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Sustainable

US

VADO E TORNO EDIZIONI

www.vadoetorno.com - ISSN 0042

Poste Italiane s.p.a.

Sped. in a. p. - D.L. 353/2003

(conv. in L. 27/02/2004 n° 46)

art. 1, comma 1, LO/MI

AUTOBUS SUPPLEMENT

SEPTEMBER 2022

JOURNEY TO THE

FUTURE

OUTLOOKS

Tips and tricks to

get the most from

e-bus batteries

IN THE SPOTLIGHT

Iveco Bus Urbanway

hybrid and Scania

Citywide BEV

COMPARISON

18m trolleybuses:

Hess, Iveco,

Solaris, Van Hool


Sustainable

BUS

CONTENTS

SUSTAINABLE-BUS.COM SEPTEMBER 2022

6

8

POST-IT

Zero emission bus market in Europe,

over 30% share in city bus segment

Altas Novus Cityline:

brand new e-minibus from Lithuania

44

10

10

14

16

TECHNO

Karsan launches a driverless

bus in real operations

Daimler Buses turns to

Toyota for the fuel cell eCitaro

INFRASTRUCTURE

Enel X wins first project in the UK.

Three depots awarded in London

18

INTERVIEW

How to deal with e-bus batteries.

Safety, charging tips, TCO

24

28

OUTLOOKS

A few forecasts on the future

of the European electric bus market

Mobility as a Service ‘recruits’ taxis

on the fight against private cars

50

34

40

44

IN THE SPOTLIGHT

Switch Mobility e1 | Van Hool A12:

new bus families in ‘ZE-mode’ only

Iveco Urbanway hybrid,

also available in CNG version

Scania Citywide BEV:

its turn has come?

46

48

49

50

51

COMPARISON

Articulated trolleybuses under the lens.

Flexibility as never before...

Hess Swisstrolley 19 DC

Up to 30 km off-wire

Iveco Crealis IMC

New generation, battery-powered

Solaris Trollino 18

Face-lifted and redesigned

Van Hool Exqui.City 18

When a bus meets a tram...

40

52

PORTFOLIO

All the electric buses

on the European market

5


POST-IT

EUROPE: ZE BUS REGISTRATIONS IN FIRST HALF 2022

30% share achieved

UK IS THE LARGEST E-BUS MARKET, GERMANY FOLLOWS

NEW

ELECTRO

OBILITY

VDL is back at the helm of

the top e-bus sellers in Europe.

The Dutch manufacturer had 242

e-buses registered in the first half

of 2022, with BYD – ADL closely

following with 221 units. Third,

surprise!, Yutong with 217 e-buses

delivered. Then Mercedes, Iveco

Bus, MAN. Only seventh, Solaris:

the company has been leading the

e-bus market in Europe in 2021

(and the same should be said of

2020). Anyhow, the Polish supplier

is still on top concerning registrations

in the period 2012 – June

2022, with 1,225 units (second,

VDL with 1,211).

These figures are based on data

collected and analyzed by Chatrou

CME Solutions. Considered

countries: EU27 + UK +

ICE + NO + CH (but SR, HR

and BG data not available so far

for 2022). In the period January

– June 2022, zero emission buses

(battery-electric and fuel cell buses) had a share of 30 per cent in

the city bus market, growing from the 22.8 of the full year 2021 and

15.1% of year 2020.

In the first half of 2022 there were 1,768 e-bus registrations in Europe.

Over 3,000 e-buses were registered in the whole 2021, 1,393 of those

in the first half of the year. Taking in consideration Q1 and Q2 in both

2021 and 2022, the increase in registrations has been of 27%.

The UK is leading the list of countries with more e-buses registered:

350. Germany follows with 246, then France at 236.

Alexander Dennis will launch in-house electric

bus models in 2023. A new small bus and a new

electric double

decker are set

to complement

the BYD ADL

partnership’s

vehicles, “which

will continue to

be sold and supported”,

ADL

pointed out in

a press note in

late August.

Buses for the

United Kingdom

and Ireland will be fully built in Britain.

Internationally, the new platform will be tailored

DOING IT THEMSELVES

64,5% of registered city buses

now have an alternative driveline

(this was 59% in 2021 and 52% in

2020). The share of hybrid buses is

decreasing: from 24 to 14%, caused

by a shift to electric (Germany) or to

CNG (Spain and Italy).

to the requirements of cities, transport authorities

and bus companies in each territory. The

order for Enviro500EV electric double deckers in

Hong Kong will be part of this new generation of

zero emission buses.

The battery-electric BYD ADL Enviro200EV and

BYD ADL Enviro400EV products built in partnership

with BYD will continue to be offered in the

UK, Ireland and New Zealand, ADL stresses. Alexander

Dennis’s second-generation hydrogen bus,

the Enviro400FCEV, will also continue to form an

important part of the company’s zero-emission

bus range and will be delivered to launch customer

Liverpool City Region later this year. Already

fully designed and integrated by Alexander

Dennis, it shares technology and key driveline

components with the upcoming new battery-electric

models.

OFFER FLEXIBILITY

Available in 4 different lengths from 9,5 m, till 18 m

with a choice of charging mode and the batteries packs

ELECTROMOBILITY IN DNA

Designed “By Heuliez”, the premium brand with a long history

of development and manufacturing the trolleybuses and full-hybrid buses

INNOVATIVE DESIGN, TOTAL COMFORT

Maximum customization, spacious, bright and quiet

passengers compartment, smooth and easy drive

PREMIUM SERVICE

Wide European service network, IVECO Control Room

for remote diagnostics, fleet management and telematics solutions

btsadv.com

6


POST-IT

ALTAS LAUNCHES THE NOVUS CITYLINE

The e-minibus from the North

A LITHUANIAN COOPERATION WITH ELINTA MOTORS

The Altas Novus Cityline, based

on Mercedes Sprinter chassis, is the

first full electric product realized by

the group, here in collaboration with

the technological partner, also Lithuanian,

Elinta Motors, in charge of

motor and batteries. There are two

versions available: the 7,367 millimetre

version, which we had the

opportunity to test, and the 7,667

millimetre version, with a wheelbase

lengthened by 50 centimetres.

On board there is room for 15 seated

passengers (including the two folding

seats) and three standing. On the extended

wheelbase version, 22 people

can be accommodated, thanks to the

addition of a row of seats. There is

also a manual ramp for wheelchairs.

Elinta Motors provides the liquid-cooled

three-phase induction

motor. It is mounted behind the rear

axle. It develops a maximum of 150

kW for a peak torque of 1,250 Nm.

The NMC batteries are distributed

between front and rear: two packs under the bonnet, together with the compressor

for air conditioning and the auxiliary fossil fuel heater, if any; third

module at the rear. Total: 115 kWh. The increase in weight attributable to the

batteries is 735 kg (245 per module).

With 18 EU countries covered, deliveries around 800 units per year, certification

as a Mercedes-Benz VanPartner and Volkswagen PremiumPartner,

and ongoing cooperation activities with Iveco and MAN (Altas’ signature

is ‘stamped’ on MAN TGE Coach), the Lithuanian company needs very

little introduction.

On the Novus Cityline there is room

for up to 22 passengers. Elinta

Motors provides the liquid-cooled

3-phase induction motor. It develops

a maximum of 150 kW for a peak

torque of 1,250 Nm. It’ll be on display

at NME in Milan on 12-14 October.

FUEL CELL BUS PARTNERSHIP IS BORN

Iveco Bus will collaborate with HTWO to equip its

future European fuel cell buses with Hyundai-made

fuel cell modules.

HTWO,

as a fuel cell

system-based

hydrogen business

brand of

Hyundai Motor

Group, was

first released

in December

2020. It’s the

first outcome of

the partnership

signed by Iveco

Group and Hyundai in March 2022.

With its fuel cell technology utilized in Hyundai

FCEVs, HTWO is expanding the provision of fuel

cell technology to other automobile OEMs and

non-automobile sectors. Iveco Bus says it is already

participating in European tenders for fuel

cell buses powered by HTWO.

Furthermore, the recently announced plan to restart

production of buses in Italy will provide another

opportunity to manufacture new buses powered

by HTWO’s hydrogen fuel cells. This initiative

aims to leverage the exceptional technology and

competencies of both entities in the urgently needed

renewal of Italy’s public transport.

What is also interesting, Iveco Bus and tech company

Via Transportation have signed a Memorandum

of Understanding (MoU) to explore possible

future collaborations in the development of tailored

on-demand public transportation solutions

and associated digital services for buses.

hydrogen

We are changing the image

of public transport

8


TECHNO

KARSAN E-ATAK IN AUTONOMOUS VERSION LAUNCHED IN NORWAY

Built for the next level

LEVEL 4 AUTONOMY THANKS TO ADASTEC SOFTWARE

An electric midibus with Level

4 autonomy is operating between

Norwegian fjords. The vehicle has

been provided by Karsan, the protagonist,

together with the transport

authority Kolumbus, of a pilot

project that marks a real milestone.

It is in fact the first driverless bus

in circulation in the Old Continent

(if we do not take into account the

shuttles developed by players such

as the French Navya).

The Karsan e-Atak is turned into a

driverless vehicle by the ‘Flowride.

ai Level-4’ automated driving software

platform developed by tech

company Adastec. It has been running

since spring in the picturesque

city of Stavanger, on a 2.5-kilometre

route through the city centre, open

to regular traffic. Capable of travelling

without a driver on a planned

route, the vehicle is able to reach

50 km/h in all weather conditions.

This means the vehicle is capable

of autonomously performing tasks such as stopping at stops on the route,

managing the boarding of passengers, crossing roundabouts and junctions.

All this thanks to an artificial intelligence system that uses LiDAR sensors

placed in several places on the vehicle’s body, combined with thermal-imaging

cameras. Adastec’s software combines such information with HD maps.

With a stated range of 300 km, the 8.3 metre long Autonomous e-Atak

can transport 52 passengers (even though, with respect to the autonomous

version, just seated passengers are allowed and this reduces maximum capacity

to 21 people).

The vehicle is equipped with an

artificial intelligence system that

uses LiDAR sensors placed in

several places on the vehicle’s

body, combined with thermalimaging

cameras. Adastec’s

software combines such

information with HD maps.

10

LFP BATTERIES FROM SOLARIS

CATL is going to supply LFP batteries to European

leading electric bus manufacturer Solaris Bus &

Coach. The bus builder will benefit from Cell to Pack

(CTP) technology, CATL pointed out in a press note.

Already among Tesla’s suppliers, in the bus segment

CATL has agreement in force with Quantron and VDL.

It is today the largest battery manufacturer in the

world and has plans to build a 7 million euros battery

plant in Europe with capacity of 100 GWh.

By removing the conventional module parts, the CTP

technology increases the battery energy density and

payload of the e-bus. Solaris ranked first in the zero-emission

bus market in 2021 in Europe. Starting

co-operation with CATL, Solaris will extend its offer by

new battery solutions available in its vehicles. At the

moment, the manufacturer offers two battery options:

NMC-based modules Solaris High Energy for overnight

vehicles and LTO modules (under the domain Solaris

High Power) for buses equipped with pantograph. It

is unclear whether CATL LFP batteries will be a third

choice or will be replacing other options.

“This co-operation will extend CATL’s global commercial

vehicle electrification network and accelerate the

electrification transition of commercial vehicles worldwide,

thus contributing to the global drive for e-mobility

and carbon neutrality”, the Chinese suppliers adds.

Comprehensive electromobility solutions

for the transport of the future.

Zero emission vehicles

In house battery manufacturing

Pioneering in autonomous driving

Irizar Group Technology

#foraBetterLife

www irizar-emobility com


EXPANDING

THE HYDROGEN

ECOSPHERE

Cummins is delivering net zero carbon solutions with an unrivalled range of hydrogen

technologies extending from fuel production to storage and vehicle power.

It’s a unique capability that builds on Cummins’ long experience

in powering buses and trucks worldwide.

• Fuel cell power systems

• Storage tanks for vehicles & refueling stations

• Green hydrogen electrolyzer installations

• Developing hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines

To find out how our integrated

technologies can help put you on the

road to a sustainable, zero emissions

future visit us at IAA, Hall 19/20,

Booth A12 or go to

cummins.com/new-power

©2022 Cummins Inc.


TECHNO

A PARTNERSHIP WITH TOYOTA

The eCitaro with the fuel cell

ZERO EMISSION BUSES IN EVERY SEGMENT BY 2030

Discover our 100% electric

urban mobility solutions

Daimler Buses aims to offer

zero emission buses in every

segment by 2030 (both battery

and hydrogen-powered). Starting

in 2023, the Mercedes eCitaro

will be also equipped with a hydrogen-based

fuel cell as a range

extender. The first full electric

intercity bus will be launched in

2025.

The fuel cell of the Mercedes eCitaro

Range Extender comes from

Toyota and is in its second generation.

It is a heavy-duty unit with

a maximum output of 60 kW.

What is interesting, Daimler Buses

states it is not investing in Euro

VII in Class I buses and forecasts

a share of 75% of e-buses in public

transport in the EU by 2030.

In addition to expanding its portfolio

of zero emission buses,

Daimler Buses is also expanding

its service offerings as a general

contractor for customers’ complete

electric infrastructure.

The initial focus for Daimler Truck electrification strategy will be on

the core markets of Europe and Latin America. By 2039, only locally

CO2-neutral new vehicles are to be sold in the core market of Europe,

as already announced. In the city bus segment, only zero emission buses

are to be sold already in 2030.

Daimler Buses plans to launch the first all-electric inter-city bus from

2025 and coaches with hydrogen-based fuel cell drive from the end of

this decade.

Daimler Buses will offer the eCitaro

with a new generation of batteries from

end 2022. These are set to increase

the capacity per battery cell by around

50 percent for the same weight. The

batteries will be used in both the

eCitaro, the eCitaro REX and the allelectric

chassis eO500U from Brazil.

Up to 32 passengers

Up to 123 passengers

Standard and articulated

14

MAN Truck & Bus is establishing large-scale production

of batteries for electric trucks and buses at

Nuremberg site, until now known as a historical place

for combustion engine manufacturing. The group will

invest around 100 million euros (securing 350 jobs

in Nuremberg). Planned battery manufacturing capacity?

Over 100,000 battery systems per year. MAN

highlights that Bavarian State Government has promised

a contribution of around 30 million euros to energy

research and technology funding for the period

2023 to 2027, provided that the funding and budgetary

requirements are met.

Around the middle of the current decade, the total

cost of ownership for an e-truck and a diesel-powered

one will be at the same level, according to MAN. The

group also announced this year that “will in future be

offering an electric bus chassis for the global market“,

based on technologies from the Lion’s City E

IN-HOUSE BATTERIES

(the vehicle will be in roadshow outside the old continent

beginning with 2023). The e-bus is produced at

MAN’s Polish plant in Starachowice.

Back to battery modules’ production, initially, the

batteries will be manufactured manually at the MAN

plant in Nuremberg in a small series production for

about two and a half years. Construction of largescale

production is scheduled to start in mid-2023

and to be completed by the end of 2024.

OTOKAR electromobility to meet the new urban challenges

100% electric Zero emissions Low noise pollution

www.otokareurope.com


INFRASTRUCTURE

16

ENEL X WITH ABELLIO IN LONDON

British debut

UP TO 56 E-BUSES IN LONDON’S HAYES DEPOT

Enel X UK has completed this

summer its first e-bus project for

Abellio London Bus. The new

depot, located in Hayes, houses

innovative e-buses delivering

zero-emission transport to West

London.

UK’s electric bus fleet is today the

biggest in Europe with over 1,500

units delivered in the last ten years.

The new Hayes depot is the first

of three e-bus projects that Abellio

has awarded to Enel X in the

Greater London area. Enel X will

work with Abellio to deploy further

e-bus infrastructure at facilities

in Battersea and Beddington,

as well as increasing charging capacity

at the new Hayes depot. The

Hayes facility has been engineered

from the ground up with scalability

in mind; a modular approach

will enable Enel X to seamlessly

expand the existing infrastructure

to accommodate a fleet of up to 56

electric buses.

Enel X’s e-bus team was responsible for enabling the site’s electrical infrastructure

for e-bus charging, installing a low voltage switch panel and

switch gear that now powers six 300kW Enel X Way charging stations. The

charging stations will run on Enel X Way software that is able to optimise

charging schedules based on site load, energy costs, and bus timetables,

Enel X says. Abellio’s e-buses incorporate 382 kWh batteries that can be

fully charged in just over 3 hours. Enel X will also maintain and service

the charging stations for the next 14 years.

FROM FINLAND TO THE US

Kempower’s Board of Directors has approved this

summer an update to the company’s growth strategy.

The Finnish group targets to establish operations

in the United States by the end of the year

2023. This is an advanced timeline compared to

the previously published target of 2025.

Apart from the updated target timeline of establishing

operations in the United States, Kempower’s

go-to-market strategy and innovation strategy

remain unchanged, firm says. In 2022, Kempower

is also exploring different alternatives for expansion

into the North American markets.

Kempower has recently launched a new version of

its Kempower S-Series charging satellite system

featuring liquid-cooled charging, capable of delivering

400kW of continuous charging power.

The plan to establish operations in the U.S. includes

Kempower’s own legal entity and a local

The new Hayes depot is the first of

three e-bus projects that Abellio has

awarded to Enel X in the Greater

London area. Enel X will work with

Abellio to deploy further e-bus

infrastructure at facilities in Battersea

and Beddington.

assembly of Kempower’s charging solutions. Establishing

operations in the U.S. is part of Kempower’s

growth strategy execution. In Q1 2022

Kempower launched its Kempower C- and S-Series

product range to the North American market.

In May 2022 Kempower confirmed an order of

EUR 5 million to deliver EV fast-charging systems

to GreenCore EV Services in the United States.

350+ E-BUSES

ACROSS THE WORLD

USA

2020 & 2021

EUROPE

MARKET LEADER

Visit us

Next Mobility Expo

12-14 October 2022

Milano

CANADA SLOVAKIA POLAND

ROMANIA

PORTUGAL

GREECE

TÜRKİYE

GERMANY

FRANCE ITALY

BULGARIA

MEXICO

BELGIUM

SPAIN

NORWAY

CROATIA

LITHUANIA

LUXEMBOURG

*According to Europe Minibus and Bus Market Report datas published by Chatrou CME Solutions in 2020 & 2021.

2021

EUROPE

MARKET LEADER

ITALY


INTERVIEW

H.H. «The expected development

is the transition to mass

production. The big issue that

currently holds back the largescale

introduction of fuel cells

into heavy goods transport are

the concerns about the lifetime of

fuel cell stacks. The current technology,

which has been tested on

Martin Ufert: «In 2030 still

a dominating role, 2045 quite

hard to say. Lithium-ion technology

will have a big role, especially

NMC or LFP technology.

There are some other promising

approaches at the moment but

still not at a commercial upscale

role at the moment».

H.H. «If you are alluding to solid-state,

I know that the car industry

is investing huge amounts

of money and there is always the

chance that they have something

up their sleeve that is not yet

published».

ty, especially at system level. We

shouldn’t forget that with the

existing lithium-ion technology

we learned all the hard lessons

when they were in laptops and

early mobile phones, with all

the fires that happened. We don’t

even know what the ‘training

ground’ for the solid-state batteries

will be. It would be unusual

if they would immediately

go to the mass market of electric

vehicles...».

M.U. «And the current lithium-ion

technology is still im-

TIPS & TRICKS

The battery is the last relevant remaining wearing part of an electric

vehicle – and by far the most expensive. How to charge it properly? How

to reduce TCO as much as possible? Safety concerns? Three experts

discuss tips, tricks and outlooks concerning the heart of EVs

An experts’ discussion

about future powertrain

technologies in

heavy-duty transport.

This is how we may entitle this

interview. We met Claudius Jehle,

CEO of volytica diagnostics,

Dr. Martin Ufert, Group

Manager for System Monitoring

and Operational Strategies at

Fraunhofer Institute for Transportation

and Infrastructure

Systems IVI and Prof. Dr. Harry

Hoster, Chairman of Energy

Technology at the University of

Duisburg-Essen and Head of the

Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Center

ZBT GmbH, to take a look at the

future of our mobility system,

with a focus on the electrification

of public transport.

The future of mobility is electric

- only the powertrain

technology is still written in

AN EXPERTS’ DISCUSSION ON BATTERIES

the stars. Which powertrain

technology do you think will

win the race and why?

Claudius Jehle: «In my mind

there will be no ‘winner’. The

future will still have combustion

engines, hybrid- as well as

fully battery-powered vehicles.

For anything up to several hundred

kilometers of range, Li-Ion

batteries are predestined from

today’s perspective, and for

Claudius Jehle

everything beyond, hydrogen or

other technologies will be the

system of choice».

Harry Hoster: «Yes, for longhaul

and heavy-duty there will

be a growing share of hydrogen.

Now, fuel cell technology for hydrogen

usage has not reached

the level of mass production.

Where I see hydrogen being

quite relevant – once ready – are

municipal fleets like waste trucks

or logistics. The heavy goods

industry is keen on hydrogen because

of the higher energy density

compared to battery packs».

In terms of transport, the

attention has largely been

turned away from hydrogen,

but in the transport sector, it

continues to raise hope. What

developments can be expected

here?

Martin Ufert

normal passenger cars, won’t

work here because of the totally

different availability and load requirements».

C.J.: «History seems to repeat

itself. We have seen - a decade

ago - infancy, degradation,

problems with cracking, problems

with water inrush in PV

modules. Then the same happened,

or now happens, with

batteries. Now degradation and

all the same issues are being

faced by the promising hydrogen

technology. This affects both the

production side, like electrolyzers,

and the fuel cells on the consumption

side. That’s actually

very interesting».

Li-ion technology currently

dominates the market - but

raw materials are becoming

rare, and a true circular economy

is far from being ‘closed’

- what role will Li-ion technology

play in 2030, or further

away in 2045?

M.U. «By the way, to be clear,

‘solid-state’ batteries are also

just Lithium-ion batteries. The

liquid electrolyte that enables

the Lithium-ion to move inside

the battery, to transport energy

between the terminals, is replaced

by a solid one. Sounds a

bit boring, right?».

H.H. «True, let’s touch on the

advantages later – but do you

know how long it took for LFP

to reach the mass market? I’m

not overly optimistic about quick

wins of solid-state. Even if now

we have working solid-state

battery prototypes in the laboratory,

we will not immediately

have a way of manufacturing it

at scale. It’s always about safe-

Harry Hoster

«If you are using NMC technology, you should not charge at low

temperatures, especially not too fast. This combination can really

cause safety issues in the long run! Also, an often neglected factor

s the level to which you charge, the state of charge and

the window in which you operate an asset»

FEATURING

Claudius Jehle is CEO of volytica

diagnostics GmbH; with more than 10

years of experience in Li ion battery

diagnostics, he and his team develop easy

to use & independent battery diagnostics

software for commercial vehicle and

stationary applications. With a background

in the renowned Fraunhofer Society, he

has been active in battery-based public

transport consultancy for almost 8 years.

He regularly writes knowledge article for

Sustainable Bus magazine.

Martin Ufert covers the position of Group

Manager “Energy Storage Monitoring

Systems and Operating Strategies” at the

Fraunhofer Institute for Transportation

and Infrastructure Systems IVI (Dresden).

He can draw on 10 years of experience

in the planning, design and operation of

electrical transport systems.

Fraunhofer IVI has been developing

systems, components and software

solutions for electrified drives of buses

and commercial vehicles for more than 15

years.

Harry Hoster is Professor of Energy

Technology at Universität Duisburg-Essen

and Scientific Director of “The Hydrogen

and Fuel Cell Center ZBT GmbH”. His

research covers hydrogen technologies

and batteries, from fundamentals to

applications. He was founding director of

the UK company “Altelium Ltd.”, which

specializes on novel battery-related

insurance products. By training, he is a

physicist (Universität Bonn) with a PhD

in Engineering and a Venia Legendi in

Physical Chemistry.

18

19


INTERVIEW

proving! Or at least, advancing.

If at all solid-state should quickly

reach scalability, it’s still a

question of the price at the end».

Dr. Hoster, you postponed the

question of the advantages of

solid-state. What do we hope

that solid-state will achieve?

Will it be safety, longer range

or simply being cheaper?

H.H. «The biggest driver will

be safety. I think there will be

more pressure on the industry

to reduce the flammability, especially

relevant when it comes

to shipping and logistics in the

large sale. As said, the fact that

the often highly flammable liquid

electrolyte in conventional,

state-of-the-art, Li Ion batteries

is replaced by a solid one - hence

the name - makes this technology

a good candidate for higher

safety. But the rest of the technology

remains, give or take,

the same - it is still Lithium-ion

technology! Let’s assume they

manage to go for lithium metal

anodes and we get rid of the

graphite: that helps us save a

bit on the raw material side and

gain a bit of energy density. But

on the cathode side, I would suspect

that we would still end up

with very similar materials as

they are currently used in the existing

lithium-ion world».

C.J. «That is actually

extremely

interesting and

should be highlighted.

Many

people often

compare: ‘There

is Lithium-Ion

and then there is

the magic bullet,

the other technology

that has

nothing to do

with lithium-ion,

solid-state - lives

longer, is cheaper,

higher energy density and

safer, but this is not correct. In

my mind, people are overestimating

the potential that this

could bring, if it was available».

«We will not immediately have a way of manufacturing solid-state

batteries at scale. It’s always about safety. With the existing lithium-ion

technology we learned all the hard lessons when they were in

laptops and early mobile phones. We don’t even know

what the ‘training ground’ for the solid-state batteries will be»

C. J. «Seems odd, some of the

e-bus fires in the last 12 months

are attributed to so-called solid

state technology, the last in

Paris earlier this year. But to be

clear: this technology is an early

version, working at elevated

temperatures of >50°C, only remotely

related to the anticipated

solid-state technology. There is

just no ‘magic bullet’ around and

no simple truths. I think, people

are overestimating and oversimplifying».

M.U. «And to be fair, speaking

about safety: batteries today are

safe. The catastrophic fires that

we have seen in buses and other

assets in the past can not even

be attributed to cell failures, and

often the charging system is potentially

the culprit. There is too

much panic around!».

C.J. «Oh yes! With proper management

and centralized analysis,

even the last few 0.x% of

likelihood can be detected hours

to days, even weeks beforehand.

But as said: Only if we take a

close look and monitor them».

Talking about degradation:

fast charging, charging cycles

and temperature windows

make proper charging and operation

complex. What must

be considered here in the context

of cell degradation?

C.J. «It depends on which cell

type of the large landscape is

being used. One rule of thumb:

if you are using NMC technology,

you should not charge at low

«Batteries today are safe. The catastrophic fires that we have seen

in buses and other assets in the past can not even be attributed

to cell failures, and often the charging system is potentially the culprit.

With proper management and centralized analysis, even the last

few 0.x% of likelihood can be detected beforehand»

temperatures, especially not too

fast. This combination can really

cause safety issues in the long

run! Also, an often neglected

factor is the level to which you

charge, the state

of charge and the

window in which

you operate an asset».

H.H. «A lot of that

is not always under

the control of the

end user, don’t you

think?».

C.J. «No, I think,

many things can be

controlled by the

end user. You can

control the SOC at which you

park, the window in which you

operate - 80% to 20% is often

better than 100% to 40%! And

you might be able to plant some

trees to shade roof-top mounted

batteries for basic temperature

control. Also good for the environment.

These measures can

easily extend lifetime by more

than 10 to 20%. Not to speak of

fast charging…».

M.U. «True, fast charging

mostly has cell degradation as

a consequence. Still, for a fleet

operator the TCO is at the end

always the main point to look

at. If the short-term economical

advantages gained by faster

charging outweigh the long-term

problems, i.e. premature failure

and lower resell value, then that

can be a fair deal. But how many

companies do this calculation? If

you have, like Claudius said, fast

charging just because you can

and you charge your vehicles

without considering these aspects,

then fast charging is probably

not the right choice».

Is there anything we can do

to bring low TCO, longevity,

safety, and environmentally

friendliness more into line?

C.J. «There is a lot you can do

for TCO and safety. Depending

on charge patterns, storing

the assets, how you park them

20

21


INTERVIEW

and how you use them, you can

easily extend the lifetime of a

battery by more than 10% and

thus bring down the total cost of

ownership».

M.U. «It’s about optimizing

their usage profiles. There is

always a specific use case and

there will need to be a specific

profile to actually bring down

the TCO. This really can be different

between fleets of buses,

fleets of trucks and fleets of medium-sized

transportation vehicles.

We need to raise awareness

for reliable operation and better

educate fleet operators and end

users. Optimizing the use cases

means optimizing their environmental

friendliness».

C.J. «Speaking about environmental

friendliness: large populations

of batteries are being

replaced at the end of the warranty

period, and not when they

are not fulfilling their needs anymore.

They often go into waste

treatment, and not into recycling.

Batteries are designed to

withstand the complete warranty

period - thus, very simply, they

all will live longer! Changing

them at the end of the warranty

period means that you’re throwing

away millions of Euros and

tons of batteries».

Mentioning use cases after the

warranty and after the first

life: there is hardly any 2ndlife

market for vehicle batteries

that deserves the name.

What hurdles have to be overcome,

what challenges await

us here in order to advance the

establishment of 2nd life use?

M.U. «Second-life will be

a hot market in the future.

We are working on a project

called GUW+3 in Hanover,

where we are equipping tram

substations with 2nd-life batteries

to buffer energy and

charge e-buses. This is a market

that is probably growing

within the coming years».

C.J. «But nobody buys a pick in

a poke and nobody pays a good

«Fast charging mostly has cell degradation as a consequence. For a

fleet operator the TCO is at the end always the main point to look at.

If the short-term economical advantages gained by faster charging

outweigh the long-term problems, i.e. premature failure and

lower resell value, than that can be a fair deal»

price for a used battery with virtually

no knowledge about the

past usage, the current state and

especially the projected lifetime

for the second use application,

and this is exactly the same as

with the warranty».

H.H. «Couldn’t agree more. Essentially

you need something like

a battery passport including data

history and especially an outlook.

Otherwise, people can’t engineer

a stationary power container. It’s

important to know in which kind

of projects the batteries could be

used in a second-life application.

This is all about data availability

and sharing».

C.J. «It’s not even possible today.

There is no possibility a doctor

can tell you when you’re going to

die and it works the same for batteries.

You need the record of the

past to be able to extrapolate the

future lifetime - and for batteries:

value. Someone needs to take the

risk of failure in the second usage

scenario and someone needs to

give a second warranty. Either

it’s an insurance company, the

second-life manufacturer or the

OEM. And this can only be guaranteed

by transparent and open

data exchange. Luckily, more and

more transport operators and

asset owners require open data

transfer from the OEM side».

22


OUTLOOKS

Interact Analysis is a

market research firm with

a specific department for

truck, bus and off-highway

electrification. Here on

Sustainable Bus Magazine

we host a contribution

from the research analyst

Jamie Fox.

FORECASTING 2022 E-BUS SHARE IN EUROPE

MARKET

DOUBLING

Over 6,000 battery-electric buses are set to

be registered in 2022 in Europe, according

to Interact Analysis’ forecast. Upfront price

remains the main barrier to adoption

In 2021, we estimate that 3,471 urban

BEV buses were registered in Europe,

22% of the total of 15,923 buses. That’s

far behind China but far ahead of most

of the rest of the world. According to our

country level database from our report on

Hybrid and Electric Trucks and Buses the

UK and the Scandinavian countries were

well ahead of that 22% figure, while much

of the rest of Europe was behind. The leaders

in BEV sales in 2021 were Germany

with 575 BEV buses, the UK with 550 and

France with 512.

The Netherlands has already moved to close

to 100% electric buses as well, but its lower

total bus market means that, even so, its

BEV shipments are still far behind those of

France and Germany.

2022 was already expected to be a strong

year for electric buses, but the effects of

the Russian invasion of Ukraine have given

the market a boost as countries in Europe

seek energy independence in addition

to existing goals around air pollution and

climate change.

E-bus market to grow 100% in ‘22

We currently project 6,155 BEV buses

in Europe in 2022, or 39.5% of a total of

15,591. This assumes a significant number

of orders in the second half of the year (considering

that the registrations from January

to June were 1,768, see page 6) and assumes

that there will not be a (major) recession in

the second half of the year.

The above numbers do not include fuel cell

vehicles, which are currently about 1% of

the total and growing. They also don’t include

intercity buses, where BEV has a

much smaller penetration.

The majority of buses will still be fossil fuels

in 2022 for various reasons. One is available

supply: the production of electric vehicles

cannot be tripled overnight. Battery gigafactories

do not go from design to mass production

in a matter of months, either. Companies

are clearly planning for big increases but this

will play out steadily over the next 3-4 years.

Supply chains in 2022 have been difficult,

slowing down production. A second reason

is that the dependency on Russian fossil

fuel is, especially for some countries such

as Germany, more a dependency on gas

than oil. While less diesel buses reduces de-

24

25


OUTLOOKS

pendency on foreign oil, more electric buses

make it slightly harder to avoid importing

gas. Buses use more electricity and therefore

will increase demand on the electricity grid,

leading to more gas needed to produce electricity.

In the long term this doesn’t matter

much: firstly because buses are a small share

of total electricity and secondly because they

can be charged overnight and at other times

that demand is low. However, in 2022, anything

that will increase electricity demand,

even a small amount, will be viewed with

suspicion in some countries. A third reason

is that introducing electric buses into

cities is not just a matter of buying them.

Routes need to be planned against battery

pack sizes, charging hubs need to be created,

power needs to reach the charging hubs.

Subsidies need to be applied for and other

paperwork completed.

On prices of e-buses...

Lastly, BEV buses are expensive. €500,000

for a 12-metre bus was typical in Europe

2021. In countries without good subsidies,

diesel buses still make economic sense. The

situation on BEV bus penetration could be

improved if European buses could have a

cost similar to that of Chinese and South

American buses, which are often near

€300,000. Some of the lower cost of Chinese-made

buses is explained by smaller

battery packs and higher quality buses and

more stringent regulations in Europe, but not

all of it. The other part of it is that Chinese

OEMs such as BYD appear to have achieved

better economies of scale. €300,000 12-meter

buses in Europe won’t happen any time

soon, especially given the supply chain issues

that have affected component and other

pricing in 2022. But, at the very least, it is

hoped that prices will move in that direction

within this decade.

TCO under the lens

Leaders in 2021 included Solaris, ADL and

Chinese manufacturers such as Yutong and

BYD. However, many others are only at the

level of 100 units per year or lower. Some of

these companies, perhaps including MAN,

Ebusco and Mercedes, can help the market

grow by stepping up production in 2022-

A LONG WAY TO 2030

2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026

BEV buses 1,663 2,082 3,471 6,155 8,447 9,422 9,460 10,103

All others 19,463 14,333 12,452 9,436 7,580 7,029 6,002 6,384

Total buses 21,126 16,415 15,923 15,591 16,027 16,451 15,462 16,486

Europe city bus registrations forecasts.

Source: Interact Analysis

2024 and achieving more orders.

The total cost of ownership analysis for BEV

buses in Europe shows a 30% advantage in

2022 (compared to diesel), with some variations

by country. This is based on a 11-year

lifetime (so a calculation from 2022 – 2033).

BEV buses are €200,000 more in up-front

vehicle cost on average (and in addition require

the cost of dedicated infrastructure) but

gain more than that back over the lifetime

in fuel savings according to the TCO model

included in our report. Additional benefits

are also projected on maintenance and

resale value.

Subsidies count!

Subsidies vary by country, but, where available,

typically boost the TCO from a 30%

advantage to 40% while significantly reducing

the payback period. This can make a

significant difference in adoption, especially

where finance for up-front cost is limited. It

may not seem a big difference but in practice

it has a significant impact on adoption, partly

because it reduces the payback period on the

original investment.

By 2023-2024, BEV buses will be the de-

fault choice in some Northern and Western

European countries and more countries will

be in a position to join the Netherlands by

having all of their new buses electric. Eastern

Europe will be a more mixed picture,

but big orders are expected to occur there as

well. From 2024 to 2026, we forecast slower

growth in BEV buses in Europe as some

countries will already have developed a mature

market dominated by electric buses.

The timing of these predictions can certainly

be debated as can the question of which European

country will take the leadership posi-

We project 6,155 BEV buses

in Europe in 2022, or 39.5%

of a total of 15,591. This assumes

a significant number

of orders in the 2nd half of

the year and assumes that

there will not be a (major)

recession. The above numbers

do not include H2 vehicles,

which are currently 1%

of the total and growing.

Subsidies vary by country,

but, where available,

typically boost the TCO

from a 30% advantage to

40% while significantly

reducing the payback

period. This can make a

significant difference in

adoption, especially where

finance for up-front

cost is limited. By 2023-

2024, BEV buses will

be the default choice in

some Northern and Western

European countries

and more countries

will be in a position to

join the Netherlands by

having all of their new

buses electric. Eastern

Europe will be a more

mixed picture.

tion in 2022. But two things are very clear.

Firstly, the progress of BEV urban buses in

Europe is well behind China, but well ahead

of the rest of the world.

A look outside Europe

The US for example is registering less urban

buses per year than France or Germany, in

spite of being a much larger country with a

bigger population. And much of the Middle

East, Africa, Latin America and Asia Pacific

(excluding China) also has a low penetration

of BEV buses due to the lack of subsidies

and infrastructure and greater focus on upfront

cost. Meanwhile China’s lead, as is

well known and as was discussed on a recent

Sustainable Bus webinar, is very strong

in buses. Secondly, BEVs are here to stay

in Europe. Competition with fuel cell and

diesel buses will continue but the trajectory

towards BEV buses taking a larger share and

becoming the default option in some countries

in the next few years is clear. In buses

BEVs are, as in other areas, emerging as the

winner after considering all factors including

lifetime cost, climate change impact and

clean air. Jamie Fox (Interact Analysis)

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OUTLOOKS

MAAS AND THE FUTURE OF MOBILITY IN CITIES (AND NOT ONLY)

HOW TO BEAT

PRIVATE CARS?

Public transport operators are joining forces with

taxi providers in order to win the battle against

private cars. We involved UITP and MaaS Global

along a discussion on the future of MaaS

The MaaS concept, which used to

be a purely academic notion, is

steadily becoming an integral part

of the plans of many transit authorities

around the world. The number of cities

and operators introducing trials is growing,

along with the demand for updated digital

systems enabling the use of MaaS. The integration

of providers for shared cars, bikes,

scooters, Segways etc. has therefore been

introduced in many projects. That said,

private car ownership continues to be extremely

popular. Comfort and convenience

are obvious reasons for the massive use of

private cars. Whenever possible, door-todoor

transport is surely the main reason

for preferring a car ride instead of catching

public transport, no matter how comfortable

and efficient it could be. No timetables, no

crowds, first and last mile and low service

areas covered according to one’s own needs,

and a feeling of safety and independence.

This is difficult to beat, but not impossible.

Competition with private cars can be based

on a combined offer in addition to a digital

payment solution that adds value when

choosing multimodality and provides a trip

planner that guides the passenger through

possible changes in transit modality.

So, the question here is simple: how can

we attract passengers who are in

need of a door-to-door service,

by offering mobility solutions

that don’t rely on the use of their

own cars?

MaaS could be the answer. In

fact, traditional means of transport

(such as PT, taxis, private

cars etc.) are facing great changes

with new concepts of mobility

being born in a digital era

which are ready to be integrated

into a MaaS platform quite easily.

Many companies are already

offering these kinds of services,

and free-floating car-sharing,

round-trip car-sharing, peer-topeer

car-sharing and ride-hailing

are alternatives that are

slowly attracting attention wherever they

are available.

Nowadays we can see a variety of free-floating

fleets of cars available in city centres in

many locations. Round-trip car-sharing is a

good solution when travelling outside a city

centre and is a useful alternative in an environment

where cars are needed to cover

geographical areas that are poorly served

by PT. The peer-to-peer car-sharing service,

which is less popular at the moment, would

also make it possible to rent out one’s car

to someone through an app when you don’t

need to use it yourself.

The question is simple:

how can we attract

passengers who are in

need of a door-to-door

service, by offering

mobility solutions that

don’t rely on the use of

their own cars?

MaaS could be the answer.

Focus on flexible alternatives

However, the success of sharing depends

merely on the mindset of the population as

the technical solutions are already in place.

What needs to be reinforced is that MaaS

means Mobility as a Service and its concept

is essentially to provide a mobility offer that

is more adaptable and meets the needs of

the traveller in a specific location and time.

In particular, a MaaS container can include

flexible alternatives such as private cars in

combination with a variety of convenient

mobility solutions. For instance, MaaS

transit service and public transport in general

can serve areas with a large population

while flexible solutions such as shared vehicles

services and on-demand services could

cover the first and last mile areas.

We have asked Lidia Signor, Combined

Mobility Manager at the International

Association of Public Transport (UITP),

some questions to understand how such an

important worldwide platform can tackle

the issue:

What has UITP done so far to promote

the use of MaaS solutions and discourage

the use of private cars?

«In 2019 UITP published a Policy Brief

on MaaS in which important key recommendations

were included such as the

need to reinforce institutional and policy

integration to overcome institutional

fragmentation. In order to do this, it is

important to take into account the capabilities

and resources needed to handle

algorithms and data analytics, efficient

multimodal urban planning, and the implementation

of KPI policy in line with

urban mobility plans».

So, according to UITP’s vision, what is

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29


OUTLOOKS

the key to setting up successful MaaS

solutions?

«UITP has listed a few key points. First of all,

building the eco-system through a participative

process and the establishment of a code

of conduct. Secondly, ensuring that public

transport and active mobility options are focused

on. Thirdly, implementing policies for

data reciprocity and protection, including

the development of policies based on the use

of algorithms and policies for quality standards.

Fourthly, pricing and impact of packages

and sales on public transport budgets.

Lastly, facilitating the implementation and

success of MaaS projects by fostering innovation,

funding initiatives and facilitating

partnerships with contractual frameworks».

Lidia Signor rightly pointed out some crucial

points such as infrastructure intervention

and fostering innovation. Over sixty

years of infrastructure policies which prioritized

the circulation of cars and creation of

parking spaces in cities, for example, have

left limited space for PT, let alone the alternatives.

Lidia Signor, UITP: «The

integration of taxis is an

emerging trend, especially

for commercial integrators,

that relies on partnerships

and digitalisation capacity

within a commercial

framework. This in return

also creates challenges,

especially for local policies

and government-led

MaaS schemes, aimed

at reducing car use and

maximising the use of

more sustainable services

but also providing social

services that taxis often

ensure. Uber is planning to

integrate taxis in their app

in the years to come and

this will give a boost to the

digitalisation of taxis».

Towards a combined mobility offer

At local authority level, one important aspect

should also be taken into consideration:

changing the traveller’s mindset. This is a

change that will surely take some time for

all the reasons we said earlier but that can be

encouraged with solutions such as advantageous

fares. The traveller will have to find it

economically worthwhile to go from A to B

with a combined mobility offer. Marketing

information about what MaaS can do and

the advantages it offers, along with a deep

and comprehensive study of the customers,

should be more widespread. There should

be a policy of incentives that highlight the

benefits and minimize the issues. Enhanced

accessibility should also be emphasized as

well as cooperation based on a balanced

stakeholder policy and the inclusion of added-value

services such as weather forecasts,

tourist information etc.

Basically, by analyzing the variety of existing

shared transport business models,

we can see that the majority of

mobility needs of travellers are

already covered. It is only a matter

of making people know more

about Maas and how useful it is.

Obviously, this is easier to implement

in towns, and more difficult

in rural areas and suburbs where,

generally speaking, there are

fewer mobility solutions. More

difficult, but not impossible.

Taxis in MaaS

An important service is surely

taxis, which are essential to cover

the needs of the traveller wherever

there is no PT alternative. In

some countries the topic of taxis

in MaaS is a sore point, due to current local

regulations regarding this particular type of

service, the existence of independent taxi

cooperatives, and the poor or non-existent

digitalisation of the service. These are all

factors that make the offer really fragmented

and difficult to integrate straight away.

Despite that, there are quite a few examples

of successful integration into a MaaS project.

Furthermore, it must be said that the

integration of apps for chauffeur car-hire

services, cars-on-demand services and other

types of ride-hailing services also fill the

streets with many vehicles.

We also asked Lidia Signor the following

questions:

Do you think that we are on the right

track with integrating taxis into MaaS?

«The integration of taxis is an emerging

trend, especially for commercial integrators,

that relies on partnerships and digitalisation

capacity within a commercial

framework. This in return also creates

challenges, especially for local policies and

government-led MaaS schemes, aimed at

reducing car use and maximising the use of

more sustainable services but also providing

social services that taxis often ensure».

When did the process of integrating taxis

into Maas start?

«Taxis have been involved in MaaS

schemes since the beginning, for example

within the commercial offer of MaaS

Global, integrated in the Whim app in

Helsinki. More recently, in 2020, the

MaaS app developed by JREast in Japan,

called Ringo pass, started with the integration

of taxis, first with the information

layer and the payment system (through

QR codes) and then with the booking

system. Meanwhile, Uber is planning to

integrate taxis in their app in the years

to come and this will give a boost to the

digitalisation of taxis».

As Lidia Signor mentioned, the Whim app

is a pioneer in the MaaS project. We therefore

asked the CEO and Founder of MaaS

Global, Sampo Hietanen, a few questions

on the subject.

Mr. Hietanen, is the taxi service integrated

in the Finnish project?

«Yes, it is. We cooperate with three taxi

companies in the Helsinki region: Taksi Helsinki,

Lähitaksi and Menevä. Taksi Helsinki

and Lähitaksi cover the whole Uusimaa region

and Menevä works in Turku as well.

We also have the taxi service integrated in

other markets: in Vienna with Taxi 31300,

in Antwerp with Antwerp Taxi and DTM

Antwerp, and in Tokyo with Japan Taxi».

Sampo Hietanen, CEO and

Founder of MaaS Global:

«Different taxi services

usually function in a similar

way. Our service sends

them information regarding

the start and end location

of the trip. After that we get

information about the price,

when the taxi is ready to

pick up the customer etc».

Was it easy to integrate taxis in the MaaS

project, technically speaking? Was the

service already digitalized?

«Different taxi services usually function in

a similar way. Our service sends them information

regarding the start and end location

of the trip. After that we get information

about the price, when the taxi is ready to

pick up the customer etc. So, in that sense,

the integration was fairly easy».

So, was it a good start?

«Yes. After the first taxi service was integrated,

it was easier to integrate the next

one. On the other hand, as the number of

service providers increases, the backend becomes

more complex. Not all the APIs were

ready in the beginning, but the taxi service

providers developed them fairly quickly to

fit our need».

Did you have issues with the taxi driver

companies and/or trade unions?

«Not really. For us the integration of the

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OUTLOOKS

ZERO COMPROMISE.

MOVE. TOGETHER.

«In Finland, Whim

works with four rental

car service providers:

three traditional car

rental companies

(Herz, Sixt and Toyota

rent) and one service

provider (24Rent), which

operates a fully digital

rental service, where

the service provider can

relocate the cars based

on customer needs.

The customer’s driver’s

license is verified online

and the car doors open

digitally. Digital car

rental is easy as there

is no need to visit the

office to get the car or

the keys».

taxi service was fairly simple from that

point of view».

Which kind of private car services are integrated

in the MaaS project?

«In Finland, Whim works with four rental

car service providers: three traditional car

rental companies (Herz, Sixt and Toyota

rent) and one service provider (24Rent),

which operates a fully digital rental service,

where the service provider can relocate the

cars based on customer needs. The customer’s

driver’s license is verified online and the

car doors open digitally. Digital car rental

is easy as there is no need to visit the office

to get the car or the keys. The customer has

to return the car to the vicinity of the pickup

location. Coverage of these services varies

a bit between the service providers but all

of them work in multiple cities in Finland».

Are the services fully digitalized?

«Service providers have been digitalized

but not all the interfaces of their products/

services have been ready when they joined

the Whim platform. For example, some of

the ticket types may have been missing and

we had to wait for them».

What usage rate trends have you been

observing in the implemented MaaS project?

«We can have a look at the statistics about

the number of trips made by Whim users

between July 1st 2018 and July 31st 2022:

public transport 88.75%, bikes 8.72%, taxi

1.93%, car rental 0.16%, e-scooters 0.45%.

«Service providers have

been digitalized but

not all the interfaces of

their products/services

have been ready when

they joined the Whim

platform. For example,

some of the ticket types

may have been missing

and we had to wait

for them».

It has to be noted that some numbers are

based on our estimations, since currently

we don’t have data, for example, on how

many individual trips are made with a rental

car during the rental period. But those

numbers will give you an idea».

What kind of critical situation did you

have to face in implementing the projects?

«We took our series B funding, roughly 30

million at the end of 2019, and started to

ramp up the organization for scaling. The

organization was in place in early 2020 and

when COVID hit to everyone’s disappointment,

our team had to scale down and save

cash, while at the same time holding on to

the capabilities we had developed. However,

in the midst of this turmoil, in July 2020

we hit the record in paying users. Even

with limited resourcing, we were able to hit

the record number of users. We were able

to give people options when PT was not a

choice. This tells you about the resilience of

the Maas business model».

Rossella De Maria

The new generation Citea.

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32


IN THE SPOTLIGHT

We’re talking of two buses

sharing the same drive

system – relying on ZF’s

AxTrax, the electrified axle

built in Friedrichshafen

that has almost earned a

monopoly of the segment

over the years. Siemens is

at their heels and announced

the launch of an

electric axle jointly with

the renewal of their ELFA

range. Cummins is getting

ready to boost their share

thanks to a resonant

acquisition campaign

(Meritor, that is).

Also battery formula is the

same: NMC. The difference

lies in the maximum

capacity: 389 kWh for

Switch, 490 for Van Hool.

Switch is to be praised for

the vehicle’s innovations:

wheelchair accessibility

from front entry, low

weight, a painstaking design.

Both bus makers opt

for plug-in depot charging.

SWITCH MOBILITY E1 - VAN HOOL A12

WE’LL HAVE OUR SAY

The 12-metre brand new e-bus models by Switch Mobility

and Van Hool interpret energy transition of public transport

with a focus on native electric products. Mass reduction and

innovative design are a must for both. For Switch, heir to

Optare, this is the first model for mainland European markets

Switch Mobility first e-bus

model is conceived and developed

with mainland Europe’s

markets in mind. Van Hool

new range is developed from scratch and

embraces the ‘electric only’ paradigm. The

Anglo-Indian group taking on the legacy

of the Optare brand and the family-owned

Belgian bus maker stole the spotlight

last June at the European Mobility Expo

in Paris with their product launches. Together

with Iveco Urbanway mild hybrid,

these vehicles form the milestones of a

2022 that finally sees the industry back in

shape to offer something new, after two

understandably pretty dormant pandemic

years that brought very little novelties in

terms of products.

We’re talking of two buses sharing the same

drive system – relying on ZF’s AxTrax, the

electrified axle built in Friedrichshafen

that has almost earned a monopoly of the

segment over the years. Siemens is at their

heels and announced the launch of an electric

axle jointly with the renewal of their

ELFA range. Cummins is getting ready to

boost their share thanks to a resonant acquisition

campaign (Meritor, that is).

Focus on depot charging

Back to the two buses being compared:

also battery formula is the same, lithium

ion plus nickel, manganese and cobalt.

Spelt out in three letters: NMC. The difference

lies in the maximum capacity:

389 kWh for Switch, 490 for Van Hool.

Switch is to be praised for the vehicle’s

innovations: wheelchair accessibility

from front entry, low weight, a painstaking

design. Both bus makers opt for depot

charging through standard CCS2.

FACE TO FACE

Switch Mobility e1 Van Hool A12

Length mm 12,000 12,225

Width mm 2,550 2,550

Height mm 3,100 3,400

Overhang front / rear mm 2,777 / 3,223 2,825 / 3,610

Wheelbase mm 6,000 5,790

Passenger capacity n. 93 -

Seats n. 28 41

Internal height mm 2360 -

Front axle ZF RL82 EC ZF RL82 EC

Rear axle ZF AxTrax ZF AxTrax

Motor brand model ZF AxTrax ZF AxTrax

Motor type Asynchronous Asynchronous

Motor layout At wheel hubs At wheel hubs

Power continuous kW - -

Power peak kW 2 x 125 = 250 2 x 125 = 250

Torque continuous Nm 2 x 357 = 714 2 x 357 = 714

Torque peak Nm 2 x 485 = 970 2 x 485 = 970

Battery brand model - Akasol

Battery formula NMC NMC

Battery cooling - Liquid

Battery placement Roof Roof

Battery capacity kWh 389 490

Battery usable energy kWh 346 -

Charging power kW 150 -

Charging technology plug-in CCS2 Combo plug-in CCS2 Combo

Empty weight kg 10,775 13,000

34

35


IN THE SPOTLIGHT

SWITCH MOBILITY E1

REMAINER!

Switch Mobility has launched not only an e-bus model,

but an industrial strategy targeting Europe. To be built in

Spain, the e1 features low weight and great accessibility

The bus manufacturer

places special emphasis

on weight reduction; and

rightly so, considering that

the 10,775 kg of unladen

weight place their e1

among the least cumbersome

e-buses in this respect.

Which is due, among other

things, to the welded tube

frame. Passenger capacity

is up to 93.

Let’s begin with Switch. The brand

saw the light in mid 2021 and it’s

owned by Indian Hinduja Group.

Switch Mobility has inherited

the knowledge built in time by the manufacturer

under the Optare brand: in

short, the new brand presents itself as the

zero-emission division of Ashok Leyland

(they belong to the same group). While

this latter will keep focusing on internal

combustion engine commercial vehicles,

Switch will take care of developing and

selling exclusively zero-emission vehicles.

In addition to successfully recruiting

a big management name – their CEO is

Andy Palmer, former top manager at

Aston Martin – the company shifted their

geographical focus.

Europe in the spotlight

While Optare’s historical connection with

the UK market will not change, Switch

Mobility has announced plans to invest

100 million euros in ten years into production

facilities located in Valladolid, Spain,

with two production lines including for

their e1. Plans include later addition of a

plant for battery packs assembling. The

bus manufacturer places special emphasis

on weight reduction; and rightly so,

considering that the 10,775 kg of unladen

weight place their e1 among the least

cumbersome e-buses in this respect.

Which is due, among other things, to the

welded tube frame. Passenger capacity is

up to 93. Not bad for a battery-electric bus

(the eCitaro has a comparable battery capacity

but can accommodate a maximum

of 70 people).

Going back to technical specs, the bus is

driven by 250 kW in-wheel ZF motors.

Curiously enough, just a year ago Switch

Mobility signed a partnership agreement

with Dana (which also acquired a 1%

stake in the company). 28 passengers

can be seated onboard, the bus can have

2 or 3 double-door entries according

to configuration.

Entrance height is 250 mm with kneeling

in use. The wheelchair access through

both the front and the mid door stands out

as a true one-of-a kind feature.

Accessibility? Top-notch

Heating and air conditioning use 28 and

25 kW, respectively, with separate driver

system. Interiors are very carefully designed.

As for active safety equipment, there’s

plenty: the bus lines up ASR, ESP, blind

spot monitoring, parking sensors with

rear automatic braking system. The bus

has in-house diagnostic technology: the

iAlert system allows for real time and

remote monitoring, plus it offers digital

battery management tools.

36

37


IN THE SPOTLIGHT

VAN HOOL A12

TENDING TO ZERO

Only ZE products in Van Hool new range of city buses

(which can also be homologated in Class II). It starts with

the A12: technology partners are among the best in class

The brand new ‘A’ range

is made exclusively of

zero-emission powertrains:

battery-electric, fuel cell

and trolleybuses with IMC

technology. The structure is

self-supporting and made

of high-resistance steel and

composite materials (side

panels are made of Hylite,

while the roof consists of a

single block of steel). Batteries

are roof-mounted.

The 12-meter Van Hool A12

showcased in Paris provides

the springboard for a range renewal

set to include the 10, 18

and 24 m, too. A genuine new course for

a family-run company that, though boasting

a diversified business encompassing,

above all, the tourist bus segment,

is increasingly focused on switching to

alternative drives. A forerunner in the

use of fuel cells, last March Van Hool

landed a huge order from Paris, where

it’s going to deliver a good 56 so-called

‘trambuses’, that is to say battery-electric

double-articulated buses fit for fast

charging; which in the French capital

will be done by means of ground-based

infrastructure thanks to the SRS systems

by Alstom (in its very first bus application).

That’s quite a novelty. They will

travel on two new BRT lines.

Going back to range renewal, we’re

still in Paris, where the Van Hool A12

was presented. The brand new ‘A’ range

is made exclusively of zero-emission

powertrains: battery-electric, fuel

cell and trolleybuses with In Motion

Charging technology.

No compromises on battery capacity

The structure is self-supporting and

made of high-resistance steel and

composite materials (side panels are

made of Hylite, while the roof consists

of a single block of steel). Light

assemblies are all full-led. The front

axle is from ZF, too: RL82 EC,

independent suspension.

Batteries are roof-mounted, with the bus

being some 30 cm higher than the e1 by

Switch. According to the manufacturer,

the unladen weight is 13 ton, a good 200

kg heavier compared to the bus from the

Anglo-Indian group (according to the

data sheet). This may be partially due

to the Belgian bus having higher capacity

batteries, which can house 490 kWh

of energy. Modules are supplied by the

German-based Akasol, recently acquired

by USA giant Borgwarner.

The passenger compartment can accommodate

up to 41 Kiel Ideo 30 seats

– that’s the standard. The driver can

instead enjoy a comfy seat by ISRI, the

6860/885 NTS2.

As for air conditioning, the bus features

a heat pump system Heavac Borealis 2.0

(Aurora group), recovering heat from the

drive system and featuring an integrated

battery cooling unit. Regarding safety, in

addition to the ever-present EBS, ABS,

ASR, we find hill start assist, stability

control via ESC/ESP; plus, available as

an option, TPMS and Mobileye Shield+

system offering pedestrian, cyclist, and

obstacle blind spot detection.

38

39


IN THE SPOTLIGHT

IVECO URBANWAY HYBRID

MILD WAVE

Iveco Bus embraces mild hybrid

technology, too. The full hybrid

Urbanway bows out leaving the stage

to the version with a Voith unit. Also

available with a gas engine

40

No sooner said than done. Iveco Bus

joins the ranks of light city hybrids, a

technology already successfully embraced

by MAN, Mercedes and Solaris.

Developed by Voith, the hybrid unit makes its

appearance in the powertrain of the new Urbanway,

freshly reintroduced with quite a few

novelties right as the new Euro VI Step E bus

range was being launched. Just like the Lion

brand but differently than the Stuttgart-based

manufacturer, Iveco Bus included the mild hybrid

option also in their gas-fuelled product list.

The reorganized range will thus mark the exit of

the standard hybrid technology, which featured

a 140 kW permanent magnet electric motor by

BAE Systems matched to a Tector 7 combustion

engine as generator.

Energy consumption down

The manufacturer states consumption will be

cut by 16% as compared to the diesel version.

As for CO2 emissions, they are 19% less when

using renewable fuels. The mild hybrid technology

is soon to be found on the Crealis and the

Crossway Low Entry, too. The first deliveries

of the Urbanway hybrid (whose ‘baby shower’

was celebrated in early June at the Paris European

Mobility Expo) are scheduled for the end of

the year, while the Class II champion in the new

configuration “has already been introduced in

the framework of several 2022 call for bids, and

it’s scheduled for delivery as of the first quarter

of 2023” the bus maker says.

As said at the outset, Voith is Iveco Bus chosen

partner in this mild hybrid endeavour. They designed

the 48 Volt hybrid unit developed with

the Diwa NXT seven speed gearbox in mind

(four speeds plus three overdrives) available as

Zooming in on the gas

version, we find roof

mounted gas tanks

placed no higher than

3,300 mm from the

ground; they can store

960 to 1,610 litres of gas. 41


IN THE SPOTLIGHT

The transmission

includes a CRU – Central

Recuperation Unit – 35

kW of peak power and

25 of continuous – plus

a generator to recover

kinetic energy from

braking which also serves

as a starting unit. It can

deliver 300 Nm. Based on

info by Voith, the Diwa

NXT enables to save 7%

on fuel consumption

versus its predecessor

Diwa 6.

42

a standard in this configuration.

The transmission includes a CRU –

Central Recuperation Unit – 35 kW of

peak power and 25 of continuous – plus

a generator to recover kinetic energy

from braking which also serves as

a starting unit (the Stop&Start system

gets automatically engaged). It can deliver

300 Nm. Based on info by Voith,

the Diwa NXT enables to save 7% on

fuel consumption versus its predecessor

Diwa 6.

Voith’s fingerprints on the Urbanway

The configuration with CRU reaches

9%. It must be mentioned that it’s in

suburban and intercity applications that

the Diwa NXT reaches top performance

thus outpacing the Diwa 6 more sharply

in terms of consumption. The feature

list includes a roof-mounted small

48 Volt LTO battery with a capacity of

around 1 kWh.

The transmission partners with the

well-established Cursor 9 internal com-

ID CARD

Length mm 12,093 18,003

Width mm 2,500 2,500

Height (diesel version) mm 3,165 3,165

Wheelbase mm 6,120 5,355 / 6,675

Overhang front / rear mm 2,723 / 3,250 2,723 / 3,250

Internal height mm 2,378 2,378

Entrance height mm 320 / 330 / 340 320 / 330 / 340

Doors width mm 1,200 1,200

Turning circle mm 10,785 11,713

Seats n. 36 51

Engine brand model FPT Cursor 9 FPT Cursor 9

Displacement l 8.7 8.7

Output kW 230 268

Torque Nm 1,300 / 1,100 giri 1,650 / 1,200 giri

Transmission Voith Diwa NXT Voith Diwa NXT

Hybrid module power kW 25 / 35 25 / 35

Front axle RL75 RL75

Rear axle ZF AV133EP ZF AV133EP

bustion engine, boasting 8.7 litres. The

engine’s mounting arrangement is one

of the main novelties that premiered

on the range renewal labelled as Step

E: it’s now longitudinal. What for? Improving

on weight balancing and ease

of maintenance. Alternators are also

tagged as new: there are three, 150 Ampere

each. Stronger power, to meet the

higher energy demand due to onboard

electronics.

As for ‘cosmetic’ features, the Urbanway

is now offered in a redesigned version

whose flush-mounted rear lights

blend into bold red bands.

The bus comes in three lengths: 10.5,

12 and 18 m. Doors standardly rotate

inwards, but an outward sliding option

is also available for doors other than the

front one.

Seats were designed by Polish company

Ster (other suppliers are available on

request).

Fuel options include both diesel and

CNG. Zooming in on the gas version,

we find roof mounted gas tanks placed

no higher than 3,300 mm from the

ground; they can store 960 to 1,610 litres

of compressed natural gas – which

corresponds to a minimum of three to a

maximum of five tanks.

Driving range? Up to 600 km. Debuting

in the driver compartment is the new

Actia Podium 2 dashboard incorporating

a 7-inch full colour display.

43


IN THE SPOTLIGHT

SCANIA CITYWIDE BEV

2ND LAUNCH

44

Scania relaunched their electric bus:

the 12 m Citywide BEV can be Class

I and Class II compliant. A new range

stretching all the way through the 15 m

to include bendy buses

Scania’s new generation is (also) electric.

While rethinking their product

range, the Swedish builder reintroduced

their Citywide BEV at a press

event in Södertälje. Curiously enough, this

was the second unveiling of a model seen at

Busworld 2019 that has never really hit the market

so far (except for a few minor orders on the

domestic market).

The e-bus will be available in the 11 and 12 m

integrally low-floor versions to begin with, while

the 15 m and bendy models (in both the LF

and LE versions) are soon to follow.

Production based in Poland

Production – said Scania - is already underway

in Slupsk, Poland, a country that’s increasingly

stating its role of central hub for electric bus

production – it’s where the vehicles of marketleading

manufacturer Solaris and MAN Lion’s

City are also produced. What about target markets?

First and foremost, Sweden and the rest of

Scandinavia, with plans to expand to mainland

and Mediterranean Europe. Keeping an eye on

South America’s countries, too.

The new Citywide range features larger and lower

side windows, a higher ceiling line, a broader

aisle, and a newly introduced indirect ceiling

illumination that improves the spaciousness and

comfort of the onboard environment.

With a height of 3,270 mm, the new Scania

Citywide BEV features three double doors and

a passenger compartment underpinned by 32

seats. Max passenger capacity is 78. As for the

vehicle’s (electric) heart, we have a 300 kW, 210

Nm torque central electric motor made in house.

Surprisingly, we find a two-speed gearbox: same

as on the new 7900 Electric range of the other

Scania presented the

Citywide BEV at an event in

Södertälje. It was the 2nd

unveiling of a model seen at

Busworld 2019 that hasn’t

really hit the market so far

(except for a few orders in

Sweden). With a height of

3,270 mm, the new Scania

Citywide BEV features three

double doors and a passenger

compartment with 32

seats. Max passenger capacity

is 78. As for the bus’ (electric)

heart, we have a 300

kW, 210 Nm torque central

electric motor made in house

with a two-speed gearbox:

same as on the new Volvo

7900 Electric range.

ID CARD

Length mm 12,000

Width mm 2,555

Height mm 3,270

Wheelbase mm 5,200/7,100

Overhang front / rear mm 2,780/3,415

Motor supplier

Traton

Output peak KW 300

Output continuous kW 250

Torque peak Nm 2100

Stated range km 320

Battery supplier

Northvolt

Battery capacity 254/330

Front axle payload kg 8,200

Rear axle payload kg 12,000

Seats n. 32

Passenger capacity n. 78

Swedish brand, Volvo.

Made for opportunity charging

The total capacity of the (eight) battery packs is

254 kWh: not much. It’s no secret that Scania

relies on fast-charging via roof-mounted pantograph.

However, the use of NMC batteries instead

of LTO, more commonly used on Opportunity

applications, might come as a surprise. Scania is

planning to switch to Northvolt batteries in the

future. The bus ticks all the boxes: EBS, Traction

control, rearview camera, hill holder.

45


COMPARISON

18-METER TROLLEYBUS WITH IMC TECHNOLOGY

OLD BUT GOLD

Thanks to the introduction of In Motion Charging

technology, trolleybuses have become full electric

vehicles in the truest sense. Off-wire operation is

providing them with unprecedented flexibility

The possibility to cover over 10 km (peaking

to 25/30 km depending on models)

out of the “comfort zone” of overhead lines

can solve at once any issue that may

arise from route extension, detours, and

other operating modalities for which building

a fixed infrastructure would prove

burdensome.

The market of IMC trolleybuses

IMC trolleybuses are gaining ground on

European networks, with Switzerland

surely taking the lion’s share. In fact,

another 23 18-meter Exquicity produced

by Van Hool will be delivered in Geneva,

equipped with batteries, which will allow

the extension of some routes without

the need for infrastructure. In Lausanne,

the first of a series of 27 trolleybuses (12

to 24 meters) are soon expected to come.

Lucerne has ordered a further 5 24-meters

vehicles.

Significant news come also from France,

where, after Limoges and St. Etienne,

Lyon is also ordering new trolleybuses.

On January 20th, in fact, a deal was finalized

with Carrosserie Hess for the supply

of 18 new Lightram 19 articulated

trolleybuses.

Esslingen, in Austria, received the first

of the six Trollino produced by Solaris,

also equipped with batteries. Also Berlin

is looking with interest at IMC technology:

BVG is studying the feasibility of

installing two-wires infrastructures as

charging sections. Solaris is also present

in Lublin (Poland) with 15 trolleybus ordered,

and on delivery from May 2020.

Gdynia trolleybus fleet has reached 100

units. A large order has been awarded to

Solaris in Czech Republic: 85 Trollino

will be supplied in Kaunas.

IMC trolleybuses are available in 12, 18,

BRAND NEW

Derived from the model 32 TR, , the T’City 36 TR is the new Skoda

low-floor trolleybus (12 meters in length). The body is made

in collaboration with sister company Temsa (which is part of the

same Czech group PPF with Skoda). The body is similar to the battery-electric

bus E’City, launched this year and rolled out already

in Prague, where a fleet of 14 units is operating. The Skoda 36 TR

model has all the features that a modern trolleybus must have:

the standard equipment includes, in addition to the low floor, the

air conditioning system for driver and passenger environment, the

separated and closed driver’s cab, the video surveillance system.

Upon request, the customer may have the possibility of autonomous

operations thanks to batteries, with progressive charging

mode. This allows the trolleybus to travel up to 15 km without

connection to the infrastructure. The vehicle

can accommodate 85 passengers, 27 of

whom are seated. The electric equipment

is provided by Skoda, and allows the vehicle

a maximum speed of up to 65 km/h. This

is certainly an interesting vehicle, which is

expected to work especially on Eastern European

networks, but its presence on other

networks is not ruled out. The city of Ostrava

has optioned 18 Skoda 36 TR, whose delivery is scheduled for

2023, once the tests on the prototype have been completed. S.A.

and 24 m version, with one or two motors,

this latter being a compulsory option

for the 24m trolleybuses already in

service in Austria and Switzerland.

Another key plus of IMC technology,

one that makes IMC buses different from

battery-operated ones, is that it virtually

eliminates the need to take recharging

breaks. This way, service schedules are

not affected, and neutral sections or legs

of the routes can be covered with no

need to reset the trolleybus, as batteries

supply the auxiliaries.

Stefano Alfano

In Motion Charging (IMC) technology

is adding to trolleybuses that

little bit “extra” they were missing.

Once fitted with a diesel motorgenerator

and unable to break the constraints

of connection to overhead powerlines,

thanks to batteries trolleybuses are

now reinventing themselves as vehicles

that can combine zero emissions with flexibility.

But let’s step back a few years, to the “pre-

IMC” era. The first battery systems did not

allow for off-wire operation, which curbed

the vehicle’s potential. The first battery

packs were heavier and bulkier than

they were powerful, so trolleybuses could

only move off-wire at a low speed and

without passengers. Similarly, even lastgeneration

motor generator units, albeit

compliant with the strictest anti-pollution

regulations and allowing for off-wire

operation at higher speeds and in service,

were not giving trolleybuses the flexibility

they still lacked. Indeed, they were

designed to be run for short stretches, and

not for continuous operation. Plus, they

had an impact on consumption.

Technology finally came to the rescue.

Evolved batteries and newly developed

charging modalities led to the creation of

In Motion Charging technologies. Batteries

are now replacing motor generator

units and they can be charged in slow

mode while the trolleybus is running under

overhead lines. Generally based on

lithium-titanate, these batteries are small

and performant, capable to withstand

thousands of charge/discharge cycles,

allowing trolleybuses to keep their operating

speed, at full passenger load, for

several kilometres. Once the bus gets

back to on-wire operation, batteries get

recharged.

IMC trolleybuses are, therefore, full electric

vehicles in the truest sense. Far more

important, off-wire operation is now providing

trolleybuses with unprecedented

flexibility.

THE TROLLEYBUS QUARTET

Hess Swisstrolley 19 DC Iveco Crealis IMC Solaris Trollino 18 Van Hool Exqui.City 18

Lenght mm 18,750 18,395 18,000 18,610

Wheelbase front/rear mm - 5,355 / 6,675 - 6,600 / 6,710

Front overhang mm - 3,195 - 1,900

Rear overhang mm - 3,170 - 3,400

Width mm 2,550 2,550 2,550 2,550

Height mm 3,500 - 3,680 3,700

Motor brand / model 2x TSA TMF 35-28-4 Skoda 2x TSA TMF 35-28-4 2x TSA TMF 35-28-4

permanent magnets permanent magnets permanent magnets

Output peak kW 2 x 120 240 - 260 2 x 160 2 x 160

Torque peak Nm 1,341 - - -

Inverter

Skoda / Kiepe Electric (IGBT) Skoda / Kiepe Electric (IGBT) Skoda / Kiepe Electric (IGBT) Skoda / Kiepe Electric (IGBT)

Battery capacity kWh 45 45 45 45

Range wireless km 15 15 15 15

Passenger capacity n. 142 125 135 131

46

47


COMPARISON

HESS SWISSTROLLEY 19 DC

SWISS KING

Hess holds a dominant position in the Swiss

trolleybus market. The Swisstrolley, that

stems from a study from Zurich university, is

expected to cover 30 km off-wire

Hess has uncontested rule over the

Swiss market. Indeed, virtually

all Swiss networks are served by

trolleybuses made by the Bellachbased

manufacturer. Hess has been proving

his leadership in the double-articulated, 24 m

segment. The new Swisstrolley, already deployed

“at home” in Berne and Biel, stems

from a study from Zurich’s Polytechnic

School in cooperation with VBZ in Zurich

and Berne University aimed at achieving

15% less energy consumption as compared

to other vehicles. Its body is made of aluminium

and built based on the CO-BOLT building

technology developed by the manufacturer

itself. It is guaranteed to have a longer

operating life, which in itself is already a remarkable

feature for a trolleybus, in addition

to requiring simpler repair operations, having

a higher useful load (thanks to its lighter

body) adaptable spare parts, high-quality

anti-corrosion features and 80% of recyclable

aluminium. Moreover, in the event of a

collision, the CO-BOLT system is designed

to guarantee high shock absorption levels.

The use of glass fibre-reinforced plastic allows

for a weight reduction of about a ton

The body

is made of

aluminium and

built based on

the CO-BOLT

technology

developed

by Hess. It is

guaranteed to

have a longer

operating life and

require simpler

repair operations.

as compared to previous trolleybus models.

The 18 m. version has 4 doors, with the front

one being single-panelled. The fully electric

infrared heating system includes a heat pump

and a separate air conditioning system for

passengers. The bus driver cabin has its own

air conditioning system. According to Hess,

the Swisstrolley can cover more than 50% of

its route off-wire, and up to 30 km in a row

without being connected to the overhead

line. Definitely some remarkable achievements

that will have, though, to be checked

again after several charge/discharge cycles.

The drive system is particularly powerful,

with a distributed architecture featuring

two motors by TSA. By distributing power

between two axles, this dual-motor solution

causes less strain on the driveline, thus reducing

the wear and tear of the driveline itself

and of tires.

S.A.

IVECO CREALIS IMC

THE AWARDED ONE

Iveco has delivered the first battery-powered

Crealis to Limoges. Evolution of the Neo,

this new generation trolleybus is powered by

Skoda drivetrain and has won the SBY 2019

Its design makes the Iveco Crealis

one of the most aesthetically

pleasing trolleybuses. The first

two new-generation IMC (In Motion

Charging) trolleybuses have been

delivered to Limoges, in France, with

another 4 units as an option. They are

declared by the manufacturer to have a

15 km off-wire capability.

Skoda Electric, Iveco’s electric drive

partner in the Limoges trolleybus supply,

provides for a range of traction

motors with different power ratings.

A modular design

Thanks to its modular design, each single

component of the electrical system

can be accurately customized to fit

individual trolleybuses and disparate

customer’s needs. A special diagnostic

system allows for the constant monitoring

of electrical equipment in operation.

The Crealis features the same light

units as the Urbanway buses.

Particularly distinctive features of the

trolleybus are, instead, a fully lowered

The vehicle won

the Sustainable

Bus Award 2019

in the “Urban”

category. The

reason: “IMC

technology can

secure the future

of trolleybuses as

well as optimize

the unavoidable

transition towards

e-mobility”.

floor, four doors, three axles, the last

of which is the drive axle in the “Bologna”

version. The Crealis’ battery

pack is 2 to 10 times lighter than that

of battery-operated buses. A software

provides for optimized performance,

avoiding peaks in energy demand.

The new generation Crealis won the

Sustainable Bus Award 2019 in the “Urban”

category. Here’s the reason why:

“The In-Motion-Charging technology

can secure the future of trolleybuses

as well as optimize the by now unavoidable

and necessary transition towards

e-mobility. Its main advantages lie in

weight optimization and reduced size

batteries, which has benefits for three

major aspects at the top of the industry’s

priorities-: cost, duration and safety”.

S.A.

48

49


COMPARISON

SOLARIS TROLLINO 18

AFTER FACELIFT...

The new version of the Solaris Trollino

features a steel body and a thinner structure.

Weight has been reduces by 500 kg and

batteries allow a 15 km off-wire range

After the Urbino bus range’s facelift

of 2014, the restyled looks were

also extended to trolleybus models

in 2017. They made their official

debut back in 2018, at the Innotrans trade

fair. Solaris trolleybuses have been available

on the market since 2001.

The new version still features a steel body.

The structure, now thinner, is more resistant

to corrosion. The new range sports a set of

goodies such as newly shaped, differently

positioned components alongside a new building

technique that ensures better protection

of floors, including against weather agents.

Thinner glass panels and new insulating materials

made it possible to reduce its weight

by over 500 kg as compared to its previous

generation. Led lighting and lamps help save

energy. The floor is lowered and the equally

spaced plug doors can be either sliding (the

front one always is) or swinging (three out of

four doors). The maximum ground clearance

for all four doors is 320 mm. Its standard

configuration features a total passenger capacity

of 135, 52 seated. The electric

motor is by TSA (same as for Hess and Van

Hool). On the second and third axles are two

Batteries are

subdivided into

3 modules, and

capable to store

up to a total of

45 kWh. Their

chemistry? LTO,

same as that

of High Power

batteries fitted

onto the electric

version of the

Urbino.

permanent magnet electric motors capable of

delivering 320 kW. A single motor configuration

is among the options.

45 kWh batteries on board

Batteries are subdivided into 3 modules,

and capable to store up to a total of 45 kWh.

Their chemistry? LTO, same as that of High

Power batteries fitted onto the electric version

of the Urbino. LTO’s strength lies in its

the ability to absorb large amounts of energy

quickly, which, in bus applications, makes

it suitable for systems requiring fast recharging

at terminus stations. Solaris states that

the off-wire capability of its Trollino is 15

km.Optional equipment includes an interior

video-surveillance system, a camera to

check on the position of poles, and a feature

enabling overnight depot charging of the

batteries.

S.A.

VAN HOOL EXQUI.CITY 18

LIKE ON RAILS

The result of a simple idea: combining the

flexibility of a bus with the efficiency and

passenger capacity of a tram. The Exquicity

marks its distance from the AG 300T

33 Exquicity trolleybuses by Van

Hool were delivered to the Swiss

city of Geneva as a result of the

cooperation between the bus manufacturer

and TPG, the local public transport

operator. The Exquicity series is rooted in a

simple idea: combining the flexibility of a bus

with the efficiency and passenger capacity of

a rail vehicle, such as trams. And one may

easily notice that trams are right what this

trolleybus’ front-face gets its inspiration from.

A Multi Propulsion Platform

Its core concept is the Multi Propulsion Platform,

designed to fit in with a cutting-edge

technology such as In Motion Charging.

The Exquicity surely stands out for its uncommon,

sleek design which makes it pretty

different from its predecessor, the AG 300 T.

It features a closed driving cab with a clear

plexiglass partition that completely separates

the driver from the passenger compartment

which, like on other models, is monitored

through video surveillance. The driver’s seat

is slightly raised and placed almost centrally,

which offers great visibility. The driver’s

cab is fitted with monitors to check doors and

Interestingly,

driver’s seat is

slightly raised

and placed

almost centrally,

which offers

great visibility.

The driver’s cab

is fitted with

monitors to

check doors and

poles through

video cameras.

poles through video cameras. Fairing is also

available for the second and third axles, like

on the model delivered to Parma, Italy.

The layout of its four equally spaced, wide

doors is fairly interesting in that the front

door is slightly set back from the driving cab,

so as to avoid the creation of a narrow corridor

thus facilitating passenger movement

onboard. The wheelchair space is found right

before the front door. The driving cab has

no door of its own, and the driver must use

the front door of the passenger compartment

to get off the vehicle. Double panel entrance

and exit doors ensure quick boarding. Of

course, the module for kneeling at bus stops

is also available. Interiors can be arranged in

a variety of configurations, all LED-lit and

fully air conditioned with separate systems

for the driving cab and passenger compartment.

S.A.

50

51


PORTFOLIO

ALL THE ELECTRIC BUS MODELS ON THE EUROPEAN MARKETS.

BATTERY-ELECTRIC / HYBRID / FUEL CELL / IMC TROLLEYBUSES

ADL

BOLLORÉ

Neocity EV

Length mm 8,500

Passenger capacity n. 65

Motor / kW TM4 Sumo MD / 235

Battery type

BMZ / NMC

Battery capacity kWh 174 - 219

Charging technology plug-in

BYD

Enviro400 (mild hybrid)

Length mm 10,500 / 10,900

Passenger capacity n. 87

Electric motor / output kW ADL/14

Battery type

supercap

Battery capacity max kWh 1

Diesel engine CumminsB6.7

kW 187

Enviro400H (full hybrid)

Length mm 10,500 / 10,900

Passenger capacity n. 87

Electric motor / output kW BAE/195

Battery type

ultracap

Battery capacity max kWh 1

Diesel engine CumminsB4.5

kW 157

Blueblus 6

Length mm 5,940

Passenger capacity n. 35

Motor type / kW Central / 140

Battery Blue Solutions / LMP

Battery capacity max kWh 126

Charging technology plug-in

Midibus 8.7

Length mm 8,700

Passenger seats n. 22

Motor / output kW BYD / 90x2

Battery type

BYD / LFP

Battery capacity max kWh -

Charging technology plug-in

C

M

Y

CM

MY

CY

CMY

K

Blueblus 12

Length mm 12,000

Passenger capacity n. 109

Enviro400HR

(plug-in hybrid)

Length mm 10,500 / 10,900

Passenger capacity n. 87

Electric motor / output kW BAE/195

Battery type

NMC

Battery capacity max kWh 32

Diesel engine CumminsB4.5

kW 157

Motor type / kW Central / 160

Battery type Blue Solutions / LMP

Battery capacity max kWh 272

Charging technology plug-in

BMC

12-18 eBus

Length mm 12,200 / 18,250

Passenger seats n. -

Motor / output kW BYD / 150x2

Battery type

BYD / LFP

Battery capacity max kWh -

Charging technology plug-in

52


PORTFOLIO

ALL THE ELECTRIC BUS MODELS ON THE EUROPEAN MARKETS.

BATTERY-ELECTRIC / HYBRID / FUEL CELL / IMC TROLLEYBUSES

C9 (coach)

Length mm 12,900

Passenger seats n. -

Motor / output kW BYD / 150x2

Battery type

BYD / LFP

Average range km 90

Charging technology plug-in

BYD ADL

Enviro200EV

Length m 9.6 / 10.2 / 10.9 / 11.6

Passenger capacity n. 80

Motor / output kW BYD / 90x2

Battery type

BYD / LFP

Battery capacity max kWh 330

Charging technology plug-in

e.City Gold 10/12

Length mm 10,700 / 12,000

Passenger capacity n. 64 / 87

Motor / output kW Siemens / 180

Battery type

NMC / LTO

Battery capacity max kWh 385

Charging technology plug-in/pant.

H2 City Gold 10/12 (hydrogen)

Length mm 10,700 / 12,000

Passenger capacity n. 64 / 87

Motor / kW Siemens / 180

Battery type

LTO

Fuel cell system

Toyota

Estimate range km 400

DELTABUS

Ebusco 2.2 - 12,9m LE

Length mm 12,900

Passenger capacity n. 85

Motor / kW ZF / 250

Battery type

LFP

Battery capacity kWh 363/423/525

Charging technology plug-in/pant.

Ebusco 2.2 - 13.5 m LE

Length mm 13,500

Passenger capacity n. 78

Motor / kW ZF / 250

Battery type

LFP

Battery capacity kWh 363/423/525

Charging technology plug-in/pant.

Ebusco 2.2 - 18m LF

Length mm 18,000

Passenger capacity n. 140

Motor / kW ZF / 250

Battery type

LFP

Battery capacity kWh 363/525

Charging technology plug-in/pant.

THE GREEN WAY BY MENARINI

Mark E

Length mm 12,290

Passenger capacity n. 87

Motor / kW -

Battery type

LMP

Battery capacity max kWh 200

Estimate range km 300

Enviro400EV

Length mm 10,900

Passenger capacity n. 85

Motor / output kW BYD / 150x2

Battery type

BYD / LFP

Battery capacity max kWh 392

Charging technology plug-in

CAETANOBUS

EBUSCO

Ebusco 3.0

Length mm 12,000

Passenger n. 95

Motor / kW Ebusco / 250

Battery type

LFP

Battery capacity max kWh -

Charging technology plug-in/pant.

HESS

Ebusco 2.2 - 12m LE/LF

Length mm 12,000

Passenger capacity n. 90

Motor / kW ZF / 250

Battery type

LFP

Battery capacity kWh 363/423/525

Charging technology plug-in/pant.

industriaitalianaautobus.com

54


PORTFOLIO

ALL THE ELECTRIC BUS MODELS ON THE EUROPEAN MARKETS.

BATTERY-ELECTRIC / HYBRID / FUEL CELL / IMC TROLLEYBUSES

lighTram 19/25 DC

Length mm 18,750 / 24,750

Passenger capacity n. 155 / 224

Motor / kW TSA / -

Battery type -

Battery capacity max kWh 45

Charging technology pantograph

HIGER

IVECO BUS

HEULIEZ

Steed

Length mm 8,500

Passenger capacity n. 48

Motor / kW -

Battery type

CATL / LFP

Battery capacity kWh 174 / 210

Charging technology plug-in

E-WAY Full Electric 9.5

Length mm 9,510

Passenger seats n. 16

Motor / kW BAE Systems /160

Battery type

NMC

Battery capacity max kWh 210

Charging technology plug-in

GX 137C Elec

Length mm 9,510

Passenger capacity n. 69

Motor / kW BAE Systems / 160

Battery type Forsee Power NMC

Battery capacity max kWh 245

Charging technology plug-in

E-WAY Full Electric 12

Length mm 12,060

Passenger seats n. 24/26

Motor type / kW Synchr. / 190

Battery type

LTO/NMC

Battery capacity max kWh 385/88

Charging technology plug-in / pant.

IAA Transportation

Hanover, Hall 22,

Stand C18

GX 137L Elec

Length mm 10,700

Passenger capacity n. 90

Motor / kW BAE Systems / 160

Battery type Forsee Power NMC

Battery capacity max kWh 350

Charging technology plug-in

GX 337 Elec

Length mm 11,860

Passenger capacity n. 100

Motor / kW BAE Systems / 190

Battery Forsee Power LTO / NMC

Battery capacity max kWh 88 / 350

Charging technology plug-in / pant.

Azure

Length mm 12,000

Passenger capacity n. 86

Motor / kW Prestolite MD130D / -

Battery type

CATL / LFP

Battery capacity kWh 355

Charging technology plug-in

IIA

E-WAY Full Electric 18

Length mm 17,970

Passenger seats n. 42

Motor type / kW Synchr. / 190

Battery type

LTO

Battery capacity max kWh 250

Charging technology plug-in / pant.

CO2

Focus on the future:

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More info at bock.de

GX 437 Elec

Length mm 17,970

Passenger seats n. 17

Motor / kW BAE Systems / 200

Battery Forsee Power LTO/NMC

Battery capacity max kWh 350

Charging technology plug-in / pant.

Citymood 12e

Length mm 12,100

Passenger capacity n. 80

Motor / kW Siemens 1DB2016 / 230

Battery type Akasol / NMC

Battery capacity max. kWh 330

Charging technology plug-in

Crealis In-Motion-Charging

Length mm 18,559

Passenger seats n. 35

Motor / kW - / 250

Battery type

LMP

Battery capacity max kWh -

Charging technology IMC

BOCK

colour

the

world

of tomorrow

56


PORTFOLIO

ALL THE ELECTRIC BUS MODELS ON THE EUROPEAN MARKETS.

BATTERY-ELECTRIC / HYBRID / FUEL CELL / IMC TROLLEYBUSES

ISUZU

Urbanway Hybrid 12/18

Length mm 12,000 / 17,910

Passenger seats n. 36/49

Motor / kW BAE / 140 - 200

Battery type

NMC

Battery capacity max kWh 32

Diesel engine Tector 7 235 kW

IRIZAR E-MOBILITY

Novociti Volt

Length mm 7,957

Passenger capacity n. 48

Motor / kW TM4 Sumo MD / 255

Battery type

CATL / LFP

Battery capacity kWh 211 - 269

Charging technology plug-in

KARSAN

e-ATA 12

Length mm 12,220

Passenger capacity n. 89

Motor / kW ZF AxTrax / 250

Battery type

LFP

Battery capacity max kWh 449

Charging technology plug-in

KING LONG

CHARGE,

OPERATE

& MAINTAIN

YOUR

BUS FLEET

ie bus 10,8/12

Length mm 10,850 / 12,160

Passenger capacity n. 76 / 95

Motor / output kW Irizar / 180

Battery type

Lithium-ion

Battery capacity max kWh 350

Charging technology plug-in/pant.

ie bus 15/18

Length mm 14,980 / 18,730

Passenger capacity n. 105 / 155

Motor / kW Irizar / 235

Battery type

Lithium-ion

Battery capacity max kWh 525

Charging technology plug-in/pant.

e-Jest

Length mm 5,845

Passenger capacity n. 25

Motor / kW BMW / 125

Battery type BMW / Lithium-ion

Battery capacity max kWh 88

Charging technology plug-in

Pev 10/12

Length mm 10,500/11,980

Passenger n. -/-

Motor / kW -/-

Battery type

LFP

Battery capacity max kWh 326/350

Charging technology plug-in

58

ie tram 12/18

Length mm 12,165 / 18,730

Passenger capacity n. 99 / 155

Motor / kW Irizar / 190-235

Battery type

Lithium-ion

Battery capacity max kWh 350/525

Charging technology plug-in/pant.

e-Atak

Length mm 8,315

Passenger capacity n. 52

Motor / kW TM4 / 230

Battery type BMW / Lithium-ion

Battery capacity max kWh 220

Charging technology plug-in

E10/12 Hybrid

Length mm 10,500/12,200

Passenger capacity n. 66/83

Electric motor Green Control System

Battery type -

Battery capacity max kWh -

Diesel engine/kW Cummins / 290

Out of the 800.000 buses in Europe, 90% have no form of intelligence.

It’s time to drive smarter and greener.

It’s time to add Tenix.

software that makes buses smart

www.tenix.eu

Saga Tenix AS

Lønningsveien 47, 5258 Blomsterdalen, Norway


PORTFOLIO

ALL THE ELECTRIC BUS MODELS ON THE EUROPEAN MARKETS.

BATTERY-ELECTRIC / HYBRID / FUEL CELL / IMC TROLLEYBUSES

MAN

Lion’s City E 12/18

Length mm 12,185 / 18,060

Passenger capacity n. 85 / 120

Motor / kW Traton / 270 - 540

Battery type

Lithium-ion

Battery capacity max kWh 480/640

Charging technology plug-in

Lion’s City 12*/18* hybrid

Length mm 12,185/18,060

Passenger capacity n. 101/140

Electric motor / kW MAN/12

Battery type -

Battery capacity max kWh -

Diesel engine/kW MAN D15/243-265

*available with CNG engine

MERCEDES

*with max battery capacity

**optionally available with Blue Solutions

LMP batteries (max 441 kWh)

Citaro Hybrid 12/18

Length mm 12,185 / 18,060

Passenger n. 101 / 140

Electric motor type -

Battery type -

Battery capacity max kWh -

Diesel engine type/kW OM 936/300

OTOKAR

e-Kent C

Length mm 12,000

Passenger capacity n. 95

Motor / kW Voith / 410

Battery type Webasto / NMC

Battery capacity kWh 210 - 280 - 350

Charging technology plug-in

RAMPINI

E60/E80

Length mm 6,110 / 7,790

Passenger capacity n. 35/46

Motor / kW

Siemens/122

Battery type Rampini / -

Battery capacity max kWh 170/200

Charging technology plug-in

SAFRA

Businova Electric

Length mm 9,530 / 10,550 / 12,000

Passenger capacity n. 60 to 106

Motor / kW TM4 / 250

Battery type

Safra / LFP

Battery capacity max kWh 132

Charging technology 80 to 350 kWh

Businova Fuel Cell

Length mm 10,550 / 12,000

Passenger capacity n. 65 to 96

Motor / kW TM4 / 250

Fuel cell module / kW Symbio / 30

Battery Safra / LFP / 132 kWh

Businova Hybrid

Length mm 9,530 / 10,550 / 12,000

Passenger seats n. 60 to 106

Electric motor / kW TM4 / 250

Diesel engine 80 kW / 3,5l

Battery type

Safra / LFP

Battery capacity kWh 132

SCANIA

60

eCitaro 12/18

Length mm 12,135 / 18,125

Passenger capacity n. 80* / 136*

Motor / kW ZF AxTrax / 250

Battery type Akasol / NMC**

Battery capacity max kWh 396 / 441

Charging technology plug-in


PORTFOLIO

ALL THE ELECTRIC BUS MODELS ON THE EUROPEAN MARKETS.

BATTERY-ELECTRIC / HYBRID / FUEL CELL / IMC TROLLEYBUSES

Charging

Citywide BEV

Length mm 12,000

Passenger capacity n. 80

Motor / kW PM / 300

Battery type

Lithium ion

Battery capacity max kWh 250

Charging tech. plug-in / pant.

Urbino electric 9 LE*/12

Length mm 9,270 / 12,000

Passenger seats max n. 31 / 38

Motor ZF AxTrax-TSA / 220-250-160

Battery type

LTO / NMC

Battery capacity max kWh 350 / 395

Charging technology plug-in/pant.

*can be homologated also in Class II

Fuel cell module power kW 70

Battery

High Power / 30 kWh

Hydrogen capacity kg 5 x 37,5

forward

to accelerate the world’s

transition to eMobility.

Come visit BorgWarner at

IAA Transportation

Hall 12, Booth C63

Citywide Hybrid

Length mm 12,005 / 14,900

Passenger seats max n. 37 / 49

Electric motor output kW 150

Diesel eng./hp Scania DC09/280-320

Battery type -

Battery capacity kWh -

SKODA

Urbino electric 15 LE*

Length mm 14,890

Passenger seats max n. 65

Motor Central asynchronous / 300

Battery type

LTO / NMC

Battery capacity max kWh 470

Charging technology plug-in/pant.

*can be homologated also in Class II

Urbino hybrid 12/18

Length mm 12,000 / 18,000

Seated max n. 37 / 49

Electric motor / kW central/120-200

Diesel engine / hp Cummins / 120

Battery type

Supercap

Battery capacity kWh 0.82

Leading the way to an

electrified future.

Discover more at

borgwarner.com/technologies

Skoda E’ City

Length mm 12,095

Passenger capacity n. 69

Motor / kW - / 160

Battery type -

Battery capacity max kWh -

Charging technology plug-in

SOLARIS

Urbino electric 18/24

Length mm 18,000 / 24,700

Passenger seats max n. 48 / 69

Motor

ZF AxTrax / TSA

Battery type

LTO / NMC

Battery capacity kWh 203/350/553

Charging technology plug-in/pant.

Trollino

Length mm 12,000/18,000/24,000

Passenger seats max n. 39/53/69

Motor / kW TSA-Skoda / 160-250

Battery type

Solaris LTO

Battery capacity kWh 30-90

Charging technologies Pant. / IMC

TEMSA

62

Urbino 12 hydrogen

Length mm 12,000

Passenger seats max n. 37

Motor / kW ZF AxTrax / 250

Fuel cell module

Ballard


PORTFOLIO

ALL THE ELECTRIC BUS MODELS ON THE EUROPEAN MARKETS.

BATTERY-ELECTRIC / HYBRID / FUEL CELL / IMC TROLLEYBUSES

Avenue Electron

Length mm 12,095

Passenger seats n. 35

Motor / kW TM4 Sumo / 250

Battery type

NMC

Battery capacity kWh 240 - 300 - 360

Charging technology plug-in

Motor / kW Siemens PEM2022/210

Fuel cell Ballard FC Velocity HD 85 - 100

Battery capacity max kWh 24 / 36

Hydrogen capacity l/kg 1.600 / 38.5

Exqui.City 18 Fuel Cell

Length mm 18,230

Passenger capacity n. 125

Motor type 1/kW Siemens PEM2016/ 160

Motor type 2/kW Siemens PEM2022/ 210

Fuel cell Ballard FC Velocity HD 100

Battery capacity max kWh 36

Hydrogen capacity l/kg 1,600 / 38.5

Battery capacity max kWh 2x24/36

Diesel eng./kW Cummins ISB 6.7/209

Exqui.City24 CNG-hybrid

Length mm 23,820

Passenger capacity n. 60

Electric motor/kW Siemens PEM/2x160

Battery supplier

Actia

Battery capacity max kWh 36

Engine / kW FPT CNG / 221

Have you heard about

the new normal?

64

MD9 electriCITY

Length mm 9,496

Passenger seats n. 26

Motor / kW

TM4/250

Battery type

NMC

Battery capacity max kWh 200

Charging technology plug-in

VAN HOOL

A330 Fuel Cell 6W

Length mm 11,995

Passenger capacity n. 78

Motor type 1/kW Siemens PEM2016/ 160

Motor type 2/kW Siemens PEM2016/ 210

Fuel cell Ballard FC Velocity HD 85

Battery capacity max kWh 24 / 36

Hydrogen capacity l/kg 1,600/ 38.5

Fuel Cell 8W

Length mm 13,155

Passenger seats n. 41

A309 diesel-hybrid

Length mm 9,990

Passenger seats n. 21

Electric motor Siemens 1DB2016B06

Battery supplier

Actia

Battery capacity max kWh 24

Diesel engine/kW Cummins ISB 4,5/157

Exqui.City18 diesel-hybrid

Length mm 18,610

Passenger capacity n. 42

Motor type 1/kW Siemens PEM2016/ 160

Motor type 2/kW Siemens PEM2022/ 210

Battery supplier

Actia

Battery capacity max kWh 24 / 36

Diesel eng./kW Cummins ISB 6.7/209

Exqui.City24 diesel-hybrid

Length mm 23,820

Passenger capacity n. 61

Electric motor / kW Siemens PEM/ 2x160

Battery supplier

Actia

Exqui.City18 Trolley

Length mm 18,610

Passenger seats n. 41

Motor type/kW 2x Kiepe TSA TMF/160

Battery type

Kiepe

Battery capacity max kWh 2x15

Pantograph

Kiepe

Exqui.City24 Trolley

Length mm 23,820

Passenger seats n. 51

Motor type/kW 2xKiepe TSA TMF/160

Battery type

Kiepe

Battery capacity max kWh 2x20

Pantograph

Kiepe

VDL

Getting curious?

Experience our zero emission QUANTRON

CIZARIS 12 EV city bus, our new hydrogen

powered QUANTRON EU heavy Truck & the

Quantron-as-a-Service Ecosystem.

For more information, visit: www.quantron.net

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• Fully electric 12 m city bus

• Zero emissions &

pleasantly quiet

• Top range: 370 km

(according to E-SORT 2)

• Balanced priceperformance

ratio

20. - 25.09.2022

Hall H21, Stand B70

Empower the Future


PORTFOLIO

ALL THE ELECTRIC BUS MODELS ON THE EUROPEAN MARKETS.

BATTERY-ELECTRIC / HYBRID / FUEL CELL / IMC TROLLEYBUSES

Citea SLF-120 Electric

Length mm 12,456

Passenger capacity n. 55

Motor/kW Siemens 1DB2016/160

Battery type -

Battery capacity standard kWh 216

Charging technology plug-in/pant.

VOLVO

7900 Electric Hybrid

Length mm 12,000

Passenger capacity n. 98

Electric motor / kW Volvo / 200

Battery type

Lithium-ion

Battery capacity max kWh 19

Charging technology Oppcharge

Diesel engine/hp Volvo D5/240

International Bus and Coach Trade Fair

Citea SLE-120/129 Electric

Length mm 12,000 / 12,900

Passenger capacity n. 80 / 75

Motor/kW Siemens 1DB2016/160

Battery type -

Battery capacity standard kWh 216

Charging technology plug-in/pant.

7900 Electric

Length mm 12,000

Passenger capacity n. 98

Motor / kW Volvo / 200

Battery type

Lithium-ion

Battery capacity kWh 150/200/250

Charging technology plug-in/pant.

C

M

Citea LLE-99/115 Electric

Length mm 9,950 / 11,500

Passenger capacity n. 62 / 65

Motor/kW Siemens 1DB2016/160

Battery type -

Battery capacity standard kWh 216

Charging technology plug-in/pant.

7900 Electric Articulated

7900 Hybrid

Length mm 10,600/12,000

Passenger capacity n. 90

Electric motor / kW Volvo / 110

Battery type

Lithium-ion

Battery capacity max kWh 9

Diesel engine/hp Volvo D5/240

Y

CM

MY

CY

CMY

K

Length mm 18,000/ 18,700

Passenger capacity n. 150

Motor / kW Volvo / 2 x 200

Battery type

Lithium-ion

Battery capacity kWh 250/300

A new mobility

concept.

Charging technology

plug-in/pant.

66

Citea SLFA-180/181/187 Elec.

Length mm 18,000 / 18,150 / 18,750

Passenger capacity n. 130/130/125

Motor/kW Siemens 1DB2022/240

Battery type -

Battery capacity standard kWh 216

Charging technology plug-in/pant.

7900 Hybrid Articulated

Length mm 18,000 / 18,700

Passenger capacity n. 100 / 154

Electric motor / kW Volvo / 130

Battery type

Lithium-ion

Battery capacity max kWh 8/9

Charging Oppcharge / CCS

Diesel engine/hp Volvo D5/240

Oct

18-21 2022

Recinto Ferial

ifema.es


PORTFOLIO

YUTONG

E12

Length mm 12,170

Passenger capacity n. 73

Motor/kW Yutong YTM280-CV9-H/350

Battery supplier

CATL

Battery capacity max kWh 422

Charging technology plug-in

Yutong ICe12 (coach)

Length mm 12,465

Passenger capacity n. 49/59

Motor/kW Yutong TZ368XSYTB38/350

Battery type

CATL

Battery capacity max kWh 422

Charging technology plug-in

WRIGHTBUS

68

StreetDeck Hydroliner FCEV

Length mm 10,900

Passenger capacity n. 86

Motor / kW

Voith VEDS

Fuel cell module

Ballard

Fuel cell module power kW -

Battery Forsee Power / NMC

Battery capacity kWh 48

Hydrogen capacity kg 27 (1,120 l)

StreetDeck Electroliner BEV

Length mm 10,900

Passenger seats n. 95

Motor / kW

Voith VEDS

Battery Forsee Power / NMC

Battery capacity kWh 340 - 454

Charging technology plug-in.

GB Kite Hydroliner FCEV

Length mm 12,000

Passenger capacity n. 90

Motor / kW

Voith VEDS

Fuel cell module Ballard FC Move

Fuel cell module power kW 70 - 100

Battery Forsee Power / NMC

Battery capacity kWh 30 - 45

Hydrogen capacity kg 35 - 50

GB Kite Electroliner BEV

Length mm 12,000

Passenger seats n. 90

Motor / kW

Voith VEDS

Battery Forsee Power / NMC

Battery capacity kWh 340 - 454 - 567

Charging technology plug-in.

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