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ISLAMOPHOBIA

AWARENESS MONTH

ISLAMOPHOBIA IN BRITAIN

E X H I MEDIA B NEGATIVITY I T I O N

VISIT THE WEBSITE AND BECOME

A SUPPORTER AT

An exhibition by MEND www.mend.org.uk

ISLAMOPHOBIA-AWARENESS.ORG

@ISLAMOPHOBIAAM


ISLAM THE FAITH

THE ABRAHAMIC FAITHS

Islam, Christianity and

Judaism are known as the

Abrahamic faiths because they

trace their common

roots to Abraham.

They are the world’s major

monotheistic religions

centred on the belief in

One God.

The Holy Book of the Muslims, the Qur’ān contains

references to many prophets that are mentioned

in the sacred books of Christianity and Judaism,

including Adam, Noah, Moses, David, Solomon and

Jesus (peace be upon them all).

The Qur’ān refers to Christians and Jews as

‘Ahl-e-kitāb’ or People of the Book and makes various

references to the Holy Scriptures given to Moses (the

Torah) and Jesus (the Bible), reinforcing the common

thread of all these religions: monotheism.

Other common beliefs between the religions include

a belief in Angels, the Devil, Heaven and Hell, the Day

of Judgement, and bearing witness to faith through

acts of prayer, charity, love and compassion for

others.

Common rituals include eating religiously slaughtered

meat, called Halal in Islam and Kosher in Judaism;

fasting, during Lent, Ramadan, and on Yom Kippur

(Day of Atonement); circumcision (in Islam and

Judaism) and modesty in dress (a practice adhered to

by some Christians, Jews and Muslims).


MUSLIMS CONTRIBUTION IN BRITAIN TO BRITAIN

HISTORY OF

MUSLIMS IN

BRITAIN

Muslim Community- Religious

studies in Butetown, Cardiff, 1943

19th Century

18th Century

One of the earliest Muslims to settle in

Britain was Sake Dean Mohammed who

came to the UK in 1784. He opened a

Coffee House in London, and later an

‘Indian Vapour Bath and Shampooing

Establishment’ in Brighton, at a time when

the concept of bathing was relatively

unknown. He eventually became

‘Shampooing Surgeon’ to his Majesty

George V.

Lascar sailors increasingly visited British

ports in the 19th Century, with some

settling to establish the first Muslim

communities in Manchester, Cardiff,

Liverpool and the East End of London.

Most came from colonies of the British

Empire, such as British India.

As the Muslim community grew, they

developed institutions to meet their

cultural, educational and spiritual needs.

The first purpose-built mosque in Britain

was the Shahjehan mosque in Woking

in 1889, built by Dr Gottlieb Leitner, a

Hungarian man of Jewish descent. It is

still in use today.

20th Century

At the beginning of the 20th Century

there were approximately 10,000 Muslims

in Britain.

Abdullah Quilliam was born in 1856 and

brought up as a Wesleyan Methodist. He

converted to Islam after a trip to North

Africa. He established the first mosque in

1889 in Liverpool. A respected scholar, he

subsequently set up a Muslim college.

The Muslim community of London initially

comprised of Lascars or seaman from

South Asia and the Arab world. The

first mosque in London was established

in 1910, and was the forerunner to the

biggest mosque in the UK today – the

East London Mosque.

The majority of Muslims in Britain today

originate from economic migration in

the 1950’s and 1960’s from the Indian

subcontinent, and from Uganda and

Kenya in the 1970’s.

Sake Dean Mohammed who

came to the UK in 1784.


MUSLIMS CONTRIBUTION IN BRITAIN TO BRITAIN

WHY BEST DID OF BRITISH MUSLIMS

COME TO THE UK?

WW1 to WW2

Many Muslim countries were part of the British Empire

in the 20th Century, with the Queen as Head of State.

These included India, the Middle East, South East Asia

and substantial parts of Africa.

1

As loyal subjects of the British Empire approximately

400,000 Muslim soldiers fought in World War I and

approximately 1 million Muslim soldiers fought in the

Indian Army in World War II. In total, more than 4 million

Muslims from around the world either fought or served

as labourers during the War. [6]

2

400,000

Muslim soldiers fought in

World War One

Post War Immigration

3

Following the end of the war in 1945, the UK needed a

large influx of immigrant labour to rebuild the country.

The British Government thus actively encouraged and

welcomed immigrants from its former colonies and the

Commonwealth to come and work in the textile mills,

transport industry and NHS.

Most immigrants were single men, who worked long

hours in difficult conditions and sent money ‘back

home’. Eventually they decided to make Britain their

home and brought over their families.

4

1. Naik Shahmed Khan, recipient of the Victoria Cross for service in World War 1

2. Mr Kaid Sala shopkeeper, Butetown, Cardiff 1943

3. Officers of the 10th Baluch Regiment, Burma 1945

4. British Railway workers, London 1968

5. Clothing manufacturers, Brick Lane, East End London 1978

5

6. Sheikh, R. Forgotten Muslim soldiers of World War One ‘Silence’ Far Right. BBC News.

Retrieved January 25 2022.


MUSLIM CONTRIBUTION TO BRITAIN

MUSLIM TALENT POOL

3.1 Million

13,500

The Muslim population has grown from

2.7 million to 3.1 million which now makes

up 5.6% of England’s population. 1

£31 Billion

British Muslims contribute

£31 billion to the UK economy with

a spending power of £20.05 billion 2

13,500 businesses in London

creating more than 70,000 jobs.

114,500

114,548 (6%) Muslims are in higher

managerial or administrative

positions. 4

Green Pound

The ‘Green Pound’ of Muslim

spending could save the British

economy after Brexit, connecting the

UK with remunerative consumer

markets across the world. 3

29,200 Muslim staff

9,200 of Muslim staff are

in specialist positions

such as doctors. 5

1. Sharfman, A. (2019, December 4). Research report on population

estimates by ethnic group and religion. Research report on

population estimates by ethnic group and religion - Office for

National Statistics.

2. UK, T. H. P. (2013, October 29). British Muslims add over £31

billion to UK economy. HuffPost UK.

3. Mawji, H. (2019, August 16). Opinion: The ‘green pound’ of

Muslim spending could save the British economy after Brexit.

The Independent.

4. Stevenson, J. (n.d.). The social mobility challenges faced by

young Muslims - gov.uk.

5. NHS. (n.d.). NHS choices.


MUSLIM CONTRIBUTION TO BRITAIN

COVID COMMUNITY

WORK

1

MUSLIM AID,

GLASGOW

Glasgow Muslim Aid set up food

distribution throughout the month

of Ramadan when they provided

over 200 hot meals per night to

asylum seekers, destitute

individuals and those in need.

1

2

THE PERIOD POVERTY

PROJECT, MANCHESTER

Addressing the struggle to

purchase sanitary products within

the BAME/ Muslim communities,

this project led by Ghazala

Tehseen distributed free menstrual

products to community hubs and

food banks.

4

2

6

3

7

5

8

3

HIMMAH FOODBANK,

NOTTINGHAM

As people struggled with lockdown

and food poverty, the charity Himmah

in Nottingham continued to support

many families through the Covid-19

crisis via its food bank, helped by

additional Muslim volunteers.

4

RABBANIAH ISLAMIC

CULTURAL CENTRE, CARDIFF

Rabbaniah Islamic Cultural Centre

delivered hundreds of food parcels,

including baby milk and nappies,

to low income families who were

struggling in the pandemic and

also raised £5,000 from volunteer

donations.

5

SOUTH WOMEN’S AID

NETWORK (SWAN),

LONDON

As vulnerable people struggled to

buy food during the pandemic, SWAN

delivered food parcels to the homes of

vulnerable people, making the lives of

many South Londoners a little easier

and fostering a sense of community.

Just some of the thousands of local Covid-19

support efforts made by the Muslim community.

6

HUDDERSFIELD COMMUNITY

FIRST, HUDDERSFIELD

Huddersfield Community First

supported their community with

deliveries of food, medicine, and

other supplies to local people in need.

7

NHS WELLNESS BOX PROJECT,

LONDON

As NHS staff worked round the clock

to control Covid-19 in its early stages,

Samiha Sabur and Dr Abu Ali put together

gift boxes consisting of essential items

such as energy bars, hand creams and

toothpaste. They were delivered to

numerous hospitals in Central London.

8

MUSLIM BURIAL FUND,

LONDON

Muslim Burial Fund supplied PPE

clothing and helped to bury over 40

people in difficult circumstances,

considering the Covid-19 pandemic

restrictions on attending funerals,

social distancing rules and the

possibility of forced cremations.

They also buried revert Muslims who had

less social support from family and friends.


MUSLIM CONTRIBUTION TO BRITAIN

COVID-19

Muslim Contributions to the NHS

Credit Alamy Stock Photo

Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, Muslim health workers provided

exceptional services to the NHS, many of whom volunteered on the

frontlines and sacrificed their lives to save others.

Recent NHS data reveals: 1

44.3% of the NHS medical staff are

from a BAME background.

Muslim doctors formed over 21% of

the approximately 60,000 doctors

who declared a religious belief.

Main Image: In July 2020, Dr Farzana Hussain (GP of the year

2019) was one of twelve NHS staff to have been photographed

by Ian Rankin to celebrate the NHS’s 72nd anniversary. 2

Muslim NHS Staff Who Died Fighting Covid

For a community that makes up

under 5% of the national population,

Muslims are unquestionably

over-represented within specialist

occupations in the NHS.

First Row: Dr Adel El Tayar (63), Dr Habib Zaidi (76) and

Amged El Hawrani (55) were amongst the first doctors to die at

the start of the pandemic in March 2020, with some returning

from retirement. Second Row: Nurse Areema Nasreen (36),

Dr Alfa Sa’adu (68) and Professor Mohamed Sami Shousha (79)

1. NHS Digital, NHS Workforce. GOV.UK Ethnicity facts and figures,

26th January 2021.

2. Farah, I. Muslima doctor face of UK National Health Service for

72nd Anniversary. Halalop. 6th July 2020.


MUSLIM CONTRIBUTION TO BRITAIN

MUSLIM INVESTMENT

IN THE UK

Britain has become the home of Islamic Finance in the West.

Aside from the UK treasury issuing the first ever Sukuk (Islamic Bond) by a

western government to the tune of £200m, scores of landmark British sites

have been purchased via Islamic finance structures or sovereign wealth

funds of Muslim nations. In addition Muslim nations have invested in many

of our well known sporting and business institutions.

The Qatari’s own a 95% investment share in

the Shard.

Malaysia’s £400 million investment in

the Battersea Power Station property

development.

Olympic Village owned by Qatari Investment

Authority (QIA).

London Gateway on the Thames – one of

Europe’s biggest ports being built by DP World.

United Arab Emirates investment in the new

Arsenal Stadium.

The Etihad investment in Manchester City

football club.

Canary Wharf complex bought by a

consortium led by the Qatari Investment

Authority.

Purchase of a 10% share in the company that

owns British Airways by Qatari Investment

Authority.

Islamic investors have also financed

Thames Water.

The Qatari Investment Authority (QIA) is

reportedly the biggest shareholder of

Barclays Bank.

Qatar not only owns Harrods, the London

landmark, but also over a quarter of

Sainsbury’s and a 20% slice of Camden

Market.

All references for the above are contained in the MEND Muslim Manifesto 2015.


MUSLIM CONTRIBUTION TO BRITAIN

BRITISH MUSLIMS

& CHARITABLE

GIVING

JEWS

£270

MUSLIMS

£371

ATHEISTS

£116

ROMAN

CATHOLICS

£178

PROTESTANTS

£202

487%

JustGiving: In 2017, donations to

charities rose by 487% during

Ramadan compared to the previous

month. 1

120 Million

MCF (Muslim Charities Forum) estimated

that in 2018 the UK’s 3.5 million Muslims

donated more than £120m to global

charitable causes during Ramadan, at a

rate of £46 every second. 2

Muslims are Britain’s

top charity givers

Muslims ‘Give most to charity’,

ahead of Christians, Jews and

Atheists, poll finds.

Fact

Muslims are duty bound to donate 2.5% of their net disposable

income annually to the poor and needy. This is known as Zakat.

1. Madden, I. Why Muslims donate so much to charity, particularly

during Ramadan. HuffPost UK. 17th May 2018.

2. Guardian News & Media. ‘If we don’t give, people don’t eat’:

Yemen Focus of UK Ramadan Giving. The Guardian. 15th April

2021.


MUSLIM CONTRIBUTION TO BRITAIN

BRITISH MUSLIMS

& PATRIOTISM

83%

of BRITONS generally

felt a ‘strong sense of

belonging’ in the UK. 1 86%

of BRITISH MUSLIMS felt

a ‘strong sense of

belonging’ in the UK. 1

‘95% of British Muslims

feel a loyalty to the UK’

Credit Alamy Stock Photo

1. C4 survey and documentary reveals what British Muslims really think. C4 survey and documentary reveals What

British Muslims Really Think | Channel 4. (2016, April 11).


MUSLIM CONTRIBUTION TO BRITAIN

BEST OF BRITISH

SIR MOHAMED FARAH CBE

Mo Farah is a British long-distance runner. His ten global championship gold

medals make him the most successful male track distance runner ever, and he

is the most successful British track athlete in modern Olympic Games history.

It took just one glance from his school PE teacher to spot his potential, leading

the young Somali-born child to become a multiple Olympic, World and European

Champion athlete and a dedicated family man. Trafficked as a child into the UK

and abused at the hands of strangers, Mo Farah became widely known as

Britain’s greatest ever athlete.

His 10 global titles include the ‘double double’ of gold medals over 5000m

and 10,000m at all the Olympic games he has competed in so far. Being

the most successful individual in the history of the European Athletics

Championships and securing his legacy as the greatest runner of all

times at the Rio Olympics, Mo Farah further secured his tenth Gold and

second Silver medals at global championships. He dedicated his gold

medal victories to his four children.

As a Muslim he has frequently spoken of the importance of Islam to

his identity and success. He commented, “You’ve got to believe

in God. Everything happens for a reason. I think the way I

am, the way I’m chilled out, has a lot to do with being

Muslim and having faith. I normally pray before

a race, I read a Du’a (Islamic supplication),

think about how hard I’ve worked and

just go for it.”


MUSLIM CONTRIBUTION TO BRITAIN

BEST OF BRITISH

Raffia Arshad

Raffia Arshad became the first hijab-wearing UK

deputy district judge for the Midlands in 2020,

paving the way for Muslim women to succeed in

the law.

It all started at the age of 11 for the barrister who dreamt

of the career but questioned whether “people who

looked like me” could be a welcomed part of the world.

Thirty years later, the mother-of-three recognizes her

appointment as a win for not just Muslim women, but for

all women.

Originally from Burton-upon-Trent, Judge Arshad

practised family law for more than 17 years before her

new appointment. She hopes to be a trailblazer and

break stereotypes of how a judge should be perceived,

especially with her family advising her to remove the

hijab, Judge Arshad wanted to attain recognition purely

based on merit early on in her career.

With her family fearing she would experience

discrimination, she did not want to alter her identity or

abandon her faith, so she refused to remove the hijab.

Judge Arshad was the first person in her family to attend

university and wanted to encourage others to aim high,

no matter what their profession.

She is currently a member of St Mary’s Chambers

in Nottingham, where the joint heads have said her

appointment was based purely on merit. “Don’t worry

about what you look like, don’t worry about not fitting

into the mould, break that mould and achieve what you

need to.”

Moeen Ali

Moeen Munir Ali, born in 1987 and brought up in

Birmingham, is an English international cricketer.

He represents England in all formats of the game

and in 2020 captained the T20 side, becoming

the first ever cricketer of Asian descent to do so.

Moeen is a left-handed batsman and right-arm off-spin

bowler who played county cricket for Warwickshire before

moving to Worcestershire after the 2006 season. He

won Warwickshire’s NBC Denis Compton Award in both

2004 and 2009. His off-spin is marked by a strongly spun

off-break and a well-concealed arm ball. He was named

one of the Cricketers of the Year in the 2015 Wisden

Cricketers’ Almanack. He was part of the England team

that won the 2019 Cricket World Cup and in 2022 was

awarded the OBE for services to cricket.

Moeen has said that his faith and British identity are things

he holds dear, “Islam means everything to me and I feel

very proud when people ask me where I’m from. I can

raise my head and say I’m very happy I was brought up in

a country where I was very fortunate.

Growing up in the UK has given me a lot of opportunities.

I probably wouldn’t be in this situation if I hadn’t been

born here or raised here.”

Moeen’s grandmother was white, which makes him of

mixed descent, “I don’t see colour as an issue. I see

everybody as being the creation of God. We’re all

brothers and sisters in humanity.”


MUSLIM CONTRIBUTION TO BRITAIN

BEST OF BRITISH

Naz Shah

Naseem ‘Naz’ Shah is an award-winning activist,

who was elected as the Labour Party MP for

Bradford West in 2015.

Naz Shah established herself as a straight-talking “brave”

political leader in the Labour party, serving as the Shadow

Minister for Equalities between 2018 to 2020 and then

for Community Cohesion. Naz made her maiden speech

in Parliament on July 7th. In this speech Naz raised the

issue of child poverty as a result of harsh reductions in

welfare and local government funding, an issue she has

continued to raise over her time in Parliament.

Having experienced extreme adversity from an early

age, such as being forced to marry at the age of 15, Naz

naturally champions women’s rights in her parliamentary

role. Naz’s passions are community development and

leadership and her work on the parliamentary inquiry into

extremism has established Naz as a recognised voice

promoting dialogue around the “Prevent” agenda and

challenging Islamophobia.

Prior to being elected to Parliament, Naz was chair of

a mental health charity, and has previously worked as

a carer for disabled people, as an NHS Commisioner

and a director for a regional association supporting

local councils. Naz is Chair of the All Party Parliamentary

Groups on Islamic Finance and Muslim women and is

Vice Chair of the All Party Parliamentary Groups on British

Muslims; Hajj and Umrah; Race and Community; Religion

in the Media; and Bangladesh.

Magid Magid

Magid Magid also is known as Magid Mah, is a

British-Somali activist and politician who has

served as the Lord Mayor of Sheffield from May

2018 to May 2019.

Former child refugee, Somali-born Magid was the first

Black British Muslim to become Sheffield’s Lord Mayor

and an elected councillor, breaking through barriers

in numerous ways or as he likes to call it “causing

disruption”. Born in Somalia, Magid came as a child

refugee to Britain in 1994. He grew up in Burngreave,

Sheffield, and studied aquatic zoology at the University

of Hull where he was elected president of Hull University

Union. He worked in digital marketing and was elected as

a Green Party councillor on Sheffield City Council in 2016.

With the rise of rightist rhetoric and fear, Magid wanted

to pursue a political career after joining the Green party

and wanted to become a representative for young Black

British Muslims. As a race and climate justice activist,

Magid became a member of the European Parliament,

representing Yorkshire and Humber and is the author of

‘The Art of Disruption: A manifesto for real change’.

Magid co-chairs a refugee charity, ‘City of Sanctuary

Sheffield,’ which aims to create a safe space for refugees

seeking sanctuary. Magid was named one of TIME’s rising

stars, One Young Politician of the Year and European

Young Leader in 2019.


MUSLIM CONTRIBUTION TO BRITAIN

BEST OF BRITISH

Zarah Sultana

Zarah Sultana is a British Labour Party

politician who is a Member of Parliament for

Coventry South.

Zarah is a young force to be reckoned with; from

challenging bigots in parliament to calling for action

on climate change, her uncompromising trailblazing

speeches have gained worldwide attention. Bringing a

new dynamic to politics, she relentlessly campaigns for

justice and equality for all, rattling the elite and being a

voice for young people and Muslims across the nation.

The daughter of an immigrant from Kashmir, Zarah’s

passion for change stems from growing up in the

West Midlands, during an era where race riots

and deprivation were prevalent. Her awareness of

differential treatment between white and non-white

students grew in sixth form, suggesting that the

unfortunate reality is that where a person comes from

dictates their opportunities.

Her keen interest in social inequalities enabled her

to study International Relations at the University of

Birmingham. Since her appointment, Zarah has been

a strong advocate for calling out Islamophobia within

parliament and across the public - sharing hateful

messages sent by various individuals to her email and

social media accounts. She stands in solidarity with

other fellow Muslim politicians experiencing similar or

worse forms of Islamophobic abuse.

Azeem Rafiq

Azeem Rafiq is a British Asian cricketer who

played professionally in England for Yorkshire

County Cricket Club.

The Pakistani-born off-spinner from Barnsley rose to fame

becoming the first-ever Asian cricketer and the youngest

player in the county of Yorkshire’s history to captain in

a senior match and go unbeaten in six T20 matches.

Showing potential to become a fully-fledged all-rounder,

Azeem Rafiq’s first-class debut performance in cricket

started at the age of 17, captaining the under 15’s and then

the under 19’s.

Yet, all the highs came with significant lows; experiencing

personal tragedies, losing contracts and undergoing

institutional racism, bullying and Islamophobia at the

Yorkshire cricket club. In 2020, Azeem testified against

the harassment he experienced, taking legal action

against the club and demanding justice for what he had

to endure as a non-white sportsman. He believes he

lost his career to racism and Islamophobia. Nonetheless,

his campaign has encouraged other players to come

forward with their personal accounts of experiencing

Islamophobia within sports.

During the covid-19 lockdown, Azeem set up a tea shop

called ‘Matki Chai’, operating from a shipping container

in Rotherham and wanted to do his bit to support the

NHS. Azeem and his family also delivered food items

such as fruits and chocolates to staff working in the A&E

department at Barnsley hospital and then raised money

selling curries on a Saturday night for Barnsley Hospice.


MUSLIM CONTRIBUTION TO BRITAIN

BEST OF BRITISH

Anas Sarwar MSP

Succeeding his father Mohammed Sarwar, the

first-ever Muslim MP in the UK, Anas Sarwar

became the first Muslim to lead a political party.

Born in Glasgow in 1983, he studied dentistry at the

University of Glasgow and worked as a dentist in

the NHS in Paisley for five years prior to becoming a

parliamentarian. Anas was first elected as an MP for

Glasgow Central in 2010 and was elected as deputy

leader of Scottish Labour just one year later. In 2016

he was elected to the Scottish Parliament and became

leader of Scottish Labour in 2021.

As the leader of the Scottish Labour Party and MSP of

Glasgow, his passion and drive to make a difference is

partly due to his first-hand experiences of racism and

abuse in his childhood and then having faced multiple

threats during his career as a dentist. Driving to be a force

for change, Anas established the Scottish Parliament’s

Cross-Party Group on Tackling Islamophobia and led the

campaign against hatred and intolerance.

With profound contributions to making a political stance

against Islamophobia, his work is not limited to this. Anas

has also worked to tackle the staffing crisis in the health

service, campaigned to end the NHS pay cap and has

been actively involved in many charitable projects.

Aisha Janki Akinola

Aisha is an aspiring architect with a passion for

sustainable design and climate justice.

She comes from a small town called “Ede” in Osun State,

Nigeria and has always held a passion for arts and design,

which led to her studying architecture at the University of

Edinburgh.

Aisha won a fully-funded scholarship to study architecture,

but her experience as a Black Muslim woman, living alone

and noticing the lack of support given to mental health

motivated her to do much more. Aisha got involved with

the BlackEd movement and ran a series of social media

campaigns against racial harassment and hate crimes on

campus.

From dealing with the mental struggles of Covid-19

lockdown to being denied welfare support as a Black

Muslim student, the arduous journey to becoming an

aspiring architect did not stop Aisha Janki Akinola from

challenging such adversity and stereotypes with discipline

and determination.

At the university, she is involved with various forums

such as the Nigerian Society, Islamic Society and African

Caribbean Society. This is because she loves diversity

and wanted to show the community at Edinburgh what

being a Nigerian, a Muslim and an African means.

She also secured a role as the Sabbatical Officer for

Edinburgh University Student Vice President of Welfare

as the lead on students’ welfare and wellbeing, including

issues on equality, diversity and inclusion.


MUSLIM CONTRIBUTION TO BRITAIN

BEST OF BRITISH

Sultana Tafadar

Ranked in the Legal 500, Sultana is a

high-profile human rights, international law and

criminal justice barrister, practicing at

No 5 Chambers.

Born and raised in Luton to immigrant Bangladeshi

parents, Sultana Tafadar became the first hijab-wearing

barrister to be appointed Queen’s Counsel (QC), an elite

group consisting of around 2000 lawyers, less than 2%

of the legal profession. Her lifelong dream of wanting to

change the world for the better became a reality after

excelling in multiple areas of law. Sultana was inspired

by the American civil rights movement, thus wanting to

become an activist lawyer.

Whilst growing up, racial discrimination toward BAME

people was prevalent, and she believed she could be

an advocate for change in the future. She has proven

that there should be no barriers to success as a Muslim

woman despite facing several challenges as a hijabwearing

BAME woman in this field.

Sultana is currently on a legal campaign against France’s

hijab ban; a ban that denies one’s right to religious

freedom and instigates sexual discrimination. With a

series of submissions in place to the UN, Sultana takes

a high-profile role in advising states on human rights

and international laws as well as providing consultancy

to multi-national corporations on equality, diversity and

inclusion.

Dr. Rimla Akhtar

In 2014 Dr Akhtar became the first Muslim

and Asian woman on the FA Council as their

Inclusion Advisory Board member.

She was awarded an MBE in 2015 for her contribution

to equality and diversity in sport. Her strategic and

boardroom positions extend to her appointments as

an Independent Director of the Sports Ground Safety

Authority, Independent Director and Trustee of Kick It

Out, and Council member of the Institute of Chartered

Accountants of Scotland.

She is a developer, communicator and strategist best

known for her work as an Inclusion and Diversity specialist

in sport, which led to her being ranked 15th in the 2015 list

of ‘The Independent’s Most Influential Women in Sport’.

With over 17 years of experience in the sports industry, her

work has proved influential across the United Kingdom,

the Middle East and Asia. Her accolades include two

honorary doctorates awarded in 2017 and the Sky Sports

and Sunday Times Sportswoman of the Year Community

Award in 2013.

Whilst maintaining a successful career in the

city at leading global professional services firm

PricewaterhouseCoopers, Rimla also captained Britain

in Futsal competitions and is the founder of the leading

global sport development consultancy ‘RimJhim

Consulting’. As Chair of the Muslim Women’s Sport

Foundation, she has pioneered incredible work in

women’s sports nationally and across the world.


MUSLIM CONTRIBUTION TO BRITAIN

BEST OF BRITISH

Ali Abdi

Ali Abdi from Wales is well-known for his active

leadership and development expertise in

empowering BAME communities across Wales.

He was awarded the British Empire Medal for the 2019

Honours list and Race Council Cymru’s National lead for

the BAME National Youth Forum. He was also recognised

in the ‘2018 Black History Month Wales of 100 African

Caribbean and African Welsh people.’

Ali is well-known for his outstanding contributions to

the development of young people; through mentorship,

widening access to study and employment at Cardiff

University, and encouraging communities to take action

for greater equality and inclusion.

He has helped facilitate various projects to tackle

poverty, unemployment and under-representation in

the workforce, notably through The Community Jobs

Compact, which builds relationships between local

employers and businesses.

With a passion for sports and driven to make sports

accessible for young people from BAME communities,

Ali has also coordinated with many Sports National

Governing Bodies and BAME organisations to create

sports-tailored activities and programmes to address

health inequalities.

Jason Mohammad

Jason Mohammad was born to a Welsh mother

and Pakistani father and is one of the BBC’s most

ubiquitous broadcasters.

He is the main presenter for Final Score and occasional

host of Match of The Day 2 and has contributed to the

corporation’s coverage of a wide range of sports.

Growing up as a practising Muslim in the 80s, Jason

Mohammad experienced Islamophobia from an early

age; from being spat on to being called a p*** or ‘Muzzie,’

resulting in fear, reluctance and developing deep

emotional scars.

His dream of becoming a journalist led him to suppress

his faith, thus making him unwilling to talk about Islam

for many years. However, a turning point came when

Jason wanted to follow his father’s footsteps and made a

pilgrimage to Mecca.

Aired in a documentary on Welsh-language TV, he

described it as a ‘spiritual awakening’ and felt he should

have always been more open about his faith. With all

the abuse footballers and presenters like him receive

on the pitch, Jason stands with those against racism and

Islamophobia leading him to speak and campaign within

Wales’ Islamic community.


MUSLIM CONTRIBUTION TO BRITAIN

BEST OF BRITISH

SHEIKH NURU MOHAMMED

Hailing from Ghana, Sheikh Nuru Mohammed

became the first Muslim leader in the UK

to have his mosque used as a COVID-19

vaccination centre.

As the Imam and head of Al-Abbas Islamic Centre

in Birmingham, where 1 in 5 people are Muslims,

Sheikh Mohammed felt a moral obligation to

support his community.

Being based in one of the most diverse cities in

Europe, the mosque had people from various

backgrounds attending the vaccination clinic,

which initiated inter-faith and inter-cultural

communications.

‘The Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him)

reminded the Ummah [World Muslim Community]

that God will continue to assist His servants and

show them mercy as long as they continue to

help others. Hence our faith is not complete until

we show love to others. Offering our services to

humanity is a service to God, they go

hand-in-hand.’


MUSLIM ISLAMOPHOBIA CONTRIBUTION IN BRITAIN TO BRITAIN

#AdoptTheDefinition

Why is a definition of

Islamophobia necessary?

What people see

Hate Crime

Verbal Attacks

Physical Attacks

What people don’t see

Discrimination

Stereotypes

Exclusion

Islamophobia is one of

the principal barriers

to the participation of

Muslims in public, economic, political,

and social spheres of life.

Without a definition of Islamophobia,

policymakers cannot identify how Islamophobia

manifests itself and functions and therefore,

devise meaningful strategies to tackle it.

The APPG (All Party Parliamentary Group

on Islamophobia) produced a report in 2018

called ‘Islamophobia Defined’ which defined

Islamophobia as follows:

“Islamophobia is rooted in racism and is a

type of racism that targets expressions of

Muslimness or perceived Muslimness.” 1

Muslims are racialised through Islamophobic

tropes stereotyping them as a homogenous

group, and thus Islamophobia manifests and

functions in the same way as other forms of

racism.

Hate crime, harassment, and abuse in public

places are just the most visible and overt forms

of Islamophobia. In reality, there are many other

‘covert’ forms of ‘Structural Islamophobia’ that

operate in wider society and manifest in areas

such as education, employment, politics and

policing.

Marginalisation

#AdoptTheDefinition

We urge all local councils nationwide

to adopt the APPG definition of

Islamophobia, in conjunction with the

explanatory guidelines the Coalition

Against Islamophobia have produced.

1. Source: All Party Parliamentary Group on British Muslims, “Islamophobia Defined: The inquiry into a working definition of Islamophobia”, 2018,


MUSLIM ISLAMOPHOBIA CONTRIBUTION IN BRITAIN TO BRITAIN

BRITISH BEST OF PUBLIC BRITISH

ATTITUDES

30%

30% of Britons now regard

Islam as a threat to the UK.

47%

47% of Conservative voters

believe Islam is incompatible

with the British way of life.

37%

37% of Britons believe there

are ‘no-go zones’ in the UK.

(Apparently where Sharia law is practised and

non-Muslims could not enter, with 58%

of Conservative party members agreeing.) 1

1. 2022. Hopenothate.org.uk.


MUSLIM ISLAMOPHOBIA CONTRIBUTION IN BRITAIN TO BRITAIN

MEDIA NEGATIVITY

& LIES


ISLAMOPHOBIA IN BRITAIN

DISTORTED MEDIA

COVERAGE

1 in 5 Brit Muslims’

Sympathy for Jihadis

Muslims Tell us How to

Run Our Schools

9 Year-old Schoolboy is

Jihadi Extremist

CIA Given Details of

British Muslim Students

The X Fatwa

Hundreds More

Muslims Choose Jihad

Than Army

Muslim Schools Ban

Our Culture

Muslim Only Public

Loos

Britain Goes Halal

Veil Case Teacher Cost

Us £250,000

Muslim Convert

Beheads Woman in

Garden

How to Spot the Jihadi

Next Door

Ramadan a Ding Dong

Muslims tell British go

to Hell

Ban the Veil

An Elderly Jewish Lady

& Her Muslim

Neighbours who Cared

Al Qaeda Corrie Threat

Halal Secret of Pizza

Express

BBC Puts Muslims

Before You

Muslim Plot to Kill Pope

Jihadist Killers on our

Streets

Islam Poses Threat to

West Poll

For every 1 ‘moderate’ Muslim mentioned,

21 examples of ‘extremist’ Muslims are

mentioned in the British press.


MUSLIM ISLAMOPHOBIA CONTRIBUTION IN BRITAIN TO BRITAIN

JOURNALIST &

ACADEMIC VIEWS

“What mental images are

most readily generated, when

mention is made of Muslim

political engagement in the UK?

If the content of our news cycles is anything

to go by, the chances are that ‘community

leader’, ‘angry mob’ and ‘death threat’ will

feature highly.” 1

Dr Khadijah Elshayyal

Post doctoral research fellow at The University of

Edinburgh and author of ‘Muslim Identity Politics: Islam,

Activism and Equality in Britain.’

“We need to learn a lesson

from the fake moral panic

over the Batley parents.

With influence comes

responsibility. Influential columnists should

display intellectual integrity, and at the very

least ask themselves whether they got it

wrong.” 2

John Holmwood

Professor of Sociology at Nottingham University and

co-Author of ‘The Trojan Horse Affair’ on media

reaction to the case of Batley Grammar School teacher,

depicting a blasphemous cartoon image of the Prophet

Muhammad (PBUH).

“An anti-Islamophobia

approach must include the

depoliticisation of differences

and the acceptance of diversity.

Similar to anti-racist campaigners, this

strategy advocates not for a post-racial

society, but a post-racist one.” 3

PETER OBORNE

Dr Ismail Adam Patel

Founder and Chair of non-profit NGO ‘Friends of

Al Aqsa’ and author of ‘The Muslim Problem: From

the British Empire to Islamophobia.’

“I believe that by mocking

the term Islamophobia, he

was mocking thousands of

Muslims who have to suffer violence,

mockery and discrimination in their daily

lives. That’s not acceptable.” 4

Peter Oborne

British Journalist and Broadcaster Peter Oborne

discussing Trevor Phillips, former Chair of the Equality

and Human Rights Commission who was suspended

for Islamophobia.

1. Fellow, D. K. E. A. (2021, September 14). Rethinking muslim

representation - 20 years after 9/11. CAGE.

2. Holmwood, J. (n.d.). Batley cartoon row: As Muslim parents are

vindicated, the media is Silent. Middle East Eye.

3. Ismail Patel is the author of “The Muslim Problem: From the

British Empire to Islamophobia”. He is also Visiting Research

Fellow at the University of Leeds and the Chair of the UK

based NGO Friends of Al-Aqsa. (n.d.). Is Islam fundamentally

incompatible with Britishness? Middle East Eye.

4. Peter Oborne won best commentary/blogging in both 2022 and

2017. (n.d.). Trevor Phillips Row: Islamophobia is no laughing

matter. Middle East Eye.


MUSLIM ISLAMOPHOBIA CONTRIBUTION IN BRITAIN TO BRITAIN

THEM & US

Volunteers from over 250 mosques across the UK

supporting the Great British Spring Clean campaign

Articles frequently represent British Muslims as a singular

group in profound opposition to British culture and values.

Instead of presenting the commonalities between British values and the Muslim faith, many

broadsheets, tabloids, and even television and film, use narratives that portray Muslims

as extremist, antagonistic and subversive. Media discourses overwhelmingly externalise

Muslims and display Islamic culture as impinging on the West and Britain. Muslims and Islam

are often portrayed as an ‘alien presence’ rather than as part and parcel of contemporary

British society.

Muslims tell British

“Go to Hell”

Cameron tells UK Muslims:

Be more British

Al-Qaeda Corrie

Threat


ISLAMOPHOBIA IN BRITAIN

ISLAMOPHOBIC

HATE CRIMES

Aftermath of the 2017 Finsbury Park Mosque attack,

perpetrated by Darren Osborne

Credit James Gourley/REX/Shutterstock

In the year ending March

2022, nearly 3,500 hate

crimes were against Muslims.

This comprised 42% of all

religious hate crimes. 1

In one year, 143,920

derogatory and anti-Islamic

tweets were sent from the UK

amounting to 393 tweets a day.

After the Manchester

Arena attacks in 2017, 300

counselling sessions were

provided across the UK

after the NSPCC reported

an increase in helpline

calls for racial and religious

based bullying or hate crime.

Likewise, the number of

Childline calls doubled after

the Westminster attacks.

1,665 Islamophobic offences

were recorded by the

Metropolitan Police Service in

one year.

For every one neutral or

positive reference to a Muslim,

there are twenty one examples

of ‘extremist’ Muslims

mentioned within British media.

50% of women feel they have

been deprived of progression

opportunities due to

discrimination, with wearing a

hijab being the main reason. 2

Facebook, Twitter, Instagram,

Youtube and TikTok failed

to remove nearly 90% of

Islamophobic content on their

platforms.

530 posts with 25 million

views contained dehumanising

content of Muslims via racist

caricatures, conspiracies and

false claims. 3

ISLAMOPHOBIC

SOCIAL MEDIA

HASHTAGS

#Islamiscancer

#raghead

#deathtoislam

#killallmuslims

#stopislam

#diepainfullymuslims

#Islamistheproblem

1. Home Office (2022). Hate crime, England and Wales,

2021 to 2022

2. Islamophobia by numbers. Islamophobia Awareness Month.

(n.d.). Retrieved April 12, 2022,

3. Smith, A. (2022, April 28). Facebook and Twitter ‘failed to

remove’ nearly 90 per cent of islamophobic posts. The

Independent.


ISLAMOPHOBIA IN BRITAIN

RISE OF THE FAR RIGHT

One of the major factors in the rise of

Islamophobia has been the increasing

militancy of far right social movements and

political parties, such as Britain First, the

English Defence League and Pegida UK.

This has mirrored the rise of far right political groups

across Europe, including Front National Party in

France, the Freedom Party in the Netherlands and the

Alternative for Germany (AfD) in Germany, fanning fears

of the ‘Islamisation of Europe.’ British far right groups

have promoted an increasingly overt anti-Muslim

narrative with anti-Muslim prejudice at the core of their

right wing ideology.

They have held countless demonstrations across the

UK in recent years, with significant costs to the taxpayer,

business and more worryingly, local communities.

Punish a Muslim

Day Letter

Jailed for 12 years, white

supremacist, David Purnham who

called himself ‘Muslim Slayer’, sent

a series of malicious letters for

Muslims to be butchered.

The Islamophobic campaign

sparked an increase in hate crime.

37 offline incidents “directly

referenced” Parnham’s letters,

giving rise to national debates over

Muslims and Islam. 1

1. Independent Digital News and Media. (2019, September 4). White supremacist behind ‘punish a muslim day’ jailed for 12 years. The Independent.


MUSLIM ISLAMOPHOBIA CONTRIBUTION IN BRITAIN TO BRITAIN

TARGETING

MUSLIM WOMEN

Between October 2020-21, 62% of all

hate crime reports to the Islamophobia

Response Unit were made by women. 1

Whether online, on the street, or in the workplace;

Muslim women, especially those who are ‘visibly

Muslim’, tend to be at the forefront of Islamophobic

abuse. Women who wear the hijab (headscarf) or

niqab (face veil) are more likely to be targeted and

misrepresented in the media.

Muslim women are ‘othered’ through

misrepresentative choice of media imagery. 2

Boris Johnson, former Prime Minister,

mocked Muslim women wearing the niqab,

and compared them to “letterboxes” and

“bank robbers” 3

Of 38 Islamophobic incidents reported,

22 were directed at Muslim women who

wore the niqab, or face veil. 4

Muslim women are more likely to be the

target of verbal and physical hate crime in

public and online. 5

Zaynab Hussein

“Proud” of trying to kill a “paki,” Paul Moore, 21 ran over and

attempted to kill a Muslim woman Zaynab Hussein, who was on the

way home after dropping off her children at school in Leicester.

She suffered multiple injuries and mental health difficulties after this

horrifying Islamophobic attack. He was sentenced to 20 years in

prison for attempted murder. 6

CASE

STUDY

1. Islamophobia Response Unit (2022) personal communication

2. MCB. (n.d.). Centre for Media Monitoring - committees.

parliament.uk. State of media reporting on Islam and Muslims.

3. BBC. (2018, August 6). Boris Johnson faces criticism over Burka

‘letter box’ jibe. BBC News.

4. The Guardian. (2019, September 1). Boris Johnson’s burqa

comments ‘led to surge in anti-Muslim attacks’. The Guardian.

5. Independent. (2021, December 1). ‘there is no safe space to

be myself’: The Muslim women targeted for their beliefs. The

Independent.

6. BBC. (2018, March 27). Paul Moore jailed for Leicester Hate Crime

Car Attack. BBC News.


ISLAMOPHOBIA IN BRITAIN

A MATTER OF

LIFE OR DEATH

The rising tide of Islamophobia in the UK can have

tragic consequences. It is not always about verbal or physical

abuse, or offensive graffiti and the desecration of graves.

In some cases it leads to the ultimate crime, murder.

Makram Ali

Finsbury Park terror attack. One man, Makram Ali died, and nine others

were injured when a van was driven into a crowd of people near a

North London mosque on 19 June 2017. Darren Osborne was jailed for a

minimum of 43 years in February 2018 for murdering Mr Ali and trying to

murder others in the attack.

Mohammed Saleem

An 82-year old man who was fatally stabbed whilst walking home from

a mosque in Birmingham in 2013. He was killed by Pavlo Lapshyn, a 25

year old far right sympathiser from the Ukraine who also planted bombs

near mosques in the West Midlands. His motive: “to spark a race war”.

At the time the West Midlands Police Deputy Chief Constable, Dave

Thompson commented on the lack of media coverage suggesting it

failed to properly publicise appeals about Muslim mosque bombings

out of possible religious bias. “Our circulation of the picture of alleged

suspects in the Mosque attacks drew very little coverage; that was

frustrating at a time we needed public help.”

Muhsin Ahmed

An 81 year old man who was savagely beaten by two men in 2015 on

his way to his mosque in Rotherham. The men stamped so viciously on

his head, the footprint was clearly visible. He died in hospital from his

injuries days later. Dale Jones was sentenced to life imprisonment for

murder and Damien Hunt to 14 years in jail for manslaughter.


MUSLIM ISLAMOPHOBIA CONTRIBUTION IN BRITAIN TO BRITAIN

INSTITUTIONAL

BEST OF BRITISH

ISLAMOPHOBIA

Research published in the Ethnic and Racial

Studies Journal, found that there is a penalty

for Muslim and Black groups within British

labour markets.

Population surveys and

modelling revealed discrimination

towards Muslims and to those

perceived to be Muslim. 1

Economic inactivity was highest

among Muslim women, over

half of whom were economically

inactive. 2

The social mobility report on

‘The Social Mobility Challenges

Faced by Young Muslims’

concluded that young Muslims

were disadvantaged by a lack of

appropriate advice, guidance and

informal networks to progress in

the labour market, compounded

by potential discrimination at the

recruitment stage. 3

Only 6% of Muslims are

in higher managerial or

administrative positions,

compared to 10% of the

overall UK population.

Only 20% of the Muslim

population is in full-time

employment, compared to

more than 35% of the overall

population in England and

Wales. 4

Between 2012-2018,

Muslims had the lowest

employment rate of all

religious groups. 5

Eric Kitson

hang um all

first then ask

questions

later...

8 October 2012 at 20.33

7 out of 10 UK Muslims

experienced ISLAMOPHOBIA

in the workplace. 6

Savanta ComRes survey

WOULD WE TOLERATE THIS AGAINST ANY OTHER MINORITY?

1. 2022. Tandfonline.Com.

2. Religion, Education And Work In England And Wales - Office For

National Statistics. 2022. Ons.Gov.Uk.

3. Social Mobility Commission (2017). The Social Mobility Challenges

Faced by Young Muslims.

4. Muslims Are Less Likely To Succeed At Work Because Of

Islamophobia, Report Finds. 2022. Metro.

5. Religion, Education And Work In England And Wales - Office For

National Statistics. 2022. Ons.Gov.Uk.

6. Staff, The. 2022. “7 Out Of 10 Working UK Muslims Experience

Islamophobia: Poll”. The New Arab.


MUSLIM ISLAMOPHOBIA CONTRIBUTION IN BRITAIN TO BRITAIN

DECOLONISING

BEST OF BRITISH

EDUCATION

What does it mean to

decolonise education?

In its simplest form, it means to learn history

from a non-colonial and unbiased view. 1

Students and academics are demanding

a more diverse and balanced approach to

learning history by reflecting on the injustices

perpetrated by colonialism, reflecting on the

impact of this on present-day racism, ceasing

the glorification of enlightenment philosophers

and recognising the contributions of BAME

people.

Why is it important to

decolonise education?

There are significant issues within the higher

education sector:

BAME students and staff members

are subjected to racism and racial

microaggressions in the higher education

sector. An inquiry by the Equality and

Human Rights Commission (EHRC)

found that about a quarter of minority

ethnic students had experienced racial

harassment since the start of their

course, but universities are in denial of

the scale of the problem. 2

BAME staff are underrepresented

with fewer than 1% of the professors

employed at UK universities being black

in comparison to 93% who are white.

There is an overall pay gap of 9%

between white and BAME academic staff,

where black academic staff are paid 14%

less than white academic staff. 3

There is also an ethnic gap in student

attainment levels. Black students have

the largest gap in attainment level

(17.4%) when compared to their white

counterparts. 4

65% of students who are Muslim gained

firsts and upper second-class degrees

as undergraduates, compared with more

than 76% of all other students.

1. Decolonising The School Curriculum. UK Parliament Week 2020

| The Political Studies Association (PSA)”. 2022. Decolonising

The School Curriculum. UK Parliament Week 2020 | The Political

Studies Association (PSA).

2. Universities Failing To Address Thousands Of Racist Incidents.

2022. The Guardian.

3. Black Academic Staff Face Double Whammy In Promotion And

Pay Stakes. 2022. Ucu.Org.Uk.

4. 2022. Officeforstudents.Org.Uk.


MUSLIM ISLAMOPHOBIA CONTRIBUTION IN BRITAIN TO BRITAIN

ISLAMOPHOBIA BEST OF BRITISHIN

THE WORKPLACE

The Muslim Penalty - UK Muslims are

more likely to be unemployed than

their white British counterparts.

According to evidence found in

research published in the Ethnic

and Racial Studies Journal, there

is a penalty for being both Muslim

and also Black within British labour

markets.

Evidence from population surverys

and modelling reveals discrimination

towards Muslims and to those

perceived to be Muslim to be an

overwhelming barrier to being

employed. 1

Economic inactivity was highest

among Muslim women, over half of

whom were economically inactive. 2

A Savanta ComRes survey reveals

7 out of 10 UK Muslims experienced

Islamophobia in the workplace

with 58% of Black Muslims having

experienced discrimination at the

recruitment stage. 3

British Muslims are hindered

from reaching their full potential

in the workplace due to

Islamophobia. The Social Mobility

Commission found predominantly

young Bangladeshi and Pakistani

Muslims have higher educational

attainment, but this does not

translate into success in the

workplace.

Only 6% of Muslims are in higher

managerial or administrative

positions, compared to 10% of the

overall UK population.

Only 20% of the Muslim population

is in full-time employment,

compared to more than 35% of the

overall population in England and

Wales. 4

Between 2012-2018, Muslims had

the lowest employment rate of all

religious groups. 5

1. 2022. Tandfonline.Com.

2. Religion, Education And Work In England And Wales - Office For

National Statistics. 2022. Ons.Gov.Uk.

3. Staff, The. 2022. “7 Out Of 10 Working UK Muslims Experience

Islamophobia: Poll”.

4. Social Mobility Commission 2017. The Social Mobility Challenges

faced by Young Muslims.

5. Religion, Education And Work In England And Wales - Office

For National Statistics. 2022.


ISLAMOPHOBIA IN BRITAIN

AIRPORT DETENTIONS

& RELIGIOUS PROFILING

Schedule 7 of the Terrorism

Act 2000 allows a ‘examining

officer’ at a port to stop,

interrogate, search and detain

you for up to 6 hours if they

believe you may be involved in

an act of terrorism.

A study by the University of

Cambridge in 2014 showed

nearly 90% of those stopped

under Schedule 7 were

Muslim. 1

Of the 2604 persons subject

to Schedule 7 in the year to

March 2022. 2

34% identified as ‘Asian or

Asian British’

90%

of those stopped

under Schedule 7

were Muslim 1

32% identified as ‘Chinese

or Other’

20% identified as ‘White’

9% identified as ’Black or

Black British’

So you are still more likely to be

stopped if you are Asian than

any other ethnic category.

1. Cage. (2019). https://www.cage.ngo/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/CAGE-Schedule-7-report.pdf. 2. Operation Of Police Powers Under The Terrorism Act 2000 And Subsequent Legislation: Arrests,

Outcomes, And Stop And Search, Great Britain, Quarterly Update To March 2022.


ISLAMOPHOBIA IN BRITAIN

DOES SCHEDULE 7

WORK?

From 2009 to 2019 approximately

41,900 people were stopped,

but only 30 were convicted,

this is a conviction rate of only

0.007%. 1

This means over 99.99% of

people stopped were innocent.

Is this fair and proportionate?

Questions asked of people

under Schedule 7 include:

• Do you pray?

• Do you fast?

• Have you been to Makkah?

What have these questions got

to do with terrorism?

1. Cage. (2019) https://www.cage.ngo/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/CAGE-Schedule-7-report.pdf.


ISLAMOPHOBIA IN BRITAIN

EXPERIENCE OF

BLACK MUSLIMS

‘A minority within a minority’

With Islamophobia on the rise, the unfortunate reality is that

black Muslims experience both racial and religious discrimination,

not only in wider society but within Muslim communities.

Despite a rich history of Black Muslims

playing a pivotal role in Islam from the time of

its birth, there is a perception that Islam stems

from those of South-Asian and Arab heritage,

resulting in Black Muslims contributions to the

advancement of Islam being watered-down

throughout history.

A minority within a minority

There is a growing number of Muslims from

African and Afro-Caribbean backgrounds, but

Black Muslim communities comprise about

10% of the UK’s Muslim population. 1

Islamophobia against Black

Muslims

58% of Black Muslims experienced

discrimination at the recruitment stage

compared with 37% of non-Black

Muslims. 2

Muslim male job applicants originating

from the Middle East and Africa

“experience a double burden” of faith

and ethnicity. 3

Black Muslim women can face a

triple burden

“As a Black person, you are oppressed,

you have racism...and then as a Muslim

you have Islamophobia against you, you

have people with certain agendas against

you. As a woman there is patriarchy,

people who hate you, misogyny.”

Aisha, a 23 year old Black Muslim woman

sharing her experience living in the UK. 4

Racism within UK Muslim

communities

After the horrific murder of George Floyd

in America, as well as many other innocent

Black victims of police brutality, the events

sparked global outrage, triggering a powerful

movement to challenge institutional racism.

This further sparked conversations about

racism within Muslim communities and their

perception of Black people.

A study conducted by the Muslim

Census revealed:

82% have witnessed anti-black racism

from their own family and friends.

73% have never heard directly from

a black Muslim about the issues they

face.

31% admitted themselves to previously

or presently holding anti-black

prejudice. 5

Moreover, a study by the Black

Muslim Forum revealed:

63% of Black Muslims felt they did not

belong in the UK Muslim community.

54% felt they did not belong to their

local Mosque.

84% felt they did not belong in Islamic

societies at their university.

This indicates a collective intragroup

experience of racism faced by Black

Muslims . 6 It is clear that a lot of work

needs to be done. Anti-blackness must be

addressed within our homes and localised

Muslim communities.

There must be an active effort

to speak out against such issues

across wider society.

1. ”Black Muslims Are Almost Invisible In Britain, But Now We’re Carving Out A Space | Na’Ima B Robert”. 2022.

The Guardian.

2. Staff, The. 2022. “7 Out Of 10 Working UK Muslims Experience Islamophobia: Poll”. The New Arab.

3. 2022. Tandfonline.Com. “Does the Muslim penalty in the British labour market dissipate after accounting for so-called

‘sociocultural attitudes’?”.

4. Nurein, Sheymaa Ali, and Humera Iqbal. 2021. “Identifying A Space For Young Black Muslim Women In Contemporary

Britain”. Ethnicities 21 (3): 433-453.

5. 2020 Muslim Census. “A study into Anti-Blackness amongst young Muslims within the UK”.

6. 2022. “They Had The Audacity To Ask Me If I Was Muslim, When They Saw Me – A Black Woman In Niqab” – Report On

The Experiences Of Black British Muslims”. Black Muslim Forum.


ISLAMOPHOBIA IN BRITAIN

STEREOTYPING

MUSLIMS

The photography typically reflects the visual imagery and themes

used on Islam and Muslims in newspapers and broadcast media.

The predominance of such images and a discourse which emphasises ‘conflict’,

‘violence’ and Islam’s ‘cultural incompatibility’ reproduces prejudiced attitudes

towards Islam in public debates on immigration, multiculturalism and national

identity.

In reality the people depicted above represent only a tiny fraction of Britain’s

muslim community of several million.

We invite you to reflect and probe your own attitudes toward Islam and Muslims

beyond the imagery and descriptions provided by mainstream media sources.

QUESTION?

Do you see Muslims as a

singular, homogeneous group

of people?

QUESTION?

Do you think the people above

fairly represent the Muslim

community?

Sources: Morey, P and Yaqin, A. Framing Muslims: Stereotyping and Representation after 9/11. Harvard University Press (2011). Reel Bad Arabs [film], directed by Jack

Shaheen. Media Education Foundation (2007).


SCOTTISH MUSLIMS

CPG INQUIRY

& ISLAMOPHOBIA

Islamophobic Graffiti,

Cumbernauld Mosque

Saracen is a term used in

the Middle Ages to refer

to Muslims. ‘Deus’ vult’

is a Latin Christian motto

meaning ‘God wills’.

80% 75% 79%

Over 80% of Muslims in

Scotland said they had

directly experienced

Islamophobia

75% of Muslims said

Islamophobia is a regular

or everyday issue in

Scottish society

79% of Muslim

respondents said that

Islamophobia is getting

worse

The Scottish Parliament’s Cross-Party

Group (CPG) on Tackling Islamophobia

produced the first-ever inquiry into

Islamophobia in Scotland in February

2020.

This showed the harrowing extent of

Islamophobia across the country.

A series of recommendations emerged from this report, including

the following;

The Scottish Government should aim to adopt a formal

definition of Islamophobia.

All political parties in Scotland, at all levels, should

proactively adopt a ‘no tolerance’ approach to Islamophobia.

Integrating an understanding of Islamophobia into Scotland’s

education curriculum.

Recruiting more police officers from diverse communities,

including Muslim officers, into Police Scotland. 1

“We pride ourselves on being a

welcome and tolerant country, but

it’s clear how much more work we

have to do.

There are people in Scotland who

feel scared to leave their homes

for fear of verbal of physical

attack, withdrawing from public

services with devastating knockon

consequences on their health

and education and feel they are

outsiders in their own country.”

Scottish Labour leader Anas

Sarwar, MSP for Glasgow and

Chair of the CPG on Tackling

Islamophobia (2018-2021). 2

1. Hopkins, P. (2021). Scotland’s Islamophobia: Report of the inquiry

into Islamophobia in Scotland by the Cross-Party Group on

Tackling Islamophobia.

2. Islamophobia Public Inquiry. Anas Sarwar. (22 September 2021),

Retrieved 26 October 2021.


SCOTTISH MUSLIMS

THE LABOUR

MARKET

37%

37% of Muslims in

Scotland reported being

abused at work. 1

One of the startling findings of the CPG for Tackling Islamophobia’s recent

inquiry, was an increasing marginalisation of Muslims in the workplace.

Leading to long-lasting impacts, including higher unemployment levels, underemployment

and mental health problems amongst Muslim communities.

Muslims feel they are forced to work “10 times as

hard” as their white counterparts in order to achieve

equivalent levels of success. 2

In recent years, numerous studies in this area

pointed to a combination of Islamophobia, racism and

discrimination.

These studies found:

Only 6% of Muslims in the workplace are

in higher managerial, administrative and

professional occupations, compared to 10% of

the overall population. 3

More than 2 in 5 Pakistani and Bangladeshi

workers work in these lower-skilled occupations,

compared to only 1 in 4 white workers.

Muslim women often face a triple penalty in the

employment sphere due to being women, being

from an ethnic minority background and being

Muslim.

Another study found that 1 in 4 employers admit

to being reluctant to hire Muslim women.

1 in 8 Pakistani women have been illegally asked

about marriage and family aspirations in job

interviews, compared to 1 in 30 white women. 5

Research in 2021 found that visibly Muslim

women wearing the hijab (headscarf) were 40%

less likely to obtain a job that similar Muslim

women that were not. 6

CVs submitted under a non-Muslim name

were three times more likely to be offered an

interview than those with a Muslim name. 4

1. “’Tip Of The Iceberg’: Thousands Of Racist Incidents

Reported In Scottish Schools”, 2021.

2. “Islamophobia in Edinburgh Schools”, 2017.

3. “Teaching In A Diverse Scotland: Increasing And Retaining

Minority Ethnic Teachers - Gov.Scot”, 2018.

4. Zack Adesina and Oana Marocico, “Is It Easier to Get a Job If

You’re Adam or Mohamed?” BBC News, 6th February, 2017.

5. Siobhan Fenton, “6 Charts Which Show the Employment Barriers

Faced by British Muslims,” The Independent, 11th August, 2016.

6. Ahmed, Sofia & Gorey, Kevin. (2021). Employment discrimination

faced by Muslim women wearing the hijab: exploratory metaanalysis.

Journal of Ethnic & Cultural Diversity in Social Work.


SCOTTISH MUSLIMS

HATE CRIME

Scottish Muslim communities are in need of adequate laws to protect

them from the manifestations of Islamophobia, as data reveals racial

crime remains the most commonly reported hate crime.

In 2021-22, The Crown Office &

Prosecutor Fiscal Service found:

3,107 charges relating to race crime

were reported in 2021-22.

2019-20 saw an increase of

4% compared to 2018-19.

32% lower than the peak in such charges

in 2011-12, when 4,547 were reported.

Religiously motivated hate crime:

There were 512 religiously aggravated

charges reported in 2021-22, 16% lower

than in 2020-21. 1

2019-20 saw an increase of 24%

compared to 2018-19. 2

Scotland Hate Crime Case

Neo-Nazi Connor Ward was convicted in 2018

for planning terror attacks against mosques

in Aberdeen. The police found an array of

weapons at Ward’s house, including ball

bearings that could be used in pipe bombs;

rocket tubes capable of firing projectiles; a stun

gun; knuckle dusters; knives and deactivated

bullets. 3

CREDIT SCOTTISH SUN

1. 2022. Copfs.Gov.Uk. 2. The Crown Office & Prosecutor Fiscal Service, “Hate Crime in

Scotland, 2019-20,” COPFS, 12 June, 2020.

3. “Man Jailed For Planning Mosque Attacks”, BBC News, 2018.


SCOTTISH MUSLIMS

EDUCATION

There were at least 2251 instances of racism in Scottish schools

in the three academic years prior to September 2020. 1

15% of high school respondents and 26% of

primary school respondents had encountered

physical Islamophobia.

57% of children who reported an incident to a

teacher experienced a negative outcome. 2

The Educational Institute of Scotland (EIS)’s 2018

survey of their BAME members found that 71% of

respondents had experienced racism in their capacity

as a teacher or lecturer.

Examples of racism included:

Learners using racist or Islamophobic

language - 56%

Learners showing racist or Islamophobic

attitudes - 46%

Colleagues showing racist or Islamophobic

attitudes - 44%

Being overlooked for promotion - 43%

Colleagues using racist or Islamophobic

language - 26%

ONE RESPONDENT REPORTED:

“I was told whilst under my desk fixing boxes, if I was praying to Mecca! Again by the same member

of staff I was told that once Scotland was independent, that me

and all my kind would be chucked out of the country.” 3

1. “’Tip Of The Iceberg’: Thousands Of Racist Incidents

Reported In Scottish Schools”, 2021.

2. “Islamophobia in Edinburgh Schools”, 2017. 3. “Teaching In A Diverse Scotland: Increasing & Retaining Minority

Ethnic Teachers - Gov.Scot”, 2018.


SCOTTISH MUSLIMS

POLICING

ONLY

1.4%

OF OFFICERS ARE FROM

BAME BACKGROUNDS

Credit Alamy Stock Photo

Like the UK as a whole, Scotland’s criminal

justice system is also subject to institutional

racism and discriminatory practices.

African, Caribbean and Black communities

experience incarceration rates of 7.6% per

1,000 people compared to the 3.8% per 1,000

people experienced by white people. (Scottish

Government data, 2019-20)

At the same time, as observed within research

commissioned by the Public Petitions Committee,

“although numbers of Muslims in Scottish jails are

small, they represent another disproportionately

imprisoned group.” 1

Across England, Wales and Scotland; 93% of court

judges, 89% of tribunal judges and 83% of tribunal

non-legal members are white. 2

In respect of BAME Individuals working

in Police Scotland:

253 out of 17,693 officers in Scotland (1.4%)

are from BAME backgrounds.

There are no BAME officers amongst Police

Scotland’s executive team of senior officers.

Socio-economic challenges faced by

BAME individuals include:

14% of Scottish Muslims live in the top 10% of

the most deprived areas.

Research finds living in deprived

neighbourhoods has a negative effect on

multiple aspects of life, including general

well-being, education, employment and

crime. 3

1. “Offender Demographics and Sentencing Patterns In Scotland

and the UK”. Parliament.Scot, 2010.

2. “Judges and Non-legal Members of the Judiciary,” GOV.UK

Ethnicity Facts and Figures, 6th November, 2020.

3. “Communities in Recession: The impact on deprived

neighbourhoods”, Joseph Rowntree Foundation.


SCOTTISH MUSLIMS

POLITICAL ENGAGEMENT

George McIntyre

COUNCIL CANDIDATE FOR

BONNYRIGG WARD IN MIDLOTHIAN

MEND’s 2019 report From “Letterboxes”

to “Ragheads” identified over 100

examples of Islamophobia within the

Conservative Party, 1 there were several

instances of Islamophobia found within

the Scottish context.

McIntyre passed vetting procedures

to stand as a Conservative candidate

and was still actively involved with

Conservative Party campaigns, despite

this Facebook comment in 2013 and

being initially suspended for his views. 2

3

SADLY ISLAMOPHOBIA CAN BE FOUND WITHIN OTHER MAINSTREAM PARTIES

Craig Melville

COUNCIL CANDIDATE FOR BENBECULA AND NORTH UIST

Craig Melville stood trial at Dundee Sherriff Court

for allegedly sending Islamophobic messages

to a colleague following the Paris attacks in

2015 in which he described Islam as a “horrible

disease” and stated that “If I had a gun I’d

shoot a Muslim but I’m not brave enough.” 4

Scottish Labour Party

The meme was posted on the Argyll and Bute

Labour account days after Anas Sarwar MSP,

questioned the party’s commitment to tackling

Islamophobia.

This is a post

originating from

the Scottish Labour

Party’s Facebook

account. 5

1. MEND (Muslim Engagement and Development). “From

‘Letterboxes’ to ‘Ragheads’: Over 100 Examples of Islamophobia

in the Conservative Party”, 2019.

2. Andy Philip, “Senior Tory Miles Briggs caught chapping doors

with banned bigot”, Daily Record, February 2018.

3. “Second Conservative Party Midlothian candidate in online

comment controversy”, Edinburgh Evening News, March 2017.

4. STV News, “Councillor ‘sent Islamophobic Messages’ to Former

Lover,” STV News Archive,10th January, 2018.

5. David Clegg, “Labour in New Racism Row as Facebook Account

Blames Islam for Terror Attacks,” Daily Record, 9th May, 2019.


SCOTTISH MUSLIMS

DEMOGRAPHICS

Credit Bonnie Blu Home of Islamic Tarten

From 2001 to 2011, the Muslim population

increased by 80% over 10 years, with Muslims

making up 1.45% of the population of Scotland.

According to the 2011 Census

2.8 million Muslims reside in England,

Wales and Northern Ireland.

Approximately 76,000 Muslims live in

Scotland.

Parliamentary regions

With a Muslim presence in 8 parliamentary

regions, Glasgow, Lothian and North East

Scotland have the largest concentration of

Muslims and account for 75% of the total Muslim

population of Scotland.

Glasgow – 43.6%

Lothian – 19.0%

North East Scotland – 11.8%

There are 13 electoral wards with a Muslim

population of 5% or more. 11 of these wards

are in Glasgow or East Renfrewshire, and the

remaining two are in the city of Dundee.

The wards with the highest

percentage of Muslim

residents are:

Pollokshields (27.8%)

Southside Central (15.7%)

This suggests that there has been a steady

growth of the Muslim population in all the major

cities as a result of high birth rate and increasing

immigration since 2001.

1. Scottish Muslims in Numbers - University of Edinburgh. (n.d.).


MUSLIM CONTRIBUTION TO BRITAIN

ISLAMOPHOBIA

AWARENESS MONTH

Islamophobia Awareness Month (IAM) was co-founded by Muslim

organisations with other British organisations in 2012 to deconstruct and

challenge the stereotypes about Islam and Muslims.

The month-long campaign aims to work with Police and Crime Commissioners (PCC), Local Council,

in particular the lead on Hate crime or Community safety, Journalists and local Media, Councillors and

local MPs, Mosques, Universities, Schools, Community organisations and others to raise awareness of

the scourge of Islamophobia and encourage better reporting of incidents to the police.

Keep up to date with the latest information on IAM!

ISLAMOPHOBIA-AWARENESS.ORG

@ISLAMOPHOBIAAM

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