Issue 05/2022

Highlights: Fibres / Textiles / Nonwovens Building & Construction Basics: Feedstocks K'2022 preview

Fibres / Textiles / Nonwovens
Building & Construction
K'2022 preview


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Bioplastics - CO 2 -based Plastics - Advanced Recycling<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE Vol. 17<br />

Highlights<br />

Fibre / Textile / Nonwoven | 10<br />

Building & Construction | 20<br />

Basics<br />

Feedstocks, different generations | 56<br />

... is read in 92 countries<br />

ISSN 1862-5258 Sep/Oct <strong>05</strong> / <strong>2022</strong>

Discover the world of<br />

sustainable plastics!<br />

And the best way to do that is with a delicious coffee that you enjoy from a reusable cup<br />

made of Bio-Flex ® . Visit us at K <strong>2022</strong> and discover how to make circular plastic products<br />

work with FKuR’s bioplastics, high-quality recyclates, mass-balance resins or bio-recyclate<br />

hybrids. We support you on your journey to a circular economy and help you achieve your<br />

sustainability goals.

If you enjoy the, currently questionable, pleasure of living in central Europe<br />

you’ll have noticed, summer is over and the time of warm blankets, hot<br />

tea (or another hot beverage of choice), and staying inside has begun. The<br />

change of season also heralds the approach of the most important event in<br />

the plastics industry the K show in Düsseldorf (19.–26.10.). And, as always,<br />

the last issue of bioplastics MAGAZINE before the K show features a preview<br />

(pp.30–41) of many companies working in the areas of bioplastics and<br />

renewable carbon that are worthwhile to check out. The centrefold of this<br />

issue also features a map of the fairgrounds with (hopefully) all relevant<br />

companies on one view.<br />

This year’s K show is bound to be interesting with two of the three<br />

central themes being Climate Protection and the Circular Economy.<br />

Companies are bound to show their newest claims of sustainability and<br />

circularity – but I hope that this year we will get more to see than the<br />

simple statement of (just) “it’s recyclable” and more along the lines<br />

of “look what great cooperations and infrastructure we’re building to<br />

actually recycle our products at end-of-life”.<br />

Time will tell if the industry as a whole is moving towards real solutions<br />

(be that biobased, recycling, or CCU) to tackle the two plastics crises we<br />

have at our hands or if half-baked ideas and mere lip service to the new<br />

ideals of circularity and sustainability will be all it amounts to – smoke<br />

and mirrors to keep doing business as usual.<br />

Next to our extensive K-preview this issue also features the articles<br />

about Building & Construction, with a very interesting three pager about<br />

The Exploded View, an art installation showing all kinds of biomaterials<br />

in the field of construction, and Fibres / Textiles / Nonwovens where,<br />

among others, we look at enzymatic recycling.<br />

In this issue’s Basics article we go traditionally bio again, looking<br />

at different kinds of feedstocks for bioplastics. Meanwhile, the segment<br />

10 years ago has a slightly different flavour this time around as instead of<br />

asking a previous article contributor to comment on developments we as<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE are looking back at how our position towards CO 2<br />

-based<br />

plastics has changed over the years.<br />

I hope to see many of you at the K show next month, and preferably at<br />

our Bioplastics Business Breakfast mini-conference during the trade show<br />

(20.–22.10.) which will focus on Bioplastics in Packaging, PHA – opportunities<br />

and challenges, and Bioplastics in Durable Applications.<br />

But for now, I will get myself a hot tea, a warm blanket, and sit on my balcony<br />

with a good book – listening to the rain.<br />

Sincerely yours<br />

dear<br />

readers<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE Vol. 17<br />

Bioplastics - CO 2-based Plastics - Advanced Recycling<br />

Editorial<br />

Highlights<br />

Fibre / Textile / Nonwoven | 10<br />

Building & Construction | 20<br />

Basics<br />

Feedstocks, different generations | 56<br />

... is read in 92 countries<br />

Follow us on twitter!<br />

www.twitter.com/bioplasticsmag<br />

Like us on Facebook!<br />

www.facebook.com/bioplasticsmagazine<br />

ISSN 1862-5258 Sep/Oct <strong>05</strong> / <strong>2022</strong><br />

Alex Thielen<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17 3

Imprint<br />

Content<br />

34 Porsche launches cars with biocomposites<br />

Sep / Oct <strong>05</strong>|<strong>2022</strong><br />

Fibres / Textiles / Nonwovens<br />

10 Biobased textile coating<br />

12 Enzymatic degradation of used textiles for<br />

biological textile recycling<br />

18 Flax-based thermoplastic biocomposites<br />

CCU / Feedstock<br />

17 Biogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2<br />

) for plastic<br />

production<br />

Building & Construction<br />

20 The future of construction is biobased<br />

24 Wheat gluten based bioplastic in construction<br />

26 Thermal insulation makes an important<br />

contribution to climate neutrality<br />

28 Low-carbon wastewater evacuation system<br />

made from bio-attributed PVC<br />

29 Cellulose-based passive radiative cooler<br />

Materials<br />

42 Single-use packaging, lids, and tableware made<br />

from wheat bran<br />

44 Performance products with high biocontent<br />

polyurethanes<br />

From Science & Research<br />

46 Print, recycle, repeat – biodegradable<br />

printed circuits<br />

48 Biopolymers – Materials, Properties,<br />

Sustainability<br />

50 Bioplastics IN SPACE<br />

Certification<br />

52 Sustainability certification-ISCC<br />

3 Editorial<br />

5 News<br />

8 Events<br />

10 Fibres / Textiles / Nonwovens<br />

14 Application News<br />

17 CCU / Feedstock<br />

20 Building & Construction<br />

30 K-Preview<br />

34 K-Showguide<br />

42 Materials<br />

46 From Science & Research<br />

52 Certification<br />

54 10 years ago<br />

56 Basics<br />

58 Glossary<br />

62 Suppliers Guide<br />

66 Companies in this issue<br />

Publisher / Editorial<br />

Dr Michael Thielen (MT)<br />

Alex Thielen (AT)<br />

Samuel Brangenberg (SB)<br />

Head Office<br />

Polymedia Publisher GmbH<br />

Hackesstr. 99<br />

41066 Mönchengladbach, Germany<br />

phone: +49 (0)2161 664864<br />

fax: +49 (0)2161 631045<br />

info@bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

Media Adviser<br />

Samsales (German language)<br />

phone: +49(0)2161-6884467<br />

fax: +49(0)2161 6884468<br />

sb@bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

Michael Thielen (English Language)<br />

(see head office)<br />

Layout/Production<br />

Michael Thielen / Philipp Thielen<br />

Print<br />

Poligrāfijas grupa Mūkusala Ltd.<br />

1004 Riga, Latvia<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE is printed on<br />

chlorine-free FSC certified paper.<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE<br />

Volume 17 - <strong>2022</strong><br />

ISSN 1862-5258<br />

bM is published 6 times a year.<br />

This publication is sent to qualified subscribers<br />

(169 Euro for 6 issues).<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE is read in<br />

92 countries.<br />

Every effort is made to verify all information<br />

published, but Polymedia Publisher<br />

cannot accept responsibility for any errors<br />

or omissions or for any losses that may<br />

arise as a result.<br />

All articles appearing in<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE, or on the website<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.com are strictly<br />

covered by copyright. No part of this<br />

publication may be reproduced, copied,<br />

scanned, photographed and/or stored<br />

in any form, including electronic format,<br />

without the prior consent of the publisher.<br />

Opinions expressed in articles do not<br />

necessarily reflect those of Polymedia<br />

Publisher.<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE welcomes contributions<br />

for publication. Submissions are<br />

accepted on the basis of full assignment<br />

of copyright to Polymedia Publisher GmbH<br />

unless otherwise agreed in advance and in<br />

writing. We reserve the right to edit items<br />

for reasons of space, clarity, or legality.<br />

Please contact the editorial office via<br />

mt@bioplasticsmagazine.com.<br />

The fact that product names may not be<br />

identified in our editorial as trademarks is<br />

not an indication that such names are not<br />

registered trademarks.<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE tries to use British<br />

spelling. However, in articles based on<br />

information from the USA, American<br />

spelling may also be used.<br />

Envelopes<br />

A part of this print run is mailed to the<br />

readers wrapped in bioplastic envelopes<br />

sponsored by BIOTEC Biologische Naturverpackungen<br />

GmbH & Co. KG, Emerich,<br />

Germany.<br />

Cover<br />

Krakenimages.com (Shutterstock)<br />

Follow us on twitter:<br />

https://twitter.com/bioplasticsmag<br />

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Sulzer acquires<br />

stake in Cellicon<br />

Sulzer (Winterthur, Switzerland) has<br />

partnered with CELLiCON (Hoevelaken, the<br />

Netherlands) to scale up its groundbreaking<br />

manufacturing technology for nano structured<br />

cellulose – a highly sustainable, plant-based<br />

alternative to conventional polymers. The<br />

technology slashes the traditionally high costs<br />

and footprint associated with nanocellulose,<br />

allowing it to be scaled and used as a building<br />

block for a wide variety of everyday products.<br />

The partnership is part of Sulzer’s strategy<br />

to continue its grow path in renewables<br />

and enable its customers’ sustainable<br />

manufacturing practices. Sulzer has acquired<br />

a minority stake in Cellicon with an option to<br />

increase its holding in future.<br />

Cellicon has developed groundbreaking<br />

technology, known as G2 technology, that<br />

greatly reduces the costs, cycle times, and<br />

environmental footprint associated with<br />

the production of nanocellulose, thereby<br />

enabling the large-scale adoption of this<br />

highly sustainable biopolymer. Nanocellulose<br />

is a building block for a multitude of<br />

materials and products such as textiles and<br />

high-performance fibres, composites like<br />

superglues and coatings, transparent films,<br />

and replacements for starch and polystyrene.<br />

Sulzer Chemtech will support Cellicon in<br />

the scale-up and commercialization of the<br />

G2 technology. As a result, the collaboration<br />

will help Cellicon achieve its strategic goals<br />

and long-term vision while strengthening<br />

Sulzer Chemtech’s portfolio of processing<br />

technologies for biobased and renewable<br />

feedstocks. In particular, the solution can<br />

be used to further enhance the properties of<br />

polylactic acid (PLA), the most used bioplastic<br />

worldwide for which Sulzer Chemtech is the<br />

global leader. MT<br />

www.sulzer.com<br />

www.cellicon.org<br />

CJ Biomaterials’ PHA<br />

soon to be in Accor hotels<br />

CJ Biomaterials, a division of South Korea-based (Seoul) CJ<br />

CheilJedang, recently announced that it has signed a Memorandum<br />

of Understanding (MOU) with the global hotel chain Accor (Issy-les-<br />

Moulineaux, France) to begin developing hotel amenities that are<br />

made with biobased and biodegradable PHA.<br />

Through this agreement, the two companies will work together<br />

to replace single-use plastic amenities that are provided to all<br />

Accor hotel guests, which will help the hotel chain to deliver on<br />

its commitment to phase out all single-use plastic items in guest<br />

experience from its hotels by the end of <strong>2022</strong>.<br />

Established in France in 1967, Accor operates more than 5,000<br />

hotels in 110 countries around the world. Their catalogue of brands<br />

includes Fairmont, Pullman, Novotel, the Delano, Swissotel, and<br />

other luxury hotel chains. Through the initial agreement, Accor and<br />

CJ Biomaterials will replace plastic products used at Accor’s hotel<br />

chains in Korea, including cups, plastic bags, combs, stationery,<br />

and various amenity containers with PHA-based products. The two<br />

organizations will then expand the agreement to hotels in the Asia-<br />

Pacific region, and if positive results are obtained, the intent is to<br />

expand the use of PHA globally.<br />

In addition to eliminating all single-use plastic items in guest<br />

experience from its hotels by the end of this year, Accor added specific<br />

guidelines to encourage the use of materials that are biodegradable<br />

at home, in the soil or at sea, or that are recycled or derived from<br />

paper or wood. CJ Biomaterials is a pioneer in the development of<br />

PHA and is the world’s first and only producer of amorphous PHA,<br />

which is TÜV OK Certified for industrial and home compost, soil<br />

biodegradable, and marine biodegradable. It is considered home<br />

compostable meaning that it does not require specialized equipment<br />

or elevated temperatures to fully degrade.<br />

CJ Biomaterials has started producing amorphous PHA at its<br />

manufacturing facility in Pasuruan, Indonesia, and plans to increase<br />

production to meet expected demand. Branded as PHACT ® Marine<br />

Biodegradable Polymers, CJ Biomaterials' amorphous PHA is<br />

a softer, more rubbery version of PHA that offers fundamentally<br />

different performance characteristics than the crystalline or semicrystalline<br />

forms that currently dominate the PHA market. AT<br />

www.cjbio.net<br />

https://all.accor.com<br />

News<br />

daily updated News at<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

Picks & clicks<br />

Most frequently clicked news<br />

Here’s a look at our most popular online content of the past two months.<br />

The daily news that got the most clicks from the visitors to bioplasticsmagazine.com was:<br />

tinyurl.com/news-<strong>2022</strong>0727<br />

Angel Yeast partners with PhaBuilder to open PHA factory<br />

(27 July <strong>2022</strong>)<br />

Angel Yeast (Yichang, Hubei, China), a globally listed yeast and yeast<br />

extract manufacturer, has inked an agreement with Bejing-based<br />

PhaBuilder Biotechnology (China) to build a large manufacturing base for<br />

polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) in Yichang. The pair will set up a joint venture<br />

company to drive the application of synthetic biology in the biotechnology<br />

industry.<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17 5

News<br />

daily updated News at<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

Mass-balanced raw<br />

materials for PC plastics<br />

Covestro (Leverkusen, Germany) will now be supplied<br />

with the two mass-balanced raw materials phenol and<br />

acetone from INEOS’ (London, UK) INVIRIDIS product<br />

range. Covestro uses these CO 2<br />

-reduced products to<br />

manufacture its high-performance polycarbonate plastic.<br />

It is used in headlights and other automotive parts, but also<br />

in housings for electronic devices, light guides and lenses,<br />

medical devices, and many other high-value applications.<br />

"By switching to mass-balanced renewable raw<br />

materials, we aim to significantly reduce our indirect<br />

emissions in the supply chain and offer products with<br />

a reduced carbon footprint", says Sucheta Govil, Chief<br />

Commercial Officer of Covestro. "In doing so, we’re<br />

helping our customers to meet their climate goals and<br />

advance the transition to a circular economy".<br />

New label for circular intelligent solutions<br />

Lily Wang, global head of the Engineering Plastics<br />

segment, emphasizes the further benefits for<br />

customers: "We offer them a drop-in solution that they<br />

can quickly and easily integrate into existing production<br />

processes without requiring any technical changes. The<br />

products show the same good quality as their fossilbased<br />

counterparts". As part of the CQ family of circular<br />

intelligent solutions, Covestro offers them under the<br />

names Makrolon ® RE, Bayblend ® RE, Makroblend ®<br />

RE, and Apec ® RE. With its new CQ concept, Covestro<br />

highlights the alternative raw material basis in products<br />

and thus gives a clear indication to customers who are<br />

looking for such products.<br />

Certification by ISCC Plus and RSB underlines Ineos’<br />

strong commitment to working with the bioeconomy and<br />

reflects the strong sustainability of Inviridis.<br />

Gordon Adams, Business Director of Ineos Phenol,<br />

said, "As part of our sustainability strategy, we have<br />

developed these more sustainable phenol and acetone<br />

products, which we have named Inviridis. This new<br />

product range provides our customers with drop-in<br />

product options that meet their stringent quality and<br />

performance requirements. At the same time, we’re<br />

moving the industry toward a more climate-friendly<br />

economy for phenol and acetone without compromising<br />

its unique product attributes". AT<br />

www.covestro.com | www.ineos.com<br />

Technip acquires<br />

Biosuccinium technology<br />

from DSM<br />

Technip Energies (La Défense, Nanterre, France)<br />

announced the purchase of Biosuccinium ® technology<br />

from DSM (Heerlen, the Netherlands), adding a technology<br />

solution to its growing Sustainable Chemicals portfolio.<br />

This technology synergizes with recently developed<br />

proprietary biopolymer technologies and provides a<br />

commercially referenced production of biobased succinic<br />

acid (bio-SAc) that serves as feedstock for the production<br />

of polybutylene succinate (PBS). The purchase includes<br />

a wide range of patent families and proprietary yeast<br />

strains, which have been demonstrated in production<br />

facilities of licensees at large scale.<br />

Biosuccinium technology will be the only technology for<br />

the production of biobased succinic acid to be licensed on<br />

the market. MT<br />

www.technipenergies.com | www.dsm.com<br />

LG Chem and ADM launch<br />

joint ventures for lactic<br />

acid and PLA Production<br />

LG Chem (Seoul, South Korea), a leading global<br />

diversified chemical company, and ADM (Chicago, IL,<br />

USA), a global leader in nutrition and biosolutions,<br />

held a signing ceremony in mid-August launching<br />

two joint ventures for US production of lactic acid<br />

and polylactic acid to meet growing demand for<br />

a wide variety of plant-based products, including<br />

bioplastics. Pending final investment decisions, the<br />

joint ventures have chosen Decatur, Illinois, USA, as<br />

the location of their intended production facilities.<br />

The first joint venture, GreenWise Lactic, would<br />

produce up to 150,000 tonnes of high-purity corn-based<br />

lactic acid annually. ADM would be the majority owner of<br />

GreenWise and would contribute fermentation capacity<br />

from its Decatur bioproducts facility to the venture. The<br />

second joint venture, LG Chem Illinois Biochem, would<br />

be majority-owned by LG Chem. It would build upon<br />

LG Chem’s expertise in bioplastics to build a facility<br />

that will use the product from GreenWise Lactic to<br />

produce approximately 75,000 tonnes of PLA per year.<br />

The joint ventures, which are subject to required<br />

regulatory approvals, hope to make final investment<br />

decisions around the Decatur projects in 2023. Pending<br />

final investment decisions and approvals, construction<br />

would be targeted to begin in 2023, and production<br />

in late 2025 or early 2026, with the two joint ventures<br />

supporting more than 125 jobs in the Decatur region. MT<br />

www.adm.com<br />

6 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17

Toray invents 100 % biobased adipic acid<br />

Toray Industries (Tokyo, Japan) recently announced that it has developed the world’s first 100 % biobased adipic acid, a raw<br />

material for nylon 66 (polyamide 66), from sugars from crop residues and other inedible plant resources. This achievement<br />

came from using a proprietary synthesis technique combining the company’s microbial fermentation technology and chemical<br />

purification technology that harnesses separation membranes.<br />

The company has started to scale up its capabilities in this area. It will test polymerization of nylon 66, develop production<br />

technology, conduct market research, and take steps to commercialize applications for this biobased adipic acid by around<br />

2030.<br />

Nylon 66 has been used for many years in fibres, resins, and other applications due to its exceptionally durable, strong, and<br />

rigid properties. Pressures to develop eco-friendly nylon 66 have risen in recent years amid a growing awareness of the need to<br />

realize a sustainable society. One challenge is that conventional chemical synthesis for producing adipic acid, the raw material<br />

of nylon 66, generates a greenhouse gas called dinitrogen monoxide.<br />

Toray was the first in the world to discover microorganisms that produce an adipic acid intermediate from sugars. The<br />

company reconfigured metabolic pathways within microorganisms to enhance production efficiency by applying genetic<br />

engineering technology, which artificially recombines genes to streamline synthesis in microorganisms. It also employed<br />

bioinformatics technologies to design optimal microbial fermentation pathways for synthesis. Quantity of the intermediate<br />

synthesized by microorganisms has increased more than 1,000-fold since the initial discovery, and the efficiency of synthesis<br />

has improved dramatically. AT<br />

www.toray.com<br />

News<br />

daily updated News at<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

Plants<br />

(Inedible biomass)<br />

Microbial<br />

fermentation<br />

Membranebased<br />

purification<br />

CO 2<br />

Sugars Adipic acid Nylon 66<br />

Hexamethylene<br />

diamine<br />

New bioplastics research centre in Australia<br />

A new University of Queensland-led training centre is set<br />

to become a hub for world-leading research in green plastic.<br />

The USD13 million Australian Research Council (ARC)<br />

Industrial Transformation Training Centre for Bioplastics<br />

and Biocomposites, based at UQ’s School of Chemical<br />

Engineering, aims to make large-scale plastic pollution a<br />

problem of the past.<br />

Centre director, Steven Pratt, said scientists will work<br />

toward developing biobased and biodegradable plastics that<br />

have a minimal environmental impact.<br />

According to Pratt, there was a rapidly growing local and<br />

international market for better bioplastics. “But we need to<br />

consider their full life cycle, from the sustainable resources<br />

to make them right up to their end of life”, he said.<br />

The training centre is a partnership between The<br />

University of Queensland and The Queensland University<br />

of Technology, alongside the Queensland Government,<br />

Kimberly-Clark Australia, Plantic Technologies, Australian<br />

Packaging Covenant Organisation, Minderoo Foundation,<br />

and City of Gold Coast.<br />

Kimberly-Clark Australia Managing Director Belinda<br />

Driscoll said the company had set an ambitious goal to halve<br />

its use of fossil fuel-based plastic in the next eight years.<br />

“This partnership with the University of Queensland<br />

takes an important step toward creating more sustainable<br />

products and reducing our environmental footprint”, said<br />

Driscoll.<br />

Plantic Technologies Chief Technology Officer Nick<br />

McCaffrey said the company looked forward to further<br />

expanding the science and engineering behind its unique<br />

products.<br />

“The research outcomes could further improve biobased<br />

materials and extend the shelf life of packaged foods”,<br />

McCaffrey said.<br />

The training centre will also focus on training to develop<br />

industry-ready researchers in chemical and materials<br />

engineering, polymer chemistry, environmental science,<br />

social science, policy, and business. AT<br />

www.uq.edu.au<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17 7

Events<br />

Bioplastics Business Breakfast<br />

Programme:<br />

For details of the event, see next page or visit www.bioplastics-breakfast.com<br />

Thursday, October 20 th , <strong>2022</strong><br />

8:00–8:<strong>05</strong> Welcome remarks Michael Thielen, bioplastics MAGAZINE<br />

8:<strong>05</strong>–8:25 The current policy situation in Europe Stefan Barot, EUBP<br />

8:25–8:45 The commercialization roadmap for the recycling of PLA bioplastics François de Bie, TotalEnergies Corbion<br />

8:45–9:<strong>05</strong> CO 2<br />

reduction by using renewable PP for thermoformed packaging applications Martin Bussmann, Neste<br />

9:<strong>05</strong>–9:25 PLAIR - a new material made from plants and air Philippe Wolff, Ricoh<br />

9:25–9:35 Questions & Answers<br />

9:35–9:55 Compostable solutions for food packaging to tackle plastic pollution Gregory Coué & Carlos Duch, Kompuestos<br />

9:55–0:15 Biobased coating for Packaging application opportunities & challenges Lorena Rodríguez Garrido, AIMPLAS<br />

10:15–0:35 Advanced biobased and compostable films for packaging & amination application Frank Hoebener, Natur-Tec Europe<br />

10:35–0:45 Q&A<br />

10:45–1:<strong>05</strong> Coffee / Networking break<br />

11:<strong>05</strong>–1:25 Second generation feedstock for PLA to improve sustainability of packing Albrecht Läufer, BluCon Biotech<br />

11:25–1:45 Packaging films based on BO-PLA, PHA, and bio-PP Allegra Muscatello, Taghleef Industries<br />

11:45–2:<strong>05</strong> Added value of compostable products in packaging applications Erik Pras, Biotec<br />

12:<strong>05</strong>–2:25 Compostable packaging - Pros & Cons Bruno de Wilde, OWS<br />

12:25–2:30 Q&A<br />

Friday, October 21 st , <strong>2022</strong><br />

8:00–8:<strong>05</strong> Welcome remarks Michael Thielen, bioplastics MAGAZINE<br />

8:<strong>05</strong>–8:25 Natural PHAs - Niche or Mainstream Jan Ravenstijn, GO!PHA<br />

8:25–8:45 A new family of PHA for biomedical and other applications Ipsita Roy & Andrea Mele, Univ. of Sheffield<br />

8:45–9:<strong>05</strong> PHA: Turning challenges into opportunities Ruud Rouleaux, Helian<br />

9:<strong>05</strong>–9:25 PHA Application Development Amir Afshar, Shellworks<br />

9:25–9:35 Q&A<br />

9:35–9:55 A Better Circular Solution: Incorporating Amorphous PHAs into Your Polymers Hugo Vuurens, CJ Biomaterials<br />

9:55–0:15 Application examples for PHA compounds Eligio Martini, MAIP<br />

10:15–0:35 Happy Cups – How it’s made Thiemo van der Weij, LIMM Recycling<br />

10:35–0:45 Q&A<br />

10:45–1:<strong>05</strong> Coffee / Networking break<br />

11:<strong>05</strong>–1:25 Colors with a purpose Daniel Ganz, Sukano<br />

11:25–1:45 Joining efforts to address PHA adaptation to packaging technologies Fred Pinczuk, BEYOND PLASTIC<br />

11:45–2:<strong>05</strong> Renewable Carbon Plastics Michael Carus, nova-Institute<br />

12:<strong>05</strong>–2:25 Japan’s policy for bioplastics towards 2030 and 2<strong>05</strong>0 and expectation to PHA Hiroyuki Ueda, Mitsubishi UFJ Research<br />

12:25–2:30 Q&A<br />

Saturday, October 22 nd , <strong>2022</strong><br />

8:00–8:<strong>05</strong> Welcome remarks Michael Thielen, bioplastics MAGAZINE<br />

8:<strong>05</strong>–8:25 Can biopolymers contribute to a carbon positive chemistry? Lars Börger, EUBP<br />

8:25–8:45 PLA in technical applications Alexander Piontek, Fraunhofer Umsicht<br />

8:45–9:<strong>05</strong> Recyclable, durable and circular biopolymer solutions Christina Granacher, BeGaMo<br />

9:<strong>05</strong>–9:25 Bio-PE and Bio-PP for durable applications Floris Buijzen, Borealis<br />

9:25–9:35 Q&A<br />

9:35–9:55 Polymer architecture for custom-made biomaterials with adaptable end-of-life Stefaan De Wildeman, B4Plastics<br />

9:55–0:15 Biobased raw materials for high performance composites Stefan Seidel, Bond-Laminates<br />

10:15–0:35 Biobased polymeric flexibilizers Christian Müller, Emery Oleochemicals<br />

10:35–0:45 Q&A<br />

10:45–1:<strong>05</strong> Coffee / Networking break<br />

11:<strong>05</strong>–1:25 Biocomposites based on biodegradable bioplastics and degradable glass fibre reinforcements Ari Rosling, ABM Composites<br />

11:25–1:45 Short Fiber Reinforced Polymer (SFRP) Emanuel Martins, Earth Renewable Technologies<br />

11:45–2:<strong>05</strong> Bioplastics in durable applications Juliette Thomazo-Jegou, AIMPLAS<br />

12:<strong>05</strong>–2:25 Bioplastics for toy applications Harald Kaeb, Narocon<br />

12:25–2:30 Q&A<br />

Subject to changes<br />

8 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17

8. Generation<br />

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organized by<br />

20–22.10.<strong>2022</strong><br />

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Bioplastics in<br />

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PHA, Opportunities<br />

& Challenges<br />

Bioplastics in<br />

Durable Applications<br />

www.bioplastics-breakfast.com<br />

Gold Sponsors<br />

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Silver Sponsor<br />

Supported by<br />



RFP<br />

Rubber | Fibres | Plastics<br />

www.wegenerwelding.de<br />

info@wegenerwelding.de<br />

At the World‘s biggest trade show<br />

on plastics and rubber: K‘<strong>2022</strong> in<br />

Düsseldorf, Germany, bioplastics<br />

will certainly play an important<br />

role again. On three days during<br />

the show bioplastics MAGAZINE<br />

will host a Bioplastics Business<br />

Breakfast: From 8am to 12pm<br />

the delegates will enjoy highclass<br />

presentations and unique networking<br />

opportunity.<br />

Venue:<br />

CCD Ost, Messe Düsseldorf<br />

The trade fair opens at 10 am.<br />

On-site registration is possible

Fibres / Textiles / Nonwovens<br />

Biobased textile coating<br />

PLA and PHA based formulations for textile coating and screen-printing<br />

Centexbel (Kortrijk, Belgium) is proud to have won<br />

the Techtextil Innovation award <strong>2022</strong> in the category<br />

“new approaches to sustainability & circular economy”<br />

with a breakthrough innovation in biobased coatings. This<br />

invention introduces a novel method of applying PLA or<br />

PHA coatings and prints on textiles using a waterborne<br />

formulation. The advantage of this approach is that it<br />

completely avoids the use of organic solvents or specialized<br />

equipment, resulting in a reasonable pricing and decreased<br />

environmental impact. Due to its innovative character this<br />

development was patented under EP3875545A1.<br />

PLA and PHA are not too stiff for coatings<br />

Polylactic acid (PLA) and polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA)<br />

are known to be stiff and brittle polymers. Centexbel<br />

started its efforts on testing how to process them into<br />

coatings more than 5 years ago. Methods like solvent<br />

casting, emulsification, hotmelt coating, extrusion coating<br />

and plastisols were explored. Especially plastisols are<br />

interesting because they are well known in the textiles<br />

industry for processing the stiff polymer PVC into highly<br />

flexible coatings. The finding that plastisols can also<br />

be used for biobased thermoplastic polymers was key<br />

for the development.<br />

Formulation composition<br />

The concept of this award-winning formulation originated<br />

from a PVC plastisol, a mixture of PVC powder and<br />

plasticizer. However, this approach was impossible with PLA<br />

or PHA since only a small fraction of PLA or PHA could be<br />

dispersed in plasticizer. To solve this issue Centexbel added<br />

water and biobased processing additives to obtain a stable<br />

waterborne dispersion. In the end, this dispersion has a solid<br />

content of 40 %, is relatively cheap, roughly 4–5 EUR/kg for<br />

the PLA-based dispersion and is compatible with a range<br />

of fillers and colourants. Depending on the used plasticizer<br />

the biobased content ranges from 75 % to 100 %.<br />

Plasticizer screening<br />

A large part of the innovation was the search for good<br />

plasticizers for PLA and PHA, needing to both improve<br />

the flexibility and show minimal migration. There is a<br />

whole range of biobased plasticizers available that were<br />

screened, amongst which esters of citric acid, levulinic acid,<br />

glycerol, fatty acids or isosorbides. These can be between<br />

30 % to 100 % biobased. A specific finding was that when<br />

plasticizers are used in combination with surfactants, a<br />

much lower level of migration could be observed. This is a<br />

very important finding as especially PLA is known for its low<br />

long-term compatibility with plasticizers.<br />

Plasticizers influence polymers in many ways. They<br />

impact crystallinity, Tg, flexibility, melting point and<br />

viscosities. It is therefore interesting to see that by a smart<br />

choice of plasticizer different properties can be achieved. Of<br />

course flexibility is the main parameter that is influenced,<br />

but another important parameter is biodegradability. The<br />

process of biodegrading relies heavily on whether bacteria,<br />

chemicals and enzymes can reach the polymer. This is why<br />

the speed of biodegradation can be different depending<br />

on the crystallinity of a polymer. When the polymer is<br />

amorphous, enzymes can reach single polymer strands,<br />

which is not the case when crystallinity is increased and<br />

polymer chains are packed in stable crystalline structures.<br />

It was therefore interesting to see that when crystallinity is<br />

decreased, the speed of biodegradation was increased. This<br />

trade-off carries on when looking at additives, crosslinkers<br />

that improve durability or adding fillers that can increase<br />

disintegration rate of the materials.<br />

Figure 1: upscaling<br />

of the pastes is easy<br />

This development was made within the BIONTOP and<br />

HEREWEAR projects that have received funding from the Bio<br />

Based Industries Joint Undertaking under the European Union’s<br />

Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant<br />

agreement No 837761 and the Horizon 2020 programme under<br />

grant agreement No 101000632. Centexbel promotes the use<br />

of biobased coatings through its Biocoat initiative that is a joint<br />

project of Sirris and Centexbel. It is part of the COOCK collective<br />

R&D and collective knowledge transfer initiative of VLAIO under<br />

the grant agreement HBC.2019.2493<br />

10 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17

COMPEO<br />

Textiles<br />

Properties and first implementations<br />

Coatings and prints prepared with this PLA or PHA<br />

dispersion need a thermal treatment at 160°C for 3<br />

minutes after which a range of properties was determined:<br />

• Excellent abrasion resistance (80,000 cycles on<br />

Martindale using wool and a pressure of 9kPa)<br />

• Crumple flex (9,000 cycles): Good flexibility if screenprinted<br />

but mediocre for coatings. PHA-based products<br />

are more flexible than PLA.<br />

• Tunable biodegradation<br />

• Good UV stability<br />

• Mediocre wash resistance<br />

The coatings and prints show clear strengths and<br />

weaknesses, even though development continues<br />

to improve the flexibility, wash resistance and<br />

application temperature.<br />

The formulation has already been successfully adapted<br />

for use on wallpaper (in cooperation with Masureel<br />

International) and coated flax fabric used in the production<br />

of thermoplastic composites (in cooperation with Flaxco<br />

and Finipur). In addition to these industrial processes,<br />

Centexbel demonstrated that these dispersions can<br />

be used in carpet backing, artificial leather and barrier<br />

coatings. On top of that improvements are ongoing for<br />

use in fashion and Centexbel is continuously looking for<br />

further opportunities for cooperation.<br />

Leading compounding technology<br />

for heat- and shear-sensitive plastics<br />

Join us<br />

K <strong>2022</strong>, Düsseldorf<br />

October 19 – 22, <strong>2022</strong><br />

Hall 16 Booth A59<br />

www.centexbel.be<br />

Uniquely efficient. Incredibly versatile. Amazingly flexible.<br />

With its new COMPEO Kneader series, BUSS continues<br />

to offer continuous compounding solutions that set the<br />

standard for heat- and shear-sensitive applications, in all<br />

industries, including for biopolymers.<br />

Figure 2: Wallpaper print (Masureel), artificial leather<br />

(Centexbel) and thermoplastic composite (Flaxco)<br />

• Moderate, uniform shear rates<br />

• Extremely low temperature profile<br />

• Efficient injection of liquid components<br />

• Precise temperature control<br />

• High filler loadings<br />

By:<br />

www.busscorp.com<br />

Willem Uyttendaele, Brecht Demedts, Myriam Vanneste<br />

Centexbel<br />

Kortrijk, Belgium<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17 11

Fibres / Textiles / Nonwovens<br />

Enzymatic degradation of used textiles<br />

for biological textile recycling<br />

The competence centre Bio4MatPro is part of the<br />

Bioeconomy Model Region initiative in the Rhenish<br />

Mining Area and funded by the German Federal<br />

Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). The ambition of<br />

Bio4MatPro is the biological conversion of different industries<br />

such as chemicals, consumer goods, and textiles to become<br />

an essential part of a circular (bio)economy. The project<br />

EnzyDegTex focuses on the biological transformation of<br />

textile recycling using enzymatic degradation and microbial<br />

synthesis of chemical base materials and (bio)polymers.<br />

Safeguarding economic resources and capacities in the<br />

Rhenish Mining Area, Germany, and Europe, the development<br />

and expansion of circular economies will be an important<br />

aspect in the future. Textile waste is currently disposed of in a<br />

linear rather than circular manner. Thus, there is a very high,<br />

almost entirely untapped potential for establishing circular<br />

economic processes for textiles. More than 1.5 million tonnes<br />

of post-consumer textile waste are generated annually from<br />

private households in Germany [1]. Recycling textiles poses<br />

challenges due to the complexity of textile constructions<br />

with diverse, often unknown manufacturer-dependent<br />

mixes of different fibre materials, extensive use of additives<br />

and dyes, and multi-layer constructions with mechanically<br />

inseparable layers. Therefore, recyclin widely used textiles<br />

such as polyester-cotton blends is challenging with the<br />

recycling approaches available today. Instead, the majority<br />

of textile waste is currently downcycled once into low-quality<br />

products like painting fleeces or insulation materials, which<br />

are disposed of later at the end of their second use phase.<br />

The aim of project EnzyDegTex is to close the loop of textile<br />

recycling and to provide renewed raw materials from textile<br />

waste for the chemical, plastics, and textile industries. The<br />

use of enzymes enables selective degradation of materials<br />

present in textiles, e.g. polyesters in polyester-cotton blends.<br />

Thus, custom-fit recycling processes can be designed using<br />

the enzymatic approach, so that complex textile constructions<br />

can be treated and respective raw materials returned.<br />

For the development of the EnzyDegTex recycling<br />

process, process chains with the following sub-steps<br />

are being investigated:<br />

• Selection and preparation of the textile waste<br />

• Development and implementation of the<br />

enzymatic degradation<br />

• Enrichment and purification of<br />

suitable degradation products<br />

• Microbial synthesis of chemical<br />

base materials and polymers<br />

• Development and validation of<br />

suitable spinning processes<br />

• Development of textile products<br />

Enzyme for polyester<br />

degradation from textile waste<br />

The development of enzymatic degradation processes<br />

includes the screening and engineering of promising<br />

enzymes that can specifically degrade synthetic polymers or<br />

typical additives and dyes from textile material blends. The<br />

degradation products are subsequently used as feedstock<br />

for the microbial synthesis of textile raw materials. Target<br />

raw materials are, for example, mono – and oligomers<br />

for the synthesis of melt – or solvent-spinnable polymers.<br />

The spinnability of the purified polymers is first evaluated<br />

through polymer characterisation measurements and<br />

spinning trials on lab-scale spinning plants. Subsequently,<br />

melt and solvent spinning processes at a pilot scale are<br />

developed for suitable polymers. The resulting yarns are<br />

further processed into textile demonstrators as nonwovens,<br />

weaves, or knits using classic textile surface manufacturing<br />

processes. In addition, the yarn and textile properties are<br />

characterised and compared to benchmark products from<br />

clothing applications. After three successful project years,<br />

the feasibility of biological textile recycling into new chemical<br />

base materials and textile products is demonstrated.<br />

The implementation of developed products and processes<br />

in the Rhenish Mining Area has great potential to play a key<br />

role in transforming the linear textile disposal into a circular<br />

(bio)economy. With the high availability of textile waste and<br />

the local biochemical industry, the region has excellent<br />

conditions for creating valuable products from textile<br />

waste and new jobs. Moreover, in terms of sustainability,<br />

a contribution towards resource efficiency will be made<br />

and the amount of incinerated or exported and landfilled<br />

textiles will be reduced.<br />

By:<br />

www.ita.rwth-aachen.de<br />

Ricarda Wissel, Stefan Schonauer,<br />

Henning Löcken, Thomas Gries<br />

ITA Institut für Textiltechnik of RWTH Aachen<br />

University, Aachen, Germany<br />

Project partners from RWTH Aachen University:<br />

Institute of Biotechnology (BIOTEC)<br />

Institute of Applied Microbiology (iAMB)<br />

Institut für Textiltechnik (ITA)<br />

[1] bvse e.V: Bedarf, Konsum, Wiederverwendung und Verwertung<br />

von Bekleidung und Textilien in Deutschland, 2020, URL:<br />

https://bit.ly/bvse-studie2020<br />

12 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17

4 + 5 April 2023 – Nuremberg, Germany<br />

Save the date<br />

Call for papers<br />

+<br />

www.bio-toy.info<br />

organized by<br />

Media Partner<br />

Coorganized by<br />

Innovation Consulting Harald Kaeb<br />

Speakers of bio!TOY 2021<br />


Application News<br />

Sustainable<br />

PLAYMOBIL toys<br />

With the new PLAYMOBIL (Zirndorf, Germany) product<br />

series Wiltopia, children discover our Earth, its special<br />

features and its inhabitants. Without dry facts, but<br />

with lots of play fun and sustainable material in proven<br />

Playmobil quality!<br />

Playmobil and plastic recycling partner Coolrec<br />

(Waalwijk, the Netherlands) show exactly how this<br />

works in their Explainer clip, which is being released to<br />

coincide with the launch of the product series.<br />

Long-lasting quality – designed with the<br />

environment in mind<br />

Wiltopia is the first product range from Playmobil to be<br />

made from an average of over 80 % sustainable material.<br />

PCR plastics – i.e. plastics that have already been used<br />

by consumers and subsequently fed into the recycling<br />

loop – and biobased plastics are used. This conserves<br />

unused resources and above all the environment by<br />

giving already used materials a new life. All of the new<br />

items in the Wiltopia range naturally match the proven<br />

Playmobil quality.<br />

The explainer video clip: From the old<br />

refrigerator to new Playmobil sets.<br />

But how does it actually work exactly? Playmobil<br />

and recycling specialist Coolrec, a subsidiary of<br />

Renewi (Milton Keynes, UK), have produced a clip<br />

(https://youtu.be/dZd2N0dGJYU) for this purpose. In<br />

a child-friendly way, it shows how the Wiltopia items<br />

are made from recycled plastics that Coolrec extracts<br />

from discarded refrigerators. Pretty cool and really<br />

good for the planet! In the spirit of transitioning to a<br />

circular economy, the old refrigerators are stripped of<br />

the materials that are no longer needed. The plastics<br />

from the refrigerators are then shredded and turned<br />

into flakes. The flakes are turned into Coolrec pellets<br />

using advanced mechanical recycling processes, and<br />

you can make just about anything from them! Like all<br />

the animals and playsets in the new Playmobil product<br />

line Wiltopia and much, much more! AT/MT<br />

www.playmobil.com | www.coolrec.com<br />

Industrial compostable<br />

stretch film<br />

Anhui Jumei Biological Technology (Anhui, China) is a<br />

focused developer and manufacturer of compostable raw<br />

materials and products. Until June <strong>2022</strong>, Anhui Jumei<br />

has supplied a total of 3,500 tonnes of compostable cling<br />

wrap to the market. These new cling wrap products<br />

are delivered to customers in 22 countries and regions<br />

worldwide to replace traditional plastic wrap and to reduce<br />

environmental pollution.<br />

The compostable cling wraps of Jumei were approved for<br />

the OK Compost label in March 2019 and certified home<br />

compostable one year after.<br />

In recent years it became a trend for households to<br />

embrace more disposable compostable products as the<br />

public is increasingly concerned about environmental<br />

issues. New regulations and legislative restrictions<br />

banning toxic plastics placed on the market prevailed soon,<br />

making the compostable cling wrap a popular substitute<br />

for households. So, it is no surprise that compostable cling<br />

wraps are broadly used in households, supermarkets,<br />

hotels, restaurants, and industrial food packaging. The<br />

current annual output is 1,000 tonnes.<br />

Jumei compostable cling wrap meets various<br />

requirements for food packaging applications:<br />

1. Food grade with no odour and high transparency<br />

2. Safe for microwave oven and refrigerator<br />

3. Good for fresh and cooked food packaging<br />

4. Biodegradable and compostable<br />

Jumei has made every effort to make as many<br />

compostable alternatives as possible to reach more end<br />

consumers. They are never satisfied and feel an obligation<br />

to improve their products even more. It is their mission to<br />

address the global plastic problem with the most viable and<br />

sustainable products. AT/MT<br />

www.ahjmsw.com<br />

Wiltopia by PLAYMOBIL [m] (Photo: Playmobil)<br />

14 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17

Hall 6<br />

Stand C52<br />

M·VERA ®<br />

Biocompounds<br />

Discover our wide range of biodegradable and/or biobased<br />

materials for injection moulding, extrusion, thermoforming,<br />

3D printing and films – with various end-of-life scenarios. The<br />

M·VERA ® grades have different amounts of renewable carbon<br />

content and are food contact approved.<br />

Matching color and additive masterbatches are also provided.<br />

BIO-FED · Member of the Feddersen Group<br />

50829 Cologne · Germany · Phone: +49 221 888894-00 · info@bio-fed.com · www.bio-fed.com

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email: books@bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

phone: +49 2161 6884463<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [04/22] Vol. 17 25

C<br />

M<br />

Y<br />

CM<br />

MY<br />

CY<br />

CMY<br />

K<br />

Soother made with renewably-sourced feedstock<br />

Neste (Espoo, Finland), Borealis (Vienna, Austria), and MAM (Vienna, Austria) collaboratively announce an exciting product<br />

development made possible by value chain collaboration. MAM has been creating innovative and unique baby products such<br />

as soothers and baby bottles for more than 45 years and has recently launched its first climate-neutral soother. The new MAM<br />

Original Pure soother is composed of renewably-sourced polypropylene (PP) from the Bornewables portfolio of circular<br />

polyolefins, manufactured with Neste RE produced entirely from renewable raw materials.<br />

The packaging of MAM Original Pure soother, which also functions as a steriliser box, is also made using Bornewables. This<br />

development is an excellent example of how eco-efficient design and the use of circular polyolefins can substantially reduce the<br />

carbon footprint of a product while at the same time guaranteeing its safety and superior product quality.<br />

Application News<br />

In their efforts to defossilise and reach their sustainability<br />

targets, many industry sectors are seeking safe and costefficient<br />

alternatives for plastics made using fossil-based<br />

feedstock. Grades in the Borealis Bornewables portfolio are<br />

often the ideal replacement solution. Using renewable Neste<br />

RE feedstock consisting of renewable propane which is derived<br />

for this collaboration solely from vegetable oil origin waste and<br />

residue streams, the Bornewables are produced according to<br />

the mass balance model which enables circular polyolefins<br />

to be tracked, traced, and verified throughout the entire value<br />

chain. Neste supplies Neste RE feedstock to Borealis for<br />

dehydrogenation. It is first converted to renewable propylene,<br />

then to renewable polypropylene (PP) at Borealis’ ISCC PLUS<br />

certified production facilities in Belgium. MT<br />

www.neste.com | www.borealisgroup.com | www.mambaby.com<br />

TPE<br />

ISSN 1868 - 8<strong>05</strong>5 PVST ZK17761<br />

Volume 14 / <strong>2022</strong><br />

Magazine<br />

RFP<br />

ISSN 1863 - 7116 PVST 73484<br />

Rubber | Fibres | Plastics<br />

Volume 17 / <strong>2022</strong><br />

PU<br />

ISSN 1864 - 5534 PVST 66226<br />

Volume 19 / <strong>2022</strong><br />

Magazine<br />

International<br />

RADO-Titelseite-GAK-07-8-<strong>2022</strong>.PRINT <strong>05</strong>.08.22<br />

ISSN 0176-1625 PVSt 4637 75. Jahrgang August <strong>2022</strong><br />

Gummi | Fasern | Kunststoffe<br />

Contact us!<br />

• Interview with<br />

A. Arrighini, Marfran<br />

• Trend report<br />

North America<br />

• Editorial<br />

• Interview<br />

Eruption of techniques Compensate<br />

and strategies to<br />

for interference<br />

break up and recycle rubber with nature<br />

• TPV for fuel cells • Wood as<br />

flame-retardant<br />

03<br />

• Trend report Localisation<br />

and regionalisation:<br />

Changing landscape of<br />

global supply chain<br />

<strong>2022</strong><br />

• Trend report<br />

North America<br />

RP_P03_ADV Antifiamma_210x297mm.indd 1<br />

• Emerging trends in<br />

plastics recycling<br />

• Follow-up report 189<br />

exhibitors spread over<br />

three halls at Hannover<br />

fair ground<br />

02<br />

<strong>2022</strong><br />

• DKT/IRC 2021<br />

Wichtiger Branchentreffpunkt<br />

in turbulenten<br />

Zeiten<br />

• Material flows of<br />

U.S. polyurethane<br />

• Amino functional<br />

04<br />

sulfonates<br />

• Mechanische<br />

Prüfung<br />

Mehraxiale<br />

Eigenschaften von<br />

Elastomeren<br />

• Integrative<br />

Simulation<br />

Modellierung des<br />

Relaxationsverhaltens<br />

<strong>2022</strong><br />

• Rheologie<br />

Korrektur von Wandgleiteffekten<br />

07<br />

08<br />

<strong>2022</strong><br />

Practical content from the areas of<br />

Development, processing and application*<br />

*Trend-setting and expertly packaged.<br />

Dr. Gupta Verlag<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17 15

Application News<br />

Woodly partners with R-kioski<br />

R-kioski (Vantaa, Finland) has chosen the Woodly ® heat-sealed bag as their new form of packaging for takeaway products. With<br />

approximately 480 stores in Finland, R-kioski is a franchise-driven convenience store chain, which offers its customers food and<br />

beverages, as well as wanted everyday goods and services.<br />

The heat-sealable bag is recyclable and made from 100 % carbon neutral and wood-based Woodly material. Consumers can<br />

recognize the packaging from the Woodly logo. Takeaway sandwich products packaged in Woodly heat-sealable bags are available<br />

in R-kioski stores across Finland starting this week.<br />

R-kioski is taking further steps towards sustainability by choosing Woodly’s wood-based packaging. The Woodly bag increases<br />

product shelf life and preserves hygienic qualities and freshness.<br />

“Sustainability is part of our everyday operations. As our world changes, we see that we need to move towards a new way of<br />

doing business, that fits into the future and Anthropocene era. This change is necessary not only for our own success, but also<br />

for future generations, to create opportunities for them to live a good life. We want to lead by example, and we want sustainability<br />

to be accessible to all by providing our customers with easy and convenient ways to make sustainable choices. As part of our<br />

sustainability strategy, we implement actions that bring real change and offer products that benefit both people and the planet.<br />

Woodly’s packaging is a good example of our actions to reduce excessive plastic”, says Ann-Charlotte Schalin, Communications,<br />

Sustainability & Talent Management Director of R-kioski.<br />

For Woodly (Helsinki, Finland), the collaboration with R-kioski<br />

is another huge step forward in reaching new audiences with<br />

Finnish material innovation and introducing Woodly material and a<br />

packaging solution to Finnish consumers.<br />

“Everyone knows R-kioski in Finland. R-kioski is a wellestablished<br />

brand in Finland and we are excited about us working<br />

together and supporting R-kioski with its goal to provide consumers<br />

sustainable products,” comments Jaakko Kaminen, Woodly CEO. MT<br />

www.woodly.com<br />

| www.r-kioski.fi<br />

14–15 November<br />

Cologne (Germany)<br />

Hybrid Event<br />

advanced-recycling.eu<br />

Diversity of Advanced Recycling of Plastic Waste<br />

All you want to know about<br />

advanced plastic waste recycling:<br />

technologies and renewable<br />

chemicals, building blocks,<br />

monomers, and polymers based<br />

on recycling<br />

Topics<br />

• Markets and Policy<br />

• Circular Economy and Ecology of Plastics<br />

• Physical Recycling<br />

• Biochemical Recycling<br />

• Chemical Recycling<br />

• Thermochemical Recycling<br />

• Other Advanced Recycling Technologies<br />

• Carbon Capture and Utilisation (CCU)<br />

• Upgrading, Pre- and Post-treatment Technologies<br />

Organiser Sponsored by Contact<br />

Dr. Lars Krause<br />

Program<br />

lars.krause@nova-institut.de<br />

Dominik Vogt<br />

Conference Manager<br />

dominik.vogt@nova-institut.de<br />

16 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17

Biogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2<br />

)<br />

for plastic production<br />

Materials manufacturer Covestro (Leverkusen,<br />

Germany) and SOL Kohlensäure (Burgbrohl,<br />

Germany) have concluded a framework agreement<br />

for a supply partnership for biogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2<br />

).<br />

With immediate effect, SOL, as one of the most important<br />

European suppliers of gases and gas services, will supply<br />

the liquefied gas to Covestro sites in North Rhine-Westphalia,<br />

where it will be used to produce plastics such as MDI<br />

(methylene diphenyl diisocyanate) and polycarbonate. Under<br />

the terms of the framework agreement, SOL Kohlensäure<br />

will already supply up to 1,000 tonnes of biogenic CO 2<br />

this<br />

year. From 2023, the supply volume is to be further increased<br />

substantially, enabling Covestro to save the same amount of<br />

CO 2<br />

from fossil sources at its NRW sites.<br />

“We have set ourselves the goal to become fully circular.<br />

To this end, we want to convert our raw material base to<br />

100 % renewable sources. We are very pleased to have found<br />

a partner in SOL Kohlensäure who will support us in this<br />

transformation with a pioneering spirit”, explains Daniel<br />

Koch, Head of NRW Plants at Covestro.<br />

“We at SOL Kohlensäure are advancing the shift to more<br />

sustainable CO 2<br />

sources. In this way, we are increasing<br />

security of supply, becoming independent of fossil raw<br />

materials, and reducing our environmental footprint<br />

at the same time”, emphasizes Falko Probst, Sales<br />

Manager at SOL Kohlensäure.<br />

From waste product to raw material<br />

The CO 2<br />

used is obtained by SOL Kohlensäure from<br />

various sources, such as bioethanol and biogas plants. In<br />

these plants, CO 2<br />

is produced as a by-product during the<br />

treatment of various biomasses, such as plant residues. This<br />

is separated by SOL Kohlensäure, purified and then made<br />

available to Covestro production as a raw material.<br />

In this way, the supply partnership supports the circular<br />

concept and contributes to reducing emissions.<br />

Covestro’s Lower Rhine sites in Leverkusen, Dormagen,<br />

and Krefeld-Uerdingen are ISCC PLUS certified and can<br />

supply their customers with more sustainable products made<br />

from renewable raw materials.<br />

Goal of climate neutrality by 2035<br />

Covestro has set itself the goal of becoming fully circular.<br />

This also includes using alternative raw materials. Biomass,<br />

CO 2<br />

, as well as end-of-life materials and waste replace fossil<br />

raw materials such as crude oil or natural gas. Carbon is<br />

managed in a circular way. In realizing these ambitions, both<br />

companies are relying on long-term supply partnerships.<br />

In addition to biogenic CO 2<br />

, Covestro is investigating the<br />

use of other technical gases from renewable sources. The<br />

materials manufacturer is already offering its customers<br />

its first sustainable products, such as climate-neutral MDI.<br />

With the expansion of its alternative raw material base, this<br />

portfolio is set to grow further in the coming years.<br />

ISCC (“International Sustainability and Carbon<br />

Certification”) is an internationally recognized system for the<br />

sustainability certification of biomass and bioenergy, among<br />

others. The standard applies to all stages of the value chain<br />

and is recognized worldwide. ISCC Plus also encompasses<br />

other certification options for instance for technical-chemical<br />

applications, such as plastics from biomass (see pp. 52). AT<br />

https://www.covestro.com/<br />

Biogenic gas being delivered, Luis Da Poca (SOL) connects the tank<br />

Delivery of biogenic CO 2<br />

to Covestro site in NRW<br />

Inspection and acceptance of the delivery, from left to right:<br />

Katharina Rudel, Chemical Technician Covestro; Marcus Ney, Plant<br />

Manager Covestro; René Theisejans, Production Expert Covestro<br />

CCU / Feedstock<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17<br />


Fibres / Textiles / Nonwovens<br />

Flax-based thermoplastic<br />

biocomposites<br />

SeaBioComp, a European project developing novel<br />

biobased thermoplastic composite materials, has<br />

successfully produced a number of demonstrator<br />

products for the marine environment, using different<br />

manufacturing processes, to showcase its flax-based<br />

thermoplastic biocomposites.<br />

Project partners in the team, including research organisations,<br />

textile and composite specialists, universities, and<br />

cluster organisations, have been working together for the<br />

past 3 years to develop,<br />

mechanically test, and<br />

research a number of<br />

biobased formulations<br />

using different manufacturing<br />

techniques. Two<br />

different kinds of biocomposites<br />

have been developed<br />

by the consortium;<br />

a self-reinforced PLAcomposite<br />

which has<br />

been made into a variety<br />

of non-woven and woven<br />

fabrics suitable for use in<br />

compression moulding,<br />

and a flax reinforced polylactide (PLA) or acrylic (PMMA)<br />

reinforced composite for use via RIFT, compression moulding<br />

and additive manufacturing.<br />

Extensive testing of the<br />

mechanical properties of<br />

the various biocomposites<br />

has concluded that these<br />

materials are close to and<br />

in some instances perform<br />

better than conventional<br />

non-biobased composites<br />

(sheet moulded composite,<br />

SMC) currently in use<br />

in the marine environment<br />

today. The new biobased<br />

products have been shown<br />

to use the same compression<br />

moulding conditions as conventional products and<br />

sometimes the process cycle time can be shorter.<br />

The project has shown that the combination of<br />

thermoplastic polymers, natural fibres, and 3D printing<br />

technologies can result in technically complex designs and<br />

applications being produced for the marine environment.<br />

Several initial prototype products, including a fender and<br />

other port structures, have successfully been produced<br />

using 3D printing; scale model offshore wind turbine blades<br />

manufactured via monomer infusion under flexible tooling<br />

(MIFT) and complex curved structures using compression<br />

moulding techniques.<br />

The project has released a series of technical leaflets<br />

detailing the various production methods using selfreinforced<br />

biocomposites and flax-based biocomposites<br />

for marine applications, including compression moulding,<br />

monomer infusion and additive manufacturing. These<br />

technical leaflets will be of interest to manufacturers<br />

of marine products as<br />

well as supply chain<br />

companies and the<br />

academic sector and are<br />

available as downloads<br />

from the project website.<br />

In addition, the project<br />

has also determined<br />

whether these biobased<br />

self-reinforced polylactic<br />

acid (SRPLA) products<br />

are suitable for use in the<br />

marine environment from<br />

a durability and microplastic<br />

formation perspective. A new paper, published in<br />

Polymer Testing, Science Direct discusses the potential for<br />

SRPLA to be considered a promising material for sustainable<br />

marine applications.<br />

The motivation for the<br />

project is to reduce the<br />

use of fossil-based materials<br />

in the marine sector<br />

by developing biobased<br />

composites that have<br />

long-term durability with<br />

reduced CO 2<br />

emissions<br />

and environmental impact<br />

on the marine ecosystem.<br />

Early research in the project<br />

identified flax as the<br />

most suitable natural<br />

plant fibre to be used as reinforcement in the biocomposite.<br />

During growth, flax absorbs a lot of CO 2<br />

and cleans the soil<br />

through phytoremediation.<br />

Organisations interested in biobased materials for the<br />

marine environment are invited to join the SeaBioComp<br />

Interest Group via their website. AT<br />

http://www.seabiocomp.eu/<br />

18 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17


Category<br />

New<br />

Edition<br />

2020<br />

NEW NEW<br />

NEW<br />

This book, created and published by Polymedia<br />

Publisher, maker of bioplastics MAGAZINE is available in<br />

English and German (now in the third, revised edition),<br />

and brand new also in Chinese, French and Spanish.<br />

The book is intended to offer a rapid and<br />

uncomplicated introduction to the subject of<br />

bioplastics and is aimed at all interested readers, in<br />

particular those who have not yet had the opportunity<br />

to dig deeply into the subject, such as students or those<br />

just joining this industry, as well as lay readers. It gives<br />

an introduction to plastics and bioplastics, explains<br />

which renewable resources can be used to produce<br />

bioplastics, what types of bioplastics exist, and which<br />

ones are already on the market. Further aspects,<br />

such as market development, the agricultural land<br />

required, and waste disposal, are also examined.<br />

The book is complemented by a comprehensive literature<br />

list and a guide to sources of additional information<br />

on the Internet.<br />

The author Michael Thielen is<br />

publisher of bioplastics MAGAZINE. He is<br />

a qualified mechanical design engineer with<br />

a PhD degree in plastics technology from the<br />

RWTH University in Aachen, Germany. He<br />

has written several books on the subject of<br />

bioplastics and blow-moulding technology<br />

and disseminated his knowledge of plastics<br />

in numerous presentations, seminars, guest<br />

lectures, and teaching assignments.<br />

New<br />

Edition<br />

2020<br />

ORDER<br />

NOW<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.com/en/books<br />

email: books@bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

phone: +49 2161 6884463 19<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17

Building & Construction<br />

The future of construction<br />

is biobased<br />

The creative studio Biobased Creations was founded in<br />

2019 with the main goal with to use storytelling, design,<br />

and imagination to tell the story of a changing value<br />

system. The founders, Pascal Leboucq and Lucas De Man, are<br />

neither architects nor builders, calling themselves “merely<br />

artists” artists trying to tell a story. A story about society<br />

at a pivot point in time, leaving a system of overproducing<br />

and under-reusing. This is not because we all, as a society,<br />

suddenly became green or good, but because the old system<br />

has reached its limits. Change never comes from innovation<br />

alone, it is driven by crisis and uses the innovation that is at<br />

hand to overcome that crisis.<br />

As artists, Pascal a designer and Lucas a storyteller, they<br />

are fascinated by this period of transformation we are in,<br />

especially because it is still unclear which way it will go. Are<br />

we going for a world where sustainability and vulnerability,<br />

solidarity and equality become the main values, or will we<br />

see a greenwashing of old values like greed, growth, and<br />

inequality? What they do know is that the current crisis is<br />

pushing us to build our homes, buildings, and environments<br />

more sustainable and that by doing so, we will have to<br />

change a bigger system of how we deal with our farming,<br />

our neighbourhoods, our health, and even our ideas of value.<br />

You can’t build truly sustainable without considering the<br />

whole chain around it.<br />

The journey towards biobased building<br />

In 2017 and 2018 Pascal and Lucas were the artists in<br />

residence of the Rabobank (Utrecht, Netherlands) where<br />

they discovered mycelium as a material. Mycelium are the<br />

roots of mushrooms and they form amazing networks under<br />

the earth’s surface. Mixing this mushroom with a dry carrier<br />

like hemp or reed makes it possible to grow, without much<br />

effort and in any mould you like, an amazing building material<br />

in just two weeks. Mycelium is light, fire retardant, water<br />

resistant, and has incredibly high acoustic insulation on top<br />

of that. The designer Eric Klarenbeek introduced the artists<br />

to the material, which lead to the request to make an art<br />

installation for the bank with them. They loved mycelium and<br />

its amazing qualities over traditional building materials. You<br />

can grow it everywhere, very fast, it takes up huge amounts<br />

of CO 2<br />

, it’s not expensive, it’s light and healthy, perfect for<br />

insulation – so they thought “everybody has to be working<br />

with it”. But as it turned out, just a handful of small studios<br />

were experimenting with it and only on a very small scale.<br />

This was the beginning of a much bigger journey for the two<br />

artists. How could they show the (mostly conservative) world<br />

of construction that there are new, beautiful materials with<br />

the same and often better qualities as the old materials out<br />

there? Materials that come from nature and can go back to<br />

nature after use. Materials that take up CO 2<br />

and can store it.<br />

Materials that take way less time to grow than wood and can<br />

be used on the inside and outside of buildings. Materials that<br />

might help farmers with new business perspectives when<br />

the meat industry dissolves. They wanted to scale up these<br />

innovations and build a proper construction.<br />

This led to a collaboration with the Dutch Design<br />

Foundation, taking them up on their request for a natural<br />

pavilion – born was The Growing Pavilion.<br />

Photo: Oscar Vinck<br />

It is a ten-tonne CO 2<br />

-negative, five metres high, eight<br />

metres wide, 95 % biobased pavilion.<br />

They got six designers that already worked with biobased<br />

materials and challenged them to go bigger than ever. The<br />

growing pavilion was an ode to a new aesthetic, the beauty<br />

of nature, and building with nature. They created 88 panels<br />

of mycelium and coated them with a biobased coating.<br />

Each panel had its own mould and its own different level of<br />

mouldiness. Together they show the beauty of fungi in all its<br />

colours. Besides mycelium, they used Kerto Wood for the<br />

frame and created a roof of cotton that let the rainwater in<br />

to feed the plants. They also had a floor made from cattail,<br />

burlap, and potato starch and the benches were made from<br />

rice straw. It was not only a display of biobased materials and<br />

a new way of building, it was a place where people could come<br />

together to understand that the world is changing.<br />

Photos: Eric Melander<br />

20 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17

By:<br />

By Lucas De Man and Pascal Leboucq<br />

Biobased Creations<br />

Amsterdam, the Netherlands<br />

The Growing Pavilion premiered at the Dutch Design Week<br />

2019. An exhibition of different biobased designers was<br />

installed, there were musicians starting off each day and<br />

specially trained storytellers to talk to the visitors about the<br />

materials in the pavilion. The focus was on explaining how<br />

each material grows, can be harvested, holds CO 2<br />

, can be<br />

materialized and after use can be composted. The story of a<br />

circular system was new but very enlightening to many people.<br />

The Growing Pavilion welcomed over 75,000 visitors and<br />

received international attention with a Highly Commended<br />

Dezeen award as an absolute highlight. After the Dutch<br />

Design Week 2019, Pascal and Lucas received so many<br />

requests from other biobased designers and producers to<br />

display their materials, that they decided to take the next step.<br />

They were tired of constantly hearing from builders and<br />

policy officers that biobased materials are cute but only a<br />

possible solution in the far future. “They are not good enough<br />

yet”, “they miss the right certificates”, “they are not tested<br />

yet, it cannot be used on a large scale yet”, and so on. At<br />

the same time, they saw the problems with the climate, with<br />

CO 2<br />

and nitrogen levels growing exponentially. “Why don’t<br />

we build a house”, they thought. A house on a real scale<br />

that showcases what is already possible today and what will<br />

be possible tomorrow when it comes to biobased building.<br />

This way they could unite all the hardworking designers,<br />

producers, and builders that are inventing these materials<br />

and they could show the world that it is possible. And that<br />

it is possible already today. They could show the world that<br />

building sustainable can look and feel sexy as hell and that it<br />

is not only good for the environment but also good for people<br />

because biobased is healthy.<br />

That is when they started their project The Exploded<br />

View. In 2020, they first build The Exploded View<br />

Materials and Methods.<br />

A house, scale ¼ with over 40 different biobased materials,<br />

reused materials, and different building methods like urban<br />

mining, local mining, modular building, and detachability.<br />

Every room in the house got its own nature theme and<br />

the materials to match it. They had plants, water, earth,<br />

fungi, textile, food, and later they even added bacteria.<br />

They showcased the installation both live and online<br />

because the premiere at the Dutch Design Week happened<br />

during the lockdown.<br />

The exploded View Materials and Methods is a research<br />

installation that showcases the many possibilities when it<br />

comes to biobased building. It is built to travel, which it has<br />

been doing ever since it was showcased for the first time and<br />

there are still new rooms and new materials being added.<br />

Online they share all the information of every material and<br />

are openly asking for help with all the information that still<br />

needs to be researched.<br />

When they built the Growing Pavilion they got most of their<br />

funding from art funds and a few partners linked to design<br />

and art. This time they really wanted to involve the building<br />

world itself. So they became curators of the Embassy of Circular<br />

and Biobased Building<br />

at the Dutch Design<br />

Week and invited all kinds<br />

of organisations, institutions,<br />

and governments to<br />

become a partner and to<br />

share not only resources<br />

but also knowledge, network,<br />

and communication.<br />

This worked so well that<br />

they decided to continue<br />

this during the next step.<br />

In October 2021 the<br />

artistic duo introduced the<br />

visitors of the Dutch Design<br />

Week to The Exploded<br />

View Beyond Building, an<br />

exhibition in the shape of<br />

a real-sized house showcasing<br />

over 100 biobased<br />

materials together with<br />

over 100 partners. It was<br />

a rollercoaster of a ride to<br />

get this project done but<br />

they all together did.<br />

Pascal and Lucas<br />

had a few goals<br />

with this installation.<br />

First, they wanted to show<br />

what is already possible<br />

on a large scale when it<br />

comes to biobased materials.<br />

One-third of all 100<br />

materials in The Exploded<br />

View Beyond Building are<br />

already available today<br />

on a mass scale and for a<br />

competitive price, one-third<br />

will be consumer ready like<br />

that in the coming five<br />

Building & Construction<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17<br />


Building & Construction<br />

years and the last third of materials<br />

displayed are more experimental.<br />

Secondly, they wanted to show how<br />

sexy and beautiful these materials can<br />

be. People touch, smell, and feel the<br />

materials and fall in love with them.<br />

This is not a subjective comment<br />

from their side, this is what they got<br />

back in the thousands of reviews they<br />

got on their questionnaires. Every<br />

material had a label and a QR code which you could scan<br />

for more information on what it is, how it’s made, by whom<br />

it’s made, what you can use it for, and when and where it is<br />

available. This way they not only seduce the people, they could<br />

also share all the information to facilitate networking and<br />

flow of information.<br />

Thirdly, they‘ve built their installation with laminated<br />

veneer lumber (LVL) in the computer and straight out of the<br />

factory. On-site, they only had to assemble it like a giant Lego<br />

project. Modular building will be essential if we want to beat<br />

the shortages in housing and the best and most affordable<br />

way to make them is out of wood. In other words, if you want<br />

to build more and fast, you have to do it sustainably. The great<br />

extra aspect of modular building is that you grow or shrink<br />

your house. This implies a total rupture of our thinking about<br />

building, living, and owning. Because now you can actually<br />

move your house, it is modular and dismountable, or you can<br />

add a piece or sell a part when you need more or less space.<br />

Fourthly, they used the same idea as with The Exploded<br />

view Materials and Methods to give each room a clear theme<br />

like water, earth, fungi and bacteria, plants, food, living<br />

materials, and sewage. But they also added gardens around<br />

and on top of the house to show where the materials actually<br />

originate from and also because they wanted to talk with<br />

the visitors about water collection,<br />

green cities, nature inclusivity,<br />

and waste management.<br />

Last but not least, they added<br />

stories to the materials and<br />

methods. Or to say it better, they<br />

went beyond just the building aspect<br />

of this house. Because if you want<br />

to build more sustainably, you have<br />

to consider the whole chain around<br />

it. So, they collected, and still are<br />

collecting, stories on four themes:<br />

Neighbourhood, Farming, Health, and Value.<br />

If we are going to build more sustainably and with more<br />

biobased materials, which we must, then we will have to<br />

change the way we use our lands. Where will we grow our<br />

wood, hemp, reed, algae, and mycelium? Who will do this?<br />

Lucas and Pascal believe that farmers will become the<br />

producers for the building industry, but are they up for it? Do<br />

they get help with it? Are we, as a society, up for it?<br />

We will also have to change the way we construct our<br />

neighbourhoods. How can we build in such a way that insects,<br />

bees, and small animals find a place to live as well? How<br />

do we build so that our houses and parks help with water<br />

management? Are we going to grow crops in or on buildings?<br />

Will our future cities be more of a fusion of brick and nature?<br />

Will we harvest our buildings?<br />

We will also have to change the way<br />

we value the impact of health. We<br />

can construct our buildings so that<br />

they can breathe instead of sealing<br />

them off. Biobased materials are<br />

way healthier to work with and to live<br />

amongst than traditional building<br />

materials. It has been proven over and<br />

over again. Are we going to take this<br />

into account when we tender? Is this<br />

going to be a more important value for<br />

consumers and governments? The health of our construction<br />

workers is valuable right?<br />

Building more sustainable also means that we will have<br />

to change the way we look at ownership. Do I keep all the<br />

materials in my house? Or does the supplier or the builder<br />

keep them so that they can reuse them in high quality to really<br />

make them circular? What does that mean for pricing? Can I<br />

resell my walls and my insulation after 20 years? We also will<br />

have to look at how we validate aspects such as CO 2<br />

storing<br />

capacity or longevity of materials when we make our tenders<br />

or when we look at certifications of materials.<br />

Building with biobased materials implies a<br />

whole new way of thinking and doing.<br />

And in this last bit of text lies the whole crux. Do we fully<br />

understand that sustainability demands a radical change<br />

in the way we do things today? Can we build with natural<br />

materials that are easy to grow, hold a lot of CO 2<br />

, are<br />

price competitive, healthier, and can be decomposed after<br />

use? Yes, we can. They are there and they are growing in<br />

numbers, quality, and production capacity. But are we ready<br />

for what they imply? We have to build more sustainable that<br />

is a given fact, and nobody denies it. But what Pascal and<br />

Lucas, non-architects, non-builders, “merely” artists, are<br />

trying to do with their work is to tell<br />

the bigger story. They want to open<br />

the dialogue that we have to work<br />

together way more than we do now.<br />

That we have to remove the walls<br />

between the different departments<br />

like agriculture, construction,<br />

science, health, education, and so on<br />

if we truly want to build a sustainable<br />

environment for all of us to breathe in.<br />

We are evolving towards a new value<br />

system, not because we are smarter<br />

and ethically better than before, but because we have to. It<br />

is up to us now to choose how we want that value system to<br />

look like, what values we really want to propagate and how<br />

we are going to deal with the consequences of our choices.<br />

You cannot have a cake and not eat it.<br />

Biobased Creations wants to use storytelling and<br />

imagination to open up a continuous practical ethical<br />

dialogue with all that are concerned. Will you join them?<br />

Both The Growing Pavilion and The Exploded View Beyond<br />

Building could be visited during the Floriade Expo <strong>2022</strong><br />

(April – October <strong>2022</strong>).<br />

The Exploded View Materials and Methods is on the road,<br />

for dates and locations check www.theexplodedview.com<br />

www.biobasedcreations.com<br />

22 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17

Teaming Up for Change<br />

Transforming Together<br />

A sustainable future requires urgent action — innovative, proactive<br />

approaches that keep us on the offense and reactive solutions for a preventive<br />

defense. And, we need to work together.<br />

Through the expertise and creative power of our people, DuPont Mobility &<br />

Materials is innovating solutions to challenges aligned to the UN Sustainable<br />

Development Goals. Plus, we are collaborating with customers and the supply<br />

chain to help industries transform toward a low carbon and circular future.<br />

Sustainability is a team sport. Let’s keep all hands on the ball.<br />

dupont.com/mobility/sustainability<br />

Visit us at the K Show – Hall 6, Stand C43 – to learn more.<br />

DuPont, the DuPont Oval Logo, and all trademarks and service marks denoted with , SM or ® are owned by affiliates of DuPont de Nemours, Inc. unless otherwise noted. © <strong>2022</strong> DuPont.

Building & Construction<br />

Wheat gluten based bioplastic<br />

The energy released by the construction industries<br />

increases year after year, raising concerns about<br />

growing CO 2<br />

emissions. It is worth noting that the<br />

construction industry is responsible for 23 % of world plastic<br />

waste production and ca. 37 % of global energy-related<br />

greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are attributed to the<br />

construction sector [1]. Plastics-based products are used<br />

in the construction industries during packaging as well<br />

as in window panels, interior decor, and in electrical and<br />

electronic products.<br />

After the end-life of such products, a significant portion<br />

is recycled, while the remainder is either released into<br />

the environment or ends up in landfills, leading to serious<br />

environmental issues. This growing global environmental<br />

impact has steered construction science and engineering<br />

toward biobased plastics such as wheat gluten (WG), which<br />

could contribute to a low-carbon future. Bioplastics have<br />

evolved over time as a result of both scientific advances<br />

and market demand. For instance, DUS Architecture<br />

(Amsterdam, the Netherlands) has built a 700 m 2 canal<br />

house out of bioplastic using 3D printing technology [2 ].<br />

Bioplastic has also been used in concretes as aggregates<br />

[3]. Elsewhere, Aectual, a Dutch company based in<br />

Amsterdam, has demonstrated the use of bioplastics to<br />

create sustainable, customizable flooring solutions [4]. These<br />

applications highlight the role of bioplastics in creating a<br />

more sustainable future.<br />

improve mechanical properties, it cannot improve flame<br />

resistance. On the other hand, the addition of a flame retardant<br />

imparts fire safety but reduces mechanical strength. Hence,<br />

gluten with balanced mechanical strength and flame<br />

resistance along with reduced water/moisture sensitivity<br />

could be a viable option for construction application.<br />

This issue was addressed by the research group at the<br />

Structural and Fire Engineering Division at Luleå University<br />

of Technology, Sweden. As part of their research, they treated<br />

gluten bioplastic with pyrolysis biochar and sustainable fireretardants<br />

using a novel technique. According to Oisik Das,<br />

a senior lecturer leading the study, this gluten with biochar<br />

and fire-retardant is more sustainable, eco-friendly, and<br />

efficient for creating potential structural components in<br />

construction engineering. His recently completed research<br />

project, funded by Brandforsk in Sweden (grant number 321-<br />

002), sought to investigate the possibility of balancing the<br />

fire and mechanical properties in bioplastics by incorporating<br />

biochar doped with sustainable fire retardants. Sustainable<br />

fire-retardants were doped inside the numerous pores of<br />

biochar (Figure 1), and this functionalised biochar was then<br />

integrated within gluten bioplastic. The project discovered<br />

that using a thermal method, fire retardants can be effectively<br />

doped inside the pores of biochar and can then be used to<br />

create gluten bioplastic having good fire-safety properties<br />

without compromising on mechanical strength.<br />

Bioplastics, like gluten, are innocuous to the environment<br />

and their degradation does not lead to detrimental<br />

microplastic production. Gluten has acceptable mechanical<br />

and cohesive properties and can be formed into desired<br />

shapes. The use of WG-based bioplastics has the potential<br />

to replace traditional plastics in construction applications.<br />

Despite the fact that gluten is environmentally friendly and<br />

has mechanical properties comparable to conventional<br />

plastics, the question of “How effective is gluten bioplastic for<br />

construction applications?” remains somewhat unanswered.<br />

Aside from strength, gluten should also possess fire and<br />

water resistance properties to meet the requirements of<br />

construction applications. Unfortunately, gluten is sensitive<br />

to water and prone to degradation during a fire. However,<br />

reinforcements and flame retardants can help in resolving<br />

these issues, albeit separately. While reinforcement can<br />

Figure 1: Thermally doped fire retardants<br />

(here naturally-occurring lanosol) in biochar pores [5].<br />

References:<br />

1. Hamilton, I., Rapf, O., Kockat, D.J., Zuhaib, D.S., Abergel, T., Oppermann, M., Otto, M., Loran, S., Fagotto, I., Steurer, N. and Nass, N., 2020. 2020 global status<br />

report for buildings and construction. United Nations Environmental Programme.<br />

2. https://www.bioplasticsmagazine.com/en/news/meldungen/2016-01-11-Bioplastic-elements-facade-Europe-Building.php (assessed on 19-09-<strong>2022</strong>).<br />

3. Oberti, I. and Paciello, A., <strong>2022</strong>. Bioplastic as a Substitute for Plastic in Construction Industry. Encyclopedia, 2(3), pp.1408-1420.<br />

4. https://www.engineering.com/story/aectual-3d-prints-everything-from-floors-to-walls (assessed on 19-09-<strong>2022</strong>).<br />

5. Perroud, T., Shanmugam, V., Mensah, R.A., Jiang, L., Xu, Q., Neisiany, R.E., Sas, G., Försth, M., Kim, N.K., Hedenqvist, M.S. and Das, O., <strong>2022</strong>. Testing<br />

bioplastics containing functionalised biochar. Polymer Testing, p.107657.<br />

6. Das, O., Loho, T.A., Capezza, A.J., Lemrhari, I. and Hedenqvist, M.S., 2018. A novel way of adhering PET onto protein (wheat gluten) plastics to impart water<br />

resistance. Coatings, 8(11), p.388.<br />

24 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17

Remaining water (%)<br />

Another major issue with gluten is its dimensional<br />

instability under high moisture conditions. Oisik Das and<br />

his co-workers came up with the novel idea of laminating<br />

gluten with polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film using<br />

cross-linkers, which resulted in significantly improved water<br />

barrier properties (Figure 2.a) while keeping the dimension<br />

100<br />

95<br />

90<br />

85<br />

80<br />

75<br />

in construction<br />

Neat WG<br />

PET<br />

Ground<br />

Brushed<br />

(a)<br />

70<br />

0 1 2 3 4<br />

By:<br />

Oisik Das,<br />

Senior Lecturer & International Coordinator<br />

Vigneshwaran Shanmugam<br />

Department of Civil, Environmental<br />

and Natural Resources Engineering<br />

Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden<br />

intact (Figure 2.b) under high moisture conditions. Based on<br />

the aforementioned, it is possible to alleviate some of the<br />

performance properties of gluten bioplastic taking it one step<br />

closer to being used in the construction industry, but further<br />

research is needed to determine its load-bearing capacity<br />

as well as creep resistance and fatigue-related properties.<br />

Figure 2: State<br />

of the neat and<br />

PET-layered gluten<br />

films (samples<br />

named Ground<br />

and Brushed)<br />

when exposed to<br />

saturated water<br />

vapor (100 % relative<br />

humidity) on the<br />

inside of a cup<br />

and 50 % relative<br />

humidity on the<br />

outside [6].<br />

From Science & Research<br />

Days<br />

Leading Event on Carbon<br />

Capture & Utilisation<br />

Learn about the entire CCU value chain:<br />

• Carbon Capture Technologies<br />

and Direct Air Capture<br />

• CO2 for Chemicals, Proteins<br />

and Gases<br />

• Advanced CCU Technologies,<br />

Artificial Photosynthesis<br />

• Fuels for Transport and Aviation<br />

• Green Hydrogen Production<br />

• Mineralisation<br />

• Power-to-X<br />

1<br />

Best CO2<br />

Utilisation<br />

2023<br />

O R G A N I S E R N OVA -I N S TIT U T E<br />

I N N OVAT I O N<br />

AWA R D<br />

Call for Innovation<br />

Apply for the Innovation<br />

Award “Best CO2<br />

Utilisation 2023”<br />

Organiser<br />

Contact<br />

Dominik Vogt<br />

Conference Manager<br />

dominik.vogt@nova-institut.de<br />

co2-chemistry.eu<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17<br />


Building & Construction<br />

Thermal insulation makes an important<br />

contribution to climate neutrality<br />

Thermal insulation of buildings and the cold chain plays<br />

a vital role in saving CO 2<br />

emissions and conserving<br />

fossil raw materials. Covestro is one of the leading<br />

raw material suppliers for one of the most efficient<br />

insulation materials used for this purpose for a long time:<br />

Rigid polyurethane (PU) foam. Given the ongoing climate<br />

change and the drastic measures required to combat it, its<br />

importance is currently growing once again.<br />

This is reason enough for Covestro to further increase the<br />

sustainability and insulating performance of its foams and<br />

develop innovative solutions for more effective production.<br />

Climate-neutral raw material for insulation<br />

For example, Covestro now offers one of the two main<br />

raw materials for PU rigid foam, renewable [1] toluene<br />

diisocyanate (TDI) and methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI),<br />

in a version that is climate-neutral [2] from the cradle to the<br />

factory gate: On balance, no CO 2<br />

emissions are generated<br />

in the aforementioned part of the value-added cycle. This<br />

increase in sustainability is due to the use of alternative<br />

raw materials based on plant waste and residual oils, which<br />

are allocated to the products with the help of certified mass<br />

balancing according to ISCC PLUS. With such climate-neutral<br />

solutions, Covestro helps its customers achieve their own<br />

sustainability goals and master the transition to a circular<br />

economy. The products can be incorporated into existing<br />

process technology for the construction, refrigeration, and<br />

automotive industry customers without any significant<br />

changes. And with these polyols, Covestro is now able to offer<br />

selective prepolymers for various adhesive applications.<br />

Small refrigerators with plenty of interior space<br />

In the cold chain, too, rigid PU foam has been the insulating<br />

material of choice for decades to keep food from spoiling<br />

efficiently and permanently. In the future, it will be important<br />

to not only further increase the insulation performance, but<br />

also to have the largest possible interior space in which to<br />

store a lot of refrigerated goods, and yet limited external<br />

dimensions of the refrigerator. Here, PU vacuum insulation<br />

panels (VIPs) offer an advantageous solution: they take up<br />

little space but provide efficient insulation with low energy<br />

consumption and CO 2<br />

emissions. Even at the end of their<br />

useful life, PU VIPs still reduce the carbon footprint: Thanks<br />

to their use, refrigerators are made from only a few different<br />

materials and can be recycled more easily.<br />

More effective and sustainable production<br />

of insulation elements<br />

For the production of rigid foam insulation boards and<br />

metal sandwich elements, customers have to spread a PU<br />

reaction mixture on a top layer. Covestro has developed<br />

an innovative technology using casting rakes that enables<br />

a uniform distribution of the liquid mixture, simplifying<br />

the production process but also increasing the quality of<br />

the insulation elements. Insulation Board Fastline (IBF)<br />

technology also reduces out-of-spec batches and production<br />

waste – waste that would otherwise have to be disposed of or<br />

recycled. The casting rakes can be easily integrated into the<br />

existing production.<br />

26 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17

Efficiently insulated windows<br />

The efficient thermal insulation of doors and<br />

windows naturally makes another important<br />

contribution to reducing energy consumption<br />

and CO 2<br />

emissions from buildings. While<br />

multi-pane windows made of insulating glass<br />

have proven themselves in practice, for a few<br />

years now, composite materials made of<br />

polyurethane resins in combination with glass<br />

fibres using pultrusion technology have been<br />

providing excellent insulation of<br />

window and door frames. They<br />

also give them good strength<br />

and fire resistance.<br />

Covestro produces the polyether polyols in Dormagen,<br />

Germany, using the mass-balanced precursor propylene oxide<br />

from the shared site with LyondellBasell in Maasvlakte, The<br />

Netherlands. There, the two partners produce propylene<br />

oxide and styrene monomer as part of a joint venture. Both<br />

of the above-mentioned sites are certified according to<br />

the internationally recognized ISCC PLUS standard.<br />

“With the introduction of both main components<br />

(TDI and MDI) for polyurethanes based on<br />

alternative raw materials, we have reached<br />

another important milestone on the road to<br />

climate neutrality,” says Sucheta Govil,<br />

Chief Commercial Officer of Covestro.<br />

“We can now help customers in a variety<br />

of industries meet their climate goals and<br />

drive the transition to a circular economy. At the same time,<br />

we are reducing the CO 2<br />

footprint in various value chains”. AT<br />

https://www.covestro.com/<br />

Building & Construction<br />

[1] The more sustainable polyether polyol as well as the renewable TDI<br />

are produced with the help of the mass balance approach using<br />

renewable raw materials – from biowaste and plant residues – which are<br />

mathematically attributed to the product.<br />

[2] Climate neutrality is the result of an internal assessment of a partial<br />

product life cycle from raw material extraction (cradle) to the factory<br />

gate (Covestro gate), also known as cradle-to-gate assessment. The<br />

methodology of our life cycle assessment, which has been critically<br />

reviewed by TÜV Rheinland, is based on ISO standards 14040 and ISO<br />

14044. The calculation takes into account biogenic carbon sequestration<br />

based on preliminary data from the supply chain. No compensatory<br />

measures were applied.<br />

23–25 May • Siegburg/Cologne<br />

23–25 May • Siegburg/Cologne (Germany)<br />

renewable-materials.eu<br />

The brightest stars of Renewable Materials<br />

The unique concept of presenting all renewable material solutions at<br />

one event hits the mark: bio-based, CO2-based and recycled are the only<br />

alternatives to fossil-based chemicals and materials.<br />







OF THE<br />

YEAR 2023<br />

First day<br />

• Bio- and CO2-based<br />

Refineries<br />

• Chemical Industry,<br />

New Refinery Concepts<br />

& Chemical Recycling<br />

Second day<br />

• Renewable Chemicals<br />

and Building Blocks<br />

• Renewable Polymers<br />

and Plastics –<br />

Technology and Markets<br />

• Innovation Award<br />

• Fine Chemicals<br />

(Parallel Session)<br />

Third day<br />

• Latest nova Research<br />

• The Policy & Brands<br />

View on Renewable<br />

Materials<br />

• Biodegradation<br />

• Renewable Plastics<br />

and Composites<br />


Call for Innovation<br />

Submit your<br />

Application for the<br />

“Renewable Material<br />

of the Year 2023”<br />

Organiser<br />

Award<br />

Sponsor<br />

Contact<br />

Dominik Vogt<br />

Conference Manager<br />

dominik.vogt@nova-institut.de<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17<br />


Building & Construction<br />

Low-carbon wastewater evacuation<br />

system made from bio-attributed PVC<br />

Vynova (Tessenderlo, Belgium), a leading European<br />

PVC and chlor-alkali company, and Nicoll (Herstal,<br />

Belgium), European leader in thermoplastic solutions<br />

for the building sector and part of Aliaxis Group, have sealed a<br />

commercial agreement to use bio-attributed PVC for Nicoll’s<br />

HOMETECH ® silent wastewater evacuation system. This will<br />

enable Nicoll to offer a low-carbon solution without any<br />

compromise on quality, durability, and performance.<br />

As part of the agreement, Vynova is supplying bio-attributed<br />

PVC marketed under its VynoEcoSolutions brand to Nicoll in<br />

France. The use of Vynova’s bio-attributed PVC is estimated<br />

to reduce the carbon footprint of Nicoll Hometech by 60 %<br />

compared to the conventional end product. As it already<br />

incorporates 20 % externally recycled plastic and is 100 %<br />

recyclable itself, Nicoll Hometech will become the first silent<br />

evacuation system made with 100 % low-carbon PVC.<br />

“We are delighted to work together with an industry<br />

leader like Nicoll to reduce the carbon footprint of their<br />

PVC pipe range, supporting our mutual sustainability<br />

goals and helping the construction sector shift towards a<br />

low-carbon future”, comments Rudy Miller, Vice President<br />

Vinyls Business at Vynova.<br />

“This new bio-attributed resin is a logical next step to<br />

further concretize our sustainability ambitions. As a market<br />

leader, we set the pace for innovative, sustainable solutions”,<br />

says Benoît Fabre, Vice President Aliaxis France.<br />

Vynova’s bio-attributed PVC is produced from biomass<br />

feedstock that does not compete with the food chain<br />

and is marketed under the VynoEcoSolutions brand. The<br />

VynoEcoSolutions portfolio also includes the company’s<br />

circular-attributed and renewable PVC ranges, renewable<br />

caustic soda as well as its low-carbon potassium<br />

derivatives offering.<br />

The bio-circular ethylene which is used as feedstock for<br />

Vynova’s bio-attributed PVC is supplied by petrochemical<br />

company SABIC (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia) from its production<br />

facilities in Geleen (the Netherlands) and forms part of<br />

SABIC’s TRUCIRCLE portfolio for circular solutions.<br />

“Partnerships along the value chain, such as this<br />

collaboration with Nicoll and SABIC, are essential to realizing<br />

the transition towards a more sustainable and circular<br />

plastics industry. This cooperation underlines our strong<br />

commitment to being an industry leader in that transition”,<br />

concludes Vynova President Christophe André. AT<br />

www.vynova-group.com<br />

www.aliaxis.com<br />

https://nicoll.be/<br />

https://www.sabic.com/<br />

28 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17

Cellulose-based passive<br />

radiative cooler<br />

Heating and cooling account for large proportion<br />

of buildings’ energy use in many countries, such<br />

as China and the USA, which makes it the largest<br />

individual energy expenditure. As a result, passive radiative<br />

cooling has become an attractive approach to saving building<br />

energy efficiencies. To date, traditional cooling devices show<br />

poor daytime cooling performance in hot, humid regions<br />

because the cooling materials are heated up by the sun.<br />

Thus, designing tuneable daytime radiative cooler to meet<br />

the requirements of different weather conditions is still a big<br />

challenge, especially in hot, humid regions.<br />

In a recent study, a dual-function strategy of aerogel was<br />

put forward to construct tuneable cellulose nanocrystal<br />

(CNC) aerogel coolers with high solar reflectance, high<br />

infrared emissivity, and low thermal conductivity, which show<br />

great value in energy-saving buildings. Nanocrystal cellulose<br />

aerogel coolers were fabricated via facile freezing casting of<br />

crosslinked CNC suspensions.<br />

The CNC suspensions crosslinked by silane agent (MTMS)<br />

were poured into the desired moulds and frozen in liquid<br />

nitrogen, before they were freeze-dried to obtain the CNC<br />

aerogels. Finally, the obtained CNC aerogels were thermally<br />

treated in the oven drying at 80 °C. The resulting CNC aerogel<br />

coolers exhibit an ultra-white structure, which can reflect<br />

96 % sunlight. Meanwhile, CNC aerogel coolers show a<br />

strong infrared emittance (92 %) and an ultralow thermal<br />

conductivity (0.026 W/mK). They can achieve a sub-ambient<br />

temperature drop of up to 9.2 °C under direct sunlight and<br />

promisingly reached the reduction of ~7.4 °C even in hot,<br />

moist, and fickle extreme surroundings.<br />

More importantly, the elasticity of aerogel coolers enables<br />

the dynamically tuneable cooling capacity by simply changing<br />

the compression ratio of aerogel coolers, which can meet<br />

the different cooling requirements in various regions all over<br />

the world. Meanwhile, compared with traditional cooling<br />

materials, such as PE fabric, PVDF coatings, photonics, and<br />

so on, the prepared CNC aerogel coolers are sustainable and<br />

eco-friendly – it can be easily isolated from wood and can be<br />

considered a nontoxic and biodegradable material.<br />

Most importantly, as-prepared CNC aerogel coolers can be<br />

used for many scenarios such as:<br />

1. as cooling materials around building, outdoor<br />

construction or devices,<br />

2. but also for small devices running outdoors in summer<br />

under direct sunlight,<br />

3. or as protecting materials against sunlight or warm<br />

conditions, such as for fresh fruit in warm weather, e.g.<br />

during transport in summer.<br />

Specially, these aerogel coolers can be easily assembled<br />

into bulks with different sizes and geometries, which can<br />

meet the various requirements of applications. The aerogel<br />

cooler (thickness of 1 cm) can act as an envelope of baseline<br />

buildings to reflect sunlight, dissipate heat by infrared<br />

radiation and reduce thermal convection from the ambient<br />

surroundings to the inner space, thereby resulting in reduced<br />

cooling energy consumption.<br />

The energy-saving modelling process was conducted<br />

based on baseline wall and roof material (Traditional building<br />

materials) properties and aerogel cooler performance to<br />

predict energy consumption. Twenty-three cities in China<br />

were selected for this study (thermal zones in China), which<br />

can expand the results of energy savings to the whole country.<br />

Our cooling energy savings of the aerogel cooler on outer<br />

surfaces of buildings indicates Haikou (6.89 kW/m 2 ), Taipei<br />

(5.61 kW/m 2 ), Changsha (4.96 kW/m 2 ), Wuhan (4.91 kW/m 2 ),<br />

and Nanchang (4.89 kW/m 2 ) possess the highest cooling<br />

energy in the chosen 23 cities in China. Specifically, compared<br />

with the traditional building consumption, the aerogel cooler<br />

could save 35.4 % cooling energy on average in China.<br />

In the future, the research will focus on: (1) improving<br />

the net cooling power of aerogel coolers by optimizing the<br />

infrared emissivity; (2) optimizing existent freeze casting<br />

technology to produce large-sized aerogel coolers: (3)<br />

designing weather-adaptive CNC-based coolers to meet the<br />

requirement of different season conditions.<br />

Full research at:<br />

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.nanolett.2c00844<br />

https://wsu.edu/<br />

Cooling savings (%)<br />

50<br />

40<br />

30<br />

20<br />

10<br />

0<br />

Average (one year)<br />

Percentage<br />

China<br />

Energy<br />

4x10³<br />

3x10³<br />

2x10³<br />

1x10³<br />

Cooling energy (W/m²)<br />

By:<br />

Fu Yu, Distinguished Professor<br />

School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering & Composite<br />

Materials Engineering Centre<br />

Nanjing Forestry University & Washington State University<br />

Pullman, WA, USA<br />

0<br />

Building & Construction<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17<br />


them all, and they will all be showcased at the K.<br />

K’<strong>2022</strong> Preview<br />

Show<br />

Preview<br />

K <strong>2022</strong>, “The World’s No. 1 Trade Fair for Plastics and Rubber”<br />

will again be the stage for approximately 3,000 exhibitors from<br />

61 countries that will occupy Düsseldorf Exhibition Centre in its<br />

entirety. The so-called K-Show is expected to attract more than<br />

200,000 trade visitors from all over the world to Düsseldorf between<br />

the 19 th and 26 th of October <strong>2022</strong>. The latest K in 2019 registered<br />

3,330 exhibitors from 63 countries on 177,000 m² net exhibition<br />

space and 224,116 trade visitors, of these 73 % came from abroad.<br />

This year, sustainability is of unsurprising focus with two of<br />

the three declared guiding themes of the K-show being climate<br />

protection and the circular economy. They are the current answers<br />

of the industry to the threats of the climate crisis and global<br />

plastics pollution, including microplastics. In this race against<br />

time to find the best solutions for the end-of-life and feedstock<br />

issues of our industry, it is safe to say that claims of recyclability<br />

will be everywhere. Yet, real solutions have to go broader, looking<br />

at the issues on a wider scale. There is infrastructure to be built<br />

and systems to be developed in collaboration of players across<br />

the industry. If we really plan to defossilise the industry we<br />

need to look at solutions that are biobased, CO 2<br />

-based, and yes,<br />

based on recycled material. However, just because a material<br />

is recyclable doesn’t make it sustainable – only if it is actually<br />

recycled. Mechanical recycling is still the go-to approach here,<br />

but it is already becoming clear that even if scaled up it will not<br />

be enough to make our economy truly circular, luckily advanced<br />

recycling technologies are on the rise, eager to fill part of that gap.<br />

The open exchange and dialogue on solution-oriented<br />

innovations and sustainable developments across national<br />

borders and continents will also be in focus at this year’s K in<br />

(Foto: Messe Düsseldorf / Constanze Tillmann)<br />

Düsseldorf. It fulfils the ideal prerequisites for engaging in intense<br />

On the following pages a number of<br />

companies present their exhibits at K <strong>2022</strong>.<br />

This will be rounded off by a comprehensive<br />

K-show-review in issue 06/<strong>2022</strong>.<br />

global networking and for jointly advancing projects. Because<br />

nowhere else is the plastics and rubber industry gathered in one<br />

place with such a high degree of internationality. There are no<br />

silver bullets and different regions in the world require different<br />

solutions, be it mechanical or chemical recycling, biobased or<br />

biodegradable, or carbon capture and utilisation – we will need<br />

Sukano<br />

Sukano (Schindellegi, CH) is presenting<br />

its circularity-designed products. For<br />

15+ years, Sukano has maximized<br />

and diversified the use of biopolymers<br />

to contribute to a circular economy.<br />

An expert on masterbatches and<br />

compounds in biodegradable and biobased<br />

polymers with in-house technical<br />

knowledge, Sukano recognizes<br />

the materials’ significant benefits,<br />

properties, and functionalities.<br />

Sukano aims to accelerate the growth<br />

of biodegradable and compostable packaging and foster<br />

innovation in semi-durables and medical applications to<br />

expand the market penetration and sustainable profile<br />

of biodegradable goods. With a complete portfolio and<br />

technical support, the company helps develop applications<br />

that optimize production yield, cycle times, and consistency.<br />

The K-show is the performance barometer for the entire<br />

industry and its global marketplace for innovations. For eight days,<br />

the “Who’s Who” of the entire plastics and rubber world will meet<br />

here to demonstrate the industry’s capabilities, discuss the latest<br />

trends, and set the course for the future.<br />

Initially focused on<br />

PLA, a biodegradable<br />

plastic made from<br />

organic sources,<br />

Sukano now has<br />

expanded into PBS(A)<br />

and PEF additive and<br />

colour masterbatches.<br />

The newest addition<br />

is the SUKANO ® PHA<br />

colours, which allow<br />

fully compostable end<br />

applications. Sukano’s<br />

Global Product Manager for Bioplastics,<br />

Daniel Ganz, will introduce the PHA colour palette<br />

and concept at the Bioplastics Business<br />

Breakfast on October 21, <strong>2022</strong>.<br />

Climate protection and the circular economy are not only<br />

guiding themes of the trade show but are (and always have been)<br />

among the core targets of the bioplastics community, not only at<br />

the exhibitors’ stands but also in the supporting programme of<br />

K <strong>2022</strong>, e.g. the 5 th Bioplastics Business Breakfast conferences<br />

hosted by bioplastics MAGAZINE (see pp 8 for details).<br />

www.sukano.com<br />

8a H28<br />

30 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17

Gianeco<br />

Gianeco (Turin, Italy) is one of the first companies in Europe to successfully start recycling renewable, biodegradable, and<br />

compostable materials such as PLA, PBAT, PBS, and their compounds.<br />

One of our main products is recycled PLA (polylactide), a thermoplastic polyester polymerised from maize, i.e. from renewable<br />

sources. Polylactide is extremely versatile and is used in a wide variety of applications: for sheet and panel extrusion, injection<br />

moulding, compounding, and 3D printing.<br />

Among the latest products developed by Gianeco in collaboration with<br />

national research centres is Biogeo, a compound containing PLA, PBAT, and<br />

starch, for the extrusion of blown film; its use is aimed at the production of<br />

bags for organic waste and supermarkets.<br />

Recycled bioPBS will be also present among their products at the K show <strong>2022</strong>.<br />

Gianeco staff are actively working on new solutions to recycle other biopolymers<br />

such as PHA and PHB, which still occupy only a small part of the bioplastics market.<br />

Why choose Gianeco’s recycled biopolymer?<br />

• it is 100 % recycled, thus contributing to the circular economy<br />

• it comes from renewable resources<br />

• is competitively priced compared to virgin biopolymers<br />

• has a low impact on the environment (biodegradable and compostable<br />

according to EN13432)<br />

• has a low carbon footprint<br />

www.gianeco.com<br />

7.2 E10<br />

K’<strong>2022</strong> Preview<br />

traceless<br />

Traceless is a female-founded circular bioeconomy<br />

startup from Hamburg, Germany, offering a holistically<br />

sustainable alternative to conventional plastics<br />

and bioplastics to solve global plastic pollution!<br />

Their innovative, patented technology for the first time allows<br />

using food production residues to produce materials that are<br />

compostable under natural composting conditions. While<br />

biobased, the materials don’t cause land-use change, don’t<br />

need any hazardous additives or solvents and have up to 87 %<br />

lower CO 2<br />

emissions.<br />

Being neither chemically modified nor synthetically<br />

polymerized, they don’t fall under the EU Plastic Directive and<br />

by considering all impact indicators, traceless materials are<br />

uniquely sustainable. Already competitive with conventional<br />

plastics and bioplastics in quality, on an industrial production<br />

scale, their materials will be price competitive with virgin<br />

plastic, allowing to produce sustainable, affordable products<br />

for end customers of all demographics and income levels to<br />

become part of the solution to solve global plastic pollution.<br />

www.traceless.eu 8b F37-03<br />

UBQ<br />

UBQ Materials (Tel Aviv-Jaffa, Israel) is a climate tech<br />

developer of advanced materials made from unsorted<br />

waste, including all organics. The company diverts residual<br />

municipal solid waste from landfills and converts it into UBQ ,<br />

a climate-positive thermoplastic that helps manufacturers<br />

reduce their carbon footprints, operate more sustainably, and<br />

power a circular economy.<br />

UBQ is a sustainable alternative to oil-based resins<br />

and other conventional raw materials, compatible with<br />

thousands of applications across diverse industries.<br />

The homogeneous raw material is USDA bio preferred<br />

and has UL2809 certification, as it contains 100 % postconsumer<br />

recycled content.<br />

UBQ Materials<br />

executives will be<br />

on hand at K <strong>2022</strong> to<br />

showcase its global<br />

expansion, starting with<br />

a large-scale facility in<br />

the Netherlands that<br />

will begin operating in<br />

2023. UBQ Materials<br />

will also demonstrate<br />

final products from a<br />

wide variety of industry<br />

leaders, including<br />

McDonald’s, PepsiCo<br />

and Mercedes-Benz,<br />

that are using UBQ<br />

to manufacture throughout their supply chains, including<br />

consumer-facing products.<br />

www.ubqmaterials.com<br />

7.1 A44<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17<br />


K’<strong>2022</strong> Preview<br />


LANXESS (Cologne, Germany)<br />

presents new Tepex thermoplastic<br />

composites that are currently being<br />

developed starting from recycled or<br />

biobased raw materials.<br />

In the field of matrix materials<br />

for Tepex, recently PLA and PA10.10<br />

have been introduced to the<br />

markets. Development is about to be<br />

completed, e.g. on a matrix plastic<br />

based on PA6 for Tepex dynalite, that<br />

is produced starting from green cyclohexane and therefore consists of well<br />

over 80 % sustainable raw materials.<br />

When the matrix plastic is reinforced with continuous-fibre fabrics, the<br />

resulting semi-finished products exhibit the same outstanding properties<br />

as equivalent products that are purely fossil-based. Beneath plant-based<br />

flax fibre fabrics, another new family of reinforcements comprises variants<br />

that yield surfaces with a so-called forged carbon look. The corresponding<br />

components feature a grain that is reminiscent of marble. The high<br />

proportion of recycled material is based on carbon fibres from postindustrial<br />

waste. The fibres are used as non-woven material or as chopped<br />

fibre mats. A variety of thermoplastics is suitable as a matrix material,<br />

such as PA6, PA66, PP, and PC as well as the above-mentioned<br />

PLA and PA10.10. The mechanical<br />

performance of the<br />

new carbon composites approximates<br />

the high level of<br />

the continuous-glass-fibre reinforced<br />

composites of the<br />

Tepex range isotropically.<br />

www.lanxess.com<br />

6 C76-C78<br />

Kuraray<br />

Among other products, Kuraray (Tokyo,<br />

Japan) presents Septon Bio-series, a<br />

unique hydrogenated styrene farnesene block<br />

copolymer (HSFC) which makes them the first<br />

and only manufacturer of biobased HSBC<br />

materials on the market. As one of the leading<br />

suppliers of TPEs, Kuraray is responding<br />

to increasing industry demand for more<br />

sustainable materials that can significantly<br />

improve the environmental footprint of<br />

products. For example, the production of<br />

these novel TPE materials has much lower<br />

greenhouse gas emissions compared to<br />

conventional styrenic block copolymers.<br />

With the Septon bio-series, Kuraray gives<br />

manufacturers a new solution that enables<br />

new compounds and end-uses with a high biobased<br />

content to expand existing market areas<br />

and open up new ones. So far, Kuraray has<br />

achieved a bio content in Septon bio-series of<br />

up to 80 %. Further investigations are focused<br />

on maximizing the biobased content and<br />

finding additional synergies with other biobased<br />

raw materials. Kuraray is continuously<br />

working on improving the physical properties<br />

of these TPE materials to open up new fields<br />

of applications for its customers.<br />

www.elastomer.kuraray.com<br />

7a D06<br />

United Biopolymers<br />

United Biopolymers (Figueira da Foz, Portugal)<br />

through BIOPAR ® Technology allows the production of<br />

next-generation starch-based bioplastics, with added<br />

capabilities & functionalities.<br />

Biopar Technology enables<br />

the blending of two or more<br />

functional polymers to<br />

produce CoRez ® new material.<br />

Corez is a compound compostable<br />

resin which brings<br />

several competitive advantages<br />

over any other technologies<br />

available in the market.<br />

Corez new material, under<br />

the designation of Biopar<br />

currently allows formulation<br />

at 30 % and 40 % Green Carbon content which can be<br />

extended to a value of 90 %. CoRez under Biopar Technology<br />

apart of being certified as both Industrial Compostable and<br />

Home Compostable is also able to be recyclable. As extra<br />

features can be added the low processing temperatures, as<br />

well as the film brightness, transparency and the possibility<br />

to be processed at a low thickness in order to suit the<br />

toughest requirements.<br />

Corez’ aim is to become the industry reference for the<br />

new material generation replacing today’s conventional<br />

non-compostable and non-biodegradable plastic solutions.<br />

www.guiltfreeplastics.com<br />

8a C14<br />

Leistritz Extrusionstechnik<br />

Leistritz Extrusionstechnik (Nuremberg, Germany) will<br />

focus its presentation on its employees. Extrusion specialists<br />

will demonstrate their expertise in solving problems based<br />

on successfully concluded customer projects on the stage at<br />

the company’s booth. In addition, visitors will be able to learn<br />

about modern twin-screw extrusion technology & solutions<br />

for the recycling industry with intelligent control systems.<br />

This year, Leistritz will show how the team has succeeded<br />

in developing customized solutions with its technical<br />

know-how, commitment and enthusiasm. In regular stage<br />

shows, the extrusion specialists will explain, with the aid<br />

of successful application examples, how the individual<br />

expertise of Leistritz helps to solve technically challenging<br />

tasks. Daniel Nagl, Managing Director of Leistritz Extrusion<br />

Technology, explains: “We don’t sell anything simply off the<br />

shelf. Every one of our machines is designed individually to<br />

fulfil the needs of our customer”.<br />

Successfully implemented projects include for<br />

example biobased wine corks. The company Vinventions<br />

manufacturers closures for wine bottles. Plant-based raw<br />

materials based on sugar cane are used in the innovative<br />

compounding with direct extrusion process. Leistritz has<br />

been cooperating with Vinventions since 1997. Together, the<br />

two companies have realized 15 installations.<br />

www.leistritz.com<br />

6 F22<br />

32 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17

Sirmax<br />

The Italian Sirmax Group based in Cittadella (Padua, Italy) is among<br />

the world’s leading producers of polypropylene compounds, engineering<br />

polymers, post-consumer compounds, and bio-compounds used in<br />

a variety of applications. In 2019 it acquired Microtec, a company that<br />

produces bioplastics. Today, with almost double the production, a second<br />

plant designated to biopolymers, and substantial R&D investments,<br />

Sirmax has developed an innovative family of 100 % biodegradable and<br />

compostable bioplastics called Biocomp. This bio-compound is made<br />

from raw materials of both renewable and fossil origin and its physical<br />

and mechanical properties are equivalent to those of traditional plastics.<br />

Biocomp can be used to<br />

make products with similar<br />

or superior characteristics<br />

compared to conventional<br />

plastics. Their applications<br />

and areas of use are centred<br />

around flexible and rigid<br />

packaging used in large-scale<br />

retail, agriculture, catering,<br />

and disposable packaging.<br />

The product is, therefore,<br />

not limited to the production of carrier bags – it also lends itself to<br />

compostable mozzarella, ice cream packaging and packaging for solid<br />

and liquid foods in general, refrigerator bags, paper-laminated packaging<br />

for the deli meats industry, packaging and accessories for clothing and<br />

fashion items, to the production of plates, glasses, trays, and cutlery, as<br />

well as freezer and ice cube bags as well as mulch films.<br />

www.sirmax.com<br />

8b C69<br />

Cabamix<br />

Cabamix (Cabannes, France) will<br />

introduce for the first time the new<br />

range Carbomax ® Phoenix as a result<br />

of the second phase of its strategy for<br />

a more sustainable industry. Carbomax<br />

Phoenix is made of 100 % recycled<br />

calcium carbonate, and rPE sourced<br />

from PCR, PIR, or chemical recycling.<br />

It allows to substantially enhance the<br />

recycled content of a finished products.<br />

Carbomax Phoenix is an interesting<br />

solution considering the fast-growing<br />

demand for recycled polymers. It is<br />

already perfect for film extrusion.<br />

Convince yourself, test it!<br />

For those who still don’t know it,<br />

Cabamix will also highlight Carbomax<br />

Bio, its premium calcium carbonate<br />

additive, up to 80 % biobased and certified<br />

compostable by TÜV Austria.<br />

There are many applications where<br />

compostability makes sense and where<br />

Carbomax Bio is commonly used like<br />

compostable flexible bags, mulch film<br />

for agriculture, coffee capsules…<br />

www.cabamix.com 5 D04-14<br />

K’<strong>2022</strong> Preview<br />

BIO-FED<br />

BIO-FED (Cologne, Germany) is<br />

an expert in the development<br />

and production of biodegradable<br />

and/or biobased plastics<br />

as well as biomass-balanced<br />

PP compounds – all under the<br />

brand name M·VERA ® . At K <strong>2022</strong>, the company will present<br />

its product range together with AKRO-PLASTIC, AF-COLOR<br />

and K.D. Feddersen on a joint booth.<br />

Aim of the company is to provide solutions for reducing<br />

the carbon footprint as well as for waste reduction with<br />

biodegradable and biobased products. This also includes<br />

bioplastics with sustainable organic fillers, such as<br />

cellulose, lignin, or starch. Biomass-balanced M·VERA PP<br />

compounds, which are certified according to REDcert2 and<br />

ISCC PLUS, as well as the matching masterbatches AF-<br />

CirColor ® , AF-CirCarbon ® and AF-CirComplex ® also make<br />

an important contribution to this.<br />

Most M·VERA bioplastics are biodegradable compounds,<br />

a lot of them are also partially to fully biobased. They are<br />

suitable for various different processing technologies<br />

such as blown film, injection moulding, extrusion, and<br />

thermoforming. The range also includes a mulch film<br />

type that is certified as soil degradable according to EN<br />

17033. Sustainable AF-Eco ® colour, carbon black and<br />

additive masterbatches suitable for all biodegradable<br />

compounds are also offered.<br />

www.bio-fed.com<br />

6 C52<br />

Evonik<br />

Evonik (Essen, Germany) is introducing a new<br />

sustainable high-performance plastic to its eCO product<br />

line: In the production of the polyamide 12 elastomer<br />

(PEBA) VESTAMID ® eCO E40, 50 % of fossil raw materials<br />

are saved and replaced by a starting material obtained from<br />

chemical recycling of used tires. In addition, only renewable<br />

energy is used in production, which reduces the carbon<br />

footprint by a total of 42 %.<br />

Vestamid eCO E40 is, without any restrictions, an<br />

immediate alternative with improved eco-balance for the<br />

long-established conventional moulding compound for<br />

sports shoe soles with high resilience. The soles exhibit<br />

excellent low-temperature impact strength, chemical<br />

resistance, and high elasticity, and are easy to colour,<br />

process, and overmould.<br />

Evonik will present Vestamid eCO, based on the<br />

mass balance approach<br />

Vestamid eCO and its other<br />

sustainable plastic materials<br />

under the motto “Next<br />

generation plastic solutions”.<br />

www.evonik.com<br />

6 B28<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17<br />


Hall 1<br />

1 C50 Barnes <br />

1 A44 Lenzkes Spanntechnik*<br />

1 C30 Meusburger*<br />

Hall 3<br />

We design colors with a purpose to allow our<br />

3 E71-08 CIFRA<br />

3 D72-04 Futuramat<br />

planet to remain as colorful today and tomorrow.<br />

3 A52 ILLIG Maschinenbau <br />

Our SUKANO® PHA color Portfolio is available for industrially<br />

3 D72-04 Lactips<br />

and home compostable applications.<br />

www.sukano.com<br />

3 D30 Saldoflex<br />

Hall 4<br />

4 A60 EVO-tech<br />

Hall 5<br />

5 D04-17 Addiplast Group<br />

5 F30-04 Agrana Stärke<br />

5 A32 Aquapak Polymers<br />

The Bornewables<br />

5 D04-20 Axens<br />

5 C21\D21 BASF<br />

5 B18 Biesterfeld Plastic<br />

opening up infinite<br />

5 B24 Biotec<br />

5 C24 BorsodChem<br />

5 B06 C.O.I.M.<br />

opportunities<br />

5 D04-14 Cabamix<br />

5 E26 Cabopol - Polymer Compounds,<br />

5 C07-01 CB2<br />

5 B18 Chimei<br />

Visit us in Hall 6, Stand A43<br />

5 B<strong>05</strong>-01 Cosmo Films Limited<br />

5 F30-02 Dichtungs- und Maschinenhandel<br />

5 B46 geba Kunststoffcompounds<br />

5 D04-07 GMP<br />

5 E20 Grässlin Nord<br />

5 A25 Green Plastics<br />

5 A39 Hubron (International)<br />

5 E01 ITENE<br />

5 A23 Kingfa Sci. & Tech.<br />

5 B<strong>05</strong>-<strong>05</strong> Mynusco<br />

5 D04-12 Natureplast<br />

5 C<strong>05</strong>-06 Novoloop<br />

5 B06 Novotex Italiana<br />

5 A28 Plastribution<br />

5 E20 Sax Polymers Industrie<br />

5 C24 Wanhua Chemical Group<br />

5 B42 Westlake Corporation<br />

5 B42 Westlake Vinnolit<br />

5 E03 Yparex<br />

ad_Bioplastic_95x99_12_09_<strong>2022</strong>_high.indd 1 12.09.22 10:<strong>05</strong>5 F30-01 Zell-Metall<br />

Hall 6<br />

6 C52 Akro-Plastic<br />

6 A62 Albis Distribution<br />

6 E77 Axia Plastics Europe<br />

6 E16 Begra Granulate<br />

6 C52 Bio-Fed<br />

6 A43 Borealis <br />

61W-01 Braskem<br />

6 D27 Braskem<br />

6 E62 Cabot Switzerland<br />

6 E80 ClickPlastics<br />

6 A75(1-2) Covestro Deutschland<br />

6 B11 DSM Engineering Plastics Europe <br />

6 C43 DuPont Spec. Prod. Operations<br />

6 E61 EMS-Chemie (Deutschland)<br />

6 B28 Evonik Industrie<br />

6 E28 Fainplast<br />

6 C16 Fine Organic Industries<br />

6 E48 FKuR Kunststoff<br />

6 A63 Grafe Advanced Polymers<br />

6 A42 ICL Europe Cooperatief UA<br />

6 D43 Interpolimeri<br />

6 C52 K.D. Feddersen<br />

61O-03 Kaneka Belgium<br />

6 A20 Kaneka Belgium<br />

6 C76-78 Lanxess<br />

6 D21 LG Chem<br />

6 E27 Meraxis<br />

6 A62 Mocom Compounds<br />

6 A26 Nexeo Plastics Germany<br />

6 E75 Nordmann, Rassmann<br />

6 A58 Novamont<br />

6 D75 Omya<br />

6 B55 Polimarky<br />

6 C50 Polymer-Chemie<br />

6 C24 Polymix - AMP<br />

6 B10 Radici Novacips<br />

6 D11 Reliance Industries Limited<br />

www.neste.com<br />

6 E29 Röhm<br />

6 D42 Sabic Sales Europe.<br />

6 D79 SCG Chemicals<br />

6 C50 SoBiCo<br />

6 C50 TechnoCompound<br />

6 E20 TotalEnergies Corbion PLA<br />

6 E08 UBE Europe<br />

6 D07 Weber & Schaer<br />

6 A62 WIPAG Deutschland<br />

Hall 7<br />

7.1 A23 A.J. Plast<br />

7.1 B41 A1 vmpex (Partnership)<br />

7.1 C25 Americhem Eng. Compounds<br />

7.2 B10 Anhui Jumei Biological Technology<br />

7a B10 bioplastics MAGAZINE<br />

7a D09-03 Business Innovation Partners<br />

7.2 B30 Carbokene FZE<br />

7.1 D24 Dirco Polymers<br />

7.1 A40 Doil Ecotec<br />

7.2 C09 Dongnam Realize Inc<br />

7.1 A12 Earth Renewable Technologies<br />

7a B10 European Bioplastics<br />

7.2 A13 Europlas (EuP)<br />

7.0 B08 Finproject<br />

7.0 B21 Forplas Plastik<br />

7.2 E10 Gianeco<br />

7.1 D41 GKG Goldmann<br />

7.2 E23 Henan Longdu Torise Biomaterials<br />

7.1 B33 IMS Polymers<br />

7.2 E07 Jiangsu Ruian Applied Bio-tech<br />

7.1 D01 Kandui Industries<br />

7.1 E03-25 Kanghui New Material Technology<br />

7.2 G29 KLJ Plasticizers<br />

7.1 A10 Kompuestos<br />

7a D06 Kuraray Europe<br />

7.1 A38 Laborplast<br />

7a D25 Marubeni International (Europe)<br />

7.2 G20 Mepani Industries<br />

7.1 B50 Merit Polyplast (Partnership)<br />

7a D18 Mitsui Chemicals Europe<br />

7.2 C21 nature2need<br />

7a D21 Nurel<br />

7a C01 Orlen Unipetrol RPA<br />

7.0 B08 Padanaplast<br />

7.1 D20 Palsgaard<br />

7.1 D39 Parsa Polymer Sharif Company<br />

7.2 F15 Pashupati Excrusion<br />

7.1 A10 Plásticos Compuestos<br />

7a B02 Polyplastics Europe<br />

7.1 C12 Ravago<br />

7a B28 RDG Kunststoffe<br />

7.2 C17 Rialti<br />

7.2 D20 S&P Global Commodity Insights<br />

7.2 B<strong>05</strong> S.C. Rematholding<br />

7.1 E03-12 Shandong Ruifeng Chemical<br />

7.2 G33 Shandong Xiangsheng New Mat.<br />

7.1 E03-23 Shenzhen Esun Industrial<br />

7.0 B03 Silon<br />

7a C30 Sojitz Europe<br />

7a B15 Stahl Europe<br />

7.2 C12 Stavian Chemical<br />

7.2 A14 Sumika Polymer Compounds (EU)<br />

7.1 B23 Symplast<br />

7.1 D02 Técnicas para Economía Circular<br />

7.1 E06 Tecnofilm<br />

7.0 B24 TITK<br />

7.1 B06 Trifilon AB<br />

7.1 A44 UBQ Materials<br />

7a C06 Vinmar Chemicals and Polymers<br />

7a D40 West-Chemie<br />

Hall 8<br />

8a C34 ADBioplastics<br />

8a E12-<strong>05</strong> AIMPLAS<br />

8b D60 almaak international<br />

8a G10 Avient Luxembourg<br />

8a F12 Benvic<br />

8a E35 Beologic<br />

8b H65 Blend Colours<br />

8b A58 Celanese Sales Germany<br />

8a F50 Chemieuro<br />

8b D11-12 Chongqing Huafon Chemical<br />

8a D01 Colloids<br />

8a F20 Constab<br />

8a H14 Cumapol Emmen

Note: All companies listed in this guide<br />

were found in the official K’<strong>2022</strong><br />

catalogue under bioplastics.<br />

About companies listed in bold you find<br />

a short K-Show preview on pp 30-41.<br />

Members of European Bioplastics are<br />

marked in orange.<br />

Show<br />

Guide<br />

Joint booth Hall 7a, B10<br />

1<br />

Hall 6 booth A43<br />




B 3<br />

20. - 22.10.<strong>2022</strong><br />

8a H14<br />

8a H14<br />

8b H55<br />

8b F77<br />

8b F51<br />

8a F26<br />

8b E68<br />

8b F65<br />

8a H34<br />

8a F11-1<br />

8a E36<br />

8a K46<br />

8a K27<br />

8b F22<br />

8a C32<br />

8b F<strong>05</strong>-02<br />

8b H11-06<br />

8a G10<br />

8a J21<br />

8a B09<br />

8b H25<br />

8b E71-<strong>05</strong><br />

8a F20<br />

8b H24<br />

8b C21<br />

8a G33<br />

8a H31<br />

8a J13<br />

8a D12<br />

8b C11-06<br />

CuRe Technology<br />

DuFor Resins<br />

EEC Egyptian European Company<br />

Elachem<br />

Emeraude International<br />

epsotech Germany<br />

Euro Commerciale<br />

Everkem<br />

Fortum Recycling and Waste<br />

FSK<br />

Fünf Kontinent Technik<br />

Gema Elektro Plastik<br />

Gestora Catalana de Residuos<br />

Granulat<br />

Granzplast<br />

Hangzhou Zhoupu New Mat. Tech.<br />

Henan Techuang Biotechnology<br />

HoKa<br />

IMCD Deutschland<br />

Inno-Comp<br />

Innovate Manufacturing Inc<br />

Intereva<br />

Kafrit Industries<br />

Keremplast<br />

Koksan PET ve Plastik Ambalaj<br />

Lehmann & Voss<br />

Lifocolor Farben<br />

Lubrizol Advanced Materials Spain<br />

LyondellBasell<br />

Majumi Chemicals<br />

8a C16<br />

8b F63<br />

8b C69<br />

8a E28<br />

8b D52<br />

8a K32<br />

8a G41<br />

8b E11-03<br />

8a H14<br />

8b E80<br />

8b E35<br />

8a C39<br />

8a B28<br />

8a B28<br />

8b E77<br />

8b C69<br />

8b E41<br />

8a D40<br />

8a D39<br />

8a H28<br />

8a B40<br />

8b A54<br />

8b E71-07<br />

8a F33<br />

8a K08<br />

8a D01<br />

8a K20<br />

8b F37-03<br />

8a H42<br />

8b E61<br />

Merit Plastik Kaucuk<br />

Mexichem Specialty Compounds<br />

Microtec<br />

pal plast<br />

PEBO<br />

Persian Gulf Petrochemical Industry<br />

Plastika Kritis<br />

Polynk Technology<br />

Polyvel Europe<br />

Puro Bioplastics Corporation<br />

Rajiv Plastics<br />

Renk Master Plastik<br />

Romira<br />

ROWA Group Holding<br />

SCJ Plastics<br />

Sirmax<br />

SK Chemicals<br />

Snetor<br />

Stir Compounds<br />

Sukano<br />

Symphony Environmental<br />

Taro Plast<br />

Telasis Tekstil<br />

TER Plastics Polymer Group<br />

Tisan Engineering Plastics<br />

Tosaf Group<br />

TPV Compound<br />

traceless materials<br />

Tricon Energy<br />

TW Plastics<br />

8a C14<br />

8a E12-02<br />

8b F63<br />

United Biopolymers<br />

Unnox Group SLU<br />

Vestolit<br />

Hall 10<br />

10 G09 FSKZ<br />

Hall 11<br />

11 C10 Compra Recykling<br />

11 I65 Plasmatreat*<br />

11 H74 Star Automation*<br />

Hall 12<br />

12 C13 Campetella Robotic Center*<br />

12 C36 PlastFormance<br />

12 A59 Polykum<br />

12 C02-07 We Technology Automation*<br />

Hall 13<br />

13 A13-B13 Arburg <br />

13 A33 BMB*<br />

13 B47 Kurtz<br />

13 D93 T. Michel<br />

Hall 14<br />

14 A68 Biofibre<br />

14 A50 Fanuc <br />

Hall 15<br />

15 D22 Sumitomo Demag*<br />

15 B42 Engel <br />

Hall 16<br />

16 A59 Buss<br />

16 F22 Leistritz<br />

FG (Open area)<br />

FG-CE06 Kurtz<br />

FG-4-04.1 Mitsubishi Chemical<br />

Bornewables PP,<br />

based on Neste<br />

products can be<br />

seen at exhibitors<br />

marked with <br />

Advertisement<br />

You can use this<br />

detachable double<br />

page as your<br />

personal show<br />


K’<strong>2022</strong> Preview<br />

Lifocolor<br />

The Lifocolor Group (Lichtenfels, Germany), is bringing its<br />

mission, “We bring colour to the circular economy”, to life<br />

at the K <strong>2022</strong> trade fair. As fair highlight and reference of<br />

its Eternal colours concept, the Europe-wide masterbatch<br />

manufacturer will present its biodegradable, plant-based<br />

colour concentrates. Further new products to be unveiled<br />

at the Lifocolor stand include a new white concentrate for<br />

pharmaceutical and drug packaging as well as a new portfolio<br />

of high temperature resistant masterbatches. The group will<br />

also explain to partners how it is pursuing the proclaimed<br />

goal of net zero emissions by 2<strong>05</strong>0.<br />

At K <strong>2022</strong>, a special focus will be on the innovation<br />

for the Lifocolor organic range: 100 % natural, plantbased<br />

colour concentrates. The Lifocolor Group will<br />

present its first colour series of colours comprising of<br />

biodegradable, biobased plastics.<br />

Lifocolor will also present its extended LifoCycle product<br />

portfolio which is focused on the colouring and optimisation<br />

of recycled products. It incorporates high-quality, recyclable<br />

colour and additive batches as well as support in the sorting of<br />

plastics. Lifocolor offers twelve on-trend<br />

colours for 2023 which are on a<br />

100 % recycled polypropylene<br />

basis and will explain to<br />

visitors how much variety<br />

is currently possible in the<br />

colouring of plastics within<br />

the closed-loop cycle.<br />

www.lifocolor.de<br />

8a H31<br />

Kompuestos<br />

Kompuestos (Palau Solità i Plegamans, Spain) will be<br />

presenting its broad portfolio of products specifically<br />

designed to comply with their customers’ needs whilst<br />

providing solutions toward a more sustainable economy.<br />

Kompuestos has been providing tailor-made solutions<br />

for the plastics industry for more than 35 years. Driven by<br />

innovation and sustainability, and committed to promoting<br />

the circular economy of plastics, the company offers duly<br />

certified compostable compounds and low-carbon footprint<br />

solutions as alternative materials to traditional fossil plastics.<br />

Particularly, the family of biobased, biodegradable and/or<br />

compostable resins developed by Kompuestos is fit-forpurpose<br />

for sensitive applications such as single-use bags<br />

and hard-to-recycle products and can be processed by<br />

conventional plastic manufacturing processes without added<br />

technological investments.<br />

www.kompuestos.com<br />

7.1 A10<br />

Covestro<br />

Covestro (Leverkusen, Germany) wants to align itself comprehensively with circularity and help make it the global guiding<br />

principle. To achieve this, the company develops innovative technologies to reuse plastics and return them to the value cycle – often<br />

in close cooperation with partners.<br />

The company’s focus to date has been on proven mechanical recycling, in which the plastic is chemically preserved, and more<br />

recent chemical recycling processes, in which the polymer molecules are broken down chemically. Other technologies of such<br />

raw material reprocessing – specifically enzymatic and pyrolytic – are under development.<br />

Polyurethanes (PU) and other thermoset products usually cannot be mechanically recycled. Chemical processes are the obvious<br />

choice here. Covestro has developed an innovative technology for recovering both core raw materials PU mattress foam. These<br />

are polyols and the isocyanate TDI, which are used in the production of mattress foam. The precursor is recovered from the TDI,<br />

and both raw materials can be reused for the production of new foam after reprocessing. The results achieved to date are being<br />

tested in a pilot plant at the Leverkusen site. Cooperating partners for this project are Interseroh (Cologne, Germany), an ALBA<br />

Group company, and the French environmental protection organization Eco-mobilier (Paris, France), which specializes in the<br />

collection and recycling of old furniture.<br />

A new collaboration with the Zurich-based bag company FREITAG (Switzerland) is the unlimited recycling of truck tarps, based<br />

on thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPUs) from Covestro. At the end of their useful life, the tarps are to be recycled mainly chemically<br />

and used for new tarps or other products. It is important for the success of the project that the tarps are similarly robust, durable<br />

and water-repellent as the previous products. Freitag expects it to be a few years before bags made from the tarps are massproduced,<br />

but plans to put a first prototype on a truck as early as this year.<br />

Covestro is also coordinating the CIRCULAR FOAM research project with 22 industrial partners from nine countries, with<br />

the goal to use chemolysis or even pyrolysis to break down used PU rigid foams used in thermal insulation for buildings and<br />

refrigeration equipment. The aim is to recover both raw materials originally used – polyols and an amine used as a precursor for<br />

the isocyanate MDI. If the material cycle is successfully closed, up to one million metric tonnes of waste, 2.9 million tonnes of<br />

CO 2<br />

emissions and EUR 150 million in incineration costs could be saved in Europe every year from 2040.<br />

https://www.covestro.com/<br />

1 F01<br />

36 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17

NaturePlast<br />

NaturePlast (Ifs, France) is specialized in bioplastics<br />

materials with more than 15 years of experience. The<br />

company is supporting manufacturers and contractors<br />

who wish to develop products from bioplastic materials<br />

(biobased and/or biodegradable). Their three areas of<br />

expertise comprise distribution of bioplastics, compound<br />

and biocomposite, service (training/technico-economical<br />

study/project engineering), and R&D (customized<br />

formulation/characterization).<br />

NaturePlast has the largest range of bioplastics in<br />

Europe, with almost all references available (PLA/PHA/<br />

TPS/PBS/BioPP/BioPET/Bio PA...).<br />

Regardless for classic development based on<br />

plant fibres such as wood, miscanthus, hemp…<br />

NaturePlast develop a whole range of new biocomposite<br />

made from co-products (food and industrial).<br />

Therefore, for a few years, the company is developing<br />

new bioplastics based on fruit and vegetable pulp,<br />

kernel powder (olive), leather waste, algae from French<br />

coasts, seashell powder…<br />

This interest came, on one hand, from a wish of<br />

industrials to find new ways of valorization of their coproducts,<br />

and on the other hand, by their choice of nonnoble<br />

raw materials instead of agricultural resources<br />

competing with human food.<br />

www.natureplast.eu 5 D04-12<br />

Palsgaard<br />

Palsgaard (Juelsminde, Denmark) has announced<br />

the introduction of an efficient new plant-based, foodgrade<br />

anti-fouling additive for the polypropylene and<br />

polyethylene polymerisation process. The new product,<br />

Einar 981, has been developed to remove severe<br />

concerns about the ethoxylated amine chemistry<br />

currently used. Einar 981 will officially be introduced to<br />

the market at K <strong>2022</strong>.<br />

Einar 981 is supplied as a clear and easily pumpable<br />

liquid for use in existing dosing systems. It eliminates<br />

static build-up during polymerisation and prevents<br />

fouling of the reactor wall, thus helping PP and PE<br />

producers maintain the cooling efficiency of the reactor.<br />

Building on Palsgaard’s proven chemistry of renewable<br />

anti-static polymer additives, it provides high anti-fouling<br />

efficiency at low concentrations (100–300 ppm) without<br />

any negative effects on catalyst mileage, productivity, or<br />

final polymer performance.<br />

The active compound of Einar 981 is a polyglycerol ester<br />

(PGE) blend of fatty acids derived from RSPO-certified<br />

sustainable palm oil. As a non-toxic and food-contact<br />

approved anti-fouling additive, the product offers a dropin<br />

regulatory-compliant solution to replace incumbent<br />

ethoxylated amines and can also be used as a more<br />

efficient alternative to sorbitan monooleates. This makes<br />

it an ideal process additive in the polymerisation of PP<br />

and PE materials for sensitive applications, including,<br />

e.g. medical devices and baby food containers.<br />

Einar 981 is produced in CO-neutral facilities and will<br />

be commercially available worldwide.<br />

https://www.palsgaard.com/ 7.1 D20<br />

Join us at the<br />

17th European<br />

Bioplastics Conference<br />

– the leading business forum for the<br />

bioplastics industry.<br />

6/7 December <strong>2022</strong><br />

Maritim proArte Hotel<br />

Berlin, Germany<br />


NOW!<br />

@EUBioplastics #eubpconf<strong>2022</strong><br />

www.european-bioplastics.org/events<br />

For more information email:<br />

conference@european-bioplastics.org<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17 37

K’<strong>2022</strong> Preview<br />

TotalEnergies Corbion<br />

Biobased, recyclable, compostable, and innovative. Discover Luminy ® PLA at TotalEnergies Corbion’s<br />

booth. In the modern world, not only the “beginning of life” but also the most sustainable “end-of-life”<br />

options are important.<br />

Produced from sugar cane, PLA bioplastic is not only 100 % biobased but also 100 % recyclable.<br />

TotalEnergies Corbion (Gorinchem, The Netherlands) is proud to present the first commercially available recycled PLA (rPLA)<br />

with properties identical to virgin PLA. In Düsseldorf, the company presents a real-life closed loop system: PLA water bottles<br />

(made from recycled PLA) are used, collected, cleaned, and reprocessed into PLA! The Luminy recycled PLA grades boast the<br />

same properties, characteristics, and regulatory approvals, including food<br />

contact, as virgin Luminy PLA.<br />

Biodegradation and industrial compostability are also key features of<br />

Luminy PLA that can be best used to help divert organic waste from landfill<br />

or to prevent leakage of plastics into the environment.<br />

The stand will feature a special display to showcase teabags, coffee<br />

capsules, and organic waste collection bags – all applications that are best<br />

made from compostable materials. Visitors will also see a commercially<br />

available 3D printed surfboard, and with a 3D pen you can write in 3<br />

dimensions with Luminy PLA. Luminy PLA has also been the material of<br />

choice to replace thermoset caps and closures for a luxury cosmetics brand.<br />

Visit our stand and learn about PLA, from feedstock to end-of-life options.<br />

www.totalenergies-corbion.com<br />

6 E20<br />

Wyve PLA surfboard (Photo: Helene Cascarino)<br />

DSM<br />

DSM Engineering Materials (Geleen, The Netherlands) has been<br />

active in biobased plastics for decades. Its extensive portfolio consists<br />

of three traceable biobased polyamide solutions – EcoPaXX, Stanyl ECO,<br />

and ForTii ECO – as well as three mass-balanced polyamides: Stanyl<br />

B-MB, EcoPaXX B-MB, and Akulon B-MB. It also produces two biobased<br />

polyester solutions: Arnitel ECO and Arnitel B-MB.<br />

Its latest advance is Stanyl B-MB, an industry-first 100 % biobased<br />

high-temperature polyamide that delivers the same performance as<br />

conventional Stanyl with half the carbon footprint. As with its fossilbased<br />

equivalent, Stanyl B-MB’s high-temperature mechanics, flow<br />

and processing, and wear and friction resistance make it suitable for<br />

applications across the automotive, electronics, and consumer goods<br />

industries. The only difference is that both monomers used in Stanyl B-MB<br />

are derived from renewable sources, enabling a 3.3-tonne reduction in<br />

CO 2<br />

emissions per tonnes produced.<br />

This industry-first product is part of DSM Engineering Materials’<br />

commitment to providing bio – and/or recycled-based alternatives<br />

for its entire portfolio by 2030 while promoting sustainable thinking<br />

across the value chain.<br />

www.dsm.com<br />

6 B11<br />

Automotive application<br />

(Chain tensioner)<br />


AIMPLAS (Paterna, Valencia, Spain) will<br />

present its developments in biodegradable<br />

materials and materials from renewable<br />

sources, as well as its R&D&I projects on<br />

biotechnology and the use of biomass,<br />

among others. One of the projects to be<br />

presented will be the EOCENE project,<br />

which aims to obtain all composite<br />

compounds from renewable sources<br />

and develop sustainable technologies for<br />

obtaining controlled processes for the<br />

recyclability and valorisation of generated<br />

residues. The project will allow the<br />

development of new biobased and more<br />

eco-friendly thermoset resins by reducing<br />

the use of fossil-based compounds, which<br />

will reduce the carbon footprint by 20 %.<br />

Regarding technological services, the<br />

technology centre will present its technical<br />

assistance capabilities in the field of ecolabels<br />

and certifications, as it<br />

has the necessary capabilities<br />

to carry out biodegradability<br />

and compostability tests.<br />

AIMPLAS will also present<br />

its training courses in bioplastics<br />

and seminars on biopolymers and<br />

biotechnology, among others.<br />

www.aimplas.es 8a E12-<strong>05</strong><br />

38 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17


Like many other industries, the urethane industry is facing<br />

the challenge to develop sustainable systems with reduced<br />

carbon footprint. Under the brand name Adiprene Green LF<br />

LANXESS (Cologne, Germany) provides a range of biobased,<br />

low free monomer prepolymers for polyurethane CASE<br />

(Coatings, Adhesives, Sealants, Elastomers) applications.<br />

Biobased LF prepolymers focus on renewable chemical<br />

building blocks that are designed to the specific needs of many<br />

different applications by exploring additional chemistries and<br />

optimization of molecular weight and structure.<br />

Progress has been made in developing biobased LF MDI<br />

prepolymers over a wide range of NCO content (free reactive<br />

isocyanate groups) which yield systems with lower viscosity<br />

at application temperature, improved high crystallinity,<br />

better wetting ability, and fast green strength in reactive hot<br />

melt and two-component adhesives formulations. The new<br />

LF MDI prepolymers enable hot-melt formulations with a<br />

bio-content of up to 75 %. Other Adiprene Green systems<br />

allow the manufacturing of PU elastomers with a biocontent<br />

of up to 90 %.<br />

www.lanxess.com<br />

6 C76-C78<br />

Biotec<br />

As a leading European bioplastics compounder since<br />

1992, Biotec (Emmerich, Germany) has always taken on the<br />

challenge to develop new sustainable biopolymer resins<br />

made from plant-based renewable resources. With 100 %<br />

biodegradable materials, the GMO-free and plasticizer-free<br />

products can be returned to their source to complete the<br />

natural life cycle that ends where it begins.<br />

One of their newest<br />

innovations is the<br />

Bioplast 120, a flexible<br />

alternative starchbased<br />

thermoplastic<br />

material with an<br />

ISCC+ certification<br />

suitable for blown<br />

film and sheet film<br />

extrusion. Completely<br />

biodegradable this<br />

product is compostable<br />

according to EN 13432<br />

at both industrial<br />

composting facilities<br />

and in well-maintained<br />

home composting<br />

units. As for all their<br />

grades, it can be processed on conventional equipment.<br />

The K-Show <strong>2022</strong> is the occasion where Biotec will also<br />

reveal its new identity. Visit their booth to witness the<br />

unveiling of further smart solutions for a better life!<br />

www.biotec.de<br />

5 B24<br />

K’<strong>2022</strong> Preview<br />


Biopolymere<br />

10. November <strong>2022</strong> | Online<br />

Bildnachweis: iStock©Petmal<br />

Jetzt anmelden!<br />

www.bayern-innovativ.de/biopolymere<strong>2022</strong><br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17 39

K’<strong>2022</strong> Preview<br />

Buss<br />

The cornerstone of any system supplied by BUSS (Pratteln,<br />

Switzerland) is a COMPEO series co-kneader which is<br />

designed to incorporate high levels of additives gently and<br />

thoroughly into base materials. The modular machine design<br />

is so flexible that a specially configured compounding line<br />

is available for any application at any temperature up to<br />

400°C and for all plastics, ranging from thermally sensitive<br />

thermosets over biobased and biodegradable plastics to<br />

demanding engineering thermoplastics.<br />

The latest addition to the family of the series of five<br />

production units with throughput levels, depending on the<br />

application, of 100 to over 12,000 kg/h is the new compact,<br />

user-friendly COMPEO LAB laboratory compounder for<br />

throughputs of 50 to 100 kg/h for development, process optimization and small production campaigns. It offers all the advantages<br />

of the large COMPEO co-kneaders, including the combination of two-, three – and four-flight screw elements, and provides precise<br />

and reliable scale-up of process parameters to production conditions.<br />

www.busscorp.com 16 A59<br />

Novamont<br />

Mater-Bi is the innovative family of bioplastics, which uses renewable<br />

raw materials, developed by the Italian B Corp Novamont (Novara, Italy).<br />

It is biodegradable and compostable in home and industrial<br />

composting and biodegradable in soil according to the main European<br />

and international standards. It does not release microplastics, it has no<br />

eco-toxic effects and it biodegrades even at low temperatures.<br />

Its mechanical properties make it suitable for a wide range of<br />

applications: organic waste collection, large-scale distribution, food<br />

service ware, packaging and agriculture. It can be used as a standalone<br />

polymer or laminated with other polymers and/or paper and can<br />

be processed by the most common conversion technologies: blowing,<br />

casting, extrusion/thermoforming and injection moulding. When<br />

appropriate and preferable, Mater-Bi products can also be chemically<br />

or mechanically recycled with the recovery of valuable materials. The<br />

multi-material packaging of Mater-Bi and paper can also be recycled<br />

into the paper stream.<br />

It is a product constantly<br />

evolving towards increasing<br />

sustainability, thanks to the<br />

development of proprietary<br />

technologies for greater<br />

and more efficient use of<br />

renewable resources.<br />

www.novamont.com<br />

6 A58<br />

Polykum<br />

BIO-ELAN A 140 HS3, a bio-PBS compound<br />

developed for additive manufacturing by Exipnos<br />

(Merseburg, Germany) will be processed live<br />

in a large format printer at the Polykum stand.<br />

The printer uses the PBS granulate in its<br />

original form. The energy – and time-consuming<br />

production of filament is not necessary. The<br />

plant-based, biodegradable Bio-Elan compound<br />

is one of the first results of the RUBIO alliance<br />

project, in which 18 companies and research<br />

institutions from Central Germany are<br />

developing regional value-added cycles for bio-<br />

PBS with the support of the Federal Ministry of<br />

Education and Research.<br />

In addition, the Fraunhofer IMWS (Halle<br />

(Saale), Germany) will present new features of<br />

the material design app Polykum DigiLab at the<br />

Polykum booth. Users can literally immerse<br />

themselves in complex material data on the<br />

screen or even with VR glasses, or use the new<br />

DigiLab colour module to simulate the overall<br />

impression that a selected material creates with<br />

certain colours on CAD models.<br />

In addition to the Fraunhofer IMWS and<br />

Exipnos, two further members of the non-profit<br />

association will be presenting their innovations<br />

at the Polykum stand: Caldic GmbH and the<br />

Indian company Welset.<br />

www.polykum.de/en 12 A59<br />

Chimei<br />

Earlier this year, Chimei (Tainan City, Taiwan) announced the world’s first optical light guide plate made from chemically recycled<br />

MMA (https://tinyurl.com/chimei-MMA).<br />

The ability of this material to produce image quality that’s on par with virgin MMA means a massive breakthrough for the global<br />

display industry. CHIMEI is already working with AUO (a world-leading OEM supplier of display technology from Hsinchu, Taiwan)<br />

to bring it to the market.<br />

At K <strong>2022</strong>, Chimei will be exhibiting this new product for the very first time. What’s more, they’re planning to launch a new brand,<br />

which will encompass their growing portfolio of sustainable materials.<br />

https://www.chimeicorp.com<br />

5 B18<br />

40 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17

Bioplastics specialist<br />

presents broad product portfolio<br />

With “Plastics care for Future” at the world’s<br />

leading trade fair for plastics and rubber, K’<strong>2022</strong>,<br />

FKuR is once again setting an example for more<br />

sustainability in the use of resources. In line with the hot<br />

topics of the K Circular Economy and Climate Protection,<br />

FKuR will show visitors how they can implement the<br />

principles of a sustainable circular economy in their products<br />

using renewable raw materials and recycled plastics.<br />

From 19–26.10.<strong>2022</strong>, FKuR will be underlining what is at<br />

the top of its agenda in Düsseldorf in hall 6 at booth E48:<br />

The future of plastics must be without climate-damaging<br />

greenhouse gas emissions.<br />

Fit for the circular economy of the future?<br />

This is how it works!<br />

“For FKuR, the circular economy is not just an entertaining<br />

trend, it reflects our attitude to life”, explains Patrick<br />

Zimmermann, Managing Director of FKuR Kunststoff<br />

GmbH. “Benefit from our unique portfolio of sustainable<br />

plastics solutions for the circular economy: with our<br />

bioplastics, recyclates as well as bio-recyclate hybrids for<br />

all processing methods – such as injection moulding, film<br />

extrusion, thermoforming, and blow moulding – fossil<br />

resources can be conserved”.<br />

Plastics care for Future<br />

Bio-Flex ® is a family of biodegradable and certified<br />

compostable plastics based on renewable raw materials.<br />

The main applications of Bio-Flex ® include a wide range of<br />

flexible film applications, such as agricultural, household,<br />

and hygiene films, but are also used in injection moulded<br />

products or thermoformed articles.<br />

This means that FKuR not only provides its customers<br />

with trustworthy support in the selection of materials for<br />

products fit for circular economy but is also available to them<br />

at any time during the entire project with its many years of<br />

expertise in questions regarding the processing, recycling<br />

and marketing of products.<br />

At their booth, FKuR will show how customers use FKuR<br />

bioplastics or recyclates to make their products fit for<br />

circular economy and how they use logos and certificates to<br />

communicate their sustainable message to consumers while<br />

strengthening their brand image. At the booth, visitors will<br />

find many successful product examples from a wide range of<br />

sectors such as cosmetics, agriculture & horticulture, toys,<br />

packaging, or household goods.<br />

If you too would like to make your products even more<br />

environmentally friendly, visit FKuR at K <strong>2022</strong>.<br />

www.fkur.com<br />

6 E48<br />

K’<strong>2022</strong> Preview<br />

Terralene ® are bio-compounds based on polyethylene<br />

made from renewable raw materials (Bio-PE). All Terralene ®<br />

granulates are 100 % recyclable and can be processed by<br />

injection moulding, blow moulding, and film extrusion.<br />

In addition, the Terralene ® portfolio includes natural fibre<br />

reinforced grades, as well as biobased PP compounds and<br />

bio-recyclate hybrids.<br />

Green PE is a bio-based polyethylene made from the<br />

renewable raw material sugar cane. As a drop-in, Bio-PE<br />

is a renewable alternative to fossil polyethylene (PE). This<br />

biobased and 100 % recyclable plastic is used primarily in<br />

packaging for food and cosmetics as well as in household<br />

products, sports articles, and toys.<br />

360° approach – everything from a single source<br />

With FKuR’s 360° approach, customers receive everything<br />

from a single source: solutions are developed together to<br />

design plastic products and packaging in such a way that they<br />

meet all the requirements of the modern circular economy.<br />

(Reusable cups made from biobased bioplastic Bio-Flex ®<br />

(Photo: FKuR)<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17<br />


Materials<br />

Single-use packaging, lids, and<br />

tableware...<br />

Pastas Doria develops a biocomposite using its own waste in<br />

conjunction with the ITENE research centre<br />

Organic waste is more and more becoming a source<br />

of resources for biobased raw materials. The Colombian<br />

company Pastas Doria (Mosquera, Cundinamarca, Colombia),<br />

belonging to Grupo Nutresa (Medellín, Colombia) is a company<br />

producing, among other products, pasta and cookies. The<br />

company is also strongly working on reuse through recovery<br />

and to add value to what has been considered as waste up<br />

until now and has developed a new alternative to traditional<br />

plastics, in conjunction with the Spanish research centre<br />

ITENE (Paterna, Valencia, Spain).<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE talked to Claudia Patricia Collazos,<br />

Special Project Leader at Grupo Nutresa, and Miriam<br />

Gallur, Materials and Packaging Area Manager at ITENE,<br />

to find out more about this new development that is<br />

about to come to market.<br />

bM: Recovering industrial waste has huge potential.What<br />

was your approach to take advantage of the waste generated<br />

during the production process?<br />

Miriam: Recovering waste is a core line of business in<br />

our research centre. In our initial discussions with Claudia<br />

from Pastas Doria, we quickly identified the potential of bran<br />

waste. It is a plentiful source of waste for the company, as it<br />

is produced every day during the wheat milling process to<br />

make pasta and biscuits. This means that it is not seasonal,<br />

which is one of the disadvantages of other similar waste.<br />

In particular, wheat bran was studied both as an additive<br />

to produce biocomposite materials and to synthesise new<br />

biopolymers. Once the waste had been chemically analysed,<br />

the first step of the project was to use it as an additive to<br />

PLA to produce biocomposites, as this is quick to implement<br />

at industrial scale. The required pre-treatment has been<br />

carried out at Pastas Doria’s factory and the production<br />

of the biocomposite and its industrial applications can be<br />

performed with conventional plastic processing machinery.<br />

The material developed is suitable for packaging and<br />

complies with food contact legislation as well as industrial<br />

compostability standards.<br />

bM: Why did a food company decide to venture into the<br />

field of biomaterials in the first place? What were the drivers<br />

behind Pastas Doria’s decision?<br />

Claudia: Grupo Nutresa’s sustainability strategy, as part<br />

of the Misión Mega 2030, and more specifically in terms<br />

of looking after the planet, encouraged us to undertake a<br />

whole host of Circular Economy initiatives. We obtain lots of<br />

by-products from our coffee, chocolate, pasta, biscuits, icecream,<br />

and meat manufacturing businesses, and we started<br />

to ask ourselves how we could extract value from them. We<br />

applied the Design Thinking methodology and came up with<br />

the idea of developing biomaterials. These are by-products<br />

to be recovered and returned to a new production process as<br />

raw materials. A decision was made to focus on wheat bran.<br />

bM: Why did you choose wheat bran?<br />

Caudia: The pasta and biscuit businesses generate around<br />

66,406 tonnes/year of wheat bran in their manufacturing<br />

processes. We had always sold this waste as animal feed and<br />

wanted to explore other ways of using it. We submitted our<br />

idea to a round of financing within a Grupo Nutresa innovation<br />

call and we won. This gave us access to venture capital, which<br />

meant we could develop the biocomposite with ITENE.<br />

bM: How did you go about transforming this waste into a<br />

new material? What obstacles did you come up against?<br />

Miriam: This project has gone through all the Technology<br />

Readiness Levels (TRLs), which go from a scale of 1 to 9,<br />

where 9 is the most mature technology, which means that<br />

it can be rolled out successfully. We started out three years<br />

ago with a TRL 2 for basic research to develop the material.<br />

We studied the extraction of only cellulose from the bran<br />

through to the direct use of different percentages of the<br />

bran that did not impair the main properties we wanted to<br />

obtain with the biocomposite, which was basically to avoid<br />

any loss of mechanical, water-vapour, and oxygen-barrier<br />

performance. Once validated in the laboratory, it was<br />

upscaled to TRL 6, where the biocomposites were developed<br />

at laboratory scale in ITENE by extrusion and the specific<br />

formula that complied with performance, food safety and<br />

industrial compostability was validated. Now we can say<br />

that the project is at semi-industrial scale, i.e., TRL 8, and<br />

it is almost at TRL 9, as it has been successfully produced<br />

at semi-industrial scale in ITENE’s pilot facilities. The main<br />

barriers we encountered were the degradation of waste<br />

components during the production processes. The objective<br />

was to obtain a formula containing the highest percentage of<br />

waste versus the selected biopolymer in order to maximise<br />

the amount of Pastas Doria’s waste that could be recovered.<br />

This meant having to carefully define the conditions required<br />

to use the highest percentage of waste in the formula and<br />

yet avoid substances that would degrade and subsequently<br />

migrate into the food.<br />

bM: Are we likely to see this product on the shelves<br />

in the near future? What end-use applications are<br />

currently envisaged?<br />

42 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17

...made from wheat bran<br />

Materials<br />

Claudia: Yes, in the very near future. We have already<br />

developed a lid for containers (jars & pots) cups, singleuse<br />

cutlery and plates, scoops for scooping ice cream,<br />

ice-cream sticks, and many other applications. We<br />

are currently in the process of setting up a production<br />

plant to manufacture this new material in Cartagena de<br />

Indias (Colombia), which should be up and running by<br />

November. From there we hope to be able to distribute<br />

and market the product around the world. The company<br />

is a start-up called Tribio, which is an intrapreneurial<br />

venture within Grupo Nutresa, and will be producing the<br />

raw material for manufacturers of packaging materials<br />

and single-use plastics, as these are banned in Colombia<br />

and in many other South American countries, just as they<br />

are in Europe. We see this as a great business opportunity<br />

to create an alternative to conventional plastic.<br />

bM: Have you thought about manufacturing your own<br />

packaging with this new material?<br />

Claudia: Yes, at the moment we are going to use it in<br />

various Grupo Nutresa divisions. We have already thought<br />

about using this biocomposite for specific products such<br />

as ice-cream sticks and coffee capsules. We also have<br />

plastic converters located in Chile, Colombia, Central<br />

America, and the United States that are interested. For<br />

the moment, we want to focus on single-use plastics, and<br />

food and cosmetic packaging.<br />

bM: The product you have developed is food contact<br />

grade and complies with food legislation. The Food and<br />

Drug Administration (FDA) is in the process of authorising<br />

wheat bran for food contact in the United States at the<br />

moment. What is the current state of play on this issue?<br />

Miriam: Yes, you are right. We are pending FDA<br />

approval for food safety of the biocomposite, and we<br />

expect a positive response in the next three months.<br />

ITENE is also testing its food contact compatibility,<br />

according to European Regulation (EU) No 10/2011 on<br />

plastic materials and articles intended to come into<br />

contact with food. Global and specific migration tests of<br />

the final material in different food simulants have been<br />

carried out too. All the results have been positive, and the<br />

material is ready to be used in different food applications.<br />

Its industrial compostability was also successfully<br />

validated according to the EN 13432 European standard<br />

in ITENE’s laboratories. MT<br />

www.itene.com<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17<br />


Materials<br />

Performance products with high<br />

biocontent polyurethanes<br />

Found in mattress foam and floor coatings, in textile<br />

adhesives and electronics, in membranes and<br />

construction materials, and in hundreds of thousands<br />

of other products, polyurethanes make a vital contribution to<br />

our functioning world.<br />

Polyurethanes are typically formed by the reaction between<br />

polyols – molecules with two or more reactive hydroxyl groups<br />

– and isocyanates. The vast range of properties polyurethanes<br />

can attain are driven in large part by the molecular structure<br />

of their component polyols and isocyanates and by the<br />

ratio of those components. Polyurethane manufacturers<br />

can adjust for hardness, flexibility, impact strength,<br />

resiliency, and tear and abrasion resistance, among other<br />

characteristics, by selecting the type and proportions of these<br />

building block molecules.<br />

Building with the WING Platform<br />

Checkerspot, an advanced materials company, is focused<br />

on expanding the palette for renewable building blocks.<br />

The team at Checkerspot is making high biocontent<br />

polyurethanes using polyols it generates from unique<br />

microalgal oils. The company has focused on developing cast<br />

polyurethane and rigid polyurethane foam formulations with<br />

the objectives of achieving end product performance with<br />

high biocontent. As a first product, Checkerspot selected a<br />

demanding and highly visible application set, backcountry<br />

skis, to demonstrate its materials.<br />

The taxing elements of the backcountry and the<br />

conditions of ski pressing provided a rich selective<br />

environment to solve materials and process<br />

challenges. Today, Checkerspot’s microalgaederived<br />

cast polyurethane (Algal Wall sidewalls) and<br />

polyurethane-based foam composite (Algal Core <br />

ski cores) have demonstrated performance benefits<br />

in the award-winning backcountry skis sold<br />

through Checkerspot’s outdoor brand, WNDR ®<br />

Alpine (Figures 1 & 2). The brand just announced<br />

an expansion into snowboards and split boards<br />

and is leveraging Checkerspot’s formulations in<br />

these new applications.<br />

Checkerspot recognized that in order to accelerate<br />

development and adoption of new molecules and<br />

materials, it needed to bring together elements and<br />

capabilities that reduce the friction and drop-off<br />

points that can hamper innovation. The company’s<br />

Wing Platform provides for a continuous handoff,<br />

an integrated through line, that connects molecular<br />

biology, materials science, and fabrication with end<br />

consumer engagement. Emergent properties of the<br />

raw and intermediate materials can be evaluated<br />

against process and product requirements, and<br />

learnings made at different points of the platform can be<br />

leveraged more readily.<br />

Charles J. Rand, Checkerspot’s Vice President of Materials<br />

Science and Applications Development, who additionally<br />

oversees formulation optimization and fulfilment, points<br />

to an advantage of the Wing Platform, “By connecting raw<br />

materials development, formulation design, manufacturing,<br />

and product feedback all in one organization, we can quickly<br />

iterate to dial in optimized material properties while being<br />

mindful of production and end-use performance”.<br />

Seeking change – and change agents<br />

The growing number of companies moving to reduce<br />

Scope 3 emissions, the rise of consumer awareness and<br />

concern for sustainability, and brands’ drive to differentiate<br />

their products is leading to greater demand for fossil-based<br />

carbon alternatives. Checkerspot’s aim is to extend the<br />

Wing Platform’s capacity for iteration, renewable molecule<br />

and material development, process efficiencies, and<br />

customer engagement to others seeking to build with more<br />

renewable starting points.<br />

Among the loudest voices seeking renewable and<br />

performant materials are industrial designers, product<br />

developers, and creatives. Checkerspot will be offering<br />

casting kits to engage and encourage the tastemakers who<br />

influence material selection. Expected to debut this fall, the<br />

Figure 1: The 2023 WNDR Alpine Intention 108 backcountry ski<br />

features a composite of domestically sourced aspen and algal<br />

hard foam (Algal Core) and an algal cast polyurethane sidewall<br />

(Algal Wall) to boost ride quality without increasing weight.<br />

Figure 2: Materials scientist Neal Anderson pours<br />

Checkerspot’s Algal Wall cast polyurethane to create<br />

WNDR Alpine ski’s sidewall. Checkerspot Design Lab,<br />

Salt Lake City, UT, USA.<br />

44 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17

By:<br />

Adrienne McKee<br />

Director of Platform Partnerships<br />

Checkerspot, Inc.<br />

Berkeley, CA, USA<br />

Materials<br />

Checkerspot ® Pollinator Kit will ship with the Pollinator<br />

Series Cast Polyurethane Resin, a hand-mixable A and B side<br />

system that can produce durable and long-lasting parts. The<br />

formulation is compatible with standard tooling, moulding<br />

materials, and processes and is amenable to a wide range<br />

of colouration. Different kit options target casting novices as<br />

well as experienced users. The Pollinator Series casting resin<br />

represents a shift away from fossil fuel-based incumbents;<br />

each casted item made solely from the resin will be ≥55 %<br />

biobased (ASTM D6866) (e.g. Figures 3 & 4). The company<br />

envisions this kit and formulation to support rapid prototyping<br />

as well as be useful in product applications requiring fine<br />

detail moulding and a high-quality surface finish.<br />

Beyond materials sales, Checkerspot is partnering with<br />

brands, chemical multinationals, and manufacturers across<br />

different pillars of the Wing Platform. In a partnership with<br />

DIC (Tokyo, Japan), the company created a new class of<br />

novel, high-performance polyol that is being developed into<br />

commercial applications. Checkerspot recently announced<br />

a collaboration with Will & Co. to provide European partners<br />

with high performance, high biocontent polyurethane<br />

systems with attractive sustainability profiles. Checkerspot’s<br />

combined ability to customize high biocontent polyurethane<br />

formulations and work closely with customers’ manufacturing<br />

is a valuable proposition to accelerate materials adoption, as<br />

is evident by Checkerspot’s joint development work with DPS,<br />

the largest ski manufacturer in the USA.<br />

Says Rand of Checkerspot’s team, “We are eager to share<br />

the Wing Platform’s efficiencies, honed through close<br />

iteration between formulation design and WNDR Alpine<br />

product manufacturing, to create additional biobased<br />

products that meet the manufacturing complexities of<br />

our partners. Our goal is to expedite the use of renewable<br />

products in daily life”.<br />

Natural oil polyols (NOPs), polyols derived from plant<br />

oils, have long been deployed in PUs. As polyols comprise<br />

a large portion of polyurethane formulations, NOPs can<br />

displace fossil-based polyols on a substantial scale.<br />

However, the structures of NOPs are dictated by the<br />

biology of the castor bean plant, the soybean plant, or the<br />

palm plant. Checkerspot’s molecular foundry leverages<br />

microalgae in order to adjust the structure of the polyols<br />

it uses. By recapitulating the biology of a plant inside of<br />

a fast-growing, sugar-eating microbe, Checkerspot can<br />

more rapidly biomanufacture an array of polyurethane<br />

raw materials. Added benefits come in play into the<br />

forms of reducing land, water, and GHG relative to more<br />

traditional ways of making oils.<br />

Checkerspot’s cast polyurethanes, some reaching over<br />

70 % biocontent (ASTM D6866), are currently formulated<br />

to achieve hardness ranging from 60 Shore A to 75 Shore<br />

D. The company’s rigid foams are suitable for milling<br />

and carving, and can realize a range of densities and<br />

compression sets. Current rigid foam formulations<br />

are produced with >41 % (ASTM D6866) biocontent.<br />

Several of the company’s polyurethane systems and<br />

their underlying renewable building blocks have earned<br />

the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Certified<br />

Biobased Product label. This means that manufacturers<br />

using Checkerspot’s formulations are able to display a<br />

unique USDA label that highlights their percentage<br />

of biobased content.<br />

https://checkerspot.com/<br />

https://www.dic-global.com/en/<br />

Figure 3. ≥55 % biobased content climbing holds made with the<br />

Checkerspot Pollinator Series Cast Polyurethane.<br />

Figure 4. ≥55 % biobased content phone cases made with the<br />

Checkerspot Pollinator Series Cast Polyurethane.<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17<br />


From Science & Research<br />

Print, recycle, repeat –<br />

biodegradable printed circuits<br />

A<br />

Berkeley Lab-led research team has developed a<br />

fully recyclable and biodegradable printed circuit.<br />

The advance could divert wearable devices and other<br />

flexible electronics from landfill, and mitigate the health and<br />

environmental hazards posed by heavy metal waste.<br />

According to the United Nations, less than a quarter of all<br />

U.S. electronic waste gets recycled [1]. In 2021 alone, global<br />

e-waste surged to 57.4 million tonnes, and only 17.4 % of<br />

that was recycled [2].<br />

Some experts predict that our e-waste problem will only<br />

get worse over time because most electronics on the market<br />

today are designed for portability, not recyclability. Tablets<br />

and readers, for example, are assembled by glueing circuits,<br />

chips, and hard drives to thin layers of plastic, which must<br />

be melted to extract precious metals like copper and gold.<br />

Burning plastic releases toxic gases into the atmosphere,<br />

and electronics waste away in landfill often contain harmful<br />

materials like mercury, lead, and beryllium.<br />

learned that BC-lipase is a finicky eater. Before a lipase can<br />

convert a polymer chain into monomers, it must first catch<br />

the end of a polymer chain. By controlling when the lipase<br />

finds the chain end, it is possible to ensure the materials<br />

don’t degrade until the water reaches a certain temperature.<br />

For the current study, Xu and her team simplified the<br />

process even further. Instead of expensive purified enzymes,<br />

the biodegradable printed circuits rely on cheaper, shelfready<br />

BC lipase “cocktails”. This significantly reduces<br />

costs, facilitating the printed circuit’s entry into mass<br />

manufacturing, Xu said.<br />

By doing so, the researchers advanced the technology,<br />

enabling them to develop a printable conductive ink composed<br />

of biodegradable polyester binders (polycaprolactone),<br />

conductive fillers such as silver flakes or carbon black,<br />

and commercially available enzyme cocktails. The ink gets<br />

its electrical conductivity from the silver or carbon black<br />

particles, and the biodegradable polyester binders act as glue.<br />

But now, a team of researchers from the Department of<br />

Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley<br />

Lab) and UC Berkeley (Berkeley, CA, USA) have developed<br />

a potential solution: a fully recyclable and biodegradable<br />

printed circuit. The researchers, who reported the new device<br />

in the journal Advanced Materials, say that the advance could<br />

divert wearable devices and other flexible electronics from<br />

landfill, and mitigate the health and environmental hazards<br />

posed by heavy metal waste.<br />

The researchers supplied a commercial 3D printer with the<br />

conductive ink to print circuit patterns onto various surfaces<br />

such as hard biodegradable plastic, flexible biodegradable<br />

plastic, and cloth. This proved that the ink adheres to a variety<br />

of materials and forms an integrated device once the ink<br />

dries. Circuits were printed with flexibility (breaking strain<br />

≈80 %) and conductivity (≈2.1 × 10 4 S m −1 ).<br />

“When it comes to plastic e-waste, it’s easy to say it’s<br />

impossible to solve and walk away”, said senior author Ting<br />

Xu, a faculty senior scientist in Berkeley Lab’s Materials<br />

Sciences Division, and professor of chemistry and materials<br />

science and engineering at UC Berkeley. “But scientists<br />

are finding more evidence of significant health and<br />

environmental concerns caused by e-waste leaching into<br />

the soil and groundwater. With this study, we’re showing that<br />

even though you can’t solve the whole problem yet, you can at<br />

least tackle the problem of recovering heavy metals without<br />

polluting the environment”.<br />

Putting enzymes to work<br />

In a previous study, Xu and her team demonstrated a<br />

biodegradable plastic material embedded with purified<br />

enzymes such as Burkholderia cepacian lipase (BC-lipase)<br />

[3]. Through that work, they discovered that hot water<br />

activates BC-lipase, prompting the enzyme to degrade<br />

polymer chains into monomer building blocks. They also<br />

Junpyo Kwon, a Ph.D. student researcher from the Xu Group<br />

at UC Berkeley, is shown holding a recyclable, biodegradable<br />

printed circuit. The advance could divert wearable devices and<br />

other flexible electronics from landfill and mitigate the health<br />

and environmental hazards posed by heavy metal waste. (Credit:<br />

Marilyn Sargent/Berkeley Lab)<br />

44 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17

To test its shelf life and durability, the researchers<br />

stored a printed circuit in a laboratory drawer without<br />

controlled humidity or temperature for seven months. After<br />

pulling the circuit from storage, the researchers applied<br />

continuous electrical voltage to the device for a month and<br />

found that the circuit conducted electricity just as well as<br />

it did before storage.<br />

From Science & Research<br />

Next, the researchers put the device’s recyclability to test<br />

by immersing it in warm water. Within 72 hours, the circuit<br />

materials degraded into their constituent parts – the silver<br />

particles completely separated from the polymer binders,<br />

and the polymers broke down into reusable monomers,<br />

allowing the researchers to easily recover the metals without<br />

additional processing. By the end of this experiment, they<br />

determined that approximately 94 % of the silver particles<br />

can be recycled and reused with similar device performance.<br />

Xu attributes the working enzymes’ longevity to the<br />

biodegradable plastic’s molecular structure. In their previous<br />

study, the researchers learned that adding an enzyme<br />

protectant called random heteropolymer, or RHP, helps to<br />

disperse the enzymes within the mixture in clusters a few<br />

nanometres (billionths of a metre) in size. This creates a<br />

safe place in the plastic for enzymes to lie dormant until<br />

they’re called to action.<br />

The circuit also shows promise as a sustainable alternative<br />

to single-use plastics used in transient electronics – devices<br />

such as biomedical implants or environmental sensors<br />

that disintegrate over a period of time, said lead author<br />

Junpyo Kwon, a PhD student researcher from the Xu<br />

Group at UC Berkeley.<br />

Now that they’ve demonstrated a biodegradable and<br />

recyclable printed circuit, Xu wants to demonstrate a<br />

printable, recyclable, and biodegradable microchip.<br />

That the circuit’s degradability continued after 30 days<br />

of operation surprised the researchers, suggesting that<br />

the enzymes were still active. “We were surprised that the<br />

enzymes ‘lived’ for so long. Enzymes aren’t designed to work<br />

in an electric field”, Xu said.<br />

For more in-depth information:<br />

https://bit.ly/print-recycle-repeat<br />

[1] https://time.com/5594380/world-electronic-waste-problem/<br />

[2] https://weee-forum.org/ws_news/international-e-waste-day-2021/<br />

[3] https://newscenter.lbl.gov/2021/04/21/compostable-plastic-nature/<br />

“Given how sophisticated chips are nowadays, this<br />

certainly won’t be easy. But we have to try and give our<br />

level best”, she said.<br />

This work was supported by the United States Department<br />

of Energy, Office of Science. Additional funding was<br />

provided by the United States Department of Defense,<br />

Army Research Office.<br />

The technology is available for licensing through UC<br />

Berkeley’s Office of Technology Licensing. AT<br />

https://www.lbl.gov/<br />

Images copyright by The Regents of the University of California, Lawrence<br />

Berkeley National Laboratory.<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17<br />


From Science & Research<br />

Biopolymers – Materials, Properties,<br />

Sustainability<br />

Joint project planned for November <strong>2022</strong><br />

The Kunststoff-Institut Lüdenscheid (Germany) is<br />

planning a new joint project for autumn <strong>2022</strong> that will<br />

examine application possibilities of biopolymers.<br />

The topic of sustainability is the core issue of the current<br />

time, which the plastics industry in particular has to face.<br />

Every company is required to produce more sustainably and<br />

minimise its CO 2<br />

footprint.<br />

The material factor is the main aspect of component<br />

production, not only in terms of costs but also in terms<br />

of energy. Therefore, the increase in sustainability must<br />

necessarily lead to the material input. The establishment<br />

of a circular economy is an option, but not the solution for<br />

every company or product.<br />

The use of biobased and/or biodegradable polymers, possibly<br />

in combination with the circular economy, can be a solution.<br />

But which materials and manufacturers are there? What<br />

properties do these materials have and to what extent can<br />

they be modified and where are the limits? Which materials<br />

come into question at all? What are the recycling options?<br />

And one of the main questions in this context is: Are these<br />

materials really more sustainable?<br />

With the help of this project, the participants should<br />

be able to decide for themselves which materials can be<br />

used for their own products and whether they increase<br />

the sustainability of the product. Therefore, both basic and<br />

product-related questions concerning the applicability of<br />

biopolymers are to be answered.<br />

At the beginning of the project, definitions of terms and<br />

current market developments will be presented. An overview<br />

of the different types of biopolymers, their properties, raw<br />

material source, biobased content, or biodegradability as<br />

well as processing characteristics and a cost-technical<br />

consideration is needed to get a better basis for decisions.<br />

Furthermore, different biobased additives, wood and natural<br />

fibres, and the advantages and disadvantages of different<br />

disposal routes will be highlighted.<br />

In order to generate the greatest possible benefit for the<br />

project participants, five different kinds of biopolymers will<br />

be selected for a more in-depth examination and research.<br />

In this regard, the project wants to show which raw material<br />

manufacturers offer these materials and which portfolio of<br />

additivation possibilities they have. In addition, research will<br />

be carried out on the selected polymer sorts for information<br />

on the sustainability of the raw material sources, the CO 2<br />

equivalents and the possible end-of-life options.<br />

Most companies that are new to this group of materials<br />

will also have questions about how to communicate and<br />

promote a product made of bioplastics, as many have already<br />

heard more or less about problems in this field. With this<br />

in mind, various product examples are also searched for,<br />

on the basis of which a guideline for successful product<br />

promotion is drawn up.<br />

And last, but not least: Since every company has different<br />

requirements for the properties of its products and thus the<br />

materials used, a material research for potentially suitable<br />

biopolymers for one product of each project participant is<br />

carried out within the project. Through networking and the<br />

cross-sectoral consideration of requirements, new impulses<br />

for the use of biopolymers can be made possible.<br />

Although the project language will be German, it will also<br />

be possible for international participants to download the<br />

project results in English, if required.<br />

The short project duration of one year offers a quick<br />

introduction to the topic of biopolymers.<br />

The project participants do not have to invest any active<br />

work in the project themselves so that a low personnel and<br />

cost effort is generated for the development of a knowledge<br />

base. The results will be presented in 3 project meetings over<br />

the project duration.<br />

Costs for participation in the project lie at around<br />

EUR 6,500, the contact person of the Kunststoff-Institut<br />

Lüdenscheid is Julia Loth. AT<br />

https://kunststoff-institut-luedenscheid.de<br />

More information<br />

Contact Julia Loth<br />

48 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17

Mechanical<br />

Recycling<br />

Extrusion<br />

Physical-Chemical<br />

Recycling<br />

available at www.renewable-carbon.eu/graphics<br />

Dissolution<br />

Physical<br />

Recycling<br />

Enzymolysis<br />

Biochemical<br />

Recycling<br />

Plastic Product<br />

End of Life<br />

Plastic Waste<br />

Collection<br />

Separation<br />

Different Waste<br />

Qualities<br />

Solvolysis<br />

Chemical<br />

Recycling<br />

Monomers<br />

Depolymerisation<br />

Thermochemical<br />

Recycling<br />

Pyrolysis<br />

Thermochemical<br />

Recycling<br />

Incineration<br />

CO2 Utilisation<br />

(CCU)<br />

Gasification<br />

Thermochemical<br />

Recycling<br />

CO2<br />

© -Institute.eu | <strong>2022</strong><br />

PVC<br />

EPDM<br />

PP<br />

PMMA<br />

PE<br />

Vinyl chloride<br />

Propylene<br />

Unsaturated polyester resins<br />

Methyl methacrylate<br />

PEF<br />

Polyurethanes<br />

MEG<br />

Building blocks<br />

Natural rubber<br />

Aniline Ethylene<br />

for UPR<br />

Cellulose-based<br />

2,5-FDCA<br />

polymers<br />

Building blocks<br />

for polyurethanes<br />

Levulinic<br />

acid<br />

Lignin-based polymers<br />

Naphtha<br />

Ethanol<br />

PET<br />

PFA<br />

5-HMF/5-CMF FDME<br />

Furfuryl alcohol<br />

Waste oils<br />

Casein polymers<br />

Furfural<br />

Natural rubber<br />

Saccharose<br />

PTF<br />

Starch-containing<br />

Hemicellulose<br />

Lignocellulose<br />

1,3 Propanediol<br />

polymer compounds<br />

Casein<br />

Fructose<br />

PTT<br />

Terephthalic<br />

Non-edible milk<br />

acid<br />

MPG NOPs<br />

Starch<br />

ECH<br />

Glycerol<br />

p-Xylene<br />

SBR<br />

Plant oils<br />

Fatty acids<br />

Castor oil<br />

11-AA<br />

Glucose Isobutanol<br />

THF<br />

Sebacic<br />

Lysine<br />

PBT<br />

acid<br />

1,4-Butanediol<br />

Succinic<br />

acid<br />

DDDA<br />

PBAT<br />

Caprolactame<br />

Adipic<br />

acid<br />

HMDA DN5<br />

Sorbitol<br />

3-HP<br />

Lactic<br />

acid<br />

Itaconic<br />

Acrylic<br />

PBS(x)<br />

acid<br />

acid<br />

Isosorbide<br />

PA<br />

Lactide<br />

Superabsorbent polymers<br />

Epoxy resins<br />

ABS<br />

PHA<br />

APC<br />

PLA<br />

available at www.renewable-carbon.eu/graphics<br />

O<br />

OH<br />

HO<br />

OH<br />

HO<br />

OH<br />

O<br />

OH<br />

HO<br />

OH<br />

O<br />

OH<br />

O<br />

OH<br />

© -Institute.eu | 2021<br />

All figures available at www.bio-based.eu/markets<br />

Adipic acid (AA)<br />

11-Aminoundecanoic acid (11-AA)<br />

1,4-Butanediol (1,4-BDO)<br />

Dodecanedioic acid (DDDA)<br />

Epichlorohydrin (ECH)<br />

Ethylene<br />

Furan derivatives<br />

D-lactic acid (D-LA)<br />

L-lactic acid (L-LA)<br />

Lactide<br />

Monoethylene glycol (MEG)<br />

Monopropylene glycol (MPG)<br />

Naphtha<br />

1,5-Pentametylenediamine (DN5)<br />

1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PDO)<br />

Sebacic acid<br />

Succinic acid (SA)<br />

© -Institute.eu | 2020<br />

fossil<br />

available at www.renewable-carbon.eu/graphics<br />

Refining<br />

Polymerisation<br />

Formulation<br />

Processing<br />

Use<br />

renewable<br />

Depolymerisation<br />

Solvolysis<br />

Thermal depolymerisation<br />

Enzymolysis<br />

Purification<br />

Dissolution<br />

Recycling<br />

Conversion<br />

Pyrolysis<br />

Gasification<br />

allocated<br />

Recovery<br />

Recovery<br />

Recovery<br />

conventional<br />

© -Institute.eu | 2021<br />

© -Institute.eu | 2020<br />

nova Market and Trend Reports<br />

on Renewable Carbon<br />

The Best Available on Bio- and CO2-based Polymers<br />

& Building Blocks and Chemical Recycling<br />

Category<br />

Mapping of advanced recycling<br />

technologies for plastics waste<br />

Providers, technologies, and partnerships<br />

Mimicking Nature –<br />

The PHA Industry Landscape<br />

Latest trends and 28 producer profiles<br />

Bio-based Naphtha<br />

and Mass Balance Approach<br />

Status & Outlook, Standards &<br />

Certification Schemes<br />

Diversity of<br />

Advanced Recycling<br />

Principle of Mass Balance Approach<br />

Feedstock<br />

Process<br />

Products<br />

Plastics<br />

Composites<br />

Plastics/<br />

Syngas<br />

Polymers<br />

Monomers<br />

Monomers<br />

Naphtha<br />

Use of renewable feedstock<br />

in very first steps of<br />

chemical production<br />

(e.g. steam cracker)<br />

Utilisation of existing<br />

integrated production for<br />

all production steps<br />

Allocation of the<br />

renewable share to<br />

selected products<br />

Authors: Lars Krause, Michael Carus, Achim Raschka<br />

and Nico Plum (all nova-Institute)<br />

June <strong>2022</strong><br />

This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at<br />

www.renewable-carbon.eu/publications<br />

Author: Jan Ravenstijn<br />

March <strong>2022</strong><br />

This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at<br />

www.renewable-carbon.eu/publications<br />

Authors: Michael Carus, Doris de Guzman and Harald Käb<br />

March 2021<br />

This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at<br />

www.renewable-carbon.eu/publications<br />

Bio-based Building Blocks and<br />

Polymers – Global Capacities,<br />

Production and Trends 2020 – 2025<br />

Polymers<br />

Carbon Dioxide (CO 2) as Chemical<br />

Feedstock for Polymers<br />

Technologies, Polymers, Developers and Producers<br />

Chemical recycling – Status, Trends<br />

and Challenges<br />

Technologies, Sustainability, Policy and Key Players<br />

Building Blocks<br />

Plastic recycling and recovery routes<br />

Intermediates<br />

Feedstocks<br />

Primary recycling<br />

(mechanical)<br />

Virgin Feedstock<br />

Monomer<br />

Polymer<br />

Plastic<br />

Product<br />

Product (end-of-use)<br />

Landfill<br />

Renewable Feedstock<br />

Secondary recycling<br />

(mechanical)<br />

Tertiary recycling<br />

(chemical)<br />

Quaternary recycling<br />

(energy recovery)<br />

Secondary<br />

valuable<br />

materials<br />

CO 2 capture<br />

Energy<br />

Chemicals<br />

Fuels<br />

Others<br />

Authors: Pia Skoczinski, Michael Carus, Doris de Guzman,<br />

Harald Käb, Raj Chinthapalli, Jan Ravenstijn, Wolfgang Baltus<br />

and Achim Raschka<br />

January 2021<br />

This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at<br />

www.renewable-carbon.eu/publications<br />

Authors: Pauline Ruiz, Achim Raschka, Pia Skoczinski,<br />

Jan Ravenstijn and Michael Carus, nova-Institut GmbH, Germany<br />

January 2021<br />

This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at<br />

www.renewable-carbon.eu/publications<br />

Author: Lars Krause, Florian Dietrich, Pia Skoczinski,<br />

Michael Carus, Pauline Ruiz, Lara Dammer, Achim Raschka,<br />

nova-Institut GmbH, Germany<br />

November 2020<br />

This and other reports on the bio- and CO 2-based economy are<br />

available at www.renewable-carbon.eu/publications<br />

Genetic engineering<br />

Production of Cannabinoids via<br />

Extraction, Chemical Synthesis<br />

and Especially Biotechnology<br />

Current Technologies, Potential & Drawbacks and<br />

Future Development<br />

Plant extraction<br />

Plant extraction<br />

Cannabinoids<br />

Chemical synthesis<br />

Biotechnological production<br />

Production capacities (million tonnes)<br />

Commercialisation updates on<br />

bio-based building blocks<br />

Bio-based building blocks<br />

Evolution of worldwide production capacities from 2011 to 2024<br />

4<br />

3<br />

2<br />

1<br />

2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2024<br />

Levulinic acid – A versatile platform<br />

chemical for a variety of market applications<br />

Global market dynamics, demand/supply, trends and<br />

market potential<br />

HO<br />

OH<br />

diphenolic acid<br />

H 2N<br />

O<br />

OH<br />

O<br />

O<br />

OH<br />

5-aminolevulinic acid<br />

O<br />

O<br />

levulinic acid<br />

O<br />

O<br />

ɣ-valerolactone<br />

OH<br />

HO<br />

O<br />

O<br />

succinic acid<br />

OH<br />

O<br />

O OH<br />

O O<br />

levulinate ketal<br />

O<br />

H<br />

N<br />

O<br />

5-methyl-2-pyrrolidone<br />

OR<br />

O<br />

levulinic ester<br />

Authors: Pia Skoczinski, Franjo Grotenhermen, Bernhard Beitzke,<br />

Michael Carus and Achim Raschka<br />

January 2021<br />

This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at<br />

www.renewable-carbon.eu/publications<br />

Author:<br />

Doris de Guzman, Tecnon OrbiChem, United Kingdom<br />

Updated Executive Summary and Market Review May 2020 –<br />

Originally published February 2020<br />

This and other reports on the bio- and CO 2-based economy are<br />

available at www.bio-based.eu/reports<br />

Authors: Achim Raschka, Pia Skoczinski, Raj Chinthapalli,<br />

Ángel Puente and Michael Carus, nova-Institut GmbH, Germany<br />

October 2019<br />

This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at<br />

www.bio-based.eu/reports<br />

renewable-carbon.eu/publications<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17<br />


From Science & Research<br />

Bioplastics IN SPACE<br />

Combining high strength with low weight, corrosionresistant,<br />

and shapable into almost any form,<br />

composite materials are a key ingredient of modern<br />

life: employed everywhere from aviation to civil engineering,<br />

sports equipment to dentistry – and also a vital element of<br />

space missions. But they have some less desirable aspects:<br />

made from petroleum products, they are non-renewable<br />

in nature and also non-recyclable. So the European Space<br />

Agency (ESA – Paris, France) is working with Côte D’Azur<br />

University (Nice, France) on a new breed of space-quality<br />

composites made from wholly sustainable sources.<br />

Testing biobased expoxy<br />

“And when we say biomass we don’t mean growing new<br />

crops especially for this purpose, but rather reusing existing<br />

biobased material cheaply and efficiently – namely used<br />

vegetable oil, timber waste, and oceanic algae”.<br />

The idea came out of a discussion with Alice Mija of<br />

the Nice Institute of Chemistry (ICN) at Côte D’Azur<br />

University in France.<br />

“It’s a very ambitious and challenging project – to produce<br />

100 % biobased thermoset resins for space – which draws<br />

on a lot of different chemical, engineering, and industrial<br />

expertise”, she comments.<br />

Europe’s Vega launcher is largely made from composite materials<br />

As their name suggests, composites are made from two<br />

or more separate materials, combined together to obtain an<br />

optimal combination of physical characteristics. ‘Thermoset’<br />

composites are among the most robust examples. They are<br />

made from resins which are blended with fibres or fillers<br />

for added strength – the same approach as adding steel<br />

piles to concrete to make reinforced concrete – which<br />

are then ‘cured’ through heating, pressure or chemical<br />

reactions to solidify them.<br />

Exploring alternatives<br />

“The problem with the<br />

classical thermoset resins<br />

we use to make spacequality<br />

composites is that<br />

they are petroleum-based, so<br />

by definition they come from<br />

a non-renewable resource”,<br />

explains ESA materials<br />

engineer Ugo Lafont. “So<br />

we had the idea of exploring<br />

alternatives – could we use<br />

biomass as a new source of<br />

molecules for these resins,<br />

harnessing the same kind<br />

of chemical processes?<br />

“Obviously the desire for greater sustainability by avoiding<br />

the use of petroleum products is one important driver of<br />

this work. In addition one of the key chemicals used for<br />

thermoset production, bisphenol-A, is in the process of being<br />

restricted by the European Union’s Registration, Evaluation,<br />

Authorisation, and Restriction of Chemicals, REACH,<br />

because of its hormone-altering and mutagenic properties.<br />

It has already been banned for food packaging products, and<br />

further restrictions will come in future”.<br />

Composites development<br />

38 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17

Magnetic<br />

for Plastics<br />

www.plasticker.com<br />

• International Trade<br />

in Raw Materials, Machinery & Products Free of Charge.<br />

• Daily News<br />

from the Industrial Sector and the Plastics Markets.<br />

• Current Market Prices<br />

for Plastics.<br />

• Buyer’s Guide<br />

for Plastics & Additives, Machinery & Equipment, Subcontractors<br />

and Services.<br />

• Job Market<br />

for Specialists and Executive Staff in the Plastics Industry.<br />

Up-to-date • Fast • Professional<br />

The cooperation takes the form of a part-sponsored PhD and<br />

now post-Doctorate research, supported through ESA’s Open<br />

Space Innovation Platform, sourcing promising new ideas for<br />

research from academia, industry and the general public.<br />

Extreme challenges of space<br />

Post-Doc researcher Roxana Dinu adds: “We’ve focused<br />

on space because if we can design materials to resist all<br />

the peculiar factors of the orbital environment – such as<br />

extremes of temperature and radiation as well as sustained<br />

hard vacuum encouraging unwanted ‘outgassing’ of fumes<br />

– then they should also be suitable for a very wide range of<br />

applications on Earth too, such as the aerospace, maritime<br />

and construction sectors”.<br />

So far numerous 100 % biobased monomers have been<br />

synthesized by Mija’s group at laboratory scale, then their<br />

formulations into usable resins were studied and optimized.<br />

The space-qualification tests are currently ongoing by<br />

using the project’s specialist facilities at ESA’s ESTEC<br />

technical Centre in the Netherlands (Noordwijk) as well as<br />

Ugo adds: “An important aspect of the project is that we want<br />

to adapt existing industrial processes for producing these<br />

new thermosets, we don’t want to have to reinvent the wheel”.<br />

The project is also looking into the idea of harnessing<br />

natural materials for the other composite ingredients,<br />

Carbon-fibre composite sample using bio-based epoxy<br />

ESTEC, ESA’s technical heart<br />

Thales Alenia Space in Cannes, a near neighbour of ICN –<br />

Côte D’Azur University.<br />

Scaling up – and going all natural<br />

The next step in this three-year project will be to<br />

manufacture the composites at larger, demonstrator scale,<br />

then talk to companies about industrial production.<br />

resulting in 100 % biobased composites. “Conventional<br />

carbon fibres are not recyclable, so we are looking into the<br />

use of natural alternatives, such as plant fibres such as flax<br />

or hemp, for certain uses”.<br />

The 3 Rs: reuse, recycle, repair<br />

The great drawback of today’s thermoset composites is<br />

that they cannot be melted, reformed or dissolved, so are<br />

not recyclable. Disposing of them can prove challenging,<br />

potentially involving grinding them down to powder – while<br />

from 2025 the disposal of composite wind turbine blades in<br />

European landfills will be banned.<br />

The project is looking into the potential of composites able<br />

to achieve the ‘3 Rs’ – reuse, recycle and repair.<br />

Mija says: “100 % biobased composites are not inherently<br />

recyclable either – it comes down to the chemical formulation<br />

used to make them, but we are actively exploring reuse<br />

possibilities. We have used a nontoxic and easy-to-prepare<br />

solution, to recover vegetable fibres and recycle the 100 %<br />

biobased resin, which was then used for the production of a<br />

second generation of composites. The industry is eager for<br />

recycling solutions, so the potential here is enormous”. AT<br />

https://www.esa.int/<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17<br />


Certification<br />

Sustainability certification<br />

Important part of the solution towards a circular economy and bioeconomy<br />

Even if currently only less than 1 % of the entire plastic<br />

produced annually are bioplastics[1], one of many<br />

necessary actions is to scale up the use of alternative<br />

feedstocks in the chemical industry, which has already<br />

started to develop in a good direction. Global production<br />

capacity of bioplastics will increase from 2.09 million tonnes<br />

in 2020 to approximately 7.59 million tonnes in 2026. Hence,<br />

the share of bioplastics in global plastic production will<br />

bypass the 2 % mark for the first time. Investment activities<br />

have shown that biobased feedstocks for plastic production<br />

are also an economically appealing opportunity: The amount<br />

of investment of USD 350 million globally in the last quarter<br />

of 2021, has been exceeded by USD 500 million in the first<br />

quarter of <strong>2022</strong> [2].<br />

The interest in this topic has also been fuelled by the<br />

increasing concerns of consumers. The results of consumer<br />

studies are going in the same direction. One recent global<br />

study shows that 85 % of consumers have shifted toward<br />

being more sustainable during the past five years. On<br />

average, over a third are willing to pay more for sustainability,<br />

considering a 25 % premium to be acceptable [3].<br />

Certification as a tool to back up credible claims<br />

along fully certified supply chains<br />

Third-party voluntary certification schemes can support<br />

companies to be compliant with current and upcoming legal<br />

requirements. The International Sustainability and Carbon<br />

Certification (ISCC) is an independent multi-stakeholder<br />

initiative that contributes to climate and environmental<br />

protection, defossilisation, and traceability along supply<br />

chains. Today ISCC counts around 7,000 certified entities<br />

that are active in different markets such as energy, food,<br />

feed, and industrial applications. The certification covers<br />

biogenic wastes and residues, recycled carbon-based<br />

materials, forestry and agricultural biomass, and nonbiological<br />

renewable materials. For a few years, chemical<br />

and packaging applications represent the fastest growing<br />

sector with annually doubling growth rates.<br />

At ISCC detailed traceability requirements ensure that<br />

sustainability data related to, e.g. deforestation, social<br />

aspects, and GHG emissions is forwarded along the entire<br />

supply chain up to the brand owner. Every element in the<br />

supply chain that forwards certified material needs to be<br />

covered by third-party certification. The standard allows<br />

for the three chain of custody options (CoC) mass balance,<br />

physical segregation, and controlled blending. Under mass<br />

balance certified and non-certified materials are mixed<br />

physically but kept separate on a bookkeeping basis on a<br />

site-specific level (Figure 2). In the annual audits, special<br />

importance is given to the determination of site-specific<br />

sustainable yields, conversion factors based on real<br />

operational data, and attribution to outgoing products. By<br />

applying this method, companies use existing resources and<br />

continuously scale up certified feedstocks by building up their<br />

supplier networks with the relevant feedstocks.<br />

Since the material is physically mixed, it is not possible<br />

to make a statement about the physical characteristics of<br />

the final product without revealing potentially proprietary<br />

information about the production process. The current<br />

ISCC logos include the type of raw material and CoC option<br />

used, showing customers the sustainability characteristics<br />

of the product they hold in their hands. In addition, it is of<br />

utmost importance to make clear which part of a product or<br />

packaging is certified. The goal is to increase the awareness<br />

and understanding of the mass balance approach which is<br />

already applied and accepted in other industries, for instance,<br />

the renewable energy sector.<br />

The future will bring many interesting and important<br />

developments from a regulatory perspective, e.g. the<br />

European Circular Economy Action Plan or global recycling<br />

packaging taxes and due diligence responsibilities. ISCC has<br />

Figure 1: ISCC mass balance approach<br />

52 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17

also set up a Technical Committee with regular meetings and<br />

contributions from various stakeholders to discuss market<br />

developments and further develop clear claims as well as<br />

consumer education material. Here, ongoing discussions<br />

with regulators, academia, civil society, and the industry<br />

build the base for the needed multi-stakeholder collaborative<br />

action to identify all possible solutions on the sustainability<br />

journey. Only in that way the circular and bioeconomy can<br />

be accelerated to make a real impact as we need to move<br />

forward as quickly as possible with the many diverse<br />

By:<br />

Inna Knelsen, Jasmin Brinkmann<br />

Senior System Manager (both)<br />

ISCC System Germany<br />

solutions to reduce our dependency on fossil resources, allow<br />

for sustainable land use, protect biodiversity, and reduce<br />

greenhouse gas emissions.<br />

www.iscc-system.org<br />

Sources<br />

(1) European Bioplastics, <strong>2022</strong>: Bioplastics market data<br />

(2) CBS News, <strong>2022</strong>: Companies invest billions in fully biodegradable<br />

bioplastics made from natural materials<br />

(3) Simon-Kucher & Partners, 2021: Global Sustainability Study: What Role<br />

do Consumers Play in a Sustainable Future?<br />

Certification<br />

Figure 2: Chain of Custody Options and example logos for<br />

mass-balanced products<br />

The only conference dealing exclusively with<br />

cellulose fibres – Solutions instead of pollution<br />

Cellulose fibres are bio-based and biodegradable, even in marine-environments,<br />

where their degrading does not cause any microplastic.<br />

300 participants and 30 exhibitors are expected in Cologne to discuss the following topics:<br />

<br />


FIBRE<br />



2023<br />

I N N O V AT<br />

B Y N O V A -<br />

I N S T I T U T E<br />

I O N<br />

A W A R D<br />

• Strategies, Policy<br />

Framework of Textiles<br />

and Market Trends<br />

• New Opportunities<br />

for Cellulose Fibres in<br />

Replacing Plastics<br />

• Sustainability and<br />

Environmental Impacts<br />

• Circular Economy and<br />

Recyclability of Fibres<br />

• Alternative Feedstocks<br />

and Supply Chains<br />

• New Technologies for<br />

Pulps, Fibres and Yarns<br />

• New Technologies and<br />

Applications beyond<br />

Textiles<br />

Call for Innovation<br />

Apply for the “Cellulose<br />

Fibre Innovation of the<br />

Year 2023”<br />

Organiser<br />

Contact<br />

Dr Asta Partanen<br />

Program<br />

asta.partanen@nova-institut.de<br />

Dominik Vogt<br />

Conference Manager<br />

dominik.vogt@nova-institut.de<br />

cellulose-fibres.eu<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17<br />


Automotive<br />

Category<br />

10<br />

Years ago<br />

Published in<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE<br />

Basics<br />

Plastics made from CO 2<br />

Basics<br />

First plastics from CO 2<br />

coming onto the market -<br />

and they can be biodegradable<br />

Basics<br />

Photosynthesis Metabolism<br />

Carbohydrates<br />

Fig. 2: The carbon cycle as occurring in nature (left) and<br />

the envisioned carbon cycle for the ‘CO 2 Economy’ (right).<br />

CO 2<br />

CO 2<br />

Bayer Material Science exhibited polyurethane blocks at<br />

ACHEMA, which were made from CO 2 polyols. CO 2 replaces<br />

some of the mineral oils used. Industrial manufacturing of<br />

foams for mattresses and insulating materials for fridges<br />

and buildings is due to start in 2015. Noteworthy is the fact<br />

that the CO 2 used by Bayer Material Science is captured<br />

at a lignite-fired power plant, thus contributing to lower<br />

greenhouse gas emissions.<br />

Implementing a CO 2<br />

economy<br />

These examples, combined with the strong research efforts<br />

of different corporations and national research programs,<br />

are disclosing a future where we will probably be able to<br />

implement a real ‘CO 2 Economy’; where CO 2 will be seen as<br />

a valuable raw material rather than a necessary evil of our<br />

fossil-fuel based modern life style.<br />

Steps toward the implementation of such a vision are<br />

already in place. The concept of Artificial Photosynthesis<br />

(APS) is a remarkable example (Fig. 2).<br />

This field of chemical production is aiming to use either CO 2<br />

recaptured from a fossil fuel combustion facility, or acquiring<br />

Artificial<br />

Photosynthesis<br />

By<br />

Fabrizio Sibilla<br />

Achim Raschka<br />

Michael Carus<br />

nova-Institute, Hürth, Germany<br />

Energy / Material<br />

Resources<br />

Industrial<br />

usage<br />

Thinking further ahead, in a future when propylene oxide<br />

will be produced from methanol reformed from CO 2 , PPC<br />

will be available derived 100% from recycled CO 2 , therefore<br />

making it very attractive for the final consumer.<br />

PPC is also a biodegradable polymer that shows good<br />

compostability properties. These properties, when combined<br />

with the 43% or 100% ‘Recycled CO 2 ’ can contribute to the<br />

development of a plastic industry that can aim at being<br />

sustainable in its three pillars (social, environmental,<br />

economy).<br />

Other big advantages of PPC are its thermoplastic<br />

behaviour similar to many existing plastics, its possibility<br />

to be combined with other polymers, and its use with<br />

fillers. Moreover, PPC does not require special tailor-made<br />

machines for its forming or extruding, hence this aspect<br />

contributes to make PPC a ‘ready to use’ alternative to many<br />

existing plastics.<br />

PPC is also a good softener for bioplastics: many biobased<br />

plastics, e.g. PLA and PHA, are originally too brittle<br />

and can therefore only be used in conjunction with additives<br />

in many applications. Now a new option is available which<br />

can cover an extended range of material characteristics<br />

through combinations of PPC with PLA or PHA. This keeps<br />

the material biodegradable and translucent, and it can be<br />

processed without any trouble using normal machinery. It<br />

must be pointed out that it is not easy to give an unambiguous<br />

classification to PPC, but it falls more into a grey area of<br />

definitions. As discussed above, it can be prepared either from<br />

CO 2 recovered from flue gases and conventional propylene<br />

oxide, and in this case although not definable as ‘bio-based’<br />

CO 2 from the atmosphere together with water and sunlight to<br />

obtain what is often defined as ‘solar fuel’ - mainly methanol<br />

or methane. The word ‘fuel’ is used in a broad sense: it refers<br />

not only to fuel for transportation or electricity generation, but<br />

also to feedstocks for the chemicals and plastics industries.<br />

However research is also focused on other chemicals, such<br />

as, for example, the direct formation of formic acid. Efforts<br />

are in place to mimic the natural photosynthesis to such an<br />

extent that even glucose or other fermentable carbohydrates<br />

are foreseen as possible products. Keeping this in mind,<br />

a vision where carbohydrates, generated by APS, will be<br />

used in subsequent biotechnological fermentation to obtain<br />

almost any desired chemicals or bio-plastics (such as PLA,<br />

PHB and others) can become reality in a future that is nearer<br />

than expected.<br />

The Panasonic Corporation for example, released its<br />

first prototype of a working APS device (Fig. 3) that shows<br />

the same efficiency of photosynthetic plants and is able to<br />

produce formic acid from water, sunlight and CO 2 ; formic<br />

acid is a bulk chemical that is required in many industrial<br />

processes.<br />

H 3<br />

C<br />

O<br />

propylene oxide<br />

it may still be attractive for its 43% by wt. of recycled CO 2<br />

and its full biodegradability. It can in theory also be produced<br />

using CO 2 recovered from biomass combustion, thus being<br />

classified as 43% biomass-based (25% biobased according to<br />

the bio-based definition ASTM D6866). As already mentioned<br />

above, if propylene oxide could be produced from the<br />

oxidation of bio-based propylene, then it can be declared 57%<br />

biomass-based or 100% bio-based if CO 2 and propylene oxide<br />

are both bio-based. As more and more different plastics and<br />

chemicals in the future will be derived from recycled CO 2 they<br />

will need a new classification and definition such as ‘recycled<br />

CO 2 ’ in order not to bewilder the consumer.<br />

Polyethylene carbonate and polyols<br />

Polypropylene carbonate is not the only plastic that<br />

recently came onto the market. Other remarkable examples<br />

are the production of polyethylene carbonate (PEC) and<br />

polyurethanes from CO 2 .<br />

The company Novomer has a proprietary technology to<br />

obtain PEC from ethylene oxide and CO 2 , in a process similar<br />

to the production of PPC. PEC is 50% CO 2 by mass and can<br />

be used in a number of applications to replace and improve<br />

traditional petroleum based plastics currently on the market.<br />

PEC plastics exhibit excellent oxygen barrier properties<br />

that make it useful as a barrier layer for food packaging<br />

applications. PEC has a significantly improved environmental<br />

footprint compared to barrier resins ethylenevinyl alcohol<br />

(EVOH) and polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) which are used as<br />

barrier layers.<br />

CH 3<br />

O<br />

CO 2 C<br />

catalyst<br />

C<br />

arbon dioxide is one of the most discussed molecules<br />

in the popular press, due to its role as greenhouse gas<br />

(GHG) and the increase in temperature on our planet,<br />

a phenomenon known as global warming.<br />

Carbon dioxide is generally regarded as an inert molecule,<br />

as it is the final product of any combustion process, either<br />

chemical or biological in cellular metabolism (an average<br />

human body emits daily about 0.9 kg of CO 2 ). The abundance<br />

of CO 2 prompted scientists to think of it as a useful raw<br />

material for the synthesis of chemicals and plastics rather<br />

than as a mere emission waste.<br />

Traditionally CO 2 has been used in numerous applications,<br />

such as in the preparation of carbonated soft drinks, as<br />

an acidity regulator in the food industry, in the industrial<br />

preparation of synthetic urea, in fire extinguishers and many<br />

others.<br />

Today, as CO 2 originating from energy production, transport<br />

and industrial production continues to accumulate in the<br />

atmosphere, scientists and technologists are looking more<br />

closely at different alternatives to reduce flue-gas emissions<br />

and are exploring the possibility of using CO 2 as a direct<br />

feedstock for chemicals production, and first successful<br />

examples have already been achieved.<br />

The carbon cycle on our planet is able to recycle the<br />

CO 2 from the atmosphere back in the biosphere and it has<br />

maintained an almost constant level of CO 2 concentration<br />

over the last hundred thousand years. The carbon cycle fixes<br />

approx. 200 gigatonnes of CO 2 yearly while the anthropogenic<br />

CO 2 accounts for about 7 gigatonnes per year (3-4% of the<br />

CO 2 fixed in the carbon cycle). Even if this quantity looks<br />

small, we must bear in mind that this excess of CO 2 has been<br />

accumulating year after year in the atmosphere, and in fact<br />

we know that CO 2 concentration rose to almost 400 ppm from<br />

280 ppm in the preindustrial era.<br />

In recent years different processes have been patented<br />

and are currently used to recover CO 2 from the flue-gases of<br />

coal, oil or natural gas, or from biomass power plants. The<br />

recovered CO 2 can be either stored in natural caves, used for<br />

44 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/12] Vol. 7<br />

O<br />

O<br />

polypropylene carbonate<br />

n<br />

Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR), or can be used as feedstock<br />

for the chemical industry. The availability of a high quantity of<br />

CO 2 triggered different research projects worldwide that are<br />

aimed at finding a high added value use for what otherwise<br />

is a pollutant.<br />

Plastics from CO 2<br />

When it comes to the question of CO 2 and plastics there<br />

are many different strategies aiming at either obtaining<br />

plastics from molecules derived directly from CO 2 or using<br />

CO 2 in combination with monomers that could either be<br />

traditional fossil-based or bio-based chemicals. Moreover,<br />

the final plastics can be biodegradable or not, depending<br />

to their structures. Noteworthy among already existing CO 2<br />

derived plastics are polypropylene carbonate, polyethylene<br />

carbonate, polyurethanes and many promising others that<br />

are still in the laboratories.<br />

dear<br />

readers<br />

Polypropylene carbonate<br />

Polypropylene carbonate (PPC) is the first remarkable<br />

example of a plastic that uses CO 2 in its preparation. PPC is<br />

obtained through alternated polymerization of CO 2 with PO<br />

(propylene oxide, C 3 H 6 O) (Fig. 1).<br />

The production of PPC worldwide is rising and this trend is<br />

not expected to change.<br />

Polypropylene carbonate (PPC) was first developed 40<br />

years ago by Inoue, but is only now coming into its own.<br />

PPC is 43% CO 2 by mass, is biodegradable, shows high<br />

temperature stability, high elasticity and transparency, and<br />

a memory effect. These characteristics open up a wide<br />

range of applications for PPC, including countless uses as<br />

packaging film and foams, dispersions and softeners for<br />

brittle plastics. The North American companies Novomer<br />

and Empower Materials, the Norwegian firm Norner and SK<br />

Innovation from South Korea are some of those working to<br />

develop and produce PPC.<br />

Today PPC is a high quality plastic able to combine several<br />

advantages at the same time.<br />

Are plastics made from CO 2<br />

to be considered as bioplastics? Not<br />

necessarily, I would say. If these plastics are in fact biodegradable<br />

they would fall under our definition of bioplastics (see our revised<br />

and extended ‘Glossary 3.0’ on page 50ff). And if such plastics are<br />

made from CO 2<br />

that comes, via combustion or other chemical processes,<br />

from fossil based raw materials, we should at least avoid<br />

calling call them biobased. Nevertheless, I believe that the use of<br />

such CO 2<br />

to make plastics (or other useful products) and so prevent,<br />

or at least delay, the CO 2<br />

from entering the atmosphere, is a good<br />

approach in the sense of our overall objectives. It will certainly require<br />

further evaluation and even standardisation until CO 2<br />

based<br />

plastics can/will be defined as a new (bio-) plastic class or category.<br />

Plastics produced from CO 2<br />

, definitely one of the major topics in<br />

this issue of bioplastics MAGAZINE, is accompanied by further highlights.<br />

In several articles we report about biobased polyurethanes<br />

and elastomers and we present some articles about fibres and textile<br />

applications.<br />

In this issue we also present the five finalists for the 7 th Bioplastics<br />

Award. The number of entries was not as large as in previous<br />

years, however I doubt that the innovative power of this industry is<br />

Fig. 1: Route to PPC from CO 2 and propylene oxide<br />

CO 2<br />

reduction<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/12] Vol. 7 45<br />

Water oxidation by<br />

light energy<br />

water<br />

Carbon dioxide<br />

Oxygen<br />

Formic acid<br />

Metal catalyst<br />

Fig. 3: Panasonic scheme of its fully functioning artificial<br />

photosynthesis device<br />

(Courtesy of Panasonic Corporation).<br />

flagging. So we kindly ask all of you to keep your eyes open and report<br />

interesting innovations that have a significant market relevance<br />

whenever you see them. The 8 th Bioplastics Award is definitely coming.<br />

The 7 th ‘Bioplastics Oskar’ will be presented on November 6 th in<br />

Berlin at the European Bioplastics Conference.<br />

Until then, we hope you enjoy reading bioplastics MAGAZINE<br />

Sincerely yours<br />

Michael Thielen<br />

Follow us on twitter!<br />

www.twitter.com/bioplasticsmag<br />

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source<br />

Nitride Semiconductor<br />

Be our friend on Facebook!<br />

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46 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/12] Vol. 7<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/12] Vol. 7<br />

54 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17

Automotive<br />

In September <strong>2022</strong>, Alex Thielen,<br />

Editor of bioplastics MAGAZINE says:<br />

Already 10 years ago the topic of CO 2<br />

-based plastics<br />

was featured in bioplastics MAGAZINE. And our very<br />

own Michael Thielen wrote in the editorial on page 3<br />

whether or not they should be considered bioplastics.<br />

Back then we already made a clear distinction<br />

between bioplastics and CO 2<br />

-based plastics, as<br />

they should only be considered bioplastics, if either<br />

the CO 2<br />

comes from a biobased source or if they<br />

are biodegradable themselves. Now, 10 years later<br />

it should be more than obvious that we still agree<br />

with Michael’s statement about the usefulness<br />

of CO 2<br />

-based plastics as we now have a separate<br />

segment that showcases topics related to CCU<br />

(Carbon capture and utilisation) or CO 2<br />

-based plastic.<br />

Editorial<br />

However, the distinction is clear, CO 2<br />

-based<br />

plastics tend to be a category of their own<br />

– some might also be bioplastics<br />

but many, or even most, are not.<br />

However, the waters around the<br />

definitions of (bio)plastics are<br />

already rather murky, or as Jan<br />

Ravenstijn said in What’s in a name,<br />

“ask ten people for the definition (of<br />

plastic) and you’ll get at least eight<br />

different answers” (see bM 03/22,<br />

p. 46). So instead of muddying these<br />

waters further it seems to make sense<br />

to sidestep the whole “what is and<br />

isn’t a plastic” discussion by looking at<br />

it from a different angle – where does<br />

the carbon come from?<br />

In any case, it is clear that the idea of CO 2<br />

-<br />

based plastics is not new as even in 2012 we<br />

had articles about CO 2<br />

-based polypropylene<br />

carbonate polyols, CO 2<br />

-based polyurethanes,<br />

and a basics article about plastics made<br />

from CO 2<br />

in general. The last one on this list<br />

was written by industry experts from the novainstitute<br />

that a couple of years ago founded the<br />

Renewable Carbon Initiative which focuses on the<br />

feedstock issue of the plastics crisis. The concept<br />

of renewable carbon creates a neat framework<br />

through which we can look at plastics, or plasticlike<br />

materials, through a new lens.<br />

At the end of the<br />

day, the goal is to move<br />

away from fossil-based<br />

plastics, we want to<br />

defossilise the industry<br />

(as it is quite impossible<br />

to decarbonise). To be<br />

clear defossilisation<br />

in that sense does not<br />

mean to avoid “fossil<br />

carbon”, but to avoid<br />

making plastics from<br />

newly extracted fossil<br />

resources. Some processes that fall under renewable<br />

carbon like advanced recycling (or any recycling for<br />

that matter) or CCU may have fossil carbon in it, yet<br />

are useful (though as a side note, CO 2<br />

from direct<br />

air capture would technically count as bio due to its<br />

12<br />

C/ 14 C ratio). Again we can see how definitions of what<br />

might count as fossil can get in the way of solutions.<br />

And while some might not necessarily agree<br />

with the inclusion of CO 2<br />

-based plastics in this, by<br />

now almost iconic publication that used to focus<br />

exclusively on bioplastics (as the name might have<br />

given away), we think that it is more important to look<br />

at proper solutions for the vast amount of challenges<br />

we as an industry face. I would be more than happy if<br />

bioplastics, both biobased and biodegradable, could<br />

solve all these problems, but as history has shown<br />

change can be slow and cumbersome even if it is so<br />

urgently necessary. Therefore it is my opinion that we<br />

need to use all the available tools to challenge and<br />

change the status quo. That includes CCU and yes<br />

that also includes advanced recycling technologies.<br />

There will be dead ends and false prophets that will<br />

try to sell their greenwashing as proper solutions,<br />

but that doesn’t make CO 2<br />

-based and advanced<br />

recycling-based plastics the enemy – the enemy has<br />

always been misinformation and those that are keen<br />

to profit from false claims and straight out lies.<br />

Will this happen with CCU/CO 2<br />

-based plastics?<br />

Probably, yes. Did this happen and is still happening<br />

with bioplastics? Sadly, yes. But if we even want to<br />

have a shot at solving these humongous issues<br />

we need more diverse solutions that tackle the<br />

issues from different sides. Divided we will fall,<br />

together we might succeed.<br />

Categroy<br />

tinyurl.com/ccu2012<br />

3<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17 55

Basics<br />

Feedstocks for biobased plastics<br />

First, second, and third generation<br />

Biobased plastics can be made from a wide variety of<br />

feedstocks (Fig 1). Depending on whether the resources<br />

can also be used for food or feed, or waste streams are<br />

used, the feedstock can be distinguished in different ways.<br />

By Michael Thielen<br />

First Generation Feedstock<br />

Most biobased plastics are made of carbohydrate-rich<br />

plants, such as corn (maize), wheat, sugar cane, potatoes,<br />

sugar beet, rice, or vegetable oil, so-called food crops or<br />

first-generation feedstock. Bred by mankind over centuries<br />

for highest energy efficiency, currently, first-generation<br />

feedstock is the most efficient feedstock for the production<br />

of biobased plastics as it requires the least amount of land to<br />

grow and produce the highest yields. [1, 2].<br />

The efficiency of the crop-bioplastic ratio can be<br />

determined as follows: the annual yield of carbohydrates<br />

per hectare and the agricultural area needed to produce one<br />

tonne of biobased plastics. Research and development as<br />

well as new production processes are constantly improving<br />

the efficiency of crops.<br />

First-generation feedstock is criticized once in a while for<br />

its potential competition with food and feed. These arguments<br />

say the use of these crops takes away food intended for<br />

human or animal nutrition. In many cases, however, this is<br />

more about large biofuel plantations leading to increasing<br />

food prices. This is known as the “food versus fuel” debate.<br />

Thus, this criticism has been directed at the biofuel sector<br />

rather than the biobased plastics sector. But there seems to<br />

be a presumed link between biofuels and biobased plastics,<br />

which is nor exactly justified,<br />

Second Generation Feedstock<br />

Not only, but mainly driven by this criticism, the so-called<br />

second generation feedstock refers to non-food crops<br />

(cellulosic feedstock) such as wood, short-rotation crops<br />

such as poplar, willow or miscanthus (elephant grass), switch<br />

grass or castor oil, to name just a few.<br />

Third Generation Feedstock<br />

Apart from some sources giving algae [3] – having a higher<br />

growth yield than 1 st and 2 nd generation feedstocks –their<br />

own category, or others calling CO 2<br />

or methane [4] the third<br />

generation feedstock, many experts agree that all kinds<br />

of organic waste streams, such as wheat straw, bagasse,<br />

corncobs, palm fruit bunches, or the like represent this<br />

third group. Another example is the starch gained from the<br />

process water of industrial potato processing (french fries<br />

etc.) which is used to produce biobased plastics [5]. Even<br />

municipal wastewater is so rich in carbohydrates from food<br />

residues that its use as a source for the production of PHA is<br />

subject of research [6].<br />

In the end, the “food vs fuel” discussion continued for nonfood<br />

crops if grown on land destined for food production. The<br />

use of agricultural waste or residues would not constitute<br />

a direct conflict with food unless they are residues from<br />

the first-generation feedstock. Straw could potentially be<br />

considered animal feed and thus part of the food chain.<br />

It should, however, be noted, that different to biofuels, the<br />

total amount of agricultural land needed to produce biobased<br />

plastics in 2021 represented only 0.013 % of the total global<br />

agricultural area. And projected to 2026 it will be no more<br />

than 0.<strong>05</strong>8 % (see Fig 2) [1]. So there is ground to argue that<br />

this criticism is made in bad faith.<br />

[1] European Bioplastics: Renewable Feedstock https://www.europeanbioplastics.org/bioplastics/Feedstock/<br />

[2] bioplastics MAGAZINE, Glossary 4.5, <strong>Issue</strong> 01/2021<br />

[3] https://bioplasticsnews.com/2018/09/12/bioplastic-feedstock-1st-2ndand-3rd-generations/<br />

[4] NatureWorks: methane as third generation feedstock;<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE, <strong>Issue</strong> 02/2016<br />

[5] Co-products from potato processing, bioplastics MAGAZINE,<br />

<strong>Issue</strong> 03/2016<br />

[6] bioplastics MAGAZINE, <strong>Issue</strong>s 04/2007, 06/2020 and many more<br />

Fig 1: Biobased plastics are made from a wide range of<br />

renewable Biobased feedstocks (Picture: European Bioplastics) [1]<br />

Fig 2: Land use estimation for bioplastics 2021 and 2026<br />

(Picture: European Bioplastics) [1]<br />

56 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17

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bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17<br />


Basics<br />

Glossary 5.0 last update issue 06/2021<br />

In bioplastics MAGAZINE the same expressions appear again<br />

and again that some of our readers might not be familiar<br />

with. The purpose of this glossary is to provide an overview<br />

of relevant terminology of the bioplastics industry, to avoid<br />

repeated explanations of terms such as<br />

PLA (polylactic acid) in various articles.<br />

Bioplastics (as defined by European Bioplastics<br />

e.V.) is a term used to define two different kinds<br />

of plastics:<br />

a. Plastics based on → renewable resources<br />

(the focus is the origin of the raw material<br />

used). These can be biodegradable or not.<br />

b. → Biodegradable and → compostable plastics<br />

according to EN13432 or similar standards (the<br />

focus is the compostability of the final product;<br />

biodegradable and compostable plastics can<br />

be based on renewable (biobased) and/or nonrenewable<br />

(fossil) resources).<br />

Bioplastics may be<br />

- based on renewable resources and biodegradable;<br />

- based on renewable resources but not be<br />

biodegradable; and<br />

- based on fossil resources and biodegradable.<br />

Advanced Recycling | Innovative recycling<br />

methods that go beyond the traditional mechanical<br />

recycling of grinding and compoundig<br />

plastic waste. Advanced recycling includes<br />

chemical recycling or enzyme mediated recycling<br />

Aerobic digestion | Aerobic means in the presence<br />

of oxygen. In →composting, which is an<br />

aerobic process, →microorganisms access the<br />

present oxygen from the surrounding atmosphere.<br />

They metabolize the organic material to<br />

energy, CO 2<br />

, water and cell biomass, whereby<br />

part of the energy of the organic material is released<br />

as heat. [bM 03/07, bM 02/09]<br />

Anaerobic digestion | In anaerobic digestion,<br />

organic matter is degraded by a microbial<br />

population in the absence of oxygen<br />

and producing methane and carbon dioxide<br />

(= →biogas) and a solid residue that can be<br />

composted in a subsequent step without practically<br />

releasing any heat. The biogas can be<br />

treated in a Combined Heat and Power Plant<br />

(CHP), producing electricity and heat, or can be<br />

upgraded to bio-methane [14]. [bM 06/09]<br />

Amorphous | Non-crystalline, glassy with unordered<br />

lattice.<br />

Amylopectin | Polymeric branched starch molecule<br />

with very high molecular weight (biopolymer,<br />

monomer is →Glucose). [bM <strong>05</strong>/09]<br />

Since this glossary will not be printed<br />

in each issue you can download a pdf version<br />

from our website (tinyurl.com/bpglossary).<br />

[bM ... refers to more comprehensive article previously published in bioplastics MAGAZINE)<br />

Amylose | Polymeric non-branched starch<br />

molecule with high molecular weight (biopolymer,<br />

monomer is →Glucose). [bM <strong>05</strong>/09]<br />

Biobased | The term biobased describes the<br />

part of a material or product that is stemming<br />

from →biomass. When making a biobasedclaim,<br />

the unit (→biobased carbon content,<br />

→biobased mass content), a percentage and the<br />

measuring method should be clearly stated [1].<br />

Biobased carbon | Carbon contained in or<br />

stemming from →biomass. A material or product<br />

made of fossil and →renewable resources<br />

contains fossil and →biobased carbon.<br />

The biobased carbon content is measured via<br />

the 14 C method (radiocarbon dating method) that<br />

adheres to the technical specifications as described<br />

in [1,4,5,6].<br />

Biobased labels | The fact that (and to<br />

what percentage) a product or a material is<br />

→biobased can be indicated by respective labels.<br />

Ideally, meaningful labels should be based<br />

on harmonised standards and a corresponding<br />

certification process by independent third-party<br />

institutions. For the property biobased such<br />

labels are in place by certifiers →DIN CERTCO<br />

and →TÜV Austria who both base their certifications<br />

on the technical specification as described<br />

in [4,5]. A certification and the corresponding<br />

label depicting the biobased mass content was<br />

developed by the French Association Chimie du<br />

Végétal [ACDV].<br />

Biobased mass content | describes the amount<br />

of biobased mass contained in a material or<br />

product. This method is complementary to the<br />

14<br />

C method, and furthermore, takes other chemical<br />

elements besides the biobased carbon into<br />

account, such as oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen.<br />

A measuring method has been developed<br />

and tested by the Association Chimie du Végétal<br />

(ACDV) [1].<br />

Biobased plastic | A plastic in which constitutional<br />

units are totally or partly from →<br />

biomass [3]. If this claim is used, a percentage<br />

should always be given to which extent<br />

the product/material is → biobased [1].<br />

[bM 01/07, bM 03/10]<br />

Biodegradable Plastics | are plastics that are<br />

completely assimilated by the → microorganisms<br />

present a defined environment as food<br />

for their energy. The carbon of the plastic must<br />

completely be converted into CO 2<br />

during the microbial<br />

process.<br />

The process of biodegradation depends on the<br />

environmental conditions, which influence it<br />

(e.g. location, temperature, humidity) and on the<br />

material or application itself. Consequently, the<br />

process and its outcome can vary considerably.<br />

Biodegradability is linked to the structure of the<br />

polymer chain; it does not depend on the origin<br />

of the raw materials.<br />

There is currently no single, overarching standard<br />

to back up claims about biodegradability.<br />

One standard, for example, is ISO or in Europe:<br />

EN 14995 Plastics - Evaluation of compostability<br />

- Test scheme and specifications.<br />

[bM 02/06, bM 01/07]<br />

Biogas | → Anaerobic digestion<br />

Biomass | Material of biological origin excluding<br />

material embedded in geological formations<br />

and material transformed to fossilised<br />

material. This includes organic material, e.g.<br />

trees, crops, grasses, tree litter, algae and<br />

waste of biological origin, e.g. manure [1, 2].<br />

Biorefinery | The co-production of a spectrum<br />

of biobased products (food, feed, materials,<br />

chemicals including monomers or building<br />

blocks for bioplastics) and energy (fuels, power,<br />

heat) from biomass. [bM 02/13]<br />

Blend | Mixture of plastics, polymer alloy of at<br />

least two microscopically dispersed and molecularly<br />

distributed base polymers.<br />

Bisphenol-A (BPA) | Monomer used to produce<br />

different polymers. BPA is said to cause health<br />

problems, because it behaves like a hormone.<br />

Therefore, it is banned for use in children’s<br />

products in many countries.<br />

BPI | Biodegradable Products Institute, a notfor-profit<br />

association. Through their innovative<br />

compostable label program, BPI educates<br />

manufacturers, legislators and consumers<br />

about the importance of scientifically based<br />

standards for compostable materials which<br />

biodegrade in large composting facilities.<br />

Carbon footprint | (CFPs resp. PCFs – Product<br />

Carbon Footprint): Sum of →greenhouse gas<br />

emissions and removals in a product system,<br />

expressed as CO 2<br />

equivalent, and based on a →<br />

Life Cycle Assessment. The CO 2<br />

equivalent of a<br />

specific amount of a greenhouse gas is calculated<br />

as the mass of a given greenhouse gas<br />

multiplied by its → global warming potential<br />

[1,2,15]<br />

Carbon neutral, CO 2<br />

neutral | describes a<br />

product or process that has a negligible impact<br />

on total atmospheric CO 2<br />

levels. For example,<br />

carbon neutrality means that any CO 2<br />

released<br />

when a plant decomposes or is burnt is offset<br />

by an equal amount of CO 2<br />

absorbed by the<br />

plant through photosynthesis when it is growing.<br />

Carbon neutrality can also be achieved by buying<br />

sufficient carbon credits to make up the difference.<br />

The latter option is not allowed when<br />

communicating → LCAs or carbon footprints<br />

regarding a material or product [1, 2].<br />

Carbon-neutral claims are tricky as products<br />

will not in most cases reach carbon neutrality<br />

if their complete life cycle is taken into consideration<br />

(including the end-of-life).<br />

42 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17

If an assessment of a material, however, is<br />

conducted (cradle-to-gate), carbon neutrality<br />

might be a valid claim in a B2B context. In this<br />

case, the unit assessed in the complete life cycle<br />

has to be clarified [1].<br />

Cascade use | of →renewable resources means<br />

to first use the →biomass to produce biobased<br />

industrial products and afterwards – due to<br />

their favourable energy balance – use them<br />

for energy generation (e.g. from a biobased<br />

plastic product to → biogas production). The<br />

feedstock is used efficiently and value generation<br />

increases decisively.<br />

Catalyst | Substance that enables and accelerates<br />

a chemical reaction<br />

CCU, Carbon Capture & Utilisation | is a broad<br />

term that covers all established and innovative<br />

industrial processes that aim at capturing<br />

CO2 – either from industrial point sources or<br />

directly from the air – and at transforming it<br />

into a variety of value-added products, in our<br />

case plastics or plastic precursor chemicals.<br />

[bM 03/21, <strong>05</strong>/21]<br />

CCS, Carbon Capture & Storage | is a technology<br />

similar to CCU used to stop large amounts of<br />

CO2 from being released into the atmosphere,<br />

by separating the carbon dioxide from emissions.<br />

The CO2 is then injecting it into geological<br />

formations where it is permanently stored.<br />

Cellophane | Clear film based on →cellulose.<br />

[bM 01/10, 06/21]<br />

Cellulose | Cellulose is the principal component<br />

of cell walls in all higher forms of plant<br />

life, at varying percentages. It is therefore the<br />

most common organic compound and also the<br />

most common polysaccharide (multi-sugar)<br />

[11]. Cellulose is a polymeric molecule with<br />

very high molecular weight (monomer is →Glucose),<br />

industrial production from wood or cotton,<br />

to manufacture paper, plastics and fibres.<br />

[bM 01/10, 06/21]<br />

Cellulose ester | Cellulose esters occur by<br />

the esterification of cellulose with organic acids.<br />

The most important cellulose esters from<br />

a technical point of view are cellulose acetate<br />

(CA with acetic acid), cellulose propionate (CP<br />

with propionic acid) and cellulose butyrate (CB<br />

with butanoic acid). Mixed polymerisates, such<br />

as cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) can also<br />

be formed. One of the most well-known applications<br />

of cellulose aceto butyrate (CAB) is the<br />

moulded handle on the Swiss army knife [11].<br />

Cellulose acetate CA | → Cellulose ester<br />

CEN | Comité Européen de Normalisation (European<br />

organisation for standardization).<br />

Certification | is a process in which materials/<br />

products undergo a string of (laboratory) tests<br />

in order to verify that they fulfil certain requirements.<br />

Sound certification systems should be<br />

based on (ideally harmonised) European standards<br />

or technical specifications (e.g., by →CEN,<br />

USDA, ASTM, etc.) and be performed by independent<br />

third-party laboratories. Successful<br />

certification guarantees a high product safety<br />

- also on this basis, interconnected labels can<br />

be awarded that help the consumer to make an<br />

informed decision.<br />

Circular economy | The circular economy is a<br />

model of production and consumption, which<br />

involves sharing, leasing, reusing, repairing,<br />

refurbishing and recycling existing materials<br />

and products as long as possible. In this way,<br />

the life cycle of products is extended. In practice,<br />

it implies reducing waste to a minimum.<br />

Ideally erasing waste altogether, by reintroducing<br />

a product, or its material, at the end-of-life<br />

back in the production process – closing the<br />

loop. These can be productively used again and<br />

again, thereby creating further value. This is a<br />

departure from the traditional, linear economic<br />

model, which is based on a take-make-consume-throw<br />

away pattern. This model relies<br />

on large quantities of cheap, easily accessible<br />

materials, and green energy.<br />

Compost | A soil conditioning material of decomposing<br />

organic matter which provides nutrients<br />

and enhances soil structure.<br />

[bM 06/08, 02/09]<br />

Compostable Plastics | Plastics that are<br />

→ biodegradable under →composting conditions:<br />

specified humidity, temperature,<br />

→ microorganisms and timeframe. To make<br />

accurate and specific claims about compostability,<br />

the location (home, → industrial)<br />

and timeframe need to be specified [1].<br />

Several national and international standards exist<br />

for clearer definitions, for example, EN 14995<br />

Plastics - Evaluation of compostability - Test<br />

scheme and specifications. [bM 02/06, bM 01/07]<br />

Composting | is the controlled →aerobic, or oxygen-requiring,<br />

decomposition of organic materials<br />

by →microorganisms, under controlled<br />

conditions. It reduces the volume and mass<br />

of the raw materials while transforming them<br />

into CO 2<br />

, water and a valuable soil conditioner<br />

– compost.<br />

When talking about composting of bioplastics,<br />

foremost →industrial composting in a managed<br />

composting facility is meant (criteria defined in<br />

EN 13432).<br />

The main difference between industrial and<br />

home composting is, that in industrial composting<br />

facilities temperatures are much higher<br />

and kept stable, whereas in the composting<br />

pile temperatures are usually lower, and<br />

less constant as depending on factors such as<br />

weather conditions. Home composting is a way<br />

slower-paced process than industrial composting.<br />

Also, a comparatively smaller volume of<br />

waste is involved. [bM 03/07]<br />

Compound | Plastic mixture from different raw<br />

materials (polymer and additives). [bM 04/10)<br />

Copolymer | Plastic composed of different<br />

monomers.<br />

Cradle-to-Gate | Describes the system boundaries<br />

of an environmental →Life Cycle Assessment<br />

(LCA) which covers all activities from the<br />

cradle (i.e., the extraction of raw materials, agricultural<br />

activities and forestry) up to the factory<br />

gate.<br />

Cradle-to-Cradle | (sometimes abbreviated as<br />

C2C): Is an expression which communicates<br />

the concept of a closed-cycle economy, in which<br />

waste is used as raw material (‘waste equals<br />

food’). Cradle-to-Cradle is not a term that is<br />

typically used in →LCA studies.<br />

Cradle-to-Grave | Describes the system<br />

boundaries of a full →Life Cycle Assessment<br />

from manufacture (cradle) to use phase and<br />

disposal phase (grave).<br />

Crystalline | Plastic with regularly arranged<br />

molecules in a lattice structure.<br />

Density | Quotient from mass and volume of a<br />

material, also referred to as specific weight.<br />

DIN | Deutsches Institut für Normung (German<br />

organisation for standardization).<br />

DIN-CERTCO | Independant certifying organisation<br />

for the assessment on the conformity of<br />

bioplastics.<br />

Dispersing | Fine distribution of non-miscible<br />

liquids into a homogeneous, stable mixture.<br />

Drop-In bioplastics | are chemically indentical<br />

to conventional petroleum-based plastics,<br />

but made from renewable resources. Examples<br />

are bio-PE made from bio-ethanol (from<br />

e.g. sugar cane) or partly biobased PET; the<br />

monoethylene glycol made from bio-ethanol.<br />

Developments to make terephthalic acid from<br />

renewable resources are underway. Other examples<br />

are polyamides (partly biobased e.g. PA<br />

4.10 or PA 6.10 or fully biobased like PA 5.10 or<br />

PA10.10).<br />

EN 13432 | European standard for the assessment<br />

of the → compostability of plastic packaging<br />

products.<br />

Energy recovery | Recovery and exploitation of<br />

the energy potential in (plastic) waste for the<br />

production of electricity or heat in waste incineration<br />

plants (waste-to-energy).<br />

Environmental claim | A statement, symbol<br />

or graphic that indicates one or more environmental<br />

aspect(s) of a product, a component,<br />

packaging, or a service. [16].<br />

Enzymes | are proteins that catalyze chemical<br />

reactions.<br />

Enzyme-mediated plastics | are not →bioplastics.<br />

Instead, a conventional non-biodegradable<br />

plastic (e.g. fossil-based PE) is enriched with<br />

small amounts of an organic additive. Microorganisms<br />

are supposed to consume these<br />

additives and the degradation process should<br />

then expand to the non-biodegradable PE and<br />

thus make the material degrade. After some<br />

time the plastic is supposed to visually disappear<br />

and to be completely converted to carbon<br />

dioxide and water. This is a theoretical concept<br />

which has not been backed up by any verifiable<br />

proof so far. Producers promote enzymemediated<br />

plastics as a solution to littering. As<br />

no proof for the degradation process has been<br />

provided, environmental beneficial effects are<br />

highly questionable.<br />

Ethylene | Colour- and odourless gas, made<br />

e.g. from, Naphtha (petroleum) by cracking or<br />

from bio-ethanol by dehydration, the monomer<br />

of the polymer polyethylene (PE).<br />

European Bioplastics e.V. | The industry association<br />

representing the interests of Europe’s<br />

thriving bioplastics’ industry. Founded in Germany<br />

in 1993 as IBAW, European Bioplastics<br />

today represents the interests of about 50<br />

member companies throughout the European<br />

Union and worldwide. With members from the<br />

agricultural feedstock, chemical and plastics<br />

industries, as well as industrial users and recycling<br />

companies, European Bioplastics serves<br />

as both a contact platform and catalyst for<br />

advancing the aims of the growing bioplastics<br />

industry.<br />

Extrusion | Process used to create plastic<br />

profiles (or sheet) of a fixed cross-section consisting<br />

of mixing, melting, homogenising and<br />

shaping of the plastic.<br />

FDCA | 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid, an intermediate<br />

chemical produced from 5-HMF. The<br />

dicarboxylic acid can be used to make → PEF =<br />

Glossary<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17 43

Basics<br />

polyethylene furanoate, a polyester that could<br />

be a 100% biobased alternative to PET.<br />

Fermentation | Biochemical reactions controlled<br />

by → microorganisms or → enyzmes (e.g. the<br />

transformation of sugar into lactic acid).<br />

FSC | The Forest Stewardship Council. FSC is<br />

an independent, non-governmental, not-forprofit<br />

organization established to promote the<br />

responsible and sustainable management of<br />

the world’s forests.<br />

Gelatine | Translucent brittle solid substance,<br />

colourless or slightly yellow, nearly tasteless<br />

and odourless, extracted from the collagen inside<br />

animals‘ connective tissue.<br />

Genetically modified organism (GMO) | Organisms,<br />

such as plants and animals, whose<br />

genetic material (DNA) has been altered are<br />

called genetically modified organisms (GMOs).<br />

Food and feed which contain or consist of such<br />

GMOs, or are produced from GMOs, are called<br />

genetically modified (GM) food or feed [1]. If GM<br />

crops are used in bioplastics production, the<br />

multiple-stage processing and the high heat<br />

used to create the polymer removes all traces<br />

of genetic material. This means that the final<br />

bioplastics product contains no genetic traces.<br />

The resulting bioplastics are therefore well<br />

suited to use in food packaging as it contains<br />

no genetically modified material and cannot interact<br />

with the contents.<br />

Global Warming | Global warming is the rise<br />

in the average temperature of Earth’s atmosphere<br />

and oceans since the late 19th century<br />

and its projected continuation [8]. Global warming<br />

is said to be accelerated by → greenhouse<br />

gases.<br />

Glucose | is a monosaccharide (or simple<br />

sugar). It is the most important carbohydrate<br />

(sugar) in biology. Glucose is formed by photosynthesis<br />

or hydrolyse of many carbohydrates<br />

e. g. starch.<br />

Greenhouse gas, GHG | Gaseous constituent<br />

of the atmosphere, both natural and anthropogenic,<br />

that absorbs and emits radiation at<br />

specific wavelengths within the spectrum of infrared<br />

radiation emitted by the Earth’s surface,<br />

the atmosphere, and clouds [1, 9].<br />

Greenwashing | The act of misleading consumers<br />

regarding the environmental practices of a<br />

company, or the environmental benefits of a<br />

product or service [1, 10].<br />

Granulate, granules | Small plastic particles<br />

(3-4 millimetres), a form in which plastic is sold<br />

and fed into machines, easy to handle and dose.<br />

HMF (5-HMF) | 5-hydroxymethylfurfural is an<br />

organic compound derived from sugar dehydration.<br />

It is a platform chemical, a building<br />

block for 20 performance polymers and over<br />

175 different chemical substances. The molecule<br />

consists of a furan ring which contains<br />

both aldehyde and alcohol functional groups.<br />

5-HMF has applications in many different industries<br />

such as bioplastics, packaging, pharmaceuticals,<br />

adhesives and chemicals. One of<br />

the most promising routes is 2,5 furandicarboxylic<br />

acid (FDCA), produced as an intermediate<br />

when 5-HMF is oxidised. FDCA is used to<br />

produce PEF, which can substitute terephthalic<br />

acid in polyester, especially polyethylene terephthalate<br />

(PET). [bM 03/14, 02/16]<br />

Home composting | →composting [bM 06/08]<br />

Humus | In agriculture, humus is often used<br />

simply to mean mature →compost, or natural<br />

compost extracted from a forest or other spontaneous<br />

source for use to amend soil.<br />

Hydrophilic | Property: water-friendly, soluble<br />

in water or other polar solvents (e.g. used in<br />

conjunction with a plastic which is not waterresistant<br />

and weatherproof, or that absorbs<br />

water such as polyamide. (PA).<br />

Hydrophobic | Property: water-resistant, not<br />

soluble in water (e.g. a plastic which is water<br />

resistant and weatherproof, or that does not<br />

absorb any water such as polyethylene (PE) or<br />

polypropylene (PP).<br />

Industrial composting | is an established process<br />

with commonly agreed-upon requirements<br />

(e.g. temperature, timeframe) for transforming<br />

biodegradable waste into stable, sanitised products<br />

to be used in agriculture. The criteria for industrial<br />

compostability of packaging have been<br />

defined in the EN 13432. Materials and products<br />

complying with this standard can be certified<br />

and subsequently labelled accordingly [1,7]. [bM<br />

06/08, 02/09]<br />

ISO | International Organization for Standardization<br />

JBPA | Japan Bioplastics Association<br />

Land use | The surface required to grow sufficient<br />

feedstock (land use) for today’s bioplastic<br />

production is less than 0.02 % of the global<br />

agricultural area of 4.7 billion hectares. It is not<br />

yet foreseeable to what extent an increased use<br />

of food residues, non-food crops or cellulosic<br />

biomass in bioplastics production might lead to<br />

an even further reduced land use in the future.<br />

[bM 04/09, 01/14]<br />

LCA, Life Cycle Assessment | is the compilation<br />

and evaluation of the input, output and the<br />

potential environmental impact of a product<br />

system throughout its life cycle [17]. It is sometimes<br />

also referred to as life cycle analysis,<br />

eco-balance or cradle-to-grave analysis. [bM<br />

01/09]<br />

Littering | is the (illegal) act of leaving waste<br />

such as cigarette butts, paper, tins, bottles,<br />

cups, plates, cutlery, or bags lying in an open<br />

or public place.<br />

Marine litter | Following the European Commission’s<br />

definition, “marine litter consists of<br />

items that have been deliberately discarded,<br />

unintentionally lost, or transported by winds<br />

and rivers, into the sea and on beaches. It<br />

mainly consists of plastics, wood, metals,<br />

glass, rubber, clothing and paper”. Marine debris<br />

originates from a variety of sources. Shipping<br />

and fishing activities are the predominant<br />

sea-based, ineffectively managed landfills as<br />

well as public littering the mainland-based<br />

sources. Marine litter can pose a threat to living<br />

organisms, especially due to ingestion or<br />

entanglement.<br />

Currently, there is no international standard<br />

available, which appropriately describes the<br />

biodegradation of plastics in the marine environment.<br />

However, several standardisation<br />

projects are in progress at the ISO and ASTM<br />

(ASTM D6691) level. Furthermore, the European<br />

project OPEN BIO addresses the marine<br />

biodegradation of biobased products. [bM 02/16]<br />

Mass balance | describes the relationship between<br />

input and output of a specific substance<br />

within a system in which the output from the system<br />

cannot exceed the input into the system.<br />

First attempts were made by plastic raw material<br />

producers to claim their products renewable<br />

(plastics) based on a certain input of biomass<br />

in a huge and complex chemical plant,<br />

then mathematically allocating this biomass<br />

input to the produced plastic.<br />

These approaches are at least controversially<br />

disputed. [bM 04/14, <strong>05</strong>/14, 01/15]<br />

Microorganism | Living organisms of microscopic<br />

sizes, such as bacteria, fungi or yeast.<br />

Molecule | A group of at least two atoms held<br />

together by covalent chemical bonds.<br />

Monomer | Molecules that are linked by polymerization<br />

to form chains of molecules and then<br />

plastics.<br />

Mulch film | Foil to cover the bottom of farmland.<br />

Organic recycling | means the treatment of<br />

separately collected organic waste by anaerobic<br />

digestion and/or composting.<br />

Oxo-degradable / Oxo-fragmentable | materials<br />

and products that do not biodegrade! The<br />

underlying technology of oxo-degradability or<br />

oxo-fragmentation is based on special additives,<br />

which, if incorporated into standard resins, are<br />

purported to accelerate the fragmentation of<br />

products made thereof. Oxo-degradable or oxofragmentable<br />

materials do not meet accepted<br />

industry standards on compostability such as<br />

EN 13432. [bM 01/09, <strong>05</strong>/09]<br />

PBAT | Polybutylene adipate terephthalate, is<br />

an aliphatic-aromatic copolyester that has the<br />

properties of conventional polyethylene but is<br />

fully biodegradable under industrial composting.<br />

PBAT is made from fossil petroleum with<br />

first attempts being made to produce it partly<br />

from renewable resources. [bM 06/09]<br />

PBS | Polybutylene succinate, a 100% biodegradable<br />

polymer, made from (e.g. bio-BDO)<br />

and succinic acid, which can also be produced<br />

biobased. [bM 03/12]<br />

PC | Polycarbonate, thermoplastic polyester,<br />

petroleum-based and not degradable, used for<br />

e.g. for baby bottles or CDs. Criticized for its<br />

BPA (→ Bisphenol-A) content.<br />

PCL | Polycaprolactone, a synthetic (fossilbased),<br />

biodegradable bioplastic, e.g. used as<br />

a blend component.<br />

PE | Polyethylene, thermoplastic polymerised<br />

from ethylene. Can be made from renewable<br />

resources (sugar cane via bio-ethanol). [bM <strong>05</strong>/10]<br />

PEF | Polyethylene furanoate, a polyester made<br />

from monoethylene glycol (MEG) and →FDCA<br />

(2,5-furandicarboxylic acid , an intermediate<br />

chemical produced from 5-HMF). It can be a<br />

100% biobased alternative for PET. PEF also<br />

has improved product characteristics, such as<br />

better structural strength and improved barrier<br />

behaviour, which will allow for the use of PEF<br />

bottles in additional applications. [bM 03/11, 04/12]<br />

PET | Polyethylenterephthalate, transparent<br />

polyester used for bottles and film. The polyester<br />

is made from monoethylene glycol (MEG),<br />

that can be renewably sourced from bio-ethanol<br />

(sugar cane) and, since recently, from plantbased<br />

paraxylene (bPX) which has been converted<br />

to plant-based terephthalic acid (bPTA).<br />

[bM 04/14. bM 06/2021]<br />

PGA | Polyglycolic acid or polyglycolide is a<br />

biodegradable, thermoplastic polymer and the<br />

simplest linear, aliphatic polyester. Besides its<br />

44 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17

use in the biomedical field, PGA has been introduced<br />

as a barrier resin. [bM 03/09]<br />

PHA | Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) or the polyhydroxy<br />

fatty acids, are a family of biodegradable<br />

polyesters. As in many mammals, including<br />

humans, that hold energy reserves in the form<br />

of body fat some bacteria that hold intracellular<br />

reserves in form of of polyhydroxyalkanoates.<br />

Here the micro-organisms store a particularly<br />

high level of energy reserves (up to 80% of their<br />

own body weight) for when their sources of nutrition<br />

become scarce. By farming this type of<br />

bacteria, and feeding them on sugar or starch<br />

(mostly from maize), or at times on plant oils or<br />

other nutrients rich in carbonates, it is possible<br />

to obtain PHA‘s on an industrial scale [11]. The<br />

most common types of PHA are PHB (Polyhydroxybutyrate,<br />

PHBV and PHBH. Depending on<br />

the bacteria and their food, PHAs with different<br />

mechanical properties, from rubbery soft<br />

trough stiff and hard as ABS, can be produced.<br />

Some PHAs are even biodegradable in soil or in<br />

a marine environment.<br />

PLA | Polylactide or polylactic acid (PLA), a<br />

biodegradable, thermoplastic, linear aliphatic<br />

polyester based on lactic acid, a natural acid,<br />

is mainly produced by fermentation of sugar or<br />

starch with the help of micro-organisms. Lactic<br />

acid comes in two isomer forms, i.e. as laevorotatory<br />

D(-)lactic acid and as dextrorotary L(+)<br />

lactic acid.<br />

Modified PLA types can be produced by the use<br />

of the right additives or by certain combinations<br />

of L- and D- lactides (stereocomplexing), which<br />

then have the required rigidity for use at higher<br />

temperatures [13]. [bM 01/09, 01/12]<br />

Plastics | Materials with large molecular chains<br />

of natural or fossil raw materials, produced by<br />

chemical or biochemical reactions.<br />

PPC | Polypropylene carbonate, a bioplastic<br />

made by copolymerizing CO 2<br />

with propylene oxide<br />

(PO). [bM 04/12]<br />

PTT | Polytrimethylterephthalate (PTT), partially<br />

biobased polyester, is produced similarly to<br />

PET, using terephthalic acid or dimethyl terephthalate<br />

and a diol. In this case it is a biobased<br />

1,3 propanediol, also known as bio-PDO. [bM<br />

01/13]<br />

Renewable Carbon | entails all carbon sources<br />

that avoid or substitute the use of any additional<br />

fossil carbon from the geosphere. It can come<br />

from the biosphere, atmosphere, or technosphere,<br />

applications are, e.g., bioplastics, CO2-<br />

based plastics, and recycled plastics respectively.<br />

Renewable carbon circulates between<br />

biosphere, atmosphere, or technosphere, creating<br />

a carbon circular economy. [bM 03/21]<br />

Renewable resources | Agricultural raw materials,<br />

which are not used as food or feed, but as<br />

raw material for industrial products or to generate<br />

energy. The use of renewable resources<br />

by industry saves fossil resources and reduces<br />

the amount of → greenhouse gas emissions.<br />

Biobased plastics are predominantly made of<br />

annual crops such as corn, cereals, and sugar<br />

beets or perennial cultures such as cassava<br />

and sugar cane.<br />

Resource efficiency | Use of limited natural<br />

resources in a sustainable way while minimising<br />

impacts on the environment. A resourceefficient<br />

economy creates more output or value<br />

with lesser input.<br />

Seedling logo | The compostability label or<br />

logo Seedling is connected to the standard<br />

EN 13432/EN 14995 and a certification process<br />

managed by the independent institutions<br />

→DIN CERTCO and → TÜV Austria. Bioplastics<br />

products carrying the Seedling fulfil the criteria<br />

laid down in the EN 13432 regarding industrial<br />

compostability. [bM 01/06, 02/10]<br />

Saccharins or carbohydrates | Saccharins or<br />

carbohydrates are named for the sugar-family.<br />

Saccharins are monomer or polymer sugar<br />

units. For example, there are known mono-,<br />

di- and polysaccharose. → glucose is a monosaccarin.<br />

They are important for the diet and<br />

produced biology in plants.<br />

Semi-finished products | Plastic in form of<br />

sheet, film, rods or the like to be further processed<br />

into finished products<br />

Sorbitol | Sugar alcohol, obtained by reduction<br />

of glucose changing the aldehyde group to an<br />

additional hydroxyl group. It is used as a plasticiser<br />

for bioplastics based on starch.<br />

Starch | Natural polymer (carbohydrate) consisting<br />

of → amylose and → amylopectin, gained<br />

from maize, potatoes, wheat, tapioca etc. When<br />

glucose is connected to polymer chains in a<br />

definite way the result (product) is called starch.<br />

Each molecule is based on 300 -12000-glucose<br />

units. Depending on the connection, there are<br />

two types known → amylose and → amylopectin.<br />

[bM <strong>05</strong>/09]<br />

Starch derivatives | Starch derivatives are<br />

based on the chemical structure of → starch.<br />

The chemical structure can be changed by<br />

introducing new functional groups without<br />

changing the → starch polymer. The product<br />

has different chemical qualities. Mostly the hydrophilic<br />

character is not the same.<br />

Starch-ester | One characteristic of every<br />

starch-chain is a free hydroxyl group. When<br />

every hydroxyl group is connected with an<br />

acid one product is starch-ester with different<br />

chemical properties.<br />

Starch propionate and starch butyrate | Starch<br />

propionate and starch butyrate can be synthesised<br />

by treating the → starch with propane<br />

or butanoic acid. The product structure is still<br />

based on → starch. Every based → glucose<br />

fragment is connected with a propionate or butyrate<br />

ester group. The product is more hydrophobic<br />

than → starch.<br />

Sustainability | An attempt to provide the best<br />

outcomes for the human and natural environments<br />

both now and into the indefinite future.<br />

One famous definition of sustainability is the<br />

one created by the Brundtland Commission, led<br />

by the former Norwegian Prime Minister G. H.<br />

Brundtland. It defined sustainable development<br />

as development that ‘meets the needs of the<br />

present without compromising the ability of future<br />

generations to meet their own needs.’ Sustainability<br />

relates to the continuity of economic,<br />

social, institutional and environmental aspects<br />

of human society, as well as the nonhuman environment.<br />

This means that sustainable development<br />

involves the simultaneous pursuit of economic<br />

prosperity, environmental protection, and<br />

social equity. In other words, businesses have to<br />

expand their responsibility to include these environmental<br />

and social dimensions. It also implies<br />

a commitment to continuous improvement<br />

that should result in a further reduction of the<br />

environmental footprint of today’s products, processes<br />

and raw materials used. Impacts such as<br />

the deforestation of protected habitats or social<br />

and environmental damage arising from poor<br />

agricultural practices must be avoided. Corresponding<br />

certification schemes, such as ISCC<br />

PLUS, WLC or Bonsucro, are an appropriate tool<br />

to ensure the sustainable sourcing of biomass<br />

for all applications around the globe.<br />

Thermoplastics | Plastics which soften or melt<br />

when heated and solidify when cooled (solid at<br />

room temperature).<br />

Thermoplastic Starch | (TPS) → starch that was<br />

modified (cooked, complexed) to make it a plastic<br />

resin<br />

Thermoset | Plastics (resins) which do not soften<br />

or melt when heated. Examples are epoxy<br />

resins or unsaturated polyester resins.<br />

TÜV Austria Belgium | Independant certifying<br />

organisation for the assessment on the conformity<br />

of bioplastics (formerly Vinçotte)<br />

WPC | Wood Plastic Composite. Composite<br />

materials made of wood fibre/flour and plastics<br />

(mostly polypropylene).<br />

Yard Waste | Grass clippings, leaves, trimmings,<br />

garden residue.<br />

References:<br />

[1] Environmental Communication Guide, European<br />

Bioplastics, Berlin, Germany, 2012<br />

[2] ISO 14067. Carbon footprint of products -<br />

Requirements and guidelines for quantification<br />

and communication<br />

[3] CEN TR 15932, Plastics - Recommendation<br />

for terminology and characterisation of biopolymers<br />

and bioplastics, 2010<br />

[4] CEN/TS 16137, Plastics - Determination of<br />

bio-based carbon content, 2011<br />

[5] ASTM D6866, Standard Test Methods for<br />

Determining the Biobased Content of Solid,<br />

Liquid, and Gaseous Samples Using Radiocarbon<br />

Analysis<br />

[6] SPI: Understanding Biobased Carbon Content,<br />

2012<br />

[7] EN 13432, Requirements for packaging recoverable<br />

through composting and biodegradation.<br />

Test scheme and evaluation criteria<br />

for the final acceptance of packaging,<br />

2000<br />

[8] Wikipedia<br />

[9] ISO 14064 Greenhouse gases -- Part 1:<br />

Specification with guidance..., 2006<br />

[10] Terrachoice, 2010, www.terrachoice.com<br />

[11] Thielen, M.: Bioplastics: Basics. Applications.<br />

Markets, Polymedia Publisher, 2012<br />

[12] Lörcks, J.: Biokunststoffe, Broschüre der<br />

FNR, 20<strong>05</strong><br />

[13] de Vos, S.: Improving heat-resistance of<br />

PLA using poly(D-lactide),<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE, Vol. 3, <strong>Issue</strong> 02/2008<br />

[14] de Wilde, B.: Anaerobic Digestion, bioplastics<br />

MAGAZINE, Vol 4., <strong>Issue</strong> 06/2009<br />

[15] ISO 14067 onb Corbon Footprint of Products<br />

[16] ISO 14021 on Self-declared Environmental<br />

claims<br />

[17] ISO 14044 on Life Cycle Assessment<br />

Glossary<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17 45

Suppliers Guide<br />

39 mm<br />

Simply contact:<br />

Tel.: +49 2161 6884467<br />

suppguide@bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

Stay permanently listed in the<br />

Suppliers Guide with your company<br />

logo and contact information.<br />

For only 6,– EUR per mm, per issue you<br />

can be listed among top suppliers in the<br />

field of bioplastics.<br />

For Example:<br />

Polymedia Publisher GmbH<br />

Dammer Str. 112<br />

41066 Mönchengladbach<br />

Germany<br />

Tel. +49 2161 664864<br />

Fax +49 2161 631045<br />

info@bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

Sample Charge:<br />

39mm x 6,00 €<br />

= 234,00 € per entry/per issue<br />

Sample Charge for one year:<br />

6 issues x 234,00 EUR = 1,404.00 €<br />

The entry in our Suppliers Guide is<br />

bookable for one year (6 issues) and extends<br />

automatically if it’s not cancelled<br />

three months before expiry.<br />

1. Raw materials<br />

AGRANA Starch<br />

Bioplastics<br />

Conrathstraße 7<br />

A-3950 Gmuend, Austria<br />

bioplastics.starch@agrana.com<br />

www.agrana.com<br />

Arkema<br />

Advanced Bio-Circular polymers<br />

Rilsan ® PA11 & Pebax ® Rnew ® TPE<br />

WW HQ: Colombes, FRANCE<br />

bio-circular.com<br />

hpp.arkema.com<br />

BASF SE<br />

Ludwigshafen, Germany<br />

Tel: +49 621 60-99951<br />

martin.bussmann@basf.com<br />

www.ecovio.com<br />

Gianeco S.r.l.<br />

Via Magenta 57 10128 Torino - Italy<br />

Tel.+390119370420<br />

info@gianeco.com<br />

www.gianeco.com<br />

Tel: +86 351-8689356<br />

Fax: +86 351-8689718<br />

www.jinhuizhaolong.com<br />

ecoworldsales@jinhuigroup.com<br />

Bioplastics — PLA, PBAT<br />

www.lgchem.com<br />

youtu.be/p8CIXaOuv1A<br />

bioplastics@lgchem.com<br />

Mixcycling Srl<br />

Via dell‘Innovazione, 2<br />

36042 Breganze (VI), Italy<br />

Phone: +39 04451911890<br />

info@mixcycling.it<br />

www.mixcycling.it<br />

PTT MCC Biochem Co., Ltd.<br />

info@pttmcc.com / www.pttmcc.com<br />

Tel: +66(0) 2 140-3563<br />

MCPP Germany GmbH<br />

+49 (0) 211 520 54 662<br />

Julian.Schmeling@mcpp-europe.com<br />

MCPP France SAS<br />

+33 (0)2 51 65 71 43<br />

fabien.resweber@mcpp-europe.com<br />

Xiamen Changsu Industrial Co., Ltd<br />

Tel +86-592-6899303<br />

Mobile:+ 86 185 5920 1506<br />

Email: andy@chang-su.com.cn<br />

Xinjiang Blue Ridge Tunhe<br />

Polyester Co., Ltd.<br />

No. 316, South Beijing Rd. Changji,<br />

Xinjiang, 831100, P.R.China<br />

Tel.: +86 994 22 90 90 9<br />

Mob: +86 187 99 283 100<br />

chenjianhui@lanshantunhe.com<br />

www.lanshantunhe.com<br />

PBAT & PBS resin supplier<br />

Zhejiang Huafon Environmental<br />

Protection Material Co.,Ltd.<br />

No.1688 Kaifaqu Road,Ruian<br />

Economic Development<br />

Zone,Zhejiang,China.<br />

Tel: +86 577 6689 01<strong>05</strong><br />

Mobile: +86 139 5881 3517<br />

ding.yeguan@huafeng.com<br />

www.huafeng.com<br />

Professional manufacturer for<br />

PBAT /CO 2<br />

-based biodegradable materials<br />

1.1 Biobased monomers<br />

1.2 Compounds<br />

Biofibre GmbH<br />

Member of Steinl Group<br />

Sonnenring 35<br />

D-84032 Altdorf<br />

Fon: +49 (0)871 308-0<br />

Fax: +49 (0)871 308-183<br />

info@biofibre.de<br />

www.biofibre.de<br />

Earth Renewable Technologies BR<br />

Estr. Velha do Barigui 1<strong>05</strong>11, Brazil<br />

slink@earthrenewable.com<br />

www.earthrenewable.com<br />

eli<br />

bio<br />

Elixance<br />

Tel +33 (0) 2 23 10 16 17<br />

Tel PA du +33 Gohélis, (0)2 56250 23 Elven, 10 16 France 17 - elixb<br />

elixbio@elixbio.com/www.elixbio.com<br />

www.elixance.com - www.elixb<br />

FKuR Kunststoff GmbH<br />

Siemensring 79<br />

D - 47 877 Willich<br />

Tel. +49 2154 9251-0<br />

Tel.: +49 2154 9251-51<br />

sales@fkur.com<br />

www.fkur.com<br />

P O L i M E R<br />


Ege Serbest Bolgesi, Koru Sk.,<br />

No.12, Gaziemir, Izmir 35410,<br />

Turkey<br />

+90 (232) 251 5041<br />

info@gemapolimer.com<br />

http://www.gemabio.com<br />

Global Biopolymers Co., Ltd.<br />

Bioplastics compounds<br />

(PLA+starch, PLA+rubber)<br />

194 Lardproa80 yak 14<br />

Wangthonglang, Bangkok<br />

Thailand 10310<br />

info@globalbiopolymers.com<br />

www.globalbiopolymers.com<br />

Tel +66 81 9150446<br />

www.facebook.com<br />

www.issuu.com<br />

www.twitter.com<br />

www.youtube.com<br />

Microtec Srl<br />

Via Po’, 53/55<br />

30030, Mellaredo di Pianiga (VE),<br />

Italy<br />

Tel.: +39 041 5190621<br />

Fax.: +39 041 5194765<br />

info@microtecsrl.com<br />

www.biocomp.it<br />

BIO-FED<br />

Member of the Feddersen Group<br />

BioCampus Cologne<br />

Nattermannallee 1<br />

50829 Cologne, Germany<br />

Tel.: +49 221 88 88 94-00<br />

info@bio-fed.com<br />

www.bio-fed.com<br />

GRAFE-Group<br />

Waldecker Straße 21,<br />

99444 Blankenhain, Germany<br />

Tel. +49 36459 45 0<br />

www.grafe.com<br />

62 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17

Green Dot Bioplastics Inc.<br />

527 Commercial St Suite 310<br />

Emporia, KS 66801<br />

Tel.: +1 620-273-8919<br />

info@greendotbioplastics.com<br />

www.greendotbioplastics.com<br />

a brand of<br />

Helian Polymers BV<br />

Bremweg 7<br />

5951 DK Belfeld<br />

The Netherlands<br />

Tel. +31 77 398 09 09<br />

sales@helianpolymers.com<br />

https://pharadox.com<br />

Kingfa Sci. & Tech. Co., Ltd.<br />

No.33 Kefeng Rd, Sc. City, Guangzhou<br />

Hi-Tech Ind. Development Zone,<br />

Guangdong, P.R. China. 510663<br />

Tel: +86 (0)20 6622 1696<br />

info@ecopond.com.cn<br />

www.kingfa.com<br />

Plásticos Compuestos S.A.<br />

C/ Basters 15<br />

08184 Palau Solità i Plegamans<br />

Barcelona, Spain<br />

Tel. +34 93 863 96 70<br />

info@kompuestos.com<br />

www.kompuestos.com<br />

Natureplast – Biopolynov<br />

11 rue François Arago<br />

14123 IFS<br />

Tel: +33 (0)2 31 83 50 87<br />

www.natureplast.eu<br />

NUREL Engineering Polymers<br />

Ctra. Barcelona, km 329<br />

50016 Zaragoza, Spain<br />

Tel: +34 976 465 579<br />

inzea@samca.com<br />

www.inzea-biopolymers.com<br />

Sukano AG<br />

Chaltenbodenstraße 23<br />

CH-8834 Schindellegi<br />

Tel. +41 44 787 57 77<br />

Fax +41 44 787 57 78<br />

www.sukano.com<br />

TECNARO GmbH<br />

Bustadt 40<br />

D-74360 Ilsfeld. Germany<br />

Tel: +49 (0)7062/97687-0<br />

www.tecnaro.de<br />

Trinseo<br />

1000 Chesterbrook Blvd. Suite 300<br />

Berwyn, PA 19312<br />

+1 855 8746736<br />

www.trinseo.com<br />

1.3 PLA<br />


- Sheets 2 /3 /4 mm – 1 x 2 m -<br />

GEHR GmbH<br />

Mannheim / Germany<br />

Tel: +49-621-8789-127<br />

laudenklos@gehr.de<br />

www.gehr.de<br />

TotalEnergies Corbion bv<br />

Stadhuisplein 70<br />

4203 NS Gorinchem<br />

The Netherlands<br />

Tel.: +31 183 695 695<br />

www.totalenergies-corbion.com<br />

PLA@totalenergies-corbion.com<br />

Zhejiang Hisun Biomaterials Co.,Ltd.<br />

No.97 Waisha Rd, Jiaojiang District,<br />

Taizhou City, Zhejiang Province, China<br />

Tel: +86-576-88827723<br />

pla@hisunpharm.com<br />

www.hisunplas.com<br />

1.4 Starch-based bioplastics<br />

BIOTEC<br />

Biologische Naturverpackungen<br />

Werner-Heisenberg-Strasse 32<br />

46446 Emmerich/Germany<br />

Tel.: +49 (0) 2822 – 92510<br />

info@biotec.de<br />

www.biotec.de<br />

Plásticos Compuestos S.A.<br />

C/ Basters 15<br />

08184 Palau Solità i Plegamans<br />

Barcelona, Spain<br />

Tel. +34 93 863 96 70<br />

info@kompuestos.com<br />

www.kompuestos.com<br />

Sunar NP Biopolymers<br />

Turhan Cemat Beriker Bulvarı<br />

Yolgecen Mah. No: 565 01355<br />

Seyhan /Adana,TÜRKIYE<br />

info@sunarnp.com<br />

burc.oker@sunarnp.com.tr<br />

www. sunarnp.com<br />

Tel: +90 (322) 441 01 65<br />


Parque Industrial e Empresarial<br />

da Figueira da Foz<br />

Praça das Oliveiras, Lote 126<br />

3090-451 Figueira da Foz – Portugal<br />

Phone: +351 233 403 420<br />

info@unitedbiopolymers.com<br />

www.unitedbiopolymers.com<br />

1.5 PHA<br />

CJ Biomaterials<br />

www.cjbio.net<br />

hugo.vuurens@cj.net<br />

Kaneka Belgium N.V.<br />

Nijverheidsstraat 16<br />

2260 Westerlo-Oevel, Belgium<br />

Tel: +32 (0)14 25 78 36<br />

Fax: +32 (0)14 25 78 81<br />

info.biopolymer@kaneka.be<br />

TianAn Biopolymer<br />

No. 68 Dagang 6th Rd,<br />

Beilun, Ningbo, China, 315800<br />

Tel. +86-57 48 68 62 50 2<br />

Fax +86-57 48 68 77 98 0<br />

enquiry@tianan-enmat.com<br />

www.tianan-enmat.com<br />

1.6 Masterbatches<br />

Albrecht Dinkelaker<br />

Polymer- and Product Development<br />

Talstrasse 83<br />

60437 Frankfurt am Main, Germany<br />

Tel.:+49 (0)69 76 89 39 10<br />

info@polyfea2.de<br />

www.caprowax-p.eu<br />

GRAFE-Group<br />

Waldecker Straße 21,<br />

99444 Blankenhain, Germany<br />

Tel. +49 36459 45 0<br />

www.grafe.com<br />

www.granula.eu<br />

Treffert GmbH & Co. KG<br />

In der Weide 17<br />

55411 Bingen am Rhein; Germany<br />

+49 6721 403 0<br />

www.treffert.eu<br />

Treffert S.A.S.<br />

Rue de la Jontière<br />

57255 Sainte-Marie-aux-Chênes,<br />

France<br />

+33 3 87 31 84 84<br />

www.treffert.fr<br />

2. Additives/Secondary raw materials<br />

GRAFE-Group<br />

Waldecker Straße 21,<br />

99444 Blankenhain, Germany<br />

Tel. +49 36459 45 0<br />

www.grafe.com<br />

3. Semi-finished products<br />

3.1 Sheets<br />

Customised Sheet Xtrusion<br />

James Wattstraat 5<br />

7442 DC Nijverdal<br />

The Netherlands<br />

+31 (548) 626 111<br />

info@csx-nijverdal.nl<br />

www.csx-nijverdal.nl<br />

4. Bioplastics products<br />

Bio4Pack GmbH<br />

Marie-Curie-Straße 5<br />

48529 Nordhorn, Germany<br />

Tel. +49 (0)5921 818 37 00<br />

info@bio4pack.com<br />

www.bio4pack.com<br />

Suppliers Guide<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17 63

Suppliers Guide<br />

Plant-based and Compostable PLA Cups and Lids<br />

Great River Plastic Manufacturer<br />

Company Limited<br />

Tel.: +852 95880794<br />

sam@shprema.com<br />

https://eco-greatriver.com/<br />

6.1 Machinery & moulds<br />

Buss AG<br />

Hohenrainstrasse 10<br />

4133 Pratteln / Switzerland<br />

Tel.: +41 61 825 66 00<br />

info@busscorp.com<br />

www.busscorp.com<br />

6.2 Degradability Analyzer<br />

nova-Institut GmbH<br />

Tel.: +49(0)2233-48-14 40<br />

contact@nova-institut.de<br />

www.biobased.eu<br />

Bioplastics Consulting<br />

Tel. +49 2161 664864<br />

info@polymediaconsult.com<br />

10. Institutions<br />

Institut für Kunststofftechnik<br />

Universität Stuttgart<br />

Böblinger Straße 70<br />

70199 Stuttgart<br />

Tel +49 711/685-62831<br />

silvia.kliem@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de<br />

www.ikt.uni-stuttgart.de<br />

Minima Technology Co., Ltd.<br />

Esmy Huang, Vice president<br />

Yunlin, Taiwan(R.O.C)<br />

Mobile: (886) 0-982 829988<br />

Email: esmy@minima-tech.com<br />

Website: www.minima.com<br />

w OEM/ODM (B2B)<br />

w Direct Supply Branding (B2C)<br />

w Total Solution/Turnkey Project<br />

MODA: Biodegradability Analyzer<br />


143-10 Isshiki, Yaizu,<br />

Shizuoka, Japan<br />

Tel:+81-54-624-6155<br />

Fax: +81-54-623-8623<br />

info_fds@saidagroup.jp<br />

www.saidagroup.jp/fds_en/<br />

7. Plant engineering<br />

10.1 Associations<br />

BPI - The Biodegradable<br />

Products Institute<br />

331 West 57th Street, Suite 415<br />

New York, NY 10019, USA<br />

Tel. +1-888-274-5646<br />

info@bpiworld.org<br />

Michigan State University<br />

Dept. of Chem. Eng & Mat. Sc.<br />

Professor Ramani Narayan<br />

East Lansing MI 48824, USA<br />

Tel. +1 517 719 7163<br />

narayan@msu.edu<br />

10.3 Other institutions<br />

Naturabiomat<br />

AT: office@naturabiomat.at<br />

DE: office@naturabiomat.de<br />

NO: post@naturabiomat.no<br />

FI: info@naturabiomat.fi<br />

www.naturabiomat.com<br />

Natur-Tec ® - Northern Technologies<br />

4201 Woodland Road<br />

Circle Pines, MN 55014 USA<br />

Tel. +1 763.404.8700<br />

Fax +1 763.225.6645<br />

info@naturtec.com<br />

www.naturtec.com<br />

NOVAMONT S.p.A.<br />

Via Fauser , 8<br />

28100 Novara - ITALIA<br />

Fax +39.0321.699.601<br />

Tel. +39.0321.699.611<br />

www.novamont.com6. Equipment<br />

EREMA Engineering Recycling<br />

Maschinen und Anlagen GmbH<br />

Unterfeldstrasse 3<br />

4<strong>05</strong>2 Ansfelden, AUSTRIA<br />

Phone: +43 (0) 732 / 3190-0<br />

Fax: +43 (0) 732 / 3190-23<br />

erema@erema.at<br />

www.erema.at<br />

9. Services<br />

Osterfelder Str. 3<br />

46047 Oberhausen<br />

Tel.: +49 (0)208 8598 1227<br />

thomas.wodke@umsicht.fhg.de<br />

www.umsicht.fraunhofer.de<br />

Innovation Consulting Harald Kaeb<br />

narocon<br />

Dr. Harald Kaeb<br />

Tel.: +49 30-28096930<br />

kaeb@narocon.de<br />

www.narocon.de<br />

European Bioplastics e.V.<br />

Marienstr. 19/20<br />

10117 Berlin, Germany<br />

Tel. +49 30 284 82 350<br />

Fax +49 30 284 84 359<br />

info@european-bioplastics.org<br />

www.european-bioplastics.org<br />

10.2 Universities<br />

IfBB – Institute for Bioplastics<br />

and Biocomposites<br />

University of Applied Sciences<br />

and Arts Hanover<br />

Faculty II – Mechanical and<br />

Bioprocess Engineering<br />

Heisterbergallee 12<br />

30453 Hannover, Germany<br />

Tel.: +49 5 11 / 92 96 - 22 69<br />

Fax: +49 5 11 / 92 96 - 99 - 22 69<br />

lisa.mundzeck@hs-hannover.de<br />

www.ifbb-hannover.de/<br />

Green Serendipity<br />

Caroli Buitenhuis<br />

IJburglaan 836<br />

1087 EM Amsterdam<br />

The Netherlands<br />

Tel.: +31 6-24216733<br />

www.greenseredipity.nl<br />

GO!PHA<br />

Rick Passenier<br />

Oudebrugsteeg 9<br />

1012JN Amsterdam<br />

The Netherlands<br />

info@gopha.org<br />

www.gopha.org<br />

Our new<br />

frame<br />

colours<br />

Bioplastics related topics, i.e.<br />

all topics around biobased<br />

and biodegradable plastics,<br />

come in the familiar<br />

green frame.<br />

All topics related to<br />

Advanced Recycling, such<br />

as chemical recycling<br />

or enzymatic degradation<br />

of mixed waste into building<br />

blocks for new plastics have<br />

this turquoise coloured<br />

frame.<br />

When it comes to plastics<br />

made of any kind of carbon<br />

source associated with<br />

Carbon Capture & Utilisation<br />

we use this frame colour.<br />

The familiar blue<br />

frame stands for rather<br />

administrative sections,<br />

such as the table of<br />

contents or the “Dear<br />

readers” on page 3.<br />

If a topic belongs to more<br />

than one group, we use<br />

crosshatched frames.<br />

Ochre/green stands for<br />

Carbon Capture &<br />

Bioplastics, e. g. PHA made<br />

from methane.<br />

Articles covering Recycling<br />

and Bioplastics ...<br />

Recycling & Carbon Capture<br />

We’re sure, you got it!<br />

64 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17

5_08.20 2<br />

Subscribe<br />

now at<br />

bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

the next six issues for €179.– 1)<br />

Special offer<br />

for students and<br />

young professionals<br />

1,2) € 99.-<br />

2) aged 35 and below.<br />

Send a scan of your<br />

student card, your ID<br />

or similar proof.<br />

Event Calendar<br />

You can meet us<br />

Bioplastics Business Breakfast K‘<strong>2022</strong><br />

20 - 21 - 22 Oct. <strong>2022</strong>, Düsseldorf, Germany<br />

by bioplastics MAGAZINE<br />

www.bioplastics-breakfast.com<br />

Sustainability in Packaging Europe<br />

02.11. - 04.11.<strong>2022</strong>, Barcelona, Spain<br />

www.sustainability-in-packaging.com/sustainability-in-packagingeurope<br />

14 th BioPlastics Market<br />

09.11. - 10.11.<strong>2022</strong>, Bangkok, Thailand<br />

www.cmtevents.com/eventschedule.aspx?ev=221132&<br />

The Greener Manufacturing wwwwShow<br />

09.11. - 10.11.<strong>2022</strong>, Cologe, Germany<br />

www.greener-manufacturing.com/welcome<br />

Advanced Recycling Conference (ARC)<br />

14.11. - 15.11.<strong>2022</strong>, Cologne, Germany (hybrid)<br />

https://advanced-recycling.eu/<br />

17 th European Bioplastics Conference<br />

06.12. - 07.12.<strong>2022</strong>, Berlin, Germany<br />

www.european-bioplastics.org/events/eubp-conference/<br />

Events<br />

daily updated eventcalendar at<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

18 th LAPET Series - Circular Plastics Packaging LATAM<br />

06.12. - 07.12.<strong>2022</strong>, Mexico City, Mexico<br />

www.cmtevents.com/eventschedule.aspx?ev=221230&<br />

n<br />

r3_06.20 2<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE Vol. 17<br />

EcoComunicazione.it<br />

Bioplastics - CO 2 -based Plastics - Advanced Recycling<br />

. is read in 92 countries<br />

Basics<br />

FDCA and PEF | 48<br />

Highlights<br />

as melon skin<br />

Blow Moulding | 18<br />

Polyurethanes/Elastomers | 10<br />

... is read in 92 countries<br />

+<br />

or<br />

Bioplastics - CO2-based Plastics - Advanced Recycling<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE Vol. 17<br />

04 / <strong>2022</strong><br />

ISSN 1862-5258 July/August<br />

Highlights<br />

Basics<br />

Fibre / Textile / Nonwoven | 10<br />

Building & Construction | 20<br />

Feedstocks, different generations | 56<br />

... is read in 92 countries<br />

ISSN 1862-5258 Sep/Oct <strong>05</strong> / <strong>2022</strong><br />


Hall 06 - Stand A58<br />

<strong>2022</strong> • 19 - 26 October<br />

Düsseldorf, Germany<br />

9 th European Biopolymer Summit<br />

08.02. - 09.02.2023, London, UK<br />

https://www.wplgroup.com/aci/event/european-biopolymer-summit/<br />

World Biopolymers and Bioplastics Innovation Forum<br />

01.03. - 02.03.2023, Berlin, Germany<br />

www.leadventgrp.com/events/world-biopolymers-and-bioplasticsinnovation-forum/details<br />

Cellulose Fibres Conference 2023 (CFC)<br />

08.03. - 09.03.2023, Cologne, Germany (hybrid)<br />

https://cellulose-fibres.eu<br />

bio!TOY<br />

04.04. - <strong>05</strong>.04.2023, Nuremberg, Germany<br />

by bioplastics MAGAZINE<br />

https://www.bio-toy.info<br />

Conference on CO 2 -based Fuels and Chemicals 2023<br />

19.04. - 20.04.2023, Cologne, Germany (hybrid)<br />

https://co2-chemistry.eu<br />

Renewable Materials Conference 2023 (RMC)<br />

23.<strong>05</strong>. - 25.<strong>05</strong>.2023, Siegburg, Germany (hybrid)<br />

www.renewable-materials.eu<br />

Subject to changes.<br />

For up to date event-info visit https://www.bioplasticsmagazine.com/en/event-calendar/<br />

Use the promotion code ‘watch‘ or ‘book‘<br />

and you will get our watch or the book 3)<br />

Bioplastics Basics. Applications. Markets. for free<br />

(new subscribers only).<br />

1) Offer valid until 31 Oct <strong>2022</strong>.<br />

3) Gratis-Buch in Deutschland leider nicht möglich (Buchpreisbindung).<br />

Watch as long as supply lasts.<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17 65

Companies and people in this issue<br />

Company Editorial Advert Company Editorial Advert Company Editorial Advert<br />

Accor 5<br />

Helian Polymers 63 Treffert 63<br />

ADM 6<br />

Ineos 6<br />

Trinseo 63<br />

Aectual 24<br />

Inst. Appl. Biotechnology (RWTH) 12<br />

TÜV Austria 33<br />

AF Color 33<br />

Inst. Biotechnology (RWTH) 12<br />

UBQ 31<br />

Agrana 62 Inst. F. Bioplastics & Biocomposites 64 UC Berkeley 46<br />

AIMPLAS 38<br />

Inst. für Textiltechnik (RWTH) 12<br />

United Biopolymers 32 63<br />

Akro-Plastic 33<br />

Institut f. Kunststofftechnik, Stuttgart 64 Univ. Queensland 7<br />

Alba 36<br />

Interseroh 36<br />

Univ. Stuttgart (IKT) 64<br />

Aliaxis Group 28<br />

ISCC Plus 6,14,17,26,33,52<br />

Vinventions 32<br />

Angel Yeast 5<br />

ITENE 42<br />

Vynova 28<br />

Anhui Jumei 14<br />

JinHui ZhaoLong High Technology 62 Will & Co 45<br />

Arkema 62 Kaneka 63 Woodly 16<br />

Australian Packaging 7<br />

Kimberly Clark 7<br />

Xiamen Changsu Industries 62<br />

BASF 62 Kingfa 63 Xinjiang Blue Ridge Tunhe Polyester 62<br />

Bayern Innovativ 39 Kompuestos 36 63 Zeijiang Hisun Biomaterials 63<br />

Bio4Pac 63 Kunststoffinstitut Lüdenscheidt 48<br />

Zeijiang Huafon 62<br />

Biobased Creations 20<br />

Kuraray 32<br />

TÜV Austria 29,35<br />

Bio-Fed 33<br />

Lanxess 32,39<br />

Unilever 47<br />

Bio-Fed Branch of Akro-Plastic 62 Leistritz 32<br />

United Biopolymers 55<br />

Biofibre 62 LG Chem 6<br />

Univ. Amsterdam 49<br />

Biotec 39<br />

Lifocolor 36<br />

Univ. Stuttgart (IKT) 56<br />

Biotec 63,67 Luelå Univ. 24<br />

Vallé Plastic Films 31<br />

Borealis 15 34 LyondellBasell 27<br />

W. Müller 23<br />

BPI 64 MAM 15<br />

Wingram Industrial 29<br />

Brandforsk<br />

McDonalds 31<br />

Xiamen Changsu Industries 54<br />

Buss 11,64 Mercedes Benz 31<br />

Xinjiang Blue Ridge Tunhe Polyester 54<br />

Cabamix 33<br />

Michigan State University 64 Zaraplast 41,47<br />

CAPROWAX P 63 Microtec 33 62 Zeijiang Hisun Biomaterials 55<br />

Cellicon 5<br />

Minderoo 7<br />

Zeijiang Huafon 54<br />

Centexbel 10<br />

Minima Technology 64<br />

Checkerspot 44<br />

Mixcycling 62<br />

Chimei 40<br />

narocon InnovationConsulting 64<br />

CJ Biomaterials 5 63 Naturabiomat 64 Adams, Gordon 6<br />

CJ Cheil Jedang 5<br />

Natureplast-Biopolynov 37 63 André, Christopher 28<br />

Coolrec 14<br />

NaturTec 64<br />

Brinkmann, Jasmin 53<br />

Covestro 6,17,26,34<br />

Neste 15 34 Collazos, Claudia Patrizia 42<br />

Customized Sheet Extrusion 63 Nicoll 28<br />

Das, Oisik 24<br />

DIC 45<br />

nova-Institute 55 16,25,27,49,53,64 DeMan, Lucas 20<br />

DPS 45<br />

Novamont 40 64,68 Demedi, Brecht 11<br />

Dr. Gupta Verlag 15 Nurel 63 Dinu, Roxana 51<br />

DSM 6,38<br />

Olaymobil 14<br />

Discroll, Belinda 7<br />

DuPont 23 Palsgaard 37<br />

Fabre, Benoît 28<br />

DUS Architecture 24<br />

Pastas Doria 42<br />

Gallur, Myriam 42<br />

Dutch Design Foundation 20<br />

Pepsico 31<br />

Ganz, Daniel 30<br />

Earth Renewable Technologies 62 PhaBuilder 5<br />

Govil, Sucheta 6,27<br />

Eco-Mobiliers 36<br />

Plantic 7<br />

Kaminen, Laakko 16<br />

Elixance 62 plasticker 51 Klarenbeek, Erik 20<br />

Erema 64 Polykum 40<br />

Knelsen, Inna 53<br />

ESA European Space Agency 50<br />

polymediaconsult 64 Koch, Daniel 17<br />

European Bioplastics 31,64 PTT/MCC 62 Kwon, Jungpo 46<br />

Evonik 33<br />

Rabobank 20<br />

Leboucq, Pascal 20<br />

Exipnos 40<br />

Renewi 14<br />

Loth, Julia 48<br />

FKuR 41 2,62 R-kioski 16<br />

McCaffrey, Nick 7<br />

Fraunhofer IMWS 40<br />

RSB 6<br />

Miller, Rudy 28<br />

Fraunhofer UMSICHT 64 Sabic 28<br />

Nagl, Daniel 32<br />

Freitag 36<br />

Saida 64 Pratt, Steven 7<br />

Gehr 63 Sirmax 33<br />

Probst, Falko 17<br />

Gema Polimers 62 SOL Kohlensäure 17<br />

Rand, Charles, J. 44<br />

Gianeco 31 62 Sukano 30 34,63 Scholin, Ann-Charlotte 16<br />

Global Biopolymers 62 Sulzer 5<br />

Shanmugam, Vigneshawaran 25<br />

GO!PHA 64 Sunar 63 Theisejans, René 17<br />

Grafe 62,63 Technip Energies 6<br />

Uyttendaele, Willem 11<br />

Granula 63 TECNARO 63 Vanneste, Myriam 11<br />

Great River Plastic Manuf. 64 Tianan Biologic’s 63 Wang, Lily 6<br />

Green Dot Bioplastics 62 Toray 7<br />

Xu, Ting 46<br />

Green Serendipity 64 TotalEnergies Corbion 38 63 Yu, Fu 29<br />

GreenWise Lactic 6<br />

traceless 31<br />

Zimmermann, Patrick 41<br />

66 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>05</strong>/22] Vol. 17

ycle.<br />

cresource: a virtous<br />



More than



Hall 06 - Stand A58<br />

<strong>2022</strong> • 19 - 26 October<br />

Düsseldorf, Germany<br />

as melon skin<br />

EcoComunicazione.it<br />


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