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The Great Western Road illustrated by Frank Walker FRAHS

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"THE GREAT 'WESTEBN EOAD"<br />

Illu s tra te d .<br />

By <strong>Frank</strong> <strong>Walker</strong>.F.R.A.H.S<br />

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"TTT" CiREAT WESTERN BOAD”<br />

I l l u s t r a t e d .<br />

— — By Fra^fr ta lk e r -F .R .A .H ,S<br />

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<strong>The</strong> <strong>Great</strong> <strong>Western</strong> Hoad.<br />

I ■-— ' " .....................<br />

----------- F O R E W<br />

O R E -----------------<br />

<strong>The</strong> Ji5th April,x815,was a"red-letter day" in<br />

the history of Hew South Wales,as it signalled the throwing open<br />

of the newly“discovered western country to settlement,and the<br />

opening of the new road,which was completed <strong>by</strong> William uox,and<br />

his small gang of labourers in January,of the same year.<br />

<strong>The</strong> discovery of a passage across those hitherto<br />

unassailaole mountains <strong>by</strong> ulaxland,Lawson and wentworth,after<br />

repeated failures <strong>by</strong> no less than thirteen other expeditions;the<br />

extended discoveries beyond Blaxland s furthest point <strong>by</strong> ueorge<br />

William Evans,and the subsequent construction of the road,follow<br />

-ed each other in rapid sequence,and proud indeed was i.acquarie,<br />

now that his long cherished hopes and ambitions promised to be<br />

realised,and a vast,and hitherto unknown region,added to the<br />

limited area which for twenty-five years represented the English<br />

settlement in Australia.<br />

Separated as we are <strong>by</strong> more than a century of<br />

time it is difficult to realise what this sudden expansion meant<br />

to the tfeen colony,cribbed,cabbined and confined as it had been<br />

<strong>by</strong> these mysterious mountains,which had guarded their secret so<br />

well, '^-'he dread spectre of famine had once again loomed up on the<br />

horizon before alaxland s successful expedition had ueen carried<br />

out,and the starving stock required newer and fresher pastures<br />

if they were to survive. All these things were of the past now,<br />

and a well made road,extending from the Nepean to the site .of the<br />

future city of Bathurst,invited traffic,and the virgin country<br />

into which it led,stood expectantly open,with waiting arms,ready<br />

to welcome the first settler willing to posess it.<br />

<strong>The</strong> construction of that first road,wiiich oy<br />

reason of the wild and rugged country.through which it passed,<br />

presented almost unsurmountable difficulties to that inexperienced<br />

band of road engineers,was,in itself,a remarkable undertaking,and<br />

may be classed as one of the most wonderful pieces of<br />

engineering in Australian history. With a working strength of<br />

only thirty,and having to face the rigours of a mountain winter<br />

for the greater part of the time,the story of this work as told<br />

in the pages of William Cox s juiary,is not only interesting,but<br />

it calls forth admiration for the pluck and perseverance of the<br />

leader and his band. Ho hardship was too great;no disappointment<br />

too keen,and though failures were frequent,and almost superhuman<br />

difliculties presented themselves,uox•s dogged perseverance alone<br />

carried him through,and success was his reward at last.<br />

<strong>The</strong> road was commenced on July 7,lol4,and on<br />

the 14th January in the following year uox was able to report to<br />

o.e ..Oi scqaarie that his .task was finished,and the road ready;<br />

j.0- ora.;.lie, A few months were allowed to intervene when,as men<br />

Cloned above,the official opening of the road took place on the<br />

ensuing &oth April,1S15. <strong>The</strong> following extract from Cox’s Diary


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2 <strong>The</strong> <strong>Great</strong> <strong>Western</strong> Hoad<br />

as contained in his "Memoirs" is worth recording ,as it gives ap.<br />

exact idea of the names of those who composed the party,of<br />

which Governor Macquarie was the leader.-<br />

»...... .On April £5th of that year (1815)<br />

Governor macquarie drove his car^- iage across<br />

it (the road) ,from Sydney to eathurst.....<br />

accompanied <strong>by</strong> Mrs wlacquarie. <strong>The</strong> following<br />

gentlemen composed the Governor's suite;-Mr<br />

Campbell,secretary.,Captain Antill ,Major of<br />

Brigade.,Lieutenant Watts taide de ■campj.,Mr<br />

Oxley,Surveyor General, ,Mr-Meehan,Depmty-Surveyor<br />

General.,Mr Lewin,painter and naturalist,<br />

and Mr G. W.Evans,Deputy-Surveyor of Lands..."<br />

<strong>The</strong> importance of this expedition,it might<br />

be thought,*oula be heralded with a flourish of trumpets,in th£<br />

press of the day,but beyond a short and concise notice in the<br />

"Gazette",stating the fact of the Governor s departure,and the<br />

names of those who accompanied him,the opportunity for the ais}-<br />

play of a little pardonable rhetoric is not made use of. Probably<br />

optimism on the part of the staff of the Government organ<br />

was not encouraged,even if it existed,and the great possibilities<br />

of the opening of that first <strong>Western</strong> road,and its effects<br />

on posterity were list sight of.<br />

<strong>The</strong> Governor in an official letter,which i$<br />

also a G0vernment Proclamation,remarks that "....the tour was<br />

"undertaken for the purpose of being enabled,personally,to<br />

"appreciate the importance of the tract of country lying to th$<br />

"west of the Blue Mountains...." further on he expresses "his<br />

astonishment and regret that amongst so large a population no<br />

one appeared within the first twenty-five years of the establishment<br />

of this settlement,possessed of sufficient energy of<br />

mind to induce him fully to explore a passage over these mountains".<br />

This was rather rough on the courageous men who had<br />

already made repeated attempts to accomplish this very thing,<br />

but had failed. <strong>The</strong> Governor certainly makes reference to bass<br />

and Caley,two of thse very men,but he seems to have been surprisingly<br />

ignorant of the very existence of such men as tfarral<br />

lier,Tench,^rose,Wilson,and others,not to speak of Governor<br />

Phillip,to whom the problem of the mountains,and what lay behind<br />

them,appealed very early in his career.<br />

Macquarie s journey from day to day is very<br />

graphically told in Cox s Memoirs,which contained the text of<br />

the above mentioned proclamation. At most of the halting place*;<br />

Lewin,the painter,secured lasting mementoes of the Governor's<br />

visit,and thse,in the form of a series of exquisite paintings,<br />

now in the possession of the Antill family,at Picton,are of th


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<strong>The</strong> <strong>Great</strong> <strong>Western</strong> <strong>Road</strong> 3<br />

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rendered with a fidelity to nature,which must be seen to be<br />

appreciated,and in some of the views there are portraits of the<br />

members of the party which may readily 'be distinguished.<br />

When the party reached the neighbourhood of Lin<br />

-den,a curious heap of stones was found at the side of the road<br />

to which Macquarie,never at a loss for a name,decided to call<br />

"CALEY'S REPULSE”,after the explorer of that name. As a matter<br />

of fact,although Macquarie was unaware of it,ualey was never<br />

within miles of the place,but "caley s Kepulse" it remained to<br />

the end of the chapter. In 1916 a number of members of the then<br />

Australian Historical Societyiof which the writer was one,j<br />

when searching in this locality for this particular relic,had<br />

the good fortune to discover it,or rather what remained of it,<br />

the position in which it was found corresponding exactly with<br />

the description given in many contemporary works. It has now<br />

been restored and a suitable inscription placed thereon.<br />

Macquarie;s favorite hob<strong>by</strong>,the bestowal of<br />

names upon the various places met with during the tour,was freely<br />

exercised,consequently we have such appellations as the "Kir<br />

"King's Tableland".,"Prince Regent;s Glen",,"Mount York".,"val€<br />

of Clwydd".,Biackheath""Clarence Hilly Range".,"Cox s Pass",<br />

etc.,etc.,names which have wisely been retained to the present<br />

day. <strong>The</strong> arrival of the party at Mount York is described,and<br />

Macquarie's admiration of the pass which Cox had formed down<br />

the steep end precipitous sides of this famous mountain,found<br />

vent in^eulogistic terms. "As a tribute justly due to him",says<br />

Macquarie,"his name was given to this grand and extraordinary<br />

pass". <strong>The</strong> old road is still in existence,and during the Centenary<br />

Celebrations in lS13,was visited <strong>by</strong> crowds of sight see<br />

rs. Mount iilaxland,the terminal point of the first explorer s<br />

expedition was pointed out to Macquarie,as also the two sugarloaf<br />

peaks standing near,which have been called after the two<br />

other members of tflaxland s expedition. <strong>The</strong> first named now<br />

bears an inscription, setting forth the fact that at this point<br />

Blaxland terminated his journey,and in years to come this ueie<br />

brated mountain will,without doubt,prove attractive to visitors<br />

with a taste for Australian History.<br />

On Thursday the 4th i»ay ,xiacquarie and party<br />

reached the site of the future city of oathurst,and an encamp^<br />

ment was formed on the left bank of the Macquarie River,somewhere<br />

in the vicinity of the present iioly Trinity uhurch at<br />

Kelso. On the 7th May the Ggvernor fixed on the site of the<br />

town,to which the name of uathurst was given in honor of the<br />

then Secretary of s*ate for the uoionies.<br />

,J-'He road measured 101-| miles from Emu Ford<br />

to the site of the proposed town,which the Governor divided up<br />

into easy stages .averaging about 12 miles each,"at all of which!1<br />

so runs tne account,"the traveller may assure himself of good<br />

grass and water in abundance". <strong>The</strong> return was made to Sydney on<br />

-l^ux scay ,11th AViay,the party reaching their homes on Friday,the


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4 <strong>The</strong> <strong>Great</strong> <strong>Western</strong> <strong>Road</strong>.<br />

19th inst.<br />

In this manner the first available route to -the<br />

newly discovered western districts was officially opened, it<br />

was an event far reaching in its effects,afid as the years progressed,<br />

the immense gain to the country at large,became more<br />

and more apparent, vast areas of magnificent grazing ground<br />

became available,the rich lands were rapidly peopled <strong>by</strong> a sturdy<br />

and industrious race,whose descendants still reside,in some<br />

cases,in the very homes built <strong>by</strong> their progenitors,and on the<br />

lands reclaimed from the wild bush <strong>by</strong> some of Australia s most<br />

worthy sons.<br />

<strong>The</strong> foregoing pa&es will deal exhamstively with<br />

the history of this great road,from its inception,down to the<br />

present day,and numerous illustrations,specially taken along<br />

the mountain route,will be used in order to show something of<br />

the present day conditions of what must always be regarded as<br />

the most important,and the most historic highway in Australia.<br />

i;-rank <strong>Walker</strong> ,F,R.a .H.£


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<strong>The</strong> <strong>Great</strong> <strong>Western</strong> <strong>Road</strong> 5<br />

WILLIAM<br />

COX<br />

<strong>The</strong> First Koaamaker in Australia<br />

WILLIAM 0 OX, late of ularendon,Ii.S.W. ,was<br />

born at \,imbourne minster,Dorset,England,on December 19th,1764j.<br />

he was the second son and fourth child of Robert Cox,and was<br />

educated at Q,ueen Elizabeth’s Grammar School. ne married Kebecca<br />

Upjohn,of Bristol,in I789,at the age of 25. Re was a man<br />

of good estate,and served in the Wilts Militia,in the service J<br />

where the country geitleman showed both his will and ability<br />

to serve his country. During the French War he got a taste of j<br />

the anxifcies of hostility,but he longed for action,and on July:<br />

8th,1795,at the age of 51,he received his commission as ensign^<br />

in the 117th Foot. A year after k0une 20th,1795),he exchanged<br />

into the 6bth .root,and on February 17th,1797,was made lieuten<br />

ant. But there came a woful time of peace,and his opportunity<br />

for war was not. On September 28th,1798,he was appointed paymaster,<br />

and was ordered to work nar’oour. In that year the famous<br />

■98-of song and story,Ireland was in a ferment. Rebellion had<br />

raised its head,and the two races,English and Irish,were at<br />

deadly enmity. <strong>The</strong> rebels were being deported to "Botany aay",<br />

and Lieutenant cox was ordered to await the filling up of the<br />

transport "Minerva" iwuptain Salkeld) .with rebels,and take thei^<br />

to Australia. Re took with him to cork,Lieutenant Maundrell,of<br />

N.S.Wales corps,and 50 men of the rank and file,and there he<br />

waited for the ship s complement of rebels who were being ex ~<br />

patriated for doing what they held to be a stern and holy dmty.<br />

On January 11th,1800,the good ship "Minerva"<br />

dropped anchor in Sydney Harbour,after a voyage of nearljj<br />

five months. <strong>The</strong>y left Cork Harbour on August 24th,1799,and<br />

arrived in January,1800. William Cox at once settled on the larid<br />

and in a very short space of time had acquired some very consicj<br />

erable properties,on which his flocks and herds developed with<br />

wonderful rapidity. Mr Cox laid the foundation of one of the<br />

finest flocks of Saxony merinos in Australia,and the industry<br />

has been in the family ever since. Within a very few years he<br />

possessed an ideal home at Clarendon,near Windsor,and here somej<br />

of his numerous family were born.<br />

<strong>The</strong> modientous discovery of a passage over!<br />

the mountains <strong>by</strong> Blaxland,Lawson and Wentworth,in 1813, led the<br />

Governor to determine to construct a road along their tracks,^<br />

the likliest man to superintend the work was the chief magistrate<br />

of the district,Mr william uox,of Clarendon. Re had already been<br />

responsible for the construction of the road from Parramatta to<br />

3nru,and with his characteristic activity he at once set about<br />

the preparations of this great work.<br />

William Cox died at clarendon,on Larch<br />

J.btn,loc7,a^ed 72 years,and is'buried in St Matthew’s churchyard<br />

Windsor.


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6 <strong>The</strong> <strong>Great</strong> <strong>Western</strong> <strong>Road</strong><br />

HOW THL FIRST ROAD WAS MADE .<br />

To obtain an adequate idea of how this great<br />

engineering feat was accomplished,there is left to us an imperishable<br />

record in the shape of William Oox's Diary,contained<br />

m a volume of Memoirs,published <strong>by</strong> & member of the family,in<br />

1901,one hundred and one years from the date when the founder<br />

of the family landed on these shores.<br />

Cox was a careful and methodical man,and<br />

the record of his daily progress,ever westward,whilst struggling<br />

against fearful odds,in the shape of wild and ragged<br />

country,makes inspiring reading, iiis workers were convicts,<br />

carefully chosen,it is true,with the promise of suitable rewards,<br />

if they performed their part in the work,and when it is<br />

remembered that in those early times the facilities for efficient<br />

road making were of the most primitive character,and the<br />

country about the worst that could have been possibly selected<br />

for this purpose,the wonder is not so much that he was able to<br />

successfully accomplish his task,but that he actually completed<br />

his task in the incredibly short period of six months.<br />

His Journal begins at the date uuly 7,lbli<br />

when he records a conversation with Governor ^cquarie relative<br />

to the proposed work,the entry concluding with the words,"! to$k<br />

leave of him this day". <strong>The</strong> "turning of the first soa" took<br />

place on July 18,near the Nepean river,the simple record read<br />

ing,.Began work at 10 a.m.to make a pass across the Ne~<br />

“pean Riverj the banks very steep on the east side". Just a<br />

nundred years later the first centenary of this important event<br />

was celebrated at Penrith,and a suitable memorial marks the<br />

spot where the workmen began their difficult undertaking. <strong>The</strong><br />

next day the road was finished down the right D a n k of the rive^<br />

and in the afternoon operations were oegun on Emu Plains. Two<br />

or three days later we are informed that "good progress was<br />

being made on the Plains,and this day's record gives the account<br />

of the first accident,when one of the men was hurt through the.;<br />

limb of a tree falling on him. Next day he writes "....examine-<br />

"ed the ground leading from nmu Plains,and fixed on the spot tp<br />

"cross the creek,as well as one to begin ascending the mountain"<br />

uox followed very closely in blaxlands ]<br />

tracks,as the latter observes in his own Journal,published after<br />

the road was made,that the new road was almso identical with<br />

the path that he and his companions had made in lfalS. On July<br />

26 the road party were beginning to work up the mountain,the ;<br />

ascent being very steep,the soil chiefly iough and stony,and<br />

the timber mostly ironbark. fclox had <strong>by</strong> this time established aj<br />

depot on the summit of the first range,which he stated,was<br />

five and three-quarter miles from the river. On August 5rd he<br />

had cleared the road to the entrance to a thick brush,tfo and ;<br />

a half miles ahead. <strong>The</strong> next day the depot was removed to seven<br />

and a half miles forward,the men being at work in a very thick


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<strong>The</strong> <strong>Great</strong> <strong>Western</strong> <strong>Road</strong> 7<br />

troublesome bush”. For the next two days the same condiions prevailed,but<br />

fair progress was made as on the evening of August 6<br />

uox states that "the people all moved forward to the end of nine<br />

miles”. On August 27th,sixteen miles of road had been completed,<br />

when the working party came to "a high mountain”. 'rhis would be<br />

the range of hills immediately beyond the present Linden station,<br />

and which slaxland described in his Sournalas the second ridge<br />

of the mountains”. Two days later operations were commenced on<br />

the mountain with all available hands. An immense quantity of<br />

rock had to be removed,Doth "in going up the mountain and on<br />

the pass leading to the Dluff on the west or it", uox s engin- .<br />

eer-ing skill was put to the fullest use at this stage of the<br />

work,as instead of winding round the bluff to the east of the<br />

ridge he decided to make a road across the valley <strong>by</strong> means of a<br />

causeway. This causeway,or "bridge" as uox called it absorbed<br />

the labour of the greater portion of his working party for several<br />

days. By September 12th the ^bridge" was completed,the<br />

dimensions given being,bO feet l^ng,15ft wade at one end,and lid<br />

feet wide at the other,35ft of it being planked,and the remainder<br />

filled up with stones. Cox remarks that the "bricge and pass<br />

"have cost me the labour of 12 men for three weeks....it is now<br />

"complete- a strong,solid bridge,ana will,I ’nave no doubt be<br />

"rekoned a good-looking one <strong>by</strong> travellers that pass through the<br />

"mountains”. This is the first bridge erected west of i^mu Plain's,<br />

and it is a strange circumstance that no subsequent road-makers<br />

in this vicinity ever mentioned the work. <strong>The</strong> railway ^epartmenjt<br />

when constructing the great embankment a few yards west of Linden<br />

station,must have destroyed the old structure,as the embankment<br />

bisects the original site. In later years,that is between<br />

1614 - 1850,some buildings were erected at about the centre of j<br />

the bridge,one being known as the "Toll liar Inn”. A toll gate<br />

also existed at the western end.<br />

<strong>The</strong> mention of "Oaley s pile”,shows that the<br />

working party were now in the vicinity of Linden,and viaxtoro<br />

to this locality ,anc. ivs irmueuiate neignoourhood will be able<br />

to inspect portions of Cox's road,which crosses the present<br />

road beyond linden,and continuing on the southern side,turns<br />

almost due west in the direction of Woodford.<br />

By September 13th,twenty-one miles of road<br />

had been completed,but the next five miles through very rough<br />

and rocky ground took a further eleven days. <strong>The</strong> 26th mile<br />

brought _them to the ”foot of a steep mountain",which may be<br />

identified as the high ridge beyond Lawson,near the present 57th<br />

mile post. <strong>The</strong> second depot,which was erected almost on the<br />

site of the old HV«eatherboard Inn”,at Wentworth Tails,was completed<br />

on October toth. excellent progress was now made as v»e<br />

learn from Cox's Journal tnat 3& miles had been completed <strong>by</strong><br />

oeptember 23. One of the party was sent forward to examine the<br />

country beyond,and returned with the information that the<br />

mountain (I-ount York),was nearly half-a -mile down,and that it


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---- g±x~:— "Offo--riir^r -*


<strong>The</strong> <strong>Great</strong> <strong>Western</strong> <strong>Road</strong><br />

seemed scarcely possible to make a road down,and that there<br />

were no facilities for making a good descent to the north.<br />

Forty-two miles of road had been completed <strong>by</strong><br />

September £S, most of the last few miles being constructed<br />

amidst constant rain. On November 3rd,we have a vivid description<br />

of the characteristics of the country in and around the<br />

four mile ridge which terminates at Mount York. <strong>The</strong> difficulty<br />

of constructing a road down its precipitous sides was most<br />

apparent,but Cox was not the man to be dismayed <strong>by</strong> tasks of<br />

this description,and after a close examination he at last decides<br />

upon the place at which to commence the descent,which<br />

was begun on November 7th. This undertaking v,as ae£ not completed<br />

until December 6th,but in the meantime,some of the working<br />

party were employed in constructing the road on the lower<br />

levels,though the pass down the mountain occupied exactly 24<br />

days before it was prounced fit to travel upon.<br />

Cox was invariably a kind master to his men,but I<br />

in the entry for December Sth,he writes several of the<br />

"men appear to be inclined to give in and shirk work,the great-<br />

"er part of whoqi,in my o*inion,are quite as well as myself.Gave<br />

"them a reproof in earnest.which I expect will make them well<br />

"<strong>by</strong> to-morrow". <strong>The</strong> "reproof in earnest" evidently partook of<br />

the nature of the usual means adopted in these times when infraction<br />

of discipline threatened,and no doubt was effectual,as<br />

we hear no more of the incident.<br />

w<strong>The</strong> road was now completed as far as Mount Blaxland.and<br />

the Cox river had been crossed <strong>by</strong> means of a fairly<br />

substantial bridge,the remains of which existed up to a few<br />

years ago,and even yet some traces of the work raajs still be<br />

found,a little to the right of the present bridge.<br />

From this portion of the Diary until it ends<br />

abruptly on January 7th,the record gives an interesting description<br />

_of_the progress of the work,the bridges built,the continued<br />

difficulties Presented <strong>by</strong> the rough nature of the ground<br />

and the hilly conditions which almost universally prevailed.<strong>The</strong><br />

complete road was finished ^n January 14th,1815,its terminal<br />

point being the flagstaff,opposite the principal house in the<br />

infant settlement at,what is now known as Kelso. <strong>The</strong> official<br />

opening of the road <strong>by</strong> Governor Macquarie and party in April<br />

of the same year will be dealt with in its turn.


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2-1<br />

<strong>The</strong> termination* o f Cox's Hoed,from various authorities<br />

KB«KK>Uk«UaB*BaM<br />

Cox»t J&urnali- Ut-tid completed January L is t ,lo l5 , (vide Macquarie's<br />

letter,*^ 10 e .I . <strong>The</strong> Governor encamped on tho southsrn<br />

bank o f tho fcaoquarle Kiver,and on Sunday,7th iaay,fixed<br />

on a s its suitable fo r the erection o f e to w n ..... to<br />

»»hlch he gave the none o f Bathurst. •. . . . "<br />

IN H 7x. In •numerating the various atages,the<br />

Governor gives lv% miles from tho Gom^beli hlver (7th<br />

stagel to the s ite o f the future town, i . e . the fla gs t o ff<br />

This measurement ends In the v ic in ity o f Holy Trinity<br />

Church,Kelso.<br />

Iflftlvr AatrlU’ s Clary 4p* c&) .and the remainder o f the<br />

party..........dres u* In lin e ..* ,..a n d advanced in this<br />

order towards tho huts situated on ,0 l i t t l e risin g<br />

£X&&fc(on the banks o f the riv e r" (<strong>The</strong> only risin g<br />

ground on the southern sld eof the riv e r Is close to<br />

holy- l'fln lty Church,flat ground Intervening between<br />

tho Church and the riv e r, ‘ihe old road Is s t i l l v is -<br />

Ib le, forming, la ter on, tho main street o f the f ir s t<br />

town o f Bathurst,one or two venerable buildings,alm ost<br />

In ruins, a tending en tho Kargin. <strong>The</strong>re were between<br />

60 &nd 70 houses on this s ite in 1855. F.W. J<br />

Lowin’ s drawing,of the "Bathurst Pie Ins'*<br />

reproduced on 36 o f A n t l l l s Clary,shows no buildings<br />

hhL-tavar.cnd Is taken frXTa a s*ct at or near *elsc<br />

looking west,*1th the riv er In the middle distance.<br />

, ljw£7) *he s , at which was chosen fo r<br />

the Governor s large tent was u*on<br />

i.rounc.about~threa hundred yards free, the man's huts.<br />

A smal„ tent sas placed on each side with a clear space<br />

in front,u*on which e s i l o 1 1 fla g s ta ff *tas erected.^his<br />

was a most suitable spot fo r a town, coxaaanding a vie*<br />

of the surrounding country fo r a considerable extent”<br />

+M, SWL.M. <strong>The</strong>se were evidently<br />

plaoed elwse to the river,w hich is about three hundred<br />

yards,at the nearest point from the Church at Kelso.(SW<br />

(bi<br />

At no other spot<br />

in this v icin ity c&n a better view o f the surrounding<br />

country be obfftained. (FWI.<br />

(pp 38>. * ................... future ch u rch ...?<br />

<strong>The</strong>ee words are *rovhetlc. holy T rinity Church must<br />

stand a linos t on the spot where the Governor s tent was<br />

* laced. It must also be remembered that a previous<br />

building,used as a church,occupied the site,and may<br />

have been so placed there to •ommemoiete the f ir s t<br />

service held in the Bathurst district,Sunday 7th,<br />

Hate. Ant i l l gives the distance fro® Cwm*-<br />

b e li river to Bathurst, (K elso) ,as 11 m iles. Ccx aukes<br />

the distance,10».


<strong>The</strong> <strong>Great</strong> <strong>Western</strong> rioad<br />

T H E B O H A S C E OP T H E W E S T E R N<br />

R O A D — C A F T A IH B U I iI j'S A D M IN -<br />

XSTIfcATION. — CONC-ERNING T H E<br />

PIX.GRXM IN N .<br />

I con tin u e M r. R . S . R aym on d ’ s letter<br />

(see “ T ru th ” , 5.6.’ 2 1 ):— “ My<br />

gran d fath er h eld the p osition o f captain<br />

in the S eaforth Highland


.<br />

- ••-------


j<br />

10 <strong>The</strong> <strong>Great</strong> <strong>Western</strong> <strong>Road</strong><br />

vere the on ly tw o p la ce s w h ich stood<br />

n the top o f La.l>stone H ill. <strong>The</strong> old<br />

rigin al P ilg rim Inn w as standing there<br />

5 years a go to m y k n ow ledge. I w as<br />

lien 10 years o f a g e ; it w a s n ot k ep t<br />


2.£ [blank]*<br />

v - -


<strong>The</strong> <strong>Great</strong> <strong>Western</strong> <strong>Road</strong><br />

was rather ta ll ami stout, w ith a very<br />

p leasing m anner, though not a handsom<br />

e w om an. <strong>The</strong> p a rty le ft that day,<br />

continuin g th eir Journey to Bathurst,<br />

and th ey w ere to stay w ith Sir. W illiam<br />

Law son [th e explorer] at M acquarie<br />

j Plains fo r three days. Captain andsMrs.<br />

|Bull w ere a ls o invited to join in the<br />

I festiv ities.<br />

| • .<br />

ON T H E G R E A T W E S T E R N R O A D —<br />

A L A N D M A S K — B U L L ’S CAM P—<br />

A S T O R Y O T T H E ROAJJ-I/IAKIJTO<br />

G A N G S — W H A T ‘‘T R A D IT IO N ”<br />

D O E S F O R H IS T O R Y — SOM E<br />

M O U N T A IN ’ L E G E N D S .<br />

I have to thank m any correspondents<br />

fo r letters and telegram s con ­<br />

veyin g good w ishes on havin g passed<br />

the- 81st m ile post on L ife ’s H ighw ay.<br />

'* * *<br />

W h e n -M r . Sydney C unyngham e made<br />

his first trip over the Blue M ountains<br />

with his unoies. C harles and Jam es<br />

W halan, o f Oberon (see "T ru th ”<br />

16V5/’ 2I), in the year 1841, they p assed<br />

a lan dm ark on the Bat hurst-road<br />

m ilea ge 50, then know n as IS Milo<br />

H o llo w ; to-d a y as B u ll’s Camp,<br />

and w h y so nam ed? W ell, it was this<br />

>.ay. i n . i.icre cv.u o to Sydney<br />

w ith the 9»th Regim ent. Captain J.<br />

H . N . Bull. w ho was Im m ediately detailed<br />

fo r d u ty with 50 n on -com s and<br />

p rivates o f his regim ent. to take<br />

charge o f a road-m aking gan g, cam ped<br />

V, IS M ile H ollow , in w hich charge<br />

he su cceeded Captain Day, who w ent<br />

*vith the B arn ey expedition to P ort '<br />

'u rtis to fou nd a n ew settlem ent,<br />

w hich did n ot then becom e "fou n d ed ” .<br />

Captain Bull cam ped w ith his fa m ily<br />

it the spot now known a s B ull’s Camp,<br />

w hile a hou se was bein g built for<br />

his accom m od ation at 'Blackheath, so<br />

named b y G overnor M acquarie on his<br />

trip over the M ountains in 1S15. Captain<br />

Bull w a s appointed a m agistrate<br />

and engineer in ch arge o f the G reat .<br />

W estern R oad from the R iver Nepean<br />

to B ath u rst. <strong>The</strong> headquarters o f the<br />

road gan g w as at Blackheath. a very<br />

health y loca lity , and somew’ liat ch illy<br />

in w in ter. Captain Bull was on these<br />

hills fron j 1842 to 1848. ‘and we have<br />

heard mjeny legends and* 'tradition s<br />

con cerning h im and his treatm ent o f<br />

the helpless convict w retch es under<br />

his com m an d W e have heard o f Captain<br />

B u ll’s b a th cut in solid rock, and<br />

Captain B u ll’ s arm chair a lso cut in<br />

the solid rock, in w h ich the Captain<br />

used to reclin e, “ m onarch o f all he<br />

su rveyed ” . T he “ ba th ” and “ the<br />

ch a ir” have been w iped out <strong>by</strong> the<br />

railw ay line. It has been said also, and<br />

<strong>by</strong> som e alleged historians. I am sorry<br />

to say. that a certain corru gated stone<br />

near Linden was used as a "su refo<br />

o tin g ” fo r the (logger when plyin g<br />

his dreadful office; it w'as said, also,<br />

that certain "du g-ou ts” were punishm<br />

ent cells f o r w rong d oers. W ell, X<br />

have the testim ony o f an eye witness,<br />

a lad y now in her 91st year, who<br />

states that the alleged c ells o f punishm<br />

ent were stone hou ses for tools<br />

and explosives, used in road m aking.<br />

and, as C aptain m ill never had a man<br />

w hipped, the sto n f in qu estion could<br />

n ot have, been put to the use su g­<br />

gested b y th e leg en d . To m y m ind the<br />

stone m entioned w a s the site o f a<br />

b la ck sm ith ’ s forge, bu t we w ill com e<br />

to that p resen tly .<br />

* * *<br />

A s I h ave said. Captain B u ll w as<br />

on these h ills from 1S42 to 1848. In<br />

1843 we g o t a Parliam ent, a m ixed<br />

c h a m b e r , o f G overnm ent officials,<br />

nom inees an d electives, there being 6<br />

official m em bers, G nom inee m em bers,<br />

and 24 e le ctiv e s. A m on gst those who<br />

lvad seats in that H ou se w ere W . C .<br />

W en tw orth , Dr, Bland, W . H . Suttor,<br />

s e n r., ot B athurst, R ob ert Low e,<br />

C h arles C ow per, D r. Lang, Sir T hom as<br />

M itchell, D r . N ich olson , R oger T herry,<br />

John B la xla n d and m any o f sim ilar<br />

tem peram en t and sta n d in g . Som e o f<br />

these w ere c o n s ta n t' tra vellers betw een<br />

th e m e tro p o lis and the country, not<br />

flyin g b y ex p ress tra in as to-d ay, but<br />

■In their ow n h orse-draw n g ig s and<br />

coaches. T h e y m ust have d a ily passed<br />

the gan gs o f road-m akers under Captain<br />

B ull, and it m a y fa irly be asked<br />

w ou ld it b e possible fo r the Captain<br />

to so b ru ta lly ill-u se his helpless<br />

ch arges a s tradition has d ebited him<br />

w ith ? W ere he so guilty, you v e ry soon<br />

w ou ld hear o f som e o f the A ustralian<br />

p atriots I have nam ed ta k in g P a r '<br />

Ijam entary a ction to b rin g him to book.<br />

W ith P a rlia m en ta ry representation<br />

even in a lim ited degree, the old dark<br />

3ayS o f p en al h is to ry had p assed aw ay<br />

fo r e v e r .<br />

s * *<br />

W hen I first heard o f C aptain Bull<br />

and B u ll’ s Camp, the site o f which,<br />

b y the w ay, I am ov e rlo o k in g as X<br />

w rite, I little th ou gh t that I knew<br />

him , n o t certa in ly when he w as in<br />

com m and on the M ountains, but in<br />

the ea rly six ties in V ictoria , where<br />

he w as a Captain o f V olun teers, and<br />

I a fu ll p rivate 'in one o f th e com ­<br />

p an ies. C aptain B u ll w as the second<br />

son o f C olon el Bull, a C om panion o f<br />

the Bath, a K n igh t o f H anover, w ho<br />

had served in the P eninsular and<br />

W a terloo cam paign s, in the R oy a l<br />

H orse A rtille r y . Our Captain Bull w as<br />

born in the centre o f Ireland in the<br />

yea r 1S06; he entered the M ilitary<br />

C ollege a t Sandhurst in 1820; he received<br />

h is first com m issio n iiN the<br />

78th H ighla n d ers in A p ril 1825: he<br />

purch ased his lieu ten a n cy in June.<br />

1826, and w a s fo r tw o years on the<br />

sta ff o f the Q uarterm aster-G -eneral’ s<br />

D epartm ent in K an dy, which sw eetlynam<br />

ed tow n w’ as a t one tim e the<br />

cap ital o f th e islan d o f C eylon, w'here<br />

B ishop H eb er has told us “ T h e sp icy<br />

breezes b lo w ’’ . In O ctober, ,1838, L ieu t­<br />

enant B u ll obtain ed his cap tain cy, and<br />

in ■1840 .was appointed D eputy-Ju dge<br />

A d voca te o f the N orth ern D istrict o f<br />

E n glan d. In January. lS4t2. t e e x ch a n g ­<br />

ed into th e 99th, com m anded b y C olonel<br />

D espard, who. w h ile occu p y in g the<br />

old. G eorge-street B arrack s in Sydney,<br />

•earned th e sobriqu en t of. “ K eep oft<br />

the grass D espard” from the fa ct th at<br />

he w ish ed the green sw ard in fro n t<br />

o f the b a rra ck s b e kept fo r the use<br />

o f his fa m ily cow .<br />

* m *<br />

T he 99th arrived in Sydn ey in O c­<br />

tober. T.842, aijd Captain B u ll w a s


T - -Hsr<br />


<strong>The</strong> <strong>Great</strong> Vestern <strong>Road</strong>.<br />

ordered to take' charge o f a stockade<br />

on the B lue M ountains, w ith a detachm<br />

ent o f 50 soldiers; he 1was, a s<br />

I have said, appointed m agistrate and<br />

engineer in charge o f th e W estern<br />

Hoad from P enrith to the C ity o f the<br />

P lain s. A fte r six years so em ployed,<br />

he rejoin ed headquarters, and soon<br />

a fte r retired from the serv ice on being<br />

prom ised civil em ploym ent; he had<br />

an appointm ent at N ew castle, where he<br />

su pervised the con stru ction o f the<br />

breakw ater from N ob<strong>by</strong> Islan d to the<br />

m ainland. In O ctober, 1851, on application<br />

o f the the G overnm ent o f V ic ­<br />

toria. then new ly-esta blish ed on separation<br />

from N ew South Wa,les, he<br />

resigned the N ew castle appointm ent,<br />

and becam e Com m issioner o f Crown<br />

Lands, M agistrate, and W arden at<br />

B en d igo. On the fam ou s g old field he<br />

m et som e o f his old college m ates,<br />

who had passed through the M ilitary<br />

School, “ O rion” Horne, the poet,<br />

am ongst them , and without m uch au ­<br />

th ority these ex-collegia n s changed<br />

the nam e B endigo to Sandhurst. Some<br />

years ago, how ever, the people returned<br />

to their allegian ce, and the<br />

fa m ou s old gold tow n is again known<br />

as B endigo.<br />

* * *<br />

On the P olice M agistrate leaving<br />

Castlem aine; Captain B ull w as instru<br />

cted to p erform his duties, which,<br />

w ith that o f Goldfields W arden, he<br />

continued to d isch arge until D ecem ­<br />

ber 31, 1869. when he w as placed on<br />

the retired list on account o f age,<br />

63— quite a you th it m ay be said.<br />

On the form a tion ,o f the Volunteer,<br />

C orps in C astlem aine in I860. he wsfs<br />

nom inated Captain. <strong>The</strong> Corps con sisted<br />

o f three com p an ies. On Septem ber.<br />

3, 1863, he w as prom oted to the rank<br />

o f Xiieut-colonel in charge o f the V olunteer<br />

C orps in the northern district,<br />

w ith headquarters at Castlem aine. rem<br />

aining until the abandonm ent o f the<br />

volu n teer system . Subsequently he<br />

'w a s, fo r a sh ort tim e, connected with<br />

the m ilitia, bu t retired on his rank o f<br />

C olonel. (T o be resum ed next w eek.)<br />

* * *<br />

THE FIRST KOAD<br />

• ' ‘ -j *<br />

TO THE WEST.<br />

HUNDRED YEARS TO-DAY<br />

COX’S HISTORIC WORK.<br />

CELEBRATIONS AT PENRITH<br />

P en rith w ill celebrate to-d a y the centenary<br />

ot the com m encem ent o f a great w ork —the<br />

m aking of the first road over the m ountains.<br />

T he prin cipal celeb ra tion s w ill be to-m orrow ,<br />

bu t there w ill be certain festiv ities fo r the<br />

sch ool children to-d ay.<br />

It is not ex a ctly the cen ten ary o f P enrith<br />

itself. <strong>The</strong> site on w hich P en rith stands had<br />

been to som e exten t explored w ithin three<br />

y e a r s o f the a rriva l of the first settlers In<br />

A u stralia—tw en ty-five years before th e road<br />

w as begun—and it w as n ot nam ed P en rith unt<br />

il m any years a fter th e road w as finished.<br />

"What is celebrated to-d a y and to -m o rro w is<br />

the centenary o f the G reat W estern road.<br />

It w as on July 17, 1814—on e hundred years<br />

ago to-d ay— that W illia m Cox, the retired<br />

arm y officer, w ho had taken up land a t C larendon,<br />

and had offered to build th is road,<br />

m ustered his m en a t Captain W oodriff’s<br />

farm . near the bank o f the<br />

N epean, w here the great w ork was<br />

to begin. A t 10 the n ext m orning, to o ls<br />

and rations havin g been issu ed to the party,<br />

the first p iece o f actual w ork, the cu ttin g of<br />

a pass down the steep bank o f the river to the<br />

ford , w as begun.<br />

It is difficult to rea lise to day that a t the<br />

tim e when th e se m en w ere w ork in g on the<br />

road w hich was to take them o v er the m ountains<br />

m any p eople in A u stralia fu lly b e ­<br />

liev ed th at it w as leading them p art th eir way<br />

tow ards a great sea. It w as know n th a t no<br />

sea would be reached fo r a con sid erable d istance<br />

beyond the end o f the road at the M acqu<br />

arie R iver, becau se Evans had been beyond,<br />

and had found no se a ; but m any w ere c o n ­<br />

vin ced that there w as a sea at the back o f it<br />

all.<br />

O f course, the road in tim e show ed them their<br />

error. <strong>The</strong> road poured out settlers on to<br />

vast inland spaces. T he road brought back<br />

their w ool, and in later tim es th eir gold.<br />

T h ey had, at one place, to ro ll th eir w ool<br />

bales up it, because the grade was 1 in 4, and<br />

load them again at the top. W ith all its im ­<br />

p erfection s, it w as the road th at m ade this<br />

country.<br />

I__ ________<br />

____


' I •<br />


<strong>The</strong> <strong>Great</strong> <strong>Western</strong> Koad.<br />

<strong>The</strong> road follow ed alm ost exactly along the<br />

trees that had been m arked <strong>by</strong> the party<br />

w hich first crossed the m ountains. And the<br />

railw ay follow s generally the track of the<br />

road. In certain places the old road has long<br />

been abandoned—is overgrow n and barely distinguishable.<br />

But for a great part it is still<br />

the road to-d ay. <strong>The</strong> railw ay traveller, when in<br />

the intervals of his m agazine he n otices a<br />

road winding beside him up the m ountain,<br />

m ay w ell close for a m om ent that engrossing<br />

serial. H e is looking on one o f the m ost im ­<br />

p ortan t w orks that w ere ever undertaken in<br />

A ustralia. T o-day, perhaps, he w ill spare a<br />

thought both for tha w ork and for the men<br />

who made it.<br />

EARLY PENRITH.<br />

(BY FBAXK WALKER.)<br />

<strong>The</strong> h istory o f Penrith, or, m ore properly<br />

speaking, o f the Nepean R iver district, began<br />

soon a fter the foundation o f the settlem<br />

ent at Sydney Cove. No sooner had<br />

G overnor P hillip founded the colony than he<br />

and his officers set about the work, in teresting<br />

and exciting to them , no doubt, of exp<br />

lorin g the surrounding country. To the<br />

north the H awkesbury R iver was discovered,<br />

but to the w estward tho great barrier of the<br />

Blue M ouotains effectually closed the path.<br />

B efore the actual attem pts were made the<br />

task seem ed to these ea rly settlers one of<br />

1'ttle difficulty. Little did these good people<br />

think of the arduous task which awaited<br />

them . Captain Tench and Lieutenant Dawes<br />

had both undertaken expeditions in the<br />

locality.<br />

<strong>The</strong> know ledge of this district increased<br />

year <strong>by</strong> year, but it is a curious rem inder of<br />

the state o f society in the colony at that<br />

tim e, when in 1806 G overnor Phillip issued<br />

an order that “ no person whatever, except<br />

officers, do a t any tim e resort across the<br />

R iver Nepean on any p retex t." As years<br />

w ent on the country in the vicin ity o f the<br />

N epean began to be settled, and after the<br />

B lue M ountains had been su ccessfully crossed<br />

and settlem ents form ed in the west Penrith<br />

becam e a place of som e im portance. Long<br />

before the name o f P enrith was bestowed<br />

upon the township it received the name of<br />

“ E van,”-, and <strong>by</strong> such appellation was marked<br />

on the early maps. H ow it cam e to be<br />

designated in this w ay is obscure, but a reason<br />

able supposition would be that the Und<br />

er-S ecretary for the H om e Departm ent was<br />

fu rther honoured <strong>by</strong> the use of his Christian<br />

as w ell as his surname.<br />

<strong>The</strong> road over the m ountains was begun<br />

in 1814. T o the present day enough o f C ox's<br />

road down M ount Y ork rem ains to convince<br />

the sp ectator o f the m agnitude of the task.<br />

True, the grade was about 1 in 4, and it<br />

was alm ost a m atter o f im possibility to<br />

t ■<br />

g e t a loaded team from the bottom ttf the<br />

top w ithout the n ecessity o f m aking several<br />

jou rn eys. It is on record that when the wool<br />

team s began to bring the golden fleece to the<br />

seaboard, and the fo o t o f the pass was<br />

reached, the bales had to be unloaded from<br />

the drays, and rolled up the m ountain <strong>by</strong><br />

hand.<br />

F or upw ards o f 28 years a ll the traffic to<br />

and from th e w est passed up and down this<br />

m ountain, until in 1832 M ajor (afterw ards Sir<br />

T hom as) M itchell con stru cted the V ictoria<br />

P ass, and the old road <strong>by</strong> M ount Y ork was<br />

abandoned. G overnor M acquarie was so<br />

struck w ith the clever w ork carried out at<br />

M ount Y o rk th at he ordered it to be named<br />

“ C ox’s P ass,” in honour o f the m an who had<br />

d evised it.<br />

On January 1, 1856, the first bridge, a<br />

w ooden stru ctu re over th e N epean, was opened<br />

b y G overnor F itzroy, bu t this stood only until<br />

A ugust, 1857. On the night o f the wreck<br />

o f the D unbar a flood cam e dow n the rive:<br />

and w ashed away every vestige o f the bridge.<br />

I t is in terestin g to note that this was the<br />

first severe flood sin ce 1809. T he company<br />

w hich bu ilt the bridge re -e re cte d it, but in<br />

1860 it w as again sw ept away. <strong>The</strong> district<br />

then reverted to puntage, and this method<br />

o f crossin g the river rem ained in vogue until<br />

1867. T here w as anoth er flood in 1864, but<br />

in 1867 the severest visita tion in the way of<br />

floods th a t had ever devastated th e district<br />

bccurred, and on this occa sion the water<br />

reached to w here the centre o f th e tow n now<br />

stands. T he punt, o f course, w as carried<br />

away, and on ce m ore the bridge question began<br />

to agitate the tow n sfolk . <strong>The</strong> building<br />

o f the third bridge w as accom pan ied <strong>by</strong> a<br />

su ccession o f m isfortu n es to the contractor,<br />

five fresh es in th e river w ashing away an<br />

equal num ber of coffer dam s, w hich cost<br />

som e thousands o f pounds. <strong>The</strong> contractor<br />

ow ing to th ese m isfortu n es, w as obliged to<br />

throw up the con tra ct, but the construction<br />

o f the brid ge being let to an oth er contractor<br />

he, n ot b ein g trou bled <strong>by</strong> floods, com pleted<br />

th e work, and realised a handsom e profit on<br />

the job .<br />

In the early days bushrangers from the m ountains<br />

com m itted occa sion a l rob b eries around<br />

the d istrict, and it w as a fa irly com m on sight<br />

to see b od ies of tow n sfolk, “ arm ed to the<br />

teeth ,” as one old residen t puts it, settin g out<br />

from Penrith to escort the m ail coach over the<br />

w orst p ortion o f the range. H orse racing<br />

w as a grea t a ttra ction at P enrith in the good<br />

old tim es, racin g b ein g carried out on the<br />

flat now called H ornsey W ood up to 1865,<br />

m any o f th e b est h orses in A ustralia com peting<br />

D escendants o f G overnor K in g becam e large<br />

landow ners around P enrith, w here som e of<br />

th e fam ily s till possess interests. Governor<br />

K in g ’s w idow is bu ried in old South Creek<br />

i C em etery, and the d istrict o f K ingsw ood p erpetuates<br />

in nam e the m em ory of one of our<br />

early G overnors.<br />

A bout 5 o ’clo ck on July 6, 1859. the first<br />

sod of the P enrith railw ay w as turned <strong>by</strong> Mr.<br />

R. T. Jam ieson, the m em ber fo r the Nepean,,<br />

in the p resen ce of ab ou t 300 sp ectators. <strong>The</strong>


'6 ZVpWntcl<br />

■<br />

,<br />

■<br />

'<br />

■<br />

*<br />

--,----- ---------- - - ----;-----


4 <strong>The</strong> <strong>Great</strong> <strong>Western</strong> Koad.<br />

line as far as South Creek (now St. Marys)<br />

was opened on May 1, 1862, the addition to<br />

the line being required <strong>by</strong> the Government<br />

to be com pleted in flve months. <strong>The</strong> English<br />

contractors, how ever, refused to take it up,<br />

but a Mr. Gibbons started the w ork in the<br />

second week in Jtjne, 1862, the com plete line<br />

from Sydney to Penrith being opened for<br />

traffic on July 7, 1862. F or five years the<br />

terminus rem ained at Penrith, and until the<br />

railway was continued over the mountains the<br />

town was the starting place for the coaches<br />

for the w est. <strong>The</strong>se were stirring days, and<br />

the sight o f the coaches, with their flvehorse<br />

teams of greys and bays, going at full<br />

gallop through the tow n was one worth w itnessing.<br />

H ow different to-d ay are the con ­<br />

ditions o f travel, seated in an u p -to-d ate rail-i<br />

way car, compared with the journey in the'<br />

rattling coach, its passengers m ostly exposed<br />

to the cold and wet, and the ever-present<br />

chance o f their vehicle being held up <strong>by</strong> "the<br />

gentlemen o f the road.” A t this tim e Penrith<br />

was a busy centre, for not only was it a<br />

starting point fo r the coaches and teams<br />

bound for the w est, but it was also the resting<br />

place o f traffic to and from the m etropolis,<br />

a fter the descent or before the ascent<br />

o f the m ountains<br />

Penrith was proclaim ed a m unicipality in<br />

1871, the late Mr. Jam es R iley being the first<br />

Mayor. A few years ago the fair average<br />

rental o f im proved land with buildings thereon<br />

in the m unicipality of Penrith was estimated<br />

at nearly £20,000, the cap ital value ofi<br />

all rateable p roperty being set down at<br />

£270,000. <strong>The</strong> first inn erected in the town!<br />

was in 1831, <strong>by</strong> Mr. Josephson, and called<br />

the G overnor Gipps Inn. A few relics of the<br />

old days still exist in and around Penrith,<br />

and there arA many other rem inders o f past<br />

days scattered about the district. To the<br />

historian this pleasing locality w ill always<br />

contain m uch that is interesting and instruc-j<br />

tive.<br />

'<br />

MAKING THE ROAD.<br />

(BY I.L .)<br />

On the seventeenth day of July, exactly<br />

one hundred years ago, W illiam Cox, of<br />

Clarendon, entered upon^ the construction of<br />

the <strong>Great</strong> W estern-road.<br />

His task was undertaken at the, request of<br />

G overnor M acquarie, to whom Cox subm itted<br />

his plans for approval. .<strong>The</strong> choice of<br />

his w orking-party was left to him self. H t<br />

inform ed the district constables what sort<br />

o f men he wanted, and directed them to givo<br />

notice t o the convicts w orking w ith settlers<br />

in their districts that the num ber needed<br />

would be allow ed to volunteer, and, if they<br />

behaved to h is satisfaction, w ould be r e ­<br />

warded <strong>by</strong> em ancipation. W ell-in clin ed , hardy<br />

men, who had been som e years in the coK>ny,<br />

I<br />

I<br />

i<br />

I<br />

I<br />

and accustom ed to field lab ou r w ere chosen,<br />

and the com pleted party consisted o f thirty<br />

m en; a superintendent, a guide (b oth free<br />

men, w ho had crossed the M ountains before<br />

w ith the su rveyor), a storek eeper, a d o c­<br />

tor, con stable, overseer o f tools, carpen ter,<br />

blacksm ith, m iner, tw o b u llock -d riv ers, 20<br />

labourers, and a sergeant, corp oral, and six<br />

p rivate sold iers o f the R oyal V eteran s as a<br />

guard.<br />

On July 17, all the p arties assem bled on the.<br />

banks of the N epean, opposite Emu Plains.<br />

Cox had a caravan fo r his sleep in g berth,<br />

with a tilt and lock ers fo r sm all stores and<br />

baggage. At 5 p.m- the p eople w ere a s­<br />

sem bled, and h a lf a w eek’s ration o f bread<br />

w as issued to each. On. Monday, the 18th,<br />

a start was made at daylight. T ools and<br />

rations w ere issued, and at 10 a.m. w ork b e ­<br />

gan at the east side o f the Nepean, cutting<br />

down the bank, and m aking a carriage-w ay<br />

across a passable ford to Emu Plains.<br />

On W ednesday, all hands crosSed the river.<br />

and Cox noted that they were 1beginning to<br />

understand their labou r, and to w ork well.<br />

UP TH E MOUNTAINS.<br />

On Tuesday, the 26th, the crossin g place<br />

to the fo o t of the m ountains w as finished,<br />

and the ascen t began. C ox's caravan was<br />

rem oved across the river, and he slep t in<br />

the M ountains for the first tim e.<br />

<strong>The</strong> first labour trou ble cam e now, when<br />

Burn, the forem an, ob jected to re ce iv in g<br />

orders through the superintendent, and left<br />

the party. <strong>The</strong> oth ers w ere given an o p ­<br />

portunity o f follow in g him if th ey w ished to<br />

do so, b u t ’ it is n ot recorded that anyone<br />

accepted.<br />

On A ugust 3, n a tives were m et w ith, a n i<br />

the sold iers were distribu ted am ong the w ork ­<br />

ing gangs. On the 9th, when alm ost ten<br />

m iles o f road had been made, Mr. Evans, the<br />

surveyor, a r riv e d ,' <strong>by</strong> direction of the G o­<br />

v e r n o r ,'t o give inform ation to Mr. Cox re la ­<br />

tive to the difficulties he m ight expect to<br />

m eet as he penetrated fu rther into the m ountains.<br />

' P rovision s w ere running out, a n i<br />

a m essenger w as sen t back to Clarendon,<br />

Mr. C os’ s residen ce, w hence he returned w ith<br />

a side o f beef, 60 cabbages, and corn, and<br />

sugar. F rom the 11th to the 13th m u';<br />

the tim ber is d escribed as ta ll, large, and<br />

thick; a dead tree felled <strong>by</strong> the party m easured<br />

81 feet to the beginning o f the head,<br />

and a blood tree w as found m easuring 15<br />

feet 6 inches round.<br />

By Septem ber 3 the road was com pleted to<br />

C aley’s pile of ston es, afterw ards called<br />

Caley’s R epulse, a d istance o f 17J m iles.<br />

"T h e m ountain h ere,” w rites Cox, “ is little<br />

else but solid perm anent rock, and it w ill<br />

not be possible to m ake good roads on U<br />

w ithout great expense. In bad w eather this<br />

m ust be a dreadful w ild look in g place, anJ<br />

if it was so when C aley was here, I do not<br />

at all w onder a t his being appalled and re -<br />

turning.” On the 15th the bridge was c o m ­<br />

pleted a ll but the h a nd-rails and battening<br />

o f the planks. It w as 80 feet long, 15 feet


24 (jplainWl<br />

*<br />

-<br />

f<br />

*<br />

-—----------<br />

», i<br />

u i- .'.- .....54V .... f.


<strong>The</strong> <strong>Great</strong> <strong>Western</strong> <strong>Road</strong>.<br />

wide at one end, and 12 at the other, 35<br />

fe e t o f it w as planked, the rem ainder filled<br />

Op solid w ith stone. “ It is now com ­<br />

pleted,” w rites the road-m aker, “ a strong and<br />

solid job , and w ill, I dare say, he also r e ck ­<br />

oned a good look in g one <strong>by</strong> travellers. <strong>The</strong><br />

labour


-<br />

;<br />

- ................... ' .........<br />

1 i ;<br />

.<br />

-------- * . ^ 4 -------------------------- ---------------- ---


16 iSie <strong>Great</strong> <strong>Western</strong> <strong>Road</strong>.<br />

W illiam Cox among them, and rem a in ed , in<br />

the colony, where they had established hom es<br />

Even in those lon g-a go days the valley of<br />

the M ulgoa had its .’ ttractions, and in 1810<br />

the first grant of land there was made to<br />

Edward Cox, the seVe .th son o f the pioneer<br />

W illiam , but the first born in Australia. As<br />

he would be only 5 years old in 1810, it was<br />

in his name only. W illiam Cox had a m anager<br />

at Mulgoa, James King, who watchcd<br />

the interests of his em ployer.<br />

CAPTAIN WOODRIFF.<br />

Cox'b diary tells that on July 17 the party<br />

left Clarendon at 3 a.m., and arrived at noon<br />

at the farm of a certain Captain W oodriff.<br />

, As Captain W oodriff was closely m ixed 'jp<br />

with the land on which Penrttn' stanas, the<br />

follow in g facts about him m ay be interestin<br />

g :—<br />

W hen P ort Phillip was discovered <strong>by</strong> Acting<br />

Lieutenant Murray in the “ tin d er-box” Lady<br />

N elson in 1802, Governor King reported the<br />

discovery to the E nglish Governm ent, who<br />

im m ediately fitted out an expedition to found<br />

a settlem ent there. Tw o vessels were selected<br />

to convey it to the destination. One,<br />

H.M.S. Calcutta, was commanded <strong>by</strong> Captain<br />

Daniel W oodriff, an officer who, as a m idshipman,<br />

had been in these w aters b efore; the<br />

other vessel was a tra n sp oit and store ship.<br />

Colonel David Collins, A ustralia’ ^ first h istorian,<br />

was in command of the settlem ent<br />

party. Collins, being unable to find a su itable<br />

site, took his settlers in '.he Ocean, the<br />

transport, to' the Derwent, and there founded<br />

H obart, the Calcutta com ing on to Sydney,<br />

When in Sydney early in 1804 Captain Daniel<br />

W oodriff receives from G overnor K ing a grant<br />

of 1000 acres of land, "in a si uation of his<br />

own selection ;” 600 acres were given <strong>by</strong> directions<br />

received from Lord Hobarc, and 400<br />

acres at Captain W oodriff’s own request. A<br />

great portion ot the town of Penrith is on<br />

this grant.<br />

Captain W oodriff’s after-career has nothing<br />

to do with Sew South W ales, but w hile he<br />

was fighting French frigates or lingering in<br />

a French prison, his crops were grow ing on<br />

his farm on the banks of the Nepean, cu ltivated<br />

with tools and m en supplied <strong>by</strong> the<br />

Government.<br />

It was from this farm that, on the m orning<br />

o f July 18, 1814, just 100 years ago, that W illiam<br />

Cox issued forth to com m ence the road<br />

which fo r ever Was to be associated w ith his<br />

name. W here the farm -hou e stood Is now<br />

the site of a modern cottage, ju st fter H igh-<br />

, street, Penrith is left, and on the roaff. to<br />

Mulgoa. <strong>The</strong> bed of the Nepean has changed<br />

since those da^s, and w here Emu Island was<br />

is uncertain, but the banks of the river<br />

w ere high and steep opposite the ford , and<br />

had to be cut down to allow the bullock<br />

teams and the horses to cross the river.<br />

Here it was that the first sod was turned in<br />

the m unicipality of Penrith, which then was<br />

an undream ed-of institution. Cox follow ed<br />

as close as possible Blaxland’s track, to r the<br />

latter, w riting an uncle in England In 1823,<br />

says: "<strong>The</strong> road which has since been made.<br />

I<br />

1<br />

!<br />

deviates but a few rods in som e places from<br />

the line cleared of the s : all trees and bushes<br />

and marked <strong>by</strong> us.”<br />

I THE PENRITH CENTENARY.<br />

] <strong>The</strong> citizens of Penrith will be obeying<br />

n wise instinct when to-day and to-morrow<br />

they commemorate the hundredth anniversary<br />

o f the beginning of the road which<br />

leads from the foot ofi the Blue Mountains<br />

to the city o f Bathurst. <strong>The</strong>ir festival is<br />

the logical and chronological sequence to<br />

the ceremonies which were held at Bathurst<br />

and at Mount Victoria, on the ceuteuary<br />

o f the achievements o f Blaxland.<br />

Lawson, and Wentworth. <strong>The</strong>se three men<br />

] ij&ved a young and isolated colony from<br />

j prospects which threatened it with intermittent<br />

famine, and possibly with extinction.<br />

<strong>The</strong>ir discovery of a path across the<br />

Hlue Mountains proved to the first settlers<br />

that the range o f hills which surrounded<br />

them was not impenetrable, although it had<br />

defeated- many earlier explorers. <strong>The</strong> work<br />

which they had begun was carried farther<br />

<strong>by</strong> Mr. Evans under the auspices of an<br />

active and resourceful Governor. He first<br />

proved that beyond the hills was a wide<br />

and fertile tableland, possessing a climate<br />

keener and more healthy than that o f the<br />

sea coast. But the tfick o f making the mountains<br />

and the tableland accessible was carried<br />

out <strong>by</strong> William Cox, who, since his<br />

arrival in Australia, had lived in his home<br />

at’WinUsor, at the extremity of the coastal<br />

settlement. But for his presence in the<br />

colony Macquarie would have had to wait<br />

a long time before finding a man capable<br />

of carrying out such a work with such<br />

njaterials as were at his disposal. It will<br />

be no part of the object o f these celebrations<br />

to compare the merits of the different<br />

pioneers, or the difficulties whicn each of<br />

them overcame. <strong>The</strong>y all, we take it, will<br />

share in the honours of the pageant tomorrow.<br />

Blaxland and his colleague accomplished<br />

what others had often tried tc<br />

do and failed. <strong>The</strong>y deserve, moreover<br />

the credit o f original work, for they succeeded<br />

<strong>by</strong> substituting methods o f theii<br />

own for those which former explorers had<br />

copied from English precedents. Evans followed<br />

on their tracks, and adequately carried<br />

out the duty entrusted to him. But<br />

the heroes of this centenary should be<br />

Lachlan Macquarie and William Cox.<br />

All through a difficult time Macquarie<br />

proved himself the right man for a crisis. He<br />

had the three great qualities, enthusiasm,<br />

confidence in the future, and unbounded<br />

energy which were needed for the develop-


—<br />

'<br />

------,.vi - .jr...<br />

- ■


<strong>The</strong> <strong>Great</strong> Viestern <strong>Road</strong>. j.<br />

ment o f a new settlement. <strong>The</strong>ir product i<br />

was a determination not to acquiesce in<br />

difficulties which other Governors were,<br />

ready to accept as insuperable. <strong>The</strong>ir result<br />

is seen throughout New South Wales<br />

and Tasmania, which abound in monuments<br />

of a great roadmaker and townplanner.<br />

Fortunately Macquarie had besides<br />

his other gifts the gift o f being able<br />

to choose the right rtmn for a given task.<br />

William Cox had shown both on his voyage!<br />

from England and in the management ofj<br />

his farm, that he could preserve discipline,!<br />

and at the same time secure the goodwill<br />

of his men. h e treated his servants as if<br />

they were human beings, each with a<br />

normal share o f self respect, and in consequence<br />

was rewarded <strong>by</strong> an astonishing<br />

amount of work. <strong>The</strong> success with which<br />

he carried the road over the Blue Mountains<br />

is attested <strong>by</strong> the letter written to<br />

him after Macquarie, with his w ife and<br />

Cox, had driven to Bathurst. <strong>The</strong> difficulties<br />

of the task are shown without exaggeration,<br />

and with great modesty in<br />

Cox’s journal, which is, fortunately, still<br />

j preserved. It was an astonishing achievement<br />

to build a road 101 miles long within<br />

six months, over an uncleared range of<br />

hills, and with only thirty men. most of<br />

them unskilled. <strong>The</strong> pioneer Had to contend<br />

with a wet season, and with much<br />

sickness among his few men. <strong>The</strong> chart<br />

he had to use was in some places defective,<br />

and his appliances for blasting and bridging<br />

were extremely primitive. His difficulties<br />

were properly appreciated <strong>by</strong> Macquarie<br />

as he drove over the road down<br />

what he describes as a rugged and tremendous<br />

descent executed with skill and<br />

stability, or on to the ridge which he called<br />

Mount York. We do well to honour today<br />

the memory of these two devoted public<br />

servants. <strong>The</strong>y neither o f them could<br />

anticipate the vast and fertile areas which<br />

the new road would open up. But their<br />

labours are the foundation o f the greatest<br />

industry in this State, and their examples<br />

are such as should perpetually be kept alive<br />

<strong>by</strong> a people who wish to understand and<br />

take pride in their history.<br />

T H S R O M A N C E OP T H E G R E A T<br />

W E S T E R N R O A D — C A P T . B U L L ,<br />

CDttTBIANDANT ON T H E B L U E<br />

&OUXTTAINS ZN T H E F O R T IE S .<br />

I continue m y rem in iscen ces o f C olonel<br />

Bull (see ‘ ’T ru th ’' 2 2 /5 /2 1 ).<br />

C olonel B u ll’ s con n ection w ith the<br />

Im perial and local fo rce s in A u stra ­<br />

lia leach ed close upon fo r ty y ea rs.<br />

I .joined the V olunteer F orce in M elbourne<br />

in 1862— there w as no, standard<br />

m easurem ent then—rand w as present<br />

w ith C olonel B ull at the first encam p­<br />

m ent on the W erribee, in April, IS 62,<br />

and a w et encam pm ent it w a s; and<br />

at a sham fight, at B.ed Bluff, w h ere<br />

I nearly lost the num ber o f m$r m ess<br />

through the error o f a rear rank m an<br />

w ho discharged his m usket w ithout<br />

! g o in g through the n ecessa ry cerem on y<br />

o f w ithdraw ing the old -fash ion ed ram ­<br />

rod. N o breech-loaders in those d ays.<br />

* * •<br />

Such is the life sto ry o f C olonel Bull<br />

as I knew it. But, I cou ld n ot a llow<br />

su ch an h istoric figure to be sim ply<br />

a record, w ithout m aking an effort<br />

to gain som e fu rth er p articu la rs as<br />

to his adm in istration on the Blu©<br />

M ountain s. Through the kind offices<br />

o f M r. P ascoe, T ow n Clerk o f Castlem<br />

aine ( V ic .) I g ot into com m u n ication<br />

w ith a son, M r. W illia m M cL eod<br />

Bull, o f Bendigo, and through him to<br />

other m em bers o f the fa m ily, w ho su p ­<br />

plied me w ith in terestin g ' hiatter con ­<br />

nected w ith the C olon el's w ork on<br />

the M ountains in the forties— seven ty<br />

Todd years a g o . Colonel B ull died at<br />

G oulburn, N ew South W ales, in 1900,<br />

aged 95 years, lea v in g a w idow , aged<br />

92, w ho died three years later (r e ­<br />

g isterin g the sam e a ge as her late<br />

husband, 95 y e a rs4, and s is children ,<br />

or rather, three sons and three d a u g h ­<br />

ters, lon g past child h ood a g e. C olonel<br />

B ull w as in receip t o f tw o pensions,<br />

Im perial and C olon ia l. T he C olonel’ s<br />

d om estic record is, perhaps, unique in<br />

fa m ily h istories. M r. M cL eod B u ll<br />

w rote in D ecem ber last, “ I f you warn<br />

a n y dates re m y fa th er's life, le t m e<br />

know , and<br />

I w ill find them fo r yott^<br />

H e arrived in N ew South TVales in<br />

IS 42, and took ch arge at 18 M ile H o l­<br />

lo w (first), and then on to B lackheath,<br />

a s soon as the house w as bu ilt, reliev<br />

in g Captain D ay— SOth R egim en t.<br />

I w as born there in 1847. T h ere a re<br />

s ix o f us still alive, X b ein g the<br />

y o u n g e s t".<br />

*• • •<br />

T h e old su rv eyors o f the thirties,<br />

S ir T h om as M itchell— then know n as<br />

M ajor M itchell— W illia m R om aine G o-<br />

vett, . w ho d iscovered the fa m ou s<br />

“ G ovett’ s Leap, and others, in the<br />

absen ce o f d istin ctiv e landm arks, gave<br />

the h ollow s or valleys, w ith t h e -m ile ­<br />

age, in all their road su rveys. T hus<br />

“ 17 M ile H ollow ” is now Linden, “ 18<br />

M ile H o llo w " B u ll's Cam p, “ 20 M ile<br />

H o llo w " W ood ford , and “ 24 M ile H o l­<br />

lo w ’ * L a w son .<br />

* * •<br />

M r. M cL eod B u ll w as so good as to<br />

send m e the nam es, ages, and addresses<br />

o f his fa m ily . Please, in th is c o n ­<br />

n ection, rem em ber th at Colonel B u ll


, V<br />

'<br />

— .................. - • .......... - - ’ ■*: '<br />

■<br />

1 1


18<br />

<strong>The</strong> <strong>Great</strong> <strong>Western</strong> <strong>Road</strong><br />

la n d his w ife w ere each 95 years old<br />

at the tim e o f death; the w ife su rv iv ­<br />

ing her husband three y ea rs. <strong>The</strong>y<br />

are interred in G oulburn cem etery. •<br />

* * •<br />

<strong>The</strong> list is as fo llo w s .<br />

Mrs. Raym ond, G oulburn, New South<br />

Wales^ aged 90 y ea rs.<br />

Airs. A dair, N ew castle, N ew South<br />

W ales;, aged 88 y ea rs.<br />

M r. E . L . Bull, Castlem aine, V icoria<br />

; aged 80 y ea rs.<br />

M r. F . E . Bull, Sydney, N ew South<br />

iVales; aged 78 y ea rs.<br />

M rs. W illiam son , Goulburn, N ew<br />

South W ales; aged 76 years.<br />

M r. W illiam M cL eod Bull, Bendigo,<br />

V ictoria; aged 74 y ears .<br />

• ,• *<br />

<strong>The</strong> venerable M rs. R aym ond Is the<br />

widow o f M r. Sam uel Raym ond, barrister-at-law<br />

, who held legal" ap p oin t­<br />

m ents in the Suprem e Court o f N ew<br />

South W ales, and w ho w as the son<br />

o f M r. Jam es R aym ond, P ostm aster-<br />

G eneral o f this State in the m id years<br />

o f last century, and w ho lies' under<br />

a handsom e m onum ent in S t. P eter's<br />

A nglican Cem etery, C ook's R iver <strong>Road</strong>,<br />

S t. P eters.<br />

• • «<br />

M r. B a irs letter con tin u es:— “ F ather<br />

named th6 tow n Sandhurst a fte r the<br />

C ollege at H om e w h ere he w ent to<br />

sch ool. M y eldest sister, M rs. K ate<br />

Raym ond, lives at Goulburn, and m y<br />

you n gest sister, M rs. W illiam son , is<br />

stayin g w ith her. I am not sure o f<br />

the m onth that fa th er cam e to V ic ­<br />

toria ; it m igh t have been the e^id o f<br />

1851, o r the beginning o f 1852. He<br />

ibok charge o f Sandhurst goldfield first,<br />

and then, to C astlem aine. W e w ere<br />

burnt out at C astlem aine on fa th er's<br />

90th birthday, and that is w hy I cannot<br />

give you a better account o f the<br />

early days, as w e lo st everyth in g *<br />

Father, m other, one o f m y brothers,<br />

and m yself only had the cloth in g we<br />

were w earing. It w a s 'a cruel fate for<br />

him, as he lived on the past m em ories<br />

m ore than present-day a ffa irs. I<br />

agree w ith you about the cells in the<br />

rocks being storeh ouses fo r tools, e tc.<br />

As fath er never had a prisoner flogged<br />

we don’ t know w h y those m arks are<br />

on the stones you speak o f . T here<br />

were no proper bu rials un tjl fa th er<br />

took ch a rg e. A nyon e who had died<br />

were ju s t buried like d ogs; no coffin<br />

or services, or an y th in g . F ather and<br />

m other w ent to liv e w ith m y sister,<br />

M rs. Raym ond, a fte r our hom e w as<br />

destroyed <strong>by</strong> fire, fo u r years before<br />

he died” .<br />

• • •<br />

<strong>The</strong> “ m arked ston e” m entioned <strong>by</strong><br />

M r. Bull is a flat corru gated rock .<br />

G ossip and tradition say that the<br />

corru gation s were m fd e in order to<br />

give the scou rger a better footh old<br />

w hile perform in g his odious office. A<br />

w hipping post w as said to have been<br />

alon gside. <strong>The</strong> p ost disappeared, but<br />

j the flag stone, or rock, rem ains. My<br />

|ow n im pression is that the rock was<br />

, the site o f a sm ith y, and the cor-<br />

|-ligations were m ade to give the anvil<br />

i‘ 'a footh old ” , not th6 fla gella tor.<br />

* • «<br />

I M rs. W illiam son , w ritin g fo r her<br />

sister, M rs. B aym ond, to M r. M cLeod,<br />

v<br />

( Bull, sa y s:— “ B lackheath w as fa th er’s<br />

perm anent cam p. T w en ty M ile H ollow<br />

Wijsj. know n b y that nam e when fath er<br />

lived there. F ather w ent up to T w enty<br />

M ile H ollow from Sydney soon a fter<br />

his a rriva l in the C olon y. K ate (M rs<br />

R aym on d ) thinks th a t fath er lived at<br />

20 M ilo H ollow tw o or threo years.<br />

F red w as born there, s o that would<br />

be about 1S42. K ate was, at that time,<br />

dow n at school at W ollon g on g w ith<br />

A u n t K atie and M aggie, and so can-<br />

'n o t give correct dates or tim es. She<br />

think3 it quite lik ely that 20 M ile<br />

H ollow is now w hat is called 'B u ll’ s<br />

Cam p’ from tilings she has heard from<br />

several people who have visited thoso<br />

p a rts. <strong>The</strong> ‘d u g-ou ts’ m entioned as<br />

cells fo r the punishm ent o f p rison ­<br />

ers is m ost untrue. K ate also rem em ­<br />

bers the ‘Old P ilgrim In n ’ quite w e ll.<br />

<strong>The</strong>re w as a flogger a t T w enty M ile<br />

H ollow when fa th er w ent there, but<br />

fa th er abolished all floggin g . He never<br />

had a man flogged, and a t the end o f<br />

tint y ea r he w rote to the G overnm ent<br />

and advised the rem oval o f the flogger,<br />

as he had no use fo r his services!<br />

and they m igh t save his salary, so<br />

he le ft . F ather never had an y trou ble<br />

w ith the prison ers, except w hat a<br />

g o o d talk w ou ld cu re” . (T o be resum<br />

ed n ext w e e k .)<br />

• • .<br />

A n in terestin g letter from M isa R osa<br />

resp ectin g a 90 year-old* gra n d fa th er’s<br />

clock m ade b y Jam es O atley, •w ill have<br />

atten tion p resen tly. C oncerning the<br />

Question resp ectin g M r. R . H . H orne<br />

the rwet c f the fiftie s and six ties<br />

’n M elbourne. I have no aou ot He is<br />

the B&mc m entioned b y a co rre sp o n d ­<br />

ent. B ut the m atter w ou ld n ot in '<br />

le re st ou r readers.<br />

OUT T H E G R E A T W I S T E B B R O A D —<br />

A L A N D M A R K — B U L L 'S CAM P—<br />

A S T O R Y OP T H E R O A D -M A K IN G<br />

G A N G S — W H A T “ T R A D IT IO N ”<br />

D O E S P O B H IS T O R Y — S O K E<br />

M O U N T A IN L E G E N D S .<br />

1 have to thank m any corresp on d ­<br />

ents fo r letters and telegram s co n ­<br />

veyin g good w ishes on h a vin g passed<br />

the 81st m ile post on L ife ’s H ig h w a y .<br />

. . .<br />

W hen M r. Sydney Cunyngham e m ade<br />

his first trip over the B lu e M ountains<br />

w ith his uncles, Charles and Jam es<br />

W halan, o f O beron (see ‘‘T ru th "<br />

15 /5 /’ 21), in the year 1844, they p a ssed<br />

a landm ark on the B athurst-road,<br />

m ileage 50, then know n as 18 M ile<br />

H o llo w ; to-day as B u ll’ s Camp,<br />

and w h y so nam ed? W ell, it w as this<br />

w a y . In 1842 there cam e to Sydney<br />

w ith the 99th R egim en t, Captain J .<br />

H . N . Bull, who w as im m ediately detailed<br />

lo r duty w ith 60 n on -com s and<br />

p rivates o f h is regim ent,, to take<br />

ch arge o f a road-m aking gan g, cam ped<br />

at IS M ile H ollow , in w h ich charge<br />

he su cceed ed Captain D ay, who, w en t<br />

w ith the B arney expedition to F o rt<br />

C urtis to fou nd a new settlem ent,<br />

w h ich d id not then becom e "fou n d ed ” .<br />

Captain B ull cam ped w ith h is fa m ily


'


<strong>The</strong> <strong>Great</strong> <strong>Western</strong> <strong>Road</strong>. 19<br />

at the sp ot now know n as B u ll’ s Camp,<br />

w hile a hou se w as being' b u ilt fo r<br />

his accom m od ation a t Blackheath, so<br />

named <strong>by</strong> G overnor M acquarie on his<br />

tr ip ’ over the M ountains In 1815. Captain<br />

B ull w as appointed a m agistrate<br />

and engineer in ch arge o f th e <strong>Great</strong><br />

W estern R oad from the R iv er Nepean<br />

to B ath u rst. T he headquarters o f the<br />

road gang w as at Blackheath, a very :<br />

health y loca lity, and som ew hat chilly !<br />

in w in ter. Captain B ull w a s on these j<br />

h ills from 1842 to 1848, -apd we have<br />

heard m any legen d s and traditions<br />

con cern in g him and his treatm ent o f<br />

the helpless co n v ict w retch es under<br />

his com m an d W e have heard o f Captain<br />

B u ll's bath cu t in solid rock , and<br />

Captain B u ll’ s arm ch air a lso cut in<br />

the solid rock, in w hich the Captain<br />

u sed to recline, “ m onarch o f all he<br />

su rveyed ” . T he “ bath’ ' and “ the<br />

ch air” have been w iped out b y the<br />

railw ay lin e. It has been said also, and<br />

b y som e alleged historians, I am sorry<br />

to say. that a certain corru gated stone<br />

j near Linden w as used as a “ sure-<br />

. fo o tin g ” fo r the flogger when plyin g<br />

! his dreadfu l office; it was said, also,<br />

1that certain “ d u g -ou ts” w ere punishm<br />

ent cells fo r w ron g d oers. W ell, I<br />

have the testim on y o f an eye w itness,<br />

a lad y n ow in h er 91st year, who<br />

states that the alleged cells o f punishr<br />

m ent w ere stone houses f o r tools<br />

|and explosives, used in road m aking,<br />

|and, as Captain B u ll never had a man<br />

w hipped, th e stone in qu estion could<br />

: n ot have been put to the use su g­<br />

gested b y the legen d . T o m y m ind the<br />

stone m entioned w a s the site o f a<br />

b la ck sm ith ’ s fo rg e , bu t we w ill come<br />

to that p resen tly.<br />

* • *<br />

A s I have eald, Captain B u ll was<br />

on these h ills from 1842 to 1848. . In<br />

1843 we g o t a Parliam ent, a m ixed<br />

cham ber o f G overnm ent officials,<br />

nom inees and elecfiv es, there bein g 6<br />

official m em bers, 6 nom inee m em bers,<br />

and 24 e le ctiv e s. A m on gst th ose who<br />

had seats in that H ou se w ere W . C.<br />

W entw orth, Dr. Bland, W . H . Suttor,<br />

s e n r., ot B athurst, R ob ert Lowe,<br />

Charles C ow per, D r. Lang, Sir Thom as<br />

M itchell. D r. N icholson , R oger <strong>The</strong>rry,<br />

John B laxlan d and m any o f sim ilar<br />

tem peram ent and standin g. Som e o f<br />

these w ere con stan t tra vellers between<br />

the m etrop olis and the cou n try, not<br />

flyin g b y express train as to-d ay, but<br />

in their ow n horse-draw n g ig s and<br />

coaches. T h e y m ust have d a ily passed<br />

the gan gs o f road-m akers under Captain<br />

Bull, and it m a y fa irly be asked<br />

w ou ld it be p ossib le fo r the Captain<br />

to so b ru ta lly ill-u se his helpless<br />

charges a s tra dition has debited him<br />

w ith ? W ere he so guilty, you v ery soon<br />

would hear o f som e o f the A ustralian<br />

p atriots I have nam ed takin g P arliam<br />

entary action to brin g him to book.<br />

W ith P arliam en ta ry representation<br />

even in a lim ited degree, the o ld dark<br />

days o f penal h is to ry had passed aw ay<br />

fo r ev er.<br />

• • •<br />

W hen I first heard o f Captain Bull<br />

and B u ll's Camp, the site o f which,<br />

b y the w ay, I am overlook in g as I<br />

w rite, I little th ou gh t that I knew<br />

him , n o t certa in ly •when lie w as in<br />

com m and on the M ountains, bu t in<br />

the early s ix tie s in v ictoria , w h ere<br />

Tie w as a C aptain o f V olu n teers, and<br />

I a fu ll p riv a te in on e o f the co m ­<br />

p a n ies. Captain B u ll w a s the second<br />

son o f C olonel B ull, a C om panion o f<br />

the Bath, a K n ig h t o f H anover, w h o<br />

had served in the P en in su lar and<br />

W a te rlo o cam paign s, in the R oyal<br />

H orse A r tille r y . O ur C aptain B ull w as<br />

b orn in the cen tre o f Ireland in the<br />

y ear 1S0C; h e entered the M ilitary<br />

C ollege at San dh urst in 1820; he r e ­<br />

ceived his first c o m m issio n ii^ the<br />

78th H ighla n d ers in A p ril 1825; he<br />

p u rch ased his lieu ten a n cy in June.<br />

1826, and w as f o r tw o y ears on the<br />

sta ff o f the Q u arterm a ster-G en eral's<br />

D epartm ent in K an dy, w h ich sw e e tly -<br />

nam ed tow n w as a t on e tim e the<br />

cap ital o f the islan d o f C eylon, w h ere<br />

j B ishop H eber h a s told u s “ T he sp icy<br />

! breezes b lo w ” . In O ctober, 1838, L ie u t-<br />

i enant Bull obtain ed his cap ta in cy, and<br />

in 1840 wan appoin ted D ep u ty-Ju dge<br />

A d voca te o f th e N orth ern D istrict o f<br />

! E n g la n d . In January, 1842. h e exch a n g ­<br />

ed in to thp 99tb, com m an ded <strong>by</strong> C olon ­<br />

el Des'pard, w ho, w h ile o ccu p y in g the i<br />

old G eorg e-street B arra ck s in Sydney,<br />

earned the so b riq u e n t o f, “ K eep off<br />

the g ra ss D esp ard ” fro m the fa c t that<br />

he w ish ed the green sw a rd in fron t<br />

o f tho b a rra ck s be k ep t f o r the use<br />

o t h is fa m ily cow .<br />

• • •<br />

T h e 99th a rrived in S ydn ey in O c­<br />

tober. 1S42, and C aptain B ull w as<br />

ordered to take ch a rg e o f a stock ade<br />

on the B lue M ountain s, w ith a d e ­<br />

tach m en t o f 50 sold ie rs ; h e 1w as, as<br />

I h a ve said, ap p oin ted m a g istra te and<br />

en gin eer in ch a rg e o f th e W estern<br />

R oad from P e n rith to the C ity o f the<br />

P la in s. A fte r s ix y e a rs so em ployed,<br />

he rejoin ed hea dquarters, and soon<br />

a fte r retired fr o m the s e r v ice on b ein g<br />

! prom ised c iv il em p loym en t; he had<br />

an a p p oin tm en t a t N ew ca stle, w h ere he<br />

su pervised th e con stru ction o f the<br />

breakw ater fro m N ob b y Isla n d to the<br />

k m ain lan d . In O ctob er, 1851, on a p p lica ­<br />

tion o f the the G overn m en t o f V ic -<br />

, toria, then n ew ly -esta b lish ed on sep ­<br />

aration fro m N ew South W ales, he<br />

resigned the N ew ca stle appointm en t,<br />

and becam e C om m ission er o f Crow n<br />

Lands, M agistrate, and W a rd en at<br />

B en d ig o. On th e fa m o u s g o ld field he<br />

m et som e o f h is old c o lle g e m ates,<br />

w ho had passed th rou gh the M ilita ry<br />

S chool, “ O rion ” H orn e, the poet,<br />

am on gst them , an d w ith ou t m uch au ­<br />

th ority these e x -c o lle g ia n s changed<br />

the nam e B en d igo to S an dh urst.<br />

Som e<br />

i y e a rs ago, h ow ever, the p eople returned<br />

to th e ir x alleg ia n ce, and the<br />

fa m ou s old g o ld tow n is again know n<br />

as B en d igo.<br />

* * .•<br />

On the P o lice M a gistra te leavin g<br />

C astlem aine, C aptain B u ll w as instru<br />

cted to p e rfo rm his d u ties, w hich,<br />

w ith that o f G oldfields W arden , he<br />

con tin u ed to d isch a rg e u n til D ecem ­<br />

ber 31, 1869, wrhen he w a s placed on<br />

the retired lis t on a cco u n t o f age,<br />

€?— qu ite a you^h It m a y be sa id .<br />

On the fo rm a tio n o f th e V olu n teer ,<br />

C orps in C astlem a in e in 1860, he w as ‘<br />

rom in a ted C aptain. T he C orps c o n s is t- j<br />

ed o f three com p a n ies. On Septem ber. «<br />

3. 1863, he w a s p rom oted to the rank *<br />

o f L ieu t-colon el In ch arge o f the V olu n ­<br />

teer C orps in the n orth ern d istrict, j


—<br />

4 4


j<br />

0<br />

<strong>The</strong> <strong>Great</strong> <strong>Western</strong> <strong>Road</strong>.<br />

------------------V --------------------------------------<br />

w ith headquarters at Castlem aine, rem<br />

aining until the abandonm ent o f the<br />

volunteer sy stem . Subsequently he<br />

w as, fo r a sh ort tim e, connected w ith<br />

the m ilitia, bu t retired o n his rank o f<br />

j Colonel.<br />

B1<br />

“ Caley’s Repulse’’<br />

An Old-time Cairn<br />

FR A N K W A L K E R , F.R.A.H.S.<br />

This interesting memorial, referred<br />

to <strong>by</strong> all the early explorers, originally<br />

stood in the vicinity of Linden,<br />

close to the old line of road tc<br />

Bathurst. It was w rongly named<br />

“ Caley's” or “ K eeley’s Repulse,” <strong>by</strong><br />

Governor Macquarie, during his<br />

official tour along the newly constructed<br />

W estern <strong>Road</strong>, in 1815.<br />

<strong>The</strong> first, and most definite reference<br />

to this mem orial is made <strong>by</strong><br />

Gregory Blaxland, in his journal<br />

(reprint, 1913, F. W alker, pp. 2 4 ).<br />

Previous to this, on pp. 23. he says:<br />

"... On Wednesday. 19th May, the<br />

party moved forward along this path,<br />

hearing chiefly west, and west-southwest.<br />

<strong>The</strong>y now began to ascend<br />

the second ridge of the Mountains.<br />

<strong>The</strong> "second ridge” here referred<br />

to is identical with the one running<br />

I north and south, due west of Linden<br />

station, having a deep valley before<br />

it, the latter bisected <strong>by</strong> the present<br />

railway embankment. Blaxland and<br />

party, up to the night o f the 18th<br />

May, had travelled about 16j miles<br />

from the Nepean. Linden is about<br />

51 miles from Sydney <strong>by</strong> road, and<br />

deducting 341 miles (Sydney to<br />

Penrith) leaves 16^ miles, thus<br />

agreeing with Blaxland’s figures. On<br />

the high ground east o f Linden station,<br />

where the present road curves<br />

round a rocky bluff, traces of Cox's<br />

road (alm ost identical with Blaxland’s<br />

track ), can be distinctly seen,<br />

and on reference to Cox’s journal<br />

(pp. 63-4), it w ill be noticed that<br />

Cox found it necessary to throw a<br />

causeway, or bridge, as he called<br />

it, across the valley mentioned above.<br />

Between 1815 and 1830, some buildings<br />

were erected about the centre<br />

o f this “ bridge,” one being known<br />

as the “ Toll Bar Inn.” A toll-gate<br />

was also erected at the western end.<br />

All traces of this causeway have disappeared,<br />

which must have been<br />

obliterated when the railway em ­<br />

bankment was made, but the old<br />

road can still be traced on the far<br />

side, where it com m ences to ascend<br />

the ridge.<br />

I<br />

1<br />

I<br />

I<br />

Continuing Blaxland’s references<br />

(pp. 23) he further states: “ . . . .<br />

and from this elevation they obtained<br />

for the first time, an extensive view<br />

of the settlements below . . .<br />

A further corroboration that the<br />

ridge m entioned <strong>by</strong> Blaxland is the<br />

one beyond Linden station, lies in<br />

the fact that from the high ground I<br />

the first and best view of the tow- 1<br />

lying country to the east o f the<br />

Mountains is obtained.<br />

Again referring to Blaxland’s jou r­<br />

nal, pp. 23-4, are these w ords: "...<br />

Mount Banks bore north-west;<br />

Grose Head, nor-east; Prospect Hill,<br />

east <strong>by</strong> south; <strong>The</strong> Seven Hills, eastnorth-east;<br />

W indsor, north-east <strong>by</strong><br />

east. . . .”<br />

<strong>The</strong> writer, in the year 1903. when<br />

exploring this locality, took compass<br />

bearings from the highest point of<br />

the ridge o f the prom inent headlands<br />

enumerated above, and found them<br />

to agree exactly with Blaxland’s results.<br />

Thus identification o f the<br />

ridge (called <strong>by</strong> Blaxland,' “ the<br />

second rid ge,” is carried still further,<br />

and placing it beyond doubt. On<br />

page 24 o f Blaxland’s journal, is the<br />

follow ing: “ . . . . At a little distance<br />

from the spot at which they<br />

began the ascent they found a pyra- i<br />

midial heap o f stones. ...”<br />

In searching for this relic in 1 9 1 2 .<br />

the party o f members o f the Royal<br />

Australian H istorical Society engaged<br />

in exploratory work in this<br />

locality, kept in view the first few<br />

words o f Blaxland’s reference ( “ at<br />

a little distance from the spot at<br />

which they began the ascent, etc.,<br />

etc.” ) — deducing from this that the<br />

mem orial, or the remains o f it,<br />

would not be found on the summit,<br />

but som ewhere about midway between.<br />

F ollow in g Cox’s road, plainly<br />

visible, which first ran due west, the<br />

track as it ascended curved to the<br />

left, or south. A t about 100 yards<br />

from its com m encem ent, the garden,<br />

or boundary fence o f the private<br />

property in this locality, bisected it.<br />

Still bearing to the south, and ascending<br />

m ore gradually, a further<br />

advance o f about 50 yards, brought<br />

the party to what was unm istakably<br />

the foundations of what had been a<br />

pile o f stones, close to the old line<br />

of road, on the left-hand side. Its<br />

location, bearing, distance and appearance<br />

left no other reasoning but<br />

that here was all that remained of<br />

"C aley’s R epulse.” ■ Cox's journal<br />

(pp. 64) under date September 3,<br />

reads: "... Augm ented the men at<br />

w ork on the pass at the bridge to 10.<br />

both yesterday and to-day. <strong>The</strong> road<br />

finished to Caley’s heap of stones,<br />

172 miles. . . .” (Blaxland esti- '<br />

mates the distance at 18 miles<br />

This is a further p roof that the<br />

m em orial was close to the old line<br />

o f road, other wise Cox would not<br />

have referred to it in these terms.<br />

<strong>The</strong> distance given, i.e., 17$ miles, i


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<strong>The</strong> <strong>Great</strong> Wastern <strong>Road</strong><br />

from the Nepean, places the m em o­<br />

rial about 1 mile from the high bluff<br />

east of Linden, which added to the<br />

161 miles o f Blaxland’s statement,<br />

agrees exactly.<br />

Surveyor George W illiam Evans,<br />

in his journal, states (November 21,<br />

1 8 1 3 ): “ . . . .at about 11 o ’clock<br />

I passed the pile of stones alluded to<br />

<strong>by</strong> the form er party. . . (i.e.,<br />

Blaxland’s).<br />

Here again we have evidence that<br />

the cairn was visible from the road,<br />

and, apparently, close to it, as the<br />

discovery of the foundations proved.<br />

Evans had no time for exploration<br />

work, outside Blaxland’s track, us<br />

he was eager to press on to the latter’s<br />

terminal point, where his own<br />

work would begin.<br />

M ajor Antill, in his diary of Governor<br />

Macquarie’s trip in 1815, also<br />

refers to the pile o f stones, placing<br />

it at “ about 5 miles from Springwood.”<br />

This measurement all but<br />

coincides with the position o f the<br />

memorial as fixed <strong>by</strong> others, and with<br />

the remains discovered in September.<br />

1912, there belnjg a difference o f only<br />

three-quarters o f a mile.<br />

<strong>The</strong> name “ K eeley’s” or “Daley's<br />

Repulse,” was bestowed <strong>by</strong> Macquarie,<br />

who was even ignorant o f<br />

the man’s very name. That Caley<br />

had aught to do with it is out of<br />

the question, as his tour of exploration<br />

was conducted on the northern<br />

side of the Grose Valley, so that he<br />

could never have even aet foot upon<br />

the ridges over which Blaxland first<br />

-travelled, let alone erected the memorial.<br />

W ho its builder really was<br />

is only problematical. It may have<br />

been Bass, though his direction was<br />

much further south, or W ilson, probably<br />

the latter, as he was known<br />

to have penetrated nearly as far as<br />

this. On the other hand, Quartermaster<br />

Hacking, o f the “ Sirius,” was<br />

also in the vicinity, aim the nature<br />

of the memorial is like what a sailor<br />

would accomplish in fixing his mark<br />

in newly-discovered country. After<br />

this lapse o f time it is very unlikely<br />

that the name o f the original builder<br />

will ever be known.<br />

WILLIAM COX.<br />

— «------<br />

A PIONEER’S JOUENAL.<br />

(By fr a n k w a l k e r.)<br />

July IS, 1814.— "A t daylight, gave out the<br />

tools to handle and put in order. Issued<br />

half a week’s provisions to the whole party.<br />

Began work at 10 a.m to make a pass<br />

across the Nepean; the banks very steep on<br />

the east side. . . . W eath er fine, clear,<br />

and frosty.”<br />

<strong>The</strong> above extract Is taken from W illiam<br />

C ox’s Journal, and is rem iniscent of the turning<br />

of the Erst sod of the great road to the<br />

west. T o-m orrow , the corresponding date in<br />

the present year, the centenary of tblB event<br />

w ill have been reached, and now that the<br />

question of new roads and railw ays is con stan t­<br />

ly before the public eye. It may profit us to<br />

forget the present century for a sh ort time,<br />

and project our minds Into thd past, when<br />

W illiam Cox, under Governor M acquarie's<br />

orders, Bet him self the task ot carrying a road<br />

across those mountain solitudes, which but<br />

lately had been conquered <strong>by</strong> the Intrepid explorers,<br />

Blaxland, W entworth, and Lawson.<br />

M ost people are, or should be, fam iliar with<br />

the circum stances which necessitated the Im ­<br />

m ediate discovery of new lands, in which the ;<br />

starving cattle would have a chance to procure<br />

sustenance, and the strenuous efforts that were<br />

made between tho years 1789 and 1SJ3 to force<br />

a passage across the Blue Mountains, beyond<br />

w hich, it was felt certain, unlim ited pasturage<br />

lay. A ll this was brought about <strong>by</strong> the su c­<br />

cessful expedition of the abovenam ed ex p lorers,<br />

and the subsequent discoveries o f thetr<br />

successor, George W illiam Evans.<br />

Those discoveries could not be put to any<br />

practical use until m eans o f acces3 had been<br />

provided, and this was the problem which<br />

faced Macquarie when the conquest o f the<br />

heights had at last been accom plished. He<br />

was fully alive to the great possibilities that<br />

lay before this sudden acquisition of unbounded<br />

territory, whose richness and beauty had been<br />

so graphically described <strong>by</strong> Evans, and, thanks<br />

to the magnanimous offer of that sterlin g clti- i<br />

zen and soldier, Captain W illiam Cox, to su perintend<br />

the construction o f the road that -the<br />

Governor had determ ined must be made, there<br />

seem ed an early chance o f M acquarie's hopes<br />

and aspirations being realised.<br />

A ccordingly, the Governor issued a General<br />

Order, doted from Government House, Sydney,<br />

July 14, 1814, in which, with the greatest<br />

m inuteness, he gives instructions as to the<br />

m ethods to be em ployed in carrying


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<strong>The</strong> <strong>Great</strong> <strong>Western</strong> Hoad<br />

delivered, Cox had selected his men— 30 in<br />

num bef—and, with a guard o f eight soldiers,<br />

ia d already started work.<br />

ROMANCE OF THE ROAD.<br />

<strong>The</strong> Journal<br />

subsequently kept <strong>by</strong> W illiam<br />

Cox reads like a rom ance. E very detail in<br />

the construction of that great highway is set<br />

down. Nothing of any im portance seem ed to<br />

have escaped his eye, and, accordingly, we are<br />

perm itted to have a close insight Into the<br />

carrying out of what m ust be considered as<br />

on e o f the greatest engineering feats o f its<br />

tim e. W ith a mere handful of men, a good<br />

practicable road, com plete w ith bridges, w atertables,<br />

culv.erts, gradients, etc., etc., waB con ­<br />

structed and finished in the rem arkable space<br />

o f time of six months. Only those who are<br />

acquainted with the wild and rugged nature<br />

o f parts of the mountains, practically the<br />

ssyne as they were in C ox’s time, can realise<br />

the magnitude o f this great undertaking. <strong>The</strong>re<br />

•were no labor-saving devices such as we are<br />

fam iliar with at the present day, and, although |<br />

gunpowder was em ployed throughout the length I<br />

o f the roadway, the bulk of the iabor required<br />

w as necessarily that of human hands, and the<br />

exertion of sheer brute force.<br />

I f Cox ever allowed him self to be overcom e<br />

w ith despair when confronted with som e particu<br />

larly weighty problem , he never m entions<br />

it in hiB diary. O ptim istic from the start, he<br />

stack to his task, and conquered <strong>by</strong> sheer force<br />

o f will. D iscom forts there were many. In ­<br />

different food, exposure to the rigors o f a<br />

m ountain winter, the cheerful acceptance of<br />

poor accom m odation at night time, and the<br />

frequent illnesses of individual m em bers of<br />

his working party causing unavoidable delays—<br />

a ll these were taken philosophically and as<br />

part of the day’s work, for one never meets<br />

w ith a com plaint all through his rem arkable<br />

narrative.<br />

Added to the interest which his Journal w ill<br />

qlw ays possess, is the fact that several section<br />

s o f this very road are still in evidence,<br />

and may be inspected with a very sm all amount<br />

o f exertion on the part of the sightseer. B e­<br />

ginning at Emu Plains, the first portion of<br />

C ox's road, where it ascends the eastern slopes<br />

o f the Mountains, with its successive “ traverses,”<br />

seven in all, may still be seen, and<br />

is easily accessible to the foot passenger. <strong>The</strong><br />

great stones which form the numerous em - |<br />

bankm ents were gathered from the hillside, !<br />

and, innocent of m ortar or other binding m a­<br />

terial, are practically as firm to-day as when<br />

they were placed in position a century ago.<br />

Eeyond Lawson there is a section of about<br />

h a lf a m ile running parallel with the present<br />

road, and here the work o f these early road<br />

m akers may be distinctly seen.<br />

N ear Mount Blaxland there is a stretch of [<br />

several m iles, beginning from the ascent jpf '<br />

M acquarie’ s “ Clarence H illy Range,” and here<br />

w ill be found exact duplicates of the stone em ­<br />

bankm ents mentioned above. W hen Major<br />

(afterwards Sir Thom as) M itchell carried out<br />

hid deviations and alterations of the W estern<br />

<strong>Road</strong>, in the ’ thirties, much o f C ox’s work<br />

was obliterated, as in placos the original of<br />

road could not be im proved upon, and the<br />

newer work soon made short work of the old,<br />

but in others an easier ascent or less dangerous<br />

curve was decided on, and the old road was<br />

left stranded in the bush, to becom e a thing<br />

o f interest and historical value to future<br />

generations.<br />

TO IL AND H ARDSH IP.<br />

From July 18, until Novem ber 14, Cox and<br />

his party had been working through the m ountain<br />

solitudes, slow ly but surely, and his jo u r - i<br />

nal records som e places over which the road '<br />

liad to be made, the negotiation of which ngccssitated<br />

severe toil and hardship, consequent<br />

upon the rugged and sterile condition Of the<br />

country. On several occasions they had to descend<br />

precipices some hundreds o f feet deep,<br />

in order to procure the water required for<br />

m eals and for the hosses. In one place, where<br />

the only outlet westward was a narrow ridge,<br />

between two deep valleys, one of which it was<br />

necessary to cross, a low level bridge was con- I<br />

structed, m easuring 80ft. in length, <strong>by</strong> 15ft. in ■<br />

width at one end, end I2ft. at the other. A<br />

rough stone wall, about 100ft. long was also i<br />

required to keep the road in position, and the<br />

labor expended on this portion of the road occu ­<br />

pied the party for nearly 14 days.<br />

On N ovem ber 14 the road had progressed as<br />

fa r as that huge spur running out into the<br />

valley beyond Mount V ictor!#, now known as<br />

Mount Y ork, and the next problem , which faced !<br />

this intrepid engineer, was how to make a !<br />

practicable road down the rocky and precipitous !<br />

sides o f the mountain. <strong>The</strong> descent was ex- |<br />

am ined on ail sides, and finally the track made j<br />

<strong>by</strong> Blaxland and party was chosen, along which j<br />

to form the road. This was a trem endous un- j<br />

dertaking, and taxed the ingenuity and re - i<br />

sources of the road-m akers to the last degree, j<br />

A fter 24 days of unrem itting toil, necessitating<br />

the hurling a3ide of gigantic boulders and the i<br />

constant use of blasting powder, a track was<br />

literally carved out of the m ountain side, and j<br />

on D ecem ber 8, the pass was finished.<br />

This rem arkable piece of work may still be<br />

seen, and is practicable fo r foot-p assen gers<br />

from top to bottom . <strong>The</strong> m arks of the w orkm<br />

en’ s picks are distinctly visible in the rock,<br />

and in one place the local au th orities havo<br />

had a copper plate prepared, and bolted to the<br />

rock, upon which has been inscribed the fo l­<br />

low ing w ords. ‘‘ Pick-m arks made <strong>by</strong> convicts<br />

In widening the road, 1814.” This inscription<br />

w ill serve to remind v isito is o f the work of<br />

our first road-m akers, nearly a century ago,<br />

and as long as the pass rem ains in existence<br />

it w ill stand as a worthy m onument to the man<br />

who so conscientiously perform ed the duty entrusted<br />

to him , and carried out h is Instructions ,<br />

so faith fully and well.<br />

[ For upwards o f 2S years all the traffic to<br />

the west passed up and down this m ountain,<br />

and, though the grade, to m odern eyes, seem s<br />

preposterous, and It Is on record that “ team s<br />

conveying w ool to Sydney had to unload at<br />

|the foot of the pass, and ro ll the bales up <strong>by</strong><br />

i hand,” few com plaints were made, the settlers !


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<strong>The</strong> Greet <strong>Western</strong> Roed<br />

______________________________________________ ___________ —<br />

being only too pleased to get som e sort oJ !<br />

means of com m unication v.lth tlia city, or their j<br />

dlBtant homes. Near the top o f the pass an ­<br />

other notice has been erected, conveying the Inform<br />

ation to visitors that here the descent begins,<br />

and, further adding, that “ G overnor M acquarie<br />

passed over this road in 1815."<br />

M A C Q U A K IE ’ S T R I B U T E .<br />

W hen the road was finished, G overnor Macquarie,<br />

to show his appreciation o f Cox’s w ork ,'<br />

sent him a letter, which was a public document,<br />

end the original is, naturally, carefully<br />

preserved amongst the fam ily archives. It sets<br />

forth clearly the great services rendered to<br />

the country <strong>by</strong> W illiam Cox, and the follow ing<br />

is a transcript of those portions which directly<br />

bear upon the first W estern R oad:—<br />

"Governm ent House, Sydney, June 10, 1815.<br />

“ W illiam Cox, Esq., Bathurst.<br />

"Sir,—<strong>The</strong> Governor desires to com m unicate<br />

for the inform ation of the public the result of<br />

his late tour over the W estern, or Blue, Moun- I<br />

tains, undertaken for the purpose of being !<br />

enabled personally to appreciate the Im port- I<br />

ance of the tract of country lying westward o f j<br />

them, which had been explored in the latter j<br />

end of the year 1S13, and beginning o f 1814, <strong>by</strong> !<br />

Mr. George W illiam Evans, Deputy-Surveyor<br />

o f Lands....................<br />

“ To Gregory Blaxland and W illiam W entworth,<br />

Esquires, and Lieutenant Lawson, o f the<br />

R oyal Veteran Company, the m erit is due of<br />

having effected the first passage over the most<br />

rugged and difficult part of the Blue Mountains.<br />

. . . <strong>The</strong> favorable account given <strong>by</strong> 1<br />

Mr. Evans o f the country he had explored, induced<br />

the Governor to cause a road to be con ­<br />

structed for the passage and conveyance of<br />

cattle and provisions to the in terior; and men<br />

of good character, from am ongst a number of<br />

convictB who had volunteered their services,<br />

; were selected to perform this arduous task, on<br />

j condition of being fed and clothed during the<br />

continuance of their labor, and being granted<br />

, em ancipation as their final reward on the com -<br />

|pletion o f the work.<br />

“ <strong>The</strong> direction and superintendence o f this<br />

great work was entrusted to W illiam Cox, i<br />

j Esq., the chief m agistrate at W in dsor; and to j<br />

i the astonishm ent o f everyone who knows what<br />

was to be encountered, and sees what has been ;<br />

done, he effected its com pletion in six months ■<br />

from the time of com m encem ent, happily w ith- 1<br />

out the loss of a man, or any serious accident. ,j<br />

<strong>The</strong> Governor is at a loss to appreciate fully<br />

the services rendered <strong>by</strong> Mr. Cox to this colony !<br />

in the execution o f this arduous work, which<br />

prom ises to be o f the greatest public utility, j<br />

<strong>by</strong> opening a new source of wealth to the industrious<br />

and enterprising. W hea it is con- |<br />

6idered that Mr. Cox voluntarily relinquished<br />

the com forts o f his own house, and the society<br />

of his numerous fam ily, and exposed him self to<br />

much personal fatigue, with only such tem ­<br />

porary covering as a bark hut could e$ord<br />

from the inclem ency o f the weather, it is difficult<br />

to express the sentim ents of approbation to<br />

which such privations and services are entitled.<br />

Mr. Cox having reported the road ' as com - ,<br />

pleted on the 21st January last, the Governor,<br />

accom panied <strong>by</strong> Mrs. M acquarie and<br />

that gentleman, com m enced his tour on A pril<br />

25 over the Blue Mountains, and was Joined<br />

<strong>by</strong> Sir John Jamieson at the Nepean, who a c- :<br />

eompanied him during the entire tour. <strong>The</strong><br />

follow in g gentlemen com posed the G overnor’ s<br />

su ite:— Mr. Campbell, secretary; Captain Antill, |<br />

m ajor of brigade; Lieutenant W atts, aid e-d e-<br />

can p; Mr, Redfern. assistant surgeon; Mr. Ox- j<br />

ley, Surveyor-G eneral; Mr. Mehan. Deputy Surveyor-G<br />

eneral; Mr. Lewin, painter and naturalist-.<br />

and Mr. G. W . Evans, Deputy-Surveyor of<br />

Laads. . . _ . _<br />

. . <strong>The</strong> road constructed <strong>by</strong> Mr. Cox flown<br />

1thij ruggod and trem endous descent (M ount<br />

Y ork) through all its windings, Is no less than<br />

thr«»e-quarters of a m ile in length, and has been<br />

executed with skill and stability, and reflects<br />

mveh credit on him. <strong>The</strong> labor here undergo<br />

* and the difficulties surm ounted can only be<br />

ap reciated <strong>by</strong> those who view the scene. In ,<br />

or er to perpetuate the m em ory o f Mr. Cox a<br />

Feryices, the Governor deemed it a tribute ju stly<br />

duf to him to give his name to this grand and<br />

exi -aordinary pass; and he accordingly called<br />

it ' 'o x ’s Pass. . . <strong>The</strong> G overnor gave the name<br />

of Mount York to this term ination of the<br />

ridgre, in honor of his R oyal Highness the Duke<br />

o f 'fo rk . . . By eommand o f h!s Excellency the<br />

G overnor, John Thom as Cam pbell, Secretary.’ *<br />

M acquarie’s eugoliatic recogn ition o f C ox’s<br />

services in connection with this fam ous piece<br />

of engineering was richly deserved. <strong>The</strong> first<br />

cent-nary of the turning o f the first sod is an<br />

event which cannot be allow ed to pass w ithout<br />

recalling the great d ebt we owe to<br />

Australia’s worthy pioneers. _____<br />

WESTERN ROAD.<br />

PIONEERS OF PAST<br />

HONOURED.<br />

THE GREAT BUILDERS.<br />

HISTORICAL RECORD.<br />

CENTENARY<br />

CELEBRATIONS.<br />

Penrith was early astir on Saturday, to<br />

celebrate the centenary o f the tufn ing of the<br />

first sod of the Old W estern-road. A blue<br />

sky, flecked with fleecy clouds, and bright<br />

genial sunshine auspiciously ushered in the<br />

day’s proceedings. Num bers o f visitors a r­<br />

rived <strong>by</strong> early trains from Sydney and the<br />

j surrounding centres. In the streets the<br />

display of flags and bunting made a pleasing<br />

colour contrast with the deep green foliage<br />

of the triumphal arches. H igh-street former!<br />

a picturesque setting for the day’ s function,<br />

an avenue of gum bushes stretching the fu ll<br />

length, spanned <strong>by</strong> arclies at intervals,<br />

i Festoons of flags fluttered in the m orning<br />

; breeze. <strong>The</strong> decorations w ere a tribute to<br />

the “ m ighty dead.” as the Prim e M inister<br />

said at the official luncheon, and Penrith did<br />

full ju stice to the occasion. <strong>The</strong> p rocessioa<br />

and historic pageant which parded H igh-


f)n


<strong>The</strong> <strong>Great</strong> <strong>Western</strong> Hoad<br />

street to the Nepean River was an im posing<br />

spectacle. It was led <strong>by</strong> the mounted police<br />

and the Royal Australian A rtillery Ban 3.<br />

<strong>The</strong> Glebe Cadet Band was present, follow ed<br />

( b y a detachm ent of the N.S.W . Lancers, and<br />

the W in dsor and Penrith troop of the<br />

Mounted Rifles, with the P enrith cadets fo l­<br />

lowing. <strong>The</strong>n came the friendly societies,<br />

w ith . their banners, and the local branch J<br />

o f the N.S.W. Locom otive Engine-drivers, [<br />

Firemen, and Cleaners’ A ssociation. M ost |<br />

interesting of all was the historic pageant j<br />

with representations in character of C over- j<br />

nor M acquarie (Mr. Geoffrey Baker), G overnor<br />

Bligh (Mr. P. Earp), Sir Joseph Banks j<br />

(Mr. C. H ollier). Captain Cox ,(Mr. T. Dukes), |<br />

Captain K ing (Mr. W. N agcll), Surveyor- I<br />

General Evans (Mr. C- Thom son), the Rev.<br />

! Henry Fulton (Mr. C. E. C larke), the Rev.<br />

Sam Leigh (Mr. M. S. M ills), the Rev. Father<br />

Brennan (Mr. Les. K eary). <strong>The</strong>y wer-3<br />

dressed in the picturesque costum es of the<br />

period represented. Bringing up the rear<br />

was the Penrith Fire Brigade and several<br />

com ic turnouts were Included in the lony<br />

procession. K ing Billy, representing an aboriginal<br />

chief driving a grey horse whose J<br />

harness was largely made of stringy bark, i<br />

while on the vehicle was a “ m ia m ia" 3Q<br />

wheels. <strong>The</strong> children of the local Public<br />

school took part, the girls carrying garlands<br />

of flowers, and m aking a strikin g effect in<br />

the colour schem e. Another feature w-as an<br />

historic coach driven <strong>by</strong> Mr. Thos. Hob<strong>by</strong>, a<br />

grandson of Lieutenant H ob<strong>by</strong>, who was<br />

C ox’s right-hand man in the building o f the<br />

road. W ith its leather springs and substantial<br />

under-carriage, it showed how our<br />

grandfathers travelled. In this coach K in?<br />

George travelled to W indsor when In Australia<br />

many years ago with his brother, th i<br />

late Duke of Clarence- <strong>The</strong> Duke of E dinburgh<br />

also travelled In it on the occasion<br />

of his visit.<br />

A GREAT WORK.<br />

<strong>The</strong> procession on arrival at the Centenarv<br />

Park, Riverside, form ed up in order close to<br />

the spot where Captain W illiam Cox com ­<br />

m ence operations on the W estern-road 10J<br />

years before. A large number of people<br />

assembled here. It must have been in vivid<br />

contrast to the inauspicious m anner in which<br />

Cox started his work on that m em orable<br />

July m orning. Below was the river, near <strong>by</strong><br />

j the road bridge, and the railw ay bridge<br />

J erected’ a few years ago. On the other side<br />

were the foothills of the Blue Mountains.<br />

<strong>The</strong> railway viaduct could be plainly seen iu<br />

the distance, and a train puffing up the ,<br />

mountains, follow ed much the same course<br />

as the old road.<br />

<strong>The</strong> Mayor (Alderm an Jones) presided, and,<br />

after a brief reference to the im portance of<br />

the occasion, introduced Mr. <strong>Frank</strong> W alker,<br />

who delivered an historical address.<br />

HISTORIC REVIEW .<br />

Mr. W alker was received with applause.<br />

He recounted the incidents leading up to the<br />

discovery of the track over the Blue Mountains<br />

<strong>by</strong> Blaxland, Lawson, and W entworth,<br />

mentioning that no less than 13 attem pts had<br />

i been previously made. <strong>The</strong>n another brave<br />

] and energetic pioneer in the person of George<br />

W illiam Evans—whose grandson and greatgrandson<br />

were now present to celebrate tnei<br />

occasion— (ch eers)—had penetrated 98 m iles<br />

beyond Blaxland’s furthest point. F lood and<br />

[amine had threatened the settlem ent. G overnor<br />

Macquarie was overjoyed when he heard<br />

of the discovery. <strong>The</strong>n cam e the question of<br />

building a road. <strong>The</strong>re was no m oney, but<br />

Captain W illiam Cox, w ith an absolute fo r­<br />

getfulness of self, which did him infinite<br />

credit, volunteered his services. He left behind<br />

him the com forts of civilisa tion to sojourn<br />

in the mountains for m onths to build the road.<br />

This road was in use for 28 years, until M ajor<br />

Mitchell made a new road. Concluding, Mr.<br />

W alker paid a tribute to the men who had<br />

made possible the benefits now enjoyed.<br />

<strong>The</strong> R.A.A. Band played the N ational An-;<br />

them, and cheers were given for the King. j<br />

Afterw ards, at the Show Ground, a reception<br />

was held, when the visitors and tow nspeople<br />

met many of the descendants of the old<br />

pioneers. Among them was Mr. H arley Cox,<br />

shire engineer of the Blue M ountain Shire,<br />

grandson of Captain Cox; Mr. W illiam Evans,<br />

grandson of Surveyor-G eneral E vans; Mr. E.<br />

J Fulton, grandson of the Rev. H enry F ulton;<br />

and Mr. F. H. W oodriffe, whose fam ily first<br />

pioneered the Penrith district.<br />

THE LUNCHEON.<br />

<strong>The</strong> centenary luncheon was held in the pavilion.<br />

<strong>The</strong> Mayor, Alderm an Jones, presided;<br />

those present, including the Prim e M inister,<br />

Mr. J. Cook, and Mrs. Cook, the State P remier.<br />

Mr. W. A. Holman, and Mrs. H olm an;<br />

the M inister for Railways, Mr. H. C. H oyle, and<br />

Mrs. H oyle; Mr. E. S. Carr, M.P.. and Mrs.<br />

Carr; Mr. J. T. W all, president Blue M ountains<br />

Shire Council, and Miss W all; Alderm en F.<br />

Brelt, Mayor o f St. M arys; and Mr. and Mrs.<br />

<strong>Frank</strong> W alker.<br />

After the loyal toast had been hqnoured, the<br />

chairman said that they were celebratin g the<br />

f turning of the first sod of the Old W estern -<br />

road, and it was intended to erect a m em orial<br />

at the riverside to the rfiemory of W illiam<br />

Cox and his men. (A pplause.)<br />

<strong>The</strong> Prim e M inister, who was received enthusiastically,<br />

said that a nation was virtually<br />

dead that neglected the m ighty heroes of the<br />

past. <strong>The</strong> people o f to-day should cultivate<br />

the m emory of the past. He was afraid that<br />

they were inclined to forget this in the present<br />

m aterialistic age. A fter all, it was the great<br />

personality of the nation that counted. <strong>The</strong>y<br />

were to-day enjoying the fruits o f the la b ou r1<br />

of these men, and the people of A ustralia had;<br />

entered into a rich heritage. <strong>The</strong>y were<br />

the trustees of the grit and pluck<br />

and perseverance that had made their an cestors<br />

great, and would continue to m ake A u s­<br />

tralia a great nation.<br />

RECORDS OF THE PAST.<br />

Mr. Holman, who on rising was received<br />

with cheers, said that he shared in that spirit<br />

of congratulation that had inspired the<br />

remarks of the Prim e Minister. (C heers.)<br />

<strong>The</strong>re was feeling of heartfelt pride which<br />

the great achievem ent of to-d ay called to<br />

their minds. <strong>The</strong> Prim e M inister had refe r­<br />

red to the achievem ents o f the past, of the<br />

men who had blazed the track, but he could<br />

not help referrin g to the progress they had<br />

made since. <strong>The</strong> Governm ent o f which he<br />

was the head was the direct su ccessors to the<br />

Government that had ordered the first sod of<br />

the W estern-road to be turned. In the Lands<br />

Departm ent they had an uninterrupted su ccession<br />

of records from that day to this.<br />

(Cheers.) <strong>The</strong>re was a certain added weight<br />

of duty to preserve these records, and to<br />

stim ulate the m em ory of these deeds. Cox<br />

and his men made 101 m iles o f road over the<br />

mountains in the face of engineering diffl-<br />

Iculties of an indescribable character, and in


o n o h i . ’ i o i a e v ; t B v i C 9 4 1<br />

.<br />

...•..—*‘*»re<br />

•MflQ1<br />

■<br />

.<br />

'<br />

1 1


<strong>The</strong> Groat <strong>Western</strong> <strong>Road</strong><br />

record tim e that had not since be?n eq u a lled .;<br />

It was surprising to find that the G overnor i<br />

who did this w ork had a body of critics, who<br />

wrote to the home authorities, besm irching the<br />

name of the Government, ju st as he found was<br />

done to-day. (Laughter.)<br />

Mr. <strong>Frank</strong> W alker said that Cox c o m -'<br />

pleted the road in 6J m onths, it being 101£<br />

miles in length.<br />

Mr. E. S. Carr, who was well received, said<br />

, as a westerner he could fully appreciate the<br />

significance o f the function. Those who<br />

belonged to the west could best understand<br />

the w ork that had been opened to them <strong>by</strong><br />

their forefathers.<br />

<strong>The</strong> toast of “ <strong>The</strong> V isitors” was proposed<br />

<strong>by</strong> Mr. E. K. Bowden, and responded to <strong>by</strong><br />

Mr. T. W . K. W aldron. <strong>The</strong> Prim e M inister<br />

gave the toast of the chairman.<br />

In the afternoon a sp orts program m e was<br />

carried out, and at night a p atriotic concert<br />

was held. Y esterday special serm ons were<br />

I,reached in the churches, and at St. Stephen’ s<br />

Church of England a m em orial tablet was unveiled<br />

to the m em ory o f the Rev. H enry<br />

- Fulton. _ _____________________ ________<br />

Mr <strong>Walker</strong> s Address.<br />

Mr W alker, who is a gentleman of<br />

distinguished personality, was received<br />

with enthusiastic applause.<br />

Mr W alker said he greatly appreciated<br />

the invitation forwarded to him<br />

<strong>by</strong> the committee of the Centenary<br />

Celebra'.ions, and of having the opportunity<br />

of helping in the functions.<br />

No less than twelve attempts had<br />

been made (saia Mr W alker)) to find<br />

a pathway westward over the mountains<br />

prior to toe finding of a track<br />

<strong>by</strong> Blaxland, Lawson ana Wentworth<br />

in 1813. Following on the trail of<br />

the three early explorers, however,<br />

which went as far as Hartley Vale,<br />

another famous pioneer, Surveyor-<br />

General Evans—whose grandson and<br />

great-grandson were present that<br />

aay (cheers)—took up the task of<br />

extending the pathway, and penetrated<br />

98 miles further than Blaxland,<br />

Lawson, and Wentworth. Before the<br />

day of Blaxland’s discovery, the explorers<br />

who sought to find a w estward<br />

track, followed the course of the<br />

valleys instead of the ridges. Blaxland<br />

and his confreres, however, followed<br />

the riJges, and thus gained this<br />

key to the passage of the mountains.<br />

It was, of course, as they would note<br />

from the history of early sett'.ement,<br />

absolutely necessary to discover an<br />

ou 'le', as deve’opment was cramped,<br />

cabbined and confined in the narrow<br />

limits of the coastal district surrounding<br />

Sydney, so far settled (prior to<br />

1814). Flood and''famine also frequently<br />

threatened the settlement. So<br />

Governor Macquarie was vastly delighted<br />

to find that a practicable<br />

route for a road had been discovered.<br />

But there were, practically, no funds<br />

for the building of a road. But at<br />

Macquarie’s request Captain William<br />

Cox, of Clarendon, agreed to take<br />

up the duties of director of the proposed<br />

road work, and without waiting<br />

till such time as Government funds<br />

would be allotted for the purpose, Cox<br />

got his equipment together, and giving<br />

up home comforts, and literally<br />

his own convenience and' affairs,<br />

started on the road-building prospect<br />

before even Macquarie had posted<br />

the letter formally giving him<br />

authority as to stores, etc., some o f<br />

which Cox defrayed at his own expense.<br />

He left the comforts of civilisation<br />

to dwell in the m6untains for<br />

many a cold month to carry out his<br />

great enterprise. Mr W alker briefly<br />

de ailed the hardships borne <strong>by</strong> Cox<br />

and Hob<strong>by</strong> and their men in the<br />

course of building the road, and said<br />

that Cox’s road was in use fo r 2S<br />

years until Major Mitchell built a<br />

new road, as necissitated <strong>by</strong> the vast<br />

increase of <strong>Western</strong> settlement. Not<br />

many yards from where they had<br />

congregated Cox had had the bank<br />

cut down on that (eastern) side of the<br />

river to form the way for traffic, and<br />

so on that side had turned the first<br />

sod of the first <strong>Great</strong> <strong>Western</strong> <strong>Road</strong>,<br />

in July, 1814. Mr W alker paid a<br />

glowing tribute to the labours of the<br />

early pioneers and concluded a very<br />

interesting and sympathetic address<br />

with the _ following lines <strong>by</strong> Will<br />

Ogilvie (the Scoto-Australian poet)—<br />

<strong>The</strong>y are sleeping in the graveyards, in their<br />

silent graves apart,<br />

W ith empty arms and eager that w ould fold<br />

them to their h ea rt;<br />

<strong>The</strong> Statesmen of the buried years ; the<br />

loyal men long dead—<br />

Are i hey turning in their dreaming to the<br />

dull tramp overhead ?<br />

When they pin the stars and garters, when<br />

they grant the titles rare,<br />

<strong>The</strong> nun who earned the titles are the men<br />

who wont be there.<br />

A t th6 call of the Mayor three<br />

cheers were given for Mr W alker,<br />

and at the call of Rev J Tarn three<br />

cheers were given for “ the day we<br />

celebrate." Three cheers w ere then<br />

called for the King, and the R.A.A.<br />

Band played the National Anthem<br />

amidst a scene of great enthusiasm<br />

and rejoicing.


«<br />

t ■ o H . j a i i . , i m - r . * - r r<br />

1


<strong>The</strong> Greet <strong>Western</strong> <strong>Road</strong><br />

' n - 7 ’ * 4 -.<br />

THE ,OLD WESTERN<br />

ROAD.<br />

----------« ---------<br />

CENTENARY AT PENRITH.<br />

TU B N IN G OF F IR S T SOD.<br />

5 1 -- ■ "<br />

TO-DAY’ S CELEBEATION,<br />

I?;-M i ---------<br />

<strong>The</strong> centenary celebration to be entered<br />

upon at P enrith to-d ay is th e third in con ­<br />

nection w ith the opening up of the in terior<br />

o f New South W ales to be held within a period<br />

o f less than 14 m onths. <strong>The</strong> first took place<br />

e t Mt. Y ork, in May of la st year, to m ark<br />

the 100th anniversary o f the first crossin g of<br />

the Blue m ountains, and the second at B athurst,<br />

about six m onths later, in com m em oration<br />

o f the centenary o f the d iscovery of the W estern<br />

Plains. On the form er occasion, tribute<br />

was paid to the m em ory of W entw orth, B la x­<br />

land, and Lawson, who were the first to effect<br />

a passage over the barrier o f the great dividin<br />

g range, and on the latter tribute was paid<br />

to that of W illiam George Evans, w ho was<br />

th e first w hite m an to behold the w onderful<br />

panoram a unfolded <strong>by</strong> the fe rtile plains b e ­<br />

yond. T o-d ay It is the m em ory o f W illiam<br />

Cox, under whose supervision th e Old W estern<br />

R oad was constructed, that is t o ' be honored.<br />

W entw orth, Blaxland, and L aw son biased the<br />

tra ck across the Mountains, and Evans picked<br />

up the trail w here they le ft off, and carried<br />

It on Into the W estern P lains; but it rem ained<br />

lo r Cox to bu ild a road <strong>by</strong> m eans o f which<br />

this rich Interior was made accessible to the<br />

people o f the coastal region. <strong>The</strong> story of<br />

how, with 30 convicts, equipped w ith the crude<br />

im plem ents o f the tim e, he accom plished this<br />

in the rem arkably b rief p eriod o f six m onths<br />

from the turning o f the first sod, is graphically<br />

to ld <strong>by</strong> Mr. F rank W alker, president o f the<br />

A ustralian H istorica l Society, in a sp ecia l a r­<br />

ticle on an oth er page o f this issue. T he first<br />

aod was turned on July 18, 1814, and the rood<br />

was com pleted in January o f the follow in g year.<br />

Although P enrith was founded som e years before<br />

the con struction of the road, the d istrict<br />

ow es m uch o f its grow th and prosperity to the<br />

opening o f this gatew ay to the west, and it Is<br />

because o f the fa ct that the s ite of the turning<br />

o f the first sod is in close p roxim ity t o th e<br />

tow n that the loca l people originated th e m ovem<br />

ent which will cnlm inate in the celebration s<br />

to be held to-d ay and to-morrow. L .<br />

I<br />

j GENESIS O F PEN RITH . 1 f «<br />

<strong>The</strong> genesis o f P enrith dates fro m soon after<br />

th e settlem ent o f Sydney Cove. A ctin g under<br />

instructions from G overnor P hillip , Captain<br />

Tench and Lieutenant Daw es un dertook expeditions<br />

in the d irection o f th e B ue M ountains,<br />

and the form er, in June, 1*89, arrived<br />

w ithin v iew o f the N epean R iver. T h e name<br />

N epean was given to the g r e a t w atercourse<br />

<strong>by</strong> P hillip, a fter his friend, Sir B von Nepean,<br />

U nder-Secretary to the H om e D epartm ent, and,<br />

although there is no definite in form ation on<br />

record, it is believed that P hillip doubly honored<br />

Nepean <strong>by</strong> applying t o th e tow nsh ip the<br />

ap p ellation o f his Christian name, because for<br />

som e years the place was called B ra a . H ow<br />

th e town cam e to be named P enrith is not<br />

cle a r but it is in terestin g t o n ote th a t in the<br />

County o f Cum berland, England, th ere is a lso<br />

a tow n o f Penrith. *<br />

BR ID G IN G T H E NEPEAN.<br />

F o r many years a fter the con stru ction o f the<br />

W estern <strong>Road</strong>, a punt was the principal m eans<br />

o f tra n sp ort a cross the N epean. T h e first<br />

bridge, m ade o f w ood, was opened <strong>by</strong> G overnor<br />

F itzroy on January 1, 1856, but on the nigh t of<br />

th e w reck o f th e Dunbar, In A u gu st o f the<br />

follow in g year, it w as washed aw ay b y a<br />

flood, the first o f a severe nature, it m igh t be<br />

m entioned, sin ce 1809. A nother brid ge was<br />

subsequently erected, bu t in 1860 it m et the<br />

la te o f its predecessor. Puntage w as then<br />

reverted to, and was continued u n til 1867, when,<br />

in the m ost severe flood on record, th e punt<br />

w as carried away. Soon a fte r this the third<br />

brid ge w as built, but n ot until five fresh es in<br />

the river had washed aw ay a sim ilar num ber o f<br />

coffer dams w hich had cost som e thousands<br />

o f pounds.<br />

OPENING OF T H E R A IL W A Y .<br />

<strong>The</strong> first sod o f the railw ay lin e to P enrith<br />

w as turned on the aftern oon o f July 6, 1859,<br />

<strong>by</strong> Mr. R. T. Jam ieson, m em ber fo r the district,<br />

in the presence o f ab ou t S00 sp ecta tors, and<br />

the line was opened fo r traffic on July 7, 1862.<br />

T he line, as fa r as St. Marys, then know n as<br />

6outh Creek, was opened on May 1, 1862. <strong>The</strong><br />

rem ainder o f the tra ck t o P enrith w as required<br />

<strong>by</strong> the G overnm ent to be com pleted<br />

w ithin five m onths, b u t th e con tra ctors— an<br />

E nglish firm—refused to d o the w ork, and it<br />

was left to a Mr. Gibbons, w ho sta rted it in<br />

the second w eek of June o f th e sam e year,<br />

and finished it w ithin a m onth. N o further<br />

exten sions w ere m ade fo r five years, and during<br />

that period P enrith was the startin g place<br />

fo r coaches and team s fo r the w est, as w ell<br />

as a restin g place fo r traffic to and from S y d ­<br />

ney.<br />

D E A F AN D DUM B ARCH ITECT.<br />

R eference t o early Penrith w ould n ot be<br />

com p lete w ithout m ention o f th e once fam ous<br />

R egen tville H ouse, said t o have been planned<br />

<strong>by</strong> a deaf and dumb arch itect nam ed K itch en,<br />

to the orders o f the late S ir John Jam ieson.<br />

I t was erected about 90 years ago, ab ou t three j<br />

m iles from Penrith, but only a few stones now |


J b ls o H i r i e J - a © ' * o rC S S g [THank]<br />

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<strong>The</strong> <strong>Great</strong> <strong>Western</strong> Boad<br />

rem ain to m ark th e h istoric site.<br />

<strong>The</strong> property was described as follow s when<br />

pnt up fo r sale in 1847:—<br />

“ R egentville House, su bstan tially b u ilt of<br />

stone, w ith a tasteful colonnade in fron t and<br />

on each side, surm ounted w ith an iron balcony,<br />

from which there is a d eligh tful p rosp ect of<br />

the adjacen t country. It contains an entrance<br />

hall and 15 room s, v i z , tw o draw ing-room s, j<br />

one dining-room , tw o breakfast-room s, one<br />

study, one library and cabinet, and nin e bedroom<br />

s. <strong>The</strong> prinqipal stairca se is a lso stone<br />

built and circular. A laundry and washhouse<br />

are attached, and there are spacious cellars<br />

under the house. <strong>The</strong> le ft w ing con sists o f an<br />

im mense coach-h ouse w ith store above. <strong>The</strong><br />

left w ing contains the billiard -room . <strong>The</strong> outofflces<br />

are a lso stone built, and con sist of two<br />

kitchens and a bakehouse, com m unicating with<br />

the house <strong>by</strong> a covered w ay—a servants’ hall<br />

and seven bedroom s ad join in g; the w hole being<br />

under one roof. A ll the ab ove offices a re con ­<br />

tained w ithin an area o f 180ft. square, enclosed<br />

<strong>by</strong> a substantial stone w all about 10ft.<br />

high.<br />

•<br />

" t o the rea r o f the foregoin g, adjoin ing the<br />

walls, are the handsom e ston e stables, which<br />

consist of on e 10-stall and on e 4-stall, with<br />

three large boxes, and tw o harness room s. <strong>The</strong><br />

lofts a re over the above stabling, and are<br />

160ft. in length <strong>by</strong> 15ft. in breadth. <strong>The</strong> stable<br />

is enclosed <strong>by</strong> a paling fence, and contains also<br />

three loose boxes, slab-bu ilt, w ith lo ft over<br />

them,<br />

“ A djoinin g the stable yard, at the back, lies<br />

the garden, coverin g abou t fo u r acres, fu ll of<br />

choice fru it trees, vegetables, etc., and con ­<br />

tainin g a gardener’ s house. In the rea r of the<br />

garden a shed is partitioned off and railed in<br />

to accom m odate about 30 c o lts ; it is well<br />

secured <strong>by</strong> a substantial fen ce, and has a paddock<br />

attach ed, w hich contains stockyards and<br />

drafting yards. <strong>The</strong> vineyard is on the left of<br />

the house, and contains about seven acres o f<br />

terraced vines, and about three and a half<br />

acres of field vineyard. It has also a stonebu<br />

ilt house, containing fou r room s, a large<br />

cellar for m anufacturing wine, w ith w ine press<br />

and s tM ."<br />

<strong>The</strong>n follow ed a d escrip tion of a large dam,<br />

about 800ft. in circum ference, som e 10ft. in<br />

depth, which had never been dry. It is also<br />

stated that the vineyard w as let fo r £10O a<br />

year, and a portion of the land (com prising<br />

about 150 acres) for £100 a year. <strong>The</strong> property<br />

Tom prlsed som e 1760 acres, about 600 o f which<br />

were cleared and stumped.<br />

SIB HENRY PARKES AS LABORER.<br />

R egentville is historic in an oth er way. <strong>The</strong>re<br />

the late Sir Henry Parkes was em ployed as<br />

a laborer. He w orked in the vineyard for six"<br />

m onths fn the year 1839-40, and was paid at<br />

the rate o f £25 a year and rations. It is also i<br />

a m atter o f historic in terest that R egentville<br />

was the birthplace o f th e late Sir Thom as<br />

Bent, a form er P rem ier o f V ictoria, w ho was<br />

bom there over 70 years ago.<br />

LAVISH H O SPITALITY.<br />

Sir John Jam ieson was reputed t o b e lavish j<br />

in his hospitality at R egen tville H ouse. In<br />

M arch, 1835, he gave a fancy dress ball, at<br />

which m ore than 300 guests w ere entertained,<br />

at a cost o f between £700 and £800.<br />

An old resident o f P enrith rem em bers the<br />

R egentville coach and fou r, w ith postilion s,<br />

conveying S ir John Jam ieson and a com pany of<br />

guests to the neigh boring ra ces a t Penrith,<br />

W indsor, or Hom ebush, as the ca se m ight be.<br />

<strong>The</strong> sam e gentlem an a lso reca lls that the s ta ir ­<br />

case at R egen tville H ouse w a s a m arvel of*<br />

staircases. H e says that he saw h orses ridden |<br />

up the stairs on several occa sion s, b y s p o rtsmen<br />

o f his tim e. <strong>The</strong> stables w e re also r e ­<br />

m arkable in their way, accom m od atin g 40<br />

horses, m ost of them blood stock , as Sir John<br />

was a great horse-breeder and sportsm an . H e<br />

also had a racecourse on th o p rop erty, and it<br />

was h ere th at h e prom oted the first great race<br />

m eeting o f any note in N ew South W ales. A<br />

further instance o f Sir Joh n’s lavish hospitality<br />

is supplied <strong>by</strong> the fa ct th at o n on e occa sion<br />

he entertained a large gathering o f nearly<br />

5000 persons w h o attended the races.<br />

T he hospitable old knight died on June 29,<br />

1844, and was buried in St. Stephen's ground<br />

at Penrith. H is fam ous hou se w as destroyed<br />

<strong>by</strong> fire 20 years later.<br />

RECORD O F STEADY G RO W TH .<br />

<strong>The</strong> grow th o f P enrith has b een o f a steady<br />

nature. In the m id-fifties, accord in g to the<br />

oldest living inhabitant. It com p rised “ not m ore<br />

than 30 houses from top to b ottom ,’ ' but to-day<br />

it has about 5000 inhabitants, w ith a d istrict<br />

population considerably larger. <strong>The</strong> - staple industries<br />

a re agriculture and fru it-grow in g. <strong>The</strong><br />

tow n itself is an im portant railw ay centre, and<br />

num bers am ongst its residents a large p rop ortion<br />

o f em ployees o f the R ailw ay C om m issioners.<br />

<strong>The</strong> p roclam ation o f P en rith as a m unicipality<br />

took p lace on May 12, 1871, and a t the<br />

first election in the su cceeding m onth the<br />

follow in g nine gentlem en w ere elected ald erm<br />

en:—Jam es John R iley, E dw in Jam es W ilshire,<br />

Austen F orrest W ilsh ire, Thom as Smith,<br />

John M atthews, P eter Sm eaton, Thom as A n ­<br />

drews, John Reddan, and D on ald B eatson. <strong>The</strong><br />

first m eeting o f cou n cil w a s h e ld on July 13,<br />

1871, in a cottage (leased fo r cou n cil purposes)<br />

at the top end o f the m ain street, w h ich is<br />

now occupied as a private residen ce. Mr. R iley<br />

was elected M ayor, and Mr. Joh n P rice cou n cil<br />

clerk. A t this m eeting, M essrs. J. T. R yan,<br />

ex-M .L.A ., and T. R. Smith, ex-M .L .A . (now<br />

residing at St. M arys) w ere appointed valuers,<br />

under w hose supervision the first road from<br />

Penrith to Bathurst, a distance o f ju st over<br />

100 m iles, w as constructed in six m onths.<br />

Thirty con victs, under a guard o f eight<br />

soldiers, w ere em ployed in th o work.<br />

A t this tim e, the m unicipality took in M ulgoa<br />

on the south, C astlereagh on the north, and<br />

extended to the Nepean R iver on the w est and<br />

K ingsw ood on the east. L a ter, M ulgoa and<br />

Castlereagh seceded, and form ed m unicipalities<br />

o f their own. <strong>The</strong> su ccessive M ayors o f P enrith<br />

m unicipality have been A id. R iley, Jam es<br />

M'Carthy (then residin g a t C ranebrook, three


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<strong>The</strong> <strong>Great</strong> <strong>Western</strong> <strong>Road</strong><br />

WM. COX,<br />

talles from P enrith), Donald Keatson, Alfred<br />

C olless, G eorge B. Besley, M ichael L on g (nine<br />

tim es M ayor; now residing a t Lam bridge, near<br />

Penrith, in his 77th year), Jam es Evans, A. W .<br />

Stephens, Arthur Judges, A. V. Reid (now r e ­<br />

siding at M anly), W illiam P layer, W . C. F u l­<br />

ton, F. D. W oodriff, F. M. V ine, Dr. H iggins,<br />

H. J. F Neale, and Thom as Jones (present<br />

M ayor). <strong>The</strong> second town clerk was Mr. H enry<br />

Eager (a cousin of the Mr. Geoffrey Eager,<br />

P.M .G.). <strong>The</strong>n follow ed Messrs. R obert Stuart,<br />

sen., R obert Stuart, jun., Nash, Henry Fraser.<br />

J. G. Bissland, W. H. W rench, and E. W .<br />

Orth, the present occupant of the position. <strong>The</strong><br />

'aldermen in the present coun cil a r e :— Aid.<br />

Thom as Jones (M ayor), Arthur Judges, W . S.<br />

W alker, John Heaney, C larrie H ollier, J. T.<br />

Huxley, Joshua Field, M ichael Coffey, and W a l­<br />

ter I,ance. <strong>The</strong> tow n boasts a n ever-failin g<br />

water supply and an u p -to-d ate e le ctric-lig h t­<br />

ing plant. It Is 6aid to have been the third<br />

place in A ustralasia to secure an electriclightina<br />

service. <strong>The</strong> first h otel in the tow n,<br />

known as G overnor GIpps’ Inn, was erected <strong>by</strong><br />

a Mr. Josephson, in 1831.<br />

AX HISTORIC BUGLE.<br />

Amongst the historic trophies in the p ossession<br />

of the Penrith people Is a silver bugle,<br />

which t u presented <strong>by</strong> the Udlei ol Penrith<br />

in 1861 to the old P enrith V olunteer Rifle Corps,<br />

form ed on June 29 o f the preceding year. <strong>The</strong><br />

com pany was disbanded in 1878, and the trophy<br />

is now a treasured possession o f the Penrith<br />

Citizen Forces. <strong>The</strong> bugle, w hich was m anufactured<br />

in London at a cost o f 40 guineas, bears<br />

the follow in g in scrip tion :— "P resen ted to the<br />

Penrith Volunteer Rifles <strong>by</strong> the ladies o f the<br />

district of Penrith, to evince their cord ia l appreciation<br />

of the loyalty and p atriotism shown<br />

<strong>by</strong> the enrolm ent o f the corp s.”<br />

<strong>The</strong> first record o f a place o f public entertainm<br />

ent in Penrith refers to the D epot Inn,<br />

1823-4. It was controlled <strong>by</strong> Sergeant B aylis,<br />

and evidently under m ilitary su pervision ; but<br />

it afterw ards developed into the K in g ’ s Head,<br />

which house was situated near the Bite o f the<br />

present court house.<br />

H OSPITAL W ITH O U T PATIENTS.<br />

Penrith boasts a number o f p u blic in stitu ­<br />

tions, but pernaps m e old est is th e hospital.<br />

<strong>The</strong> original building -was erected in 1857, at a<br />

cost of over £1100. It was tw o -sto rie d and<br />

j of brick, and was located at the eastern end<br />

o f the town. A m ongst the first com m ittee of<br />

m anagem ent w ere M essrs. George Cox, J. T.<br />

Ryan, J. J. R iley, R . Copeland L ethbridge, E.<br />

K ing Cox, R. T. Jam ison, John Single, John<br />

Perry, the Rev. George V idal, Jam es M 'Carthy,<br />

A. Fraser, R. Brooks. <strong>The</strong> m edical officers<br />

were Drs. W illm ott and H aylock.<br />

In 1872 there were no patien ts fo r a<br />

period of over three m onths, and, in con sequence,<br />

the building was closed. L ater, it was<br />

pulled down, and the bricks w ere used in the<br />

erection o f a cottage at Castlereagh. It waa<br />

not until 1890 that it w as decided, a t a public<br />

m eeting, to open an oth er hospital. Prem ises<br />

w ere rented till 1895, and then the present<br />

building was erected, the con tra ct p rice being<br />

£1170. Since that tim e extensive im provem ents<br />

and additions have been made. <strong>The</strong>se include<br />

an operating theatre, a fever ward, and nu rses’<br />

quarters; and the institution now ranks as one<br />

o f the m ost u p -to-d a te outside the m etrop olis.<br />

Mr. S. E. Lees, ex-M .L.A ., was elected p resident<br />

in 1895, and Has held the p osition ever<br />

“OLDEST OF THEM ALL.”<br />

I<br />

____<br />

HALE AND HEARTY AT 93.<br />

OLD LADY’S REMINISCENCES.<br />

<strong>The</strong>re are doubtless s till livin g in Penrith<br />

d istrict a few scores of people w ho rem em ber<br />

the days before the railw ay line w as extended<br />

to that centre, but perhaps the old est of tbem<br />

all is Mrs. Edward Cane, who resides a short<br />

distance from the sp ot w here the first sod of<br />

the <strong>Great</strong> W estern R oad was turned a cen ­<br />

tury ago to-m orrow . This old lady is in her<br />

93rd year, and still hale and hearty. She is<br />

in alm ost p erfect physical health, and, apart<br />

from a slight deafness, is also in fu ll possession<br />

o f her facu lties. H er brain is as clear as<br />

it was in the prim e o f her w om anhood, and<br />

she is endowed w ith a rem arkably reten tive<br />

memory, which enables h er to recou nt, in m ost<br />

interesting fashion, rem iniscences o f the m ore<br />

notable events in the history of th e d istrict<br />

subsequent to her arrival in A u stralia over<br />

h a’ a centurv at;o.


<strong>The</strong> Greet <strong>Western</strong> <strong>Road</strong><br />

.THIRTY-FIVE DESCENDANTS<br />

Mrs. Cane is one o£ the few aged residents<br />

of the Nepean Plains who is not a native. She<br />

was born In London, and, w ith h er husband<br />

and three children, cam e to A ustralia in 1857.<br />

<strong>The</strong>ir arrival was about a w eek a fte r the |<br />

lived in the one house iu H igh Street, n ear<br />

the Nepean R iver, ever since. H er husband<br />

died 16 years back, at the age o f 80, but the<br />

three children still survive. <strong>The</strong> eldest o f<br />

these, Mrs. Haynes, o f L em on grove, has ju st<br />

com pleted “ the allotted 8pan,, o f th ree-score<br />

MRS. EDWARD CANE, THE OLDEST RESIDENT OF PENRITH.<br />

<strong>The</strong> old lady, w ho is 93 years o f age, rem arked to the cam era man that he w as<br />

“ pretty qu ick " in photographing her, and added: “ T here w ere no jfhotographs in<br />

my day. W e had to s it dow n w hile they painted ou r likeness.”<br />

wreck of the Dunbar, and tw o of the children<br />

secured som e relics from the w reckage, one or<br />

two of which are still in the p ossession o f the<br />

fam ily. A lm ost im m ediately after reaching<br />

Sydney the Canes found their way t o Penrith,<br />

and, up till about 12 m onths ago, Mrs. Cane had<br />

years and ten, w hile the tw o oth ers—Mr. E d­<br />

ward Cane, o f N orth Sydney, and Mrs. Jam es<br />

Baker, o f Penrith— are 66 and 63 yeare o f age<br />

respectively. <strong>The</strong>re are also 13 g ran d -ch ild -<br />

ren and 19 great-grand-child ren , o r 35 d escen ­<br />

dants in all. Am ongst the gran d -ch ild ren is<br />

Mr. E. G. Baker, G overnm ent P rin ter a t P o rt


« T i d w t i $ t i 7


\<br />

<strong>The</strong> <strong>Great</strong> <strong>Western</strong> Hoad<br />

Mores<strong>by</strong>. Mrs. Cane a lso has tw o surviving<br />

brothers, the elder, the H on. Dr. J. S. H elm c-<br />

ken, of Vancouver, who w as associated in the<br />

m ovem ent fo r the F ederation of Canada, being<br />

89 years of age: <strong>The</strong> oth er brother, who r e ­<br />

sides in England, is 84 years of age.<br />

O P E N IN G O F T H E R A I L W A Y .<br />

“ When I first cam e to P en rith ," said Mrs.<br />

Cane, “ settlem ent was very scattered, and there<br />

were not m ore than 30 houses all told. It w as<br />

not until five years later, about 1862, I think,<br />

that the railw ay was opened here. Needless to<br />

say, there was a dem onstration worthy o f the<br />

occasion, and people Rocked from all parts of<br />

the district to w itness the unique spectacle.<br />

Some time afterw ards a sta rt was made w ith<br />

the construction of the railw ay across the<br />

Mountains. <strong>The</strong>re was no bridge across the<br />

Nepean in those days, although I understood<br />

that there was a sort of one before I cam e,<br />

but it was washed away. Teams, conveying<br />

merchandise to the in terior, w ere conveyed<br />

across on a punt. This punt was also used<br />

to take over the m aterials em ployed in the<br />

construction of the railw ay. I rem em ber the<br />

first two engines taken across. One was<br />

called “ <strong>The</strong> G overnor-G eneral,” and bore the<br />

number 5—thus showing th a t there w ere few<br />

engines in the colony at the time— and the<br />

other was called “ <strong>The</strong> N ative Bear.” L ater<br />

on, when the line had been pushed as fa r as<br />

W entworth F alls, the station was about h a lf<br />

a m ile further on than the present building,<br />

and a bridge had been b u ilt across the river,<br />

the line was thrown open to traffic. <strong>The</strong> flret<br />

train consisted o f an engine and a brake van—<br />

a very crude affair. Mr. C harlie K ellett, local<br />

postm aster at the tim e, w ho had charge of<br />

the mails, and m y son -in -law , Mr. Baker, who,<br />

until his retirem ent som e tim e ago, had been<br />

in the railw ay service fo r about 50 years, w ere<br />

am ongst those who went on the first trip.”<br />

T H E F L O O D O F ’ t>7.<br />

“ It was rather a coinciden ce,” proceeded M r9.<br />

Cane, “ that at Just about th e tim e the bridge<br />

was com pleted a flood cam e and’ washed away<br />

the punt, which was never replaced. <strong>The</strong> old<br />

bridge—a stone one—still stands, and w ill<br />

stand for years, tu t it is now used for vehicular<br />

and pedestrian traffic, as the railway people<br />

a few years ago built an Iron la ttice-w ork<br />

bridge for the trains to tra vel over. <strong>The</strong> flood<br />

to which I ju st referred w es the great flood o f<br />

1S67. I rem em ber it well. <strong>The</strong>re was one vast<br />

sea from the foot of the Mountains to Fulton’s<br />

shop, in the cen tre of the town. It w rought<br />

terrible damage. Tfce w ater rose in our house<br />

t o a depth o f a fo o t or tw o .' B oats passed right<br />

alon g here rescuing people, w ho were taken to<br />

the court-house. W e. w ere taken there, too.<br />

<strong>The</strong>re was another flood som e years later, but<br />

I refused to go to the cou rt-h ou se on that occa ­<br />

sion. I went to a friend’s place ju st up the<br />

street.”<br />

B L A C K S A N D C H IN E S E .<br />

! Mrs. Cane has vivid recollection s of the<br />

i blacks who inhabited the neighborhood in the<br />

: early days, end o f the Chinese, who used to<br />

| march along the road in sin gle file to the gold<br />

diggings. “ When I first, cam e,” she said, “ I<br />

was terrified <strong>by</strong> the blacks and roam ing cattle,<br />

because in London I was unaccustom ed to<br />

sights o f that kind. I did not relish the p resence<br />

of the Chinese, either. <strong>The</strong>y used to<br />

com e along in droves, en route to the Turon<br />

and other goldfields. and I have seen scores of<br />

them camped opposite this very house. Nor<br />

were the blacks enam ored o f the Chinese. One<br />

old blackfellow . describin g the Chinaman, said.<br />

It yabber like it cock a too; tail (p ig-tail) like it<br />

yarraman (horse); w alk like it w obbler (duck)-<br />

him think it kill sheep.’ ”<br />

I could talk to you fo r hours.” said the old<br />

ady, in conclusion, “ but I have told you enough<br />

for one interview. I rem em ber lots about tho<br />

bushranging days, and the ex ploits o f various<br />

‘ esperadoes. but those things. I think, should<br />

j be allow ed to remain buried in the oblivion of<br />

the past.”


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A N H I S T O R I C C O A C H .<br />

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©<br />

3<br />

»<br />

o<br />

to<br />

p.<br />

This coach, which is to be driven in to-day's centenary procession at Penrith <strong>by</strong> Mr. Thomas H ob<strong>by</strong>, grandson o f<br />

Lieutenant H ob<strong>by</strong> (who was associated with Captain W illiam Cox) was used to drive the late I>uke o f Clarence, then<br />

Heir-Apparent, and the Duke o f York, now K ing George, around W indsor district, on tho occasion of their visit to<br />

Australia many years ago. it was also availed of as a means of conveyance <strong>by</strong> the lute Duke o f Edinburgh, when<br />

_____ ’ ’ ______ ___________ he was iu New South Wales iii 1S&S.


J b s o i l / i n * ’ -im*i x ) * * f f<br />

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£.. —— ---------- ?------ *--- ------1-—— --------■¥*?*■■ ------------------------- ----------


<strong>The</strong> <strong>Great</strong> <strong>Western</strong> Hoad<br />

Convict encampment at foot of Victoria Pass<br />

<strong>The</strong> site of this stockade is at the foot<br />

of the old Victoria ^ass,about a £ mile from the<br />

road to the right. A swampy stream runs through<br />

the valley here formed,and a series of mounds in<br />

a cleared space on the near side of the stream,<br />

marks the s^ot where the buildings formerly stood.<br />

On the opposite side of the stream on<br />

rising ground,was the Commandant's house,and at<br />

the rear,was an old well,partly filled in when<br />

visited in 1906.<br />

<strong>The</strong> cleared space above referred to<br />

measures 41 yards,east to west,and 75 yards,north<br />

to south at its widest part.<br />

This encampment was in use for nearly<br />

three years,during the construction of the Pass<br />

in 1852 - 1835,and contained about 200 prisoners,<br />

working in chains. Late in the last century,<br />

(circa,1890) the ring-bolts in the trees,to which<br />

the convicts were chained could be seen,but an<br />

extensive bush fire later on swept over the locality<br />

and the trees were burned.<br />

<strong>The</strong> remains of the powder magazine may<br />

still be seen to the left of the pass,on the<br />

Hartley side of the Causeway,and at the upper end<br />

of the Causev


I ) » o H j j r i € i ' s * W J - j s t o - i D # r f f 7o [ b W k ]<br />

!<br />

,<br />

-


<strong>The</strong> <strong>Great</strong> <strong>Western</strong> Hoad<br />

THE ROMANCE OF THE<br />

WESTERN ROAD.<br />

Discovery, Survey, andConstractim<br />

ANIGHT WiTH THE PIONEERS.<br />

T h e h istory or A u stra lia , said M r. F ra n k<br />

W a lk er, in the cou rse o f a p a p er th a t h*<br />

read b efore the H isto rica l S o cie ty ,<br />

con ta in s n o m ore in terestin g an d rom a n tic<br />

story th an th at co n n e cte d w ith the d is co ­<br />

very, su rv ey , and co n stru ctio n o f our m ain<br />

W estern road— the g re a t th o ro u g h fa re w h ich<br />

y ears b e fo re th e in tro d u ctio n o f ra ilw a y s<br />

ca rried the traffic in to the h ea rt o f the<br />

m ou n tain s, and b e y o n d them to the fe rtile<br />

plain s a n a rich c o u n tr y in th e w est. N o<br />

su ch sto ry o f p eril an d h a rd sh ip, o f in d o m ­<br />

itable cou ra ge, of h e a rt-b re a k in g fa ilu res,<br />

and fin ally ot rew a rd th at su cce ss brin gs, a rs<br />

con n ecteu w ith ou r oth e r m ain th o ro u g h ­<br />

fa re s— the G rea t N orth ern a n d S ou th ern<br />

road s. T h e \\ estern road alon e ca n cla im<br />

these, an d the sp len d id w o rk u n dertaken<br />

<strong>by</strong> ou r h a rd y p ion eers in those fa r - o ff d a y s<br />

at the b e g in n in g o f the n in eteen th cen tu ry<br />

w ill stan d fo r all tim e.<br />

F o r n ea rly 25 y e a rs a fte r the a r riv a l o f<br />

the F irs t F leet that g re a t n a tu ra l barrier,<br />

the B lu e M ou n tain s, su cce s s fu lly defied<br />

e v e r y e ffo rt to su rm ou n t it. TBme a n d<br />

a gain w ere a tte m p ts m ade, bu t a ll to n o<br />

purpose, an d the e x te n t o f the c o lo n y w e s t­<br />

w ard w a s but a b a re 40-m ile lim it from<br />

S ydn ey. it is 0:1 re co rd that L ie u te n a n t-<br />

G overn or F o v e a u x , in on e or his co m m u n i­<br />

ca tio n s to' the H om e a u th orities, d esp a ired<br />

o f e v er seein g the c o lo n y In co m e o f a n y<br />

im p orta n ce. ‘ N a tu re,” he said ,, "h a d all<br />

too rigid ly defined its b ou n d a ries, an d the<br />

lim it o f settlem en t an d p ro d u ctio n w a s<br />

le a ch e d w h ere th at fo r b id d in g c h a in (of<br />

m ou n tain s u p reared its som b re c re s ts .”<br />

T he p a p er then g a v e in d eta il the a ttem p t<br />

m ade b y G overn or P h illip , in the m on th of<br />

M ay. 1,8S. to find a p assa ge, bu t in v a in ;<br />

and d ea lt w ith the su cce ssiv e e x p e d itio n s ot<br />

L ieu ten an t D a w es in 1793, S u rgeon G eorge<br />

B a ss in 17S6. M ilson (th e c o n v ic t ;, C a ley (th e<br />

b ota n ist), and lastly, th a t o f E n sig n B a r-<br />

allier in 1803, lead in g u p to the final d esp a tch<br />

o f B laxlan d , W e n tw o rth , an d L a w so n in<br />

M ay, 1813.<br />

P o rtra its w ere then th row n upon the<br />

screen o f th ose m en w h o w ere p rin cip a lly<br />

resp on sible for the o p e n in g u p o f the rou te<br />

to the w est, viz., M a jo r -G e n e ra l L a ch la n<br />

M acqu a rie, G reg ory B la x la n d , W illia m<br />

C h a rles W en tw orth , L ieu ten a n t L a w son ,<br />

G eorge W illia m E v a n s (D e p u ty -S u r v e y o r -<br />

G en era l), L ieu ten a n t W illia m C ox. and,<br />

lastly. M a jo r (a fte r w a rd s Sir T h o m a s ) M itchell<br />

T h e jo u rn e y o f B la x la n d an d p a rty w a s<br />

then clo sely follow ed , a n d n u m erou s e x tra cts<br />

from h is jo u r n a l w ere qu oted . T h e sta rt<br />

w a s m ad e from E m u F ord , an d m en tion<br />

w a s a lso m ade o f E m u Islan d , w h ich , o w in g<br />

to the d eflection o£ the ch a n n el o f the r iv e r,<br />

a t the p resen t d a y is n o w ob lite ra te d . I t<br />

o r ig in a lly la y a sh ort d ista n ce to the n o r th ­<br />

w est o f the ra ilw a y line w h ere it cro s se s the<br />

river. V iew s w ere sh ow n o f L en n ox B rid g e ,<br />

con stru cte d b y th e c o n v ic t s in 1839, a n d<br />

a p ortion o f th e road on th e L a p sto n e H ill.<br />

In the n e ig h b o rh o o d o f L in d en se v e ra l v ie w s<br />

o f the o rig in a l road w ere th ro w n upon the<br />

screen, taken from p la ces q u ite rem ote fr o m<br />

the p resent h ig h w a y . T h e “ c a ir n o f sto n e s ”<br />

m en tion ed b y B la x la n d in h is jo u rn a l, w'as,<br />

the lectu rer said, p resu m ed to h a v e been<br />

erected b y B ass, but n o tra ce o f it has e v e r<br />

been fou n d , th o u g h se v e ra l e x p e d itio n s,<br />

consistoi m em bers o f th e H is to rica l S o ­<br />

ciety, h a ve been d esp a tch ed in se a rch o f<br />

it. T h e fa rth e st p oin t rea ch ed b y B la x la n d<br />

a n d p a rty w a s d escrib e d u n til the tim e<br />

ca m e w h en th eir p ro v isio n s w e r e n e a rly e x ­<br />

pended, th eir cloth es an d sh oes in bad c o n ­<br />

d ition , an d the w h ole p a rty s u ffe rin g m ore<br />

or less i fro m v a rio u s v o m p la in t s , a g g r a ­<br />

v a te d b y the toilsom e w ork th e y w ere e n ­<br />

g a g ed upon. On S u n d a y, J u n e 6, a fte r an<br />

a b sen ce o f 27 d ays, the ex p e d itio n on ce m ore<br />

crossed th e N epean, an d th e g re a t w o r k<br />

th a t B la x la n d had set h im se lf t o d o w a s a c»<br />

com p lish ed .<br />

T h e n ext p h a s e o f the p a p e r d ealt w ith<br />

the su rv ey o f the route, fo llo w in g B la x la n d 's<br />

tra ck and b ey on d it to w h ere B a th u rst n o w<br />

stands. T h is w a s p e r fo r m e d b y G eorg e W illiam<br />

"E v a n s, an d on h is re tu rn he reported<br />

in g lo w in g term s o f 'the m a g n ifice n t c o u n tr y<br />

he had seen b eyon d the m ou n ta in s. M a c ­<br />

qu arie had issu ed a G o v e rn m e n t ord er,<br />

w h ich w a s g iv e n in d eta il, in w h ich d ue<br />

a ck n o w le d g m e n t o f the g o o d w o r k p e rfo rm ­<br />

ed b y B la x la n d an d p a r ty w a s m ad e, a n d<br />

su b sta n tia l re w a rd s in th e sh a p e o f lan d<br />

g ra n ts w ere m ad e to them . E v a n s a lso<br />

ca m e in fo r h is share, and he w a s a p p o in t­<br />

ed D ep u ty L a n d S u rv e y o r in V a n D ie m e n 's<br />

L an d .<br />

T h e third an d last sta g e o f the p ap er w a s<br />

reach ed w h en th e c irc u m s ta n ce s w h ich led<br />

to the c o n s tru ctio n o f the first r o a d <strong>by</strong> L ie u ­<br />

ten an t W illia m C ox w ere given - It w a s a<br />

v o lu n ta ry offer on his p a rt to su p erin ten d<br />

the co n stru ctio n o f the road , an d M a c ­<br />

q u arie g la d ly availed h im self o f it. A le t­<br />

ter w ritten b y the G o v e rn o r to L ie u te n a n t<br />

C ox -sets fo rth in d eta il the p a r tic u la rs c o n ­<br />

cern in g th e m a k in g o f th e road, and w ith<br />

a p a rty o f 30 c o n v ic ts an d e ig h t sold iers,<br />

fo rm in g a m ilita ry g u a rd , th e w o rk w a s<br />

com m erfced on J u ly 14, 1814. B la x la n d 's<br />

h e ro ic task w a s one th a t d e s e rv e s e v e r y<br />

com m en d a tion , bu t th*i w ork u n d erta k en b y<br />

C ox w a s o f a fa r m ore a rd u o u s d escrip tion .<br />

T h e fo rm e r h a d to cu t a tra ck th rou g h the<br />

scru b , bu t to C ox fell the ta sk o f c o n s t r u c t ­<br />

in g a p rop er c a r ria g e road, w ith brid ges,<br />

cu lv erts, em b a n k m en ts, & c.. & c., an d t a k ­<br />

in g in to a cco u n t the sm a lln ess o f the -workin<br />

g p a r ty , and the sh ort s p a ce o f tim e, v iz.,<br />

six m on th s, in w h ich the roa d w a s c o m p le t­<br />

ed in e v e ry d eta il, too m u ch p ra ise c a n n o t<br />

Be b estow ed upon the m an w h o a tte m p te d<br />

and su ccessfu lly , a ccom p lish ed this h e rcu le a n<br />

task. H is jo u r n a l o f each d a y 's progressm<br />

in u tely and c a r e fu lly , w ritte n , a f d w ith<br />

n o su perflu ou s m a tte r in it fro m b e g in n in g<br />

t o end, is, d ecla red Mr. W a lk er, on e o f the<br />

m a rve,!= o f the age. It is as in t e ­<br />

re stin g as a n o v e l, -because it is a re co rd o f<br />

.■ c°,0niRl u n d erta k in g up to th a t<br />

tim e, and it is a record th a t will a p p ea l to<br />

In r;;’ e , 1s ^ raI lan3 fo r ce n tu rie s to com e.<br />

^ 0, ' T rK)r Mac


i3 0 ... S m o i 'J e x i l '<br />

><br />

.<br />

‘<br />

'<br />

.<br />

'<br />

'<br />

'


T<br />

<strong>The</strong> <strong>Great</strong> <strong>Western</strong> Hoad<br />

73<br />

am e the great rou te t o .t h e w est.<br />

d ia ry o f th is trip, kept <strong>by</strong> M a jo r A n till, is<br />

still in existen ce, and is a m ost in terestin g<br />

a n d h istorica l docu m en t.<br />

In His con clu d in g rem a rk s the lectu rer<br />

said he had en d eavored to a w a k en som e<br />

little in terest in the h is to ry an d rom a n ce<br />

con n ected w ith our grea t w estern .h ig h w a y ,<br />

an d in th ose w o rth y p ion eers o f a p ast age,<br />

t*\ w h ose self-sa crificin g la b ors this co u n try<br />

ow es so m uch. O f su ch m en as B la xla n d ,<br />

L a w son , and W e n tw o rth , G eorge W illia m<br />

E van s. L ieu ten an t Wri!lia m C ox, an d M a jor<br />

M itchell, an d n ot even fo r g e ttin g the a u to ­<br />

cra tic b u t level-h ea d ed M acqu a rie, *any<br />

cou n try in the w orld had reason to be proud.<br />

H e tru sted th at the d a y w as n ot fa r d is ­<br />

ta n t w h en A u stra lia n s w ou ld su ita b ly r e ­<br />

cog n ise the w orth o f these m en b y the e r e c ­<br />

tion o f som e m ore fittin g m em oria ls than<br />

th ose w e can boa st o f to -d a y .<br />

N ot the least in terestin g o f the m a n y la n ­<br />

tern slid es th row n on to the screen w a s one<br />

sh ow in g th at d u rin g a p eriod o f twelve, years<br />

M r W a lk er had. w h ile on tou r, cy cle d a d is ­<br />

tance o f 27.445 m iles. T h e lectu rer re m a rk ­<br />

ed that su ch a m eans o f rap id, safe, an 1 in ­<br />

expensive. locom otion a lon e m ade it p ossible<br />

to v isit an d p h o to g ra p h all the p la ces that<br />

a a a been p ictu re d th at ev en in g .<br />

S<br />

. .


PAGES<br />

74-138<br />

ARE BLANK


<strong>The</strong> Greet western lload<br />

i.esterti ttoad,nr Linden<br />

This section of road<br />

runs parallel with the<br />

railway,at Linden,and<br />

is not far from-the re<br />

nowEted "oaley's impulse<br />

discovered in iyi6,hy<br />

a party of members of<br />

the Australian iiis tor- i<br />

ical Society. <strong>The</strong> fi^<br />

ure in the illustration<br />

is the late Dr nouison<br />

for many years one of<br />

the leading lights of<br />

the above bociety.<br />

J^iction of old<br />

new roads<br />

<strong>The</strong> figure in the foreground,Mr<br />

J.L.Maiden,is standing<br />

on a portion of Dox*s road<br />

whilst below him,the present<br />

road is also visible. In the<br />

background is the railway line<br />

the view thus giving in one<br />

glance three separate highways<br />

embracing a period,to the pres<br />

~ent day,of 107 years.


■<br />

|4o<br />

r j > \ * M


<strong>The</strong> <strong>Great</strong> <strong>Western</strong> <strong>Road</strong>.<br />

II<br />

Lo<br />

8 i f /<br />

Mount Blaxland.<br />

<strong>The</strong> cairn marks the<br />

approximate site vvhere<br />

Gregory blaxland stood<br />

on May 51st,lbl£,and<br />

came to the decision to<br />

abandon further exploration<br />

and return to Sydney.<br />

At the time of<br />

the Centenary Celebrations,<br />

in 1S13, a tablet,<br />

suitably inscribed was<br />

carried up to the summit<br />

of this mountain,and<br />

firmly bolted to the<br />

rock.<br />

Mr J.W.BERGHQPER<br />

Mr Berghofer,has been right<br />

ly described as the "Father of<br />

the Centenary Celebrations"in<br />

1913,and <strong>by</strong> his energy and inspiring<br />

influence was mainly<br />

responsible for the success of<br />

the functions. He is here seen<br />

standing under one of the old<br />

swamp oaks,on the banks of Low<br />

ther ureek,near the probable<br />

site of the encampment of Blaxland<br />

and party,in May,lbl3.


l 4 Z [ h k n k j<br />

]


<strong>The</strong> <strong>Great</strong> <strong>Western</strong> <strong>Road</strong>.<br />

H i<br />

6 9 U<br />

— --------------------------1<br />

Hartley Vale Cemetery<br />

This quaint old<br />

burying ground is situated<br />

near Mt.York House<br />

close to the old line of<br />

road which William Cox<br />

constructed. Here are<br />

buried many of the old<br />

pioneers of the district<br />

including Pierce Collitt<br />

who erected his Inn on<br />

the margin of the old<br />

road,about 1622.<strong>The</strong> build<br />

ing is still standing,i<br />

is now known as "Mount<br />

York House" or Farm.<br />

William Cox's Bell<br />

This bell,which originally<br />

belonged to the warship "Astrea"<br />

was in use at "Clarendon" and<br />

LiUdgee,and was the property of<br />

William Cox. It is elaborately<br />

ornamented with "Coats-of-Arms",<br />

and floral decorations,and if<br />

still in existence,would be clos<br />

on 120 years old.


<strong>The</strong> <strong>Great</strong> <strong>Western</strong> <strong>Road</strong><br />

"Evans' Grown",Tarana<br />

From the summit of this remarkable mountain<br />

Evans obtained his first view of the Bathurst<br />

Plains.<br />

triage over tne Lett R.<br />

<strong>The</strong> bridge which formerly carried the old s.estern <strong>Road</strong><br />

across the stream v.as close alongside.


<strong>The</strong> <strong>Great</strong> <strong>Western</strong> <strong>Road</strong><br />

IV<br />

^<br />

<strong>The</strong> old & new Bridges.<br />

'•‘•'his scene is taken in the neighbourhood of -^ittle Hartley<br />

and shows a spot on the main <strong>Western</strong> road where one of Mitchell<br />

!s bridges,on the old line of road,or what remains of the<br />

structure,is still visible.


<strong>The</strong> great <strong>Western</strong> <strong>Road</strong><br />

Group picture of the three Explorers.<br />

Pmrttmof<br />

Parish of<br />

Map-'of Blaxland* s ttoute<br />

across the Mountains.<br />

Map showing early<br />

roads across the ^ount<br />

--- -ains.<br />

Irnden<br />

Park<br />

Paris/) of<br />

Map showing the locality of "Caley's Repulse".


<strong>The</strong> <strong>Great</strong> v.estern <strong>Road</strong><br />

Remains of "Marked Tree" at the foot of Mount Blaxland.<br />

A suitable inscription was placed on the stump after the top<br />

had been cemented,at the time of the Centenary Celebrations,<br />

in 1815.<br />

J TH,S<br />

«*rVVH,CH M aR K SThT<br />

. 3 l* -r M A Y 1813<br />

J * w a s hahcd MOUNT BLAXLAND i n<br />

§ #0*0* or T/tfSXPiO fifp „ N<br />

Inscribed Tablet,placed on the summit of ^ount<br />

Blaxland,at or near the s^ot where Gregory Blaxand<br />

stood,on May 51st,1615.


<strong>The</strong> <strong>Great</strong> <strong>Western</strong> <strong>Road</strong><br />

VII i.f -<br />

<strong>The</strong> "Flogging-stone",Gaptain t>ull1s Gamp,Linden.<br />

View showing a portion of Cox's road,near Linden.


<strong>The</strong> <strong>Great</strong> <strong>Western</strong> hoad<br />

uopper plate let into the rock on the old lino<br />

of road at Mount York. <strong>The</strong> plate reads,"Pick-marks made<br />

"<strong>by</strong> convicts in widening the road,1614”<br />

View showing a portion of the first cathurst<br />

^oad descending the mountainet Mount ^ork, This<br />

was afterwards called "oox s Pass".


i56[>WV2


<strong>The</strong> <strong>Great</strong> <strong>Western</strong> noad<br />

IX<br />

7 6<br />

Signboard marking the beginning of the track down<br />

Mount York,afterwards called "uox s Pass".<br />

xhe Pass down Mount York. $his was on such a severe<br />

grade that the Wool teams in the early days had to unload<br />

their drays at the foot of the Pass and roll the bales up<br />

oy hand ,&icerwarcs taking up the empty dray,and re loading<br />

at the top.


<strong>The</strong> <strong>Great</strong> <strong>Western</strong> Hoed<br />

X<br />

77<br />

<strong>The</strong>se views,the only photographs in existence,show<br />

the ruins of the famous "G-lenroy Stockade",near the uox<br />

i^iver. <strong>The</strong>y were taken in 1904,and not a vestige of the<br />

old camping place(which was first erected in 1614,on the<br />

completion of the first <strong>Western</strong> R0adJ is now tts be seen.


■<br />

<strong>The</strong> <strong>Great</strong> <strong>Western</strong> <strong>Road</strong><br />

XI I of<br />

76<br />

"Horseshoe oend"<br />

Mt victoria Pass.<br />

J-his place was<br />

the scene of many &<br />

sticking-up incident<br />

in the old coaching<br />

days. <strong>The</strong> Pass is now<br />

abandoned in favor of<br />

a newer and easier<br />

grade some distance<br />

to the Worth. In the<br />

centre of the roadway<br />

in this view,the figures,<br />

"1832" were chis<br />

=elled in the rock,<br />

recording the date<br />

when the Pass was<br />

opened.<br />

This view shows<br />

the site of the Convict<br />

encampment,at<br />

the foot of Mt Victoria<br />

Pass. Previous<br />

to a large bush fire<br />

which swept the locality<br />

about ten or<br />

twelve years ago,the<br />

iron rings in the<br />

trees,to which the<br />

prisoners were chain<br />

'ed,were plainly visible.<br />

This encampment<br />

was in active<br />

use for a period of<br />

over three years.


I


<strong>The</strong> <strong>Great</strong> »'estern -^oad<br />

H 3<br />

x v i J 9<br />

Mt Victoria Pass<br />

This view shows the<br />

massive embankments<br />

constructed in 1832<br />

<strong>by</strong> convict labour.A<br />

hAge valley was entirely<br />

filled up<br />

with the material ec<br />

excavated from the<br />

mountain near <strong>by</strong>,ard<br />

the road way formed<br />

on top. Over three<br />

years was occupied<br />

in.this stupendous<br />

undertaking.<br />

Another view of the<br />

embankment form the<br />

bed of the valley.<br />

<strong>The</strong> mass of<br />

rock shown in the<br />

upper left hand side<br />

of the view is part<br />

of the mountain whict<br />

was quarried away to<br />

form the material for<br />

the causeway,and is c<br />

of the hardest ironstone.


PAGES<br />

164-196<br />

ARE BLANK


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