchanter's<br />

wand," a wide and magnificent expanse <strong>of</strong><br />

level county, stretching away far below,<br />

bursts, in all its unexpected glory, upon your<br />

dazzled sight. In this great range <strong>of</strong> open<br />

plains-the extreme limits <strong>of</strong> which are faintly<br />

defined by the ethereal outlines <strong>of</strong> the light<br />

blue hills on the coast--the to,vn <strong>of</strong> Penrith<br />

(at the distance <strong>of</strong> 4 or 5 miles) is displayed<br />

to the greatest advantage, with its public<br />

buildings and churches on the other side <strong>of</strong><br />

the N epean. The winding course <strong>of</strong> this<br />

truly royal stream, stretching for miles and<br />

miles like a broad blue "garter ribbon," is<br />

seen traversing the westerly portion <strong>of</strong> this<br />

unequalled champaign, the land near to its<br />

banks being, for the most part, treeless/<br />

although a long thick belt <strong>of</strong> forest landmore<br />

or less enveloped in hazy atmospheric<br />

tints <strong>of</strong> grey, cobalt, or purple--is visible<br />

beyond the plains. All the nearer portion<br />

<strong>of</strong> the lowlands is either cultivated or laid<br />

out in bright verdant pastures, especially<br />

rom1d about Penrith, along the N epean, and<br />

to the north-eastward ; the open country<br />

being dotted here and there with villages,<br />

farms, homesteads, and orangeries-and intersected<br />

by narrow roads and picturesque<br />

remnants <strong>of</strong> forest. As you continue to rise,<br />

and shift from slope to slope <strong>of</strong> the " Zigzag,"<br />

the prospect before you is more and more<br />

displayed,-back to the south-east, towards<br />

Camden, and directly to the southward,<br />

whence the N epean flows placidly do-,':"n, from<br />

the junction <strong>of</strong> the Cowpasture and vV arragamba<br />

Rivers, on its way to the distant sea.<br />

You have by this time arrived at the Knapsack<br />

Gully Viaduct (245 feet above Emu<br />

Plains), boldly erected across a steep and<br />

stony gorge by the genius <strong>of</strong> the Engineerin-chief<br />

John Whitton. This admirable and<br />

imposing structure (which Imperial Rome,<br />

in her palmy days, might have been proud<br />

to claim), consists <strong>of</strong> seven successive<br />

arches-five <strong>of</strong> 50 feet span, and two <strong>of</strong> 20.<br />

It is <strong>of</strong> solid masonry throughout, the<br />

stones having been set in the best Portland<br />

cement-built for a single line <strong>of</strong> railway,<br />

and with an incline along it <strong>of</strong> 1 foot in 30<br />

feet. The length <strong>of</strong> this viaduct is 388 feet,<br />

and its greatest height, from the foundation<br />

in the rock to the level <strong>of</strong> the rails, is 126<br />

feet. Several panoramic views <strong>of</strong> Cumberland<br />

increasingly developed are shown to the<br />

traveller and abruptly withdrawn, as the<br />

train proceeds. First, it goes 200 or 300<br />

yards in one direction, rising slowly every<br />

yard until it stops; then, by the co-operation<br />

<strong>of</strong> the skilled engineer and the watchful<br />

pointsman, the train is quickly "reversed"<br />

and launched back upon another ascending<br />

gradient, in an opposite direction, up to a<br />

corresponding point. From that, the zigzag<br />

mode <strong>of</strong> progression is once more resumed ;<br />

until at length (by successive changes <strong>of</strong> direction,<br />

and in an incredibly short time) the<br />

train is found to have deftly climbed to an<br />

elevation <strong>of</strong> nearly 700 feet. The consequent<br />

alteration <strong>of</strong> climate at the top <strong>of</strong> the Zigzag<br />

is very remarkable; exhilarating and sudden,<br />

not unlike what may sometimes be experienced<br />

after ascending to the summit <strong>of</strong> a very<br />

l<strong>of</strong>ty tower, like the campanile <strong>of</strong> the Town<br />

Hall <strong>of</strong> Sydney. This mode <strong>of</strong> ascent incidentally<br />

develops in a very striking manner<br />

the beauty and the variety <strong>of</strong> the scenery.<br />

Glenbrook Platform, 41 miles ; 766 feet<br />

above sea-level.-After passing the Lucasville<br />

Platform the line is continued, first<br />

westerly, and then with a bend to the northward,<br />

until after an interval <strong>of</strong> rather more<br />

than 2 miles the summit <strong>of</strong> :Gapstone Hill,<br />

near "The Old Pilgrim Inn," is attained.<br />

About half way between Lucasville Platform<br />

and the summit <strong>of</strong> the hill is Glenbrook,<br />

formerly known as Brookdale or W ascoe's<br />

Siding, where water for the engine is obtained.<br />

This platform is properly the first <strong>of</strong> the<br />

mountain stations and on the comparatively<br />

level land running alongside the railway<br />

between here and Mount Victoria, numerous<br />

country residences have been erected which<br />

provide a cool and quiet retreat for busy<br />

city workers in the summer time "after the<br />

heat and burden <strong>of</strong> the day " Glenbrook<br />

is well laid out and the provision <strong>of</strong> wide<br />

reserves will in time make this place very<br />



* Bla'dand's Platform, 42 miles ; 766<br />

feet above sea-level.-This platform, formerly<br />

designated "W ascoe's," is 1 mile north<br />

<strong>of</strong> Glenbrook. An accommodation house has<br />

been established here for visitors who desire to<br />

make a stay. Many fine views can be obtained<br />

in the vicinity <strong>of</strong> the platform, and the gullies<br />

abound in choice specimens <strong>of</strong> ferns and<br />

flowers. Leaving Blaxland (about half a<br />

mile from " The Old Pilgrim Inn") the line<br />

directly proceeds to follow the main range,<br />

dividing the tributaries <strong>of</strong> the N epean and<br />

the Cox from those <strong>of</strong> the Grose River, to<br />

the north and to the north-westward. The<br />

Railroad naturally winds considerably as it<br />

follows the top <strong>of</strong> the range, but takes for the<br />

most part a north-westerly direction, continuing<br />

still to rise until it comes to Springwood,<br />

rather more than 4 miles further on.<br />

The Valley Platform, 46 miles ; 1,048<br />

feet above sea-level.-N ear this quaintlynamed<br />

platform in the br:~ezy highlands<br />

stands " Wyoming," on the north side <strong>of</strong><br />

the Railroad, with its pretty garden and<br />

grounds. Wyoming <strong>of</strong>fers excellent accommodation<br />

for visitors. Near by is the post<br />

and telegraph <strong>of</strong>fice, and the country residences<br />

<strong>of</strong> Mr. Russell, Mr. John Rae, The<br />

Hon. Ge<strong>of</strong>frey Eagar, Mr. Deane, and other<br />

citizens, who have sought here the re-in-<br />

* The nomenclature <strong>of</strong> three <strong>of</strong> the stations on<br />

the vVestern line <strong>of</strong> <strong>Railway</strong> has recently been<br />

changed, viz., Wascoe's, now named ''Blaxland,"<br />

Blue Mountain, now named "Lawson," and<br />

Weatherboard, now named "Wentworth Falls," to<br />

commemorate the first successful exploration <strong>of</strong> the<br />

Blue Mountains. "It was not till 1813 that a<br />

route across these mountains was discovered. A<br />

severe drought had aroused grave apprehensions for<br />

the safety <strong>of</strong> the flocks and herds <strong>of</strong> the Colony,<br />

which were even at that early date beginning to be<br />

appreciated at their true value. Many an arduous<br />

search for water was the result. At length, when<br />

every resource was apparently about to fail, Mr.<br />

W entworth, the pioneer <strong>of</strong> material and social progress<br />

in Australia, in conjunction with Messrs.<br />

Blaxland and Lawson, organized an exploring party<br />

to endeavour to penetrate to the interior through<br />

some <strong>of</strong> the mountain gorges. After encountering<br />

many difficulties the party were fortunate enough<br />

t o discover a pass by wa.y <strong>of</strong> the valley <strong>of</strong> the<br />

Grose, which soon led them to the land <strong>of</strong> plenty,<br />

a~1d the route was immediately marked out as the<br />

lughway to the interior, and has ever since formed<br />

part <strong>of</strong> the old Great Western Road. The <strong>Railway</strong><br />

follows nearly the same course."<br />

vigoration <strong>of</strong> mountain air and the refined<br />

pleasure afforded by the contemplation <strong>of</strong><br />

beautiful scenery. " The Valley " derives<br />

its name from a very lovely far-<strong>of</strong>f prospect<br />

commanded herefrom down the valley (which<br />

is beautifully grassed, open, and park-like)<br />

to the eastward towards the N epean. A<br />

considerable extent <strong>of</strong> land has <strong>of</strong> late years<br />

been here taken up on the ridge to the north<br />

<strong>of</strong> this hamlet, and west <strong>of</strong> Fitzgerald's Gully,<br />

dividing the watersheds <strong>of</strong> the Grose and the<br />

N epean. This gully or creek is well worth a<br />

visit, and has the recommendation <strong>of</strong> being<br />

convenient to the station and easy <strong>of</strong> access.<br />

Springwood Platform, 47 miles; 1,216<br />

feet above sea-level.-Leaving the charming<br />

little mountain village designated " The<br />

Valley," the Railroad winds away westerly<br />

for a mile, and after rising l 00 feet it<br />

brings the traveller to Springwood. The<br />

visitor to Springwood will find excellent hotel<br />

accommodation at the Royal, immediately<br />

opposite the station, or accommodation can<br />

be secured at Martyn's Hotel, a short distance<br />

<strong>of</strong>f. The chief site at Springwood<br />

is Sassafras-so called from the number <strong>of</strong><br />

sassafras trees-or Flying Fox Gully. Formerly<br />

in the fruit season the trees were black<br />

with thousands <strong>of</strong> those strange creatures,<br />

half animal, half bird-flying foxes-and the<br />

sportsman could have plenty <strong>of</strong> sport, while<br />

doing a good service to the fruit-growers, but<br />

the flying foxes have recently been so much<br />

hunted that they have sought fresh haunts.<br />

The road to the gully starts from the ba0k<br />

<strong>of</strong> the Hon. J. B. Hoare's new residence.<br />

After a walk <strong>of</strong> about three-quarters <strong>of</strong> a<br />

mile, the visitor leaves the main track, to take<br />

a not well defined one on the right.-It would<br />

add much to the convenience <strong>of</strong> visitors if a<br />

finger-post were placed at this junction and<br />

the road to the gully better cleared.-After<br />

following this track for a short distance the<br />

head <strong>of</strong> the gully is reached, and the visitor<br />

descends and follows the course <strong>of</strong> a stream<br />

which increases in volume as it flows on.<br />

From the stream- the sides <strong>of</strong> the gully,<br />

thickly timbered, run up in places to three<br />

or four hundred feet. The gully contains<br />

several small but pretty waterfalls. Som,~<br />

little distance down there are some large ponds<br />

<strong>of</strong> water, the largest being at the junction <strong>of</strong>


Sassafras with Clear Water Gully, and here<br />

the luxury <strong>of</strong> bathing may be enjoyed. The<br />

gully is the home <strong>of</strong> many varieties <strong>of</strong> ferns,<br />

fine specimens <strong>of</strong> the tree, staghorn, and<br />

bird's-nest ferns growing here in pr<strong>of</strong>usion;<br />

there are also splendid specimens <strong>of</strong> the<br />

sassafras trees, which unite overhead and<br />

give a grateful shade. In addition to Sassafras<br />

there is a pretty glen called Madoline,<br />

opposite and but a few yards from the<br />

station. Springwood is said to be one <strong>of</strong><br />

the finest places on the mountains for all<br />

kinds <strong>of</strong> ferns and lycopods. It possesses an<br />

equable climate-in winter it is not too cold,<br />

and in summer the mountain air, morning and<br />

evening, is fresh and cool. A number <strong>of</strong><br />

influential gentlemen have residences here,<br />

including the Hon. James Norton and the<br />

Hon. Mr. C. Moore.<br />

Faulconbridge Platform, 49 miles;<br />

1,463 feet above sea-level.-Still following<br />

the topmost ridge <strong>of</strong> the mountains to the<br />

westward for 2 miles further by a sinuous<br />

course, the traveller reaches the Faulconbridge<br />

Platform, named from the adjoining<br />

property <strong>of</strong> Sir Henry Parkes, about 500<br />

acres in extent, and chiefly valuable perhaps<br />

for the salubrity <strong>of</strong> its situation and the<br />

singular beauty <strong>of</strong> the scenery it commands<br />

to the southward, -overlooking a rugged and<br />

broken country forming part <strong>of</strong> the watershed<br />

<strong>of</strong> the N epean. In the neighbourhood<br />

<strong>of</strong> Sir Henry Parkes's residence-a pretty<br />

mountain chalet, the Terrncecl Gardens, the<br />

Rocklily Glen and the Rocklily Cave, are<br />

very characteristic and charming localities<br />

much admired by visitors. As you pass<br />

Faulconbridge to the westward, the top <strong>of</strong><br />

Mount Hay becomes vis-ible about 9 miles to<br />

the north-westward. The scenery on either<br />

side <strong>of</strong> the road now becomes intensely<br />

interesting, presenting surprises which seem<br />

like gorgeous glimpses <strong>of</strong> fairy-land, so suddenly<br />

are they manifested and withdrawn.*<br />

* A recently published work <strong>of</strong> standard merit,<br />

compiled under authority by Mr. James Tingle,<br />

speaking <strong>of</strong> the Hartley District, says : '' We have<br />

said that this is a remarkable district, and justly<br />

so, because for magnificence <strong>of</strong> scenery, wealth <strong>of</strong><br />

mineral resources, and monuments <strong>of</strong> engineering<br />

skill, it is probably without a rival in the southern<br />

hemisphere. The Blue Mountains, with their innumerable<br />

hills and ravi1tes, present extensive<br />

panoramas <strong>of</strong> the grandest description. As the<br />

Numantia Platform, 52 miles; 1,672<br />

feet above sea-level.-When the tmin has<br />

passed the platform at Faulconbridge its<br />

course for a few hundred yards is due west;<br />

it runs south-south-west for about a mile,<br />

passes the residence <strong>of</strong> Mr. A. H. M'Culloch,<br />

M.P., on the left, and so trending somewhat<br />

westerly reaches the platform at N umantiathe<br />

classical name selected for the mountain<br />

residence <strong>of</strong> His Honor Sir James Martin,<br />

the Chief Justice. N umantia lies 3 miles<br />

from Faulconbridge,-to the south-west <strong>of</strong> it.<br />

There are some good views from N umantia<br />

to the southward.<br />

Linden Platform, 52 miles.- This place,<br />

recently established, is more useful at present<br />

to the Department than to the public. The<br />

scenery in the vicinity is singularly wild and<br />

romantic, and the bush abounds in a great<br />

wealth <strong>of</strong> ferns and wild flowers. Here the<br />

engines take water, the supply being drawn<br />

from a dam romantically lying in the basin<br />

<strong>of</strong> the hills about ! a mile from the station.<br />

Woodford (late Buss's) Platform, 55<br />

miles ; 2,191 feet above sea-level.-As<br />

the traveller proceeds on his journey westward<br />

past N umantia, he can catch a lovely but<br />

fleeting glimpse <strong>of</strong> home view scenery to the<br />

northward; another view-nearly in the same<br />

direction-<strong>of</strong> the Pass <strong>of</strong> Broken Back in the<br />

far <strong>of</strong>f Sugar-loaf Range, in the county <strong>of</strong><br />

N orthumherland; two views over the rugged<br />

ravines to the southward and south-eastward;<br />

and distant but approaching views <strong>of</strong> Mount<br />

Hay and Mount King George. The line<br />

after leaving the Numantia Platform takes a<br />

sharp turn to the southward, and continues<br />

on the ridge in that direction for nearly 2<br />

miles, in the middle <strong>of</strong> which stands a handsome<br />

stone gate-house where the Old Road<br />

(which has been running parallel with the<br />

Railroad nearly all the way from "Blaxland")<br />

traveller in the <strong>Railway</strong> is sped along the summit<br />

<strong>of</strong> the range, and catches glimpses <strong>of</strong> the thousand<br />

valleys stretching like ocean waves to the horizon,<br />

on both sides <strong>of</strong> the line (which for a considerable<br />

distance is laid on a narrow causeway that looks as<br />

if built up for thousands <strong>of</strong> feet out <strong>of</strong> awful depths<br />

<strong>of</strong> precipice and ravine), he finds it difficult to<br />

imagine a nobler representation <strong>of</strong> the grandeur and<br />

sublimity <strong>of</strong> nature. "-Scind.s' Official Post Office<br />

Country Directory and Gazetteer <strong>of</strong> New South<br />

· JV ales for 1878, 1879, page 267.


again crosses the line. The gate is now but<br />

seldom opened, for the Qld Road is practically<br />

superseded by the <strong>Railway</strong>. This gate-house<br />

is 53 miles from Sydney. 1 mile south-west<br />

<strong>of</strong> this gate-house and 2 miles in the same<br />

direction from Numantia stands the Woodford<br />

Platform, about 520 feet higher than Numantia<br />

and Alphington, &c. Mr. Alfred<br />

Fairfax's late residence and large gardens<br />

(Woodford), from which the Woodford Platform<br />

takes its name, has been opened for the<br />

accommodation <strong>of</strong> visitors. Before you get<br />

to Woodford there are several :fine glimpses<br />

<strong>of</strong> scenery, and especially the grand unfolding<br />

<strong>of</strong> a long pale blue broken line <strong>of</strong> mountains<br />

in the extreme distance to the north-eastward<br />

beyond the Brisbane Water district, and in<br />

the direction <strong>of</strong> Maitland. Woodford is only<br />

3 miles from N umantia ; and, although<br />

perhaps somewhat exposed in wintry weather,<br />

it is noted for its fine bracing atmosphere,<br />

which resembles that <strong>of</strong> the more elevated<br />

portions <strong>of</strong> the West <strong>of</strong> England.<br />

Lawson Station (" Blue Mountains"),<br />

58 miles; 2,399 feet above sea-level.-At<br />

about 1 mile due west from the Woodford<br />

platform the line takes a turn and runs for<br />

a mile to the west-north-west; then due west<br />

for another mile, and then west-south-west for<br />

a fourth mile; to the "Old Blue Mountain Inn<br />

Station," now proposed to be distinguished<br />

by the name <strong>of</strong> "Lawson"-the vague,<br />

equivocal designation <strong>of</strong> "Blue Mountains,"<br />

<strong>of</strong>ten misleading unobservant travellers.<br />

Lawson has a telegraph station and post<br />

<strong>of</strong>fice, &c. Close to the station are establishments<br />

where accommodation can be secured.<br />

Lawson is noted for having near it several<br />

views <strong>of</strong> great beauty and deep interest on<br />

either side <strong>of</strong> the line, and at comparatively<br />

short distances in places easy <strong>of</strong> access. This<br />

place is much resorted to by invalids, who<br />

can here without fatigue enjoy the mountain<br />

scenery, and the pure, invigorating air.<br />

There is a fine prospect to the north from<br />

near the station. It takes the railway<br />

traveller about three hours and a half to<br />

arrive here by train from Sydney, and about<br />

two hours to come up to this spot from Penrith.<br />

Here the tourist can conveniently visit the<br />

Adelina Falls (two <strong>of</strong> 40 feet descent, one <strong>of</strong><br />

60, and one <strong>of</strong> 70 feet), or the Junction Falls<br />

on the south side <strong>of</strong> the line; with Dante's<br />

· Glen and three other waterfalls on the<br />

northern side-one <strong>of</strong> 40 feet, one <strong>of</strong> 90, and<br />

one (the most remarkable <strong>of</strong> them all) with a<br />

descent <strong>of</strong> 120 feet. Perhaps a short description<br />

<strong>of</strong> these two adjacent localities may not<br />

be unacceptable to the reader.<br />

The Adelina Falls.-The Adelina Falls<br />

are, all four <strong>of</strong> them, grouped together,<br />

at a distance <strong>of</strong> a mile or so to the southeastward<br />

<strong>of</strong> the station; and from the platform<br />

to the first and most important <strong>of</strong><br />

these beautiful cascades ( see View) there<br />

is an excellently formed road, by which the<br />

visitor soon arrives at the edge <strong>of</strong> a line<br />

<strong>of</strong> rock, whence he can readily descend into<br />

the immediate vicinity <strong>of</strong> the waterfall by a<br />

convenient flight <strong>of</strong> rudely constructed steps.<br />

A smooth path leads him from the foot <strong>of</strong><br />

the steps straight down to a craig on the<br />

eastern side <strong>of</strong> a small ravine, over the<br />

rocky (northern) wall <strong>of</strong> which the clear cold<br />

waters <strong>of</strong> a mountain stream leap headlong<br />

into an abyss. These Falls-the Adelina<br />

Falls-are not less than 70 feet in their<br />

unbroken descent, and are justly admired,<br />

tumbling over a mass <strong>of</strong> dark shining rock<br />

into the scene <strong>of</strong> sylvan beauty represented<br />

by our artist. This water-formed chasm ( or<br />

" gh ·wy 11 " as the Welsh would call it) is<br />

fringed with masses <strong>of</strong> green brushwood and<br />

long reedy grass, well shaded everywhere by<br />

the white-trunked eucalyptus, the narrow<br />

semi-circular valley itself, into which the<br />

streamlet dashes, being partially filled up<br />

with tall straggling gum-trees. Near the<br />

base <strong>of</strong> the grand cascade there is a fine display<br />

<strong>of</strong> ferns and such like plants. Ferns<br />

and creepers overhang this beautiful waterfall<br />

like waving tresses, and bedeck the<br />

sombre wall <strong>of</strong> cliff over which the sparkling<br />

rivulet descends. Near to this Fall are<br />

several elegant coachwood trees and other<br />

arborescents such as are usually seen in<br />

these moist and secluded localities. The air<br />

is deliciously fresh and cool, even during the<br />

hottest summer day. Seated in the shadefrom<br />

his dry and elevated look-out on the<br />

solid rock-the visitor may pass many an hour<br />

<strong>of</strong> delicious repose listening to the murmuring<br />

plash <strong>of</strong> the water, the faint whisper <strong>of</strong> the<br />

wind, and the joyous "sweet jargoning" <strong>of</strong>


the birds. To reach the three other cascades<br />

on the south <strong>of</strong> the road, the visitor must<br />

cross the head <strong>of</strong> the Adelina Falls-an old<br />

track to the westward, here running southeasterly,<br />

being available for that purpose.<br />

The streamlet is one <strong>of</strong> the many minor<br />

tributaries <strong>of</strong> the Cox, a river which falls<br />

into the Warmgamba, destined, when joined to<br />

the Cowpasture River, to become the N epean.<br />

Dante's Glen and Waterfalls.-Leaving<br />

the Blue Mountain or Lawson Station, and<br />

proceeding for a few yards to the northnorth-west,<br />

by a well-formed road, the visitor<br />

passes two stone tanks or reservoirs for the<br />

supply <strong>of</strong> the engines with water ; and then<br />

following a recently cleared downward path,<br />

trending northerly, he arrives (after walking<br />

for about half-a-mile) at the edge <strong>of</strong> a sloping<br />

r eedy marsh draining into the watershed <strong>of</strong><br />

the Grose. A little beyond the eastern<br />

extremity <strong>of</strong> this out-<strong>of</strong>-the-way and desolate<br />

spot, a rough but well-defined path for<br />

awhile leads him on, until at length by an<br />

abrupt descent he reaches the precipitous<br />

side <strong>of</strong> a wide and dark tree-shaded valley,<br />

suddenly revealed in all its immensity, and<br />

resounding with the continuous rush <strong>of</strong> concealed<br />

waters in its mysterious depths. The<br />

lonely devious path and the steep declivities<br />

<strong>of</strong> this. cavernous glen are difficult enough<br />

and wild enough to remind the student <strong>of</strong> the<br />

"selva oscura" mentioned in the opening <strong>of</strong><br />

the grand and gloomy poem <strong>of</strong> the " immortal<br />

Florentine," there being a weird<br />

character about the whole place calculated to<br />

inspire the soul with admiration and with<br />

awe. Hence, doubtless, the expressive name<br />

<strong>of</strong> Dante's Glen by which this valley has<br />

lately been distinguished. In Dante's Glen<br />

there are three waterfalls which can be<br />

reached by an adventurous and active tourist.<br />

The :first-about t hree-quarters <strong>of</strong> a mile<br />

from the station-is seen to the right, soon<br />

after you enter the glen. The easterly stream<br />

here falls over a ledge <strong>of</strong> rock to a depth <strong>of</strong><br />

40 feet, and becomes invisible during the<br />

r st <strong>of</strong> its course down the valley. Beneath<br />

thi first, a few chains further on, there is a<br />

second waterfall <strong>of</strong> 90 feet. A small steep<br />

track lead down towards both <strong>of</strong> these from<br />

th topmo t rid e <strong>of</strong> the v~lley. The lo_wer<br />

rtion <strong>of</strong> th path thus wmding down mto<br />

this sequegtered locality is thickly wooded,<br />

and ends in two deep precipitous gorges,<br />

uniting at an inaccessible rocky northern<br />

outlet. To the right is the lower (or second)<br />

cascade already mentioned-the largest waterfall<br />

<strong>of</strong> all three being away in the gully up<br />

to the left. The western extremity <strong>of</strong> this<br />

intersecting ravine is a huge black cliff,<br />

hemmed in on all sides by tall trees, and<br />

overhung with ferns, creepers, and parasitical<br />

plants. Over this dark precipice a fine<br />

stream falls 120 feet in sheer descent, its<br />

broken feathery sprays being caught and<br />

collected at the foot <strong>of</strong> the cliff in a basin<br />

like a Naiad's bath hollowed out <strong>of</strong> a flat<br />

rock. The course <strong>of</strong> this stream, descending<br />

therefrom to its junction with the other, is,<br />

like the rest <strong>of</strong> the glen, densely timbered<br />

with coachwood, tree ferns, a kind <strong>of</strong> alder,<br />

and sassafras. There is a _rocky shelf beside<br />

the pellucid pool at the bottom <strong>of</strong> the cataract,<br />

curiously over-arched by the cliff, and <strong>of</strong><br />

course a favourite haunt for excursionists.<br />

You can pass right under this Fall if you<br />

choose to be so foolhardy, but you had much<br />

better not do so, for the feat is not unattended<br />

with danger. Looked up to from the end <strong>of</strong><br />

the over-arched ledge above referred to, the<br />

effect <strong>of</strong> this waterfall is exceeding solemn and<br />

grand. It has been justly said by an excellent<br />

authority (Burton): "There is nothing<br />

more beautiful to be seen in the whole <strong>of</strong> the<br />

Blue Mountains than this wonderful spot."<br />

In addition to the views fully described,<br />

there are many other scenes <strong>of</strong> great beauty<br />

around Lawson-one <strong>of</strong> these, the Junction<br />

Falls, is reached by following a track leading<br />

from the Adelina Falls ; after a short walk<br />

the visitor reaches a lonely glen which is<br />

almost hidden with magnificent ferns. Here<br />

. three creeks empty their waters into the<br />

glen forming three separate and pretty waterfalls.<br />

Another waterfall and romantic glen<br />

in which some splendid fern-trees are growing,<br />

are reached by following the main road westward<br />

for about 2 miles, and then turning <strong>of</strong>f<br />

at a track leading to the left. The track is<br />

not, at present however clearly marked, :1-nd<br />

the services <strong>of</strong> a guide will almost be reqmred<br />

to reach the spot.<br />

Wentworth Falls, or Weatherboard<br />

Platform, 62 miles; 2,856 feet above

Wentvvorth Falls.


sea-level-On leaving Lawson Station near<br />

the "Old Blue Mountain Inn," the line runs<br />

for 2 miles along the ridge to the westsouth-west,<br />

and then (by a sharp turn) trends<br />

wes~-north-west for 2 miles further, when it<br />

reaches the locality generally known as the<br />

"Weatherboard," where there is a platform<br />

and a pointsman's house. The railway excursionist<br />

is now on the confines <strong>of</strong> that<br />

considerable extent <strong>of</strong> level ground upon the<br />

mountains, about 24 miles in length, and<br />

formerly known by the appellation <strong>of</strong> "The<br />

King's Table-land," a name given to it (as<br />

early chroniclers inform us) by Governor<br />

Macquarie himself, during an adventurous<br />

vice-regal tour in this direction, when deeply<br />

impressed with the "majestic grandeur <strong>of</strong> the<br />

situation, combined with the various objects<br />

to be seen from the spot." On the southwest<br />

side <strong>of</strong> this table-land the mountain<br />

terminates, as an old colonial annalist informs<br />

us, "in abrupt precipices <strong>of</strong> immense depth;<br />

at the bottom <strong>of</strong> which is seen a glen as<br />

romantically beautiful as can well be imagined,<br />

bounded on the further side by mountains <strong>of</strong><br />

great magnitude, terminating as abruptly as<br />

the others, and the whole thickly covered with<br />

timber." The glen thus graphically described<br />

-and named Prince Regent's Glen by Governor<br />

Macquarie-appears to be identical with<br />

one <strong>of</strong> the north-westerly prolongations or<br />

branches <strong>of</strong> that great Cunimbla Valley,<br />

which is now known to be more or less connected<br />

(at its north-westerly extreme) with<br />

the beautiful Valley <strong>of</strong> Hartley. The name<br />

<strong>of</strong> "Prince Regent's Glen" should therefore<br />

now, perhaps be judiciously restricted to a<br />

north-westerly and less extensive ravine,<br />

reaching from its intersection with the great<br />

Cunimbla Valley back to an abrupt rocky<br />

end in the neighbourhood <strong>of</strong> the far-famed<br />

Waterfall <strong>of</strong> the Weatherboard, the true<br />

historical appellation <strong>of</strong> which, by the way, is<br />

Campbell's Cataract--a name bestowed upon<br />

it by Governor Macquarie in honor <strong>of</strong> the<br />

Colonial Secretary <strong>of</strong> the period. The upper<br />

or north-westerly extreme <strong>of</strong> Prince Regent's<br />

Glen is, it may be remarked, <strong>of</strong> a somewhat<br />

circular form, presenting a grand coup cl' ceil<br />

<strong>of</strong> mountains rising beyond mountains, with<br />

stupendous masses <strong>of</strong> cliffs in the foreground<br />

and in mid distance, reaching almost round<br />

the vast and deep well-wooded hollow to the<br />

west and to the southward; except, indeed,<br />

where the Prince Regent's Glen opens out<br />

on to the great sunken valley above-mentioned,<br />

and so displays a glorious, many-tinted<br />

and distant view <strong>of</strong> vast shadowy walls <strong>of</strong><br />

precipice on the other side <strong>of</strong> that valley,<br />

many long miles away. 'fhis circular termination<br />

<strong>of</strong> the Prince Regent's Glen, at its<br />

northernmost end, was named by Governor<br />

Macquarie the "Pitt Amphitheatre" in honor<br />

<strong>of</strong> the Right Honorable William Pitt, and is<br />

what is usually referred to by tourists under<br />

the very vague and most inexpressive name<br />

<strong>of</strong> the ·weatherboard. From any good point<br />

on King's Table-land-such, for example,<br />

as the verandah <strong>of</strong> Mr. Charles Wilson's<br />

accommodation house, about 2,900 feet above<br />

the sea-level-the light-house at the Sydney<br />

South Head, on a clear night, looking due<br />

east, is distinctly visible at a distance <strong>of</strong> 62<br />

miles. The same well-known beacon can,<br />

it is said, at times, be seen from Blackheath,<br />

nearly 500 feet higher, and 11 miles further<br />

away from the coast.<br />

General Description <strong>of</strong> the Weatherboard.-Mr.<br />

C. A. Wilson's accommodation<br />

house lies about 50 yards from the pointsman's<br />

house, on the southern side <strong>of</strong> the<br />

<strong>Railway</strong>, not far from the semaphore, and an<br />

old powder magazine in the open-both conspicuous<br />

objects. Near the semaphore is a<br />

tombstone-" Sacred to the memory <strong>of</strong> James<br />

Ferguson, who was killed by lightning on<br />

21st December, 1859; aged 22 years and 10<br />

months." Formerly, as it would appear,<br />

there was a burial-ground now traversed<br />

by the <strong>Railway</strong> in this seclnded spot,<br />

<strong>of</strong> which this ndw seems to be the sole<br />

remaining tomb. A few cottages are to<br />

be found in the vicinity. The air is fresh<br />

and wholesome, as might be expected at such<br />

an elevation ; but in stormy weather it is<br />

not a locality where there is much that can<br />

be pleasant for the tourist out <strong>of</strong> doors.<br />

The old Western Road, between the Weatherboard<br />

and Blackheath, is now almost wholly<br />

disused, except when fat cattle are occasionally<br />

driven over it by night. In many<br />

places this picturesque old road is utterly<br />

dilapidated, torn and worn away by the<br />

wind and rain. At the back <strong>of</strong> Wilson's<br />

there is a ruined bridge, through the broken


arch <strong>of</strong> which a fine stream (Jamison' s Creek)<br />

flows away southerly for lk or 2 miles to<br />

the neighbouring gorge. The road to the<br />

Weatherboard Falls from the so-called<br />

"station " leads by this broken bridge,<br />

through the bush south-westerly to the edge<br />

<strong>of</strong> that celebrated chasm and most enchanting<br />

view. There is als9 a pleasant walk on<br />

the north side <strong>of</strong> the line, to the north-west<br />

<strong>of</strong> the semaphore. North <strong>of</strong> the Railroad,<br />

but somewhat more to the eastward, lies the<br />

winding track to " The Water Nymph's<br />

Dell," which is difficult to find unless under<br />

the guidance <strong>of</strong> some resident.<br />

Visit to the Weatherboard Gorge and<br />

Falls.-" Starting from the accommodation<br />

house with a guide, I crossed," says a recent<br />

visitor, " the ruined bridge at the back <strong>of</strong><br />

Wilson's, struck into the bush to the southwest,<br />

and-after walking along a pretty fair<br />

road for about I} mile-I reached at the end<br />

<strong>of</strong> a rather devious path the framework <strong>of</strong> a<br />

hut erected by the Government for tourists<br />

and others, a~d wantonly and basely destroyed<br />

(like that at Govett's Leap) by<br />

thoughtless or selfish persons. (A commodious<br />

hut has since been built here.) From the<br />

elevated point thus arrived at on the topmost<br />

edge <strong>of</strong> this titanic gorge, there is a steep<br />

and almost precipitous descent to the southward,<br />

partly shaded with stunted trees, and<br />

terminating-after passing a flight <strong>of</strong> steps,<br />

cut boldly out <strong>of</strong> the solid rock-in a broad,<br />

natural platform <strong>of</strong> waterworn stone, immediately<br />

opposite to "The Campbell Cataract,"<br />

or .Falls, and overlooking that vast amphitheatre<br />

named after the renowned statesman<br />

William Pitt, which here terminates the<br />

Prince Regent's Glen. The platform seems<br />

actually to overhang the Great Falls, which<br />

are, however, at some distance from it<br />

to the left (the eastward), across a huge<br />

semi-circular abyss, hollowed out <strong>of</strong> red and<br />

grey rocks, and overshadowed everywhere with<br />

trees and ferns. In front <strong>of</strong> the spectator is<br />

the chasm's edge, stretching along like the<br />

elevated margin <strong>of</strong> a bay; and beyond this<br />

rough but well-defined line is that fairy-land<br />

<strong>of</strong> mountain, cliff, and forest which no pencil<br />

can perfectly depict or pen adequately describe.<br />

To the left is a small tract <strong>of</strong> barren<br />

and mountainous country, <strong>of</strong> an immense<br />

altitude, coming up from the southward, and<br />

forming the easterly frame <strong>of</strong> this vast and<br />

marvellous picture. Its westerly frame presents<br />

rude cliffs and a wooden talus towards<br />

the entrance to the Pitt Amphitheatre ; and<br />

on its upper surface are seen mountain streams<br />

and rivulets hastening to unite themselves to<br />

the main stream coming from the opposite<br />

direction (J amison's Creek) and then to dash<br />

themselves into a cylindrical abyss, whose<br />

falling waters resound in your ears like an<br />

everlasting sigh. Approaching cautiously to<br />

the edge <strong>of</strong> the platform, or (what is perhaps<br />

more safe) lying down to look over, you<br />

see the stream wildly precipitated over<br />

broad stratified rings <strong>of</strong> grey, red, and black<br />

rock, into the bottom <strong>of</strong> this grand mountain<br />

glen, a distance <strong>of</strong> (apparently) not<br />

less than 1,000 feet in sheer descent. The<br />

waters <strong>of</strong> the cataract drain away into the<br />

far <strong>of</strong>f depths <strong>of</strong> the densely wooded valley<br />

beneath, the lowermost line <strong>of</strong> which seems<br />

ultimately to indicate a south-easterly direction.<br />

When I first approached thi8 spot at<br />

about 9 a.m., the falls were threefold in<br />

their development, and stood in a deep and<br />

misty shadow. Near the bottom <strong>of</strong> the first<br />

fall, breaking into feathery spray, long before<br />

it reaches a slightly projecting mass <strong>of</strong><br />

broken fragments <strong>of</strong> stone, about half-way<br />

down, there is to the south a long thin line<br />

<strong>of</strong> forest trees, the foliage <strong>of</strong> which looks<br />

dim and s<strong>of</strong>t when seen from the great<br />

height <strong>of</strong> the platform on the rock. These<br />

trees, half-way down into the abyss, spread<br />

all along the surface <strong>of</strong> the small projecting<br />

ledge in the precipitous wall on the eastern<br />

side <strong>of</strong> the gorge ; their irregular masses <strong>of</strong><br />

greenery contributing greatly to the charm<br />

<strong>of</strong> the scene. Below these broken masses<br />

<strong>of</strong> stone and trees and brushwood a second<br />

dreadful precipice descends, and a second<br />

fall may, by a daring spectator be seen, far<br />

below the dizzy altitude-so far that no<br />

murmur from this and the next succeeding<br />

fall ascends to break the silence. It is only<br />

the everlasting sweep <strong>of</strong> the upper portion<br />

<strong>of</strong> the cataract which makes itself distinctly<br />

audible. Below, as I have intimated, the<br />

stream follows unseen its appointed course<br />

through the sylvan depths <strong>of</strong> that enchanted<br />

valley. Anything more sublime and aweinspiring<br />

cannot possibly be imagined. On


the western side <strong>of</strong> the gorge <strong>of</strong> the Weatherboard,<br />

at the distance <strong>of</strong> about f a mile,<br />

there is a second wall <strong>of</strong> parti-coloured rock,<br />

with a huge talus <strong>of</strong> rocks and trees, and a<br />

towering royal crest <strong>of</strong> trees and undergrowth.<br />

Further away to the south-westward<br />

(on the north-west side <strong>of</strong> the amphitheatre)<br />

comes an abrupt break; and then<br />

more cliffs and declivities, and another wide<br />

valley <strong>of</strong> low-lying forest and hill scenery is<br />

displayed, enclosed by another and yet more<br />

extensive range <strong>of</strong> rocky wa11 and talus, or<br />

slopes formed <strong>of</strong> detritus or decayed rock.<br />

This range <strong>of</strong> brightly-tinted cliffs (in which<br />

deep red colour predominates) trends easterly<br />

£or some miles, and at last-having almost<br />

traversed the entire picture-ends with an<br />

abrupt descent into the Prince Regent's<br />

Glen. Beyond the eastern extremity <strong>of</strong> the<br />

distinct line thus furnished in mid-distance<br />

is another stretch <strong>of</strong> woodland, dim and<br />

cerulean in its many shadowy gaps and hollows.<br />

Beyond that line again comes another<br />

more shadowy tract in bright cobalt; and<br />

beyond that yet again appear the far <strong>of</strong>f<br />

outlines <strong>of</strong> a mountainous country, wrapped in<br />

a mantle <strong>of</strong> denser blue, its summits crowned<br />

with cliffs in exquisitely blended tints <strong>of</strong><br />

pink and yellow. Over all that again at<br />

intervals (and especially from the ruined hut)<br />

can be seen an ethereal light blue outline <strong>of</strong><br />

l<strong>of</strong>ty hills in the extreme distance. On the<br />

rocky platform which overlooks the Falls,<br />

the aspiring mind <strong>of</strong> Young .Australia has<br />

prompted the inscription <strong>of</strong> names and surnames<br />

<strong>of</strong> parties not yet otherwise distinguished.<br />

These names have been boldly<br />

carved on the ledge <strong>of</strong> stone, in the vain hope<br />

<strong>of</strong> thereby securing some adventitious immortality.<br />

The whole <strong>of</strong> the rocky ledge which<br />

overlooks the gorge is public property, but<br />

some <strong>of</strong> the land in the vicinity has already<br />

been alienated. ' The Weeping Rock,' for<br />

instance, is on private property, belonging to<br />

Mr. D. Fletcher, <strong>of</strong> Sydney. This 'weeping<br />

rock,' an object <strong>of</strong> great interest to those<br />

who visit the Weatherboard, stands above<br />

the 'Great Fall,' on the east side <strong>of</strong> the<br />

gorge, and well deserves the name which<br />

has been given to it. The continuous flow<br />

<strong>of</strong> water which trickles over this curious<br />

half-isolated mass <strong>of</strong> stone is occasioned by<br />

a rivulet breaking away from the main<br />

stream, known as Jarnison's Greek-the same<br />

which feeds the Great Fall, or Campbell's<br />

Cataract."<br />

Another description <strong>of</strong> the Campbell<br />

Cataract and the Gorge at the Weatherboard.-The<br />

following description <strong>of</strong> the<br />

Campbell Cataract and the adjacent gorge is<br />

taken from Mr. Ed win Burton's <strong>Guide</strong>, an<br />

admirably compiled and useful little work.<br />

Mr. Burton's <strong>Guide</strong>, page 118, says:-" The<br />

Campbell Cataract is, however, the great<br />

attraction to tourists. The water leaps over<br />

the tremendous precipice into the glen below.<br />

The scene has thus been depicted by the<br />

Rev. Dr. Lang:-' .At the point where the<br />

rivulet from the Weatherboard hut discharges<br />

itself there is a break or bay in the line <strong>of</strong><br />

cliffs on that side, as if a vast portion <strong>of</strong> the<br />

wall <strong>of</strong> rock had been quarried out £or the<br />

purpose, the two points appearing from behind<br />

like two l<strong>of</strong>ty headlands jutting out into<br />

the valley, and bearing a remarkable resemblance<br />

to the Heads <strong>of</strong> Port Jackson. The<br />

rivulet, which in its course <strong>of</strong> 2 miles and<br />

a half has been swelled by one or two<br />

smaller streams issuing from lateral valleys<br />

to the size <strong>of</strong> a common mill-stream, precipitates<br />

itself all at once over the rocks at the<br />

head <strong>of</strong> the bay and is lost in the abyss, the<br />

fall being at least 1, OOO feet. On gaining<br />

the edge <strong>of</strong> the precipice the waters <strong>of</strong> the<br />

rivulet seem to shrink instinctively from the<br />

frightful leap to which they have been conducted<br />

in their course down the valley, each<br />

individual drop appearing endowed with<br />

separate volition, and seeming determined to<br />

shift for itself, and the whole mass <strong>of</strong> fluid<br />

resolving itself into what appears like innumerable<br />

particles <strong>of</strong> frozen snow. Many<br />

hundred feet below, the tops <strong>of</strong> apparently<br />

l<strong>of</strong>ty trees are seen at the bottom <strong>of</strong> Prince<br />

Regent's Glen, and so completely do the<br />

cyclopean walls <strong>of</strong> rock which form the<br />

glen defy aJl direct communication between<br />

the heights and the hollow, that the shortest<br />

practicable route from the place where the<br />

rivulet leaps over the precipice to the bottom<br />

<strong>of</strong> the cliffs, over which it falls, is 16 miles.<br />

Governor Macquarie named the waterfall the<br />

Campbell Cataract, in honor <strong>of</strong> the Colonial<br />

Secretary <strong>of</strong> that period. At the time we<br />

visited the Fall there was a strong wind


blowing up the glen. The wind caught the<br />

falling waters before they had time to reach<br />

the bottom, and scattered them into mist,<br />

carrying them to great distances. The sun's<br />

rays falling on the particles produced the<br />

phenomena <strong>of</strong> innumeraole rainbows, the<br />

effect <strong>of</strong> the whole scene being indescribably<br />

beautiful.' Connected with this wonderful<br />

place there is a legend about the inhumanity<br />

<strong>of</strong> the keeper <strong>of</strong> a 'shanty' near by the<br />

precipice, in the ea.rly days <strong>of</strong> the Colony.<br />

Before railways were thought <strong>of</strong>, lucky diggers<br />

had to use the road, and this 'shanty,'<br />

where grog was sold on the sly, was <strong>of</strong>ten<br />

resorted to by those who wanted shelter and<br />

rest. As the story goes-and there are<br />

more improbable stories-the keeper used to<br />

lure them to the precipice, rob them, and<br />

then pitch them over into the valley beneath.<br />

The Falls are about l!- mile from the railway<br />

platform. There is a small accommodation<br />

house near the platform, where a guide may<br />

be procured. Persons may leave Sydney by<br />

the morning train, visit the Falls, and return<br />

to Sydney the same night."<br />

The Water Nymph's Dell.-Directly<br />

opposite to the Weatherboard Station ( or<br />

rather Platform) there is a very pretty waterfall,<br />

in a curiously secluded narrow glen ;<br />

both waterfall and glen being ·well worthy <strong>of</strong><br />

a visit. You cross the Railroad a little to<br />

the west <strong>of</strong> the pointsman's house, and turn<br />

do,Yn at once into an adjacent scantily<br />

wooded valley, wherein flowering shrubs and<br />

rushes appear as the principal features. A<br />

path leads down a continuation <strong>of</strong> this valley<br />

to the eastward, on somewhat firmer ground,<br />

for about a mile and a half; and then, by an<br />

abrupt turn to the right, a winding and precipitous<br />

track takes you down into the upper<br />

encl <strong>of</strong> a deep and rocky gully. The hottom<br />

and sides <strong>of</strong> this gully are shaded with tall<br />

trees <strong>of</strong> coach wood and sassafras, everywhere<br />

interlaced with vines ; and in the lower<br />

portions <strong>of</strong> the gully there is an abundance<br />

<strong>of</strong> ferns, mosses, and lycopods <strong>of</strong> all descriptions-some<br />

<strong>of</strong> them very choice and rare.<br />

Tree ferns-the Alsophila aiistralis and the<br />

Dicksonia antarctica) display their graceful<br />

fronds on all sides <strong>of</strong> you, in this cool umbrageous<br />

place ; and when you stand upon<br />

the lower ledge <strong>of</strong> rock, at the ba e <strong>of</strong> the<br />

tortuous path, the pleasant rippling sound <strong>of</strong><br />

falling water becomes distinctly audible.<br />

Proceeding further still, the noise <strong>of</strong> a waterfall<br />

is soon heard, and over the grey cliff<br />

opposite, across the gorge ( draped in the<br />

glittering, dark foliage <strong>of</strong> trees and arborescent<br />

plants) a charming cascade comes<br />

down, whispering and mur.muring into the<br />

glen. Following the rough and difficult path<br />

to the westward, up this lovely but lonely<br />

place, the end <strong>of</strong> the gorge becomes suddenly<br />

revealed. At the termination <strong>of</strong> the path,<br />

and below the cliff, lies a pool <strong>of</strong> limpid<br />

water, wherein Egeria herself might not have<br />

disdained to bathe. This pool is supplied by<br />

the waterfall, descending at the back <strong>of</strong> it,<br />

from the precipice, in several broken rills, for<br />

more than 50 feet. The dark sides <strong>of</strong> the<br />

rock and the edges <strong>of</strong> the basin in this Water<br />

N yrnph's Dell are fringed and decked with<br />

mosses and creeping plants <strong>of</strong> a wonderful<br />

beauty and variety. The path down the hillside<br />

appears to be by no means an easy one,<br />

but the youthful, smiling guide speaks admiringly<br />

<strong>of</strong> the indomitable energy and<br />

daring <strong>of</strong> the lady visitors to thir:i beautiful<br />

and romantic spot. Another less hazardous<br />

ramble may be found by leaving the semaphore<br />

near the line, and following up a<br />

bubbling stream, by the edge <strong>of</strong> a marsh, to<br />

the north-westward. The visitor may do this<br />

for some considerable distance and find his<br />

gravelly path bordered by a pr<strong>of</strong>usion <strong>of</strong><br />

mountain flowers, ferns, lycopodiums, and<br />

those other plants which, in Australia, appear<br />

to take the place <strong>of</strong> the heather in the<br />

uplands <strong>of</strong> Scotland and other parts <strong>of</strong><br />

Europe.<br />

Katoomba Platform, 66 miles ; 3,349<br />

feet above sea-level.-Leaving the platform<br />

at the W eatherboar


splendid climate, Katoomba is fast becoming a<br />

township <strong>of</strong> some importance. Two large<br />

hotels have been established, one <strong>of</strong> which,<br />

the "Great Western" (Carrington) is equal to<br />

the "Imperial" at Mount Victoria, for the<br />

amount <strong>of</strong> accommodation it gives, and for the<br />

excellence <strong>of</strong> its appointments. Biles' hotel,<br />

opposite the station, is a well kept and comfortable<br />

hostelry. A Public and Private<br />

School has also been erected. Probably there<br />

is no place on the mountains where so many<br />

beautiful views can be so easily and conveniently<br />

seen within a short distance <strong>of</strong> the<br />

<strong>Railway</strong> as at Katoomba. The main attraction<br />

is the Katoomba Falls and the views <strong>of</strong><br />

Cunimbla Valley. Passing along a well laid<br />

out road, starting from the southern side <strong>of</strong><br />

the <strong>Railway</strong> Station, the visitor, after a walk<br />

<strong>of</strong> about a mile, reaches the edge <strong>of</strong> the<br />

Cunim bla Valley. Here, standing on a<br />

rocky promontory, a glorious view <strong>of</strong> the<br />

extensive valley is presented, the mounds in<br />

the valley thickly covered with timber, rising<br />

like waves in a deep sea; afar <strong>of</strong>f on the<br />

opposite side groups <strong>of</strong> rocks are seen, their<br />

heads mantled with a wreath <strong>of</strong> white fleecy<br />

clouds, resembling some old baronial castle;<br />

and in the centre <strong>of</strong> the valley the course <strong>of</strong><br />

a creek is clearly marked, its waters as they<br />

flow onward being hidden by a thick growth<br />

<strong>of</strong> brushwood. Just before reaching the<br />

rocky promontory overlooking the valley the<br />

road crosses the creek which makes the<br />

waterfall, and a considerable body <strong>of</strong> water is<br />

generally flowing. At Katoomba, unlike the<br />

'\Veatherboard and Govett's Leap, the visitor<br />

can reach the bottom <strong>of</strong> the valley, and the<br />

waterfall is seen best from a point in the<br />

track as it leads to the bottom <strong>of</strong> the valley.<br />

The track, overhung with ferns and :flowering<br />

shrubs, is clearly marked, and for some<br />

distance comparatively easy <strong>of</strong> descent. Somo<br />

little distance down a view is obtained <strong>of</strong> a<br />

section <strong>of</strong> the valley, and through an opening<br />

in a thick growth <strong>of</strong> ferns and umbrageous<br />

trees, the water resembling a beautiful bridal<br />

veil, is seen tumbling down upon the dark<br />

depths <strong>of</strong> rocks below. The pathway then<br />

passes between two massive rocks, the main<br />

walls <strong>of</strong> the valley on one side and a detached<br />

mass standing alone on the other. This rock<br />

towering up for a couple <strong>of</strong> hundred feet like<br />

some turreted castle, receives, on account <strong>of</strong><br />

its isolated position, the name <strong>of</strong> the Orphan<br />

Rock. If the visitor is not afraid <strong>of</strong> a little<br />

exertion, he can follow the track: until it<br />

brings him to the bottom <strong>of</strong> the valley, where<br />

he will reach the coal drive opened up by Mr.<br />

North. A tramway runs from Katoomba to<br />

the mine ; it is on a gradient <strong>of</strong> 1 in 2 from<br />

the rocks fringing the valley to the minea<br />

stationary engine at the top drawing up<br />

by a wire rope the trucks <strong>of</strong> coal. In addi-­<br />

tion to the coal there is a good seam <strong>of</strong> shale<br />

in the valley, which promises to create a large<br />

trade. A great deal <strong>of</strong> the prosperity at<br />

Katoomba is due to the enterprise <strong>of</strong> Mr.<br />

North in developing the coal and shale mines ;<br />

and since the tramway has been made, a sawmill<br />

has been started in the valley, a large<br />

quantity <strong>of</strong> timber <strong>of</strong> excellent quality being<br />

obtainable. In the vicinity <strong>of</strong> the saw-mill<br />

and mine numerous splendid specimens <strong>of</strong><br />

fern trees are to be found. There is much<br />

else to occupy the notice <strong>of</strong> the visitor at<br />

Katoomba. At the proper season mountain<br />

mosses, ferns, and :flowers are numerous and<br />

beautiful. Although the main Katoomba<br />

Falls, on account <strong>of</strong> their volume, attract the<br />

greater notice, there are others smaller but<br />

not the less beautiful ; particularly the Leura<br />

and Lurline Falls.<br />

A writer describing Katoomba., says:­<br />

Katoomba is situated on t.he Blue Mountains,<br />

66 miles from Sydney by rail, and<br />

3,349 feet above sea-level. Leaving the busy<br />

Redfern <strong>Railway</strong> Terminus, in about thirty<br />

minutes we pass the pretty town <strong>of</strong> Parramatta<br />

; then on either side may be seen some<br />

fine orchards and orange groves, lightly timbered<br />

grass lands, hills, and small streams.<br />

We arrive at the quaint old town <strong>of</strong> Penrith<br />

; here the train stops about ten minutes<br />

for refreshments. Proceeding on our journey<br />

we pass the N epean River, with its romantic<br />

and picturesque scenery, and its massively<br />

constructed iron tubular bridge. We soon<br />

commence the ascent <strong>of</strong> the Zigzag, and as<br />

we near the top a grand. panorama spreads<br />

out before us. The scene is indescribably<br />

magnificent ; we begin to breathe the deliciously<br />

cool mountain air, being now about<br />

700 feet above sea-level. The language <strong>of</strong><br />

the poet can alone describe the splendour <strong>of</strong><br />

the scenery which meets our view as we are


whirled along over gullies and hills ; the<br />

hurrygraphs <strong>of</strong> scenery that come and go<br />

like the sliding scales <strong>of</strong> a magic lantern, the<br />

windows framing picture after picture, till at<br />

length we get a fine view on our left <strong>of</strong> the<br />

Kanimbla Valley; then there is a grinding<br />

<strong>of</strong> the brake, and the station-master is seen<br />

bustling about the platform, informing us<br />

that we are at Katoomba. The hotels must,<br />

<strong>of</strong> necessity, be a subject <strong>of</strong> interest to those<br />

who visit the Mountains. Of these there are<br />

three, all good and respectable, besides boarding-houses<br />

for all classes-from those who<br />

take their champagne, to those who hire<br />

humble lodgings and take their own provisions.<br />

The "Great Western Hotel" which is situated<br />

on a high eminence just above and to the<br />

left <strong>of</strong> the station, commands the only real<br />

mountain view to be obtained without travelling<br />

some distance from the line. The design<br />

<strong>of</strong> the hotel is on the modern American style,<br />

with a larg~ flat-top ro<strong>of</strong>, from which can be<br />

seen the city -<strong>of</strong> Sydney and its noted harbour.<br />

It has accommodation for seventy to eighty<br />

persons, contains nearly sixty rooms, consisting<br />

<strong>of</strong> a large dining-room, general ladies'<br />

drawing-room, and gentlemen's smoking and<br />

reading-room. These are arranged, with<br />

their necessary retiring rooms, at opposite<br />

ends <strong>of</strong> the building, while the intermediate<br />

space is divided into suites <strong>of</strong> private sitting<br />

and bedrooms. A remarkable feature in the<br />

planning <strong>of</strong> the structure is its large, wide,<br />

and l<strong>of</strong>ty corridors, which, in wet weather,<br />

serves admirably as promenades, as also a<br />

large verandah in front <strong>of</strong> the building, which<br />

faces the east. All the principal rooms have,<br />

therefore, in summer and winter, the benefit<br />

<strong>of</strong> the cheerful early morning sun. Gas is<br />

laid on, electric bells, and hot and cold water<br />

baths are fitted to all the rooms. An excellent<br />

provision for water-supply is now being<br />

made by means <strong>of</strong> a Blake's hydraulic ram,<br />

which is situated in a large spring <strong>of</strong> water in<br />

the valley, about 1,000 yards distant.<br />

Biles' Hotel, which is situated immediately<br />

to the right <strong>of</strong> the station, is a large,<br />

well-conducted hotel. Mr. Biles, who it will<br />

be found is a most agreeable Boniface, has a<br />

reput,ation for the abundance and excellence<br />

<strong>of</strong> his dinners.<br />

"Katoomba Hotel," about i <strong>of</strong> a mile on<br />

the Bathurst road, is a wayside inn, where<br />

every attention is shown to visitors by Mrs.<br />

Curnow.<br />

The principal sights <strong>of</strong> Katoomba, all <strong>of</strong><br />

which are within easy walking distance <strong>of</strong><br />

the hotels, are the following !-<br />

Katoomba Falls.-The I~oomba Falls<br />

are as pretty, and as well worth a visit, as<br />

any on the mountains. Although an excellent<br />

view is obtained from the rocks overlooking<br />

the valley, the Falls are seen best by<br />

taking the track on the right, and from an<br />

opening near the Orphan Rock a splendid<br />

view <strong>of</strong> the Falls and the valley below is<br />

obtained. The Orphan Rock, standing solitary<br />

like a sentinel on duty, is a prominent<br />

object from the rocks near the head <strong>of</strong> the<br />

Falls.<br />

The Witch's Leap.-By following the<br />

winding path at the foot <strong>of</strong> the Falls you<br />

will pass Maud's Wonder, from which can be<br />

had a splendid view <strong>of</strong> the Falls and the<br />

Glen, and pursuing the path by the first<br />

opening on the left, the excursionist will<br />

come upon M. Q. Any sound produced here<br />

will be reverberated for several seconds.<br />

Another very good view <strong>of</strong> the Falls can be<br />

obtained from this point. Passing the Orphan<br />

Rock, and descending the Gully, the<br />

scene chanaes at every step. On the right<br />

may be see~ the coal-tram ~merg~ng out <strong>of</strong> a<br />

cleft in the rock. Descendmg a little further<br />

(carefully) the valley can be reached, and following<br />

the track to the left past the Sawmills<br />

you will arrive at the foot <strong>of</strong> the Falls.<br />

The tree ferns hereabouts are very fine.<br />

The Bluff at Engine Point.-To the left<br />

appears the Three Sisters, in front is the<br />

Corowal or Solitary Mount, and on the extreme<br />

left <strong>of</strong> the Mount and near the top is<br />

the Crouching Lion, inclining to the right is<br />

the Ruined Castle, Megalong, Mount Clear,<br />

and in the distance some 50 miles away are<br />

the Picton and N attai Ranges.<br />

Grace's Hill.-From this point you can<br />

see Jamison Valley to the south-east. ·when<br />

stationed on this ~ill, the Three Sisters, a<br />

portion <strong>of</strong> the Kanimbla Valley, Blackheath,<br />

Mount Victoria, and the Boar's Head, &c.,<br />

can be seen.

Katoomba Falls.

(/l<br />

~<br />

0<br />



The Gap and the Neck <strong>of</strong> Land.-The<br />

sight <strong>of</strong> this rugged and grand crater-like<br />

abyss should not be missed by the tourist.<br />

Birdie's Dell or Silver Spray Waterfall<br />

is an enchanting spot, from which can<br />

be caught a glimpse <strong>of</strong> the meeting <strong>of</strong> the<br />

waters at Nelly's Glen.<br />

Nelly's Glen is a remarkable gorge extending<br />

from the top <strong>of</strong> the mountain to the<br />

Kanimbla Valley, sloping rapidly for about<br />

500 feet, and varying in width from 20 to 60<br />

feet. At the top a meeting <strong>of</strong> two watercourses<br />

forms the cascade. A thrice repeated<br />

echo is heard here.<br />

Leura and Lurline Falls.-A little above<br />

these will be seen some beautiful cascades,<br />

and .the meeting <strong>of</strong> two water-courses which<br />

flow over beds <strong>of</strong> moss and rock to the verge<br />

<strong>of</strong> a precipice, down which it suddenly leaps<br />

in an almost unbroken sheet a descent <strong>of</strong> 800<br />

feet, creating a deep hollow sound, while the<br />

trembling waters shoot up their silvery spray<br />

sparkling and flashing and foaming with tbe<br />

dancing sunbeams bright and perfect rainbows.<br />

The Fossil Rock is another marvel which<br />

should not be forgotten.<br />

The Coal-mine is well worth a visit. The<br />

tramway is one mile and a quarter in lenO'th<br />

from the <strong>Railway</strong> Siding and the trucks ~re<br />

drawn by a steel cable, measurinO' 2J_ miles<br />

0 2<br />

and weighing 5! tons.<br />

_The . Jenolan (formerly called the<br />

Fish River) Caves.-Many inquiries have<br />

been made as to the new route from Katoomba<br />

to the remarkable caves which lie<br />

a_t a dista~ce <strong>of</strong> about 18 miles in a straight<br />

line, and m a S.W. by W. direction. As<br />

the journey via Tarana and Oberon is<br />

about 90 miles in length from Katoomba,<br />

a shorter cut has long been a desideratum<br />

ancl as a step in this direction the hotel~<br />

keepers <strong>of</strong> Mount Victoria some years ago<br />

cons~ru?ted a ~uggy track from that place<br />

to withm 2 miles <strong>of</strong> the caves. The distance<br />

between the two places is 44 miles,<br />

and from one cause or other this track has<br />

not been made much use <strong>of</strong> by the public.<br />

Of course, from Katoomba this route, though<br />

shorter than that by Tarana, would also be<br />

very roundabout, and several attempts were<br />

accordingly made to find a track direct ;<br />

among others by Mr. Peter Fitzpatrick, <strong>of</strong><br />

Burragorang, who was connected with some<br />

mining operations near Katoomba, and who<br />

brought the matter under the notice <strong>of</strong> the<br />

late Premier (Sir A. Stuart) on one <strong>of</strong> his<br />

visits to that favourite resort. The result<br />

was that first Mr. Rossbach, road surveyor,<br />

and, later on, Mr. W. M. Cooper, Surveyor<br />

<strong>of</strong> Public Parks, were sent to inspect and<br />

report on the feasibiljty <strong>of</strong> the route and to<br />

find the best line for a horse track. Mr.<br />

Rossbach's inspection was only a preliminary<br />

one, extending over a single day; Mr.<br />

Cooper, who followed, spent ten days on the<br />

work, and marked out a line from end to<br />

end. The number <strong>of</strong> detours necessary to<br />

earry a track with reasonable gradients<br />

over so mountainous a country caused the<br />

distance traversed to be 25 miles from the<br />

starting point, or 26} from the "Great<br />

Western Hotel," Katoomba. Special care<br />

was taken to mark the line, so that it could<br />

not easily be mistaken, by blazing trees in<br />

a distinctive manner, and by affixiDg to the<br />

trees at various intervals, corresponding<br />

to the nature <strong>of</strong> the ground, squares, or<br />

rather diamonds, <strong>of</strong> white calico, with black<br />

figures conspicuously printed thereon, running<br />

consecutively from 1 to 105. The<br />

work wa8 completed in April, 1884, and<br />

the following is a description <strong>of</strong> the route<br />

which has been adopted between the two<br />

places, and <strong>of</strong> the country passed through<br />

on the way. A number <strong>of</strong> persons have<br />

already made the journey on foot; any one<br />

accustomed to walking can do it comfortably<br />

in twelve hours ; and as the track becon1es<br />

opened up, an increasing num~er <strong>of</strong> s_eekers<br />

after health and pleasuro combmed will probably<br />

follow their example. Whe~ t~e<br />

proposed horse-track is completed it will<br />

be a very enjoyable ride. <strong>of</strong> five. hours.<br />

There is a good deal <strong>of</strong> variety and mtcrest<br />

in the scene en route, and a short account<br />

<strong>of</strong> its principal features will doubtless prove<br />

acceptable to tourists, whether on foot or<br />


48 THE RA.IL WA. Y GUIDE.<br />

Of the nature <strong>of</strong> the country passed<br />

through it may be generally remarked that<br />

it consists, first, <strong>of</strong> the great depression <strong>of</strong><br />

the Cox Valley, some 7 miles wide and 2,500<br />

feet deep, and then <strong>of</strong> three spurs <strong>of</strong> the<br />

Main Dividing Range <strong>of</strong> the Colony, the<br />

range itself being followed for about a<br />

mile, but not crossed, and attaining the<br />

summit level <strong>of</strong> 4,040 feet at 21 t miles from<br />

Katoomba.<br />

On leaving Katoomba, the Main Western<br />

Road is followed for lf mile until the<br />

E xplorer's Tree is reached. This is a<br />

venerable relic <strong>of</strong> the early history <strong>of</strong> the<br />

Colony, an old battered W and L cut in its<br />

trunk (the B which was originally also there<br />

having become obliterated by decay) telling<br />

the story <strong>of</strong> the first successful attempt made<br />

to surmount the hitherto impassable Blue<br />

Mountains and penetrate the unknown interior,<br />

by Wentworth, Lawson, and Blaxland.<br />

The tree is fenced round and buttressed<br />

with masonry, and bears the following inscription<br />

affixed thereto :-<br />

This wall and fence has (sic) been erected by the<br />

H on. J. S. F arnell, Esq., Minister for Lands, to<br />

preserve this tree marked by<br />


LAWSON,<br />


being the farthest distance reached in their first attempt<br />

to cross the :Blue Mountains in the month <strong>of</strong><br />

May,<br />

A.D. 1813.<br />

The expedition, which consisted <strong>of</strong> William<br />

Charles Wentworth, Gregory Blaxland, and<br />

Lieutenant William Lawson, started from<br />

South Creek, near Penrith, the residence <strong>of</strong><br />

Mr. Blaxland, on May 11, 1813, and reached<br />

its farthest point on June l. The following<br />

passa,ge from Oxley's Journal refers to the<br />

state <strong>of</strong> things at this time:-<br />

They now conceived that they had sufficiently accomplished<br />

the design <strong>of</strong> -their undertaking, having<br />

surmounted all the difficulties which had hitherto<br />

prevented the interior <strong>of</strong> the country from being explored.<br />

They had partly cleai:ed, or at least marked<br />

out, a road by which the passage <strong>of</strong> the mountain<br />

might be easily effected. Their provisions -were nearly<br />

expended, their clothes and shoes wer~ in _very bad<br />

condition, and the whole party were 111 with bowel<br />

complaints.<br />

The expedition completed its return to<br />

South Creek on June 6, having thus been<br />

out less than a month. In order to do justice<br />

to the courage, perseverance, and public<br />

spirit displayed on this expedition, it should<br />

be remarked that many previous attempts to<br />

penetrate the barrier <strong>of</strong> the Blue Mountains<br />

had returned unsuccessful, the first <strong>of</strong> which<br />

was undertaken by George Bass in 1796.<br />

Bass reported, on his return, that it was<br />

" impossible to find a passage, even for a<br />

person . on foot." In consequence <strong>of</strong> the<br />

success <strong>of</strong> the former expedition, Governor<br />

Macquarie dispatched George William<br />

Evans, Deputy Surveyor <strong>of</strong> Lands, to extend<br />

the discoveries. He crossed the N epean on<br />

the 20th November, 1813, arrived at the termination<br />

<strong>of</strong> Messrs. Wentworth, Blaxland,<br />

and Lawson's journey on the 26th, and prosecuted<br />

his undertaking for about 100 miles<br />

further to the west to the Bathurst Plains.<br />

On December 18 he commenced his return,<br />

and on January 8, 1814, he arrived home<br />

again. The construction <strong>of</strong> a road across<br />

the mountains was immediately commenced,<br />

and carried on so vigorously that on January<br />

21, 1815, it was completed from Sydney to<br />

Bathurst.<br />

At this point the route to the caves commences,<br />

following at first a cart track, which ·<br />

turns <strong>of</strong>f to the left, and presently turning<br />

<strong>of</strong>f to the left again it arrives (2 miles from<br />

Katoomba) at the head <strong>of</strong> the Megalong<br />

Cleft. This is a na,rrow chasm in the great<br />

sandstone wall, which is so remarkable a<br />

feature in the Blue Mountain scenery. It<br />

is quite practicable for travellers on foot,<br />

though steep and slushy, from the con~tant<br />

trickling <strong>of</strong> water from its head and sides,<br />

and almost filled with magnificent tree and<br />

other ferns, which thrive luxuriantly in the<br />

constant shade and damp. Halfway down<br />

the steep incline the musical sound <strong>of</strong><br />

falling water is heard, and a cascade <strong>of</strong><br />

some 30 ft. in height is seen on the left.<br />

The cleft is about 3,280 ft. a born the sea at<br />

the top (Katoomba is 3,350) and 2,690 at<br />

the foot, thus making a descent <strong>of</strong> some<br />

600 ft. in 21 chains, or an average grade <strong>of</strong><br />

1 in 2t, which might be impr?ved by zi~zaging<br />

to 1 in 5 or 6. On emergmg from this<br />

gorge <strong>of</strong> gloom, pr<strong>of</strong>ound even at mid.-d:1y,<br />

and from many points further on, strikmg<br />

views are obtained <strong>of</strong> the long line <strong>of</strong> sandstone<br />

cliffs behind and on each side, the


outlines and the great masses <strong>of</strong> light and<br />

shade bein~ very bold and varied, and the<br />

colouring <strong>of</strong> yellow, red, purple, and green<br />

superb. In many places the cliff overhangs,<br />

and one craggy mass to the west <strong>of</strong> the cleft<br />

bears a strong resemblance to a huge castle,<br />

with its great square towers, battlements,<br />

buttresses, and turrets, even the lines and<br />

joints <strong>of</strong> the masonry being distinctly visible;<br />

and another to the e:1st, on which has been<br />

conferred the name <strong>of</strong> the Boar's Head, is<br />

curiously like the head <strong>of</strong> an heraldic dragon,<br />

with pomted ears and open jaws. When<br />

flushed with the morning or evening glow,<br />

this mighty natural rampart is a sight worth<br />

going far to see.<br />

Proceeding onwards, a mile or so <strong>of</strong> rough<br />

ground is passed over, a slope strewn with<br />

angular rocks <strong>of</strong> different shapes and sizes,<br />

the accumulated wreck <strong>of</strong> ages from the cliff<br />

above, and covered with rather thick bush<br />

and scrub. After this the track pasrns<br />

through capital walking country, with sandy<br />

or gravelly soil, open bush, and no scrub.<br />

It is almost level for the next 3 or 4<br />

miles to Megalong Station, where some<br />

huts are seen on the right. After striking<br />

the S.E. corner <strong>of</strong> the paddock fence the<br />

track runs alongside the fence for about<br />

a mile, and at the S.W. corner (6-! miles<br />

from Katoomba, and 1,870 ft. above the<br />

sea) lea,es the course <strong>of</strong> Megalona Creek,<br />

which we have followed from the cleft thus<br />

far, and, bearing to the left, sidles the<br />

sloping ground on the left bank <strong>of</strong> the<br />

Cox, which foams a.long its rocky bed far<br />

b~low. An easy gradual descent for 3l<br />

miles takes us to the crossing, passing on<br />

the way, between marks 47 and 48 some<br />

picturesque granite rocks, which h~ve in<br />

past ages come tumbling down from the hill<br />

a?ove . ( called the Pinnacle) like colossal<br />

mne-prns ; one group, to which, from its<br />

shape, the name <strong>of</strong> the Toad has been given<br />

bei~g curiously perched one upon another:<br />

wh1ls~ across the river a ridge, with three<br />

promrne~t knobby peaks, attracts. attention<br />

on the right. At lOi miles we arrive at<br />

the crossing <strong>of</strong> the Cox, at its confluence<br />

with the Gibraltar Creek, the level <strong>of</strong> which<br />

is only 940 ft. above the sea, so that we<br />

have descended no less than 2,500 ft. since<br />

we left the Western Road. The river bed is<br />

well worth noticing : it is composed almost<br />

entirely <strong>of</strong> grey granite, mostly solid, but<br />

with loose rocks and boulders strewn about,<br />

some <strong>of</strong> them <strong>of</strong> huge dimensions, whilst the<br />

clear green water forms deep mirror-like<br />

pools among them, or tumbles over in<br />

brawling cascades. A mile or so further up<br />

the stream the valley is crossed by a dyke <strong>of</strong><br />

red granite, <strong>of</strong> a lovely rose colour, well<br />

worth turning aside to see, if time allows,<br />

or it could be taken on the return journey,<br />

and a cut across made afterwards to rejoin<br />

the track above. In its ordinary state the<br />

river can be crossed dryshod, and if the<br />

water should be unusually high a log whieh<br />

spans the stream a few chains below is<br />

available, but in the case <strong>of</strong> a flood it would<br />

not be wise for an inexperienced person to<br />

attempt the passage, whilst it is needless to<br />

say that during a high flood nothing can<br />

cross without swimming. Ralf a mile below<br />

the crossing is the comfortable hut <strong>of</strong> Peter<br />

Reilly, a free selector, who acts as stockrider<br />

on the adjacent hills, which are well<br />

grassed. H~ and his wife are the only residents<br />

on the route, for Megalong Station is<br />

only occasionally inhabited. Any travelJer<br />

who spends an evening with Peter will be<br />

entertained with a number <strong>of</strong> racy anecdotes<br />

concerning the wild bush life which he and<br />

so many others have led in the days gone by.<br />

The track follows up the Gibraltar Creek,<br />

and after crossing it three times, sidles up<br />

the steep slopes <strong>of</strong> its right bank. It is easy<br />

going, with the exception <strong>of</strong> two sharp<br />

pinches, which can be avoided by side cutting<br />

when the track is made, and brings us at 121<br />

miles to a low saddle (2,310 ft.) across the<br />

Mini Mini Range, an <strong>of</strong>f-shoot <strong>of</strong> the Main<br />

Divide, forming the northern boundary <strong>of</strong><br />

the Little River Valley, into which we<br />

descend by an easy spur, and at 13t miles<br />

we reach the bank <strong>of</strong> the river, 1,830 ft.<br />

above the sea. Here, bordered by low hills,<br />

is a small flat which will be a capital position<br />

for a half-way house hereafter. Follow_ing<br />

the left bank <strong>of</strong> the clear, pebbly, musical<br />

stream for half a mile, we cross it and commence<br />

the ascent <strong>of</strong> the Black Range, another<br />

<strong>of</strong>f-shoot <strong>of</strong> the Main Divide,runningeasterly<br />

from it, and separating the waters <strong>of</strong> the<br />

Little and J enolan Rivers. By a long easy<br />

spur we rise 1,400 ft. in the next mile and a<br />


•<br />


half, this gives an average grade <strong>of</strong> 1 in G,<br />

so that it is a task <strong>of</strong> no difficulty, except<br />

for one stiff pull, where the grade <strong>of</strong> the<br />

natural surface is about 1 in 4 for 60 cha.ins,<br />

and where the going condition <strong>of</strong> the traveller<br />

jg put to the pro<strong>of</strong>. On reaching the top<br />

(15t miles, height 3,200 ft.) the bron,d and<br />

apparently flat range extends westward for<br />

4 miles, then turns north for a mile so as to<br />

head a gully <strong>of</strong> great depth, in which rises<br />

one <strong>of</strong> the heads <strong>of</strong> the J enolan River; and,<br />

bending to the west again for half a mile,<br />

joins the Main Dividing Range <strong>of</strong> the Colony<br />

at 20{ miles, and at a height <strong>of</strong> 3,980 ft.<br />

above the sea. All along the Black Range<br />

an olcl cart track is followed, used in former<br />

years for the transport <strong>of</strong> bark to Bindo and<br />

Hartley. Although: as might be expected,<br />

pursuing a very serpentine course, it makes<br />

a cn,pital walking track, quite equal if not<br />

superior to the average Sydney foot pavement,<br />

and much better than the Sydney<br />

macadam. Here and there, where the track<br />

approaches the edge <strong>of</strong> the ridge, extensive<br />

views are obtained to the north, north-east,<br />

and south-deep gullies plunging steeply<br />

down into the great valleys, seas <strong>of</strong> dull<br />

green foliage out <strong>of</strong> which rise the bluegreen<br />

hills, with light yellow scars on their<br />

distant flanks, plainly denoting the ss.ndstone<br />

formation. About a mile further, at a point<br />

4,040 ft. high, the Main Range, which in this<br />

part <strong>of</strong> its course forms a remarkable ru<br />

curve, turns to west and north-west, and our<br />

trar.k leaves it and follows a spur trending<br />

almost due south right away to the caves.<br />

Along this spur runs the buggy track from<br />

Mount Victoria before alluded to, which,<br />

being cleared 10 or 12 ft. wide, and the ridge<br />

being nowhere steep, affords another 3t miles<br />

<strong>of</strong> excellent walking. Some extensive views<br />

to the eastward are to be had from several<br />

points on this part <strong>of</strong> the route, embracing<br />

to the left Katoomba, with the "Great<br />

\V estern Hotel" standing out against the<br />

sky ; to the front the Cox Range, Medlow<br />

Gap, and the striking two-peaked hill <strong>of</strong> the<br />

Brothers visible through it, reminding the<br />

travelled Australian <strong>of</strong> the Mythen on Lake<br />

Luzern ; and to the right the pr<strong>of</strong>ound recesses<br />

<strong>of</strong> the great J enolan Gorge, terminating<br />

in the mount <strong>of</strong> that ilk, one <strong>of</strong> the<br />

hills which has the honor <strong>of</strong> being named<br />

on Sir Thomas Mitchell's excellent feature<br />

map, still by far the best in existence <strong>of</strong><br />

the mountain district within 100 miles <strong>of</strong><br />

Sydney. On the west is the deep gorge <strong>of</strong><br />

the J enolan Creek, clothed in luxuriant<br />

timber, and on its further side the long wall<br />

<strong>of</strong> the Main Range stands up high against<br />

the sky. The descent <strong>of</strong> the spur we are<br />

on is so easy that at 25 miles we are still<br />

3,770 ft. above the sea; and then commences<br />

the descent to the caves, which are 1,200 ft.<br />

below. The spur plunges irregularly down<br />

to its termination at the caves, so that it is<br />

inexpedient to follow its ridge, and hence a<br />

narrow track has been trenched in its side,<br />

up or down which it is easy for man or horse<br />

to walk except after dark. This brings us<br />

to the Easter Arch <strong>of</strong> the caves-a natural<br />

bridge <strong>of</strong> limestone striding over the J enolan<br />

(M'Keown's, or M'Ewan's) Creek, from the<br />

spur we have come down, to another which is<br />

followed by the road from- Oberon. The<br />

top <strong>of</strong> this archway is strewn with slippery<br />

limestone rocks, and sundry holes descend<br />

to the regions below, so that wary walking is<br />

necessary in this neighbourhood. A track<br />

is, however, marked out which there is no<br />

difficulty in finding by daylight; and following<br />

this down we come at" last, after a journey<br />

<strong>of</strong> 26! miles, to our destination. In 11armony<br />

with the philosophy <strong>of</strong> the American, who<br />

said that there was no prospect, however fine,<br />

which was not improved with a good hotel in<br />

the foreground, the traveller who has come<br />

thus far will probably deem the sight <strong>of</strong> the<br />

accommodation house stretching across the<br />

narrow valley in front <strong>of</strong> him one <strong>of</strong> the<br />

pleasantest on the journey, the more so as<br />

for the last 13 miles since leaving Little<br />

River there is only one place where, excepting<br />

just after rain, water is conveniently to be<br />

had. He will be sure to receive every comfort<br />

and attention from Mr. and Mrs. Wilson,<br />

and under the experienced guidance <strong>of</strong> the<br />

former or his brother can proceed next<br />

morning to explore the caves, which may<br />

be aptly termed the Australian fairy land,<br />

and to the examination <strong>of</strong> whose charms<br />

several days should be devoted. For extent,<br />

variety, and wonderful beauty combined, this<br />

series <strong>of</strong> caves has few equals in the world.<br />

The present writer is aware <strong>of</strong> only one, the<br />

grotto <strong>of</strong> Adelsberg, in Carniola, 12 miles


5l<br />

S.E. ·<strong>of</strong> Trieste, where the features are very<br />

similar, and command the unbounded admiration<br />

<strong>of</strong> travellers from every part <strong>of</strong><br />

Europe. Considering their attractions, it<br />

seems surprising that our caves have not<br />

been visited by every intelligent person in<br />

the colony who possesses the time and means<br />

necessary to enable him to make the expedition.<br />

No doubt a ]arge number have been<br />

deterred by the tedious and roundabout route<br />

at present employed, and the limited number<br />

which the house at the caves has hitherto been<br />

able to accommodate. Both these difficulties<br />

areincourse<strong>of</strong> being remedied to some extent:<br />

the one by the horse track which is in course <strong>of</strong><br />

construction along the line marked out by Mr.<br />

Cooper, and the other by an enlargement <strong>of</strong> Mr.<br />

Wilson's house, which has been recently completed,<br />

thoughit appears to be still inadequate<br />

to public requirements on special occasions.<br />

It 1s understood that arrangements are in<br />

contemplation to exhibit their marvellous<br />

beauties in the only way by which anything<br />

like justice can be done to them,-by lighting<br />

up the caves by electricity. This, if carried<br />

out, will add tenfold to their charms, and<br />

cannot fail to induce a much larger number<br />

<strong>of</strong> persons to visit what will then certainly<br />

be one <strong>of</strong> the sights <strong>of</strong> the world.<br />

In conclusion, we can confidently recommend<br />

any one <strong>of</strong> good health and vigorous<br />

constitution, who has an eye for natural<br />

beauty, and a love <strong>of</strong> fresh air and exercise,<br />

t? take. this trip. By starting early, say 6<br />

o cloc~ m the morning, it can be comfortably<br />

made m ~he day on foot, and it will probably<br />

~e <strong>of</strong> assrntance to him and give an additional<br />

u~terest to his journey if he will carry with<br />

him these notes and the accompanying map,<br />

showing the natural features <strong>of</strong> the country<br />

traversed by the track. It will be observed<br />

that it is intersected from north to south<br />

and south-east by the great deprernion <strong>of</strong><br />

the Cox Valley, from 2,000 to 3,000 feet<br />

deep, bounded on the east by the long wall<br />

<strong>of</strong> sandstone cliffs which is so well known<br />

to tourists in the district. The remarkable<br />

shape assumed by the island-like hills hereabouts<br />

cannot fail to strike the observerislands<br />

and promontories they once were,<br />

no doubt ; they once bathed their feet in<br />

the surge <strong>of</strong> the Pacific, and the oceans <strong>of</strong><br />

ancient days hollowed out their cavernous<br />

sides, at the time when the coral insects<br />

were slowly building up the limestone ridge<br />

which now contains the wonderful series <strong>of</strong><br />

caves that are the object <strong>of</strong> the journey.<br />

On the west <strong>of</strong> the valley, and ut an avern,gc<br />

distanc·e <strong>of</strong> about 8 miles, it is bounded by<br />

the line <strong>of</strong> the Main Dividing Range, a.bout<br />

4,000 feet in height; numerous lateral spurs<br />

rising from it divide the intervening space<br />

into tributary vulleys, and along one <strong>of</strong><br />

these spurs, called the Black R.ange (from a<br />

dark-coloured stone found upon it), the<br />

track is taken to its junction with the Main<br />

R.ange. As the range at this point bends<br />

almost back again on itself in a curious (\)<br />

curve, the track leaves it and takes udvantage<br />

<strong>of</strong> a spur running southwards right to<br />

the caves themselves.<br />

A sum <strong>of</strong> £2,500 has been voted by Parliament<br />

for the construction <strong>of</strong> a horse track<br />

by this route, and the work has been commenced<br />

at the Megalong Cleft, where a zig-zag<br />

is being cut, partly in solid rock, which when<br />

completed will be usable by horses without<br />

difficulty, the steepest gradient being I in 5!.<br />

Summary <strong>of</strong> Distances and Heights on Track from Katoomba to Jenolan Gares.<br />

Mark.<br />

Place.<br />

Distn,nce from<br />

<strong>Railway</strong> Station,<br />

Ifatoomba.<br />

Height<br />

above<br />

Sen,.<br />

0<br />

6<br />

16<br />

26<br />

42<br />

54<br />

62<br />

65<br />

71<br />

88<br />

99<br />

105<br />

~at~omb,a <strong>Railway</strong> Station • , •.... , , , , , • , , , . , .... , , , , , , , , . . ... , . , •.... , ....... .<br />

T xp <strong>of</strong>~ s Tree ......... ,., ....... ,,,,,, , ,, .. ,, ... ,,,,,,, ........ ,,,,,,,,, .... .<br />

F~~t 0 0£ J[o~af {:; 0 Jf !it · · · · · · · · · · · · · ' · · ' ' ' ' · · ' · · · · ' · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ' ' · · · · ·<br />

~t~f Q}l;:.:/!//!/!Iti!\//<br />

Main Dividing Range and bu"'gy track fro~1 ·M~uht vi~t~;·i~ · · · · · · · · • · · · · · · · · .....<br />

Top <strong>of</strong> descent ....... , , .... ~ ........... , , , ..... , ..... , . , : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :<br />

Caves ...... , , ......... . , ............. , , . , . , .. , .•.. , .. , . , .. , .. , , ...... , ...... .<br />

miles<br />

chains<br />

1 40<br />

1 73<br />

2 14<br />

3 22<br />

6 61<br />

10 17<br />

12 38<br />

13 62<br />

15 25<br />

21 29<br />

24 73<br />

26 37<br />

feet<br />

3,350<br />

3,440<br />

3,280<br />

2,690<br />

2,110<br />

1,870<br />

940<br />

2,310<br />

1,830<br />

3,200<br />

3,980<br />

3,770<br />



When you leave Katoomba there are peeps<br />

to the left as you proceed for about 2 miles<br />

further to the westward. Mountains then<br />

become visible to the right, and distant<br />

views are to be seen to the left, with l<strong>of</strong>ty red<br />

cliffs and dark blue and grey ranges. Then<br />

the road-at Pulpit Hill-takes a sharp turn<br />

to the northward, and runs through many<br />

deep cuttings on this prolongation <strong>of</strong> the<br />

table-land still lying between the two great<br />

watersheds; winding a good deal, and showing<br />

many glimpses <strong>of</strong> blue mountains and<br />

magnificent cliffs <strong>of</strong> red and grey sandstone.<br />

To the left, over the Cunimbla Valley, views<br />

are occasionally to be seen <strong>of</strong> wondrous<br />

beauty, and strangely diversified with rich<br />

varieties <strong>of</strong> colour and atmospheric effects.<br />

The line passes a pretty Gothic gatehouse<br />

(for the benefit <strong>of</strong> those drovers· who may<br />

still have occasion to use the Old Road) and<br />

soon after you catch sight <strong>of</strong> the far <strong>of</strong>f<br />

ranges <strong>of</strong> mountains, which lie in the direction<br />

<strong>of</strong> Windsor and Richmond, and even <strong>of</strong><br />

Brisbane Water-the " Gap" beyond Cooranbong,<br />

in the Broken Back or Sugar-loaf<br />

Range, being readily distinguishable on a<br />

clear day by those who know where to look<br />

for it. Then there are several hastily displayed<br />

and as rapidly withdrawn views <strong>of</strong><br />

the Cunimbb Valley away to the southwestward<br />

; and so, after a very pleasant<br />

t1'a:J°et <strong>of</strong> 7 miles, the traveller finds himself<br />

arrived at Blackheath, in the immediate<br />

vicinity <strong>of</strong> Govett's Leap and Gorge, overlooking<br />

to the north and north-eastward the<br />

Great Valley <strong>of</strong> the Grose.<br />

A visit to Katoomba, Blackheath, &c., has<br />

been pleasantly described by Locksley in the<br />

Melbourne" Argus." He says:-<br />

" You take the train at Redfern at 9 o'clock<br />

in the morning, and soon leave the city and<br />

its straggling suburbs behind. The day was<br />

bright and sunny when we began our trip,<br />

and the country was fresh and green from the<br />

recent rains. We pass groves <strong>of</strong> oranges,<br />

where the winter crop <strong>of</strong> the golden fruit<br />

shines out brightly from the rich green foliage.<br />

The considerable town <strong>of</strong> Parramatta is<br />

passed, and further on that <strong>of</strong> Penrith, on<br />

the banks <strong>of</strong> the fine N epean River, which<br />

flows just at the foot <strong>of</strong> the Blue Mountains<br />

which here rise steep and high, a colossal<br />

barrier, right athwart our course. The line<br />

runs straight for them, and soon you feel by<br />

the heavy beats <strong>of</strong> the engine that you are<br />

labouring up a very stiff ascent. Some<br />

distance further on you come to the first<br />

Zigzag in ascending which you obtain in<br />

various aspects some very charming views <strong>of</strong><br />

the plains you have quitted, with the gleaming<br />

river winding through them. As you<br />

advance you steadily rise, and climb up to<br />

the higher part <strong>of</strong> the great mountain mass.<br />

The road presents constant changes to the<br />

eye; now you are looking over miles <strong>of</strong> blue<br />

hills and bluer valleys, now passing some<br />

wild fantastic glen, now looking onward to a<br />

strange notch in the ridge <strong>of</strong> a


all covered with small ranges <strong>of</strong> hills like the<br />

blue, storm-tossed billows <strong>of</strong> a mighty sea.<br />

But in the midst <strong>of</strong> the valley right before<br />

us rises a massive hill, level with the ground<br />

we stand on, and showing on its red-tinted<br />

cliffs lines <strong>of</strong> stratification exactly corresponding<br />

to those visible in the bounding-walls <strong>of</strong><br />

the valley. This is the Solitary, but its<br />

savagely isolated, inaccessible look, and its<br />

general conformation, first a huge talus, then<br />

a wall <strong>of</strong> perpendicular cliff, and on the top<br />

a forest-covered table land, reminded us <strong>of</strong><br />

views we had seen <strong>of</strong> the great unscaleable<br />

mountain <strong>of</strong> Roraima, on the borders <strong>of</strong><br />

British Guiana. Below where we stood on a<br />

jutting point <strong>of</strong> cliff, a huge rock, fantastically<br />

shaped like a colossal natural cathedral, stood<br />

in the valley below. A walk <strong>of</strong> a mile or<br />

two took us to another point <strong>of</strong> view, just<br />

over the Katoomba Falls, where a slender<br />

stream leaps as though with fear and reluctance<br />

over the lip-edge <strong>of</strong> a great precipice,<br />

and descends in finely divided, wavering,<br />

lace-like tracery to the depths <strong>of</strong> the valley<br />

below, where it is lost among the trees <strong>of</strong><br />

which we just discern the tops. On the<br />

other side <strong>of</strong> us rises from the pr<strong>of</strong>ound gulf<br />

a tall, rudely pinnacle-shaped rock, all<br />

shaggy with trees which found root-hold in<br />

its rugged joints and recesses. But the sight<br />

<strong>of</strong> all was the long lines <strong>of</strong> battlemented<br />

cliffs, now redder than ever in the light <strong>of</strong><br />

the afternoon sun, while the depth <strong>of</strong> the<br />

valley was growing bluer, as though by<br />

reflection from the sky above. They seemed<br />

like mighty fortifications remaining from a<br />

time when giants warred with gods, with<br />

their curtains and ravelins, scarp and glacis,<br />

and jutting bastions, the dimensions <strong>of</strong> which<br />

were not in yards but in furlongs. And so<br />

these enormous ramparts stretched away for<br />

miles down the valley, where, at its lower<br />

end, the strange formation breaks up into<br />

formless disorder, and confused masses <strong>of</strong> blue<br />

hills bound the prospect.<br />

" The afternoon air at the altiLude <strong>of</strong> this<br />

magnificent sanitarium for the people <strong>of</strong><br />

Sydney is warm and genial, but as the sun<br />

approaches the horizon and the shadows<br />

grow long the temperature rapidly falls, and<br />

you are glad to get inside the house. But the<br />

air is al ways light, and fresh, and free, and<br />

as stimulating as champagne. From the<br />

verandah <strong>of</strong> the hotel the great electric light<br />

in the lighthouse at South Head, which<br />

iJlumines the whole harbour with its revolving<br />

blaze, can be seen scintillating and flashing,<br />

like a more brilliant Venus, on the horizon.<br />

" When we rise in the morning the easterly<br />

plains are covered in patches with a low mist,<br />

and seem as though covered with the sea.<br />

From the great valley close at hand rise the<br />

ragged edges <strong>of</strong> enormous boiling mists, which<br />

dissipate as soon as they ascend ab.ove the<br />

sides <strong>of</strong> the mighty cauldron. We take a<br />

walk <strong>of</strong> about a mile to the historic tree<br />

where the three gallant explorers, Wentworth,<br />

Blaxland, and Lawson, in their first attempt<br />

to penetrate the huge barrier <strong>of</strong> the Blue<br />

Mountains in 1813, carved their names before<br />

turning back, as they were forced to do, for<br />

fresh supplies. The tree is now protected by<br />

a wall, built by the Government, containing<br />

a large inscribed stone to commemorate the<br />

circumstance. It then became a question<br />

what was to be the programme for the day.<br />

We could not, indeed, reach the Lithgow<br />

Valley, or even the Second (which is the<br />

greater) Zigzag, and get back to Sydney, as<br />

we wished to do, that night. But we could<br />

go on as far as Govett's Leap and see the<br />

similar, and it is said even more awful, Valley<br />

<strong>of</strong> the Grose ; or we could go down to the<br />

next station and see the Wentworth Falls,<br />

at the famous Weatherboard. We were<br />

persuaded to choose the latter, in which<br />

I think we made a mistake, inasmuch as<br />

we thereby only saw one <strong>of</strong> the great<br />

gorges instead <strong>of</strong> the two. Not that the falls<br />

themselves were anything less than wonderful.<br />

Their depth must be enormous, including the<br />

space where the little stream rushes down for<br />

perhaps one or two hundred feet in white,<br />

foaming, plashing, rapids between the rocks,<br />

then falls for hundreds <strong>of</strong> feet through the<br />

air in slender threads, projected on the black<br />

background <strong>of</strong> the overhanging cliff, swaying<br />

in the breeze, and at times caught by the<br />

gusts and whirled wildly about 'like a .mad<br />

witch's hair,' and carried right back agam to<br />

the top <strong>of</strong> the fall, but all ultimate~y descending<br />

in spray and rain among the nch :7eg.etation<br />

at the foot, where it collects agam rnto<br />

a stream before taking its final plunge over<br />

another vast cyclopean wall into the valley<br />

beneath. From this point you undoubtedly see


the valley in its most impressive aspect. The<br />

precipices here are more imposing, the effect <strong>of</strong><br />

the mighty containing walls <strong>of</strong> the gorge<br />

is grander, and the great Solitary looks more<br />

like Roraima than ever. When you try to<br />

analyse the impression these sights stamp on<br />

the mind you find a difficulty in resolving it<br />

into its elements. It is too strange for sublimity,<br />

too overpowering for beauty, too stern<br />

for the fantastic, too severely wild for the<br />

grotesque. The impression, like the scene, is<br />

unique, and will not come in place under any<br />

<strong>of</strong> the familiar terms <strong>of</strong> description. The<br />

feeling which rises in the mind as you look<br />

at the scene and give yourself up fully to the<br />

sentiments awakened by the view <strong>of</strong> these<br />

awful precipices, these vast distances, these<br />

strangely contrasted colourings <strong>of</strong> bright red<br />

cliff ancl intensely blue valley, these enormous<br />

depths, that ·wildly confused floor covered<br />

with hills and forests many hundreds <strong>of</strong> feet<br />

below, is that you have been brought nearer<br />

than you ever stood before to the workings<br />

<strong>of</strong> some strange and mighty and unsuspected<br />

forces in the great arsenal <strong>of</strong> nature.<br />

'' And with this our views <strong>of</strong> the Blue<br />

Mountains had for the time to encl. They<br />

are well and happily named. All <strong>of</strong> our Australian<br />

mountains are blue in the distance,<br />

but none I think so blue as these. Their<br />

blueness, or 'blueth,' as some <strong>of</strong> our old<br />

writers used to write the word, seems a<br />

positive colouring and not a mere effect <strong>of</strong><br />

distance. It begins so very close to you, and<br />

deepens into such deep ultramarine farther<br />

away.<br />

One more word about the Blue Mountains.<br />

These are capable <strong>of</strong> being regarded in many<br />

different aspects. For a long time they were<br />

looked upon as an enormous tract <strong>of</strong> waste<br />

and useless land, lying like an enormous<br />

obstruction in the middle <strong>of</strong> the Colony. It<br />

is impossible to regard them in this way now.<br />

They have been proved to be amazingly<br />

rich in mineral treasures <strong>of</strong> the most varied<br />

characters. Few places rival the famous<br />

Lithgow Valley in the abundance and variety<br />

<strong>of</strong> their mineral wealth. And even here,<br />

in these nearer parts we have visited, the<br />

same character <strong>of</strong> mineru.l richness holds<br />

good. Just within sight <strong>of</strong> the picturesque<br />

Katoomba Falls the upper works <strong>of</strong> a<br />

coal-mine are perched on the very edge <strong>of</strong><br />

the vast prec1p1ce, and the coal is hauled<br />

from the pit by a wire rope right to the side<br />

<strong>of</strong> the railway."<br />

Mount King George, Mount Hay,<br />

Mount Toomah, and Mount Wilson.­<br />

Lying north-eastward and north <strong>of</strong> the linP,<br />

between Katoomba and Blackhe~th-from 6<br />

to 13 miles away, and in the almost inaccessible<br />

country which constitutes the watersheds<br />

<strong>of</strong> the Grose and the Colo RiYers-are<br />

the four l<strong>of</strong>ty mountains <strong>of</strong> King George,<br />

Hay, Toomah, and Wilson. Mount King<br />

George, on the north-west side <strong>of</strong> the Grose<br />

-the Saddle-backed Hill, visible from<br />

Sydney-is 3,620 feet high; Mount Hay,<br />

on the south-east side <strong>of</strong> the same river,<br />

2,400 feet; and (more northerly between the<br />

Colo River and the Wollangambe Creek)<br />

Mount Wilson, 3,580 feet. Eastward <strong>of</strong> all<br />

these stands Mount Toomah, 3,240 feet high.<br />

These mountains, the most conspicuous points<br />

in the whole range, can be seen from Sydney,<br />

and are sometimes spoken <strong>of</strong> collectively, as<br />

" The Dromedary." Some <strong>of</strong> them can :first<br />

be seen from the verandah <strong>of</strong> the " Old Blue<br />

Mountain Inn," at the Lawson Station; but<br />

as the traveller proceeds to the westward,<br />

they become gradually more and more developed.<br />

"Mr. Charles Moore, <strong>of</strong> the Sydney<br />

Botanic Gardens," says Burton's <strong>Guide</strong> (page<br />

121), "has drawn attention to the fact that<br />

on these four hills the soil is <strong>of</strong> the richest<br />

kind, composed principally <strong>of</strong> disintegrated<br />

trap, and clad with noble timber trees <strong>of</strong> a<br />

brush character, the undergrowth being<br />

chiefly tree and other ferns. This is the<br />

more extraordinary from the fact that they<br />

are surrounded in all directions by others <strong>of</strong><br />

a sandstone formation, covered by a wretched<br />

and sterile scrub, and some eucalypti <strong>of</strong><br />

miserable growth." For long after the opening<br />

<strong>of</strong> the Main Western Road, Mount Hay<br />

was supposed . to be inaccessible, until -that<br />

indefatigable explorer, Count Strzelecki, successfully<br />

crossed the ravines and ascended<br />

the summit. "Some idea," says Sir Thomas<br />

Mitchell, in his work on Australia, "may be<br />

formed <strong>of</strong> the intricate character <strong>of</strong> the mountain<br />

ravines in the neighbourhood, from the<br />

difficulties experienced by the surveyors in<br />

endeavouring to obtain access to Mount Hay.<br />

Mr. Dixon, in an unsuccessful attempt, pene-


trated to the Valley <strong>of</strong> the Grose, until then<br />

unvisited by man, and when he at length<br />

emerged from the ravines in which he had<br />

been bewildered four days, he thar.ked God<br />

(to use his own words, in an <strong>of</strong>ficial letter)<br />

that he had- found his way out <strong>of</strong> them."<br />

Even Count Strzelecki tells us, that in the<br />

course <strong>of</strong> his researches he was engulphed in<br />

the endless labyrinth <strong>of</strong> the almost subterraneous<br />

gullies <strong>of</strong> Mount Hay, and was<br />

unable to extricate himself and his men until<br />

after days <strong>of</strong> incessant fatigue, danger, and<br />

starvation. "But," he adds, "the ascent <strong>of</strong><br />

Mount Hay, whEn these difficulties are once<br />

surmounted; repays richly the exertions and<br />

fatigues which it entails. From its basaltic<br />

top the distant views to the south and<br />

weRt are somewhat intercepted by King's<br />

Table-land and other mountains somewhat<br />

higher than Mount Hay ; but to the east,<br />

the sea-coast, bordering the interesting basin<br />

through which flows the rivers N epean and<br />

Hawkesbury, the vicinity <strong>of</strong> Farramatta<br />

River, together with Sydney and Botany<br />

Bay, are distinctly visible. To the north also<br />

the prospect is extensive. In the intervening<br />

space may be noticed the vast gorge at the<br />

head <strong>of</strong> the Grose River. In a westerly direv<br />

tion, in the valley, lie the towns <strong>of</strong> Hartley<br />

and Bowenfels, ,vith Mount Lambie in the<br />

background." Mount King George, Mount<br />

Hay, and Mount Toornah, form conspicuous<br />

objects in the grand view from the edge <strong>of</strong><br />

the gorge near Blackheath, which generally<br />

goes by the odd but well-known name <strong>of</strong><br />

"Govett's Leap."<br />

l Blackheath Platform, 73 miles ; 3,494<br />

feet above sea-level.-The visitor may<br />

either leave the train here, where he will find<br />

good accommodation, or journey on to Mount<br />

Victoria, from which place Blackheath may<br />

be readily visited either on foot or on horseback,<br />

there being a good road near the line<br />

all the way, a distance <strong>of</strong> about 4 miles.<br />

On the eastern side <strong>of</strong> the hotel standing near<br />

the station a road branches <strong>of</strong>f to the northeastward,<br />

and leads the tourist, after a walk<br />

or ride <strong>of</strong> 2 miles, to the edge <strong>of</strong> the gorge.<br />

Mount King George is found rising to the left<br />

<strong>of</strong> the traveller when he reaches this interesting<br />

spot, and Mount Hay appears in front<br />

<strong>of</strong> him, at the distance <strong>of</strong> rather more than 5<br />

miles. "as the crow flies." Between the hut<br />

and lYiount Hay there is a general and almost<br />

continuous descent to the extreme depth <strong>of</strong><br />

1,850 feet, the vast densely wooded basin<br />

beneath converging towards the gorge <strong>of</strong> the<br />

Grose, presenting a coup d'(J!,il which can never<br />

be forgotten. On the right <strong>of</strong> the ruined<br />

hut, at the distance <strong>of</strong> about half a mile, is<br />

the "G.ovett's Leap," or Falls, an unbroken<br />

descent <strong>of</strong> about 500 feet. Far below, in the<br />

valley, is "The Trinity Cascade," and to the<br />

westward (nearly on a line with Govett's<br />

Leap) is another waterfall, not so easy to see,<br />

known as "The Left-hand Fall," for want<br />

<strong>of</strong> some more fitting designation. There is<br />

also yet another cascade formed by one <strong>of</strong> the<br />

minor tributaries <strong>of</strong> the Grose, away to the<br />

eastward, at the distance <strong>of</strong> 2 or 3 miles<br />

from the hut. Another track-ending on the<br />

west side <strong>of</strong> the accommodation house-leads<br />

to " Ferry's Look-clown" into the Grose<br />

Valley, near Hat Hill-some miles further to<br />

the north <strong>of</strong> Govett's Leap. From "Ferry's<br />

Look-down" the track is continued past<br />

"Docker's Ladder," down to a place called<br />

"The Gap," and so on to "Junction Camp,"<br />

in "the Gorge <strong>of</strong> the Grose," properly so<br />

called, 2,150 feet below the Blackheath<br />

platform ; but no ordinary visitor should<br />

on any account attempt to visit these lastnamed<br />

spots without a thoroughly competent<br />

guide.<br />

Govett's Leap: Waterfalls and Gorge.<br />

-From a bold and rugged mass <strong>of</strong> rock in a<br />

J;ay or bend at the southern extremity <strong>of</strong><br />

the valley or chasm, and near the ruined<br />

hut at the end <strong>of</strong> the road, the visitor may<br />

perhaps obtain the best general view <strong>of</strong> this<br />

wondrous spot. To the right, at the distance<br />

<strong>of</strong> about half a mile, the Govett's Leap, or<br />

Fall, pours itself, headlong, over a perpendicular<br />

wall <strong>of</strong> dark tinted rock, 520 feet in<br />

sheer descent, on to a mass <strong>of</strong> black fragments<br />

<strong>of</strong> stone which has in the course <strong>of</strong> ages<br />

accumulated at the base <strong>of</strong> the cataract.<br />

This descending mass <strong>of</strong> water-white and<br />

misty as the driven snow-sways, as the<br />

wind blows, to and fro, like the veil <strong>of</strong> a<br />

bride ; the vast height <strong>of</strong> the waterfall, the<br />

strong contrast <strong>of</strong> colour, and the undulating<br />

motion so produced, imparting a very singular<br />

and most charming effect. When the sun


attains to a certain altitude, a rainbow plays<br />

for hours around the cloudy folds <strong>of</strong> this<br />

Fairy Veil. From the neighbourhood <strong>of</strong> the<br />

hut the other cascades are not visible ; but on<br />

turning a few yards to the westward the deep<br />

whisper <strong>of</strong> the Left-hand Fall may be distinctly<br />

heard. The whole <strong>of</strong> this rock-enclosed<br />

valley before the spectator is for the<br />

most part hemmed in with titanic walls <strong>of</strong> red<br />

and grey rocks from 400 to 800 feet in height,<br />

and from the irregularly defined base <strong>of</strong> these<br />

outermost and uppermost walls <strong>of</strong> the valley<br />

there is everywhere a steep rocky incline, or<br />

talus, covered with thick woods down to the<br />

lowest depths, 1,200 feet below the level <strong>of</strong><br />

the rock on which the traveller stands. Here<br />

and there in this broad and verdant expanse<br />

<strong>of</strong> tree-tops, rising and falling according to<br />

the varied surface, may be seen a few grey<br />

patches <strong>of</strong> half denuded rock; but for the<br />

most part all these lowest slopes (on either<br />

side <strong>of</strong> the devious but invisible central<br />

stream) are densely shaded with primeval<br />

forest trees, the tops <strong>of</strong> which, from the alt.itude<br />

occupied by the spectator, appear<br />

strangely s<strong>of</strong>t and dim in their outlines.<br />

Beyond the " Leap" -apparently a Cumbrian<br />

provincialism for wate1fall, named after W.<br />

R. Govett, a Government surveyor, who first<br />

explored these parts-and round the first<br />

point to the eastward, there is another deep<br />

" bay" <strong>of</strong> precipitous rock ; and from the<br />

furthest limit <strong>of</strong> this bay there is a winding<br />

channel leading down to the centre <strong>of</strong> the<br />

whole tableau. From the easternmost end <strong>of</strong><br />

the Govett's Leap Gorge the rocky walls trend<br />

north-westerly, until, ending sharply as before,<br />

the semicircular barren top <strong>of</strong> Mount Hay<br />

becomes visible, with long lines <strong>of</strong> blue hills<br />

in the extreme distance. The Govett's Leap<br />

Gorge is shut in on the western side <strong>of</strong> its<br />

northern limit by a boldly projecting termination<br />

<strong>of</strong> cliff and talus; and thence inside <strong>of</strong><br />

that outer boundary a grand sweep <strong>of</strong> rocks,<br />

mountains, and declivitous slopes comes back<br />

to the left <strong>of</strong> the spectator. To the west <strong>of</strong><br />

the hut, as you go towards the Left-hand<br />

Falls, there is a most extraordinary echo, by<br />

which short sentences are distinctly repeated<br />

nearly half a minute after they have been<br />

uttered. In the slopes many hundred feet<br />

below, in the vicinity <strong>of</strong> the Left-hand Fall,<br />

there are large and lovely groves <strong>of</strong> tree fern<br />

and such like products, the rocks behind<br />

them being beautifully decked with trailing<br />

creepers and arborescent plants. Mount<br />

King George (here assuming the outline <strong>of</strong> a<br />

couchant lion) overlooks the western side <strong>of</strong><br />

the Govett's Leap cha~m-a southern <strong>of</strong>fshoot<br />

<strong>of</strong> the Valley <strong>of</strong> the Grose, the course <strong>of</strong><br />

which, by the way, is here from north-west<br />

to south-east. The glorious character <strong>of</strong> the<br />

entire scene, in all its vastness and sublimity<br />

-cliff, mountain, forest, and shadowy distant<br />

hills-impresses the beholder with admiration<br />

and with awe, the never ceasing sigh <strong>of</strong> unseen<br />

and remote waters naturally conducing<br />

greatly to the general effect.<br />

Another description <strong>of</strong> Govett's Leap.<br />

-The following description <strong>of</strong> the Govett's<br />

Leap Gorge and Falls is from the accomplished<br />

pen <strong>of</strong> Mr. E. Du Faur, F.R.G.S.: "Leaving<br />

the Blackheath Platform (7 3 miles from<br />

Sydney) the tourist follows a road trending<br />

east-north-east, through an uninteresting<br />

scrubby forest, for about 2 miles (having<br />

gradually descended about 320 feet), when<br />

he arrives at the edge <strong>of</strong> a gorge hemmed in<br />

by perpendicular cliffs <strong>of</strong> sandstone, lying in<br />

horizontal strata, and varying generally from<br />

400 to 800 feet in depth. From the foot <strong>of</strong><br />

these cliffs a steep talus descends to the<br />

centre <strong>of</strong> the gorge, at a depth <strong>of</strong> 1,850 feet<br />

from th.e edge <strong>of</strong> the precipice. The width<br />

<strong>of</strong> the gorge varies from three-quarters <strong>of</strong> a<br />

mile to a mile and a-half, and its length, in a<br />

straight line, to its confluence with that <strong>of</strong><br />

the Grose River, is 3-l miles. At a distance<br />

<strong>of</strong> 520 yards from the end <strong>of</strong> the road a small<br />

watercourse abruptly terminates in the Falls<br />

known as Govett's Leap, the perpen


limited, being confined to the northern slopes<br />

<strong>of</strong> the main ridges along which the <strong>Railway</strong><br />

passes; but being fed from swamps or<br />

'sponges,' they are perennial, and show little<br />

variation in the quantity <strong>of</strong> water passing<br />

down them in winter or summer, except immediately<br />

after heavy rains. The descent to<br />

the foot <strong>of</strong> the Falls is at present impracticable<br />

from their immediate neighbourhood. It was<br />

reached for the first time-at least for many<br />

years-in the month <strong>of</strong> October, 1875, from<br />

a sketching camp formed by the writer, at<br />

the junction <strong>of</strong> Govett's Leap Gorge with the<br />

Valley <strong>of</strong> the Grose, to be hereafter described.<br />

That junction is situated about 12 miles<br />

down the Grose Valley from the Hartley<br />

Vale Siding (80 miles from Sydney), and<br />

2,270 feet below the <strong>Railway</strong> _; thence, owing<br />

to the roughness <strong>of</strong> the upper part <strong>of</strong><br />

Govett's Creek bed and the denseness <strong>of</strong> the<br />

scrub, fully three and a half hours are<br />

required to reach the foot <strong>of</strong> the Falls,<br />

although the distance, as above stated, is only<br />

about 3-1- miles in a straight line. As<br />

described by its visitor'l3 on that occasion, the<br />

scene at the bottom <strong>of</strong> the Falls is, if possible,<br />

grander than that from above. From the<br />

top you can see nothing distinctly, only an<br />

awful gulf, with a confused mass <strong>of</strong> foliage<br />

far b~low; but from below it appears a large<br />

amphitheatre, filled with trees <strong>of</strong> luxuriant<br />

growth, and ferns and mosses. The water<br />

corning down sometimes like falling rockets,<br />

sometimes dissipated by the wind into clouds<br />

<strong>of</strong> spray before it has half completed its<br />

downward course, is wafted over a large area,<br />

and insures the conditions <strong>of</strong> perennial<br />

moisture so plainly evidenced by the luxuriance<br />

<strong>of</strong> the surroundin()' verretation. Then<br />

, f O 0<br />

agam, rom below you have a sky-line broken<br />

into many fantastic shapes, and lighted up in<br />

parts with delicate bright hues, while others<br />

are in deep shade, in lieu <strong>of</strong> the almost<br />

uniformly level horizon seen from above.<br />

Standing at the basin at the foot <strong>of</strong> Govett's<br />

Leap, which is only about 25 yards from the<br />

perpendicular wall <strong>of</strong> rock, it is almost impossible<br />

to look up at the Falls. The better<br />

plan is to lie on one's back, and look upwards<br />

to the zenith, when the 700 feet cliffs forming<br />

the ends <strong>of</strong> the horse-shoe bend in which the<br />

Falls are situated tower above you on either<br />

side, while the waterfall appears to be coming<br />

down from a depression in their centre almost<br />

on to your face. Few persons perhaps could<br />

lie in that position for more than a minute<br />

or two at a time without feeling giddy, the<br />

sight is so grand. Besides the three principal<br />

falls above referred to, there are many others<br />

in this valley and in that <strong>of</strong> the Grose <strong>of</strong><br />

almost equal depth, which have not yet been<br />

clm;ely approached; while some <strong>of</strong> the minor<br />

cascades-notably the 'Trinity Falls'-are<br />

<strong>of</strong> excessive beauty. Before leaving the<br />

subject it may be as well to record the origin<br />

<strong>of</strong> the name <strong>of</strong>' Govett's Leap.' Mr. W. R.<br />

Govett was a Government surveyor who, in<br />

the year 1832, under instructions from Sir<br />

Thomas (then Major) Mitcell, the Surveyor­<br />

General, 'to survey the features <strong>of</strong> the county<br />

<strong>of</strong> Cook,' is supposed to have first discovered<br />

the Falls. He made some unsuccessful<br />

attempts to descend into the gorge ; but his<br />

plarn; <strong>of</strong> the contour <strong>of</strong> the ranges and gorges,<br />

as partly traversed and otherwise sketched in<br />

from above, and which illustrate an area <strong>of</strong><br />

some 650 square miles, are proved to be<br />

remarkably accurate, when the early date and<br />

limited means at his disposal, in country<br />

<strong>of</strong> so remarkahly difficult a character, and<br />

entirely uninhabited, are considered."<br />

Another description <strong>of</strong> Govett's Leap.<br />

-Mr. Edwin Barton's description <strong>of</strong> Govett's<br />

Leap and its vicinity will also Le re.ad with<br />

interest. That indefatigable litterateiir says :<br />

" One <strong>of</strong> the greatest natural ,vonders <strong>of</strong> the<br />

world is Govett's Leap, 6 miles from Mount<br />

Victoria Station. The goods train, which<br />

leaves soon after 10 o'clock every morning,<br />

will drop the excursionist at Blackheath<br />

Platform, and a walk <strong>of</strong> a mile and a half<br />

through some pretty scenery will bring him<br />

to the Gap itself. There was once a stockade<br />

here, and the ruins <strong>of</strong> the <strong>of</strong>ficers' quarters<br />

may still be see.n lying on the ground, whilst<br />

on the opposite side <strong>of</strong> the station is an old<br />

graveyard. The track leading to the 'Leap,'<br />

which is wide enough for buggies, is entered<br />

amidst some tea-tree scrub a hundred yards<br />

or so to the left <strong>of</strong> the Main Western Road,<br />

and not far from the hotel. Once on the<br />

track the visitor has nothing to do but to<br />

follow it up until he reaches the tremendous<br />

rent or depression in the earth, which is said<br />

to be the deepest chasm with perpendicular


cliffs in the known world. It is almost sur-·<br />

rounded with these cliffs, which are believed<br />

to be nowhere less than 3,000 feet above the<br />

level <strong>of</strong> the sea. The full sublimity and<br />

majestic grandeur <strong>of</strong> the scene is not realised<br />

at a first glance. After contemplating it for<br />

a time the mind becomes filled with awe and<br />

wonder as it vainly strives to comprehend<br />

" ---The vast immeasurable abyss<br />

Outrageous as a sea, dark, wasteful, wild."<br />

The trees in the valley below, although one<br />

or two hundred feet high, or perhaps more,<br />

are undistinguishable in their individuality.<br />

Standing on the abrupt precipitous wall, one<br />

cannot help feeling a strong desire to reach<br />

the depths <strong>of</strong> the gorge. But the closer one<br />

seeks for a spot at which a descent can be<br />

made, the more certain does it appear that<br />

such an object is unattainable. It is recorded<br />

that Sir Thomas Mitchell (formerly<br />

Surveyor-General for the Colony) endeavoured,<br />

first by walking ancl then by crawling between<br />

the great fragments <strong>of</strong> sandstone, to ascend<br />

the Gorge through which the river Grose<br />

joins the Nepean, but in vain. Near to the<br />

shed which was erected by the Government<br />

on the occasion <strong>of</strong> Prince Alfred's visit, and<br />

which overlooks the ravine, a track may be<br />

noticed winding down 200 or 300 feet, to<br />

where a rock juts out, and on which those<br />

who are fearless enough may recline, and<br />

endeavour, if they can, to form some conception<br />

<strong>of</strong> this wonderful place. The scenery is<br />

full <strong>of</strong> grandeur, and to add to its beauty<br />

there are two streams, which are precipitated<br />

into the mighty chasm, and a~though meeting<br />

with no impediment but the atmosphere in<br />

their descent, they are dissipated into mist<br />

long before their waters can reach the bottom<br />

j and <strong>of</strong>ten when the wind is favourable<br />

the spray is wafted upwards and along for a<br />

considerable distance. To a few members <strong>of</strong><br />

the New South Wales Academy <strong>of</strong> Art is the<br />

horror due <strong>of</strong> having explored the valleys which<br />

lead up to this tremendous gorge. For some<br />

days this gallant band made their home in the<br />

ravines, and succeeded in ascertaining the<br />

heights <strong>of</strong> the hills, and taking a number <strong>of</strong><br />

excellent photographs <strong>of</strong> the scenery."<br />

The Mermaid's Glen.-The visitor to<br />

Blackheath should 11ot omit to pay a visit to<br />

a pretty dell known as the Mermaid's Glen.<br />

To reach it you leave Blackheath platform,<br />

and after following the <strong>Railway</strong> line in the<br />

direction <strong>of</strong> Sydney for about half a mile the<br />

word "Cave" will be found written on the<br />

~ailway fence (southern boundary), a little<br />

distance beyond the furthest distance signal<br />

from the station. From the fence a welldefined<br />

track leads into the valley. At the<br />

bottom <strong>of</strong> the glen the track passes between<br />

two rocks into a lovely natural basin, dense<br />

with ferns, into which a streamlet falls.<br />

Leaving this and passing to the right a larger<br />

stream is found running through the valley j<br />

the stream is hidden in many parts by masses<br />

<strong>of</strong> ferns and shrubs; in places forest trees,<br />

. their trunks covered with moss <strong>of</strong> years'<br />

growth, have fallen across it; while the living<br />

trees, with foliage beautifully green and dense,<br />

t!1row a grateful shade over the whole glen.<br />

Mount Victoria Station, 77 miles;<br />

3,422 feet above sea-level.-4 miles northwest<br />

from the Blackheath PlaHorm is the<br />

Station <strong>of</strong> Mount Victoria, not the less remarkable<br />

for the centrality <strong>of</strong> its position<br />

and for its bracing atmosphere than for the<br />

grandeur <strong>of</strong> its scenery. Mount Victoria is<br />

a place <strong>of</strong> some importance, being a very<br />

favourite place <strong>of</strong> resort for tourists and invalids.<br />

Already it contains numerous villa<br />

residences, a post <strong>of</strong>fice, a telegraph station,<br />

two or three stores, and three excellent<br />

hotels-the "Royal," Perry's "Imperial,"<br />

and the " :Manor House." There is also<br />

a Public School and an Anglican Church.<br />

The "Imperial Hotel" is a large castellated<br />

edifice, occupying a commanding situation<br />

between the two other hotels. In the immediate<br />

vicinity <strong>of</strong> Mount Victoria are many<br />

localities <strong>of</strong> great beauty and peculiar interest<br />

to the traveller. Amongst these are: Mount<br />

Piddington; the Fairy Dell; the Engineer's<br />

Cascade ; the Little Zigzag ; the Fairy Bower;<br />

Cox's Cave and Waterfall, below Mount<br />

Piddington; and the Mount Victoria Pass.<br />

There are few places throughout the whole<br />

Blue Mountain Range where a more pleasant<br />

variety can be found for the lovers <strong>of</strong> the<br />

picturesque or more comfortable accommodation.<br />

. It is usual for tourists to make Mount<br />

Victoria their head-quarters, and thence to<br />

make excursions in different directions-up


and down the line, away into Hartley Vale,<br />

and into the great Cunimbla Valley and<br />

elsewhere.<br />

Mount Piddington.-A favourite much<br />

frequented spot is Mount Piddington, to the<br />

south <strong>of</strong> Mount Victoria, one <strong>of</strong> the highest<br />

points in the vicinity, and about a mile from<br />

the Station. Mount Piddington received<br />

its name in commemoration <strong>of</strong> the enterprise<br />

and public spirit <strong>of</strong> the Hon. W. R. Piddington,<br />

who felled many trees on the summit,<br />

formed the roads, and caused seats to be constructed<br />

by the Government for the convenience<br />

<strong>of</strong> pedestrians. The place is now<br />

vested in the hands <strong>of</strong> three Trustees (Mr.<br />

Cousins, Mr. Benson, and the Hon. Mr.<br />

Piddington), who have done a great deal<br />

towards making the many places <strong>of</strong> note easy<br />

<strong>of</strong> access to the crowd <strong>of</strong> tourists who visit<br />

hero. On Mount Piddington a commodious<br />

hut has been erected, from which the visitor,<br />

protected from sun or rain, may see the glorious<br />

view spread out before him. Thi::i grand<br />

eminence, Yisible from the <strong>Railway</strong> on the<br />

Sydney side, overlooks a portion <strong>of</strong> the Vale<br />

<strong>of</strong> Hartley and the broad Cunimbla Valley,<br />

amongst the undulating hills and forests <strong>of</strong><br />

which there are numerous homesteads. To<br />

the south-east are the uplands <strong>of</strong> the country<br />

near the town <strong>of</strong> Camden; and to the north<br />

may be seen the distant ranges which lie<br />

away in the direction <strong>of</strong> Singleton, on the<br />

Hunter. Much nearer, at the distance <strong>of</strong><br />

only a dozen miles or so, may be recognized<br />

the four mountains <strong>of</strong> King Georg0, Hay,<br />

,vilson, and Toomah. The view from Mount<br />

Piddington ( everywhere traversed by admirable<br />

roads) is extremely fine in the early<br />

morning, when the varied depths <strong>of</strong> the whole<br />

Valley <strong>of</strong> Cunim hla <strong>of</strong>ten lie whelme:l in a<br />

misty moving se:i <strong>of</strong> blue ( cobalt) tipped here<br />

and there with the rosy ( or golden) light <strong>of</strong><br />

the sun. Mr. E. Vickery's country residence,<br />

on some far-away hill in the great valley<br />

below, is at all times a conspicuous and<br />

interesting feature in the charming prospect<br />

here unfolded to view. It is near Vickery's<br />

only 2 or 3 miles beyond it, that the Blackheath<br />

Creek falls into the river Cox.<br />

The Engineer's Cascade.-The Engineer's<br />

Cascade is a fine waterfall a mile or so<br />

at the back <strong>of</strong> Ferry's " Family Hotel," about<br />

midway between Mount Piddington and the<br />

Little Zigzag-a little to the left <strong>of</strong> the road<br />

as you go down towards the Pass. Here,<br />

as in many <strong>of</strong> the other dingles and glens,<br />

wild flowers, mosses, and ferns abound. The<br />

view from this spot to the south-westward is<br />

very highly spoken <strong>of</strong>.<br />

The Little Zigzag or Cunimbla Pass.­<br />

Not far from the Old Main Road, and to the<br />

rear <strong>of</strong> "Ferry's Hotel," there is a bridle-track<br />

laid out by the Roads Department, leading<br />

from the mountain down the face <strong>of</strong> the<br />

precipice into the Cunimbla Valley. This is<br />

generally known as the Little Zigzag or<br />

Cunim bla Pass, and is well deserving <strong>of</strong> a<br />

visit. This pass, formed with much shill on<br />

a series <strong>of</strong> zigzags, is 46 chains in length.<br />

There are sixteen <strong>of</strong> these traverses on the<br />

side <strong>of</strong> the mountain, each averaging about<br />

190 feet in length. The scenery from these<br />

successive terraces ( and especially from the<br />

upper ones) is very grand. To the. right is<br />

Mount Victoria, with its connecting pass on<br />

the Old Road, in full view, and there is<br />

moreover an unbroken prospect stretching<br />

over all the lower country. Half-way down<br />

this road are some remarkable :fissures in the<br />

rocks, known as the Cunimbla Caves. These<br />

extend into the mountain for some depth.<br />

The Mount Victoria Pass.-The Monnt<br />

Victoria Pass-ahout 2 miles from the Mount<br />

Victoria Station, on the Old Road to the<br />

westward leading towards Hartley-was constructed<br />

many years ago by prison labour,<br />

under the supervision <strong>of</strong> Sir Thomas Mitchell.<br />

In the old clays, before the existence <strong>of</strong><br />

Railroads, it was regarded as a triumph <strong>of</strong><br />

engineering skill, and it is still well worth a<br />

visit. After passing through a deep cutting<br />

at this spot the visitor should turn <strong>of</strong>f the<br />

road for a few yards to the right, and he will<br />

then have spread before him a magnificent<br />

panorama <strong>of</strong> mountain, vale, and forest ;<br />

Little Hartley lying at his feet, Great Hartley<br />

beyond, and Bowenfels in the distance. Here<br />

Hartley Vale ( containing the measured lands<br />

<strong>of</strong> the New South Wales Shale and Oil Company,<br />

with Mount York and Mount Clarence<br />

adjoining-in fact the whole upper basin <strong>of</strong><br />

the river Lett and other minor tributaries <strong>of</strong>


the Cox) lies away to the north and west <strong>of</strong><br />

this road and pass, hemmed in by the steep<br />

mountain ridges upon the east and north.<br />

Mount York.-Another pleasant walk<br />

from Mount Victoria may be found along the<br />

ridge to Mount York, one <strong>of</strong> the most prominent<br />

elevations on the western side <strong>of</strong> the<br />

range. This mountain-which is named after<br />

Her present Majesty's uncle, the Duke <strong>of</strong><br />

York-terminates abruptly to the westward<br />

(at about 6 miles from the Mount Victoria<br />

Station) in precipices <strong>of</strong> over 750 feet in<br />

height; its topmost point being 3,292 feet<br />

above the level <strong>of</strong> the sea. On the one hand,<br />

at the base <strong>of</strong> this mountain lies the Valley<br />

<strong>of</strong> Clwydd·:


and Lithgow. The principal hotel is the<br />

"Imperial." It is one <strong>of</strong> the largest out <strong>of</strong><br />

Sydney, contains seventy rooms, and has<br />

accommodation for eighty people. Opposite<br />

the hotel the proprietor has laid out a recreation<br />

ground for his patrons, tennis-court, &c.<br />

<strong>Guide</strong>s, horses and vehicles, are always to be<br />

obtained, and excursions are now frequently<br />

made from here to the Fish River Caves, the<br />

distance being 31 miles. The oldest established<br />

house, kept by Mrs. Perry, and the<br />

"Royal,." are also comfortable well-appointed<br />

hotels, situated in close proximity to the<br />

station. Visitors who desire more private<br />

accommodation can secure it at Manor<br />

House, a private hotel, well conducted and<br />

favourably situated. In addition there are<br />

several other private establishments, so that<br />

a large number <strong>of</strong> visitors can be here accommodated.<br />

Excursion from Mount Victoria to<br />

the Weatherboard.-An artist, or any real<br />

lover <strong>of</strong> the picturesque, may take a very<br />

pleasant excursion from Mount Victoria to<br />

the "Weatherboard," by starting early in<br />

the morning, and walking all the way down<br />

by the side <strong>of</strong> the <strong>Railway</strong>, a distance <strong>of</strong> 15<br />

miles. Much lovely scenery may thus be<br />

observed by a pedestrian tourist, which he<br />

cannot otherwise see, either from the line<br />

or the Old Road. At about a mile to the<br />

eastward <strong>of</strong> Mount Victoria he will come,<br />

al ways looking to the right, upon a bold<br />

bluff in the foreground, fringed with woods<br />

along its outline; sweeping round from the<br />

<strong>Railway</strong> range to where it ends, in a cliff<br />

with a well-wooded talus. Beyond this<br />

stands disclosed an enchanting prospect <strong>of</strong><br />

the Great Cunimbla Valley to the southeast-spread<br />

out before you as on a model<br />

map. These distant reaches <strong>of</strong> country are<br />

beautifully diversified in outline and colour,<br />

and when seen early in the morning, or<br />

(better still) in the evening, are full <strong>of</strong> great<br />

effects <strong>of</strong> light and shade. Further on, at<br />

the top <strong>of</strong> a deep perpendicular cuttingnear<br />

the staff <strong>of</strong> the telegraph line-there is<br />

another grand view <strong>of</strong> the same valley, the<br />

chrome-coloured cliffs in the foreground<br />

lending to it a strange but striking attraction.<br />

Then the tourist has to scramble,<br />

at some risk, past three precipitous cuttings,<br />

and he will at length find himself rewarded<br />

with the unexpected prospect <strong>of</strong> a curious<br />

grey rock to the west <strong>of</strong> a great gR.p to the<br />

southward-best seen from an old disused<br />

road to the south <strong>of</strong> the line. Another<br />

grand view is next disclosed further on to<br />

the eastward, the Great Cunimbla Valley<br />

appearing over the broken edge <strong>of</strong> a shelving<br />

semicircular basin <strong>of</strong> rock, with sloping<br />

woods, set <strong>of</strong>f (laterally) by tall and brightly<br />

tinted cliffs. The next ·change presents a<br />

modification <strong>of</strong> the same kind <strong>of</strong> scene,<br />

· dotted everywhere with broken fragments <strong>of</strong><br />

isolated grey rock and rough pyramids <strong>of</strong><br />

stone; Mount Piddington reappearing in<br />

the distance to the westward. This pretty<br />

well occupies the first 4 miles <strong>of</strong> the trip;<br />

but (near the Blackheath Platform) there<br />

are still occasional peeps <strong>of</strong> the Great Valley<br />

worth going many miles to see, and not<br />

visible from tlie adjacent line. Passing<br />

Blackheath and continuing along the line<br />

towards Katoomba there will be found a<br />

varied succession <strong>of</strong> views to the south and<br />

south-east - at least six - that are well<br />

deserving <strong>of</strong> the artist's pencil. Having<br />

reached Katoomba-11 miles from Mount<br />

Victoria-the tourist will find several grand<br />

views <strong>of</strong> huge parti-coloured cliffs and<br />

shadowy ranges-especially one which he<br />

will open out soon after he has passed the<br />

siding and telegraph station. Good accommodation<br />

can be had at Katoomba, and<br />

after obtaining refreshment the visitor can<br />

resume his walk to Wentworth Falls, distant<br />

4 miles.<br />

Hartley Vale Platform, 80 miles; 8,818<br />

feet above sea-level.-After leaving the<br />

Mount Victoria Station the <strong>Railway</strong> takes a<br />

northerly and sometimes even a north-easterly<br />

direction, along a narrow ridge, known as<br />

the "Darling Causeway," and dividing the<br />

watersheds. The waters fall into the Grose<br />

to the eastward ; whilst, on the western side<br />

<strong>of</strong> the ridge, the heads <strong>of</strong> the river Lett, and<br />

other affiuents <strong>of</strong> the Cox, although eastern<br />

waters, commence their course by flowing to<br />

the westward. As the traveller proceeds<br />

towards Lithgow and Bathurst, he may first<br />

observe a fine view to the left opening up a<br />

deep well-wooded valley-that <strong>of</strong> Clwydd;<br />

whilst to the right (the eastward) Mount


King George, with its singularly stratified<br />

cliffs, is · seen in mid-distance. Next he<br />

catches, on the same side, a passing glimpse<br />

<strong>of</strong> a wild and stony country ; and then-as<br />

by a magic shift <strong>of</strong> the camera-a grand and<br />

more distant view is seen <strong>of</strong> Mount King<br />

George and Mount Hay. After that (still<br />

to the eastward) he has a brief out-look over<br />

the upper portion <strong>of</strong> the gorge <strong>of</strong> the Grose,<br />

stretching past the northerly mouth <strong>of</strong> the<br />

gorge <strong>of</strong> Govett's Leap. To the westward<br />

the traveller can occasionally see peeps <strong>of</strong> the<br />

beautiful Vale <strong>of</strong> Hartley, which, curiously<br />

enough, gives its name to the next <strong>Railway</strong><br />

platform after Mount Victoria, upon the<br />

mountain ridge.<br />

Kerosene Mines in Hartley Vale.~<br />

"The Kerosene Mines in Hartley Vale," says<br />

Burton, "are well worth seeing, not alone on<br />

account <strong>of</strong> the scenery but also becaus~<br />

there is some interest attaching to a successful<br />

and important industry. There is a<br />

siding laid down from the Great Western<br />

<strong>Railway</strong>, about 3 miles from Mount Victoria,<br />

and the goods and passenger trains may be<br />

availed <strong>of</strong>. Visitors will be put down at the<br />

Hartley Vale Siding if previous notice be<br />

given to the guard. Then a walk <strong>of</strong> a mile<br />

and a half will bring them to the face <strong>of</strong> an<br />

almost perpendicular rock 600 feet high, up<br />

which the shale is hoisted by a wire rope<br />

worked by steam. The shale is conveyed to<br />

Sydney, the bulk <strong>of</strong> it for making oil at the<br />

Western Kerosene Company's Works at<br />

Waterloo, some for the manufacture <strong>of</strong> gas,<br />

and some for export. The main road from<br />

Mount" Victoria to Bowenfels passes within 4<br />

miles (to the south) <strong>of</strong> the mines." The best<br />

seam <strong>of</strong> petroleum oil coal here is 3 feet 2<br />

inches thick. It has been pronounced by the<br />

Examiner <strong>of</strong> Coal Fields to be equal to any<br />

known seam in any other part <strong>of</strong> the world.<br />

It yields from 150 to 160 gallons <strong>of</strong> crude<br />

oil to the ton, with an illuminating power<br />

equal to forty candles.<br />

The Valley <strong>of</strong> the Grose.-From the<br />

Hartley Vale Platform, on its eastern side,<br />

the traveller may, with some necessary assistance,<br />

find the best track down into the Valley<br />

<strong>of</strong> the Grose, following that river from its<br />

head down to the " Junction Camp," already<br />

spoken <strong>of</strong> under the section <strong>of</strong> Blackheath<br />

and Govett's Leap, a distance <strong>of</strong> about D<br />

miles. The Valley <strong>of</strong> the Grose, says Mr.<br />

Du Faur, "may be taken as typical <strong>of</strong> the<br />

character <strong>of</strong> the ravines by which the Blue<br />

Mountains are intersected in all directions;<br />

their geological character will be treated in<br />

a separate paper. Possessing at present<br />

but a limited watershed <strong>of</strong> about 268 square<br />

miles, it is bounded on the south by the<br />

main ridge which has been chosen for the<br />

<strong>Railway</strong> line; on the west, for about 6 miles,<br />

by the Darling Causeway above referred to ;<br />

and on the north by the main ridge along<br />

which 'Bell's Line <strong>of</strong> Road,' a route for<br />

stock only, passes over Mount Tomah and<br />

the Kurrajong Hills to Richmond. Its<br />

course in a direct line, from the Darling<br />

Causeway to its confiuence with the Hawkesbury<br />

River, a little above Richmond, does<br />

not exceed 26 miles; yet within this limited<br />

area, through which flows a stream that<br />

may generally be forded, though at times<br />

an impetuous torrent, are everywhere present<br />

evidences <strong>of</strong> the silent workings <strong>of</strong><br />

Time and Nature on a stupendous scale ;<br />

no sudden upheavals <strong>of</strong> volcanic force, hut<br />

the gradual disintegration due to atmospheric<br />

and pluvial forces, commenced probably<br />

under very different condition& to those<br />

obtaining at present, but still continuing.<br />

The valley was traversed throughout in 1859<br />

by a party <strong>of</strong> sappers and miners, with a<br />

view to testing its practicability as a route<br />

for the Western <strong>Railway</strong>; since that date<br />

it has only been visited occasionally at long<br />

intervals. In 1875 it was determined to<br />

form a sketching and photographic camp at<br />

about 12 miles down the valley, with a view<br />

to roughly illustrating it, in order to bring<br />

it under the notice <strong>of</strong> artists and lovers <strong>of</strong><br />

natural scenery ; and also, as previously<br />

stated, to explore a route to the foot <strong>of</strong><br />

Govett's Leap Falls. On a preliminary trip,<br />

made in July, it was found that the sappers'<br />

and miners' track were so overgrown, encumbered<br />

by fallen trees, and obliterated in parts<br />

by landslips, that a considerable amount <strong>of</strong><br />

clearing was necessary to enable packhorses<br />

to pass down the gorge with reasonable safety.<br />

This having been done, two camps were at<br />

last formed in October-the upper one at<br />

about 7 miles below the <strong>Railway</strong>, and the


lower at the junction <strong>of</strong> Govett's Leap Creek<br />

with the river, under the magnificent cliffs<br />

<strong>of</strong> Mount King George. The transport <strong>of</strong><br />

instruments and chemicals, by hand, down<br />

such a path, and the limited time for which<br />

the services <strong>of</strong> the photographer (supplied by<br />

the Commissioners for the Philadelphia Exhibition)<br />

were available, precluded any hope<br />

<strong>of</strong> obtaining results <strong>of</strong> finished excellence.<br />

Each spot, previously selected, had to be<br />

taken when reached, irrespective <strong>of</strong> adverse<br />

conditions <strong>of</strong> light or weather, and <strong>of</strong> chemicals<br />

constantly disturbed; and the strength<br />

<strong>of</strong> the party was altogether inadequate for<br />

making the clearings in timber and scrub,<br />

without which many <strong>of</strong> the finest views could<br />

not be favourably reproduced by photography.<br />

At the utter camp, at which operations commenced,<br />

a depth <strong>of</strong> 1,880 feet had been<br />

reached; but between that point and the<br />

Junction Camp, although the actual difference<br />

<strong>of</strong> level was only 390 feet in 5 miles, the<br />

track was particularly hilly, passing over the<br />

lateral spurs which descend very abruptly to<br />

the river bed; in some places also the width<br />

<strong>of</strong> the gorge is so little, in comparison to the<br />

stupendous heights <strong>of</strong> the adjacent cliffs, that<br />

the latter subtend a larger angle than can<br />

be compassed by the camera. The scenery<br />

in many pa1·ts <strong>of</strong> the river bed is remarkably<br />

picturesque ; the colours <strong>of</strong> the rocks <strong>of</strong> most<br />

varied hues; the foliage on the river bank,<br />

more especially on its left bank, <strong>of</strong> a luxuriance<br />

so seldom met with in the Colony; while<br />

the rush <strong>of</strong> the water amongst the obstructing<br />

boulders, and its perfect transparency in<br />

the still pools or slighter rapids, affords fresh<br />

charms to the artist at every turn-charms<br />

·which, unfortunately, cannot be reproduced<br />

by photography."<br />

Mount Wilson Platform, 88 miles;<br />

3,478 feet above sea-level.-3 miles north<br />

<strong>of</strong> the Hartley Vale Siding, and 6 from the<br />

Mount Victoria Station, stands the Mount<br />

Wilson Platform, erected at the western<br />

termination <strong>of</strong> the Bell's Line <strong>of</strong> Road from<br />

Richmond, between 4 and 5 miles to the<br />

westward <strong>of</strong> Mount Wilson, from which it<br />

takes its name.<br />

Mount Wilson.-Speaking <strong>of</strong> Mount<br />

Wilson itself, where the scenery is as striking<br />

as it is uninteresting at the "Platform" <strong>of</strong><br />

that name, Mr. Du Faur has remarked on<br />

the beauty <strong>of</strong> the vegetation, and the fertility<br />

<strong>of</strong> the soil. That gentleman says-" The<br />

scanty vegetation and miserably stunted and<br />

gnarled timber which everywhere surround<br />

the tourist on the Blue Mountains and<br />

obscure his view-except when, standing on<br />

the edge <strong>of</strong> a precipice, he looks down on the<br />

more luxuriant growth which is barely<br />

visible in the gorges beneath him-detract<br />

immensely from the interest <strong>of</strong> the scenery.<br />

There are but two striking exceptions to this<br />

general condition, viz., at Mount Tomah, on<br />

Bell's Line <strong>of</strong> Road (which is unfavourably<br />

situated, owing to its distance from the<br />

<strong>Railway</strong>), and at Mount Wilson, the position<br />

<strong>of</strong> which has already been generally described.<br />

A ride <strong>of</strong> about 5 miles (from the Mount<br />

Wilson Platform) along the northern watershed<br />

<strong>of</strong> the Grose, and <strong>of</strong> about 3 miles<br />

further along a spur trending to the northward's<br />

from Bell's Line <strong>of</strong> Road, and leading<br />

down into some <strong>of</strong> the heads <strong>of</strong> tne Wollangambe<br />

Creek and the Colo River (also<br />

affiuents <strong>of</strong> the Hawkesbury River), brings<br />

the tourist to the foot <strong>of</strong> a ridge, which<br />

on his right hand appears to be bounded<br />

by the usual perpendicular escarpment <strong>of</strong><br />

horizontal sandstone <strong>of</strong> the Hawkesbury<br />

formation; but the denser undergrowth,<br />

the increased size and improved symmetry<br />

<strong>of</strong> the trees, and the rich black soil beneath<br />

bis feet, tell <strong>of</strong> a sudden change. A few<br />

yards further on, along a rather steep ascent<br />

<strong>of</strong> about 1 in 7, is disclosed a charming<br />

avenue cut through this dense undergrowth,<br />

on a steep sideling bordered with clematis,<br />

wild tobacco plants, native raspberry, and<br />

ot~er luxuriant shrubs, amongst which tower<br />

l<strong>of</strong>ty blue gums (Eucctlyptiis botryoides),<br />

stringy-bark (E. amygdalina), black butt (E.<br />

pilularis), and other eucalypti, interspersed<br />

with clumps <strong>of</strong> sassafras (Doryophora sassafras),<br />

acacias, and tree ferns (Alsophila<br />

australis, and Dicksonia antarctica) <strong>of</strong> an<br />

unusual height. The cause <strong>of</strong> this sudden<br />

change is at once apparent. The upper bank<br />

<strong>of</strong> the road is studded with boulders <strong>of</strong><br />

basaltic rock, a dyke <strong>of</strong> which has burst<br />

through and overcapped the sandstone, and<br />

its disintegration has formed the rich black<br />

chocolate-coloured soil which has favoured

- - ------<br />


this special vegetation. A rise <strong>of</strong> 260 feet<br />

in less than half a mile leads to the summit<br />

<strong>of</strong> the ridge, which extends in an east-northeast<br />

direction for about 10 miles, but has not<br />

been fully explored for more than half that<br />

distance. Bounded on all sides by steep<br />

thickly wooded slopes, penetrable with difficulty<br />

by man or beast, and by precipitous<br />

cliffs, this remarkable oasis appears to have<br />

been scarcely visited until ten years ago,<br />

except by Mr. Surveyor Govett, who traversed<br />

the western portion <strong>of</strong> it in 1832.<br />

In 1869 the present road up the mountain<br />

was cut by the Government, and the richer<br />

portion <strong>of</strong> the land measured for sale ; it<br />

remained, however, unnoticed until 1875,<br />

when the sixty-two allotments previously<br />

measured, and containing in all about 1,025<br />

acres, were taken up by thirty-three purchasers.<br />

The distance <strong>of</strong> Mount Wilson<br />

from the <strong>Railway</strong>,* and the large amount <strong>of</strong><br />

available land, barren as it is, within easier<br />

access, has hitherto militated against its<br />

settlement; but there can be little doubt in<br />

the minds <strong>of</strong> those who have once visited it<br />

that it will eventually become a favourite<br />

resort by those requiring a change from the<br />

relaxing climate <strong>of</strong> Sydney, as it affords a<br />

climate as bracing as that <strong>of</strong> Tasmania, and<br />

a vegetation and scenery not inferior to that<br />

<strong>of</strong> New Zea.land. In the winter season occasional<br />

falls <strong>of</strong> snow occur, and ice lies in the<br />

shady spots for several days together-the<br />

thermometer falling at night as low as 22°<br />

]'ahr., and for weeks in succession below<br />

freezing point, but the shelter afforded by<br />

the vegetation protects the locality from the<br />

bleakness experienced in the more exposed<br />

parts <strong>of</strong> the mountains ; and in June and<br />

July it is not uncommon on still bright<br />

mornings to find the thermometer standing<br />

at 60° in the sun, while the frost still lies<br />

untha wed in the shade. The summit <strong>of</strong> the<br />

ridge is chiefly covered with a dense growth<br />

<strong>of</strong> eucalypti (the mere trunks <strong>of</strong> which almost<br />

obscure the horizon), and in the undergrowth<br />

* About 8 miles, by Bell'a Line <strong>of</strong> Road. After<br />

the turning-<strong>of</strong>f to Mount Wilson, " Bell's Line"<br />

continues to take a south-east direction for nearly 2<br />

miles, and then follows up a ridge to the north-east,<br />

between the waters <strong>of</strong> Bowen's Creek and the<br />

affiuents <strong>of</strong> the Grose, passing Mount Bell on the<br />

right, and '' The Haystack" on the left, towards<br />

Mount Tomah and the Kurrajong.<br />

it is no exaggeration to say that thousands<br />

<strong>of</strong> tree ferns, ranging up to 30 feet in<br />

height, are' visible in every direction; it is on<br />

the southern slopes that the sassafras jungle<br />

is found, in which mosses and orchids luxuriate,<br />

and festoons <strong>of</strong> lianes hang from the<br />

topmost branches. There are two peculiarities<br />

in this vegetation which are worthy<br />

<strong>of</strong> notice : (1) that the tree ferns (Alsophila<br />

aiistralis) frequently bifurcate at a short<br />

distance from the ground, and in many cases<br />

divide into three or four, and sometimes into<br />

five and six stems, from one root; (2) that<br />

tree-ferns (which must be <strong>of</strong> very ancient<br />

date) are frequently almost entirely absorbed<br />

by the growth <strong>of</strong> forest trees ( Qiiintinia<br />

sieberii) which germinating in the axles <strong>of</strong><br />

their fronds, send down suckers to the ground,<br />

and enclose within their solid tim her the fern<br />

stems from which they derived their first<br />

support. In some cases are seen ferns which,<br />

having attained a growth <strong>of</strong> 20 feet in height,<br />

have been laid low by the wind, and where<br />

some portions <strong>of</strong> their heads have touched<br />

the ground a second growth <strong>of</strong> equal altitude<br />

has succeeded,· which, in its turn, has been<br />

subsequently enclosed by a quintinia <strong>of</strong> large<br />

diameter, while the roots <strong>of</strong> the original treefern<br />

still retain their vitality. The measured<br />

lands on l\fount Wilson include the greater<br />

part <strong>of</strong> the rich basaltic formation interspersed<br />

with poorer sandstone soil, which<br />

frequently leads to abrupt precipices forming<br />

its boundaries ; from the edge <strong>of</strong> these,<br />

extensive views are obtained over the<br />

broken uninhabited ranges and gorges which<br />

surround it in all directions. 'I'his scenery<br />

extends as far as Capertee, 32 miles distant.<br />

From other points the dividing ranges forming<br />

the watershed <strong>of</strong> the Hunter River are<br />

visible (W arra W olong, distant 60 miles in<br />

one direction, and W erong and Coricudgy, 50<br />

miles in another), while from the cliffs first<br />

mentioned as lying to the right hand <strong>of</strong> the<br />

traveller when ascending the mountains, the<br />

view has been considered almost unsurpassed<br />

on the Blue Mountains : it embraces Barranjuey<br />

(Broken Bay Heads), on the horizon to<br />

the east, and Mount ,J elore (60 miles distant),<br />

to the south ; the Flagstaff Hill, Mounts Victoria,<br />

King George, Hay, and Tomah, and<br />

the Haystack in the middle distance; and<br />

the northern watershed <strong>of</strong> Bowen and W ol-

Lithgow Valley Zig-Zag.


langambe Creeks, a succession <strong>of</strong> broken<br />

ravines more than a thousand feet below the<br />

stand-point, form the foregronnd." Mr. E. C.<br />

M erewether, Mr. E. King Cox, Mr. vVynne,<br />

Mr. Stephen, and others, are the owners<br />

<strong>of</strong> land in this picturesque and beautiful<br />

locality.<br />

Clarence Siding Platform, 88 miles ;<br />

3,658 feet above sea-level.-The line<br />

having made a slight descent between Mount<br />

Victoria and the Hartley Vale Siding, rises<br />

160 feet before it reaches the Mount Wilson<br />

Platform, and continues to rise 180 feet more<br />

during the next 5 miles to the north-west,<br />

when (at the Clarence Siding) its greatest<br />

altitude is attained-upwards <strong>of</strong> 3,650 feet.<br />

Here there are signs <strong>of</strong> cultivation, a large<br />

siding and several houses for persons employed<br />

upon the line. At a short distance<br />

to the west <strong>of</strong> the platform there is a tunnel<br />

539 yards in length, lined with cemented<br />

masonry throughout. The Mount Clarence<br />

Tunnel is about a mile on the Sydney side <strong>of</strong><br />

the Lithgow Valley Zigzag. The features <strong>of</strong><br />

the country hereabouts were such that the<br />

surveyors who marked out the line had to<br />

be lowered down over the rocks with ropes,<br />

the contractor having also to commence his<br />

work in a similar way. Emerging from the<br />

long dark tunnel the traveller finch; abundant<br />

occupation in lookin

66 TH]!} RAILWAY GUIDE.<br />

situated, and it is at Eskbank the principal<br />

portion <strong>of</strong> the Rail way business is done, the<br />

Lithgow platform being merely for passenger<br />

and parcels traffic. "Attention," says a<br />

journalist, "has rather despondently been<br />

drawn to the supposed circumstance that an<br />

extension <strong>of</strong> <strong>Railway</strong> to some retired inland<br />

towns, both here and in England, not only<br />

fails permanently to advance their relative<br />

importance, but even that such a direct connection<br />

with the more stirring centres <strong>of</strong><br />

population and commercial activity appears<br />

frequently and actually to cause a sort <strong>of</strong><br />

retrogressive effect-especially when the<br />

line passes further on into the depths <strong>of</strong><br />

a hitherto wholly undeveloped country.<br />

There is, as in all such generalizationEI, no<br />

doubt a certain degree <strong>of</strong> truth in that remark;<br />

but it by no means conveys the true assertion<br />

<strong>of</strong> an absolute and general fact, for very <strong>of</strong>ten<br />

a decaying inland town (like Parramatta, for<br />

example, in this Colony) will, through the<br />

action <strong>of</strong> a <strong>Railway</strong>, gradually, and in the<br />

answered the call <strong>of</strong> Australian enterprise,<br />

and what no longer back than eight years<br />

ago was almost untouched bush, boasting bnt<br />

one or two inhabitants, is to-day a busy<br />

manufacturing community, who are solving<br />

some <strong>of</strong> the most important problems connected<br />

with industrial pursuits in New South<br />

Wales. Bountifully supplied as the locality .<br />

is with rich deposits <strong>of</strong> minerals and clays,<br />

and well provided as it is with means <strong>of</strong> communication<br />

by which markets in various<br />

directions can be found, the land lay for some<br />

time uninterfered with, and then, its great<br />

value suddenly becoming better known and<br />

understood, a mania to possess it seized upon<br />

various persons and it was speedily taken up,<br />

principally under lease."<br />

General description <strong>of</strong> Lithgow.-<br />

Lithgow, 96 miles from Sydney and 49 miles<br />

east <strong>of</strong> Bathurst, is now a rising mining and<br />

industrial township, situated in the wider<br />

and westerly portion <strong>of</strong> that secluded, rocky,<br />

most astonishing manner, revive and receive glen into which the "\Vestern <strong>Railway</strong><br />

a new and healthy impetus ; such an un- abruptly descends by the well-known Great<br />

expected reinvigoration as may also be seen Zigzag. This town, called into existence<br />

already manifesting itself at Bathurst, Goul- by the <strong>Railway</strong>, and not above ten years<br />

burn, and elsewhere. Nor is that all; for in old, already numbers over 2,000 inhabitants;<br />

many places (such as Lithgow and Blayney, having several excellent hotels, stores, and<br />

for example) which hut for the Railroad must dwelling-houses, with a handsome and cornhave<br />

remained mere picturesque solitudes, the modious Bank, Telegraph Office, Court-house,<br />

arrival <strong>of</strong> the 'iron horse' has shown a really Public School, Insurance Offices, Assembly<br />

marvellous tendency to create industrial Rooms, Club-houses, and such like comcentres,<br />

thriving townships, and busy mercial and social institutions. Everywhere<br />

populous communities. We may take Lith- substantial buildings are in the course <strong>of</strong><br />

gow as an instance <strong>of</strong> this creative action <strong>of</strong> erection in its long wide streets, and every<br />

the <strong>Railway</strong> everywhere, and especially in day some new sign <strong>of</strong> the rapid developsuch<br />

a country as New South Wales." ment <strong>of</strong> this <strong>Railway</strong> township is forced<br />

Another writer, referring to its progress, upon the observation <strong>of</strong> the astonished visitor.<br />

writes-" In no place out <strong>of</strong> Sydney within Lithgow stands in the entrance or more<br />

the Colony are there to be fonnd greater open part <strong>of</strong> Lithgow Valley-a picturesque<br />

evidence <strong>of</strong> progress in the past and solid locality, enclosed by precipitous, well-wooded<br />

prosperity in the future than in the little mountains, and is undeniably a place which<br />

thriving town <strong>of</strong> Lithgow-or Lithgow, Esk- but for the <strong>Railway</strong> would most certainly<br />

bank, and the Vale <strong>of</strong> Olwydd, for the three have remained to the end <strong>of</strong> time-as it did<br />

are in reality one-situated just the other side for countless ages after creation, and for<br />

<strong>of</strong> the Blue Mountains, and within easy reach many long years subsequent to the founda<strong>of</strong><br />

Sydney by means <strong>of</strong> the Great -western tion <strong>of</strong> this Colony-unknown to the civilized<br />

<strong>Railway</strong>. As in the instance <strong>of</strong> the won- world, and utterly useless and unproductive.<br />


factory, a tannery, a brewery, and such like<br />

industries. Coal is <strong>of</strong> course cheap and<br />

good, and firewood (as yet) abundant; water<br />

also is plentiful and <strong>of</strong> an excellent quality.<br />

At almost all <strong>of</strong> the collieries coal is readily<br />

obtained by running " drives" into the hillsides,<br />

which is a decided economy <strong>of</strong> labour.<br />

Good pi pecla y and firecla y are to be found everywhere,<br />

and potteries and brick-kilns are therefore<br />

attached to most <strong>of</strong> these establishments.<br />

The Lithgow Valley Colliery Company's<br />

Works are carried on at the distance <strong>of</strong> about<br />

a quarter <strong>of</strong> a mile from the Lithgow platform,<br />

and close to the mouth <strong>of</strong> the colliery the<br />

same Company are engaged in brick, pipe,<br />

and tile making. The seam <strong>of</strong> coal operated<br />

upon by the Lithgow Valley Coal Company<br />

is 10 feet in thickness, and is worked from<br />

the adit. There is a tramway with a<br />

siding to the adjacent trunk line, by means<br />

<strong>of</strong> which the coal can in all weathers be<br />

expeditiously despatched to the market.<br />

The coal, on "skips" or trucks~ is drawn out<br />

laterally from the mine by a small steamengine<br />

with a tail rope <strong>of</strong> wire. The tramway<br />

on entering this mine follows the dip<br />

<strong>of</strong> the seam for about a quarter <strong>of</strong> a mile,<br />

and then the skips are loaded from the<br />

workings. The coal is finally transferred<br />

from the skips by a platform and shoot at<br />

~he pit mouth into the waggons, in which it<br />

1s thence taken away to the line by Government<br />

engines. The number <strong>of</strong> men constantly<br />

employed on this colliery is twenty.<br />

Two horses are engaged for wheeling the coal<br />

in the skips inside <strong>of</strong> the mine. The brick<br />

and tile works <strong>of</strong> the same Company, adjacent<br />

to the mine, within half a mile <strong>of</strong> the<br />

<strong>Railway</strong>, are well deserving <strong>of</strong> a visit. Here<br />

(by machinery) are made fire-bricks, pressed<br />

bricks, and common bricks. They also make<br />

sanitary drain-pipes (for sewers) <strong>of</strong> a very<br />

superior quality and <strong>of</strong> large size-from 3<br />

inches to 2 feet in diameter. Drain-pipes <strong>of</strong><br />

a small size, for the purpose <strong>of</strong> draining land,<br />

are also here made to order for agriculturists.<br />

These are from 2 inches in diameter up to 6<br />

inches. Tiles <strong>of</strong> various shapes and colours<br />

are here also deftly manufactured. A firstclass<br />

machine is here now for the 1rnrpose <strong>of</strong><br />

making bricks by steam, and this enables the<br />

Company to turn out 12,000 bricks per diem,<br />

and to furnish tiles <strong>of</strong> various descriptions to<br />

order, with equal expedition and perfect<br />

finish. The bricks are made by the dry<br />

process and by the semi-plastic process.<br />

Olay for that purpose abounds ; and the fireclay<br />

(supposed to be quite equal to any found<br />

in the Australian Colonies) is all obtained<br />

from the shale, crushed by a disintegrator<br />

worked by steam. In the kilns the bricks,<br />

pipes, and mouldings for windows, &c., &c.,<br />

are burnt by the over-draft. The fire-bricks<br />

here made have been well tested, and have<br />

been proved to be <strong>of</strong> far better quality than<br />

than those commonly sent out from the Horne<br />

Country. Jn the brick and tile works <strong>of</strong><br />

the Lithgow Valley Coal Company there is<br />

a steam-engine <strong>of</strong> 40-horse power, working<br />

with a wire-rope on a barrel, by means <strong>of</strong><br />

which coal is not only brought up for immediate<br />

consumption, on a tramway from the<br />

pit mouth, but all the elaborate machinery<br />

is moved for the pipe, tile, and brick making.<br />

The same engine is also connected with a<br />

pump to keep water out <strong>of</strong> the mine and to<br />

supply the same element for the brick-making,<br />

&c. There are large sheds for drying the<br />

bricks, pipes, and tiles ; and hard by also<br />

stand constantly shifting stacks <strong>of</strong> all that<br />

has been manufactured for sale. The brickmaking<br />

machine on a new model (by Whitehead,<br />

<strong>of</strong> Preston, in Lancashire) is the<br />

first <strong>of</strong> the kind ever imported into this<br />

Colony. The new disintegrator works at 500<br />

revolutions per minute, having a double<br />

motion <strong>of</strong> the wheels. To an inquiring min


property <strong>of</strong> the Company ; the ore operated<br />

upon is found in quantities on the low<br />

fiat near the foundry (just beneath the<br />

surface) on a neighbouring hill to the<br />

north-east, but a considerable quantity is<br />

brought from outside sources. Coal may<br />

be readily procured for this Company on<br />

their own ground, and freestone, loam, and<br />

sand are all ready to hand. Here the<br />

Proprietary Company have a large blast<br />

furnace, capable <strong>of</strong> producing from 100 to<br />

120 tons <strong>of</strong> pig iron per week, a 70-horsepower<br />

engine, two boilers, and all other<br />

needful apparatus. There is also a foundry<br />

connected with the great furnace producing<br />

castings for the rolling mills. The Company<br />

make their own castings for use, and can<br />

supply whatever may be in


Vale <strong>of</strong> Cl wydd Colliery, though close to factory. To the south <strong>of</strong> the factory, on<br />

Lithgow, is shut out from it by a gentle the road towards Hartley, at the distance <strong>of</strong><br />

emirnmce. A sort <strong>of</strong> village, or rather a mile or so, and soon after you have passed<br />

hamlet, embosomecl in the hills and woods,<br />

has here sprung up, the miners' homes in<br />

the village near the station, there is a<br />

tannery.<br />

this spot being perhaps less comfortable than<br />

picturesque. Their habitations are for the Excursion from Lithgow to Hartley.-­<br />

most part huts <strong>of</strong> mud or wood ; but some, A pleasant excursion may be made from<br />

manifesting an Arab-like independence, Lithgow to Hartley, either on horseback or<br />

apparently prefer to live in tents. In in a buggy; starting from Lithgow at an<br />

this colliery there is a perpendicular shaft<br />

sunk to about 250 feet below the surface ;<br />

and from this shaft there are long drives<br />

in various directions, the prevalence <strong>of</strong> water<br />

in one <strong>of</strong> them, which runs under a neighbouring<br />

swamp! being <strong>of</strong>ten rather troublesome<br />

early hour, and going round the mountain<br />

past Bowenfels. Bowenfels and Hartley, two<br />

small townships on the Old Western Road,<br />

are separated from the Lithgow Valley by a<br />

steep chain <strong>of</strong> sandstone hills, forming a<br />

spur or <strong>of</strong>f-shoot <strong>of</strong> the Blue Mountain<br />

to the engineer and inconvenient to the range to the west,vard. These eminences,<br />

miners. Good limestone is found with the on their southern face, terminate ahruptly<br />

coal, and is burned on the spot, for use and towards the Valley <strong>of</strong> Hartley, in boldly<br />

for sale. H ere also (as in the neighbourhood defiu ed precipices, which go by the fanciful<br />

<strong>of</strong> Mr. T. Brown's colliery) copper-smelting name <strong>of</strong> '' Hassan's Walls," and overhang<br />

works have been established. A tramway the road, south-easterly, to Hartley, for<br />

connects this colliery with the ,V estern several miles. The views from the summits<br />

R ailway.<br />

On the northern side <strong>of</strong> the R ail way, and<br />

connected ·with it by a branch line, is the<br />

<strong>of</strong> these grey masses <strong>of</strong> rock are said to<br />

be grand and extensive; and along the<br />

irregular line which they disclose and guard<br />

Bowenfels Coal-mine. This mine is the furthest<br />

are several cascades and almost inaccessibie<br />

west <strong>of</strong> the Lithgow Collieries, and is at glens, <strong>of</strong> more wildness perhaps than<br />

present least actively worked.<br />

beauty. From the heights <strong>of</strong> Hassan's<br />

About a mile or so from Lithgow, on the Walls the country in the direction <strong>of</strong><br />

other (western) side <strong>of</strong> the township, and Mudgee and <strong>of</strong> Bathurst is distinguishable<br />

not far from the Bowenfels Station, is a for a great distance. The tourist's road<br />

tweed factory, built by lVIr. Andrew Brown. from Lithgow lies first to the westward,<br />

In this long brick and stone building (which along the side <strong>of</strong> the <strong>Railway</strong>, for rather more<br />

contrasts curiously with lVIr. A. Brown's<br />

pretty rural homestead and gardens) about<br />

forty hands find constant and remunerative<br />

than a mile; he then turns sharply <strong>of</strong>f to<br />

the left (near the schoolhouse to tlte east <strong>of</strong><br />

Coerwull) aud so follows down the Old Road,<br />

employment. In the factory are twenty-four southerly, as far as Bowenfels, just round<br />

power looms, three sets <strong>of</strong> carding machines, the end <strong>of</strong> the mountain range. In this road<br />

and all the other requisite appliances, £18,000<br />

having been here invested in the best and<br />

there is much agreeable scenery-first, the<br />

tweed factory, away in the fields, with l\Ir.<br />

most recently devised machinery. 4,000 A. Brown's horn,e and gardens ; then a<br />

yards <strong>of</strong> good tweed are here manufactured<br />

every week, the beautiful fabric so made<br />

finding a ready sale at Sydney and in the<br />

tannery, a good country-house, and an old<br />

road-side inn; then a quaint old church and<br />

churchyard; and last, not least, a lock-up.<br />

adjacent Colonies, where (for the integrity <strong>of</strong> This is Bowenfels. On gaining the elevated<br />

its workmanship) it is justly esteemed. The ground to the west <strong>of</strong> the end <strong>of</strong> the sandstone<br />

wool used is <strong>of</strong> course Colonial-brought<br />

range a fine view <strong>of</strong> the Hartley<br />

from the interior to this spot by the Railroad, Valley is obbined. When you get round<br />

and here prepared for use. The machinery into Bowenfels another and more extensive<br />

is driven by steam power. Cottages have view is opened up to the south-east-looking<br />

been erected for the workpeople, <strong>of</strong> whom clown towards the Victoria Pass. The now<br />

forty are employed, near to the walls <strong>of</strong> the somewhat decayecl village <strong>of</strong> Bowenfels has


still many large houses in it, and is a cheerful,<br />

healthy, and pleasantly situated spot.<br />

By a turn in the road, soon after leaving it<br />

en route for Hartley, you come full in sight<br />

<strong>of</strong> Hassan's Walls, at an end <strong>of</strong> which (to<br />

the southward) towers a curiously isolated<br />

rock, presenting a singularly exact facial<br />

outline peculiar to the " Great Iron Duke,"<br />

but loyally and rather absurdly called " King<br />

George's Head"-being probably one <strong>of</strong> the<br />

discoveries <strong>of</strong> the Georgian era. Some <strong>of</strong><br />

the distant country <strong>of</strong> the Great Cunimbla<br />

Valley may now be perceived as you come<br />

clown the winding road ; where, ii1. many <strong>of</strong><br />

its essential features <strong>of</strong> copse, headland, and<br />

streamlet there is a great resemblance to the<br />

scenery <strong>of</strong> South Devon in England. The<br />

road itself is pretty, and along it are poor<br />

but picturesque homesteads-such as cottages<br />

and gardens, old inns with oak-trees, and<br />

other attractive features-until you reach<br />

the end <strong>of</strong> the wall <strong>of</strong> cliffs already mentioned.<br />

Then there is a dull mile or two<br />

before you come to the edge <strong>of</strong> the deep<br />

descent into Hartley, standing on the rocky<br />

banks <strong>of</strong> the murmuring Lett, about a mile<br />

or so above the point where it falls into the<br />

river Cox, draining the whole region from<br />

beyond Bowenfels, until it :finally falls into<br />

the W ollondilly. At the foot <strong>of</strong> the last hill<br />

you pass over the Lett by a very fair wooden<br />

bridge, and so, entering Hartley, you :find it<br />

a quaint old-fashioned place. Here you can<br />

put up at the village inn, and either return<br />

by the road you came, or ( sending back the<br />

horse or trap) regain the line by walking on<br />

to Mount Victoria ; or you may ride across<br />

the mountain to the north, over the "Gap,"<br />

and so back again into Lithgow. For an<br />

invalid or an over-wrought jaded man there<br />

can be few more acceptable retreats than<br />

Hartley. It has two pretty stone churches,<br />

a Uourt-house, and a store or two; but it is<br />

quite a rural village. The distance from<br />

Lithgow to Hartley, as above indicated, is<br />

about 10 miles. Across the mountain, by<br />

the new road over the "Gap," it is not more<br />

th::m 6.<br />

Bowenfels Station, 97 miles ; 2,972<br />

feet above sea-level.-Bowenfels station-<br />

3 or 4 mile north <strong>of</strong> the town <strong>of</strong> Bowen£ els,<br />

and 1 mile north-west <strong>of</strong> Lithgow-is by no<br />

means a large place, the majority <strong>of</strong> the<br />

houses being at Cooerwull, a short dist11nce<br />

from the line. The district is agricultural,<br />

pastoral, and mining. The surrounding<br />

country is mountainous and well wooded.<br />

Between this place and the next <strong>Railway</strong><br />

Station--Wallerawang to the north-westthere<br />

is a rather dreary track, with tunnels<br />

and cuttings.<br />

Marangaroo Platform, 101 miles;<br />

3,073 feet above sea-level.-Marangaroo<br />

is a platform, 4 miles west <strong>of</strong> Bowenfels<br />

Station and 4 miles east <strong>of</strong> W allerawang.<br />

It is one <strong>of</strong> the most elevated spots between<br />

the Great Zigzag and Bathurst. A short<br />

distance beyond the platform the train passes<br />

through Marangaroo platform, 264 yards in<br />

length.<br />

Wallerawang Station, 105 miles; 2,928<br />

feet above sea-level.-Wallerawang is a<br />

small but busy place, being the spot where<br />

the line to Mudgee joins the Great Western<br />

line. Wallerawang has a small street, with<br />

Anglican, Roman Catholic, Presbyterian,<br />

and Wesleyan places <strong>of</strong> worship-and a<br />

Public School, capable <strong>of</strong> holding 120 children.<br />

The Inns are-the "Royal Hotel,"<br />

the "Commercial Hotel," and the "<strong>Railway</strong><br />

Inn." 7 miles from W allera wang is W olgon,<br />

a sunken valley, which is very beautiful, and<br />

well worth a visit. The district is principally<br />

agricultural, although it possesses mineral<br />

resources which only need developing.<br />

Rydal Station, 111 miles; 3,117 feet<br />

above sea-level.-Returning to the Main<br />

Western line, soon after passing Wallerawang<br />

the line trends sharply to the south-west, and,<br />

rising to a somewhat higher level; passes to<br />

the eastward <strong>of</strong> Honeysuckle Hill. Before<br />

the line takes its southerly turn the road to<br />

Ry ls tone (which has been running near to<br />

the rails) branches <strong>of</strong>f to the northward.<br />

Rydal is but a small place, with a quaintlooking<br />

stone church and three inns. These<br />

inns are th~ "Globe Hotel," the " .Freemasons'<br />

Hotel," and the "Commercial Hotel."<br />

Country adjacent-agricultural and pastoral;<br />

ruggedmountainscenery,andheavilytimbe~·ed.<br />

Near Rydal, on the southern side <strong>of</strong> the lme,<br />

is the extraordinary rock known as "Evans'


Crown." Within the last few years a great<br />

impetus has been given to the trade <strong>of</strong> Rydal<br />

by the discovery <strong>of</strong> the rich silver mines at<br />

Sunny Corner (Mitchell) 15 miles from the<br />

Station. A. large population bas already been<br />

gathered to the vicinity, and the field promises<br />

to last for many years giving large<br />

returns.<br />

Sod walls Platform, 114 miles; 2,850<br />

feet above sea-level.-A.fter passing Rydal<br />

the line begins to descend, and continues to<br />

do so, following the winding valley <strong>of</strong> the<br />

Fish River, towards Bathurst. The country<br />

adjoining the Sodwalls Platform is <strong>of</strong> an<br />

agricultural character, with farms and some<br />

sort <strong>of</strong> cultivation ;-rather pretty. The<br />

traveller has now left the County <strong>of</strong> Cook,<br />

and is pushing on, westerly, through the<br />

County <strong>of</strong> Westmoreland. It is hereabouts<br />

that he catches the first glimpse <strong>of</strong> the Fish<br />

River-a stream which he has to cross nineteen<br />

times before he finally leaves it, not far<br />

from Macquarie Plains. The Fish River<br />

having joined the Campbell River, a few<br />

miles south <strong>of</strong> Bathurst, becomes thenceforth<br />

known as "Macquarie," the native name <strong>of</strong><br />

which is "Wambool." The Macquarie is an<br />

affluent <strong>of</strong> the Darling.<br />

Tarana Station, 120 miles; 2,561 feet<br />

above sea-level.-At Tarana Station there<br />

is a watering-place for the engines. It is a<br />

pretty place, but dull. The country round<br />

about is partly used for agricultural and<br />

pastoral purposes. In the Isabella District,<br />

50 miles away, a large quantity <strong>of</strong> tobacco is<br />

grown. There is one hotel at Tarana­<br />

Fa wcett' s. Here you can get a carriage or<br />

buggy and go to Mutton Falls, westerly,<br />

about 4 miles <strong>of</strong>f. From the Mutton Falls<br />

you can ride or drive to a small township<br />

called Oberon-agoodagricultural settlement,<br />

with mineral resources-and go on thence to<br />

the Fish River Caves. Tarana, 35 miles<br />

from the Fish River Caves, is the most convenient<br />

point <strong>of</strong> the line to those vast<br />

limestone caverns. There is some nice<br />

scenery along the road in that direction.<br />

The Fish River Caves.-The celebrated<br />

limestone caverns on the Fish River (near<br />

O'Connell in the neighbourhood <strong>of</strong> Bathurst),<br />

commonly known as the Fish River Caves,<br />

are <strong>of</strong> vast extent, and singularly attractive;<br />

having a great variety <strong>of</strong> very intricate<br />

galleries or passages, only to be traversed<br />

safely under the care <strong>of</strong> the experienced local<br />

guide employed by the Government. The<br />

subterraneous scenes herein disclosed are<br />

indeed magnificent-well worth the time and<br />

trouble <strong>of</strong> paying them a visit. There is a<br />

whole group <strong>of</strong> these grand subterraneous<br />

halls and bewildering galleries, and each one<br />

<strong>of</strong> the series is known by a different name;<br />

the New Cave, Lucas Cave, the Bell Cave,<br />

the Lurline Cave, the Imperial Cave, the<br />

Elder-tree Cave, &c. Several oqiects <strong>of</strong> great<br />

interest are to be viewed at and in the Fish<br />

River Caves; and amongst these are the<br />

Great Archway, the Carlotta Arch, the<br />

Meeting <strong>of</strong> the Creeks, the Pinnade Rock,<br />

the interiors, the outside entrances, the<br />

waterfall, and adjacent woodland scenes.<br />

The Carlotta Arch-a curious natural archway<br />

in the rocks--excites much astonishment<br />

and admiration. These caves, so remarkable<br />

for their stalactitic and stalagmiticformations,<br />

are <strong>of</strong> such an immense 8xtent that whole<br />

days are necessary for their due exploration.<br />

One <strong>of</strong> these enormous caverns is estimated<br />

to be not less than 500 feet in height,<br />

and <strong>of</strong> a proportionate length and breadth.<br />

The strange forms gradually assumed by<br />

the drippings <strong>of</strong> the limestone rocks throughout<br />

are almost infinite, and not to be anywhere<br />

else surpassed in beauty. In one<br />

place there is tbe weird, rock-like semblance<br />

<strong>of</strong> a well-stocked menagerie; and in another<br />

place the pendants from the ro<strong>of</strong> and slabs<br />

below are <strong>of</strong> a still more fantastic and<br />

extraordinary character. ,vhen lighted up<br />

with the magnesium wire these sublime<br />

palaces, "which Nature's hands have deftly<br />

formed," present a truly gorgeous spectacle,<br />

being filled with delicate pendants and<br />

drooping sprays, gigantic columns and<br />

shadowy arches-all resplendent with<br />

dazzling, illusive gems. In the "New Cave"<br />

the scene developed by the magnesium light<br />

is described (by Burton) as "one <strong>of</strong> surpassing<br />

loveliness," the appearance <strong>of</strong> a heavy fall <strong>of</strong><br />

snow being produced; the rocks in the rear<br />

presenting to the imagination a black, frowning<br />

sky. Occasionally a sparkling waterfall<br />

heightens the effect <strong>of</strong> the scene. The caves


are in the charge <strong>of</strong> Mr. Jeremiah Wilson,<br />

who receives remuneration from the Government.<br />

It was found desirable to place<br />

them under control, as visitors <strong>of</strong>ten committed<br />

ruthless destruction. The Government<br />

has had constructed a number <strong>of</strong> wire<br />

ladders for the convenience <strong>of</strong> . visitors in<br />

ascending and dey letter) Mr. Wilson will meet a party at<br />

Tarana with horses or a waggonette. It will<br />

greatly lessen the fatigue <strong>of</strong> the journey from<br />

Tarana to the Fish River Caves and increase<br />

the comfort <strong>of</strong> the tourists if the party <strong>of</strong><br />

excursionists stop for the night en route,<br />

either at Mr. \Vilson's house, at Oberon, or<br />

at one <strong>of</strong> the two hotels, Yiz., the " Royal"<br />

and" W elcome Inn."<br />

A fuller description <strong>of</strong> the caves, contributed<br />

by C. S. Wilkinson, Government Geological<br />

Surveyor, will be found in the Appendix.<br />

Locksley's Platform, 130 miles; 2,428<br />

feet above sea-level.-The country in the<br />

neighbourhood <strong>of</strong> Locksley Platform is on<br />

the whole not interesting, hut there are<br />

views on the line near it not unworthy <strong>of</strong><br />

some notice. This platfor m was formerly<br />

known as L ocke's.<br />

Brewongle, 135 miles; 2,476 feet<br />

above sea-level.- Leaving Locke's P latform<br />

behind him to the eastward, the railway<br />

traYeller passes through an open treeless<br />

country, having only here and there a few<br />

patches <strong>of</strong> bush. Then undulating plains,<br />

with sheep and cattle feeding, are opened<br />

up ; and so the traveller, after an interval<br />

<strong>of</strong> 5 miles, finds himself opposite to the<br />

well-built station <strong>of</strong> Brewongle-being<br />

on the easterly boundary <strong>of</strong> that singular<br />

tract <strong>of</strong> country adjoining Bathurst, and<br />

giving to that city one <strong>of</strong> its distinctive<br />

appellations. A good deal <strong>of</strong> wheat is grown<br />

in the vicinity <strong>of</strong> Brewongle. The district<br />

<strong>of</strong>fers good shooting to sportsmen ; hares<br />

are very numerous, and excellent sport can<br />

be had at but a little distance from the<br />

station. Brewongle receives traffic for<br />

O'Connell, a township with a population <strong>of</strong><br />

about 200, 3 miles distant, and for Wiseman's<br />

Creek, 7 miles, where a copper-mine<br />

is worked. Tobacco is also cultivated in the<br />

district. ·<br />

Raglan Station, 140 miles; 2,436 feet<br />

above sea-level-Raglan is a station in the<br />

midst <strong>of</strong> the Macquarie Plains, where a road<br />

from the north <strong>of</strong> that tract joins on to the<br />

Old -western Road. Here you first catch a<br />

distant but impressive view <strong>of</strong> the city <strong>of</strong><br />

Bathurst, to the westward. At Raglan there<br />

is an Anglican Church and a Public School.<br />

Kelso Station, 143 miles; 2,154 feet<br />

above sea-level.-Kelso Station is the<br />

stopping-place on the <strong>Railway</strong> for Kelso, a<br />

populous suburb <strong>of</strong> Bathurst, on the eastern<br />

side <strong>of</strong> the Fish River, or (:ts it is here<br />

called) the "Macquarie." The Bathurst city<br />

station is 2 miles distant to the southwestward.<br />

Bathurst Station, 145 miles ; 2,153<br />

feet above sea-level.-Bathurst, the "City<br />

<strong>of</strong> the Plains" and metropolis <strong>of</strong> the western<br />

geographical di \-ision <strong>of</strong> the Colony, is<br />

situated on the left bank <strong>of</strong> the Macquarie<br />

River, 145 miles from Sydney. Originally<br />

founded by Governor Macquarie, on 7th <strong>of</strong><br />

May, 1815, just after the discovery <strong>of</strong> the<br />

country beyond the Blue Mountains, it has<br />

gradually risen to its present position <strong>of</strong> great<br />

influence and established wealth. A whole<br />

book might be written about this city, but<br />

the description <strong>of</strong> it in an "itinerary" must<br />

necessarily be very brief; notwithstanding its<br />

political, social, and physical importance. A<br />

few miles before reaching Bathurst, the<br />

traveller cannot help being struck with the<br />

altered appearance <strong>of</strong> the country. I nstead<br />

<strong>of</strong> wooded mountains and ridges <strong>of</strong> sandstone,


the eye rests everywhere on a fine open<br />

tract, about 12 miles square, almost devoid<br />

<strong>of</strong> trees, and covered with a rich soil. This<br />

treeless character becomes still more confirmed<br />

when the traveller passes the Brewongle<br />

Station, but the aspect <strong>of</strong> the<br />

country is undulating, and even hilly at<br />

times, though usually and familiarly spoken<br />

<strong>of</strong> as "plains." Bathurst occupies a commanding<br />

situation, on a gradual westward slope<br />

down to the Macquarie, with a beautiful and<br />

extensive prospect in every direction for miles<br />

around. Within comparatively a short distance<br />

<strong>of</strong> the city gold and copper mines are<br />

worked. The climate, like that <strong>of</strong> a town in<br />

England, is frequently very cold in the<br />

winter months, but extremely healthy and<br />

invigorating. In some respects Bathurst<br />

is entitled to be considered as nRxt in rank<br />

to the capital. It is laid out in blocks <strong>of</strong><br />

10 chains square, with many miles <strong>of</strong> streets<br />

99 feet wide lighted by gas; and it is the<br />

seat <strong>of</strong> a Bishopric, both in the Anglican<br />

and the Roman Catholic Churches. There<br />

are two Cathedrals, with colleges in connection<br />

with each <strong>of</strong> the largest communions,<br />

and a handsome Presbyterian Ohurch; also<br />

a Wesleyan Church, and other places <strong>of</strong><br />

worship. The Roman Catholic Cathedral,<br />

although not quite completed, is a noble<br />

structure, and near it stands the convent<br />

and its school, in buildings <strong>of</strong> an imposing<br />

appearance. There is a School <strong>of</strong> Arts, with<br />

4,000 volumes, a fine Hall, excellent stores,<br />

banks, and hotels ; local newspapers are<br />

here published, as at n.11 the principal inland<br />

towns. The annual receipts <strong>of</strong> the Bathurst<br />

Hospital amount, it is said, to over £500.<br />

Bathurst also possesses a large gaol and a<br />

splendid range <strong>of</strong> Government buildings, Post<br />

and Telegraph Office, &c., which are probably<br />

tho best out <strong>of</strong> Sydney. Bathurst enjoys<br />

the advantage <strong>of</strong> a great variety <strong>of</strong> local<br />

institutions, and was proclaimed a munici-.<br />

pality in 1862. The population <strong>of</strong> Bathurst<br />

and its environs is now 7,500. At the<br />

Bathurst Station (on the south side <strong>of</strong> the<br />

city) there is a large and convenient refreshment-room<br />

for the use <strong>of</strong> travellers. Persons<br />

intending either to go inland towards Orange,<br />

or "up" the line, towards Mount Victoria,<br />

will do well to remember this. The places<br />

near Bathurst are-Black Springs, Box<br />

Ridge, Caloola, Cow Flat, Dirty Swamp,<br />

Dunkeld, Duramana ( or Back Creek), Evan's<br />

Plains, Glanmire, The Lagoons, Lirnekilns,<br />

Meadow :Flat, Mitchell's Creek, Oberon,<br />

O'Connell, Palmer's Oakey, Peel, Quartz<br />

Ridge, Rockley, S<strong>of</strong>ala, Trunkey, Turon, and<br />

.Wattle Flat. Coaches run from Bathurst to<br />

S<strong>of</strong>ala, Hill End, and districts.<br />

Perth Platform, 149 miles ; 2,225 feet<br />

above sea-level.-The platform <strong>of</strong> Perth,<br />

4 miles from Bathurst, presents nothing<br />

remarkable. The adjacent country is <strong>of</strong> an<br />

open character, with peculiar-looking bare<br />

hills beyond it. Between Bathurst and Perth<br />

several country residences and farms are<br />

passed.<br />

George's Plains Station, 151 miles;<br />

2,260 feet above sea-level.-There is some<br />

fine scenery, with a wide stretch <strong>of</strong> arable<br />

country, lying between Perth Platform and<br />

the George's Plains Station, a distance <strong>of</strong><br />

about 2 miles. The Station is the centre <strong>of</strong><br />

an extensive agricultural district, and a large<br />

traffic is done. 6 miles from the station are<br />

the Cow Flat Copper Mines, and 13 miles the<br />

Thompson's Creek or Burraga Mines. Burraga<br />

is an extensive and rich mineral district, •<br />

and gives employment to a considerable<br />

nnmber <strong>of</strong> men.<br />

Wimbledon Platform, 158 miles; 2,737<br />

feet above sea-level.-The Wimbledon<br />

Platform is a convenient stopping-place for<br />

tl1e inhabitants <strong>of</strong> an extensive tract <strong>of</strong><br />

agricultural country, 34 miles from Orange<br />

and 13 from Bathurst. Near Wimbledon is<br />

the fine country residence <strong>of</strong> Mr. Joseph<br />

Smith.<br />

Newbridge Platform, 164 miles; 2,877<br />

feet above sea-level.-:N' ewbri

74 THE RAILWAY GUIDE . .<br />

tract <strong>of</strong> cultivated country. Near the Trunkey<br />

Creek Diggings are the Pine Ridge and<br />

the Grove Caves, &c. There is a fine and<br />

comprehensive view over the whole country<br />

to the north-east, a mile or two to the westward<br />

<strong>of</strong> the N ewbridge Platform-on the<br />

line towards Blayney, at the Stringy-bark<br />

Cuttings. Newbridge was formerly known<br />

as Back Creek. The name by which it is<br />

known in the Post Office Directory is the<br />

aboriginal name <strong>of</strong> Duramana. The roads<br />

lead south by the shortest way to Caloola,<br />

where alluvial gold is still being worked, to<br />

Tuena, and to Trunkey, at one time the scene<br />

<strong>of</strong> great activity in quartz-mining. Quantities<br />

<strong>of</strong> wool and live stock also arrive at the<br />

station from the surrounding districts, so<br />

that N ewbridge is likely to become a very<br />

important position in connection with the<br />

traffic on the Great Western <strong>Railway</strong>. An<br />

iron mine has been opened within 300 yards<br />

<strong>of</strong> the <strong>Railway</strong> Station. A deposit <strong>of</strong> asbestos<br />

has been discovered about 2 miles away.<br />

Blayney Station, 172 miles ; 2,841 feet<br />

above sea-level.-Blayney is one <strong>of</strong> the<br />

new and rising townships owing its prosperity<br />

like Lithgow, to the <strong>Railway</strong>. It is quite a<br />

new place, and promises soon to be a large<br />

town ; for it is the centre <strong>of</strong> a great squatting<br />

district, and is closely connected with mining<br />

interests, while in the surrounding districts<br />

large quantities <strong>of</strong> wheat are grown. The<br />

town possesses four churches, two flour-mills,<br />

a brewery, Court-house, and handsome Post<br />

and Telegraph Office. The principal hotels<br />

are the "Royal," "Club House," "Albion,"<br />

"Cosmopolitan," "Commercial," "Exchange,"<br />

and ''Criterion." Blayney stands on the Belubula<br />

River, 8 miles from the junction <strong>of</strong> the<br />

roads from Calder and ·Grenfell. From this<br />

station fat stock are sent "up" by the trains,<br />

in large numbers for the Sydney Market.<br />

There are churches for the Anglicans and<br />

Presbyterians; and a Roman Catholic church<br />

is building on the right side <strong>of</strong> the line.<br />

There are also two large flour-mills at<br />

work. To the right, as the traveller goes<br />

towards Orange, there is (beyond Blayney) a<br />

curious conical hill. Coaches run from Blayney<br />

to Carcoar, Cowra, and Grenfell, and<br />

districts. Blayney will in a few years become<br />

a place <strong>of</strong> still greater importance, for it<br />

is from here that a <strong>Railway</strong>-line is being constructed<br />

to meet the Great Southern <strong>Railway</strong><br />

at Murrumburrah. In addition to this line,<br />

opening up much fertile country, and providing<br />

for many populous districts, it will afford<br />

travellers from the far Western to reach the<br />

Southern districts without the necessity <strong>of</strong><br />

first going to Sydney. It will also encourage<br />

~ommunication between Melbourne and the<br />

far distant Western districts, and no doubt<br />

when the line is constructed large numbers <strong>of</strong><br />

cattle will be sent from Dubbo, Bourke, and<br />

other pastoral centres to the Victorian capital.<br />

The construction <strong>of</strong> the line will shorten the<br />

rail journey between Melbourne and the<br />

western towns beyond Blayney to the extent<br />

<strong>of</strong> 375 miles.<br />

Milthorpe Station, 179 miles; 3,138<br />

feet above sea-level-This Station is the<br />

most elevated <strong>of</strong> any on the Main Line<br />

between Lithgow and the Western terminus.<br />

The country around is open bush land,<br />

and used for pastoral and agricultural purposes.<br />

Goods are received at Spring Grove<br />

for Icely, Byng, Gulgong, Forest Reefs,<br />

Cadia, &c. Spring Grove is in the centre <strong>of</strong><br />

a mining district, rich gold-mines being situated<br />

at Forest Reefs, 6 miles, and extensive<br />

copper-mines at Byng. A large flour-mill is<br />

noticeable after leaving the station.<br />

Spring Hill Station, 183 miles; 3,086<br />

feet above sea-level.-The country hereabouts<br />

is not very interesting. The land,<br />

divided by queer-looking fences, is used for<br />

agricultural and pastoral purposes.<br />

Huntley Platform, 186 miles; about<br />

3,000 feet above sea-level.-A small platform<br />

between the Spring Hill Station and<br />

Orange, about 6 miles from the latter township.<br />

BetweenHuntleyandOrangotheOrange<br />

Meat-preserving Company have established<br />

works. Large paddocks surround the works,<br />

in which the stock are kept till required.<br />

The machinery, refrigerators, &c., are <strong>of</strong> the<br />

latest and most approved kind. The works<br />

are divided into five chambers, capable <strong>of</strong><br />

holding some hundreds <strong>of</strong> sheep and cattle.<br />

The meat is dispatched by special trucks to<br />

Sydney, and loaded without delay into the<br />

refrigerating chambers <strong>of</strong> the steamers ap-


pointed to receive it. A number <strong>of</strong> shipments<br />

<strong>of</strong> meat from this Company have been<br />

placed successfully on the London market.<br />

At the present time this industry is not in<br />

working.<br />

Orange Station, 192 miles ; 2,843 feet<br />

above sea-level.-Between Spring Hill<br />

and Orange the railway traveller will find<br />

arable land under cultivation on either side<br />

<strong>of</strong> the line. Orange is one <strong>of</strong> the most<br />

progressive towns <strong>of</strong> the Colony, remarkable,<br />

amongst other things, for the unusual<br />

excellence <strong>of</strong> its hotels, stores, and banks.<br />

It adjoins a fertile and wealthy district,<br />

and is the busy centre <strong>of</strong> a considerable<br />

amount <strong>of</strong> trade <strong>of</strong> all kinds, agricultural, pastoral,<br />

and mining. The manufactories include<br />

three breweries, three large flour-mills, sawmill,<br />

boot factory and tannery, brickworks,<br />

timber-yards, &c. The town is well laid<br />

out j the wide, well-built streets presenting<br />

an imposing and well nigh metropolitan<br />

appearance. The population by last Census<br />

was 2,700. Orange has a School <strong>of</strong> Arts, a<br />

Masonic Hall, a Hospital, Churches for the<br />

four chief Denominations, and other places<br />

<strong>of</strong> public worship. There are two large<br />

Schools, a commodious Court-house, and<br />

three local newspapers. The principal hotels<br />

are---The "Royal," the "Club-house Hotel,"<br />

the "Occidental Hotel,"and "Kenna's Hotel,"<br />

opposite to the <strong>Railway</strong> Station. Orange is<br />

in the centre <strong>of</strong> a large and rich auriferous<br />

di::;trict, and it was here ( at Ophir) the first gold<br />

was discovered in Australia. Ophir is still<br />

worked, and reefing is being carried on with<br />

considerable success in the fields around, viz.,<br />

at Belmore, Lucas Gully, Jaw-bone, Golden<br />

Point, Blacksprings, and at Lucknow. Orange<br />

is surrounded by a reliable agricultural district,<br />

rust being unknown, and even in the<br />

dry seasons the crops around Orange have<br />

not been affected as in many other parts <strong>of</strong><br />

the Colony. Orange is also the centre <strong>of</strong><br />

a large and important pastoral area, goods<br />

being received here for Parkes, Forbes, Condoholin,<br />

stations on the Lachlan, Cudal,<br />

Cargo, Cadia, &c. A large portion <strong>of</strong> this<br />

traffic will however be lost when the Rail way<br />

line to Forbes is constructed. Orange possesses<br />

a handsome <strong>Railway</strong> Station, the appearance<br />

<strong>of</strong> which is much enhanced by the well-kept<br />

garden, gay with flowers, immediately in<br />

front <strong>of</strong> the Station-house.<br />

For some time Orange was the terminal<br />

station for the Western line. In June,<br />

1880, the extension westward was opened to<br />

Wellington, and since then extensions have<br />

been opened to the '\V estern Terminus,<br />

Bourke. A railway has been approved <strong>of</strong><br />

by Parliament from Orange to Wilcannia, on<br />

the Darling, via Forbes.<br />

Extension, Orange to Molong.-The<br />

extension from Orange to Molong was<br />

opened at the close <strong>of</strong> last year (1885), and<br />

it has proved a great boon to the many<br />

settlers in and about the district. The<br />

extension joins the '\Vestern <strong>Railway</strong> two<br />

miles from Orange, and is about ~2 miles in<br />

length. The line passes through a country<br />

well watered by t,he Cheeseman's, Boree, and<br />

Molong Creeks, and the district is largely<br />

devoted to agriculture. The country is <strong>of</strong><br />

basaltic formation and the timber principally<br />

box. · There are stopping places between<br />

Orange and Molong at Amaros, Borenore,<br />

and Cargo Road, -provided for local traffic.<br />

Molong is a town <strong>of</strong> some importance, numbering<br />

over 1,000 inhabitants, and is a<br />

municipality. It possesses ample hotel accommodation<br />

and a considerable husincss is<br />

transacted. As the district is well settled<br />

principally by farmers, the crops grown<br />

being wheat-in connection with which there<br />

are two fiour mills-oats, maize, and Hay,<br />

while a large variety <strong>of</strong> fruits grow particularly<br />

well in the district, including grapes,<br />

cherries, apples, and plums. This place also<br />

possesses mineral resources, being the centre<br />

<strong>of</strong> a gold-field, and in addition silver has<br />

lately been discovered and copper. Splendid<br />

flagging is obtainable and abundance <strong>of</strong> lime.<br />

Molong being the terminns <strong>of</strong> the line<br />

receives a large quantity <strong>of</strong> goods. Forbes<br />

(partly), Parkes, Obley, Cummock, Buckinbar,<br />

Yarra Bell River, etc., drawing supplies<br />

frorn this station. The distri0t is not devoid<br />

<strong>of</strong> the picturesque. The country is billy, and<br />

some splendid views are to be had <strong>of</strong> the<br />

Conoblas and in the Continubul mountains.<br />

Mullion Creek, 203 miles : 2,827 feet<br />

above sea-level.-After leaving Orange a<br />

fair amount <strong>of</strong> cultivated land is seen on


each side <strong>of</strong> the <strong>Railway</strong>, but the greater<br />

portion <strong>of</strong> the country is devoted to pastoral<br />

purposes, grass being plentiful in good seasons.<br />

11 miles from Orange, Mullion Creek is<br />

reached, the line crossing the creek by a<br />

bridge <strong>of</strong> three 26-feet timber openings. The<br />

<strong>Railway</strong> between these two places is comparatively<br />

level, Mullion Creek being only<br />

16 feet lower than Orange. The only signs<br />

<strong>of</strong> population about Mullion Creek are the<br />

<strong>Railway</strong> Station buildings and a few scattered<br />

hamlets in the vicinity. The station<br />

only receives a small local traffic, principally<br />

agricultural.<br />

Warne, 217 miles : 2,072 feet above<br />

sea-level.-After leaving Mullion Creek the<br />

line commences to descend from the higher<br />

table-lands towards the lower interior plains,<br />

there being a fall <strong>of</strong> nearly 800 feet between<br />

Mullion Creek and Warne, a distance <strong>of</strong> 14<br />

miles. The cuttings between these two<br />

stations are both numerous and heavy, and<br />

some <strong>of</strong> the gra


vicinity <strong>of</strong> Wellington there is much that<br />

is interesting and beautiful to be seen.<br />

There is first the celebrated Wellington<br />

Caves, 6 miles out on the Ironbarks Road.<br />

A writer in speaking <strong>of</strong> them says,-" The<br />

vVellington Caves have always had a large<br />

amount <strong>of</strong> interest attached to them, not<br />

only on account <strong>of</strong> their natural beauty and<br />

peculiarity, but because <strong>of</strong> the strange remains<br />

<strong>of</strong> a bygone time that every exploration <strong>of</strong><br />

their depths brings to light. Remains <strong>of</strong><br />

men have been found there, ::tnd strange tools<br />

and weapons; grotesque drawings, indicating<br />

a poetic conception and stirring times, tell <strong>of</strong><br />

a people who have passed away as entirely as<br />

has the time in which they lived. Save the<br />

deeply graven lines on the face <strong>of</strong> the rock,<br />

the strange and petrified forms <strong>of</strong> tools and<br />

utensils for household use, the footprints <strong>of</strong><br />

ages ago firmly fixed in a clay that has long<br />

since turned into rock, no record remains<br />

<strong>of</strong> the people or the period when the Wellington<br />

Caves were places <strong>of</strong> common resort,<br />

either for purposes <strong>of</strong> security or comfort."<br />

A little distance from Wellington the waters<br />

<strong>of</strong> the Bell and Macquarie unite, the place<br />

receiving the poetic name <strong>of</strong> the "Meeting<br />

<strong>of</strong> the Waters." Towering above the town<br />

is a majestic hill called Mount Arthur, from<br />

which a splendid view <strong>of</strong> the rivers is obtained,<br />

as they wind like streaks <strong>of</strong> silver over the<br />

plain. The scenery along the banks <strong>of</strong> the<br />

river is in places very pretty, and the rivers<br />

themselves furnish plenty <strong>of</strong> sport-the cod<br />

and silver bream, delicious fish, being caught.<br />

Wellington is also rich in minerals, and<br />

should ere long become a more important<br />

town. Copper is obtained here. A coal-field,<br />

the Belmore, is situated 15 miles away; and<br />

in the district are the gold-fields <strong>of</strong> vVoolaman,<br />

Goodrich, and Mitchell's Creek. Ample<br />

and good accommodation can be had here ;<br />

the principal hotels being the "Royal,"<br />

" Exchange," "Occidental," " Commercial,"<br />

"Bridge," "<strong>Railway</strong>," and "Telegraph."<br />

<strong>Railway</strong> refreshment-rooms have been esta:blished<br />

at Wellington, and as the train passes<br />

through at seasonable hours the refreshmentrooms<br />

prove a great convenience to travellers.<br />

Maryvale, 254 miles; 1,000 feet above<br />

sea-level.-A little distance beyond W ellington<br />

the <strong>Railway</strong> crosses the Macquarie, by<br />

a handsome iron bridge, <strong>of</strong> 3 spans <strong>of</strong> 150<br />

feet each and two <strong>of</strong> 60 feet each, with brick<br />

abutments, &c. The total length <strong>of</strong> the<br />

bridge is 648 feet. The height <strong>of</strong> the rails<br />

above the level <strong>of</strong> the river is 70 feet. It<br />

will be remembered that this is the second<br />

time the Macquarie is crossed by the <strong>Railway</strong>,<br />

and further west, at Dubbo, the line<br />

again crosses the su.me stream. In the<br />

vicinity <strong>of</strong> Wellington the land is largely<br />

under cultivation, a considerable quantity <strong>of</strong><br />

wheat and oats for hay being grown. Maryvale<br />

is in the centre <strong>of</strong> wide-stretching<br />

wheat-fields, and a large quantity <strong>of</strong> produce<br />

is annually sent from this platform. At 267<br />

miles there is another platform, Murrumbidgerie,<br />

from whence a large quantity <strong>of</strong><br />

timber-principally <strong>Railway</strong> sleepers, which<br />

are obtained in the vicinity-is despatched.<br />

Dubbo, 278 miles; 865 feet above sealevel.-The<br />

country between Maryvale and<br />

Dubbo is uninteresting, and is used almost<br />

entirely for pastoral purposes. The line<br />

between Wellington and Dubbo generally is<br />

level, although at one point there is for a<br />

short distance a gradient <strong>of</strong> 1 in 40. The<br />

sha1:pest curve is 40 chains radius. Dubbo<br />

is au important trucking place for cattle,<br />

and just before reaching the station the<br />

train passes extensive trucking yards. The<br />

town is situated on the edge <strong>of</strong> the salt-bush<br />

or pastoral country, and is the centre <strong>of</strong><br />

one <strong>of</strong> the richest mineral and pastoral<br />

districts <strong>of</strong> New South Wales. The population<br />

<strong>of</strong> the town, according to the Census <strong>of</strong><br />

1881, was 3,324, and <strong>of</strong> the surrounding<br />

district 12,000. Dubbo is, though one <strong>of</strong><br />

the most recent <strong>of</strong> the new townships which<br />

have sprung up during the last twenty years,<br />

op.e <strong>of</strong> the most flourishing. Its buildings<br />

are handsome and substantial. Some splendid<br />

stores are to be seen. In public buildings<br />

the most noticeable are the Church <strong>of</strong> England,<br />

Roman Catholic, Presbyterian, and Wesleyan<br />

Churches. The first three are built <strong>of</strong> white<br />

sandstone, taken from the quanies at West<br />

Dubbo, 2 miles from the town. The supply<br />

<strong>of</strong> this stone is unlimited. The Government<br />

buildings-viz., the Court-house and<br />

Post Office-are soon to be replaced by str11ctures<br />

more in accordance with the present<br />

wants <strong>of</strong> the place. The <strong>Railway</strong> Station is

'<br />


an imposing building, erected in 1880. It is<br />

constructed <strong>of</strong> stone. There is a nice Stationhouse<br />

attached, around which a well<br />

arranged garden has been planted, in which<br />

the choicest plants and flowers are blooming<br />

in all seasons. The Masonic Halla<br />

roomy building-is also one <strong>of</strong> the most<br />

prominent edifices. It possesses a fine hall,<br />

a roomy stage, and besides there is one<br />

<strong>of</strong> the best lodge-rooms in the Colony.<br />

There are three Banks-Commercial, Joint<br />

Stock, and New South Wales. Dubbo is<br />

the circuit town for the whole north-west,<br />

as far on one side as the Queensland boundary,<br />

north and south-west. There is a firm<br />

wooden bridge spanning the Macquarie at<br />

Dubbo ; it is 300 feet long. About half-amile<br />

higher up the river, the <strong>Railway</strong> bridge<br />

( a very fine bridge) is in course <strong>of</strong> construction.<br />

The educational requirements <strong>of</strong> the<br />

town are well attended to. Besides private<br />

and denominational schools, there is a large<br />

public school with an average attendance <strong>of</strong><br />

about 400 pupils. The leading hotels are<br />

the "Royal," "Macquarie View," "Great<br />

Western," "Post Office," and "Imperial."<br />

The district in years past was principally a<br />

pastoral district, but within the last fifteen<br />

years a considerable quantity <strong>of</strong> land has<br />

been taken up for farming purposes. However,<br />

the soil seems best for the pursuits <strong>of</strong><br />

grazing and farming combined. The climate<br />

and soil are admirably adapted for the growth<br />

<strong>of</strong> the vine, and at two vineyards--Eumalgo,<br />

7 miles away, and Mount Olivet, 2 miles<br />

distant--some excellent wines are made.<br />

The Dubbo district is rich in minerals. 20<br />

miles, on the Tollragar or Erskine, is the<br />

Baltimore Coal-mine. A very rich seam <strong>of</strong><br />

excellent coal is being worked. About 25<br />

miles from the <strong>Railway</strong> siding at Tranjie, on<br />

the extension to N evertire, is the Caroline<br />

Copper-mine; and at Girilambone, 25 miles<br />

from Nyngan, is the Girilambone Mine.<br />

35 miles from Dubbo are the auriferous<br />

quartz-reefs <strong>of</strong> Tomingley. About a dozen<br />

claims are on gold, and the Mint returns<br />

are very promising. There are on the<br />

West Bogan, west <strong>of</strong> Tranjie and Nevertire,<br />

some as yet undeveloped copper-mines.<br />

The wool traffic is large-about 40,000<br />

bales being loaded at Dubbo. The whole<br />

<strong>of</strong> the Castlereagh traffic comes to Dubbo,<br />

and the <strong>Railway</strong> returns show that there has<br />

been a great revenue collected at this station.<br />

The towns which will make Dubbo their<br />

station are as follow :-Cobbora, Obley,<br />

Coonamble, Collie, Gilgandra, Garalgambone,<br />

M undooran, &c. Warren will be served by<br />

N evertire, and on the line is N arramine,<br />

which will be used by the middle Macquarie<br />

residents. Tranjie will serve the Upper<br />

Bogan inhabitants.<br />

Nyngan, 377 miles.-In October, 1882,<br />

an extension from Dubbo to Nevertire, 63<br />

miles, was opened, and on the 9th June, 1883,<br />

the line was completed to Nyngan. After<br />

leaving Dubbo the line runs over the Macquarie,<br />

which is crossed by a substantial iron<br />

bridge. Between this and N yngan no engineering<br />

difficulties have been met with, but<br />

numerous cuttings are passed through; from<br />

the largest <strong>of</strong> which, near 283 miles, 27,292<br />

loads <strong>of</strong> stuff were taken. A number <strong>of</strong><br />

creeks are crossed, timber openings allowing<br />

their waters to run under the line. The<br />

steepest gradient on the extension is 1 in 50,<br />

but this only occurs for a distance <strong>of</strong> 30<br />

chains. Generally the line is comparatively<br />

level ; the country for some 10 miles out <strong>of</strong><br />

Dubbo is fertile, but then poor land covered<br />

with stunted .pine and ironbark is passed<br />

through. At N arrarnine, 300 miles from<br />

Sydney (22 from Dubbo), the great western<br />

salt-bush plains are entered upon. The plains<br />

extend for miles, in many places devoid <strong>of</strong><br />

trees, or covered with small scrub, varied by<br />

occasional patches <strong>of</strong> myall. A platform is<br />

passed at Trangie, 320 miles, and at 34: 1<br />

miles N evertire is reached. There is no township<br />

at N evertire, the nearest place being<br />

W arren-11 miles <strong>of</strong>f-a pastoral centre with<br />

a population <strong>of</strong> 429 souls. The line between<br />

Nevertire and Nyngan is <strong>of</strong> a light character,<br />

being straight and almost level. The<br />

Western District is very rich in copper j<br />

some mines-the Great Cobar especiallyshowing<br />

ore in sight that will furnish<br />

employment to thousands <strong>of</strong> miners for years<br />

to come. This mine has led to the foundation<br />

<strong>of</strong> the town <strong>of</strong> Cobar, which contains<br />

some three or four thousand inhabitants.<br />

To provide for the trade <strong>of</strong> the district a<br />

railway has been approved <strong>of</strong> from N yngan,<br />

and no doubt before long it will be corn-<br />

,I<br />



menced, as the working plans, &c., have been<br />

prepared, and only await the final approval<br />

<strong>of</strong> the Legislature.<br />

Giralam bone, 405 miles ; 637 feet<br />

above sea-level.-When the extension was<br />

opened to Byrock, in September, 1884, a<br />

wayside station was _openecl at Giralambone,<br />

around which some settlement had been<br />

gathered by the development <strong>of</strong> some copper<br />

rnine8 ; but at the present time the mines are<br />

not being worked. The station is now kept<br />

up by the produce from the sheep stations<br />

known as Murrawombri, Gradweed, Booramugga,<br />

Budgery, Sussex, and Wilga Downs,<br />

and the goods to these runs. The district is<br />

an uninteresting one being very sparsely<br />

settled, level, and used exclusively for pastoral<br />

purposes.<br />

Byrock, 455 miles ; 499 feet above<br />

sea-level.-Byrock is a town <strong>of</strong> mushroom<br />

growth called into existence by the opening<br />

<strong>of</strong> the railway to it in September, 1884, and<br />

judging by appearances does not seem destined<br />

to have a long life as its buildings have been<br />

designed apparently for merely temporary<br />

purposes. At present a fairly large number<br />

<strong>of</strong> cattle are trucked from here, coming via<br />

Brewarrina, and the station receives the Brewarrina<br />

goods; but an agitation has been set<br />

on foot to have a branch railway to this town<br />

from Byrock.<br />

Bourke, 503 miles; 349 feet above<br />

sea-level.-The Great Western <strong>Railway</strong> is<br />

an immense chain uniting Sydney and Bourke,<br />

and being in length 503 miles. Its links<br />

have taken many years to form, but the final<br />

one was completed in September, 1885, and<br />

the line was opened on the 3rd <strong>of</strong> that month<br />

to Bourke, the most important t.own in Central<br />

Australia. It lies on the River Darling,<br />

but it is only at uncertain periods that the<br />

river is navigable, and in times <strong>of</strong> drought the<br />

town has almost been reduced to famirie,<br />

stores being so scarce and transit so difficult;<br />

but the railway puts an end to all such contingencies,<br />

and the Bourke people are now<br />

brought within a day's journey <strong>of</strong> the metropolis.<br />

The town is not particularly picturesque,<br />

lying on a long flat stretching back<br />

from the river, but it is the centre <strong>of</strong> an<br />

immense district, and transacts a large business,<br />

and is every year rising into more<br />

importance. It is a municipality, proclaimed<br />

in 1878, and contains a population <strong>of</strong> 4,140.<br />

It <strong>of</strong>fers excellent hotel accommodation. The<br />

traffic from Bourke is entirely <strong>of</strong> a pastoral<br />

nature, wool and cattle being sent away in<br />

immense qnantities, as Bourke is the entrepot<br />

for a pastoral district that stretches through<br />

the heart <strong>of</strong> Australia away to the far north<br />

<strong>of</strong> Queensland ; and at times wool is brought<br />

by river to this station. At the present time<br />

Bourke is dependant for grains and greenstuffs<br />

upon the more favoured stations on the<br />

Western Line, such as Wellington or Orange,<br />

where wheat can be grown to advantage; but<br />

if a system <strong>of</strong> irrigation and water conservation<br />

can be perfected, as it is believed it can,<br />

it will add immeasurably to the wealth and<br />

productiveness <strong>of</strong> these western districts.<br />


THE history <strong>of</strong> the <strong>Railway</strong> Extension to<br />

Mudgee shows a splendid pro<strong>of</strong> <strong>of</strong> the success<br />

o~ persistency. For many years this extens10n<br />

was fought for determinedly by the<br />

Mudgee people ; but various Governments,<br />

deterred by the heavy estimates given<br />

as to the cost <strong>of</strong> the line, and the dim<br />

prospect <strong>of</strong> a remunerative return, would not<br />

for a long time listen to the appeals <strong>of</strong> those<br />

interested, until at last one Ministry, seeing<br />

beyond the mountain barrier a wealthy land<br />

<strong>of</strong> promise and the opening up and development<br />

<strong>of</strong> mineral resources and wide areas <strong>of</strong><br />

land, determined to propose the line, a proposition<br />

which met with the approval <strong>of</strong> the<br />

then Parliament. Accordingly the line was<br />

proceeded with, and in September, 1884, the<br />

Mudgee people heard the whistle <strong>of</strong> the iron<br />

horse as it gaily made its way across the<br />

plains bordering the quiet Cudgegong. The<br />

line starts from W allerawang, which long<br />

enjoyed a greater share <strong>of</strong> prosperity by


reason <strong>of</strong> its position as the junction <strong>of</strong> the<br />

Mudgee road with the ·western <strong>Railway</strong>.<br />

Piper's Flat, 110 miles; 3,187 feet<br />

above sea-level.-The line runs north-west<br />

from Wallerawang outwards to Piper's Flat,<br />

the first station j the country is uninteresting,<br />

the land being poor and timbered with stunted<br />

specimens <strong>of</strong> white gum. The station is kept<br />

busy only by the mineral traffic, the W allerawang<br />

Compa.ny's Coal-mine being in the<br />

vicinity, which, in 1884, had a contract to<br />

supply the Government with some 75,000<br />

tons coal at the remarkably low rate <strong>of</strong> 5s.<br />

per ton. The district is essentially a mining<br />

one, near the station coal is in abundance,<br />

and spread over the locality are extensive<br />

deposits <strong>of</strong> lime, which is principally shipped<br />

from the next platform, Ben Bullen, at 121<br />

miles.<br />

Capertee, 127 miles; 2,739 feet above<br />

sea-level.-The line from Ben Bullen to<br />

Capertee is uninteresting until within a short<br />

distance <strong>of</strong> Capertee, when, after emerging<br />

from the darkness <strong>of</strong> the Capertee tunnel,<br />

the traveller sees spread before him a glorious<br />

panoramic view <strong>of</strong> Capertee Valley. The<br />

railway skirts round its edges, and down<br />

below him extends the valley, its uneven and<br />

thickly timbered irnrface heaving, it would<br />

appear, like mighty waves. Far back stands<br />

a frowning battlement <strong>of</strong> dark bold rocks<br />

forming a head and crown to the body <strong>of</strong><br />

the valley below, these cliffs wonderfully<br />

square and regular being aptly termed the<br />

Crown Ridge. The train in the fall <strong>of</strong><br />

the year clears this spot towards sunset,<br />

and the long golden sunbeams <strong>of</strong> the evening<br />

as they gleam across the waving tree-tops<br />

in the valley, light up this cro"\'·n with a<br />

golden refulgence <strong>of</strong> light smoothing down<br />

its forbidding sternness and setting gems<br />

over its rocky face. The railway runs round<br />

this valley for some distance on its way to<br />

Rylstone, and between the steep cuttings<br />

a fair vista <strong>of</strong> this picturesque valley is every<br />

now and again seen. The valley contains<br />

good timber j but <strong>of</strong> course the difficulty <strong>of</strong><br />

transit militates against any use being made<br />

<strong>of</strong> the forests. Good sporting is to be bad<br />

in among the tall grey-gums, game being<br />

plentiful in the valley, and the kangaroos are<br />

as thick as sheep on a good run. Capertee<br />

cannot be called a thriving place j it boasts<br />

<strong>of</strong> one inn and occasionally sends a little<br />

traffic over towards the Turon (14 miles),<br />

where some gold seekers are working.<br />

Ilford, 149 miles; 2,450 feet above<br />

sea-level.-Between Ilford and Capertee<br />

the line runs for some distance as already<br />

mentioned along the head <strong>of</strong> the Capertee<br />

Valley, the line crawling as it were along the<br />

side <strong>of</strong> the cliffs that drop down into the<br />

valley. The cuttings are both numerous and<br />

extensive, and at times an uneasy feeling<br />

creeps over the traveller, that one <strong>of</strong> the<br />

overhanging rocks above him will fall acrmm<br />

the ironway. The nature <strong>of</strong> the country at<br />

this place is that known as "rotten," and in<br />

order to make traffic secure, and to prevent<br />

the probability <strong>of</strong> danger, the trains always<br />

run through in the day light. The scenery is<br />

bold and striking, the mountains towering<br />

hundreds <strong>of</strong> feet overhead and the passing<br />

views are sufficiently varied to show a long<br />

succession <strong>of</strong> panoramic Yiews as the trains<br />

sped onwards.<br />

Rylstone, 158 miles; 1,993 feet above<br />

sea-level.-From Ilford the line becomes<br />

more even and the country better grassed,<br />

the line running into the large squattages<br />

bordering the Cudgegong River. Rylstone is<br />

a clean and thriving little township, the<br />

Cndgegong running round it, and its fertile<br />

flats giving opportunity for the cultivation <strong>of</strong><br />

good crops <strong>of</strong> grain. Near Rylstone is the<br />

bead <strong>of</strong> the "Colo" Valley, through which a<br />

route is being surveyed for a <strong>Railway</strong> to<br />

connect with the Western Line near Penrith.<br />

The line can, it is thought, be made s