Issue 04/2022

Highlights: Blow Moulding / Bottle Applications Polyurethanes / Elastomers Basics: FDCA & PEF

Blow Moulding / Bottle Applications
Polyurethanes / Elastomers


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Bioplastics - CO 2<br />

-based Plastics - Advanced Recycling<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE Vol. 17<br />

Basics<br />

. is read in 92 countries<br />

FDCA and PEF | 48<br />

Highlights<br />

Blow Moulding | 18<br />

Polyurethanes/Elastomers | 10<br />

... is read in 92 countries<br />

<strong>04</strong> / <strong>2022</strong><br />

ISSN 1862-5258 July/August


dear<br />

Editorial<br />

readers<br />

As I am writing these lines we are suffering (or enjoying) outside<br />

temperatures in Germany of 40°C. In a TV show, someone asked:<br />

“Is this still summer or is it climate change”. As a matter of fact,<br />

Germany saw only 10 days at 40° since the beginning of weather<br />

records.<br />

As we probably all agree on the latter, it is another proof that we<br />

are doing the right thing reporting about non-fossil plastics in this<br />

magazine.<br />

You’ll find again a number of articles on biobased plastics, as<br />

well as on the topics of CCU and advanced recycling – in line<br />

with our expanded objective on Renewable Carbon Plastics.<br />

In addition, one focus topic of this issue is Blow Moulding<br />

/ Bottle Applications. Here we have some articles on plastic<br />

materials for blow moulding as well as on machinery and<br />

recycling. The topic is rounded off with a Basics article an<br />

FDCA and PEF and our 10 years ago review.<br />

EcoComunicazione.it<br />

as melon skin<br />

The other highlight is Polyurethanes / Elastomers, where<br />

we report about biobased polyols and isocyanates, but also about<br />

advanced recycling technologies.<br />

Let’s now look at the events ahead. After a successful purely digital<br />

bio!PAC in March and a hybrid 7 th PLA World Congress in Munich in May<br />

we are now looking forward to this year’s Bioplastics Business Breakfast<br />

during the K-show in October. Most probably it will be a hybrid event too,<br />

as is it to be expected that still many travel restrictions exist. Corona isn’t<br />

over yet.<br />

Anyhow, we also look forward to the K-show itself. We will certainly<br />

publish a comprehensive show preview in the next issue, along with the<br />

much-liked show guide. If you’d like us to publish your product review or<br />

participate in the show guide with small ads, just let us know.<br />

r3_06.<strong>2022</strong><br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE Vol. 17<br />

Bioplastics - CO 2<br />

-based Plastics - Advanced Recycling<br />

... is read in 92 countries<br />

Basics<br />

FDCA and PEF | 48<br />

Highlights<br />

Blow Moulding | 18<br />

Polyurethanes/Elastomers | 10<br />

... is read in 92 countries<br />

<strong>04</strong> / <strong>2022</strong><br />

ISSN 1862-5258 July/August<br />

Follow us on twitter!<br />

www.twitter.com/bioplasticsmag<br />

We are looking forward to meeting many of you in person this fall and,<br />

as always, hope you enjoy reading bioplastics MAGAZINE.<br />

Sincerely yours<br />

Like us on Facebook!<br />

www.facebook.com/bioplasticsmagazine<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/22] Vol. 17 3

Imprint<br />

Content<br />

34 Porsche launches cars with biocomposites<br />

32 Bacteriostatic PLA compound for 3D printingz<br />

Jul/Aug <strong>04</strong>|<strong>2022</strong><br />

3 Editorial<br />

5 News<br />

40 Application News<br />

48 Basics<br />

52 10 years ago<br />

54 Suppliers Guide<br />

58 Companies in this issue<br />

Publisher / Editorial<br />

Dr. Michael Thielen (MT)<br />

Alex Thielen (AT)<br />

Samuel Brangenberg (SB)<br />

Head Office<br />

Polymedia Publisher GmbH<br />

Dammer Str. 112<br />

41066 Mönchengladbach, Germany<br />

phone: +49 (0)2161 6884469<br />

fax: +49 (0)2161 6884468<br />

info@bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

Media Adviser<br />

Samsales (German language)<br />

phone: +49(0)2161-6884467<br />

fax: +49(0)2161 6884468<br />

sb@bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

Michael Thielen (English Language)<br />

(see head office)<br />

Layout/Production<br />

Michael Thielen / Philipp Thielen<br />

Events<br />

8 Bioplastics Business Breakfast @ K <strong>2022</strong><br />

Elastomers<br />

12 Sustainable thermoplastic<br />

co-polyester elastomers<br />

Polyurethane<br />

10 Climate neutral polyurethane<br />

14 Chemical recycling of polyurethane<br />

Advanced Recycling<br />

16 Molecular recycling<br />

Blow Moulding<br />

18 R-Cycle optimizes recycling<br />

20 Bioplastics for bottles & containers<br />

22 The most sustainable water bottle<br />

23 Lighter, faster, and more efficient<br />

24 Offtake agreement on PEF for fibre<br />

bottles<br />

26 Innovative FDCA process<br />

Materials<br />

27 Thermoformable PLA films<br />

30 Waste recovery to obtain PLA<br />

32 Next generation PHA<br />

34 Biodegradation of plastic waste in<br />

marine and aquatic environments<br />

From Science & Research<br />

36 Industrial starch struck gold<br />

Processing<br />

38 New production plant for novel flexible<br />

PLA copolymers<br />

Applications<br />

39 A story of compostable cling wrap<br />

Market<br />

44 Bioplastics in Chile<br />

CCU<br />

46 Carbon dioxide utilization<br />

Print<br />

Poligrāfijas grupa Mūkusala Ltd.<br />

10<strong>04</strong> Riga, Latvia<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE is printed on<br />

chlorine-free FSC certified paper.<br />

bioplastics magazine<br />

Volume 17 - 2021<br />

ISSN 1862-5258<br />

bM is published 6 times a year.<br />

This publication is sent to qualified subscribers<br />

(169 Euro for 6 issues).<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE is read in<br />

92 countries.<br />

Every effort is made to verify all Information<br />

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cannot accept responsibility for any errors<br />

or omissions or for any losses that may<br />

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All articles appearing in<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE, or on the website<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.com are strictly<br />

covered by copyright. No part of this<br />

publication may be reproduced, copied,<br />

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in any form, including electronic format,<br />

without the prior consent of the publisher.<br />

Opinions expressed in articles do not necessarily<br />

reflect those of Polymedia Publisher.<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE welcomes contributions<br />

for publication. Submissions are<br />

accepted on the basis of full assignment<br />

of copyright to Polymedia Publisher GmbH<br />

unless otherwise agreed in advance and in<br />

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Please contact the editorial office via<br />

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The fact that product names may not be<br />

identified in our editorial as trade marks<br />

is not an indication that such names are<br />

not registered trade marks.<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE tries to use British<br />

spelling. However, in articles based on<br />

information from the USA, American<br />

spelling may also be used.<br />

Envelopes<br />

A part of this print run is mailed to the<br />

readers wrapped bioplastic envelopes<br />

sponsored by Sidaplax/Plastic Suppliers<br />

(Belgium/USA).<br />

Cover<br />

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Biopolymer<br />

Innovation Award<br />

The winners of this year's BIOPOLYMER<br />

Innovation Awards were presented on June 14 at the<br />

“BIOPOLYMER – Processing & Molding” congress<br />

presented by Polykum (Merseburg, Germany).<br />

The 1st Prize was awarded to Home Eos SA<br />

from Farciennes in Belgium for their new type<br />

of biobased, biodegradable plastic: stopsound<br />

absorbs vibrations excellently, is naturally fireretardant,<br />

and heat-insulating. Its production<br />

requires up to eight times less energy than similar<br />

conventional plastics. The sound-absorbing<br />

foam, which remains permanently elastic without<br />

plasticizers, solvents, and classified chemicals,<br />

can be easily bonded to other materials. The<br />

material is used in vehicle construction as well<br />

as, for example, in floors, facades, or in industrial<br />

noise protection. With the extensively certified<br />

bioplastic, classic petrochemical materials such<br />

as bitumen, PVC, or EPDM can be replaced on a<br />

large scale in the future.<br />

The runnerup was SachsenLeinen from<br />

Markkleeberg, Germany, for the development of<br />

a process for manufacturing unidirectional (UD)<br />

tapes from flax and hemp fibres and biobased<br />

plastics like PLA or PA. Among other things, the<br />

jury was impressed by the uniformity with which<br />

the fibers are covered by the biopolymer.<br />

Prize No. 3 went to Earth Renewable Technology<br />

(ERT) from Curitiba, Brazil, who convinced the jury<br />

with a masterpiece in compounding technology<br />

which opens up new application possibilities<br />

for the world's most widely used biopolymer,<br />

polylactide (PLA). With its Short Fibre Reinforced<br />

(SFRP) in FC 10130 biopolymer composite, the US<br />

company, which has been active in Brazil for four<br />

years, integrated PLA fibres into a PLA matrix. MT<br />

www.polykum.de<br />

PEF Textile Community<br />

founded<br />

Avantium N.V. (Amsterdam, the Netherlands), a leading technology<br />

company in renewable chemistry, has formed the PEF Textile<br />

Community with the five reputable global companies Antex (Anglès,<br />

Spain), BekaertDeslee (Waregem, Belgium), Chamatex (Ardoix,<br />

France), Kvadrat (Ebeltoft, Denmark), and Salomon (Annecy, France).<br />

Avantium and Antex have already worked together on producing<br />

yarns made from PEF (polyethylene furanoate), a renewable and<br />

circular polymer also suitable for textiles. The other community<br />

partners will use these PEF yarns to develop various PEF fabric<br />

applications in different segments.<br />

The companies of the PEF Textile Community have a shared<br />

vision to further reduce CO 2<br />

emissions in support of the UN Paris<br />

Agreement and the European Green Deal objectives and explore<br />

sustainable solutions for various applications. Avantium’s PEF offers<br />

a unique solution to address the global need to tackle climate change.<br />

Every community member is committed to environmentally friendly<br />

processes and technologies. They have entered into an agreement<br />

with Avantium to join the PEF Textile Community to further develop<br />

the application of PEF in their respective applications.<br />

Bas Blom, Managing Director Avantium Renewable Polymers,<br />

comments: “A disruptive innovation like PEF can drive real change<br />

but requires trailblazers - those willing to be the first to jump into<br />

new solutions. The five reputable companies of the PEF Textile<br />

Community prove to be those early adopters. The formation of the<br />

PEF Textile Community demonstrates the importance of our mutual<br />

work to develop yarn solutions for a circular and sustainable future.<br />

We look forward to continuing and expanding our collaborations with<br />

those five partners for many years to come. This will help us to better<br />

understand the enormous market potential of PEF, as the world’s<br />

next generation sustainable polyester”. AT<br />

www.avantium.com<br />

News<br />

daily updated News at<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

Picks & clicks<br />

Most frequently clicked news<br />

Here’s a look at our most popular online content of the past two months.<br />

The story that got the most clicks from the visitors to bioplasticsmagazine.com was:<br />

tinyurl.com/news-220615<br />

Hytrel ® ECO B – DuPont’s new drop-in solution<br />

(15 June <strong>2022</strong>)<br />

Today, DuPont Mobility & Materials (Wilmington, DE, USA) unveiled the new<br />

Hytrel ECO B, a range of bio-attributed TPC-ET thermoplastic elastomers.<br />

Developed to help customers improve the environmental footprint of their<br />

products, Hytrel ECO B grades deliver performance equivalent to those made<br />

from fossil feedstock, but with biomass content up to 72 % by weight.<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/22] Vol. 17 5

News<br />

daily updated News at<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

The advantages of<br />

compostable<br />

bioplastics<br />

TotalEnergies Corbion (Gorinchem, the Netherlands)<br />

published a report on PLA compostability entitled “The<br />

advantages of compostable bioplastics for the circular<br />

economy”. The report advises on product design for<br />

compostable packaging when it contributes to the diversion<br />

of biowaste from landfill or incineration, reduction of the<br />

biowaste stream contamination, increasing efficacy of<br />

biowaste collection, and when the packaging is hardly<br />

separable from its organic waste content.<br />

Composting is crucial in achieving a sustainable future.<br />

With composting, the carbon drawn from the atmosphere<br />

during the plant feedstock growth, is brought back to the<br />

soil. Composting also brings nutrients back to the earth,<br />

increasing their quality and health without using chemical<br />

fertilizers. Composting biowaste mitigates the carbon<br />

emissions, as landfilling biowaste emits higher amounts<br />

of Green House Gases (CO 2<br />

, CH 4<br />

), which contribute to<br />

global warming.<br />

Compostable bioplastics, such as PLA, offer<br />

an alternative to conventional (fossil-based, nonbiodegradable)<br />

plastic items, which are usually not<br />

recycled because of their organic waste content<br />

– for instance, teabags, coffee capsules, and<br />

biowaste collection bags.<br />

Certified compostable bioplastic packaging can<br />

be thrown in the biowaste bin (where allowed by the<br />

municipalities) with its organic waste content, avoiding<br />

landfilling and incineration, and reducing contamination<br />

of the biowaste stream with conventional plastics.<br />

"Organic recycling plastic packaging, commonly known<br />

as composting, is a complementary end-of-life option. It<br />

contributes to achieving wider recycling targets, reducing<br />

carbon footprint and providing a valuable final product:<br />

compost.", states Maelenn Macedo Ravard, Sustainability<br />

and Regulatory Manager at TotalEnergies Corbion, and<br />

author of the report.<br />

Olga Kachook, Director, Bioeconomy & Reuse Initiatives<br />

at GreenBlue, (Charlottesville, VA, USA), says that "With<br />

the clock ticking on climate change, it’s worth celebrating<br />

the growing momentum behind composting as a solution<br />

and the role that compostable packaging plays in diverting<br />

food scraps from landfills".<br />

Plastic packaging will always be required for<br />

convenience, hygiene and functionality aspects. Using<br />

biobased, compostable bioplastics like PLA fulfils all<br />

these criteria and responds to climate challenges while<br />

having a reduced carbon footprint and a sustainable endof-life<br />

option. MT<br />

www.totalenergies-corbion.com<br />

Info:<br />

The White Paper can be<br />

downloaded form<br />

tinyurl.com/22<strong>04</strong>-whitepaper<br />

Bio-attributed hightemperature<br />

polyamide<br />

DSM Engineering Materials (Heerlen, the Netherlands)<br />

recently announced the launch of a new, more<br />

sustainable version of its flagship product Stanyl ® : Stanyl<br />

B-MB (Bio-based Mass Balanced), with up to 100 %<br />

bio-attributed content.<br />

Using the maximum possible levels of biomass-waste<br />

feedstock enables DSM Engineering Materials to halve<br />

the carbon footprint of this product line and, in turn,<br />

of the Stanyl B-MB-based products of its customers.<br />

This industry-first launch of a 100 % bio-attributed<br />

high-temperature polyamide underlines the business'<br />

ongoing commitment to helping customers fulfil their<br />

sustainability ambitions by making planet-positive<br />

choices and supporting the transition to a circular and<br />

biobased economy.<br />

Stanyl B-MB – now available with up to 100 % bioattributed<br />

content – is a fully ISCC+ certified massbalancing<br />

solution, and delivers exactly the same<br />

characteristics, performance, and quality as conventional<br />

Stanyl. MT<br />

www.dsm.com<br />

MEG from<br />

captured carbon<br />

A consortium, including LanzaTech (Skokie, IL, USA)<br />

and Danone (Paris, France), led to the discovery of a<br />

new route to monoethylene glycol, (MEG), which is a<br />

key building block for polyethylene terephthalate, (PET),<br />

resin, fibres, and bottles.<br />

The carbon capture technology uses a proprietary<br />

engineered bacterium to convert carbon emissions, from<br />

steel mills or gasified waste biomass, directly into MEG<br />

through fermentation, bypassing the need for an ethanol<br />

intermediate, and simplifying the MEG supply chain.<br />

“We have made a breakthrough in the production<br />

of sustainable PET that has vast potential to reduce<br />

the overall environmental impact of the process”,<br />

said Jennifer Holmgren, CEO of LanzaTech. “This<br />

is a technological breakthrough which could have a<br />

significant impact, with applications in multiple sectors,<br />

including packaging and textiles!”<br />

“We have been working with LanzaTech for years<br />

and strongly believe in the long-term capacity of this<br />

technology to become a game changer in the way to<br />

manage sustainable packaging materials production.<br />

This technological collaboration is a key enabler<br />

to accelerate the development of this promising<br />

technology”, said Pascal Chapon, Danone R&I Advanced<br />

Techno Materials Director. AT<br />

www.lanzatech.com | www.danone.com<br />

6 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/22] Vol. 17

CJ BIO and NatureWorks sign LOI to collaborate<br />

CJ BIO (Woburn, MA, USA), a division of South Korea-based CJ CheilJedang and leading producer of amorphous<br />

polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), and NatureWorks (Plymouth, MN, USA), an advanced materials company that is the world’s<br />

leading producer of polylactic acid (PLA), have signed a letter of intent (LOI) establishing a strategic alignment between the two<br />

organizations and have announced that the two companies are working toward a Master Collaboration Agreement (MCA). The<br />

companies will work together to develop sustainable materials solutions based on CJ BIO’s PHACT ® Marine Biodegradable<br />

PHA and NatureWorks’ Ingeo PLA. The goal of the agreement is to develop high-performance biopolymers that will replace<br />

fossil-based plastics in applications ranging from compostable food packaging and food service ware to personal care, and<br />

beyond.<br />

Both companies realize the potential to further enhance performance and end-of-use solutions for biopolymers, and increase<br />

the level of adoption across many new applications. By combining their expertise and technology platforms, NatureWorks and<br />

CJ aim to deliver next-generation solutions together. Initial development and collaboration are showing very promising results<br />

when using CJ BIO’s unique amorphous PHA in combination with Ingeo PLA.<br />

CJ BIO is the world's leading supplier of fermentation-based bioproducts for animal nutrition, human nutrition, and<br />

biomaterials at its thirteen manufacturing facilities worldwide. The company recently announced commercial-scale production<br />

of PHA following the inauguration of a new production facility in Pasuruan, Indonesia. CJ BIO is today the only company in the<br />

world producing amorphous PHA (aPHA). Amorphous PHA is a softer, more rubbery version of PHA that offers fundamentally<br />

different performance characteristics than crystalline or semi-crystalline forms of PHA. It is certified biodegradable under<br />

industrial compost, soil (ambient), and marine environments. Modifying PLA with amorphous PHA leads to improvements<br />

in mechanical properties, such as toughness, and ductility, while maintaining clarity. It also allows adjustment in the<br />

biodegradability of PLA and can potentially lead to a home compostable product.<br />

NatureWorks and CJ BIO will collect feedback from existing and potential customers across a range of applications and<br />

markets including packaging, food service ware, and organics recycling management to understand the growing need for<br />

functional product requirements that also align with sustainability goals. These collaborations will inform the companies’<br />

product and technology development roadmap. The two companies say that the LOI is the start of what is expected to be a<br />

long-term relationship between NatureWorks and CJ BIO and are aiming to sign a master collaboration agreement in the near<br />

future. MT<br />

www.cjbio.net | www.natureworksllc.com<br />

News<br />

daily updated News at<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

European Bioplastics has elected a new Board<br />

European Bioplastics (EUBP), the association representing<br />

the interests of the bioplastics industry in Europe, has elected<br />

a new Board.<br />

The EUBP leadership team will be headed by its new<br />

Chairperson, Stefan Barot (Biotec) and supported by the new<br />

Vice Chairpersons, Lars Börger (Neste) and Mariagiovanna<br />

Vetere (NatureWorks). “Never before has our industry<br />

received that much of attention. Economically and politically,<br />

these are pivotal times, and I’m very pleased to be able to<br />

support our industry in my new role as EUBP Chair”, says<br />

Stefan Barot.<br />

“Crucial EU legislation on bioplastics is expected to be<br />

adopted by the end of the year and beyond. This is a great<br />

opportunity to fully acknowledge the role of biobased and<br />

compostable plastics within the circular economy. We<br />

welcome the European Commission’s initiatives to establish<br />

a clear and reliable political environment for bioplastics. This<br />

is crucial to ensure the continued successful development of<br />

our industry. It also enables bioplastics to contribute to the<br />

achievement of the EU’s ambitious climate goals, especially<br />

a lower environmental footprint”, he adds.<br />

Afsaneh Nabifar (BASF SE), Peter von den Kerkhoff<br />

(Covation Biomaterials LLC), Patrick Zimmermann (FKuR),<br />

Franz Kraus (Novamont), Paolo La Scola (TotalEnergies<br />

Corbion), and Erwin Lepoudre (Kaneka) are also members of<br />

the new Board, with the latter serving as the Treasurer.<br />

“I would like to express my gratitude to all members of the<br />

previous board for their great contributions to our association<br />

over the past term”, says Barot and adds: “In the name of<br />

European Bioplastics I would also like to express special<br />

appreciation to my predecessor, François de Bie, who had<br />

served the association as Chairperson for almost ten years.<br />

Now, important tasks lie ahead of us and I’m very much<br />

looking forward to actively approaching them”. AT<br />

www.european-bioplastics.org<br />

(left to right): E. Lepoudre, F. Kraus, A. Nabifar, L. Börger, S. Barot,<br />

P. La Scola, and (sitting): P. von den Kerkhoff, M. Vetere, and P.<br />

Zimmermann (not on the picture) (Photo: European Bioplastics).<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/22] Vol. 17 7

Events<br />

Bioplastics Business Breakfast<br />

The unique conference during K <strong>2022</strong><br />

20 - 22 October <strong>2022</strong>, Düsseldorf, Germany<br />

Preliminary Programme<br />

Thursday, 20 October <strong>2022</strong><br />

Stefan Barot, European Bioplastics The current policy situation in Europe<br />

Francois de Bie, TotalEnergies Corbion The commercialization roadmap for the mechanical and chemical recycling of PLA<br />

Martin Bussmann, Neste<br />

CO 2<br />

reduction by using renewable PP for thermoformed packaging applications<br />

Gregory Coué & Carlos Duch, Kompuestos Compostable solutions for food packaging to tackle plastic pollution<br />

Lorena Rodríguez, AIMPLAS<br />

Biobased coating for Packaging application opportunities & challenges<br />

Frank Hoebener, Natur-Tec Europe Advanced biobased and compostable films for consumer packaging & lamination application<br />

Albrecht Läufer, BluCon Biotech Second generation feedstock for PLA to improve sustainability of packing<br />

Allegra Muscatello, Taghleef Industries Packaging films based on BO-PLA, PHA and bio-PP (t.b.c.)<br />

Erik Pras, Biotec<br />

Added value of compostable products in packaging applications<br />

Bruno de Wilde, OWS<br />

Compostable packaging - Pros & Cons<br />

Friday, 21 October <strong>2022</strong><br />

Jan Ravenstijn, GO!PHA<br />

N.N. (t.b.d.), Kaneka<br />

Hugo Vuurens, CJ Bio<br />

Eligio Martini (t.b.c.), MAIP<br />

Amir Afshar, Shellworks<br />

Sander Strijbos, Helian<br />

Fred Pinczuk, Beyond Plastic<br />

Daniel Ganz, Sukano<br />

Michael Carus, nova-Institute<br />

the status of the PHA-platform<br />

Latest developments in PHBH (t.b.c.)<br />

Amorphous PHA, the solution to improve biodegradability speed of many biopolymers<br />

Application examples for PHA compounds (t.b.c.)<br />

PHA-based cosmetics packaging<br />

PHA, opportunities and challenges<br />

Joining efforts to address PHA adaptation to packaging technologies<br />

Masterbatches for PHA<br />

Renewable Carbon Plastics, with focus on PHA<br />

Saturday, 22 October <strong>2022</strong><br />

Lars Börger, EUBP<br />

Can biopolymers contribute to a carbon positive chemistry?<br />

Christina Granacher, BeGaMo<br />

Recyclable, durable and circular biopolymer solutions<br />

Ari Rosling, ABM Composites<br />

Advanced biocomposites based on bioplastics and degradable glass fibre reinforcements<br />

Stefan Roest, Borealis<br />

Bio-PE and Bio-PP for durable applications<br />

Stefan Seidel, Bond-Laminates Biobased raw materials for high-performance composites<br />

Christian Müller, Emery Oleochemicals Biobased polymeric plasticisers<br />

Alexander Piontek, Fraunhofer<br />

PLA in technical applications<br />

Pedro Lutz, Earth Renewable Technologies Short Fiber Reinforced Polymer (SFRP)<br />

Belén Monje, AIMPLAS<br />

Bioplastics in durable applications<br />

Programme subject to changes. A few speaking slots are still available.<br />

Please contact mt@bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

www.bioplastics-breakfast.com<br />

8 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/22] Vol. 17

Register Now<br />

organized by<br />

20 - 22.10.<strong>2022</strong><br />

Messe Düsseldorf, Germany<br />




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Bioplastics in<br />

Packaging<br />

PHA, Opportunities<br />

& Challenges<br />

Bioplastics in<br />

Durable Applications<br />

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The trade fair opens at 10 am.

Polyurethanes<br />

Climate neutral polyurethane<br />

Covestro introduces two recyclable precursors for polyurethane foams<br />

Covestro (Leverkusen, Germany) has added two<br />

important products to its range of more sustainable<br />

raw materials this year: By using renewable raw<br />

materials in production, methylene diphenyl diisocyanate<br />

(MDI) is now also available as a climate-neutral 1 variant,<br />

and toluene diisocyanate (TDI) is available in a significantly<br />

CO 2<br />

-reduced variant. Both isocyanates are one of the two<br />

main components in the production of rigid and flexible<br />

polyurethane (PU) foams. For decades, MDI has been<br />

processed into highly efficient PU rigid foam insulation<br />

materials that contribute to a significant reduction in<br />

energy consumption and CO 2<br />

emissions throughout the use<br />

phase in building insulation and the cooling chain. Another<br />

application is moulded foam, which is used to make seat<br />

cushions for automobiles. TDI is the basis for the production<br />

of PU flexible foam, which provides a great deal of comfort<br />

in mattresses and upholstered furniture, but also in car<br />

seats and shoes.<br />

Both products are manufactured using alternative raw<br />

materials – based on plant waste, which is allocated to<br />

the products using certified mass balancing according to<br />

ISCC PLUS. By using such mass-balanced raw materials,<br />

Covestro aims to significantly reduce its indirect emissions<br />

in the supply chain and offer products with a reduced<br />

carbon footprint.<br />

With its gradual shift to more sustainable products –<br />

partly via mass balancing – Covestro is helping customers<br />

in various industries achieve their climate targets and drive<br />

the transition to a circular economy. Customers can use<br />

both products as a technical drop-in solution, meaning they<br />

can be quickly and easily integrated into existing production<br />

processes without the need for technical changes. The<br />

mass balance method is not new – it is already established<br />

in the food (e.g. tea, cocoa) or packaging industry. It is<br />

essential for incorporating more sustainable raw materials<br />

cost-effectively and efficiently into complex value chains.<br />

Double the sustainability benefits<br />

Thanks to the use of alternative raw materials through<br />

mass balancing, the new MDI grade is climate-neutral 1<br />

from the cradle to the factory gate of Covestro. According<br />

to standard calculation models, no net CO 2<br />

emissions are<br />

generated during production in this part of the value cycle.<br />

In addition to the good thermal insulation properties of PU<br />

insulation materials, Covestro’s climate-neutral MDI now<br />

also helps to reduce the embodied carbon of a building.<br />

Thus, the use of the more sustainable PU insulation material<br />

has twice the payoff – the carbon footprint is improved both<br />

during the production of the building and throughout its<br />

use phase. This applies to new residential and commercial<br />

buildings as well as to the renovation of older properties,<br />

thereby an important contribution can be made to the<br />

responsible use of primary resources and to the significant<br />

reduction of CO 2<br />

emissions. Covestro produces the climateneutral<br />

MDI and its precursors at its ISCC PLUS-certified<br />

sites in Krefeld-Uerdingen, Antwerp, and Shanghai.<br />

Renewable 2 TDI also has a significantly reduced carbon<br />

footprint from cradle to factory gate compared to the fossilbased<br />

product. Renewable TDI meets demands for more<br />

sustainable production while ensuring the good quality,<br />

optimal comfort, and high breathability known from fossilbased<br />

TDI. It also meets the expectations of the automotive<br />

industry, which is looking for alternative raw materials for<br />

car seat cushions with a lower carbon footprint. Covestro<br />

manufactures TDI at its ISCC PLUS-certified sites in<br />

Dormagen and Shanghai. The first customer for renewable<br />

TDI was the Chinese company Sinomax.<br />

Covestro is also working on making the second important<br />

raw material for polyurethane foams more sustainable – the<br />

polyol component – also using mass-balanced precursors. MT<br />

www.covestro.com<br />

The new climate-neutral MDI of Covestro (from cradle to factory<br />

gate) can be used in rigid polyurethane foam insulation elements<br />

for highly efficient building insulation. Photo: Covestro<br />

Covestro also offers a renewable TDI obtained from biomass<br />

waste via mass balancing. One important application is soft<br />

foams for upholstered furniture. Photo: Covestro<br />

1: Climate neutrality is the result of an internal assessment of a partial product life<br />

cycle from raw material extraction (cradle) to the factory gate of Covestro, also known<br />

as the cradle-to-gate assessment. The methodology of our life cycle assessment,<br />

which has been critically reviewed by TÜV Rheinland, is based on ISO standards 14<strong>04</strong>0<br />

and 14<strong>04</strong>4. The calculation takes into account biogenic carbon sequestration based on<br />

preliminary data from the supply chain. No compensatory measures were applied.<br />

2: Renewable TDI is produced using the mass balance approach using renewable<br />

raw materials – from virgin biomass as well as biowaste and residues – which are<br />

mathematically assigned to the product. The same methodology is used to assess<br />

Covestro’s partial product life cycle from cradle to factory gate as for climate-neutral<br />

MDI.<br />

10 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/22] Vol. 17

4 + 5 April 2023 – Nuremberg, Germany<br />

+<br />

Save the date<br />

Call for papers<br />

www.bio-toy.info<br />

organized by<br />

Media Partner<br />

Coorganized by<br />

Innovation Consulting Harald Kaeb<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/22] Vol. 17 11

Elastomers<br />

Sustainable thermoplastic<br />

co-polyester elastomers<br />

Sipol SpA, founded in 1998 and now part of the TECNOGI<br />

Group (Borgolavezzaro, Italy), is a chemical company<br />

whose core business is the polymerization of highperformance<br />

polymers, developing and manufacturing<br />

thermoplastic ether-ester elastomers (TPC-ET), copolyester<br />

and co-polyamide based hotmelt adhesives, and<br />

biodegradable co-polyesters.<br />

Thanks to its wide range of high-performance copolymers,<br />

Sipol successfully operates in the following<br />

markets: automotive, footwear, industrial, packaging,<br />

consumer goods, sports and leisure, cosmetic and personal<br />

care, and E/E. The company currently sells EUR 31 million<br />

of specialty polymers, developed and manufactured at its<br />

plant in Mortara, located about 40 km southwest of Milan.<br />

The company is widening its product portfolio for<br />

sustainable growth from both a financial and an<br />

environmental point of view: after the launch of the new<br />

certified biodegradable and compostable products named<br />

TECHNIPOL Bio, Sipol presents its new range of biobased<br />

high-performance thermoplastic co-polyester elastomers<br />

named SIPOLPRENE S.<br />

Sipolprene S, focus on Sustainability<br />

TPC-ET are segmented block copolymers obtained through<br />

the combination of rigid (polyester) segments and soft<br />

(polyether) segments which offer high performances of the<br />

final product such as chemical and mechanical resistance.<br />

The easiest modification is the replacement of synthetic<br />

1,4 Butanediol (BDO) with bio-1,4 Butanediol (bio-BDO)<br />

coming from biorefinery processes. This replacement has<br />

no impact on Sipolprene properties and performances,<br />

but the renewable content (C 14 /C 12 according to ASTM<br />

D6866), with a range of 10–30 % certainly does not add any<br />

significant extra costs to the final product.<br />

The actual innovative driver for a sustainable final product<br />

is the use of derivates of ricinoleic acid obtained from<br />

vegetable oils hydrolysis in the soft block of the polymer<br />

chain, partially replacing the polyol PTMG.<br />

This modification allows bringing an additional amount of<br />

renewable resources between 20 and 35 % with moderate<br />

additional costs.<br />

Sipol has developed more sustainable alternative<br />

products, starting from four selected Sipolprene standard<br />

grades in terms of hardness; in this study, two modifications<br />

have been applied:<br />

Step 1: Partial replacement of polyether in the chain with<br />

derivatives of ricinoleic acid from agro-industrial residues.<br />

Step 2: Substitution of BDO with bio-BDO, obtained from<br />

starch and sugar fermentation.<br />

The combination of the two modifications allows reaching<br />

at least 46 % of renewable content in all final products<br />

developed (C 14 /C 12 according to ASTM D6866). For each<br />

selected grade, which differ in hardness, two grades with<br />

corresponding levels of renewable material have been<br />

developed as described in Figure 1.<br />

Features of Sipolprene S vs Sipolprene<br />

The new biobased Sipolprene S grades match the<br />

high performance of TPC with environmental needs to<br />

meet sustainability targets while staying economically<br />

competitive. To better understand the strengths and<br />

weaknesses of these new bio-alternative TPC and the<br />

extent of this variation in the chemistry of TPC-ET, an indepth<br />

comparative analysis between the Sipolprene S and<br />

Sipolprene has been done (Table 1), resulting in:<br />

• Reachable renewable content of up to 50 %<br />

• Comparable thermal behaviour<br />

• Comparable chemical resistance: internal tests have<br />

been carried out according to ASTM D 543 with the<br />

indicated substances: antifreeze, ethanol, hydraulic oil,<br />

mineral oil, soap solution, and isododecane. Results<br />

after 14 days of immersion at Room temperature<br />

confirm that the biobased Sipolprene S shows a good<br />

chemical resistance like the standard grades.<br />

• Improved hydrolysis resistance: the presence of the<br />

biobased raw material derived from ricinoleic acid,<br />

in the chemistry of TPC-ET, seems to significantly<br />

improve the hydrolysis resistance in comparison to the<br />

related standard grades.<br />

• Lower water absorption and O 2<br />

permeability: the<br />

introduction of low polarity monomers allows to<br />

decrease water absorption and consequently increases<br />

water resistance and O 2<br />

permeability<br />

• Comparable mechanical properties: considering<br />

hardness as a fixed starting point, density and<br />

compression set remained unaffected. In general, a<br />

slight decrease in the mechanical properties has been<br />

observed, specifically stress and elongation at break.<br />

• Equivalent processability<br />

• Similar regulatory package, mainly on food contact<br />

compliances, cosmetic, toys regulation and for the<br />

absence of substances of concern (Compliance<br />

Statement available on request).<br />

Economically… Sustainable<br />

Economical sustainability means not only minimizing the<br />

cost impact of monomers from renewable sources (RS) but<br />

rather the development of alternative products industrially<br />

feasible in the existing polymerization plant, avoiding any<br />

additional costs related to new equipment and reducing<br />

time to market.<br />

Sipol’s goal in this project was to offer an eco-alternative<br />

to the existing TPC-ET product range that is both<br />

environmental and economically sustainable.<br />

As mentioned above, considering the chemical structure<br />

there are few possible ways to obtain partially biobased<br />

TPC. Considering one of the standard grades, Sipolprene<br />

12 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/22] Vol. 17

Elastomers<br />

% RS through STEP 1 (ricinolenic acid derivates)<br />

% RS through STEP 2 (ricinolenic acid derivates and bio BDO)<br />

33% 49%<br />

30% 51%<br />

25% 49%<br />

19%46%<br />

55200, a TPC-ET with hardness Shore D 55, Figure 2 shows<br />

the additional costs related to three different ways to obtain<br />

a partially biobased TPC with comparable properties and<br />

performance:<br />

- with the use of ricinoleic acid derivatives (step 1,<br />

Sipolprene S 5501) 25 % of RS content can be reached<br />

with an additional cost of +18 %.<br />

- with the combination of bio-BDO and ricinoleic acid<br />

derivatives (step 2, Sipolprene S 5502) 49 % of RS<br />

content can be reached with an additional cost of<br />

+29 %.<br />

- to avoid modification in the chemical nature of the<br />

soft block of the polymer, it is possible to substitute<br />

both PTMG and BDO with respectively bio-PTMG<br />

and bio-BDO. In the case of both replacements, an<br />

RS content of 52 % can be achieved; although this<br />

way leads to a very similar RS content to the one<br />



instantaneous / 15s<br />


ShD 28<br />

ShD 46<br />

ShD 55<br />

ShD 63<br />

Figure 1: Sipolprene S products<br />

SIPOLPRENES 2571<br />

SIPOLPRENES 2571<br />

SIPOLPRENES 4681<br />

SIPOLPRENES 4682<br />

SIPOLPRENES 5501<br />

SIPOLPRENES 5502<br />

SIPOLPRENES 6311<br />

SIPOLPRENES 6312<br />



RS<br />


COST<br />


55200<br />

Standard<br />

formulation<br />

TEST<br />


METHOD<br />

U.M.<br />

ISO 25170 S 2571 46185 S 4681 55200 S 5501 63210 S 6311<br />

868 Shore D 28/25 28/26 45/42 46/43 53/50 54/50 62/59 63/60<br />

527 MPa 22 15 32 29 43 36 50 40<br />

25 %<br />


S 5501<br />

with ricinolenic<br />

acid derivates<br />

+18 %<br />


S 5502<br />

with combination<br />

of bio-BDO and<br />

ricinolenic acid<br />

derivates<br />

+29 %<br />

Figure 2: Over costs related to the use of different monomers from<br />

renewable sources.<br />

obtained in step 2 of our study, the additional cost on<br />

the standard grade is + 86 %.<br />

The latter solution, notwithstanding a renewable sources<br />

content highly comparable to Sipolprene S 5502, is not as<br />

economical as the modifications of step 2.<br />

Conclusion<br />

The biobased polymers, Green monomers, obtained from<br />

biorefinery processes of agro-industrial residues, have<br />

a lower carbon footprint and some other advantages<br />

compared to synthetic polymers. However, only using<br />

renewable raw materials is not enough to make a product<br />

truly sustainable.<br />

SIPOL is already focused on the main aspects of its<br />

polymers circularity by developing eco-solutions to minimize<br />

both the economic and the environmental impacts: from<br />

the use of energy coming only from renewable sources<br />

(hydroelectrical, aeolian, biomasses), certified by AXPO, to<br />

the use of monomers coming from renewable sources in<br />

most of our polymers; in the specific case of Sipolprene S,<br />

ricinoleic acid derivatives are obtained from agro-industrial<br />

residues, according to the new biorefinery concept.<br />

Furthermore, Sipol’s first sustainability report will be<br />

issued for the financial year <strong>2022</strong>. In order to demonstrate<br />

the lower impact on the environment of this technology, LCA<br />

studies on Sipolprene S are currently underway.<br />

49%<br />

Sipolprene S products are<br />

already industrially available<br />

and the R&D team is already<br />

working on the extension of<br />

the hardness range.<br />

https://www.sipol.com/<br />

52 %<br />

TPC-ET<br />

ShD 55<br />

with bioPTMG e<br />

bio-BDO<br />

+86 %<br />


BREAK<br />


(70°C)<br />






AT<br />

SET<br />

527 % 850 361 700 420 650 389 500 370<br />

815:1991 MPa 67 71 69 73 61 64 62 67<br />

1183 g/cm 3 1,09 1,09 1,15 1,14 1,19 1,20 1,22 1,21<br />

11357-3 °C 173 161 186 183 198 195 211 209<br />

11357-2 °C -65 -57 -39 -37 -24 -27 3 -4,0<br />

Table 1: Main properties of SIPOLPRENE S Vs standard SIPOLPREN<br />

By:<br />

Bolgiaghi Elena,<br />

Product Manager Sipolprene<br />

Del Prete Danilo,<br />

R&D Secialist Co-polyesters<br />

SIPOL SPA, Società Italiana<br />

Polimeri, Mortara, Italy<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/22] Vol. 17 13

Polyurethanes<br />

Chemical recycling of<br />

polyurethane<br />

Combining ecological and economic advantages<br />

RAMPF Eco Solutions (Pirmasens, Germany) has<br />

been developing chemical processes for the recycling of<br />

polyurethane and PET wastes for more than thirty years. Using<br />

solvolysis (glycolysis, acidolysis, and aminolysis), recycled<br />

polyols are manufactured from post-consumer residues such<br />

as used mattresses, furniture, car and motorcycle seats,<br />

fitness and leisure items, and production waste. Industrial<br />

residues such as scrap or entire products at the end of their<br />

life cycle are also processed.<br />

The resulting recycled polyols are at the very least<br />

comparable with polyols otherwise obtained from fossil raw<br />

materials, both in terms of quality and technical properties.<br />

They can therefore be used directly in the production process<br />

for new polyurethane-based products, including in the<br />

automotive, aerospace, construction, electrical/electronics,<br />

energy technology, filter, household appliance, medical<br />

technology, rail, ship, and wood/furniture industries.<br />

The economic viability of Rampf Eco Solutions’ recycled<br />

polyols is further enhanced by the fact that they are precisely<br />

tailored to the respective applications of customers. For<br />

example, producers of polyurethane tooling boards or moulded<br />

parts can improve the compressive strength of insulating<br />

foams, the chemical stability of casting compounds, or the<br />

compatibility of polyurethane systems by adding recycling<br />

polyols.<br />

Rampf Eco Solutions also developed a process for the<br />

chemical recycling of PET back in 1999 together with the<br />

German Society for Circular Economy and Raw Materials<br />

(DKR). The recycling polyols generated here are particularly<br />

suitable for the production of rigid foams. Polyesters such as<br />

polylactides, polycarbonate, and polyhydroxyalkanoates are<br />

also used as raw material sources, as well as renewable or<br />

biobased raw materials, amongst others rapeseed oil.<br />

Companies that have a high volume of PU residues can<br />

produce customized recycled polyols on site with their own<br />

recycling plant. The polyols can then be fed directly back<br />

into the production process, saving costs and protecting the<br />

environment. These multi-functional plants developed and<br />

constructed Rampf Eco Solutions also allow for the production<br />

of polyols using PET/PSA, polyesters such as PLA and PHB,<br />

as well as biomonomers. Leading plastics producers from<br />

Germany, France, Russia, Spain, and the United Arab Emirates<br />

are currently using these multifunctional recycling plants. MT<br />

www.rampf-group.com<br />

RAMPF Eco Solutions uses solvolysis to extract high-quality<br />

recycled polyols form polyurethane and PET waste.<br />

Magnetic<br />

for Plastics<br />

Multifunctional recycling plants enable customers with high<br />

residual volumes to produce their own recycled polyols<br />

www.plasticker.com<br />

• International Trade<br />

in Raw Materials, Machinery & Products Free of Charge.<br />

• Daily News<br />

from the Industrial Sector and the Plastics Markets.<br />

• Current Market Prices<br />

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• Buyer’s Guide<br />

for Plastics & Additives, Machinery & Equipment, Subcontractors<br />

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• Job Market<br />

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14 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/22] Vol. 17

Innovate for Good<br />

Fostering a Circular Economy<br />

Look around you. Plastic is part of our everyday life. It is found in vehicles,<br />

appliances and consumer electronics that move, assist, entertain, and connect us.<br />

Clothes that warm and protect us and in medical devices that save lives.<br />

But plastic waste in the environment continues to be a challenge. That’s<br />

why companies like DuPont are continuing to innovate and partner with the value<br />

chain to improve how plastics are made, used, and recycled to help bring us all<br />

closer to creating a circular economy.<br />

Let’s talk about how we can make our solutions more circular – together.<br />

dupont.com/mobility-materials/sustainability<br />

Visit us at the K Show – Hall 6, Stand C43 – to learn more.<br />

DuPont, the DuPont Oval Logo, and all trademarks and service marks denoted with , SM or ® are owned by affiliates of DuPont de Nemours, Inc. unless otherwise noted. © <strong>2022</strong> DuPont.<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/22] Vol. 17 15

Recycling<br />

Molecular recycling<br />

Understanding material-to-material methanolysis<br />

“Molecular (or chemical) recycling isn’t ready for<br />

commercial operation” – or so many people believe.<br />

With methanolysis, a specific type of molecular recycling<br />

technology, this common misperception couldn’t be further<br />

from the truth. Eastman Kodak Company (a forerunner<br />

of today’s Eastman) used methanolysis commercially for<br />

three decades to recycle photographic and X-ray film.<br />

The technology was capable of recycling much more, but<br />

until the last few years, the demand for recycled content<br />

was missing. Now that the market is alive and growing,<br />

methanolysis has an important role to play in shaping<br />

a more sustainable materials industry – if stakeholders<br />

across the value chains work in tandem to create a robust<br />

recycling ecosystem.<br />

Renewing polyester waste for high-value uses<br />

Polyester products that can’t be mechanically recycled<br />

are destined to wind up in a landfill or incinerator (or,<br />

worst of all, out in the environment). Those end-of-life<br />

options abruptly end the potentially infinite useful life of<br />

the polyester molecules. Enter methanolysis – a molecular<br />

recycling technology that makes new materials out of<br />

polyester plastic waste that has been diverted from landfills<br />

and incinerators.<br />

Mechanical recycling chops and shreds plastic; only<br />

altering its physical form and causing some quality<br />

degradation. Methanolysis, on the other hand, uses a<br />

process called depolymerization. By heating the polyester<br />

waste plastic and treating it with methanol, it unzips the<br />

polyesters and converts them back to their molecular<br />

building blocks, dimethyl terephthalate (DMT) and ethylene<br />

glycol (EG). Colours and additives are removed in the<br />

process.<br />

The molecules that result from methanolysis are<br />

indistinguishable from materials made with virgin content.<br />

Eastman uses those pure DMT and EG molecules to make<br />

new materials – not fuel or energy. They are ideal for<br />

making specialty copolyesters that go into packaging and<br />

durable medical, beauty, and electronic applications, among<br />

others. Eastman also sees the potential for using molecular<br />

recycled content in food-grade PET packaging.<br />

Methanolysis feedstock: big challenge, bigger<br />

opportunity<br />

Mechanical recycling processes are limited to certain<br />

types of plastic that can be used in a limited number<br />

of end-use applications. Methanolysis processes<br />

polyester materials that pose a challenge to mechanical<br />

recycling, such as coloured plastic bottles, carpet fibres,<br />

films, and even polyester-based clothing. Eastman<br />

ensures that its methanolysis recycling technology<br />

does not compete against mechanical recycling<br />

for polyester feedstock, but rather complements it.<br />

The company follows a three-part feedstock acquisition<br />

strategy:<br />

1. Purchase low-value materials, like used PET strapping<br />

and rejected plastic waste from conventional mechanical<br />

recycling facilities.<br />

2. Forge innovative partnerships to collect and transport<br />

hard-to-recycle plastic waste, like carpet and textiles<br />

that would not go into the mechanical stream.<br />

3. Create completely new feedstock streams for items such<br />

as coloured bottles and thermoform clamshell food<br />

packaging that cannot be processed mechanically.<br />

Eastman’s single greatest challenge in scaling up<br />

methanolysis is accessing enough feedstock when the<br />

recycling infrastructure does not yet exist. Material makers<br />

like Eastman, consumer packaged goods brands, waste<br />

companies, and other stakeholders are partnering to build<br />

a supply pipeline to make sure the polyester plastic waste<br />

can reach methanolysis recycling facilities.<br />

The opportunity is worth the challenge. While mechanical<br />

recycling delays the landfilling of plastic, methanolysis<br />

enables Eastman to recycle polyester waste over and over<br />

again without degradation, keeping those materials out of<br />

the landfill and in the value chain. And it does so with a<br />

lower carbon footprint compared to virgin, nonrecycled<br />

plastic production.<br />

The life cycle perspective of methanolysis<br />

Recycling technologies that reduce waste yet release<br />

more carbon emissions than virgin production are not an<br />

acceptable solution. True solutions must operate at the<br />

intersection of the plastic waste crisis, climate change, and<br />

population growth.<br />

Eastman is committed to advancing technologies<br />

that reduce environmental impacts and enable a lowercarbon<br />

future. To ensure they are making good on that<br />

commitment in the realm of molecular recycling, Eastman<br />

commissioned a third-party verified life cycle assessment<br />

(LCA) of its methanolysis process. The LCA (assessable<br />

on Eastman’s website), which was published in early<br />

<strong>2022</strong>, compares the global warming potential and other<br />

environmental indicators of DMT produced via methanolysis<br />

(using recycled feedstock) to DMT made using conventional<br />

processes (and virgin fossil feedstock).<br />

For this cradle-to-gate LCA, the cradle begins at raw<br />

material extraction; in the case of plastic waste feeds,<br />

this begins at the end of the previous life of the material<br />

when it is deemed to be waste. The gate is internal to<br />

Eastman at the point where rDMT and rEG (intermediates)<br />

are manufactured. Between these two points, the LCA<br />

includes raw material acquisition, upstream operations,<br />

energy supply and all relevant processing at Eastman. The<br />

16 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/22] Vol. 17

By:<br />

Jason Pierce<br />

Senior Technical Leader of Circular Economy<br />

Eastman<br />

Kingsport, Tennessee, USA<br />

Recycling<br />

study used the state-of-the-art Environmental Footprint<br />

(EF) impact assessment methodology developed by the<br />

European Commission.<br />

The study shows that DMT from methanolysis has<br />

significantly lower impacts than conventional DMT in 13<br />

out of the 14 environmental impact categories studied.<br />

Most notably, the climate change impact for DMT from<br />

methanolysis is 29 % lower. This was calculated by using<br />

global warming potential (GWP) characterization factors for<br />

all greenhouse gas emissions and expressing the results<br />

on the basis of kilograms of carbon dioxide equivalents<br />

emitted to the atmosphere. Roughly 73 % less fossil fuel<br />

natural resources are used in methanolysis vs. conventional<br />

DMT production, and methanolysis also ranks significantly<br />

better in terms of water and human health-related impacts.<br />

For the sake of conservatism, the study only takes the<br />

function of material production into account; if the functional<br />

unit of the study were extended to also include avoided<br />

plastic waste disposal, the carbon footprint of methanolysis<br />

would compare even more favourably due to receiving credit<br />

for the avoided landfilling or incineration of plastic waste<br />

inputs. As is, the study results clearly demonstrate that<br />

recycling polyesters via methanolysis tackles more than the<br />

plastic waste crisis – it also addresses climate change.<br />

Mechanical recycling remains the least energy-intensive<br />

recycling technology, and it is important that clean, clear<br />

polyesters that can be mechanically recycled continue<br />

to be recycled in this fashion. It is equally important to<br />

send difficult-to-recycle polyester waste to methanolysis<br />

facilities that can make a substantial difference in the plastic<br />

industry’s overall carbon footprint – which is predicted to<br />

keep growing even as the world desperately needs to shift<br />

to a low-carbon economy.<br />

It takes an ecosystem<br />

Mechanical recycling and molecular recycling via<br />

methanolysis certainly aren’t the only two solutions for<br />

tackling the plastic waste crisis and climate change. The<br />

world needs an all of the above approach to material-tomaterial<br />

recycling technologies to truly make a difference<br />

in these two interconnected issues. Jason Pierce, senior<br />

technical leader for Circular Economy and Life Cycle<br />

Assessment at Eastman, says, “I see this as an ecosystem<br />

of infrastructure and complementary technologies that<br />

will be optimized over time”. The ecosystem encompasses<br />

the complementary roles of mechanical and molecular<br />

recycling, as well as recycling’s relationship to other waste<br />

reduction and climate solutions, such as bioplastics.<br />

Pierce is also quick to point out that the ecosystem<br />

includes much more than the technologies themselves.<br />

Collaboration across the value chain and with policymakers<br />

is just as important for a robust, future-ready waste<br />

reduction ecosystem. It takes brands willing to purchase<br />

different types of recycled materials for their products – and<br />

then launching take-back programs to get that material<br />

back to a recycling facility. It takes partners building new<br />

feedstock streams and infrastructure.<br />

As a materials manufacturer, Eastman is actively<br />

participating in increasing demand and building up supply.<br />

The company is currently running pilot methanolysis plants<br />

while building two new state-of-the-art methanolysis<br />

facilities in the United States and France.<br />

The US facility, located at Eastman headquarters in<br />

Kingsport, Tennessee, will have a capacity to process more<br />

than 100,000 tonnes of polyester plastic waste annually.<br />

By as early as 2025, the USD 1 billion plant in France is<br />

expected to be capable of processing up to 160,000 tonnes of<br />

plastic per year. The facility will include equipment to break<br />

mixed-plastic bales and prepare material for processing,<br />

a methanolysis unit to break down polyester waste plastic<br />

into DMT and EG, and a unit to purify and repolymerize the<br />

chemicals into Eastman’s branded polymers for use in<br />

packaging, textiles, and other products.<br />

www.eastman.com<br />

Understanding mass balance<br />

Molecular recycled and virgin materials are<br />

indistinguishable. Mass balance is an accounting<br />

system used to track the recycled content through<br />

complex manufacturing processes. This vetted and<br />

standardized system is used in a variety of industries. It<br />

is analogous to how power companies account for the<br />

sale of renewable energy to consumers using an electric<br />

grid. It’s also how some brands certify the amount of<br />

sustainably sourced cocoa in their products.<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/22] Vol. 17 17

Blow Moulding<br />

R-Cycle optimizes recycling<br />

How is extrusion blow moulding driving the future circular economy?<br />

Together with raw material manufacturer Braskem<br />

(São Paulo, Brazil), plastic packaging manufacturer<br />

KautexTextron (Bonn, Germany) and Dutch recycling<br />

specialist Morssinkhoff Plastics (Zeewolde), Kautex<br />

Maschinenbau (Bonn, Germany) has launched a second<br />

R-Cycle pilot project “Smart digital watermark packaging<br />

in Blow Molding”. The aim of the project is to make a further<br />

contribution to the future functional circular economy.<br />

Improving the recyclability of plastic packaging<br />

in extrusion blow moulding<br />

The project aims to cover as many consumer packaging<br />

application areas as possible. The target products are<br />

250ml beverage bottles, 1-litre cans for solid detergents,<br />

3-litre handle bottles for household chemicals and 20-litre<br />

canisters for chemicals. All bottles were produced by<br />

extrusion blow moulding and feature a single-layer wall<br />

made of PE. The bottle caps are also made of polyethylene<br />

or polypropylene. The mono-design and the use of the<br />

same material for the packaging components significantly<br />

improve the recyclability of the packaging.<br />

Document packaging properties with digital<br />

product passport<br />

R-Cycle provides an open and globally applicable<br />

traceability standard for an automated data transfer process.<br />

All recycling-relevant information: the manufacturer, the<br />

types of plastic contained, the proportion of recycled and<br />

biobased material, and details of<br />

the packaging’s application in<br />

the food or non-food sector<br />

are recorded by the<br />

Kautex blow moulding<br />

machine during<br />

production in the<br />

form of a digital<br />

product passport<br />

and stored on the<br />

R-Cycle server in<br />

the GS1 Global<br />

Tracing Standard.<br />

A mark is placed<br />

on the containers<br />

to identify and read<br />

this information in<br />

further processes up to the<br />

waste sorting<br />

system. R-Cycle is open to a number of different marking<br />

technologies, such as a QR code or a digital watermark.<br />

In the pilot project presented here, a<br />

digital product passport is generated<br />

for each bottle in the form of a digital<br />

watermark. These codes, which<br />

are invisible to the human eye and<br />

extend over the entire surface of the<br />

packaging label, can be linked to the<br />

data in the R-Cycle database. All the<br />

relevant information mentioned above<br />

is then located here. In this way, waste<br />

sorting systems with the appropriate<br />

recognition technologies are able to<br />

identify recyclable packaging. This<br />

creates the basis for obtaining highquality<br />

materials for a truly effective<br />

recycling system. Moreover, these<br />

codes can be read on any smartphone<br />

using the Digimarc app, for example.<br />

18 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/22] Vol. 17

R-Cycle system ensures packaging traceability<br />

along the entire value chain<br />

As part of the pilot project, the recycling-relevant data was<br />

recorded on machines of the participating customers and<br />

partners and stored on the R-Cycle server in accordance<br />

with the global GS1 standard. This transmission process<br />

makes the data immediately available along the entire<br />

value chain.<br />

The most important know-how of Kautex Maschinenbau<br />

within the pilot project is the development of a data<br />

acquisition system R-Connector as an interface between<br />

the extrusion blow moulding production and the cloudbased<br />

R-Cycle platform. The necessary data along the<br />

entire value chain can therefore be transmitted to the<br />

common R-Cycle database and is immediately accessible<br />

to the entire value chain.<br />

By using the R-Connector in machine control systems<br />

from Kautex Maschinenbau, production data is collected,<br />

analysed, and uploaded directly to the R-Cycle server,<br />

which significantly increases production efficiency<br />

and transparency. As a result, waste sorting systems<br />

supported by standard detection technologies can more<br />

efficiently identify recyclable packaging by type. This open<br />

and globally applicable traceability standard is the key to<br />

obtaining high-quality recyclates for true recycling in the<br />

future. MT<br />

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bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/22] Vol. 17 19

Blow Moulding<br />

Bioplastics<br />

for bottles & containers<br />

In Germany, the 2021 amendment to the Packaging Act<br />

(VerpackG) is intended to adapt to EU directives and<br />

facilitate its enforcement. Among other things, the<br />

minimum recyclate use for single-use plastic bottles will be<br />

increased, which must be at least 30 % by 2030. In addition, as<br />

of 1 January <strong>2022</strong>, the deposit obligation has been extended<br />

and 63 % of all plastics must now be recycled. On the<br />

one hand, this is to reduce the greenhouse gas-intensive<br />

production of virgin plastic. On the other hand, it aims<br />

to reduce the purely thermal recycling (incineration) of<br />

recyclable packaging, which also releases a lot of CO 2<br />

, as<br />

well as the environmental pollution caused by improperly<br />

disposed of plastic waste. But the legislator’s regulations<br />

to date are only the beginning: in order to secure their<br />

own marketability, companies must therefore now act<br />

proactively – and do so with packaging, e.g. bottles and<br />

containers, made of bioplastics.<br />

Legal regulations such as the German Circular Economy<br />

Act (KrWG) and the recently amended Packaging Act are<br />

exerting increasing pressure on the industry, but social<br />

awareness of sustainable consumption and waste reduction<br />

is also developing more and more. This leads to a noticeable<br />

increase in demand for environmentally friendly solutions,<br />

especially for bottles, cans, and canisters. Therefore, the<br />

industry must react now: companies that refuse to do so<br />

run the risk of no longer being marketable in the future<br />

due to the constantly growing legal and social pressure.<br />

For alternatives to resource-intensive fossil-based plastic,<br />

however, it must be taken into account that the legislator<br />

imposes varying requirements for the different containers<br />

depending on their respective contents. Furthermore,<br />

biobased materials in particular are often more costintensive<br />

due to their lower availability and smaller<br />

production volumes.<br />

Environmentally friendly solutions: bioplastics<br />

combine many advantages<br />

Compared to conventional virgin plastic materials, which<br />

consist entirely of petroleum-based polymers and synthetic<br />

resins, bioplastics conserve already scarce fossil resources<br />

and have a significantly better CO 2<br />

balance. This is because<br />

biobased plastic cannot release more CO 2<br />

back into the<br />

atmosphere during energy recovery or – if possible – biogenic<br />

recycling as the plants have absorbed from the atmosphere<br />

during their growth phase. Thus, biopolymers are<br />

considered climate-neutral, whereas burning fossil raw<br />

materials releases large amounts of additional emissions.<br />

For bottle or container applications, glass is often used as<br />

an alternative, as it is assumed to have a better eco-balance<br />

than conventional plastics. Although the material is foodsafe,<br />

hygienic, and easy to recycle, the risk of breakage and<br />

the greater weight are disadvantages compared to biobased<br />

plastics, which is why it is not suitable for every application.<br />

Furthermore, the recycling of glass with its high melting<br />

temperature (far above 1,000°C) is very energy intensive.<br />

Also, the high density results in higher CO 2<br />

emissions during<br />

transport, which, in addition to procurement, production<br />

and disposal, is decisive for a conclusive life cycle analysis.<br />

As with most materials and applications, the individual<br />

advantages and disadvantages of glass must always be<br />

weighed up.<br />

Sustainable end-of-life scenarios<br />

Currently, a lot of use is also made of conventional<br />

recycled petroleum-based plastics, provided they are<br />

certified for use as food or cosmetics packaging. rPET<br />

(recycled polyethylene terephthalate), for example, is often<br />

well suited for food and cosmetics due to its high barrier<br />

properties and simple, unmixed collection, e.g. through the<br />

German deposit system. With rPP (recycled polypropylene)<br />

and rPS (recycled polystyrene), on the other hand, it has so<br />

far been difficult to ensure consistently high and unmixed<br />

material quality, as required for approval for food contact.<br />

In addition, the collection of both post-consumer recyclate<br />

(PCR) and post-industrial recyclate (PIR) from conventional<br />

plastics will become increasingly expensive in the future<br />

with the shift towards more sustainable packaging<br />

materials, as this is also a finite resource.<br />

Products made from environmentally friendly raw<br />

materials, such as those offered by Rixius AG (Mannheim,<br />

Germany) as part of its Save the Nature programme have<br />

a clear advantage compared with conventional recycled<br />

materials as they do not have the bottleneck of limited<br />

availability of high-quality recyclates as renewable<br />

feedstocks are versatile, readily available, and easily<br />

scalable. Moreover, they can be used to a large extent for<br />

food and cosmetics packaging without hesitation. Similar to<br />

their fossil relatives, the end-of-life scenarios for biobased<br />

plastics also have a significant impact on the sustainability<br />

balance. In general, closed material cycles for the avoidance<br />

and recycling of waste should also be aimed for here, as<br />

defined in the German Circular Economy Act.<br />

Intelligent resource management thanks to<br />

circular economy<br />

A basic distinction is made between biobased and<br />

biodegradable plastics. The latter can be compostable under<br />

certain conditions, such as the BRX and FLEX materials<br />

from Rixius. For this, however, industrial composting plants<br />

must be appropriately designed to be able to produce the<br />

necessary conditions such as a high ambient temperature,<br />

humidity, a certain pH value, and the right population of<br />

microorganisms. “The plastic compound BRX, for example,<br />

consists of renewable raw materials, such as bamboo<br />

fibres and PLA, and is suitable for injection moulding or<br />

injection blow moulding processes in food and cosmetics<br />

applications”, says Jörg Holzmann, Business Development<br />

Manager of Rixius. The biopolymer FLEX, on the other<br />

20 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/22] Vol. 17

hand, is a newly developed PLA blend, for example, based<br />

on corn, sugar, or castor oil, which can be easily processed<br />

on conventional blow moulding machines.<br />

In many cases, however, it is more ecologically sound to<br />

recycle the biopolymers in closed cycles. This is because<br />

both the carbon and energy contained in these materials<br />

can be recycled so that high added value is possible<br />

thanks to the intelligent use of resources. Plastics that<br />

have the advantages of biobased production but are not<br />

biodegradable or even compostable are also characterised<br />

by their robustness: They can be used for a longer period<br />

of time before being returned to the recycling system as a<br />

raw material.<br />

For example, the proportion of renewable resources<br />

in the material group ARX from Rixius, whose variants<br />

are suitable to replace reusable PE blow moulding and<br />

PP injection moulding products, is at least 94 %. These<br />

alternatives to PE and PP bind about 2.97 and 2.36 kg of<br />

atmospheric CO 2<br />

, respectively, in just one kilogram of their<br />

granulate and – like their fossil relatives – can be coloured<br />

with the help of masterbatches.<br />

Sustainable packaging for food and cosmetics<br />

Food-safe, lightweight, robust and tear-resistant, flexibly<br />

mouldable and recyclable: biobased polymers have all<br />

the advantages of fossil plastic compounds, which are<br />

the most popular packaging materials, especially in the<br />

highly regulated food and lifestyle sector. At the same<br />

time, however, they significantly reduce the negative<br />

environmental impact of fossil virgin plastics, first and<br />

foremost the enormous CO 2<br />

emissions that result from its<br />

production and incineration. Many different bioplastics are<br />

available – depending on whether more emphasis is to be<br />

placed on biodegradation or even composting, or on aspects<br />

such as the type of processing and the durability of the end<br />

product. In addition to individual preferences, complex legal<br />

requirements that go beyond mere food approval must also<br />

be taken into account depending on the area of application.<br />

For this reason, the packaging specialists at Rixius provide<br />

individual advice for each application as part of their Save<br />

the Nature sustainability programme, in order to always<br />

find the most suitable and sustainable packaging solution<br />

from all variables. MT<br />

Bottles and containers made of<br />

biobased plastics (photo: Rixius AG)<br />

Products made from environmentally friendly raw<br />

materials (including wheat straw), such as those<br />

offered by Rixius AG (photo: Rixius AG)<br />

Blow Moulding<br />

www.rixius.com/<br />

Currently, much use is made of conventional<br />

recyclates from petroleum-based plastics, provided<br />

they are certified for use as food or cosmetics<br />

packaging (photo: Rixius AG)<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/22] Vol. 17 21

Blow Moulding<br />

The most sustainable water bottle<br />

The environmental issues of producing and disposing of<br />

plastics are obvious.<br />

The dutch company Eurobottle (Dronten, the Netherlands)<br />

takes full responsibility by offering only sustainably produced and<br />

reusable water bottles. “However, we feel that this is not enough<br />

anymore and therefore we are constantly looking for possible<br />

steps towards a better future”, says Peter Westveer commercial<br />

director of Eurobottle Flestic Holding. “A future in which we are<br />

again in balance with our environment; nature and all other living<br />

beings on earth”.<br />

That’s why Eurobottle have produced their new Oasus water<br />

bottle. “We are not only looking at making the products even more<br />

sustainable by making them less heavy, but also at the phase<br />

after long-term reuse, namely the recycling process”, Peter adds.<br />

The Oasus water bottle is made entirely of biobased HDPE.<br />

By using biobased raw materials, a significant reduction of CO 2<br />

emissions is realised in comparison to standard fossil-based<br />

materials. Merely stating that your product is recyclable does not<br />

mean that the product will automatically be recycled. The product<br />

must meet a number of requirements in order to be recycled,<br />

such as:<br />

• The product must be made from a certain raw material (today<br />

almost exclusively PET, PP, or PE).<br />

• The product must be made entirely of one of the above<br />

materials, otherwise, it will have to be disposed of separately.<br />

The Oasus is not only one of the most sustainable water bottles<br />

ever but also offers the unique possibility of personalising the<br />

water bottle with the customer’s own logo. The bottle and cap<br />

are made of the same material, which makes them perfect<br />

for the recycling process. The Oasus is also the lightest bottle<br />

at the moment. Because less material is used, this bottle is<br />

more sustainable than others. It also reduces emissions during<br />

transport. In short, the most sustainable water bottle! MT<br />

www.eurobottle.nl<br />


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22 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/22] Vol. 17<br />

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Lighter, faster,<br />

more efficient<br />

The blow moulding specialist W. MÜLLER (Troisdorf,<br />

Germany) has optimized the production process<br />

for plastic bottles with its technology for packaging<br />

manufacturer Flestic. Equipped with new extrusion<br />

heads on existing machinery, material consumption was<br />

reduced while maintaining the same quality, as well as<br />

reducing cycle time and energy consumption.<br />

With specifically designed extrusion heads from<br />

W. Müller, Flestic was successful in reducing the<br />

material usage for their bottles by 10 %, the processing<br />

temperature by 15 % and the cycle time by 20 %. In<br />

addition, the wall thickness distribution of the packaging<br />

was optimized, which made it possible to achieve greater<br />

stability. With the new heads, the colour change is also<br />

much faster.<br />

As a leading manufacturer of plastic packaging from<br />

Dronten in the Netherlands, Flestic has been placing<br />

its trust in W. Müller’s expertise for quite some time.<br />

Peter Westveer, Commercial Director at Flestic, is very<br />

impressed by the cooperation: “We approached W. Müller<br />

with the aim of optimizing our production process and<br />

are enthusiastic about the improvements achieved. The<br />

now-installed multiple extrusion heads fit easily on our<br />

systems and allow us to produce more efficiently and<br />

cost-effectively. Reducing cycle time and bottle weight<br />

saves resources and money!”<br />

Christian Müller, Managing Director of W. Müller adds:<br />

“Energy efficiency and process reliability have always<br />

been of great importance to us and our customers. Due<br />

to the high production quality and the specific design for<br />

the respective application, our customers can operate<br />

their blow moulding machines more sustainably. We are<br />

developing the right solution together and are happy to<br />

have successfully completed another project.”<br />

Flestic has already announced that they will continue<br />

to work with W. Müller in the future in order to further<br />

optimize its production. The blow moulding heads from<br />

W. Müller are perfectly suitable for also for the processing<br />

of biobased materials that Flestic uses in a range of its<br />

packaging products (see left page). MT<br />

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bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/22] Vol. 17 23

Blow Moulding / Bottles<br />

Offtake agreement on PEF<br />

for Fibre Bottle<br />

Carlsberg also launches consumer tests of the Fibre Bottle using<br />

Avantium‘s PEF as a barrier<br />

A<br />

vantium N.V., a leading technology company in<br />

renewable chemistry, announced on 22 June <strong>2022</strong><br />

that Carlsberg Group and Avantium have agreed<br />

to take the next step in the commercialisation of PEF.<br />

Carlsberg Group has signed a conditional offtake agreement<br />

with Avantium to secure a fixed volume of the 100 % plantbased,<br />

recyclable and high-performance polymer PEF<br />

(polyethylene furanoate) from Avantium’s FDCA Flagship<br />

Plant, which Avantium aims to start-up in 2024. Carlsberg<br />

will use the PEF resin for various packaging applications,<br />

including its Fibre Bottle - the biobased and fully recyclable<br />

beer bottle.<br />

Carlsberg has also launched a trial of its latest Fibre<br />

Bottle, which contains an inner layer of PEF produced in<br />

Avantium’s current Pilot Plant. Carlsberg will sample<br />

the Fibre Bottle to 8,000 consumers and other selected<br />

stakeholders in eight pilot markets in Western Europe.<br />

Avantium and Carlsberg have been partners since 2019<br />

as the companies worked together with Paboco ® (Paper<br />

Bottle Company) and the Paper Bottle Community. Paboco,<br />

Avantium and Carlsberg developed the Fibre Bottle, a<br />

barrier solution, and a pioneering packaging solution<br />

for Carlsberg beer, respectively. Today, the results are<br />

consisting of a wood fibre outer shell and a plant-based<br />

and recyclable PEF polymer liner. Beyond its sustainable<br />

packaging benefits, Avantium’s PEF has superior barrier<br />

properties, protecting the taste and fizziness of the beer<br />

and leading to a longer shelf life. PEF also has higher<br />

mechanical strength than conventional plastics, enabling<br />

thinner packaging and thereby reducing the amount of<br />

material required. In 2021, Avantium and Carlsberg signed<br />

a Joint Development Agreement to develop several PEF<br />

packaging applications, including the Fibre Bottle. With the<br />

test results of PEF in the Fibre Bottle proving successful,<br />

Carlsberg has decided to sign a conditional offtake<br />

agreement with Avantium to purchase PEF resin coming<br />

from its Flagship Plant, currently under construction in The<br />

Netherlands, for its Fibre Bottle and for the development of<br />

other beer packaging applications.<br />

In its largest trial of the Fibre Bottle to date, Carlsberg<br />

recently revealed the latest generation design featuring<br />

the PEF lining and will sample 8,000 bottles across eight<br />

Western European markets throughout the summer. The<br />

bottles will be introduced to local consumers, customers<br />

and other stakeholders at selected festivals and flagship<br />

events, as well as targeted product sampling. Making the<br />

product accessible and gathering consumer feedback at<br />

this scale will be key to informing the next generation of<br />

design and accelerating Carlsberg’s ambition to make the<br />

Fibre Bottle a commercial reality.<br />

Stephane Munch, VP Group Development at Carlsberg,<br />

says: “We are delighted to be bringing our new Fibre Bottle<br />

into the hands of consumers, allowing them to experience<br />

it for themselves.<br />

However, this pilot will serve a greater purpose in testing<br />

the production, performance, and recycling of this product<br />

at scale. Identifying and producing PEF, as a competent<br />

functional barrier for beer, has been one of our greatest<br />

challenges – so getting good test results, collaborating with<br />

suppliers and seeing the bottles being filled on the line is a<br />

great achievement!”<br />

Tom van Aken, CEO of Avantium, says: “We are pleased to<br />

expand our partnership with Carlsberg. It is a truly exciting<br />

milestone that – for the very first time – consumers can now<br />

experience a PEF– lined beer bottle. With business partners<br />

such as Carlsberg Group, Avantium can further scale and<br />

build the PEF value chain, meeting the growing global<br />

demand for circular and renewable material solutions.<br />

This is what the material transition is about: ensuring<br />

that consumers can get access to novel and sustainable<br />

products at scale”. MT<br />

www.avantium.com<br />

www.carlsberggroup.com<br />

www.paboco.com<br />

24 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/22] Vol. 17

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bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/22] Vol. 17 25

Bottles<br />

Innovative FDCA process<br />

Breakthrough FDCA process can lead the switch to a biobased plastic<br />

Plastic has properties that make it challenging to fully<br />

substitute, especially when looking at the food and<br />

drinks packaging industry. It is a lightweight and<br />

transparent material, and it comes with excellent barrier<br />

properties – protecting foods, extending shelf life, and<br />

reducing waste.<br />

The challenge: one of the most commonly used<br />

plastics comes with many advantages but it is<br />

fully fossil-based<br />

One million plastic bottles are sold every minute and<br />

the annual sales keep increasing (Euromonitor, 2021). One<br />

of the most widely used plastics for packaging foods and<br />

beverages is polyethylene terephthalate (PET), used for<br />

example for bottles for soft drinks, salad dressings, cooking<br />

oils, and liquid hand soap. PET was first patented in the<br />

1940s, initially for fibre & textiles, and the first PET bottles<br />

were produced in the 1970s.<br />

Despite their superior properties, fossil-based plastics<br />

like PET come with significant issues. One of them is the<br />

release of fossil carbon dioxide into the atmosphere at its<br />

end-of-life. For this reason, our attitudes and behaviours<br />

towards plastic must change to ensure a safe and healthy<br />

future for our planet. The shift from fossil-based to<br />

renewable bioplastics requires new, efficient methods.<br />

“People like to have products packaged in a compelling<br />

way. They also want to make a choice that feels good, with<br />

plastic coming from a source you can trust, and which you<br />

can discard, knowing it’s going to be recycled”, says Dirk<br />

den Ouden, VP Emerging Business, Division Biomaterials<br />

at Stora Enso (Stockholm, Sweden).<br />

The solution: Stora Enso’s FuraCore ® process,<br />

enabling polyethylene furanoate (PEF), a 100 %<br />

biobased alternative to petroleum-based PET<br />

For decades, scientists have been looking for feasible<br />

biobased alternatives to PET and other fossil-based<br />

plastics. One of the options is via furandicarboxylic acid<br />

(FDCA), an organic chemical compound that occurs in<br />

nature. FDCA is the key building block for biobased plastics<br />

such as PEF, it can be applied to a wide variety of industrial<br />

applications, including bottles, food packaging, textiles,<br />

carpets, electronic materials, and automotive parts.<br />

To get the most out of this material, Stora Enso has been<br />

developing a breakthrough technology called FuraCore to<br />

produce FDCA, laying the foundation for a plastic that, as<br />

people working with the technology like to say, makes sense.<br />

The benefits of PEF: better barrier properties,<br />

versatility in use<br />

When thinking about the benefits that biobased plastic<br />

brings out, people tend to focus on the environmental<br />

aspects, which, indeed, are promising. Firstly, it is not<br />

produced from crude oil. Instead, its ingredients are<br />

FuraCore bottles (Photo StoraEnso)<br />

derived from growing plants. Not only do these grow back<br />

after harvesting, but they also absorb carbon dioxide<br />

during their growth.<br />

The material itself also shows significant advantages<br />

for food and beverage packaging. PEF could replace other<br />

plastic bottles, aluminium cans and glass jars in a wide<br />

variety of applications and industries. Tests also show<br />

excellent barrier properties, enabling better protection and<br />

longer shelf life, or lighter, more efficient packaging. In<br />

addition, it provides great opportunities for differentiation,<br />

an important element in the packaging landscape.<br />

“If you look at all the different features needed to get a<br />

certain shelf life, shape, or behaviour, it often requires<br />

combining different technologies and multiple materials.<br />

If you can use a single material that serves the purpose,<br />

there’s going to be great benefits in utilising it compared to<br />

more common solutions, including easier recycling”, Den<br />

Ouden declares.<br />

What next?<br />

Currently, Stora Enso is starting up the FuraCore FDCA<br />

pilot plant at its Langerbrugge recycled paper mill near<br />

Ghent, Belgium. Commercialisation is the goal, and pilot<br />

production will start this year.<br />

Currently, the pilot is in the final stages of commissioning.<br />

The plan is to produce the first material in autumn <strong>2022</strong><br />

and be in full production mode towards the end of the year.<br />

Den Ouden believes that a wide range of applications is on<br />

its way:<br />

“I think the opportunity we bring about is a plastic that<br />

makes sense. In addition to fulfilling the customer need<br />

for circularity, I think the message here is that there is<br />

a beautiful new material on its way that is about to get<br />

commercialised. We strongly encourage packaging industry<br />

companies to reach out so we can see if it meets your<br />

customer needs”. MT<br />

www.storaenso.com<br />

26 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/22] Vol. 17

Thermoformable PLA films<br />

Röhm (Darmstadt, Germany), the provider of<br />

EUROPLEX ® -brand special films, is now also<br />

developing plastic films using renewable raw<br />

materials. The new product is being developed under the<br />

provisional designation Europlex Film LJ 21123/123 and is a<br />

transparent, high-gloss and stable film based on polylactic<br />

acid (PLA). Unlike many other films based on PLA on the<br />

market, this film has not been biaxially stretched and can<br />

therefore be thermoformed.<br />

As the raw material production generates significantly lower<br />

CO 2<br />

emissions, films made from polylactic acid are more climatefriendly<br />

alternatives to petroleum-based films. PLA films thus<br />

contribute to reducing the carbon footprint of the end product.<br />

Sustainability is an integral part of Röhm’s global<br />

business strategy, with the company targeting climateneutral<br />

production by the year 2050. The focus is not only<br />

on the development and market launch of new, sustainable<br />

products and technologies but also on the decarbonization<br />

of raw materials. “We are taking responsibility for our<br />

climate, society, and the limited natural resources”, says<br />

Hans-Peter Hauck, Chief Operating Officer (COO) at Röhm.<br />

Environmentally friendly alternative<br />

Europlex Film LJ 21123/123 consists of certified,<br />

compostable PLA which meets the requirements for<br />

industrial composting as per the ASTM D6400 US standard<br />

and the EN 13432 European standard. If the PLA film is not<br />

disposed of correctly, its persistence is many times lower<br />

than that of petroleum-based films. Furthermore, PLA<br />

films do not release toxic materials upon decomposition.<br />

Properties at a glance<br />

Europlex Film LJ 21123/123 has a property profile that<br />

provides many opportunities:<br />

PLA special films for a wide range of<br />

applications<br />

Europlex Film LJ 21123/123 has a wide range of properties<br />

which make it ideal for various interior applications, such as<br />

high-quality packaging for food and non-food items, as well<br />

as decorative films for Insert-Mould decoration processes,<br />

or printed products like graphics panels. “Our experience<br />

in film extrusion enables us to produce PLA films with high<br />

optical quality. We would be delighted to talk to interested<br />

parties about their specific requirement profile for their<br />

applications”, emphasizes Herbert Groothues, Head of Film<br />

and Extrusion Development.<br />

Approved for food contact<br />

The biobased film is also suitable for food packaging –<br />

which is subject to particularly stringent regulations – as<br />

it meets the requirements for plastics with food contact<br />

in the EU (EU Regulation 10/2011), the USA (FDA 21 CFR)<br />

and China (GB 9685-2016). Possible applications include<br />

viewing windows on cardboard packaging or thermoformed<br />

packaging with high demands when it comes to an aesthetic,<br />

high-quality product presentation.<br />

Raw material from certified sources<br />

The raw material used to produce Europlex Film LJ<br />

21123/123 is derived from non-genetically modified<br />

sugarcane. The supplier has implemented an environmental<br />

management system as per ISO 14001:2015 and is certified<br />

according to Bonsucro. Bonsucro is an association of<br />

producers and processors of sugarcane who have agreed<br />

on globally recognized standards for social, ecological, and<br />

economic sustainability. MT<br />

www.roehm.com<br />

Materials<br />

• biobased and industrially compostable<br />

• can be thermoformed at 55°C<br />

• highly transparent, light transmittance of over 92 %<br />

• high tensile strength and good flexibility<br />

• can be stamped and cut<br />

• can be printed on<br />

Upon request, development<br />

samples of the film can be<br />

provided in thicknesses<br />

of 53 µm to 500 µm<br />

and widths of<br />

200 mm. The<br />

datasheet on<br />

Europlex Film<br />

LJ 21123/123<br />

with its technical<br />

specifications<br />

and approvals<br />

is also available<br />

upon request.<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/22] Vol. 17 27

Material News<br />

Bright colours for<br />

more green on the<br />

blue planet<br />

Sustainability is on everyone's lips, and the German<br />

company GRAFE from Blankenhain is also involved<br />

in the development of specific masterbatches for<br />

corresponding applications. "We have been working<br />

on the colouring of biobased and home-compostable<br />

materials for some time now", reports Lars Schulze,<br />

Head of Colour Development and Material Sciences.<br />

"We were able to successfully establish the first projects<br />

on the market and commercialise them. We have gained<br />

extensive experience and done a lot of development<br />

work. We will continue to push forward the projects with<br />

a sustainable character".<br />

Home compostable coffee capsules in<br />

brilliant colours<br />

Home compostable products meet the highest<br />

standards of environmental protection, according<br />

to the company. For example, the company has<br />

successfully coloured coffee capsules in a very elaborate<br />

development project. "Given the strict guidelines<br />

according to which the masterbatches may only contain<br />

certain ingredients and the pigments can only be used in<br />

limited concentrations, this is quite a demanding task.<br />

Nevertheless, we succeeded in over-colouring the dark<br />

base material, explains Schulze. In the end, the colours<br />

maroon, light grey, brilliant blue, blue-grey, petrol<br />

brilliant, olive brilliant, violet brilliant as well as beige<br />

and berry were used from Grafe's Modalen range. The<br />

certification came into effect on 14 August 2020.<br />

Sustainable developments continue<br />

"We are currently working on PHBV projects",<br />

Schulze reports. This is a home compostable, nontoxic,<br />

biocompatible plastic that is produced naturally<br />

by bacteria and offers a good alternative for many<br />

non-biodegradable, synthetic polymers. "Besides the<br />

difficulties of the biopolymers currently on offer, in<br />

terms of processing, inherent colour and temperature<br />

resistance, another major challenge is their colouring or<br />

over-colouring. Both the plastic base material and the<br />

additives should have as little impact on the environment<br />

as possible and be biodegradable in order to achieve the<br />

certification goals", explains the expert.<br />

The specialists at Grafe are guided by EN 13432<br />

for this purpose, which severely limits the pigment<br />

selection and dosage. "That is why very brilliant colours<br />

are the current challenge for our development team. But<br />

we also want to solve these in the future", announces<br />

the Head of Colour Development and Material Sciences<br />

and lists numerous applications – such as disposable<br />

articles and everyday product packaging.<br />

We look forward to new project requests to continue<br />

contributing to more green on the blue planet". MT<br />

www.grafe.com<br />

LANXESS offers new<br />

sustainable composites<br />

LANXESS (Cologne, Germany)<br />

introduces new Tepex thermoplastic<br />

composites that are currently<br />

being developed starting<br />

from recycled or biobased raw<br />

materials. “With these construction<br />

materials, we want to help<br />

our customers to make more<br />

sustainable products that have<br />

a smaller carbon footprint, conserve<br />

resources, and protect the<br />

climate”, explains Dirk Bonefeld, Head of Global Product<br />

Management and Marketing for Tepex at Lanxess. Recently,<br />

the specialty chemicals company has launched<br />

a fully biobased composite material based on flax and<br />

polylactic acid on the market.<br />

Tailor-made for structural lightweight design<br />

Development is about to be completed, for example,<br />

on a matrix plastic based on polyamide 6 for Tepex<br />

dynalite, that is produced starting from “green”<br />

cyclohexane and therefore consists of well over 80<br />

% sustainable raw materials. As a result, the plastic<br />

meets the requirements that Lanxess has set for its new<br />

“Scopeblue” range. It consists of products that contain a<br />

significant proportion of circular (recycled or biobased)<br />

raw materials or have a carbon footprint that is<br />

considerably smaller than that of conventional products.<br />

When the matrix plastic is reinforced with continuousfibre<br />

fabrics, the resulting semi-finished products<br />

exhibit the same outstanding properties as comparable,<br />

equivalent products that are purely fossil-based. The<br />

semi-finished products with a green matrix are therefore<br />

suitable for applications in structural lightweight<br />

design that are typical for Tepex dynalite – such as<br />

front-end carriers, seat shells, or battery consoles.<br />

Biobased alternatives to polyamide 12<br />

Another development focus is new matrix solutions<br />

for Tepex based on recycled thermoplastic polyurethane<br />

(TPU) or polyethylene terephthalate (PET) as well as on<br />

biobased polyamide 10.10. The recycled TPU products<br />

are primarily intended for sports equipment. One of their<br />

strengths is their good composite adhesion with many<br />

other injection-moulded materials when processed<br />

using the insert moulding or hybrid moulding methods.<br />

The semi-finished products with a PET recyclate matrix<br />

are a cost-effective alternative to virgin polycarbonate<br />

and polyamide, for example. The PET comes from<br />

used beverage bottles and is also available in large<br />

quantities thanks to the closed recycling chain for these<br />

bottles. The biobased polyamide 10.10 is derived from<br />

castor oil. “The composite materials made with it are<br />

a sustainable alternative to polyamide 12 composites<br />

because they have similar mechanical characteristics<br />

and a comparable density”, says Bonefeld. AT<br />

https://lanxess.com<br />

28 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/22] Vol. 17

New and Sustainable BioAcetate S70<br />

BioAcetate S70 is an eco-friendly and<br />

high-performing alternative material that is<br />

non-toxic and free from harmful phthalates.<br />

BioAcetate S70 uses renewable resources and<br />

is biodegradable according to ISO 14855.<br />

The five main ECO-Advantages of BioAcetate<br />

S70 are as follows:<br />

1. ISCC Sustainability Carbon Certification<br />

2. 62 % biobased according to ASTM-D6866<br />

3. Biodegradable according to ISO-14855<br />

4. Harmful plasticizers free (NO DEP)<br />

5. Biocompatibility according to ISO-10993<br />

As the primary application, the material is<br />

ideal for injection moulding applications and<br />

handmade acetate frames production that is<br />

well-suited for high-end optic and eyewear<br />

frames. Other applications include household<br />

applications, electronic cigarette parts,<br />

smartphone covers, as well as watch parts.<br />

BioAcetate S70 aims to be a material that is<br />

better for Earth and better for performance. To<br />

find out more about the material one can view<br />

the YouTube video at tinyurl.com/BioAcetate-S70<br />

www.bioacetate.com<br />

Advertorial<br />

Material News<br />

New compostable starch blends<br />

Green Dot Bioplastics (Emporia, KN, USA), a leading developer and supplier of bioplastic materials for innovative, sustainable<br />

end-uses, has expanded its Terratek ® BD line with nine new compostable grades that are targeted for single-use and<br />

packaging applications. The expanded offering for film extrusion, thermoforming, and injection moulding is in line with Green<br />

Dot Bioplastics’ goal to achieve faster rates of biodegradability in ambient conditions, while meeting the growing sustainability<br />

demands of brand owners and consumers.<br />

These new compostable materials are an integral part of the company’s extensive bioplastics portfolio which includes<br />

biocomposites, elastomers, and natural fibre-reinforced resins all produced at the company’s newly expanded manufacturing<br />

facility in Onaga, KN, USA.<br />

“This launch culminates our extensive development of a new category of compostable materials for single-use applications<br />

and packaging markets”, said Mark Remmert, Green Dot Bioplastics CEO. “We’ve successfully developed unique materials that<br />

have a faster rate of biodegradation in ambient composting conditions and the functional performance that the market demands”.<br />

The five new film grades are compostable starch blends that require no tooling or process modifications when run on<br />

traditional blown or cast film equipment. Among them are Terratek BD3003 which exhibits high puncture resistance and tear<br />

strength and is heat sealable like linear low-density polyethylene (LDPE) film. Meanwhile, Terratek BD3300 is a stiff, highmodulus<br />

material with high heat resistance and overall properties similar to HDPE film.<br />

The film grades deliver faster rates of biodegradability for home composting, industrial composting, and soil biodegradability.<br />

They are targeted for a range of applications including produce bags, bubble wrap, agricultural films, and other lawn and garden<br />

packaging. The film materials are completing third-party certification by TÜV Austria, a leading European certifying agency.<br />

Green Dot’s new compostable offering also includes three new thermoforming grades which provide a range of properties including<br />

clarity. Other grades provide higher heat performance and greater flexibility for applications such as food service packaging,<br />

takeout containers, deli packages, and straws. The thermoforming grades are also completing final certification by TÜV Austria.<br />

Two injection moulding grades round out the new compostable offering. They deliver higher heat performance and enhanced<br />

processability (lower cycle times) for caps/closures, food service ware, and takeout containers. In a breakthrough application<br />

development effort, Green Dot worked with a customer to commercialize a living hinge design for an injection moulded package.<br />

The physical and mechanical properties of typical bioplastic resins have not previously allowed the moulding of a living hinge<br />

capable of hundreds of flexural openings and closures while delivering mechanical properties necessary for a polypropylenetype<br />

enclosure. MT<br />

www.greendotbioplastics.com<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/22] Vol. 17 29

Materials<br />

Waste recovery to obtain PLA:<br />

The VALPLA Project<br />

Like conventional polymers, biobased polymers (known<br />

as biopolymers) are structures made of short-chain<br />

carbon molecules (monomers) produced partially or<br />

entirely from renewable carbon sources. Along the same<br />

lines, sugars from household and agri-food waste without<br />

nutritional value (biomass) show excellent potential as a<br />

source of carbon and an alternative to fossil resources.<br />

Biopolymers derived from these resources are of great<br />

interest since they involve a reduction in the environmental<br />

impact and the consumption of non-renewable<br />

resources. At the same time, they can be used to make<br />

high-value-added products that cover current market<br />

needs. Some biobased polymers are also biodegradable,<br />

which is an added value for certain applications, as they<br />

offer a more environmentally sustainable end-of-life<br />

option. According to the Braskem I’m Green brand,<br />

replacing the global annual demand for PE of fossil origin<br />

with biobased PE would reduce more than 42 million<br />

tonnes of CO 2<br />

, which is equivalent to the CO 2<br />

emissions<br />

of ten million flights around the world each year. It is<br />

important to note, that biobased PE, just like conventional<br />

PE is not biodegradable (biodegradability would also not<br />

be an added value if the material is used for durable<br />

applications).<br />

Of all the biopolymers obtained from biomass, one of the<br />

most popular due to its market projection and versatility<br />

of applications is polylactic acid (PLA). PLA is considered<br />

one of the most promising potential substitutes for<br />

conventional polymers due to its mechanical and physical<br />

properties and the different possible manufacturing<br />

pathways.<br />

PLA is a biopolymer produced from lactic acid. Lactic<br />

acid or 2-hydroxypropanoic acid (C 3<br />

H 6<br />

O 3<br />

) is a carboxylic,<br />

chiral acid, i.e. it has two enantiomers (optical isomers):<br />

one is dextrogyre (D-lactic) and the other is levogyre<br />

(L-lactic). A racemic mixture is usually obtained by<br />

chemical synthesis or bacterial fermentation of sugars<br />

present in the biomass. Unlike chemical synthesis, which<br />

requires complex extraction and separation procedures,<br />

the use of microorganisms helps to optimize the process<br />

in terms of performance and purity, overcoming the<br />

main disadvantage of chemical synthesis, which is the<br />

generation of a considerable amount of racemic lactic<br />

acid.<br />

Widely used waste types include lignocellulosic ones<br />

from agriculture and the dairy industry. The compositional<br />

characteristics of both residues make them suitable for<br />

obtaining lactic acid. Thus, not only is the environmental<br />

impact of polymers from fossil raw materials reduced but<br />

waste generated by the dairy and agricultural industries is<br />

also reused, which until now, were considered a source of<br />

expense and contamination.<br />

There are two L-lactic acid polymerization methods for<br />

obtaining PLA. One is a direct polymerization process by<br />

polycondensation, and the other is an indirect process in<br />

which a cyclic dimer of polylactic acid, known as lactide is<br />

then polymerized by means of a ring-opening polymerization<br />

(ROP) to obtain PLA.<br />

In the case of polycondensation, a hydroxy acid or a polyol<br />

and a diacid are used to form polymeric compounds after<br />

several consecutive reactions. Polymerization through<br />

polycondensation processes usually requires the use of<br />

a catalyst, as well as the presence of a scavenger or an<br />

element capable of removing the water generated in the<br />

reaction. Polycondensation processes, therefore, have<br />

major limitations, including the low molecular weight of<br />

the polymer produced, low performance, and high reaction<br />

times, which, when compared to the indirect polymerization<br />

process from lactide, result in significantly higher molecular<br />

weights [2] that are of interest for applications that require<br />

high mechanical strength. Although both processes (direct<br />

and indirect) can be carried out in a batch reactor, ROP can<br />

also occur via reactive extrusion (REX), in which an extruder<br />

is applied as a continuous chemical reactor. This possibility<br />

significantly reduces residence times, which are less than<br />

twenty minutes, in addition to the use of minimal amounts<br />

of solvents, resulting in savings and considerable reduction<br />

in emissions, providing a more sustainable process for<br />

obtaining PLA.<br />

The VALPLA Project developed by AIMPLAS (Valencia,<br />

Spain) is focused on developing a sustainable process for<br />

producing high-molecular-weight PLA from lactide by<br />

means of REX using waste, particularly the organic fraction<br />

of municipal solid waste and agro-industrial wastes from<br />

the dairy and citrus industries. After microbial fermentation,<br />

L-lactic acid is obtained to replace the plastics currently<br />

obtained from fossil resources.<br />

In addition to the targets set by the VALPLA Project,<br />

Aimplas is addressing polycondensation synthesis of<br />

copolymers using biobased diacids to modify and adapt the<br />

properties of PLA, mainly to improve its biodegradability.<br />

The properties of the PLA copolymers obtained will be<br />

analysed to determine if their potential can be applied<br />

in different sectors.<br />

In summary, the VALPLA Project aims to provide a<br />

solution to dependence on fossil resources and improve<br />

our quality of life, helping to ensure that more sustainable<br />

consumer goods are included in the framework of the<br />

circular economy. This will increase the competitiveness<br />

30 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/22] Vol. 17

By:<br />

Carmem Tatiane, Carolina Acosta, and Nairim Torrealba<br />

Chemical Technology Researcher<br />

Belén Monje<br />

Chemical Technology Leader and Polymer Expert<br />

AIMPLAS, Valencia, Spain<br />

Automotive<br />

of the industry in the Valencian Community because the<br />

waste generated in the region will be transformed into<br />

biotechnology platforms to obtain biopolymers that are<br />

currently not produced in Spain.<br />

This horizontal project aims to foster translational<br />

research areas and bolster contacts in industries<br />

such as biotechnology, plastics, agri-food, and waste<br />

management by developing new areas of application at<br />

the industrial level. This will involve collaborating with<br />

research groups to carry out research in conjunction<br />

with other Aimplas activities.<br />

Collaborating on this project are Polypeptide<br />

Therapeutic Solutions (PTS), ADM-Biopolis, Laurentia<br />

Technologies, Vallés Plastic Films, Gaviplas, Plastire,<br />

Ducplast, and Agua Mineral San Benedetto. The project<br />

is funded by the Valencian Community’s Ministry for<br />

Sustainable Economy, Production Sectors, Trade and<br />

Employment through IVACE funds and is co-funded<br />

by the EU’s ERDF funds within the 2021-2027 ERDF<br />

Operational Programme of the Valencian Community.<br />

References:<br />

[1] Economía Circular: La redención de los plásticos – Ambiente<br />

Plástico – https://www.ambienteplastico.com/economia-circularla-redencion-de-los-plasticos/<br />

[2] Hyon, S. H.; Jamshidi, K.; Ikada, Y. Synthesis of polylactides with<br />

different molecular weights. Biomaterials 1997; 18: 1503-1508.<br />

.<br />

www.aimplas.es<br />


NOW!<br />

Join us at the<br />

17th European<br />

Bioplastics Conference<br />

– the leading business forum for the<br />

bioplastics industry.<br />

6/7 December <strong>2022</strong><br />

Maritim proArte Hotel<br />

Berlin, Germany<br />

@EUBioplastics #eubpconf<strong>2022</strong><br />

www.european-bioplastics.org/events<br />

For more information email:<br />

conference@european-bioplastics.org<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/22] Vol. 17 31

Materials<br />

Next generation PHA<br />

Launching the next generation industrial biotechnology (NGIB)<br />

and PhaBuilder<br />

Industrial biotechnology is an important industrialization<br />

carrier of synthetic biology. It uses cells or enzymes to<br />

convert agricultural products in bioreactors to obtain<br />

industrial products (compounds, materials, fuels, flavours,<br />

drugs, etc.).<br />

However, the cost of traditional biological manufacturing<br />

is too high when compared with many advantages of<br />

current chemical manufacturing, such as rapid reaction,<br />

high conversion rate, continuous processes, low water<br />

consumption, high product concentrations, and easy<br />

product recovery, which makes it difficult to commercialize<br />

biological manufacturing processes. At the same time, the<br />

crises related to the environment, use of fossil resources<br />

(generating additional CO 2<br />

), and energy requirements have<br />

become problems we cannot ignore.<br />

Recent reports from the United Nations and from the<br />

OECD mentioned that plastic production soared from<br />

two million tonnes in 1950 to 348 million tonnes in 2017,<br />

becoming a global industry valued at USD 522.6 billion, and<br />

it is expected to double in capacity by 2<strong>04</strong>0 and triple by<br />

2060. The impacts of plastic production and pollution on the<br />

triple planetary crisis of climate change, nature damages,<br />

and pollution are a catastrophe in the making.<br />

However, there are other options to reduce our dependency<br />

on the traditional chemical industry. That is why the Next<br />

Generation Industrial Biotechnology (NGIB) was developed.<br />

Current industrial biotechnology cannot reduce the cost<br />

of manufacturing biobased and natural PHAs to a level that<br />

can compete with petroleum-based materials. NGIB aims<br />

to enable these PHAs to compete with petroleum-based<br />

materials (plastics) in manufacturing costs.<br />

On top of that, if these PHAs can be made manufacturing<br />

cost competitive via the NGIB, this principle can also be<br />

applied to other products (see Figure 1).<br />

After years of research, Tsinghua University (and later<br />

the company PhaBuilder) has successfully demonstrated<br />

the NGIB for their PHA products at commercial scale<br />

to 200m 3 bioreactors.<br />

The advantages of this new technology are plenty:<br />

• It is very robust, so no sterilization is required<br />

• It can operate in a salt-water environment<br />

• One can use steel, ceramics, cement, or glass reactors<br />

in a continuous process<br />

• It is significantly lower in CAPEX and OPEX<br />

• It is feedstock flexible<br />

• It is suitable for many different PHA-polymers<br />

Tsinghua University isolated a novel chassis halophilic<br />

bacterium from Ayding Lake in Xinjiang/China. The growth<br />

of this bacterium does not need to be sterilized in industrial<br />

fermentation processes, which systemically solves<br />

the problems of high energy consumption and complicated<br />

operation during sterilization. At the same time, this new<br />

chassis Halomonas bacterium has been engineered to allow<br />

high-density cultivation, permitting a substantial increase<br />

in the final concentration of fermentation products.<br />

This new Halomonas chassis will replace traditional chassis<br />

in an increasing number of fields, becoming one of the<br />

most important industrial biotechnology chassis.<br />

The technical team in PhaBuilder has developed many<br />

genetic manipulation tools and elements to engineer this<br />

novel chassis bacterium, achieving precise regulation<br />

of this chassis for enhanced production. Through the<br />

leading strain engineering technology platform, the new<br />

chassis Halomonas has its metabolic pathways highly<br />

optimized, and the substrate conversion rate has reached<br />

an unprecedented level. At present, the new chassis has<br />

been successfully tested on pilot-scale and industrial scale<br />

for mass production, which fully proves the maturity of<br />

the NGIB technology.<br />

PhaBuilder is the only one in the world to successfully<br />

use the next generation of industrial biotechnology to<br />

produce PHA polymers, and also the world’s first supplier<br />

of multiple PHA products made with this technology.<br />

This includes PHB, P3HB4HB, PHBV, PHBH, but also<br />

P3HB4HB5HV [2] as examples. The PHAs produced by<br />

PhaBuilder have demonstrated good bbiodegradability<br />

and biocompatibility, are edible for animals, and can<br />

flexibly adjust their performances according to the<br />

application scenarios.<br />

The PHA products of PhaBuilder can be used in medical<br />

microspheres, medical slow-release carriers, human<br />

implantation materials, antibacterial fibres, and feeds. In<br />

addition, PhaBuilder can also produce P34HB5HV with high<br />

transparency and high elasticity, which is one of the first in<br />

the industry (see Figure 2).<br />

In addition to PHAs, PhaBuilder has also applied the<br />

NGIB to produce lysine, cadaverine, ectoine, threonine,<br />

3-hydroxypropionate, 5-minolevulinic acid, levan, pyruvate,<br />

and many other products. Take lysine and cadaverine for<br />

examples, the related paper was published in Bioresource<br />

Technology under the title of Engineered Halomonas spp.<br />

for production of L-Lysine and cadaverine. During the<br />

course of the study, the team first constructed the lysineproducing<br />

Halomonas bluephagenesis TDL8-68-259, by<br />

relieving lysine feedback inhibition and increasing precursor<br />

supply. Subsequently, the cadaverine-producing bacterium<br />

32 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/22] Vol. 17

By:<br />

Lan Yuxuan and Wu Yichao<br />

PhaBuilder Biotech, Beijing, China<br />

Chen Guo-Qiang<br />

Center for Synthetic and Systems Biology, School of Life Sciences<br />

Tsinghua University, Beijing, China<br />

Materials<br />

Jan Ravenstijn<br />

GO!PHA, Amsterdam, the Netherlands<br />

Halomonas campaniensis LC-9-ldcC-lysP was<br />

constructed by heterologous expression in the saltproducing<br />

bacterium Halomonas campaniensis<br />

LC-9 capable of self-coagulation, and the<br />

purpose of de novo cadaverine synthesis<br />

with glucose as a single carbon source<br />

was achieved by binding the lysineproducing<br />

bacterium Halomonas<br />

bluephagenesis TDL8-68-259.<br />

The core mission of PhaBuilder<br />

is to “use microbes to change<br />

the world and build a green<br />

future”. PhaBuilder is now<br />

using NGIB to produce various<br />

PHA polymers for our global<br />

customers. The 1 kt/annum<br />

market development plant has<br />

been started up for sampling<br />

the first customers around the<br />

globe and a 10 kt/annum plant<br />

is under construction for start-up<br />

in 2023. The first products that are<br />

offered to the market are PHB and<br />

P3HB4HB.<br />

HO<br />

HO<br />

1,3-Propanediol<br />

H2N<br />

O<br />

OH<br />

3-Hydroxypropionate<br />

Sec Signal Peptide (Sec SP)<br />


N H C<br />

Linker<br />

GOI<br />

P Mmp1 SP<br />


Levan<br />

OH<br />

Secreted proteins<br />

O<br />

ALA (5-aminolevulinic acid)<br />

Genetic parts<br />

(Promoters, Insulators,<br />

RBS, Terminators, etc.)<br />

Applications &<br />

Bioproductions<br />

OH O<br />

OH O<br />

PHB<br />

OH<br />

OH<br />

3HB<br />

3HV PHBV<br />

OH<br />

O<br />

O<br />

R<br />

HO<br />

OH P34HB<br />

OH Middle chain length<br />

4HB<br />

fatty acids<br />

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHB, P34HB, PHBV, etc.)<br />

Molecular<br />

Manipulation<br />

Halomonas<br />

Static optimization<br />

(Bypass knockout, Pathway<br />

construction, Flux tuning,<br />

Enzyme engineering, etc.) )<br />

O<br />

OH<br />

Regulator<br />

Genomic<br />

DNA<br />

sfgfp<br />

Dynamic control<br />

(Inducible systems &<br />

Biosensors)<br />

Cas9<br />

Matching Genomic<br />

Sequence<br />

Unsterilized open fermentation<br />

PAM<br />

Sequence<br />

Guide RNA<br />

CRISPR/Cas9<br />

A B C D E F<br />

Modeling &<br />

Omics analysis<br />

OH<br />

NH2<br />

O<br />

OH<br />

L-threonine<br />

HN<br />

O<br />

N<br />

O<br />

Ectoine<br />

OH<br />

OH<br />

OH<br />

Vanillic acid<br />

Biosurfactants<br />

(PhaP, PhaR, etc.)<br />

OCH3<br />

References<br />

[1] Ye JW, Chen GQ. Halomonas as a chassis. Essays<br />

Biochem. 2021 Jul 26;65(2):393-403. Doi: 10.1<strong>04</strong>2/<br />

EBC20200159. PMID: 33885142; PMCID: PMC8314019.<br />

[2] [2] Poly(3-hydroxubutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate-co-5-<br />

hydroxyvalerate) – a newly developed material with NGIB<br />

[3] Yan X, Liu X, Yu LP, Wu F, Jiang XR, Chen GQ. Biosynthesis of<br />

diverse α,ω-diol-derived polyhydroxyalkanoates by engineered<br />

Halomonas bluephagenesis. Metab Eng. <strong>2022</strong> Apr 13;72:275-288.<br />

doi: 10.1016/j.ymben.<strong>2022</strong>.<strong>04</strong>.001. Epub ahead of print. PMID:<br />

35429676.<br />

www.phabuilder.com<br />

www.cssb.tsinghua.edu.cn/en/<br />

www.gopha.org/<br />

Direct seawater input<br />

Reduced power<br />

consumption ofcompressor<br />

Next Generation Industrial<br />

Biotechnology (NGIB)<br />

Products<br />

harvest<br />

Easy control<br />

Fig. 1: Many systems and synthetic biology tools and approaches, for<br />

example, CRISPR/Cas9-based gene editing, omics profiling, parts mining,<br />

and static and dynamic optimization methods, have been developed<br />

for Halomonas spp. The genetic reprogramming of Halomonas spp.<br />

allows the construction of high-performance Halomonas cell factories<br />

for the production of a variety of chemicals, polyesters, and proteins.<br />

A cost-effective NGIB has been developed based on extremophilic<br />

bacteria especially Halomonas spp. for bioproduction on various scales.<br />

Abbreviation: CRISPR, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic<br />

repeats. [1]<br />

ON<br />

OFF<br />

Fig. 2: Left picture is the ordinary<br />

biodegradable material, poor transparency;<br />

right picture is the new transparent P (53 %<br />

3HB-co-20 % 4HB-co-27 % 5HV ) material. [3]<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/22] Vol. 17 33

From Science & Research<br />

Biodegradation of plastic waste in<br />

marine and aquatic environments<br />

Marine litter is a serious problem for our seas and<br />

oceans and the intense use of plastic has made this<br />

substance one of the biggest ocean polluters. Some<br />

of the reasons why plastic materials are so popular include<br />

their favourable chemical properties, such as strength,<br />

lightness, and the ability to repel water. Plastic materials<br />

can be divided into two main categories:<br />

• Thermosets: an irreversible process is used to mould<br />

hard, durable materials.<br />

• Thermoplastic: a reversible process is used to make less<br />

rigid materials that are easy to mould.<br />

Biodegradation has become an approved category of<br />

degradation due to its ecological nature. The process is<br />

complex, but advances have been made thanks to the<br />

combination of several environmental factors. Figure 1<br />

shows the formation of microbial biofilms on the polymer,<br />

followed by deterioration, in which enzymatic activity cleaves<br />

the polymers into oligomers, dimers, and monomers.<br />

The process of polymer biodegradation begins when<br />

microorganisms start to attach to the plastic surface,<br />

known as the plastisphere, and form microbial biofilms.<br />

These biofilms develop rapidly on plastics and gradually<br />

reduce their buoyancy and ability to repel water.<br />

Because plastics are usually dispersed in the marine<br />

environment and are slow to degrade, the main factors<br />

affecting the biodegradation process are the characteristics<br />

of the polymer and environmental conditions.<br />

For standardized assessment of the biodegradability<br />

of plastic materials and products in marine and aquatic<br />

environments, different international, European, and<br />

ASTM D6340<br />

Standard Test Methods for Determining Aerobic Biodegradation of Radiolabelled Plastic Materials in an<br />

Aqueous or Compost Environment<br />

ASTM D6691 01 (2017)<br />

Standard Test Method for Determining Aerobic Biodegradation of Plastic Materials in the Marine<br />

Environment by a Defined Microbial Consortium or Natural Sea Water Inoculum<br />

ASTM D7473 / D7473M 12 (2021)<br />

Standard Test Method for Weight Attrition of Non-floating Plastic Materials by Open System Aquarium<br />

Incubations<br />

ASTM D7991 (2015)<br />

Standard Test Method for Determining Aerobic Biodegradation of Plastics Buried in Sandy Marine<br />

Sediment under Controlled Laboratory Conditions<br />

ISO 23977-1 (2020)<br />

Plastics – Determination of the aerobic biodegradation of plastic materials exposed to seawater – Part 1:<br />

Method by analysis of evolved carbon dioxide<br />

ISO 23977-2 (2020)<br />

Plastics – Determination of the aerobic biodegradation of plastic materials exposed to seawater – Part 2:<br />

Method by measuring the oxygen demand in closed respirometer<br />

ISO 18830 (2016)<br />

Plastics – Determination of aerobic biodegradation of non-floating plastic materials in a seawater/sandy<br />

sediment interface – Method by measuring the oxygen demand in closed respirometer<br />

ISO/TR 15462 (2006)<br />

ISO 22403 (2020)<br />

EN ISO 14851 (2020)<br />

ISO 14852 (2021)<br />

EN ISO 14853 (2018)<br />

ISO 15314 (2018)<br />

CEN 14987 (2006)<br />

CEN/ TR 15351 (2006)<br />

EN 17417 (2020)<br />

EN ISO 18830 (2017)<br />

EN ISO 19679 (2020)<br />

EN 17417 (2021)<br />

EN 14<strong>04</strong>8 (2003)<br />

EN 14<strong>04</strong>7 (2003)<br />

EN ISO 19679 (2018)<br />

EN ISO 10210 (2018)<br />

Water quality – Selection of tests for biodegradability<br />

Table 1. List of marine and aqueous biodegradation standards<br />

Plastics – Assessment of the intrinsic biodegradability of materials exposed to marine inocula under<br />

mesophilic aerobic laboratory conditions – Test methods and requirements<br />

Determination of the ultimate aerobic biodegradability of plastic materials in an aqueous medium –<br />

Method by measuring the oxygen demand in a closed respirometer<br />

Determination of the ultimate aerobic biodegradability of plastic materials in an aqueous medium –<br />

Method by analysis of evolved carbon dioxide<br />

Plastics – Determination of the ultimate anaerobic biodegradation of plastic materials in an aqueous<br />

system – Method by measurement of biogas production<br />

Plastics – Methods for marine exposure<br />

Plastics – Evaluation of disposability in wastewater treatment plants – Test scheme for final acceptance<br />

and specifications<br />

Plastics – Guide for vocabulary in the field of degradable and biodegradable polymers and plastic items<br />

Determination of the ultimate biodegradation of plastic materials in an aqueous system under anoxic<br />

(denitrifying) conditions – Method by measurement of pressure increase<br />

Plastics – Determination of aerobic biodegradation of non-floating plastic materials in a seawater/sandy<br />

sediment interface – Method by measuring the oxygen demand in closed respirometer (ISO 18830:2016)<br />

Plastics – Determination of aerobic biodegradation of non-floating plastic materials in a seawater/<br />

sediment interface – Method by analysis of evolved carbon dioxide (ISO 19679:2020)<br />

Determination of the ultimate biodegradation of plastic materials in an aqueous system under anoxic<br />

(denitrifying) conditions – Method by measurement of pressure increase<br />

(Packaging. Determination of the ultimate aerobic biodegradability of packaging materials in an aqueous<br />

medium. Method by measuring the oxygen demand in a closed respirometer.)<br />

(Packaging. Determination of the ultimate aerobic biodegradability of packaging materials in an aqueous<br />

medium. Method by analysis of evolved carbon dioxide.)<br />

Plastics. Determination of the aerobic biodegradation of non-floating plastic materials in a seawater/<br />

sediment interface. Method by analysis of evolved carbon dioxide.)<br />

(Plastics. Methods for the preparation of samples for biodegradation testing of plastic materials.)<br />

34 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/22] Vol. 17

American standards have been developed, as shown in<br />

Table 1.<br />

The most common standards are those in which the<br />

measurement method is carried out by analysing evolved<br />

carbon dioxide.<br />

• ASTM D6691 01(2017)<br />

• ISO 23977-1 (2020)<br />

• ISO 14852 (2021) (and related)<br />

• EN ISO 19679 (2020) (and related)<br />

• EN 14<strong>04</strong>7 (2003)<br />

The procedure for studying the ultimate aerobic<br />

biodegradability of plastics in an aqueous medium based<br />

on the analysis of evolved carbon dioxide applies to the<br />

following main materials:<br />

• Natural and synthetic polymers, copolymers, and blends<br />

of these polymers.<br />

• Plastic materials with additives such as plasticizers and dyes.<br />

• Water-soluble polymers.<br />

• Materials that show no inhibition under test conditions<br />

towards the microorganisms in the inoculum.<br />

The degree of biodegradation is determined by comparing<br />

the amount of evolved carbon dioxide with the theoretical<br />

quantity (ThCO 2<br />

).<br />

The test environment should be dark or lit with diffused<br />

light and the test vessel should be free of inhibitory vapours<br />

for microorganisms and have a constant temperature of 20<br />

to 25°C ± 1°C. Additionally, several solutions with alkaline<br />

reagents are needed.<br />

Initial attachment of microbes on the plastic surface<br />

Polymeric material<br />

Microbial Biofilm formation<br />

Biodetoriation: Secretion of extracellular enzymes and EPS<br />

Biofragmentation: Formation of oligomers, dimers, momomers<br />

Mineralization: Microbial biomass, CO 2<br />

, H 2<br />

O<br />

Figure 1: Biodegradation of plastic by<br />

the action of microorganisms [1].<br />

The test material<br />

should contain<br />

sufficient carbon<br />

to evolve CO 2<br />

. The<br />

total organic carbon<br />

(TOC) must therefore<br />

be calculated and<br />

must be at least<br />

100 mg/L.<br />

The inoculum<br />

should come from<br />

a wastewater<br />

treatment plant,<br />

where a sample of<br />

activated sludge<br />

from domestic<br />

sewage should also<br />

be taken. Because<br />

it comes from<br />

an active aerobic<br />

environment, it can<br />

be used to test a<br />

wide range of plastic<br />

materials. Once well<br />

By:<br />

María Mozo Toledo<br />

Biodegradation and Compostability Laboratory<br />

AIMPLAS, Valencia, Spain<br />

mixed, the sample can be kept under aerobic conditions so<br />

the study can begin the same day or within no more than<br />

72 hours.<br />

The test should include at least two test vessels for the<br />

target, one vessel for the reference material (aniline or<br />

another biodegradable polymer such as cellulose or polyβ-hydroxybutyrate<br />

is usually used) and two vessels for the<br />

test material.<br />

Then connect the vessels to the CO 2<br />

-free air production<br />

system, incubate at the set test temperature and aerate for<br />

around 24 hours. Add the reference and test materials and<br />

start bubbling CO 2<br />

-free air at a flow rate of 50–100 ml/min.<br />

The rate of carbon dioxide evolution should be measured<br />

regularly and, when it reaches a constant level, i.e. a<br />

stationary phase when no further biodegradation is<br />

expected, the test can be considered finished.<br />

The maximum test period is 6 months. On the last<br />

day, measure the pH and acidify the vessels with 1 ml<br />

of concentrated HCI to break down the carbonates and<br />

bicarbonates and purge the CO 2<br />

. Continue aerating for 24<br />

more hours and, finally, measure the amount of evolved CO 2<br />

in each vessel.<br />

The study is considered valid if:<br />

• The degree of biodegradation of the reference material<br />

is over 60 % at the end of the study.<br />

• The amount of CO 2<br />

evolved by the target at the end of the<br />

test does not exceed the upper limit value.<br />

Although plastic materials are land-based, there<br />

is always the chance that they will end up in aquatic<br />

environments, regardless of where they are consumed.<br />

Therefore, a product’s biodegradability in marine or aquatic<br />

environments contributes added value. It must be clear,<br />

however, that products should not end up in the aquatic<br />

environment at the end of their lives, and that this should<br />

be avoided at all times.<br />

These products can be certified as MARINE Biodegradable<br />

OK or WATER Biodegradable OK (biodegradable in<br />

freshwater) by the certification body TÜV Austria [2].<br />

However, WATER Biodegradable OK certification does not<br />

guarantee that the product is biodegradable in a marine<br />

environment. The idea is not to discard packaging as litter on<br />

a massive scale simply because it is biodegradable. Shortlife<br />

packaging should therefore be taken to a compost site.<br />

References<br />

[1] Ganesh Kumar, et.al. (2019). Review on plastic wastes in marine<br />

environment – Biodegradation and biotechnological solutions., Elsevier<br />

Ltd.<br />


[3] EN ISO 14852<br />

www.aimplas.es<br />

From Science & Research<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/22] Vol. 17 35

Science & Research<br />

Industrial starch struck gold ...<br />

Genetic engineering of potato starch opens doors to industrial uses<br />

Humble potatoes are a rich source not only of dietary<br />

carbohydrates for humans but also of starches<br />

for numerous industrial applications. Texas A&M<br />

AgriLife (College Station, TX, USA) scientists are learning<br />

how to alter the ratio of potatoes’ two starch molecules –<br />

amylose and amylopectin – to increase both culinary and<br />

industrial applications.<br />

For example, waxy potatoes, which are high in amylopectin<br />

content, have applications in the production of bioplastics,<br />

food additives, adhesives, and alcohol.<br />

Two articles recently published in the International Journal<br />

of Molecular Sciences [1] and the Plant Cell, Tissue and<br />

Organ Culture [2] journals outline how CRISPR technology<br />

can advance the uses of the world’s largest vegetable crop.<br />

Both papers include the work done by Stephany Toinga,<br />

who was a graduate student in the lab of Keerti Rathore,<br />

AgriLife Research plant biotechnologist in the Texas<br />

A&M Institute for Plant Genomics and Biotechnology and<br />

Department of Soil and Crop Sciences. Also co-authoring<br />

both papers was Isabel Vales, an AgriLife Research potato<br />

breeder in the Texas A&M Department of Horticultural<br />

Sciences. Toinga is now a Texas A&M AgriLife Research<br />

postdoctoral associate with Vales.<br />

“The information and knowledge we gained from these<br />

two studies will help us introduce other desirable traits in<br />

this very important crop,” Rathore said.<br />

Potato facts<br />

Potatoes are the No. 1 vegetable crop worldwide and the<br />

third most important human food crop, only behind rice and<br />

wheat in global production. Potatoes are grown in over 160<br />

countries on 165.000 km² and serve as a staple food for<br />

more than a billion people.<br />

With a medium-size potato supplying approximately 160<br />

calories, mostly derived from starch, the tubers constitute<br />

an important energy source for many people worldwide,<br />

Rathore said. Potatoes also provide other necessary<br />

nutrients, including vitamins and minerals.<br />

Potatoes are a cool-season crop that is relatively sensitive<br />

to heat and drought stress. The crop also suffers from pests<br />

such as Colorado beetle, aphids, and nematodes, as well<br />

as diseases including early and late blight, zebra chip,<br />

Fusarium dry rot, and a number of viral diseases. Late<br />

blight was the cause of the Irish potato famine.<br />

Starch is key for both dietary and industrial uses<br />

The amount of starch in potato tubers is the main factor<br />

that determines a potato’s use. High-starch potatoes are<br />

often used to make processed foods such as french fries,<br />

chips and dehydrated potatoes, Vales said.<br />

Potatoes with low to medium starch levels are frequently<br />

used for the fresh or table stock market, she said. For<br />

the fresh market, additional important considerations<br />

are tuber appearance, including skin texture, skin colour,<br />

Tubers from one of the edited lines of potatoes in the Texas A&M<br />

AgriLife study. If these are put into soil, they will produce a normal<br />

potato plant with normal size tubers. (Texas A&M AgriLife photo<br />

by Stephany Toinga)<br />

flesh colour, and tuber shape. Recently, specialty potato<br />

types with different shapes, such as fingerlings; smaller<br />

sizes; and red, purple or yellow skin and flesh colours are<br />

becoming popular because of their convenience in cooking<br />

and increased nutritional value.<br />

Potato tuber shape is less important for industrial<br />

purposes than it is for human consumption, Vales said.<br />

Potato tubers with external deformities caused by heat or<br />

drought stress or other factors can be re-directed to myriad<br />

uses, including food for dogs and cattle. In addition, potato<br />

starch can produce ethanol for fuel or in beverages like<br />

vodka; a biodegradable substitute for plastics; or adhesives,<br />

binders, texture agents and fillers for the pharmaceutical,<br />

textile, wood and paper industries, and other sectors.<br />

For industrial applications, the amount and type of starch<br />

in a potato are important considerations.<br />

Toinga said starches higher in amylopectin are desirable<br />

for processed food and other industrial applications due<br />

to their unique functional properties. For example, such<br />

starches are the preferred form for use as a stabilizer and<br />

thickener in food products and as an emulsifier in salad<br />

dressings. Because of its freeze-thaw stability, amylopectin<br />

starch is used in frozen foods. Additionally, potatoes rich in<br />

amylopectin starch yield higher ethanol levels compared to<br />

those with other starches.<br />

The benefits of breeding potatoes with select<br />

starches<br />

Developing potato cultivars with modified starch could<br />

open new opportunities, Toinga said. Potatoes with high<br />

amylopectin and low amylose, like the gene-edited Yukon<br />

Gold strain she described in the International Journal<br />

of Molecular Sciences, have industrial applications<br />

beyond traditional uses.<br />

36 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/22] Vol. 17

... Yukon Gold<br />

Feedstock<br />

In contrast, potatoes with high amylose levels and low<br />

amylopectin would be desirable for human consumption,<br />

Vales said. The amylose acts like fibre and does not liberate<br />

glucose as easily as amylopectin, thus resulting in a lower<br />

glycemic index and making potatoes more acceptable for<br />

people with diabetes.<br />

CRISPR/Cas9 creates new options<br />

CRISPR/Cas9 technology has expanded the toolset<br />

available to breeders, Vales said, and it represents a more<br />

direct, faster means to incorporate desired traits into<br />

popular commercial crop varieties. Conventional breeding<br />

is a lengthy process that can take 10–15 years.<br />

In addition, she said, due to the complex nature of<br />

the potato genome, generating new cultivars with the<br />

right complement of desirable traits is challenging for<br />

conventional breeding. Molecular breeding has enhanced<br />

breeding efficiencies, and gene-editing using the CRISPR/<br />

Cas9 technology adds another level of sophistication.<br />

“We utilized the Agrobacterium method to deliver the<br />

CRISPR reagents into potatoes because it is reliable,<br />

efficient and least expensive compared to all other<br />

delivery methods”, Rathore said.<br />

In the first study, highlighted in the Plant Cell, Tissue and<br />

Organ Culture article, a potato line containing four copies<br />

of gfp, a jellyfish gene that allows a fluorescence-based<br />

visualization of the gene’s activity, was targeted for mutation<br />

using the CRISPR/Cas9 system, Toinga said.<br />

In essence, this project provided an easy-to-see trait that<br />

enabled researchers to optimize the methodology.<br />

“Loss of the characteristic green fluorescence and<br />

sequencing of the gfp gene following CRISPR treatment<br />

indicated that it is possible to disrupt all four copies<br />

of the gfp gene, thus confirming that it should be<br />

possible to mutate all four alleles of a native gene in the<br />

tetraploid potato”, Rathore said.<br />

An improved Yukon Gold cultivar<br />

Among the various potato cultivars evaluated in the first<br />

study, the Yukon Gold strain regenerated the best, and so it<br />

was used for the second study. In the second knockout study,<br />

described in the International Journal of Molecular Sciences,<br />

the native gene gbss in the tetraploid Yukon Gold strain was<br />

targeted to effectively eliminate amylose. The result was a<br />

potato with starch rich in amylopectin and low in amylose.<br />

“One of the knockout events, T2-7, showed normal<br />

growth and yield characteristics but was completely<br />

devoid of amylose”, Toinga said.<br />

That tuber starch, T2-7, could find industrial applications<br />

in the paper and textile sectors as adhesives/binders,<br />

bioplastics, and ethanol industries. Tuber starch from this<br />

experimental strain, because of its freeze-thaw stability<br />

without the need for chemical modifications, should also be<br />

useful in producing frozen foods. Potatoes with amylopectin<br />

as the exclusive form of starch should also yield more<br />

ethanol for industrial use or to create alcoholic beverages.<br />

As the next step for these studies, the T2-7 strain has<br />

been self-pollinated and crossed with the Yukon Gold<br />

strain donor and other potato clones to eliminate the<br />

transgenic elements. AT<br />

https://agrilifetoday.tamu.edu<br />

References<br />

[1] https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/23/9/4640<br />

[2] https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11240-022-02310-8<br />

CRISPR/Cas9<br />

gbssl<br />

CRISPR/Cas9-mediated, Complete Elimination of<br />

Amylose from Potato Starch<br />

A depiction of the process for the elimination of amylose starch in<br />

a potato. (Texas A&M AgriLife graphic)<br />

A knockout line in culture that has produced<br />

miniature potatoes called microtubers.<br />

(Texas A&M AgriLife photo Stephany Toinga)<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/22] Vol. 17 37

Processing<br />

New production plant for<br />

novel flexible PLA copolymers<br />

TThe Polymer Group has established another subsidiary,<br />

SoBiCo GmbH (Solutions in BioCompounds) (both:<br />

Bad Sobernheim, Germany ). The focus of activities<br />

is on flexible PLA copolymers, a novel class of bioplastics<br />

marketed under the name Plactid ® . The successful<br />

development is the result of several years of collaboration<br />

between the Polymer Group and the Fraunhofer Institute<br />

for Applied Polymer Research IAP, which was funded by the<br />

German Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture. On July<br />

5, <strong>2022</strong>, the commissioning of the first production line in<br />

Pferdsfeld (Germany) was celebrated with 150 guests.<br />

The bioplastic PLA, also known as polylactic acid or<br />

polylactide, is obtained from lactic acid and has some of<br />

the strongest market potential in the field of bioplastics.<br />

However, conventional PLA materials are often stiff and<br />

brittle. To meet these challenges the Polymer Group<br />

(Bad Sobernheim, Germany) has established another<br />

subsidiary, SoBiCo GmbH (Solutions in BioCompounds).<br />

SoBiCo intends to open up completely new fields of<br />

application for PLA, a bioplastic that is already widely used<br />

today, in the form of a copolymer, for example for flexible<br />

packaging films, automotive injection moulded parts, and<br />

thermoplastic elastomers for construction applications.<br />

“Our newly developed PLA copolymers are characterized by<br />

the fact that their mechanical properties can be adjusted<br />

over a very wide range”, explains Gerald Hauf, managing<br />

director of the Polymer Group. “For example, elongations<br />

at break – a characteristic value that indicates how<br />

deformable a material is – of 3 to 300 % can be achieved<br />

with Plactid. This makes these bioplastics interesting for a<br />

much broader range of applications than it is the case with<br />

conventional PLA”, says Hauf.<br />

Material and process development<br />

In both the development of the PLA copolymer and the<br />

process for its production, SoBiCo benefited from the<br />

extensive know-how of the polymer specialists at the<br />

Fraunhofer IAP in Potsdam (Germany) over several years<br />

of collaboration. The production process, which is novel<br />

for PLA, is based on reactive compounding, in which a<br />

PLA copolymer is synthesized from lactide and another<br />

comonomer. The partners have combined the usually<br />

separate process steps of polymerization and compounding<br />

in a single process. This saves time, energy, and costs.<br />

Antje Lieske, head of the Polymer Synthesis department<br />

at the Fraunhofer IAP in Potsdam says: “We can control<br />

very precisely how flexible the material will be by adjusting<br />

the proportion of biobased PLA in the plastic produced.<br />

Our PLA copolymers are currently between 75 and 95 %<br />

biobased. Our goal in the future is to produce completely<br />

biobased plastics with these mechanical properties<br />

that can replace petroleum-based plastics in as many<br />

applications as possible”.<br />

Production plant for novel PLA copolymers<br />

At the recently commissioned plant commissioned, on an<br />

area of 2,000 m 2 , 2,000 tonnes of the novel bioplastics will<br />

be produced per year in the future. In the medium term, the<br />

Polymer Group plans to locate its bioplastics activities at a<br />

new site in Idar-Oberstein (Germany) on an area of around<br />

17.5 hectares. In the long term, EUR 30 to 50 million are to<br />

be invested there and with a production capacity of 100,000<br />

tonnes per year and around 300 jobs are to be created. “Our<br />

goal is to increase the share of bioplastics and sustainable<br />

materials in our portfolio to 30 % by 2030. The joint<br />

development with Fraunhofer IAP is our most important<br />

initiative to achieve this goal”, says Hauf.<br />

The project was funded by the German Federal Ministry<br />

of Food and Agriculture. (Fachagentur Nachwachsende<br />

Rohstoffe e.V., FKZ: 22005717 – Fraunhofer IAP, 22019317<br />

– TechnoCompound, polymer subsidiary). AT<br />

https://www.polymer-gruppe.de/en<br />

https://www.iap.fraunhofer.de/en.html<br />

https://sobico.de/<br />

38 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/22] Vol. 17

From China to the USA<br />

A story of compostable cling wrap<br />

Applications<br />

Anhui Jumei Biological Technology (Anhui, China) is a<br />

focused developer and manufacturer of compostable<br />

raw materials and products. By June <strong>2022</strong>, Anhui<br />

Jumei had supplied a total of 3,500 tonnes of compostable<br />

cling wrap to the market. These new cling wrap products<br />

are delivered to customers in 22 countries and regions<br />

worldwide to replace traditional plastic wrap and to reduce<br />

environmental pollution.<br />

The compostable cling wraps of Jumei went through<br />

rigorous testing and after thorough experiments, passing<br />

a number of performance tests, received the OK Compost<br />

Industrial certification in March 2019, followed by the<br />

home compostable certification in 2020. Since 2019, Jumei<br />

established the capacity to mass produce compostable<br />

cling wraps, which are broadly used in households,<br />

supermarkets, hotels, restaurants, and industrial food<br />

packaging. The annual output attained is 1,000 tonnes.<br />

The commercialization of this eco-friendly cling wrap was<br />

not an easy story. When attempting to introduce the cling<br />

wrap to the North American market, Jumei and its local<br />

distribution partners had to go through a long discussion<br />

with BPI (Biodegradable Products Institute – New York,<br />

NY, USA). At that time, compostable cling wrap was still<br />

a completely new product on the market, and the idea of<br />

plastic wrap being totally compostable was yet to be fully<br />

accepted by the general public. However, it became a trend<br />

for households to embrace more disposable compostable<br />

products as people are getting increasingly concerned<br />

about environmental issues. New regulations and<br />

legislative restrictions banning toxic plastics placed on the<br />

market also came into effect, making the compostable cling<br />

wrap a popular substitute for households. The changes in<br />

public opinion and the political environment helped to move<br />

things forward. After a 2-year discussion, Jumei and BPI<br />

with its 3 distribution partners jointly contributed to the first<br />

compostable cling wrap certificate in BPI’s history.<br />

This compostable cling wrap was not developed to its<br />

final form all at once. Numerous unexpected issues in<br />

terms of equipment, materials, market needs, etc. were<br />

encountered. However, it was still a rewarding process<br />

because end consumers always gave positive feedback. One<br />

of the biggest challenges Jumei had, was to modify the raw<br />

materials to achieve satisfying performance. Compostable<br />

raw materials can easily lose the properties of being<br />

transparent and clingy. Jumei has been experimenting with<br />

these materials for making performing cling wrap since 2018.<br />

The development team finally addressed this problem after<br />

having tested nearly 200 different formulas. “As a necessity<br />

in the food packaging, compostable cling wrap is what all<br />

users desire, and we firmly believe that it makes sense to<br />

develop compostable cling wrap and make it available with<br />

a stable supply”, said Sherry Hong, CEO of Jumei.<br />

Now, Jumei compostable cling wrap meets various<br />

requirements for food packaging applications:<br />

1. Food grade with no odour and high transparency<br />

2. Safe for microwave oven and refrigerator<br />

3. Good for fresh and cooked food packaging<br />

4. Biodegradable and compostable<br />

Jumei has made every effort to make as many<br />

compostable alternatives as possible to reach more end<br />

consumers. They say they are never satisfied and feel an<br />

obligation to improve their products even more. It is their<br />

mission to address the global plastic problem with the most<br />

viable and sustainable products. AT<br />

www.ahjmsw.com<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/22] Vol. 17 39

Application News<br />

Sustainable styrenics<br />

for water filter jugs<br />

Brita (Taunusstein, Germany), INEOS Styrolution<br />

(Frankfurt, Germany) and BASF (Ludwigshafen, Germany)<br />

have announced today that BRITA has selected a range of<br />

INEOS’ sustainable Terluran ® ECO, Styrolution ® PS ECO<br />

and NAS ® ECO for its portfolio of water filter jugs.<br />

The materials include the recently introduced NAS<br />

ECO, a styrene methyl methacrylate (SMMA) material,<br />

a result of a cooperation between INEOS and BASF. It is<br />

built on BASF’s production of styrene monomer derived<br />

from renewable feedstock based on the mass balance<br />

approach. INEOS uses the material as feedstock in its<br />

production of new sustainable styrenics solutions.<br />

Brita, known as a leading brand in water filtration, is<br />

among the first customers to benefit from INEOS’ new<br />

sustainable NAS ECO solution. Specifically, the material<br />

is used for the production of Brita’s water filter jugs<br />

where it is applied for jug, funnel, and lid parts. By using<br />

the new materials, Brita can significantly lower the CO 2<br />

footprint without changes of moulding parameters and<br />

material performance. The new ECO materials do not<br />

cause any interference in Brita’s production as it is a<br />

true plug-in solution that does not require an adaption to<br />

Brita’s production processes.<br />

Reduced CO 2<br />

footprint<br />

BASF’s biomass balance (BMB) based styrene is used<br />

in the production of bio-attributed styrenics specialties,<br />

mainly transparent styrenics materials such as the<br />

INEOS’ NAS ECO family of SMMA products and the Luran ®<br />

ECO family of SAN (styrene acrylonitrile copolymer)<br />

products. NAS ECO is available with a renewable content<br />

of min. 70 % resulting in a carbon footprint reduction of<br />

79 to 93 % compared to fossil-based NAS. Luran ECO is<br />

available with a renewable content of min. 60 %, resulting<br />

in a carbon footprint reduction of 77 to 99 % compared<br />

to fossil-based Luran. The BASF and INEOS Styrolution<br />

processes within the end-to-end mass balance based<br />

production of the new solution portfolio are certified by<br />

ISCC+.<br />

“The mass balance approach, be it based on waste<br />

biomass or chemically recycled plastics, helps us to leave<br />

fossil resources in the earth and enables a fast transition<br />

towards alternative feedstocks”, says Stefanie Kutscher,<br />

Head of Business Management Styrene at BASF’s<br />

Styrenics Business Europe. “This can only be achieved if<br />

the whole value chain takes part”. AT<br />

www.ineos-styrolution.com | www.basf.com | www.brita.com<br />

The World’s first<br />

bioplastic LP<br />

Evolution Music (Brighton, UK) recently unveiled the<br />

world’s first bioplastic vinyl record. Well actually, it is not a<br />

vinyl record, as vinyl stands for PVC (polyvinyl chloride). The<br />

idea was to provide an environmentally friendly alternative<br />

to conventional vinyl production, as PVC can produce<br />

an enormous amount of wasteful pollutants, such as<br />

hydrochloric acid, if incinerated improperly.<br />

The official launch was during the Music Declares<br />

Emergency’s Turn Up The Volume Week (18–24 April <strong>2022</strong>).<br />

The world’s first bioplastic LP aims to balance a<br />

sustainable lower impact solution to the toxic impacts of<br />

producing PVC vinyl while maintaining sound quality.<br />

Being asked which material is being used to produce<br />

these revolutionary new records, Marc Carey, Evolution<br />

Music’s CEO told bioplastics MAGAZINE: “Our compound<br />

has been developed alongside a spin-off team from<br />

Southampton University (UK) and a number of global<br />

innovators in the bioplastic market. The base product is<br />

a PLA – actually a sugar-derived polymer that is provided<br />

by Bonsucro certified suppliers. We have co-developed a<br />

recipe that utilises this PLA product, unique organic fillers<br />

and a biobased Masterbatch to create a non-toxic PVC<br />

replacement for pressing in traditional LP pressing plants”.<br />

So no special equipment is needed to manufacture records<br />

with this new resin, only the raw materials will be changed.<br />

In addition, planet friendly packaging and distribution will<br />

be used.<br />

Marc continued: “We are still working on additional<br />

refinements and experimenting with variations – including<br />

potential for PHA options in the future. The interest for this<br />

first iteration/product has been truly spectacular with major<br />

labels, artists and pressing plants vying for our attention”.<br />

Peter Quicke of Ninja Tunes (London, UK) and the AIM<br />

Climate Action Group added: “Vinyl is such an important<br />

part of our experience of music, it’s brilliant (and a relief to<br />

be honest!) that we now have a non-toxic and sustainable<br />

solution to pressing records…” MT<br />

https://evolution-music.co.uk<br />

40 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/22] Vol. 17

CCU fashion<br />

Recently Zara (Arteixo, Spain) released a limited-edition line of<br />

sustainable fashion made from captured carbon emissions.<br />

This follows their December 2021 launch of a limited-edition capsule<br />

collection with the first clothing line to use LanzaTech’s (Skokie, IL, USA)<br />

technology in turning carbon emissions into fabric instead of coming from<br />

virgin fossil resources.<br />

Capturing and repurposing carbon emissions from industrial processes<br />

limits the direct release of these emissions into the atmosphere and helps<br />

limit the use of virgin fossil resources.<br />

Application News<br />

Carbon emissions are one of the main drivers of climate change.<br />

LanzaTech’s technology captures CO 2<br />

from industrial, agricultural,<br />

or domestic waste processes. Through a fermentation process, it is<br />

transformed into ethanol, a fundamental component in producing<br />

materials like PET used in a polyester thread. The final PET contains 20 %<br />

MEG (monoethylene glycol) made from recycled carbon emissions and<br />

80 % PTA (purified terephthalic acid). LanzaTech is also working with On<br />

(Zurich, Switzerland) and lululemon (Vancouver, Canada).<br />

Jennifer Holmgren, chief executive at LanzaTech, hailed the partnership<br />

as a major milestone for the carbon capture and utilization industry. “We<br />

are hugely excited about this collaboration with Inditex and Zara which<br />

brings fashion made from waste carbon emissions to the market”, she<br />

said in December. “LanzaTech has the technology that can help fashion<br />

brands and retailers limit their carbon impact. By working with Zara, we<br />

have found a new pathway to recycle carbon emissions to make fabric”. MT<br />

www.id-eight.com<br />

14–15 November<br />

Cologne (Germany)<br />

Hybrid Event<br />

advanced-recycling.eu<br />

Diversity of Advanced Recycling<br />

All you want to know<br />

about advanced recycling<br />

technologies and renewable<br />

chemicals, building blocks,<br />

monomers, and polymers<br />

based on recycling<br />

Topics<br />

• Markets and Policy<br />

(Circular Economy and Ecology of Plastics)<br />

• Physical Recycling<br />

• Biochemical Recycling<br />

• Chemical Recycling<br />

• Thermochemical Recycling<br />

• Other Advanced Recycling Technologies<br />

• CO2 Capture and Utilisation (CCU)<br />

• Upgrading, Pre- and Post-treatment Technologies<br />

Organiser Contact Dr. Lars Krause<br />

Program<br />

lars.krause@nova-institut.de<br />

Dominik Vogt<br />

Conference Manager<br />

dominik.vogt@nova-institut.de<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/22] Vol. 17 41

Application News<br />

DURABIO for the front grill of Suzuki S-CROSS<br />

Mitsubishi Chemical Holdings Group (Tokyo, Japan) hereby<br />

announces that MCHG’s biobased engineering plastic, Durabio,<br />

has been adopted as an application for the front grill of the S-Cross<br />

manufactured by Suzuki Motor Corporation (Hamamatsu, Japan).<br />

S-Cross has been offered for sale since December 2021. This is<br />

the first time that Durabio has been adopted for the exterior parts<br />

of Suzuki’s automobiles.<br />

Made from the renewable plant-derived raw material isosorbide,<br />

Durabio is a biobased engineering plastic with excellent properties<br />

compared to conventional engineering plastics, including impact<br />

resistance, weather resistance and heat resistance. The plastic<br />

also has excellent colour development, enabling the achievement<br />

of a sophisticated design with a gloss finish just by adding a<br />

colourant. In addition, the plastic requires no painting and coating<br />

process, as its surface is hard and scratch-resistant, thereby<br />

reducing VOC (Volatile Organic Compound) emissions generated<br />

during production. Although Durabio had previously been applied<br />

to interior parts by Suzuki, the improved level of shock resistance<br />

and weather resistance required for use in exterior parts has led to<br />

its current adoption for exterior applications.<br />

MCHG will continue to contribute to environmentally friendly car<br />

manufacturing through the development of Durabio for use in car<br />

interior design parts as well as larger-sized exterior design parts. AT<br />

www.mitsubishichem-hd.co.jp<br />

Photo Scotch & Soda<br />

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42 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/22] Vol. 17

Mechanical<br />

Recycling<br />

Extrusion<br />

Physical-Chemical<br />

Recycling<br />

available at www.renewable-carbon.eu/graphics<br />

Dissolution<br />

Physical<br />

Recycling<br />

Enzymolysis<br />

Biochemical<br />

Recycling<br />

Plastic Product<br />

End of Life<br />

Plastic Waste<br />

Collection<br />

Separation<br />

Different Waste<br />

Qualities<br />

Solvolysis<br />

Chemical<br />

Recycling<br />

Monomers<br />

Depolymerisation<br />

Thermochemical<br />

Recycling<br />

Pyrolysis<br />

Thermochemical<br />

Recycling<br />

Incineration<br />

CO2 Utilisation<br />

(CCU)<br />

Gasification<br />

Thermochemical<br />

Recycling<br />

CO2<br />

© -Institute.eu | <strong>2022</strong><br />

PVC<br />

EPDM<br />

PP<br />

PMMA<br />

PE<br />

Vinyl chloride<br />

Propylene<br />

Unsaturated polyester resins<br />

Methyl methacrylate<br />

PEF<br />

Polyurethanes<br />

MEG<br />

Building blocks<br />

Natural rubber<br />

Aniline Ethylene<br />

for UPR<br />

Cellulose-based<br />

2,5-FDCA<br />

polymers<br />

Building blocks<br />

for polyurethanes<br />

Levulinic<br />

acid<br />

Lignin-based polymers<br />

Naphtha<br />

Ethanol<br />

PET<br />

PFA<br />

5-HMF/5-CMF FDME<br />

Furfuryl alcohol<br />

Waste oils<br />

Casein polymers<br />

Furfural<br />

Natural rubber<br />

Saccharose<br />

PTF<br />

Starch-containing<br />

Hemicellulose<br />

Lignocellulose<br />

1,3 Propanediol<br />

polymer compounds<br />

Casein<br />

Fructose<br />

PTT<br />

Terephthalic<br />

Non-edible milk<br />

acid<br />

MPG NOPs<br />

Starch<br />

ECH<br />

Glycerol<br />

p-Xylene<br />

SBR<br />

Plant oils<br />

Fatty acids<br />

Castor oil<br />

11-AA<br />

Glucose Isobutanol<br />

THF<br />

Sebacic<br />

Lysine<br />

PBT<br />

acid<br />

1,4-Butanediol<br />

Succinic<br />

acid<br />

DDDA<br />

PBAT<br />

Caprolactame<br />

Adipic<br />

acid<br />

HMDA DN5<br />

Sorbitol<br />

3-HP<br />

Lactic<br />

acid<br />

Itaconic<br />

Acrylic<br />

PBS(x)<br />

acid<br />

acid<br />

Isosorbide<br />

PA<br />

Lactide<br />

Superabsorbent polymers<br />

Epoxy resins<br />

ABS<br />

PHA<br />

APC<br />

PLA<br />

available at www.renewable-carbon.eu/graphics<br />

O<br />

OH<br />

HO<br />

OH<br />

HO<br />

OH<br />

O<br />

OH<br />

HO<br />

OH<br />

O<br />

OH<br />

O<br />

OH<br />

© -Institute.eu | 2021<br />

All figures available at www.bio-based.eu/markets<br />

Adipic acid (AA)<br />

11-Aminoundecanoic acid (11-AA)<br />

1,4-Butanediol (1,4-BDO)<br />

Dodecanedioic acid (DDDA)<br />

Epichlorohydrin (ECH)<br />

Ethylene<br />

Furan derivatives<br />

D-lactic acid (D-LA)<br />

L-lactic acid (L-LA)<br />

Lactide<br />

Monoethylene glycol (MEG)<br />

Monopropylene glycol (MPG)<br />

Naphtha<br />

1,5-Pentametylenediamine (DN5)<br />

1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PDO)<br />

Sebacic acid<br />

Succinic acid (SA)<br />

© -Institute.eu | 2020<br />

fossil<br />

available at www.renewable-carbon.eu/graphics<br />

Refining<br />

Polymerisation<br />

Formulation<br />

Processing<br />

Use<br />

renewable<br />

Depolymerisation<br />

Solvolysis<br />

Thermal depolymerisation<br />

Enzymolysis<br />

Purification<br />

Dissolution<br />

Recycling<br />

Conversion<br />

Pyrolysis<br />

Gasification<br />

allocated<br />

Recovery<br />

Recovery<br />

Recovery<br />

conventional<br />

© -Institute.eu | 2021<br />

© -Institute.eu | 2020<br />

nova Market and Trend Reports<br />

on Renewable Carbon<br />

The Best Available on Bio- and CO2-based Polymers<br />

& Building Blocks and Chemical Recycling<br />

Mapping of advanced recycling<br />

technologies for plastics waste<br />

Providers, technologies, and partnerships<br />

Mimicking Nature –<br />

The PHA Industry Landscape<br />

Latest trends and 28 producer profiles<br />

Bio-based Naphtha<br />

and Mass Balance Approach<br />

Status & Outlook, Standards &<br />

Certification Schemes<br />

Diversity of<br />

Advanced Recycling<br />

Principle of Mass Balance Approach<br />

Feedstock<br />

Process<br />

Products<br />

Plastics<br />

Composites<br />

Plastics/<br />

Syngas<br />

Polymers<br />

Monomers<br />

Monomers<br />

Naphtha<br />

Use of renewable feedstock<br />

in very first steps of<br />

chemical production<br />

(e.g. steam cracker)<br />

Utilisation of existing<br />

integrated production for<br />

all production steps<br />

Allocation of the<br />

renewable share to<br />

selected products<br />

Authors: Lars Krause, Michael Carus, Achim Raschka<br />

and Nico Plum (all nova-Institute)<br />

June <strong>2022</strong><br />

This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at<br />

www.renewable-carbon.eu/publications<br />

Author: Jan Ravenstijn<br />

March <strong>2022</strong><br />

This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at<br />

www.renewable-carbon.eu/publications<br />

Authors: Michael Carus, Doris de Guzman and Harald Käb<br />

March 2021<br />

This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at<br />

www.renewable-carbon.eu/publications<br />

Bio-based Building Blocks and<br />

Polymers – Global Capacities,<br />

Production and Trends 2020 – 2025<br />

Polymers<br />

Carbon Dioxide (CO 2) as Chemical<br />

Feedstock for Polymers<br />

Technologies, Polymers, Developers and Producers<br />

Chemical recycling – Status, Trends<br />

and Challenges<br />

Technologies, Sustainability, Policy and Key Players<br />

Building Blocks<br />

Plastic recycling and recovery routes<br />

Intermediates<br />

Feedstocks<br />

Primary recycling<br />

(mechanical)<br />

Virgin Feedstock<br />

Monomer<br />

Polymer<br />

Plastic<br />

Product<br />

Product (end-of-use)<br />

Landfill<br />

Renewable Feedstock<br />

Secondary recycling<br />

(mechanical)<br />

Tertiary recycling<br />

(chemical)<br />

Quaternary recycling<br />

(energy recovery)<br />

Secondary<br />

valuable<br />

materials<br />

CO 2 capture<br />

Energy<br />

Chemicals<br />

Fuels<br />

Others<br />

Authors: Pia Skoczinski, Michael Carus, Doris de Guzman,<br />

Harald Käb, Raj Chinthapalli, Jan Ravenstijn, Wolfgang Baltus<br />

and Achim Raschka<br />

January 2021<br />

This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at<br />

www.renewable-carbon.eu/publications<br />

Authors: Pauline Ruiz, Achim Raschka, Pia Skoczinski,<br />

Jan Ravenstijn and Michael Carus, nova-Institut GmbH, Germany<br />

January 2021<br />

This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at<br />

www.renewable-carbon.eu/publications<br />

Author: Lars Krause, Florian Dietrich, Pia Skoczinski,<br />

Michael Carus, Pauline Ruiz, Lara Dammer, Achim Raschka,<br />

nova-Institut GmbH, Germany<br />

November 2020<br />

This and other reports on the bio- and CO 2-based economy are<br />

available at www.renewable-carbon.eu/publications<br />

Genetic engineering<br />

Production of Cannabinoids via<br />

Extraction, Chemical Synthesis<br />

and Especially Biotechnology<br />

Current Technologies, Potential & Drawbacks and<br />

Future Development<br />

Plant extraction<br />

Plant extraction<br />

Cannabinoids<br />

Chemical synthesis<br />

Biotechnological production<br />

Production capacities (million tonnes)<br />

Commercialisation updates on<br />

bio-based building blocks<br />

Bio-based building blocks<br />

Evolution of worldwide production capacities from 2011 to 2024<br />

4<br />

3<br />

2<br />

1<br />

2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2024<br />

Levulinic acid – A versatile platform<br />

chemical for a variety of market applications<br />

Global market dynamics, demand/supply, trends and<br />

market potential<br />

HO<br />

OH<br />

diphenolic acid<br />

H 2N<br />

O<br />

OH<br />

O<br />

O<br />

OH<br />

5-aminolevulinic acid<br />

O<br />

O<br />

levulinic acid<br />

O<br />

O<br />

ɣ-valerolactone<br />

OH<br />

HO<br />

O<br />

O<br />

succinic acid<br />

OH<br />

O<br />

O OH<br />

O O<br />

levulinate ketal<br />

O<br />

H<br />

N<br />

O<br />

5-methyl-2-pyrrolidone<br />

OR<br />

O<br />

levulinic ester<br />

Authors: Pia Skoczinski, Franjo Grotenhermen, Bernhard Beitzke,<br />

Michael Carus and Achim Raschka<br />

January 2021<br />

This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at<br />

www.renewable-carbon.eu/publications<br />

Author:<br />

Doris de Guzman, Tecnon OrbiChem, United Kingdom<br />

Updated Executive Summary and Market Review May 2020 –<br />

Originally published February 2020<br />

This and other reports on the bio- and CO 2-based economy are<br />

available at www.bio-based.eu/reports<br />

Authors: Achim Raschka, Pia Skoczinski, Raj Chinthapalli,<br />

Ángel Puente and Michael Carus, nova-Institut GmbH, Germany<br />

October 2019<br />

This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at<br />

www.bio-based.eu/reports<br />

renewable-carbon.eu/publications<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/22] Vol. 17 43

Market<br />

Bioplastics in Chile<br />

How it all began<br />

This is the story of two friends that have been<br />

classmates since they were 8 years old. Rodrigo<br />

Alfaro, an agriculture engineer, and Augusto Cubillos<br />

a computer science engineer.<br />

Rodrigo and Augusto had always felt a deep connection to<br />

their country and heritage. As got older, they started to get<br />

worried about the great amount of plastic that was present<br />

in the soil, rivers, and creeks. In 2007 they found an article<br />

that would change their lives – it reported about a new kind<br />

of plastic, one that did not contaminate the soil. And after<br />

more than 20 years of experience working in their respective<br />

professions, they took a leap of faith and committed following<br />

a new path. They left the corporate environment and start a<br />

company to produce compostable plastics items.<br />

Due to their science-based background, they first started<br />

studying this technology, read specialized magazines like<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE, and travelled to the USA and Europe<br />

to identify the main players and the commercial drivers<br />

of this new industry.<br />

Soon they were convinced of the potential of compostable<br />

plastics and acted accordingly. In 2009 they imported a<br />

couple of tonnes of Novamont’s MaterBi (Novara, Italy) and<br />

produced the first compostable bag in Chile. Since then,<br />

they have been preaching about diverting organic waste to<br />

create a healthy soil.<br />

In 2012, after a meeting with the CEO of BioBag<br />

International in the US and a subsequent visit to Chile,<br />

they got the license to produce biodegradable bags in Chile,<br />

under the BioBag World brand (Askim, Norway).<br />

The HORECA Business<br />

As you can probably imagine, the first years were<br />

like preaching in the desert, nobody even knew<br />

the term “composting or compostable”. So-called<br />

Oxo-Biodegradable products were the preferred alternative<br />

for the ecological firms.<br />

Until one day Sodexo Chile (Santiago, Chile) asked for<br />

their bags to start diverting the organic waste produced<br />

in the casino of Nestle Savory (Vevey, Switzerland), to a<br />

composting facility. That transaction gave them the support<br />

to develop an aggressive campaign aimed at the HORECA<br />

industry. Due to the quality of their products and services,<br />

and a well-structured alliance with companies that<br />

recollect solid items for recycling from local industries and<br />

with Sodexo Chile, they got all the Nestle plants and their<br />

corporate building in Chile.<br />

Then Aramark (Philadelphia, PA, USA) and other Chilean<br />

companies started to offer the recollection of organic waste<br />

to their customers because if you recycle organic waste,<br />

you increase the amount of overall recycled material,<br />

which also helps you to comply with legislation. These<br />

initiatives consolidated their HORECA business, which now<br />

has more than 110 different customers, including Hotels,<br />

Restaurants, and Food producers.<br />

Residential Business<br />

However, the greatest amount of organic waste is<br />

produced at homes, not in restaurants, hotels, or other<br />

HORECA businesses. Therefore, the next step seemed<br />

obvious, and at the end of 2018, they decided to support the<br />

development of the incipient curb side composting business<br />

in Chile.<br />

To do it, BioBag Chile took 3 key initiatives:<br />

• They built an alliance with the leading curb side<br />

composter at that time Sr Compost (Santiago, Chile).<br />

• They created an Instagram account (@BioBag_chile).<br />

• They started to commercialize the bags on an<br />

e-commerce site focused on sustainable products.<br />

• Three years later and a good amount of investment and<br />

commitment allow them to have:<br />

• A network of 60 small businesses all over Chile, from<br />

the desert of Atacama to the Patagonia, that offers the<br />

service to recover and compost domiciliary organic<br />

waste.<br />

• A community of 33.100 followers on Instagram. Of which<br />

70 % are women between 24 and 44 years old.<br />

• More than six e-commerce websites selling BioBag<br />

products.<br />

Drop-off Sites<br />

In July 2019 they started a new way to encourage people<br />

to modify their behaviour to better manage their organic<br />

waste at home.<br />

The Chilean duo started a free drop-off site at the<br />

municipality of Providencia in Santiago, which worked<br />

every Sunday from 10 am to 2 pm. Organic waste would<br />

be accepted if it was in a BioBag bag. On the first Sunday,<br />

they only collected 200 kilos. Less than half a year later they<br />

were collecting 4 tonnes every Sunday, with more than 1.500<br />

families going to drop-off their organic waste.<br />

Due to the pandemic, they had to close the drop-off site<br />

until December 2021. Currently, there are two free drop-off<br />

sites at the Municipality of Ñuñoa, and another one in the<br />

Municipality of Providencia at Santiago, a city of seven million<br />

people. Things are starting to pick up again, on Sunday, May<br />

15th, they recovered three tonnes of organic waste.<br />

44 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/22] Vol. 17

Market<br />

The key takeaways of the domiciliary business<br />

are:<br />

• They supported the creation of an infrastructure to<br />

recycle organic waste from households, emulating the<br />

way that nature works. Because nature knows no waste,<br />

everything created later biodegrades in a natural manner.<br />

• They have helped to create a USD 1.4 million annually for<br />

small business partners that charge USD 20 per month<br />

for their service to 6.000 households.<br />

• And most importantly: they helped people to be part of<br />

the solution, by providing an infrastructure that works,<br />

(recollect, and compost) – and people are eager to<br />

participate. Good infrastructure drives behaviour!<br />

Next step: Agriculture Business<br />

However, the dream team from Chile are not done yet!<br />

This September, they will start to implement the first<br />

pilots using BioAgri mulch, the MaterBi product to control<br />

weeds for crops like strawberries and other agricultural<br />

products produced in Chile.<br />

As the bioplastics market is gaining traction in Chile, they<br />

aim to keep their leadership position by being trailblazers<br />

in new areas. Chile is the largest exporter of fruits in<br />

the southern hemisphere and has to comply with all the<br />

regulations in Europe and other geographies – and Rodrigo<br />

and Augusto are up for the challenge. AT<br />

https://www.biobag.cl/<br />

8–9<br />

MARCH<br />

2023<br />

Cologne (Germany)<br />

Hybrid Event<br />


cellulose-fibres.eu<br />

Cellulose Fibres Conference, the fastest growing<br />

fibre group in textiles, the largest investment<br />

sector in the bio-based economy and the solution<br />

to avoid microplastics<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/22] Vol. 17 45

CCU<br />

Carbon dioxide utilization –<br />

an opportunity for plastics<br />

Carbon dioxide utilization (CO 2<br />

U) technologies are a<br />

sub-set of carbon capture utilization and storage<br />

(CCUS) technologies and refer to the productive use of<br />

anthropogenic CO 2<br />

to make value-added products such as<br />

building materials, synthetic fuels, chemicals, and plastics.<br />

CCUS have been deployed around the world at large-scale<br />

and are seen as a crucial tool to decarbonize the world’s<br />

economy. As well as storing CO 2<br />

in the subsurface, there has<br />

been increasing interest in its utilization. CO 2<br />

U can promote<br />

not only a more circular economy but also, in some cases,<br />

result in products with enhanced properties or processes<br />

with lower feedstock costs.<br />

The CO 2<br />

U industry has gained momentum as a solution<br />

to achieve the world’s ambitious climate goals. Many precommercial<br />

projects are currently operating or under<br />

construction, mostly concentrated in Europe and North<br />

America, with more in the pipeline supported by public and<br />

private investments. Although still in its infancy, the market<br />

pull is coming from the users – businesses and individuals<br />

are reportedly creating demand for low-carbon products.<br />

The options are diverse<br />

Despite its potential to create a market for waste CO 2<br />

,<br />

not all CO 2<br />

U technologies are created equal. These systems<br />

face a range of economic, technical, and regulatory<br />

challenges which need to be carefully considered so that<br />

the technologies that actually provide climate benefits – and<br />

are economically viable – can be prioritized and pursued.<br />

For instance, for many CO 2<br />

U routes, the CO 2<br />

sequestration<br />

is only temporary with the CO 2<br />

utilized being released to the<br />

atmosphere once the product is consumed (e.g. CO 2<br />

-derived<br />

Emerging applications of CO 2<br />

utilization: inputs, manufacturing<br />

pathways, and products made from CO 2<br />

. Source: IDTechEx.<br />

fuels or proteins), whilst for others, the CO 2<br />

can be stored<br />

permanently (e.g. CO 2<br />

-derived building materials). On the<br />

economic side, many CO 2<br />

U pathways can be considerably<br />

more expensive than their fossil-based counterparts due to<br />

high energy requirements, low yields, or the need for other<br />

expensive feedstock (e.g. green hydrogen, catalysts).<br />

The highest potential areas<br />

Successful deployment for CO 2<br />

-based polymers saw<br />

considerable growth in recent years, especially in Europe<br />

and Asia, with more than 250.000 tonnes of CO 2<br />

already<br />

used in polymer manufacturing annually worldwide<br />

(based on currently operating plants). This sector is<br />

expected to continue to expand, even though its climate<br />

mitigation potential is limited, mainly due to its intrinsic<br />

low CO 2<br />

utilization ratio (volume of CO 2<br />

per volume of<br />

CO 2<br />

-derived product).<br />

Construction materials, fuels, and commodity chemicals<br />

(e.g. methanol, ethanol, olefins) offer vast potential for<br />

CO 2<br />

utilization, but this will not be realized without the<br />

development of an extensive CO 2<br />

network linking capture<br />

sites to usage sites, widespread deployment of clean energy,<br />

or regulatory support (e.g. sustainable fuel mandates).<br />

CO 2<br />

-derived construction products in particular – such as<br />

concrete and aggregates – are set to gain considerable<br />

market share due to their helpful thermodynamics and<br />

ability to sequester CO 2<br />

permanently.<br />

How to make polymers from CO 2<br />

?<br />

There are at least three major pathways to convert CO 2<br />

into polymers: electrochemistry, biological conversion, and<br />

thermocatalysis. The latter is the most mature CO 2<br />

-utilization<br />

technology, where CO 2<br />

can either be utilized directly to yield<br />

CO 2<br />

-based polymers, most notably biodegradable linearchain<br />

polycarbonates (LPCs), or indirectly, through the<br />

production of chemical precursors (building blocks such as<br />

methanol, ethanol, acrylate derivatives, or mono-ethylene<br />

glycol [MEG]) for polymerization reactions.<br />

LPCs made from CO 2<br />

include polypropylene carbonate<br />

(PPC), polyethylene carbonate (PEC), and polyurethanes<br />

(PUR), PUR being a major market for CO 2<br />

-based polymers,<br />

with applications in electronics, mulch films, foams,<br />

and in the biomedical and healthcare sectors. CO 2<br />

can<br />

comprise up to 50 % (in weight) of a polyol, one of the main<br />

components in PUR. CO 2<br />

-derived polyols (alcohols with two<br />

or more reactive hydroxyl groups per molecule) are made by<br />

combining CO 2<br />

with cyclic ethers (oxygen-containing, ringlike<br />

molecules called epoxides). The polyol is then combined<br />

with an isocyanate component to make PUR.<br />

Companies such as Econic (Amsterdam, the Netherlands),<br />

Covestro (Leverkusen, Germany, see p. 10), and Aramco<br />

Performance Materials (Dhahran, Saudi Arabia) (with<br />

intellectual property acquired from Novomer – Rochester,<br />

NY, USA) have developed novel catalysts to facilitate<br />

46 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/22] Vol. 17

CCU<br />

Pathways to polymers from CO 2<br />

.<br />

CO 2<br />

-based polyol manufacturing. Fossil inputs are still<br />

necessary through this thermochemical pathway, but<br />

manufacturers can replace part of it with waste CO 2<br />

,<br />

potentially saving on raw material costs.<br />

In the realm of emerging technologies, chemical<br />

precursors for CO 2<br />

-based polymers can be obtained<br />

through electrochemistry or microbial synthesis. Although<br />

electrochemical conversion of CO 2<br />

into chemicals is at<br />

an earlier stage of development, biological pathways are<br />

more mature, having reached the early-commercialization<br />

stage. Recent advances in genetic engineering and process<br />

optimization have led to the use of chemoautotrophic<br />

microorganisms in synthetic biological routes to convert<br />

CO 2<br />

into chemicals, fuels, and even proteins.<br />

Unlike thermochemical synthesis, these biological<br />

pathways generally use conditions approaching ambient<br />

temperature and pressure, with the potential to be<br />

less energy-intensive and costly at scale. Notably, the<br />

California-based start-up Newlight (Huntington Beach,<br />

USA) is bringing into market a direct biological route<br />

to polymers, where its microbe turns captured CO 2<br />

,<br />

air, and methane into polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), an<br />

enzymatically degradable polymer.<br />

Currently, the scale of CO 2<br />

-based polymer manufacturing<br />

is still minor compared to the incumbent petrochemical<br />

industry, but there are already successful commercial<br />

examples. One of the largest volumes available is aromatic<br />

polycarbonates (PC) made from CO 2<br />

, being developed by<br />

Asahi Kasei (Tokyo, Japan) in Taiwan since 2012. More<br />

recently, the US-based company LanzaTech (Skokie, IL) has<br />

successfully established partnerships with major brands<br />

such as Unilever (London, UK), L’Oréal (Clichy, France), On<br />

(Zurich, Switzerland), Danone (Paris, France), Zara (Arteixo,<br />

Spain, see. p. 41) and Lulumelon (Vancouver, Canada)<br />

to use microbes to convert captured carbon emissions<br />

from industrial processes into polymer precursors –<br />

ethanol and MEG – for manufacturing of packaging items,<br />

shoes, and textiles.<br />

The niche areas<br />

The solid carbon (e.g. carbon nanotubes, carbon fibre,<br />

diamonds) and protein sectors will remain niche applications<br />

of CO 2<br />

utilization, despite their high market value, due to,<br />

respectively, the small size of the market (in volumes) and<br />

fierce competition from incumbents. Waste CO 2<br />

utilization<br />

in algae cultivation is still in the early stages, and many<br />

hurdles need to be addressed before commodity-scale<br />

applications become a reality.<br />

Questions remain<br />

Although the idea of reusing waste greenhouse gases<br />

as raw material seems like a win-win proposition, many<br />

viability questions arise for each CO 2<br />

utilization pathway.<br />

Will it truly lead to emission reductions? What are the<br />

financial and practical barriers to its commercialization?<br />

Can it scale to address climate change meaningfully? These<br />

are some of the tough questions IDTechEx addressed in the<br />

latest report Carbon Dioxide (CO 2<br />

) Utilization <strong>2022</strong>–2<strong>04</strong>2:<br />

Technologies, Market Forecasts, and Players.<br />

The report provides a comprehensive outlook of the global<br />

CO 2<br />

utilization industry, with an in-depth analysis of the<br />

technological, economic, and environmental aspects that<br />

are set to shape this emerging market over the next twenty<br />

years. IDTechEx considers CO 2<br />

use cases in enhanced oil<br />

recovery, building materials, liquid and gaseous fuels,<br />

polymers, chemicals, and biological yield-boosting (crop<br />

greenhouses, algae, and fermentation), exploring the<br />

technology innovations and opportunities within each area.<br />

The report also includes a twenty-year granular forecast<br />

for the deployment of eleven CO 2<br />

U product categories,<br />

alongside 20+ interview-based company profiles.<br />

The bottom line<br />

Not all CO 2<br />

-utilization pathways are equally beneficial<br />

to climate goals and not all will be economically scalable.<br />

Scarce resources that have alternative uses must be<br />

allocated where they are most likely to generate economic<br />

value and climate change mitigation. As the world’s thirst<br />

for plastics does not seem to fade, a circular carbon<br />

economy may help maintain people’s lifestyles by fostering<br />

a petrochemical industry that sees waste CO 2<br />

as a<br />

viable feedstock. AT<br />

The complete report can be purchased at<br />

www.idtechex.com<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/22] Vol. 17 47

Basics<br />

PEF: the new kid on the block<br />

What is it and when can we expect commercial material?<br />

Consumers and governments across the globe are<br />

putting increasing pressure on brands, retailers, and<br />

the chemical industry to reduce their carbon footprints<br />

and embrace renewables and the circular economy.<br />

As plastics and the monomers from which they are<br />

produced represent about 80 % of the volume of the chemical<br />

industry (400 million tonnes production per year, excluding<br />

recycled plastics, fibres and thermosets (such as rubbers<br />

for tires). Several plastics with large volume potential have<br />

been commercialized or are close to being commercialized<br />

(for example PLA, PBS, PHA’s, bio-PET, bio-PE, and PEF).<br />

Avantium is an Amsterdam-based technology company that<br />

has been working on the commercialization of PEF and its<br />

two monomers furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) and mono<br />

ethylene glycol (MEG) since 2005. In a broader perspective,<br />

Avantium offers unique technological solutions to address<br />

the global need to reduce plastic waste, tackle climate<br />

change, and transition into a circular, sustainable biobased<br />

economy. The goal is to make economically competitive and<br />

scalable chemicals and materials that are produced based<br />

on renewable feedstocks, fully (closed-loop) recyclable,<br />

with a significantly lower carbon footprint, and with superior<br />

performance relative to the petroleum-based alternatives.<br />

The YXY ® plants-to-plastics technology catalytically<br />

converts plant-based sugars into FDCA and PEF<br />

(polyethylene furanoate), a novel, first-in-class 100 % plantbased<br />

polyester. PEF is a 100 % recyclable plastic, with<br />

superior performance properties (improved oxygen, CO 2<br />

and moisture barrier, thermal and mechanical properties)<br />

compared to today’s widely used petroleum-based PET and<br />

other packaging materials.[1]<br />

Avantium has ongoing partnerships to develop, scale<br />

and commercialize the FDCA and PEF technology with<br />

multiple players throughout the value chain; from feedstock<br />

providers to converters and global consumer brands. A good<br />

example is our collaboration is PEFerence, a consortium of<br />

organizations aiming to replace a significant share of fossilbased<br />

polyesters with the 100 % plant-based PEF. Another<br />

example is the Paper Bottle Project (Paboco – Slangerup,<br />

Denmark), an innovation community joining leading brands<br />

that wish to develop a paper bottle.<br />

By:<br />

Gert-Jan M. Gruter<br />

CTO Avantium<br />

Professor Industrial Sustainable Chemistry<br />

University of Amsterdam<br />

PEF will provide the Paper Bottle with the high barrier<br />

properties needed for beverages such as beer and<br />

carbonated soft drinks. Recently, the first commercial<br />

paper bottles with PEF have been produced and consumers<br />

were for the first time ever able to drink beer from a<br />

PEF-based bottle.<br />

Next to PEF for bottles, the development of PEF for<br />

fibres is seeing an acceleration via the so-called PEF<br />

Textile Community with the five reputable global companies<br />

Antex (Anglès, Spain), BekaertDeslee (Waregem, Belgium),<br />

Chamatex (Ardoix, France), Kvadrat (Ebeltoft, Denmark),<br />

and Salomon (Annecy, France) (see also our news from<br />

21. June <strong>2022</strong>). Avantium and Antex have already worked<br />

together on producing yarns made from PEF and the other<br />

community partners will use these PEF yarns to develop<br />

various PEF fabric applications in different segments.<br />

The YXY Technology is the most advanced technology for<br />

PEF production across the sector and the first commercial<br />

production of FDCA and PEF is expected to begin in 2024,<br />

from the 5,000 tonnes per year FDCA Flagship Plant in<br />

Delfzijl, the Netherlands. A strong ecosystem of partners<br />

was established throughout the PEF value chain for the<br />

Flagship Plant. In Q1 <strong>2022</strong>, five offtake commitments were<br />

secured, representing over 50 % of the total Flagship Plant<br />

capacity. Contracts were signed with specialty chemical<br />

company Toyobo (Osaka, Japan), specialty polyester film<br />

producer Terphane (Bloomfield, NY, USA), beverage<br />

bottling company Refresco (Rotterdam, the Netherlands),<br />

international rigid packaging supplier Resilux (Wetteren,<br />

Belgium), and an undisclosed major global food & beverage<br />

brand owner.<br />

48 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/22] Vol. 17

Basics<br />

agri crops<br />

=Avanum technology<br />

sugars<br />

I<br />

FDCA<br />

PEF<br />

packaging<br />

non-food biomass<br />

texles<br />

forestry &agri<br />

waste<br />

II<br />

plantMEG<br />

100% plant-based<br />

film<br />

closed-loop<br />

recycling /reuse<br />


Figure 1: Overview of the Avantium Technology value chain from feedstock towards FDCA and PEF together with the Dawn Technology for<br />

industrial sugars, the Ray Technology for plantMEG and the latter two together for PEF.<br />

Three key parameters play an important role in<br />

determining the ultimate commercial potential of a<br />

new process technology for a monomer: (1) estimated<br />

production cost at various stages required up to and<br />

including full commercial scale (2) product performance<br />

and (3) ecological footprint. Many developments, certainly<br />

in a start-up environment, focus on the chance of technical<br />

success first and foremost. Technically, conversions can<br />

often be done but the better question is if they can be done<br />

at a competitive production cost.<br />

As drop-in products cannot compete on performance<br />

(the molecules are the same), it is required that they can<br />

eventually compete on price. A business case cannot<br />

be based on a green premium at full commercial scale,<br />

although there are examples that at an intermediate scale a<br />

green premium can be realized as long as there is potential<br />

for further cost reduction in subsequent scale up. As an<br />

example, biobased ethylene glycol, one of the monomers<br />

of PET, has seen a 20 - 30 % green premium, which was<br />

recovered by major brands such as The Coca-Cola Company<br />

and Danone through marketing a “Plant Bottle” or “Bouteille<br />

Vegetal”, resulting in additional market share in the bottled<br />

water field.<br />

From an atom efficiency or mass yield point of view, there<br />

is a very important difference between fossil hydrocarbon<br />

feedstock and biobased carbohydrate feedstock (glucose<br />

is the most abundant organic molecule on earth).<br />

Hydrocarbons can be cracked into various small monomers<br />

or monomer precursors without significant mass losses:<br />

ethylene, propylene, butadiene, styrene, and xylene<br />

are typical examples. When functionalizing monomer<br />

precursors with heteroatoms, we are adding mass, which<br />

really helps the economics.<br />

Hydrocarbons such as ethylene, propylene, and paraxylene<br />

are therefore very logical products to produce from<br />

oil or (shale) as feedstock. The downstream deployment of<br />

these commodity monomers to polymeric materials and<br />

the application of the resulting plastics is well developed<br />

at tens of millions of tonnes global annual production<br />

volumes. Therefore, when we talk about shifting to<br />

biobased monomers and polymeric materials we tend<br />

to prefer to produce the same molecules but now from<br />

glucose (the central – from a volume point of view most<br />

important – biobased starting material for a biobased<br />

economy). However, unless we make use of the functionality<br />

in these sugars (such as making mono ethylene glycol in a<br />

Avantium’s Ray Technology is a highly efficient process that converts plant-based sugars into Ray plantMEG<br />

in a single process step. Mono ethylene glycol (MEG) is an important chemical building block for PET or PEF<br />

resin for bottles and packaging; fibres for apparel, furniture, and automotive; and solvents (e.g. paint and<br />

coatings), and coolants. The Ray Technology is currently scaled-up with a demonstration plant in Delfzijl, the<br />

Netherlands which was successfully completed and started up and commissioned in 2020. In addition, Dawn<br />

Technology enables the conversion of agricultural and forestry residues (wood chips) in a staged hydrolysis to<br />

high-value chemicals and materials such as furfural from hardwood hemicellulose and HMF derivatives for FDCA<br />

production. Biorefining is the sustainable way to produce the biobased industrial sugar feedstock of the future.<br />

Avantium’s Volta Technology is a platform technology that uses electrochemistry to convert CO 2<br />

to high-value<br />

products and chemical building blocks such as oxalic acid, glyoxylic acid, glycolic acid, and ethylene glycol. These<br />

products are predominantly used in cosmetics and polyesters. Interesting polyesters that were very difficult or<br />

impossible to produce with sufficiently high molecular weight in the past have been produced in a collaboration<br />

with the University of Amsterdam (the Netherlands).[2,3]<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/22] Vol. 17 49

Basics<br />

single step from glucose), typical oil/gas-based drop-ins such<br />

as ethylene (for PE), propylene (for PP), styrene (for PS), and<br />

terephthalic acid (for PET) will in the long term not be the way<br />

to go.<br />

As an example, let’s compare the best route (from<br />

an atom efficiency point of view) to make the PET<br />

monomer terephthalic acid (TPA; C 8<br />

H 6<br />

O 4<br />

) from C6 sugar<br />

(glucose; C 6<br />

H 12<br />

O 6<br />

) with making the PEF monomer<br />

furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA; C 6<br />

H 4<br />

O 5<br />

) from the same starting<br />

material. For TPA, the cycloaddition of dimethylfuran (DMF)<br />

with ethylene (see Figure 2) seems the best atom efficient<br />

route. Interestingly, both routes go via the same intermediate,<br />

namely 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF).<br />

When making DMF from HMF we will require three<br />

equivalents of hydrogen. This hydrogen can be obtained<br />

from glucose via steam reforming but for this, we need<br />

also about half a glucose molecule. Thus, when comparing<br />

FDCA and TPA from glucose, in the best case we need one<br />

C6 sugar molecule to produce one FDCA molecule and we<br />

need two C6 sugar molecules to produce bio-TPA.<br />

Because FDCA is not the same as TPA, as a consequence,<br />

their polymers PEF and PET are not the same. This<br />

allows for finding performance features for the new<br />

material that provides a performance advantage over PET.<br />

PEF is a 100 % biobased, 100 % recyclable plastic<br />

with superior performance properties when applied in<br />

OH<br />

PEF<br />

fermentaon<br />

2CO 2 +2CH 2 CH 2 OH 2H 2 C=CH 2 +2H 2 O<br />

(ethanol) (ethylene)<br />

H 2 C=CH 2<br />

-H 2 O<br />

p-xylene<br />

PET<br />

Figure 2: glucose can be converted in 2 steps (via fructose) to HMF, a common intermediate to FDCA (top) and TPA (bottom). HMF can be<br />

oxidized to FDCA (PEF monomer) in one step or can be converted in three steps to TPA via dimethylfuran (DMF) and p-xylene. For producing<br />

p-xylene, also one equivalent of ethylene is required. Bio-ethylene is also obtained from glucose in 2 steps via ethanol.<br />

In Figure 2, it is indicated that HMF can either be oxidized<br />

in one step to FDCA or it can be hydrogenated to DMF.<br />

DMF can subsequently react with ethylene in a Diels-Alder<br />

cycloaddition reaction to form a bicyclic intermediate adduct,<br />

which eliminates water to form para-xylene (PX) in one<br />

concerted step. In order for the PX to be 100 % biobased,<br />

the ethylene used in the cycloaddition needs to be biobased<br />

too. This ethylene will require half of a glucose molecule as<br />

feedstock (glucose fermentation gives 2 ethanol and 2 CO 2<br />

.<br />

The two ethanol molecules are dehydrated to two ethylene<br />

molecules).<br />

PX can be oxidized with air (oxygen) in a third process step<br />

to TPA, of which more than 70 million tonnes are produced<br />

annually, mainly to produce PET for fibres (textiles) and<br />

bottles. Modern TPA plants consist of 1,000 m 3 CSTR reactors,<br />

producing more than 1 million tons per year in a single line<br />

making it almost impossible to compete on cost with a small<br />

volume bio-based PX stream. Of course, bio-PX can be mixed<br />

with fossil PX but the large brands do not like a mass balance<br />

based certificate system. They like to print the actual biobased<br />

content on the bottle label!<br />

bottle applications. These properties make PEF an attractive<br />

alternative to PET and other packaging materials such as<br />

aluminium, glass, and cartons. PEF has 10x better oxygen<br />

barrier and more attractive thermal (12 °C higher Tg) and<br />

mechanical properties (50 % higher modulus) compared to<br />

PET and offers a 50 - 70 % reduced carbon footprint when<br />

compared to PET at industrial scale.<br />

www.avantium.com<br />

References<br />

[1] De Jong, E., Visser, H.A., Sousa Dias, A., Harvey C., Gruter G.J.M.<br />

Polymers <strong>2022</strong>, 14, 943. The Road to Bring FDCA and PEF to the Market.<br />

[2] Murcia Valderrama, M.A., van Putten R.-J., Gruter G.-J.M. ACS Appl.<br />

Polym. Mater. 2020, 2, 2706. PLGA Barrier Materials from CO2. The<br />

influence of Lactide Comonomer on Glycolic Acid Polyesters.<br />

[3] Wang Y., Davey C.J.E., van der Maas K., van Putten R.-J., Tietema A.,<br />

Parsons J.R., Gruter G.-J. M. Science of the Total Environment <strong>2022</strong>, 815<br />

152781. Biodegradability of novel high Tg poly(isosorbide-co-1,6-hexanediol)<br />

oxalate polyester in soil and marine environments.<br />

50 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/22] Vol. 17

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bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/22] Vol. 17 51

Automotive<br />

10<br />

Years ago<br />

Published in<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE<br />

Plant-based<br />

carbohydrates<br />

MMF<br />

FDCA<br />

70%<br />

30%<br />

Cover Story<br />

I<br />

n 2009 The Coca-Cola Company launched its PlantBottle,<br />

a (partially) bio-based plastic bottle for its Coca-Cola and<br />

Dasani brands. In the same year Frito Lay introduced a<br />

bio-based chips bag for SunChips. Recently Nike introduced<br />

its new bio-based GS football boot. The direction of major<br />

brand owners is to move away from petroleum based materials<br />

and they are ramping up their efforts to introduce renewable<br />

materials.<br />

Avantium, an innovative renewable chemicals company<br />

based in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, is commercializing<br />

a new bio-based polyester: polyethylene furanoate (PEF)<br />

for large applications such as bottles, films and fibers.<br />

With PEF’s exceptional barrier properties and increased<br />

heat resistance it has come on the radar screen of the<br />

leading brand owners in the beverage industry. Looking at<br />

its differentiating polymer properties, its cost competitive<br />

production process, and the strongly reduced carbon<br />

footprint, one must conclude that PEF has the potential to<br />

become the world’s next-generation polyester. In December<br />

2011 the Dutch company announced its development<br />

partnership with The Coca-Cola Company, followed by a<br />

similar agreement with Danone in March 2012, to develop<br />

and commercialize PEF bottles for carbonated soft drinks<br />

and water. With the support of these brand powerhouses in<br />

the beverage industry Avantium seems to be on a winning<br />

course to make PEF the new 100% renewable and recyclable<br />

standard for the polyester industry.<br />

The road to a new bioplastic<br />

The world’s<br />

next-generation polyester<br />

Avantium has a 12-year track record of discovering,<br />

developing and optimizing catalytic processes for the<br />

refinery, chemical and renewables industries. Using its<br />

advanced catalyst research technology, the company<br />

100% biobased polyethylene furanoate (PEF)<br />

has developed its YXY (pronounced ~iksy) technology, a<br />

proprietary process to convert plant based carbohydrates<br />

into building blocks for making bio-based plastics, biobased<br />

chemicals and advanced biofuels. The company is<br />

backed by an international group of venture capital firms,<br />

including Sofinnova Partners, Capricorn Cleantech, ING and<br />

Aescap. Avantium has been listed for two consecutive years<br />

as a global top 100 cleantech company.<br />

Over the past few years the company made significant<br />

progress in the development and commercialization of the<br />

YXY technology.<br />

The basic philosophy behind it is to develop products<br />

from renewable sources that compete both on price and<br />

on performance with petroleum-based products, while<br />

also having a superior environmental footprint. Built upon<br />

Avantium’s core capability of advanced catalysis R&D,<br />

this chemical catalytic process allows the production of<br />

cost-competitive next-generation plastic materials and<br />

chemicals. YXY’s main building block, 2,5-furandicarboxylic<br />

acid (FDCA), can be used as a replacement for terephthalic<br />

acid (TA).<br />

O<br />

HO<br />

Terephthalic acid<br />

(TA)<br />

OH<br />

O<br />

HO OH<br />

O<br />

Furan- dicarboxilic acid<br />

(FDCA)<br />

Avantium has announced collaborations with leading<br />

brands and industrial companies to create a strong demand<br />

for products based on YXY technology. In addition to the joint<br />

development programs for 100% bio-based PEF bottles,<br />

O<br />

By<br />

Peter Mangnus<br />

VP Partnering & Commercialisation YXY<br />

Avantium Chemicals BV<br />

Amsterdam, The Netherlands<br />

O<br />

Crude Oil<br />

similar contracts were signed with Solvay, Rhodia and<br />

Teijin Aramid for the creation of Furanic polyamide-based<br />

materials.<br />

In December 2011, Avantium officially opened its pilot<br />

plant at the Chemelot Campus in Geleen, the Netherlands.<br />

This pilot plant has been successfully started and is running<br />

24/7. Its main purpose is to demonstrate the PEF technology<br />

at scale but is also producing sufficient volumes of FDCA<br />

and PEF for application development.<br />

The first commercial plant will have a production capacity<br />

of around 50,000 tonnes per year. Preparations for this<br />

commercial production plant have already started, and<br />

Avantium expects the plant to come on stream in 2016. The<br />

company is in the process of securing the financial resources<br />

for the first commercial scale FDCA plant, after which it will<br />

announce the site location.<br />

PX<br />

PEF: the next generation polyester<br />

The focus is clearly set on PEF, a polyester-based<br />

on FDCA and MEG (monoethylene-glycol). When using<br />

bio-based MEG, PEF is a 100% bio-based alternative to<br />

PET. PEF can be applied to a wide variety of commercial<br />

uses, including bottles, textiles, food packaging, carpets,<br />

electronic materials and automotive applications. One of<br />

the benefits of PEF is that it can be processed in existing<br />

PET assets. Avantium has used an existing PET pilot plant<br />

to produce PEF at pilot plant scale and the company has<br />

used existing PET processing equipment such as PET blow<br />

molding machines and PET fiber spinning lines.<br />

PEF is in many ways similar to PET: it is a colorless<br />

and rigid material. However there are some remarkable<br />

differences between PEF and PET. PEF has a glass<br />

transition temperature of 86°C, which is 10-12°C higher<br />

TA<br />

30%<br />

MEG<br />

Cover Story<br />

Avantium’s YXY technology (in blue), the production chain of PEF versus PET<br />

14 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/12] Vol. 7<br />

70%<br />

than PET. Its h<br />

packaging mat<br />

pasteurization.<br />

PEF. To any p<br />

properties stand<br />

PEF outperform<br />

– it shuts out o<br />

better; and wate<br />

the applications<br />

an unmet marke<br />

Table 1: PEF pro<br />

Prop<br />

Tg<br />

Tm<br />

HDT<br />

(@ 0.45 N/mm 2 ,<br />

CO 2<br />

barrier im<br />

Oxygen barrier<br />

Table 2: Unmet nee<br />

(* CSD = Carbonate<br />

CSD*<br />

Juices<br />

Vitamin Water<br />

Beer<br />

Milk<br />

Ketchup<br />

Coffee/Tea<br />

c<br />

w<br />

12 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/12] Vol. 7<br />

52 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/22] Vol. 17

Automotive<br />

In July <strong>2022</strong>, Peter Mangnus,<br />

Director Assets & Supply Chain,<br />

Avantium says:<br />

Avantium’s roadmap to PEF:<br />

PEF<br />

PET<br />

Cover Story<br />

Bottles<br />

Fibers<br />

Film<br />

Headquartered in Amsterdam, Avantium<br />

is an innovation-driven company dedicated<br />

to developing and commercialising breakthrough,<br />

sustainable chemical technologies.<br />

Its most advanced technology is the YXY ®<br />

Technology that catalytically converts plantbased<br />

sugars into FDCA (furandicarboxylic<br />

acid), a main building block of PEF (polyethylene<br />

furanoate). Over the last ten years, PEF has<br />

attracted the enthusiasm and support of many key<br />

players – from global commercial players as well as<br />

governments and financial partners.<br />

igher heat resistance makes PEF a versatile<br />

erial, for example, for hot fill or in-container<br />

Table 1 presents additional properties for<br />

ackaging expert PEF’s remarkable barrier<br />

out as a significant improvement over PET.<br />

s the barrier properties of PET in every way<br />

xygen 6-10x better; carbon dioxide is 2-4x<br />

r vapour 2x better. Table 2 shows some of<br />

where these improvements can help satisfy<br />

t need.<br />

perties<br />

erty PEF (relative to PET)<br />

86°C (Higher 11°C)<br />

235°C (Lower 30°C)<br />

-B<br />

76°C (cf. 64°C for PET)<br />

ASTM E2092)<br />

provement 2-4x<br />

improvement 6-10x<br />

ds in PET packaging<br />

d Soft Drinks)<br />

Unmet need for packaging<br />

CO 2 O 2 H 2 O<br />

x<br />

x<br />

x<br />

x x<br />

x<br />

x x<br />

x x<br />

For brand owners and packaging developers the improved<br />

barrier properties of PEF offer a range of innovation<br />

opportunities such as the extension of shelf life, further<br />

light weighting of bottles, the packaging of smaller volume<br />

carbonated drinks, and the replacement of glass by PEF for<br />

oxygen sensitive products. In a fast growing category of plastic<br />

packaging materials PEF offers the opportunity to increase<br />

plastic packaging penetration in a number of attractive market<br />

segments.<br />

PEF’s strongly reduced carbon footprint<br />

To assess the environmental footprint of YXY technology,<br />

Avantium is working with the Copernicus Institute at Utrecht<br />

University, the Netherlands, an independent organization<br />

specialized in making Life-Cycle-Analysis (LCA). Comparing<br />

YXY technology for making PEF with petroleum based PET, the<br />

Institute made a cradle-to-grave assessment of non-renewable<br />

energy use (NREU) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions<br />

(Energy Environ. Sci., 2012, 5, 6407–6422). The results of this<br />

assessment demonstrated that the production of PEF reduces<br />

GHG emissions by 50-70% compared to PET and yields a 40-<br />

50% reduction in NREU. The YXY technology platform is still in<br />

pilot development, so the ultimate reduction in non-renewable<br />

energy use and GHG emission may be even larger, if additional<br />

improvements in the process can be realized.<br />

Renewable feedstock<br />

The technology introduced here is a catalytic technology that<br />

converts plant-based carbohydrates into Furanics building<br />

blocks. The most important monomer is FDCA which is the key<br />

building block for the production of PEF. Like a number of other<br />

companies in the renewable chemical industry, Avantium is<br />

following a feedstock flexibility strategy, meaning that it can use<br />

different types of feedstock that are available today (corn, sugar<br />

cane, sugar beet) and feedstock that will become available in<br />

the future (agricultural waste, forest residues, waste paper,<br />

etc.). The ultimate choice of feedstock will depend on the<br />

geographical location of the production plant, the availability of<br />

feedstock, its sustainability and economic factors. Avantium is<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/12] Vol. 7 13<br />

Recyclable and renewable<br />

To successfully commercialize PEF bottles it is essential<br />

that PEF can be integrated into the existing infrastructure<br />

for the collecting and recycling of existing plastics.<br />

Avantium is working with its development partners to fully<br />

explore the recycling of PEF, and will engage with partners<br />

in the recycling community to ensure that PEF bottles can<br />

be recycled for different applications. Preliminary tests<br />

have demonstrated that PEF recycling will be very similar<br />

to PET recycling, by grinding and re-extruding the polymer<br />

(primary recycling), by remelting post-consumer waste<br />

followed by solid-state processing (secondary recycling)<br />

and by depolymerization through hydrolysis, alcoholysis, or<br />

glycolysis followed by repolymerization (tertiary recycling).<br />

Conclusion<br />

Where many bioplastics companies are pursuing biobased<br />

drop-in materials (bio-based versions of products<br />

that are made today from fossil resources, such as biopolyethylene,<br />

or bio-PET) it is interesting to see the PEF<br />

developments at Avantium. Using its proprietary YXY<br />

technology, Avantium converts plant-based carbohydrates<br />

into FDCA, a green monomer, to make the new polyester<br />

called PEF. According to Avantium, PEF is not only a<br />

renewable and recyclable material, but is also has<br />

differentiating properties that create a range of exciting<br />

innovation opportunities. In particular PEF’s fascinating<br />

oxygen and carbon-dioxide barrier properties make it a<br />

very attractive material for bottle and film applications. The<br />

product is still in the development phase so there are still<br />

questions that need to be answered by the developers of<br />

80<br />

70<br />

60<br />

50<br />

40<br />

30<br />

20<br />

10<br />

0<br />

5<br />


Avantium has also begun construction on the<br />

world’s first FDCA Flagship Plant, planned to be<br />

completed by the end of 2023 and to be operational<br />

in 2024. This commercial facility is set to focus on<br />

high-value applications which can benefit<br />

from PEF’s powerful<br />

combination of sustainability<br />

and performance<br />

features. Avantium has<br />

already signed multiple<br />

offtake agreements for<br />

the Flagship Plant with<br />

prominent commercial<br />

companies such as with<br />

Carlsberg, Refresco and<br />

Sukano,<br />

The business model<br />

of the FDCA Flagship<br />

Plant is based on sales of<br />

FDCA and PEF to offtake<br />

partners. In addition, we<br />

intend to sell technology<br />

licenses to industrial collaborators.<br />

Today, Avantium’s PEF<br />

offers a unique solution to<br />

address the global need to<br />

reduce plastic waste, help<br />

tackle climate change and<br />

transition into a circular,<br />

sustainable biobased economy.<br />

actively working on the use of feedstock from second-generation<br />

PEF over the coming years. An example is the recycling of<br />

PEF: the integration of PEF into the existing recycle stream<br />

NREU<br />

Cover Story<br />

looks promising but will need to be carefully managed.<br />

4<br />

non-food crops to ensure that these are fully useable for the<br />

YXY technology. The company collaborates with a range of<br />

ompanies that work on the processing of non-food crops and<br />

aste streams into commercially viable carbohydrate streams.<br />

3<br />

2<br />

1<br />

CO 2<br />

> 50%<br />

reduction<br />

Avantium collaborates with leading brands and industrial<br />

companies to create a strong demand for biobased<br />

products based on its YXY technology. The company has<br />

already signed partnerships with The Coca-Cola Company<br />

and Danone for the development of 100% biobased PEF<br />

bottles, and with Solvay, Rhodia and Teijin Aramid for the<br />

creation of Furanic polyamide-based materials. Bolstered<br />

by the already existing partnerships, Avantium is actively<br />

seeking other like-minded brands and companies to help to<br />

challenge the status quo.<br />

www.avantium.com<br />

www.yxy.com<br />

0<br />


Comparison of PEF versus PET (revised 2010 PET data set)<br />

tinyurl.com/avantium2012<br />

NREU = non-renewable energy useage (GJ/tonne)<br />

CO 2 equivalents for GHG potential (tonne CO 2 equiv/tonne)<br />

PET+ and PEF+ means: biobased MEG<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/22] Vol. 17 53

Suppliers Guide<br />

1. Raw materials<br />

Zhejiang Huafon Environmental<br />

Protection Material Co.,Ltd.<br />

No.1688 Kaifaqu Road,Ruian<br />

Economic Development<br />

Zone,Zhejiang,China.<br />

Tel: +86 577 6689 0105<br />

Mobile: +86 139 5881 3517<br />

ding.yeguan@huafeng.com<br />

www.huafeng.com<br />

Professional manufacturer for<br />

PBAT /CO 2<br />

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Microtec Srl<br />

Via Po’, 53/55<br />

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Italy<br />

Tel.: +39 <strong>04</strong>1 5190621<br />

Fax.: +39 <strong>04</strong>1 5194765<br />

info@microtecsrl.com<br />

www.biocomp.it<br />

BIO-FED<br />

Branch of AKRO-PLASTIC GmbH<br />

BioCampus Cologne<br />

Nattermannallee 1<br />

50829 Cologne, Germany<br />

Tel.: +49 221 88 88 94-00<br />

info@bio-fed.com<br />

www.bio-fed.com<br />

Simply contact:<br />

Tel.: +49 2161 6884467<br />

suppguide@bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

Stay permanently listed in the<br />

Suppliers Guide with your company<br />

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For only 6,– EUR per mm, per issue you<br />

can be listed among top suppliers in the<br />

field of bioplastics.<br />

AGRANA Starch<br />

Bioplastics<br />

Conrathstraße 7<br />

A-3950 Gmuend, Austria<br />

bioplastics.starch@agrana.com<br />

www.agrana.com<br />

Arkema<br />

Advanced Bio-Circular polymers<br />

Rilsan ® PA11 & Pebax ® Rnew ® TPE<br />

WW HQ: Colombes, FRANCE<br />

bio-circular.com<br />

hpp.arkema.com<br />

Tel: +86 351-8689356<br />

Fax: +86 351-8689718<br />

www.jinhuizhaolong.com<br />

ecoworldsales@jinhuigroup.com<br />

Xinjiang Blue Ridge Tunhe<br />

Polyester Co., Ltd.<br />

No. 316, South Beijing Rd. Changji,<br />

Xinjiang, 831100, P.R.China<br />

Tel.: +86 994 22 90 90 9<br />

Mob: +86 187 99 283 100<br />

chenjianhui@lanshantunhe.com<br />

www.lanshantunhe.com<br />

PBAT & PBS resin supplier<br />

Global Biopolymers Co., Ltd.<br />

Bioplastics compounds<br />

(PLA+starch, PLA+rubber)<br />

194 Lardproa80 yak 14<br />

Wangthonglang, Bangkok<br />

Thailand 10310<br />

info@globalbiopolymers.com<br />

www.globalbiopolymers.com<br />

Tel +66 81 915<strong>04</strong>46<br />

Kingfa Sci. & Tech. Co., Ltd.<br />

No.33 Kefeng Rd, Sc. City, Guangzhou<br />

Hi-Tech Ind. Development Zone,<br />

Guangdong, P.R. China. 510663<br />

Tel: +86 (0)20 6622 1696<br />

info@ecopond.com.cn<br />

www.kingfa.com<br />

For Example:<br />

39 mm<br />

Polymedia Publisher GmbH<br />

Dammer Str. 112<br />

41066 Mönchengladbach<br />

Germany<br />

Tel. +49 2161 664864<br />

Fax +49 2161 631<strong>04</strong>5<br />

info@bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

BASF SE<br />

Ludwigshafen, Germany<br />

Tel: +49 621 60-99951<br />

martin.bussmann@basf.com<br />

www.ecovio.com<br />

Mixcycling Srl<br />

Via dell‘Innovazione, 2<br />

36<strong>04</strong>2 Breganze (VI), Italy<br />

Phone: +39 <strong>04</strong>451911890<br />

info@mixcycling.it<br />

www.mixcycling.it<br />

FKuR Kunststoff GmbH<br />

Siemensring 79<br />

D - 47 877 Willich<br />

Tel. +49 2154 9251-0<br />

Tel.: +49 2154 9251-51<br />

sales@fkur.com<br />

www.fkur.com<br />

Sample Charge:<br />

39mm x 6,00 €<br />

= 234,00 € per entry/per issue<br />

Sample Charge for one year:<br />

6 issues x 234,00 EUR = 1,4<strong>04</strong>.00 €<br />

Gianeco S.r.l.<br />

Via Magenta 57 10128 Torino - Italy<br />

Tel.+39011937<strong>04</strong>20<br />

info@gianeco.com<br />

www.gianeco.com<br />

Xiamen Changsu Industrial Co., Ltd<br />

Tel +86-592-6899303<br />

Mobile:+ 86 185 5920 1506<br />

Email: andy@chang-su.com.cn<br />

1.1 Biobased monomers<br />

1.2 Compounds<br />

GRAFE-Group<br />

Waldecker Straße 21,<br />

99444 Blankenhain, Germany<br />

Tel. +49 36459 45 0<br />

www.grafe.com<br />

The entry in our Suppliers Guide is<br />

bookable for one year (6 issues) and extends<br />

automatically if it’s not cancelled<br />

three months before expiry.<br />

www.facebook.com<br />

www.issuu.com<br />

www.twitter.com<br />

www.youtube.com<br />

PTT MCC Biochem Co., Ltd.<br />

info@pttmcc.com / www.pttmcc.com<br />

Tel: +66(0) 2 140-3563<br />

MCPP Germany GmbH<br />

+49 (0) 211 520 54 662<br />

Julian.Schmeling@mcpp-europe.com<br />

MCPP France SAS<br />

+33 (0)2 51 65 71 43<br />

fabien.resweber@mcpp-europe.com<br />

Earth Renewable Technologies BR<br />

Estr. Velha do Barigui 10511, Brazil<br />

slink@earthrenewable.com<br />

www.earthrenewable.com<br />

Trinseo<br />

1000 Chesterbrook Blvd. Suite 300<br />

Berwyn, PA 19312<br />

+1 855 8746736<br />

www.trinseo.com<br />

Green Dot Bioplastics Inc.<br />

527 Commercial St Suite 310<br />

Emporia, KS 66801<br />

Tel.: +1 620-273-8919<br />

info@greendotbioplastics.com<br />

www.greendotbioplastics.com<br />

54 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/22] Vol. 17

Plásticos Compuestos S.A.<br />

C/ Basters 15<br />

08184 Palau Solità i Plegamans<br />

Barcelona, Spain<br />

Tel. +34 93 863 96 70<br />

info@kompuestos.com<br />

www.kompuestos.com<br />

NUREL Engineering Polymers<br />

Ctra. Barcelona, km 329<br />

50016 Zaragoza, Spain<br />

Tel: +34 976 465 579<br />

inzea@samca.com<br />

www.inzea-biopolymers.com<br />

a brand of<br />

Helian Polymers BV<br />

Bremweg 7<br />

5951 DK Belfeld<br />

The Netherlands<br />

Tel. +31 77 398 09 09<br />

sales@helianpolymers.com<br />

https://pharadox.com<br />

P O L i M E R<br />


Ege Serbest Bolgesi, Koru Sk.,<br />

No.12, Gaziemir, Izmir 35410,<br />

Turkey<br />

+90 (232) 251 5<strong>04</strong>1<br />

info@gemapolimer.com<br />

http://www.gemabio.com<br />

eli<br />

bio<br />

Elixance<br />

Tel +33 (0) 2 23 10 16 17<br />

Tel PA du +33 Gohélis, (0)2 56250 23 Elven, 10 16 France 17 -<br />

UNITED<br />

elixbio@elixbio.com<br />


elixbio@elixbio.com/www.elixbio.com<br />

www.elixance.com - www.elixbio.com<br />

1.3 PLA<br />

TotalEnergies Corbion bv<br />

Stadhuisplein 70<br />

4203 NS Gorinchem<br />

The Netherlands<br />

Tel.: +31 183 695 695<br />

www.totalenergies-corbion.com<br />

PLA@totalenergies-corbion.com<br />

Sunar NP Biopolymers<br />

Turhan Cemat Beriker Bulvarı<br />

Yolgecen Mah. No: 565 01355<br />

Seyhan /Adana,TÜRKIYE<br />

info@sunarnp.com<br />

burc.oker@sunarnp.com.tr<br />

www. sunarnp.com<br />

Tel: +90 (322) 441 01 65<br />

Parque Industrial e Empresarial<br />

da Figueira da Foz<br />

Praça das Oliveiras, Lote 126<br />

3090-451 Figueira da Foz – Portugal<br />

Phone: +351 233 403 420<br />

info@unitedbiopolymers.com<br />

www.unitedbiopolymers.com<br />

1.5 PHA<br />

CJ White Bio – PHA Biopolymers<br />

www.cjbio.net<br />

hugo.vuurens@cj.net<br />

Albrecht Dinkelaker<br />

Polymer- and Product Development<br />

Talstrasse 83<br />

6<strong>04</strong>37 Frankfurt am Main, Germany<br />

Tel.:+49 (0)69 76 89 39 10<br />

info@polyfea2.de<br />

www.caprowax-p.eu<br />

Treffert GmbH & Co. KG<br />

In der Weide 17<br />

55411 Bingen am Rhein; Germany<br />

+49 6721 403 0<br />

www.treffert.eu<br />

Treffert S.A.S.<br />

Rue de la Jontière<br />

57255 Sainte-Marie-aux-Chênes,<br />

France<br />

+33 3 87 31 84 84<br />

www.treffert.fr<br />

www.granula.eu<br />

2. Additives/Secondary raw materials<br />

Suppliers Guide<br />

Sukano AG<br />

Chaltenbodenstraße 23<br />

CH-8834 Schindellegi<br />

Tel. +41 44 787 57 77<br />

Fax +41 44 787 57 78<br />

www.sukano.com<br />

Biofibre GmbH<br />

Member of Steinl Group<br />

Sonnenring 35<br />

D-84032 Altdorf<br />

Fon: +49 (0)871 308-0<br />

Fax: +49 (0)871 308-183<br />

info@biofibre.de<br />

www.biofibre.de<br />

Natureplast – Biopolynov<br />

11 rue François Arago<br />

14123 IFS<br />

Tel: +33 (0)2 31 83 50 87<br />

www.natureplast.eu<br />

TECNARO GmbH<br />

Bustadt 40<br />

D-74360 Ilsfeld. Germany<br />

Tel: +49 (0)7062/97687-0<br />

www.tecnaro.de<br />

Zhejiang Hisun Biomaterials Co.,Ltd.<br />

No.97 Waisha Rd, Jiaojiang District,<br />

Taizhou City, Zhejiang Province, China<br />

Tel: +86-576-88827723<br />

pla@hisunpharm.com<br />

www.hisunplas.com<br />


- Sheets 2 /3 /4 mm – 1 x 2 m -<br />

GEHR GmbH<br />

Mannheim / Germany<br />

Tel: +49-621-8789-127<br />

laudenklos@gehr.de<br />

www.gehr.de<br />

1.4 Starch-based bioplastics<br />

BIOTEC<br />

Biologische Naturverpackungen<br />

Werner-Heisenberg-Strasse 32<br />

46446 Emmerich/Germany<br />

Tel.: +49 (0) 2822 – 92510<br />

info@biotec.de<br />

www.biotec.de<br />

Plásticos Compuestos S.A.<br />

C/ Basters 15<br />

08184 Palau Solità i Plegamans<br />

Barcelona, Spain<br />

Tel. +34 93 863 96 70<br />

info@kompuestos.com<br />

www.kompuestos.com<br />

Kaneka Belgium N.V.<br />

Nijverheidsstraat 16<br />

2260 Westerlo-Oevel, Belgium<br />

Tel: +32 (0)14 25 78 36<br />

Fax: +32 (0)14 25 78 81<br />

info.biopolymer@kaneka.be<br />

TianAn Biopolymer<br />

No. 68 Dagang 6th Rd,<br />

Beilun, Ningbo, China, 315800<br />

Tel. +86-57 48 68 62 50 2<br />

Fax +86-57 48 68 77 98 0<br />

enquiry@tianan-enmat.com<br />

www.tianan-enmat.com<br />

1.6 Masterbatches<br />

GRAFE-Group<br />

Waldecker Straße 21,<br />

99444 Blankenhain, Germany<br />

Tel. +49 36459 45 0<br />

www.grafe.com<br />

GRAFE-Group<br />

Waldecker Straße 21,<br />

99444 Blankenhain, Germany<br />

Tel. +49 36459 45 0<br />

www.grafe.com<br />

3. Semi-finished products<br />

3.1 Sheets<br />

Customised Sheet Xtrusion<br />

James Wattstraat 5<br />

7442 DC Nijverdal<br />

The Netherlands<br />

+31 (548) 626 111<br />

info@csx-nijverdal.nl<br />

www.csx-nijverdal.nl<br />

4. Bioplastics products<br />

Bio4Pack GmbH<br />

Marie-Curie-Straße 5<br />

48529 Nordhorn, Germany<br />

Tel. +49 (0)5921 818 37 00<br />

info@bio4pack.com<br />

www.bio4pack.com<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/22] Vol. 17 55

6.1 Machinery & moulds<br />

Suppliers Guide<br />

Plant-based and Compostable PLA Cups and Lids<br />

Great River Plastic Manufacturer<br />

Company Limited<br />

Tel.: +852 95880794<br />

sam@shprema.com<br />

https://eco-greatriver.com/<br />

Minima Technology Co., Ltd.<br />

Esmy Huang, Vice president<br />

Yunlin, Taiwan(R.O.C)<br />

Mobile: (886) 0-982 829988<br />

Email: esmy@minima-tech.com<br />

Website: www.minima.com<br />

w OEM/ODM (B2B)<br />

w Direct Supply Branding (B2C)<br />

w Total Solution/Turnkey Project<br />

Buss AG<br />

Hohenrainstrasse 10<br />

4133 Pratteln / Switzerland<br />

Tel.: +41 61 825 66 00<br />

info@busscorp.com<br />

www.busscorp.com<br />

6.2 Degradability Analyzer<br />

MODA: Biodegradability Analyzer<br />


143-10 Isshiki, Yaizu,<br />

Shizuoka, Japan<br />

Tel:+81-54-624-6155<br />

Fax: +81-54-623-8623<br />

info_fds@saidagroup.jp<br />

www.saidagroup.jp/fds_en/<br />

7. Plant engineering<br />

nova-Institut GmbH<br />

Tel.: +49(0)2233-48-14 40<br />

E-Mail: contact@nova-institut.de<br />

www.biobased.eu<br />

Bioplastics Consulting<br />

Tel. +49 2161 664864<br />

info@polymediaconsult.com<br />

10. Institutions<br />

10.1 Associations<br />

BPI - The Biodegradable<br />

Products Institute<br />

331 West 57th Street, Suite 415<br />

New York, NY 10019, USA<br />

Tel. +1-888-274-5646<br />

info@bpiworld.org<br />

Michigan State University<br />

Dept. of Chem. Eng & Mat. Sc.<br />

Professor Ramani Narayan<br />

East Lansing MI 48824, USA<br />

Tel. +1 517 719 7163<br />

narayan@msu.edu<br />

IfBB – Institute for Bioplastics<br />

and Biocomposites<br />

University of Applied Sciences<br />

and Arts Hanover<br />

Faculty II – Mechanical and<br />

Bioprocess Engineering<br />

Heisterbergallee 12<br />

3<strong>04</strong>53 Hannover, Germany<br />

Tel.: +49 5 11 / 92 96 - 22 69<br />

Fax: +49 5 11 / 92 96 - 99 - 22 69<br />

lisa.mundzeck@hs-hannover.de<br />

www.ifbb-hannover.de/<br />

10.3 Other institutions<br />

Naturabiomat<br />

AT: office@naturabiomat.at<br />

DE: office@naturabiomat.de<br />

NO: post@naturabiomat.no<br />

FI: info@naturabiomat.fi<br />

www.naturabiomat.com<br />

EREMA Engineering Recycling Maschinen<br />

und Anlagen GmbH<br />

Unterfeldstrasse 3<br />

4052 Ansfelden, AUSTRIA<br />

Phone: +43 (0) 732 / 3190-0<br />

Fax: +43 (0) 732 / 3190-23<br />

erema@erema.at<br />

www.erema.at<br />

9. Services<br />

European Bioplastics e.V.<br />

Marienstr. 19/20<br />

10117 Berlin, Germany<br />

Tel. +49 30 284 82 350<br />

Fax +49 30 284 84 359<br />

info@european-bioplastics.org<br />

www.european-bioplastics.org<br />

GO!PHA<br />

Rick Passenier<br />

Oudebrugsteeg 9<br />

1012JN Amsterdam<br />

The Netherlands<br />

info@gopha.org<br />

www.gopha.org<br />

Natur-Tec ® - Northern Technologies<br />

4201 Woodland Road<br />

Circle Pines, MN 55014 USA<br />

Tel. +1 763.4<strong>04</strong>.8700<br />

Fax +1 763.225.6645<br />

info@naturtec.com<br />

www.naturtec.com<br />

NOVAMONT S.p.A.<br />

Via Fauser , 8<br />

28100 Novara - ITALIA<br />

Fax +39.0321.699.601<br />

Tel. +39.0321.699.611<br />

www.novamont.com6. Equipment<br />

Osterfelder Str. 3<br />

46<strong>04</strong>7 Oberhausen<br />

Tel.: +49 (0)208 8598 1227<br />

thomas.wodke@umsicht.fhg.de<br />

www.umsicht.fraunhofer.de<br />

Innovation Consulting Harald Kaeb<br />

narocon<br />

Dr. Harald Kaeb<br />

Tel.: +49 30-28096930<br />

kaeb@narocon.de<br />

www.narocon.de<br />

10.2 Universities<br />

Institut für Kunststofftechnik<br />

Universität Stuttgart<br />

Böblinger Straße 70<br />

70199 Stuttgart<br />

Tel +49 711/685-62831<br />

silvia.kliem@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de<br />

www.ikt.uni-stuttgart.de<br />

Green Serendipity<br />

Caroli Buitenhuis<br />

IJburglaan 836<br />

1087 EM Amsterdam<br />

The Netherlands<br />

Tel.: +31 6-24216733<br />

www.greenseredipity.nl<br />

Our new<br />

frame<br />

colours<br />

Bioplastics related topics, i.e.<br />

all topics around biobased<br />

and biodegradable plastics,<br />

come in the familiar<br />

green frame.<br />

All topics related to<br />

Advanced Recycling, such<br />

as chemical recycling<br />

or enzymatic degradation<br />

of mixed waste into building<br />

blocks for new plastics have<br />

this turquoise coloured<br />

frame.<br />

When it comes to plastics<br />

made of any kind of carbon<br />

source associated with<br />

Carbon Capture & Utilisation<br />

we use this frame colour.<br />

The familiar blue<br />

frame stands for rather<br />

administrative sections,<br />

such as the table of<br />

contents or the “Dear<br />

readers” on page 3.<br />

If a topic belongs to more<br />

than one group, we use<br />

crosshatched frames.<br />

Ochre/green stands for<br />

Carbon Capture &<br />

Bioplastics, e. g. PHA made<br />

from methane.<br />

Articles covering Recycling<br />

and Bioplastics ...<br />

Recycling & Carbon Capture<br />

We’re sure, you got it!<br />

56 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/22] Vol. 17

3_06.20 2<br />

<strong>04</strong> / <strong>2022</strong><br />

Subscribe<br />

now at<br />

bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

the next six issues for €179.– 1)<br />

Special offer<br />

for students and<br />

young professionals<br />

1,2) € 99.-<br />

2) aged 35 and below.<br />

Send a scan of your<br />

student card, your ID<br />

or similar proof.<br />

Event Calendar<br />

You can meet us<br />

EUBP Talk - Soil-biodegradable mulchfilm<br />

22.09.<strong>2022</strong>, online<br />

https://www.european-bioplastics.org/news/eubp-talk/<br />

Bioplastics Business Breakfast K‘<strong>2022</strong><br />

20 - 21 - 22 Oct. <strong>2022</strong>, Düsseldorf, Germany<br />

by bioplastics MAGAZINE<br />

www.bioplastics-breakfast.com<br />

Sustainability in Packaging Europe<br />

02.11. - <strong>04</strong>.11.<strong>2022</strong>, Barcelona, Spain<br />

https://www.sustainability-in-packaging.com/sustainability-inpackaging-europe<br />

17th European Bioplastics Conference<br />

06.11. - 07.11.<strong>2022</strong>, Berlin, Germany<br />

https://www.european-bioplastics.org/events/eubp-conference/<br />

The Greener Manufacturing Show<br />

09.11. - 10.11.<strong>2022</strong>, Cologe, Germany<br />

https://www.greener-manufacturing.com/welcome<br />

bio!TOY<br />

<strong>04</strong>.<strong>04</strong>. - 05.<strong>04</strong>.2023, Nuremberg, Germany<br />

by bioplastics MAGAZINE<br />

https://www.bio-toy.info<br />

Events<br />

daily updated eventcalendar at<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />


. is read in 92 countries<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE Vol. 17<br />

Bioplastics - CO 2 -based Plastics - Advanced Recycling<br />

Basics<br />

Biocompatibility<br />

of PHA | 49<br />

Highlights<br />

Injection Moulding | 38<br />

Beauty & Healthcare | 17<br />

as melon skin<br />

... is read in 92 countries<br />

Bioplastics - CO 2 -based Plastics - Advanced Recycling<br />

.. is read in 92 countries<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE Vol. 17<br />

Basics<br />

Highlights<br />

FDCA and PEF | 48<br />

... is read in 92 countries<br />

Cover Story<br />

Allegra Muscatello,<br />

Taghleef industries,<br />

speaker at the<br />

7 th PLA World Congress | 12<br />

03 / <strong>2022</strong><br />

Blow Moulding | 18<br />

Polyurethanes/Elastomers | 10<br />

ISSN 1862-5258 May/June<br />

ISSN 1862-5258 July/August<br />

Subject to changes.<br />

For up to date event-info visit https://www.bioplasticsmagazine.com/en/event-calendar/<br />

+<br />

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Use the promotion code ‘watch‘ or ‘book‘<br />

and you will get our watch or the book 3)<br />

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Watch as long as supply lasts.<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/22] Vol. 17 57

Companies in this issue<br />

Company Editorial Advert Company Editorial Advert Company Editorial Advert<br />

ABM Composites 8<br />

FKuR 7 2,54 On 41<br />

ADM 31<br />

Flestic 22,23<br />

OWS 8<br />

Agrana 54 Fraunhofer IAP 38<br />

PaBoCo 24<br />

Agua Mineral San Benedetto 31<br />

Fraunhofer UMSICHT 8 56 Peptide Therapeutics Solutions 31<br />

AIM Climate Action Group 40<br />

FRIMO 23 Performance Materials 46<br />

AIMPLAS 8, 29,34<br />

Gehr 55 PhaBuilder 32<br />

Anhui Jumei Biol.Techn. 39<br />

Gema Polimers 55 plasticker 14<br />

Antex 5, 48<br />

German Society of Circular Economy 14<br />

Plastire 31<br />

Aramark 44<br />

Gianeco 54 Polykum 5<br />

Aramco 46<br />

Global Biopolymers 54 polymediaconsult 56<br />

Arkema 54 GO!PHA 8, 32 56 Polymer Group 38<br />

Avantium 5,24,48,52<br />

Grafe 28 54,55 PTT/MCC 54<br />

Axpo 13<br />

Granula 55 Rampf 14<br />

BASF 7, 40 54 Great River Plastic Manuf. 56 Refresco 48,53<br />

Bayern Innovativ 22 Green Dot Bioplastics 29 54 Resilux 48<br />

BeGaMo 8<br />

Green Serendipity 56 Rixius 20<br />

BekaertDeslee 5, 48<br />

GreenBlue 6<br />

Röhm 27<br />


Helian Polymers 8 55 SachsenLeinen 5<br />

Bio4Pac 55 Home Eos 5<br />

Saida 56<br />

BioAcetate 29 IDTechEx 46<br />

Salomon 5, 48<br />

BioBag Chile 44<br />

Inst. F. Bioplastics & Biocomposites 56 Shellworks 8<br />

BioBag International 44<br />

Institut f. Kunststofftechnik, Stuttgart 56 Sinomax 10<br />

Bio-Fed Branch of Akro-Plastic 54 ISCC plus 10, 40<br />

Sipol 12<br />

Biofibre 55 JinHui ZhaoLong High Technology 54 SoBiCo 38<br />

Biotec 7,8 55,59 Kaneka 7,8 55 Sodexo Chile 44<br />

BluCon Biotech 8<br />

Kautex Maschinenbau 18<br />

StroraEnso 26<br />

BMEL 38<br />

Kautex Textron 18<br />

Sukano 8,53 55<br />

Bond-Laminates 8<br />

Kingfa 54 Sunar 55<br />

Bonsucro 27<br />

Kompuestos 8 55 Suzuki 42<br />

Borealis 8<br />

Kvadrat 5, 48<br />

Taghleef Industries 8<br />

BPI 49 56 Lanxess 28<br />

Tecnaro 55<br />

Braskem 18, 30<br />

LanzaTech 6,41,47<br />

Tecnogi Group 12<br />

Brita 40<br />

Laurentia Technologies 31<br />

Terphane 48<br />

Buss 19,56 L'Oréal 47<br />

Texas A&M AgriLife 36<br />

CAPROWAX P 55 Lululemon 41,47<br />

The Coca-Cola Company 49<br />

Carlsberg 24,53<br />

MAIP 8<br />

Tianan Biologic’s 5 55<br />

Chamatex 5, 48<br />

Michigan State University 56 TotalEnergies Corbion 6, 7 55<br />

CJ Bio 7,8 55 Microtec 54 Toyobo 48<br />

Covation Biomaterials 7<br />

Minima Technology 56 Treffert 55<br />

Covestro 10,46<br />

Mitsubishi Chemical 42<br />

Trinseo 54<br />

Customized Sheet Extrusion 55 Mixcycling 54 Tsinghua Univ. 32<br />

Danone 6,47,49<br />

Morssinkhoff Plastics 18<br />

TÜV Austria 29,35<br />

Dr. Heinz Gupta Verlag 42 narocon InnovationConsulting 56 Unilever 47<br />

DSM 6<br />

Naturabiomat 56 United Biopolymers 55<br />

Ducplas 31<br />

Natureplast-Biopolynov 55 Univ. Amsterdam 49<br />

DuPont 5 15 NatureWorks 7<br />

Univ. Stuttgart (IKT) 56<br />

Earth Renewable Technologies 8 54 NaturTec 56 Vallé Plastic Films 31<br />

Eastman 16<br />

Natur-Tec Europe 8<br />

W. Müller 23<br />

Ecomic 46<br />

Neste 7,8<br />

Wingram Industrial 29<br />

Elixance 55 Nestle Savory 44<br />

Xiamen Changsu Industries 54<br />

Emery Oleochemicals 8<br />

Newlight Technologies 47<br />

Xinjiang Blue Ridge Tunhe Polyester 54<br />

Erema 56 nova Institute 8 41,43,45,56 Zaraplast 41,47<br />

Eurobottle 22<br />

Novamont 7, 44 56, 60 Zeijiang Hisun Biomaterials 55<br />

European Bioplastics 7,8 31,56 Nurel 55 Zeijiang Huafon 54<br />

Evolution Music 40<br />

Next issues<br />

<strong>Issue</strong><br />

Month<br />

Publ.<br />

Date<br />

edit/ad/<br />

Deadline<br />

05/<strong>2022</strong> Sep/Oct <strong>04</strong>.10.<strong>2022</strong> 02.09.<strong>2022</strong> Fiber / Textile /<br />

Nonwoven<br />

06/<strong>2022</strong> Nov/Dec 05.12.<strong>2022</strong> <strong>04</strong>.11.<strong>2022</strong> Films/Flexibles/<br />

Bags<br />

Edit. Focus 1 Edit. Focus 2 Basics<br />

Building &<br />

Construction<br />

Consumer<br />

Electronics<br />

Feedstocks, different<br />

generations<br />

Chemical recycling<br />

Trade-Fair<br />

Specials<br />

K'<strong>2022</strong> Preview<br />

K'<strong>2022</strong> Review<br />

Subject to changes<br />

58 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>04</strong>/22] Vol. 17

SMART<br />


FOR<br />



• Food contact grade<br />

• Odourless<br />

• Plasticizer free<br />

• Home and industrial<br />

compostable<br />

100%<br />

compostable<br />

(according to EN 13432)


as melon skin<br />

EcoComunicazione.it<br />


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