23.11.2022 Views

Grammar Rules 4 student book sample/look inside

Create successful ePaper yourself

Turn your PDF publications into a flip-book with our unique Google optimized e-Paper software.

AWARD- D-WINNI NNING SERIES

4

Second edition

Tanya Gibb

Grammar in the real world


Contents

Note to Teachers and Parents....................................... 2

Scope and Sequence...................................................... 4

Units 1–35..................................................................... 6

Grammar Rules – a glossary and index....................... 76

Writing Log...................................centre pull-out pages

This edition published in 2021 by

Matilda Education Australia, an imprint

of Meanwhile Education Pty Ltd

Level 1/274 Brunswick St

Fitzroy, Victoria Australia 3065

T: 1300 277 235

E: customersupport@matildaed.com.au

www.matildaeducation.com.au

First edition published in 2008 by Macmillan Science and Education Australia Pty Ltd

Copyright © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Science and Education Australia 2016

All rights reserved.

Except under the conditions described in the Copyright Act 1968 of Australia and subsequent amendments,

no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or

by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior

written permission of the copyright owner.

Educational institutions copying any part of this book for educational purposes under the Act must be

covered by a Copyright Agency Limited (CAL) licence for educational institutions and must have given a

remuneration notice to CAL. Licence restrictions must be adhered to. Any copies must be photocopies

only, and they must not be hired out or sold. For details of the CAL licence contact: Copyright Agency

Limited, Level 11, 66 Goulburn Street, Sydney, NSW 2000. Telephone: (02) 9394 7600.

Facsimile: (02) 9394 7601. Email: membersrvice@copyright.com.au

Publisher: First edition Sharon Dalgleish

Designers: Trish Hayes and Stephen Michael King

Illustrator: Stephen Michael King

Printed in by

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 25 24 23 22 21 20

Supports the English curriculum

Student Book Foundation 1 2 3 4 5 6

Australian Curriculum F 1 2 3 4 5 6

NSW Syllabus Early Stage 1

Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3

New Zealand Curriculum 1 2 3 4 5 6 7


Second edition

Tanya Gibb

STUDENT BOOK4

Grammar in the real world

Name:

Class:


Grammar Rules!

Grammar Rules! comprehensively meets the requirements of the Australian Curriculum English. The scope and

sequence outlined on pages 4–5 integrates Language, Literature and Literacy to develop students’ knowledge,

understanding and skills in listening, reading, viewing, speaking and representing.

Grammar Rules! also supports the New Zealand English Curriculum strands: Listening, Reading and Viewing; and

Speaking, Writing and Presenting. Students will use processes and strategies to develop knowledge, skills and

understandings, related to purposes and audiences, ideas, language features and structure.

Grammar can be defined as the way language is organised to make meaning. Knowledge of the grammatical

features that make language use more effective is vital for all students. They need an understanding of grammar to

be able to make appropriate choices to get their message across in speaking and writing (creating texts); and they

need to know how to analyse the language used by others when they are listening and reading (interpreting texts).

Grammatical knowledge will assist students to become analytical, critical and evaluative language users.

Grammar Rules! shows students how grammatical structures and features function in texts to achieve meaning, from

the contextual level of the whole text down to sentence level and to the level of words and word parts. The series

explains appropriate grammatical structures for particular types of texts, language functions and social purposes. The

second edition of the Grammar Rules! program also incorporates elements of self-assessment. A simple reflection

activity allows students to assess their own progress and provides you with a starting point for discussion.

Student Book 4

Units of work

Student Book 4 contains 35 weekly units of work presented in a conceptually sound scope and sequence. The

intention is for students to work through the units in the sequence in which they are presented. See the

Scope and Sequence Chart on pages 4–5 for more information. There are also regular Revision Units that

can be used for consolidation or assessment purposes.

The sample texts in Student Book 4 are based around the theme of water. The subject matter of the sample

texts is not tied to any particular content across other curriculum areas. This allows teachers and students

to focus on the way language is structured according to purpose and audience. Students can then use this

knowledge to evaluate, respond to and create texts in other learning areas. The concepts in the sample texts

link well with the Cross-Curriculum Priority of Sustainability, as well the General Capabilities of Critical and

Creative Thinking, Personal and Social Capability, Ethical Understanding and Intercultural Understanding, as

described in the Australian Curriculum.

Icons

Note to teachers and parents

Try it

yourself!

Encourages students to create texts of their own to demonstrate their understanding of the

grammatical concepts taught in the unit. These activities focus on written language; however,

many also provide opportunities for using spoken language to engage with others, make

presentations and develop skills in using ICT.

Rule!

Tip!

Highlights useful grammatical rules and concepts. The rule is always

introduced the first time students need it to complete an activity.

Tells students that a special hint is provided for an activity. It might

be a tip about language functions, or a reminder to look at a rule

in a previous unit.

Reflection

I can do this.

I am not sure.

I need help.

Allows students

to assess their

progress through

each unit.

Grammar Rules Glossary

A valuable glossary is provided at the end of Student Book 4. Teachers and students can use this as a

straightforward dictionary of grammar terminology, or as a summary of important grammar rules used in

Student Book 4. Page references are also given for the point in the book where the rule was first introduced,

so that students can go back to that unit if they need more information or further revision of the rule.

2


Copyright © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia 2016

Grammar Rules! Student Book 4 (ISBN 9781420236606) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

© Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia 2016

Grammar Rules! Student Book 4 (ISBN 9781420236606) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

Copyright © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia 2016

Pull-Out Writing Log

At the centre of Student Book 4 is a practical pull-out Writing Log so that students can directly relate

the grammar they learn back to their own writing. Students could store the Writing Log in their writing

folders, and use it to keep track of the grammar, language functions and types of texts they use. The

Writing Log also includes a handy reminder of the writing process, as well as a checklist of types of texts

and text forms for students to try.

Grammar Rules!

's Writing Log

I Think

What is your topic?

What is the purpose of the writing?

2 Draft

Who is the audience?

Gather your ideas.

What type of text and text form will you use?

Organise your ideas.

Have a go at writing.

3 Revise

Check your writing for meaning and ideas.

Have you chosen the best words and

phrases for your topic?

4 Proofread

Do you need to add anything?

Polish your writing.

Do you need to take anything away?

Check your grammar.

Do you need to move anything?

Check your spelling.

Check your writing for structure.

Check your punctuation.

Does the structure match the type

of text you chose?

Read your writing to a partner.

Read your writing to your teacher.

Ask for help to improve your writing.

5 Publish

Publish your writing.

Share your writing.

Reflect on your writing.

Create symbols

for a rating scale.

Then each time

you finish a piece

of writing, record

it in the log.

My rating scale

Symbol Meaning

Help!

A good

start.

I have the

basics

covered.

I'm

beyond

the

basics.

Brilliant!

Do you need

some ideas for

other text forms

to try? Look at

the back page!

Date

Write the

date.

Title

Write the title of your

piece.

Type of text

Audience Grammar I used My rating Where to next?

and text form

eg recount/ Who were you List the main grammar features you used. Record your What grammar could you try next?

letter writing for or to?

rating.

How could you improve your writing?

Does your teacher have any comments?

I've tried these types of texts and text forms . . .

Narrative (imaginative)

Explanation (informative)

Story

Reference book

Comic

Other

Other

Exposition (persuasive)

Recount

(argues one side of an issue)

(imaginative or informative)

Debate

Letter

Speech

Newspaper article

Letter to editor

Other

TV advertisement

Magazine advertisement

Description

Leaflet

(imaginative or informative)

Other

Poem

Police report

Discussion (persuasive) (presents

Letter

more than one side of an issue)

Story

Conversation

Other

TV interview

Talk-back radio

Information report

Dialogue in a story

(informative)

Panel discussion

Scientific report

Other

Website

Other

Response (persuasive)

Diary

Procedure (informative)

Book review

Cookbook

Poem

Instruction manual

Other

Game rules

Other

i

ii

© Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia 2016 iii iv

Unit at a Glance

Unit tag

States the main

grammar focus

Type of text

description

Highlights the

type of text, and

purpose and

grammar focus of

the sample text

Rule!

Introduces

students to a

new concept

Text sample

Illustrates the grammar focus

at work, in the real context

of a specific type of text

8Unit

20

Theme

This informative

text is a recount in the

form of a biography. It

retells important events

in a person’s life. The

person’s name is used

in theme position in

a number of clauses.

Isabel Letham, Surfie Legend

The first Australian to ride a surfboard was a woman

named Isabel Letham. Isabel was fifteen when legendary

Hawaiian surfer Duke Kahanamoku visited Australia and

rode his surfboard in a surfing exhibition at Freshwater

Beach. Isabel was on the beach watching the exhibition

when Duke, also known as ‘The Big Kahuna’, asked

for a volunteer to ride tandem with him. Isabel was

chosen and became an instant celebrity in Australia and

overseas. Isabel was involved in water sports all her life.

She died in 1995 at age 96.

Sequenced activities

Each activity focuses

on a specific aspect of

grammar

Write sentences using each noun group in the box in theme position.

Mum and Jerry The little black dog The beach An apple

Sometimes words other than nouns and noun groups are used in theme

Tip! position to highlight their importance to the meaning of a text.

4 Underline the theme of each statement.

In Sydney the Harbour Bridge is a famous tourist attraction.

On Tuesdays we have soccer practice.

Eating fruit and vegetables is recommended to maintain good health.

Occasionally we fish from the dock.

5 Underline the theme of each command.

Practise piano every day.

Theme is the first part of a clause. It tells what a sentence is about.

Apply sunscreen liberally.

Rule! Theme helps to connect information across a text.

The first Australian to ride a surfboard was a woman.

Swim between the flags.

theme

6 Underline the theme in each clause.

I Read Isabel Letham, Surfie Legend. There are six sentences. Underline the theme at the beginning

Rips are strong currents. They are stronger when the

of each sentence.

surf is bigger. They run out to sea. A tired swimmer

2 Underline the theme in each sentence.

can easily get caught in a rip. The worst thing you

Australia is famous for its surfing beaches.

can do is panic.

The surf life saving movement started in 1907.

Try it Write a biography of someone you know. Interview the Reflection

Surf Life Saving Australia celebrated its 100th anniversary in 2007.

yourself!

person to get the facts of their life. Write the facts in the I can do this.

Swimmers must look out for rips.

order that they happened. Use noun groups or pronouns I am not sure.

that represent your topic in theme position in each sentence.

I need help.

Theme; statements (declarative mood); commands (imperative mood)

44 45

3

Footer

Lists the full grammar focus covered in the unit

Tip!

Reminds or gives

a special hint

Try it yourself!

Gives students the

opportunity to apply

grammar in the context of

their own texts using the

sample texts as models.

Provides opportunities

for planning, drafting

and editing texts and

using software and word

processing programs to

publish them

Reflection

Allows students to assess

their progress

Grammar Rules! Teacher Resource Book 3-6

Full teacher support for Student Book 4 is provided by Grammar Rules! Teacher Resource Book 3–6.

Here you will find valuable background information about grammar, along with practical resources, such as:

N strategies for teaching grammar N teaching tips for every unit in Student Book 4

N grammar games and activities N answers for every unit in Student Book 4

N assessment strategies

3


Scope and Sequence

This scope and sequence chart is based on the requirements of the Australian Curriculum.

Clause to whole text level

Unit

Unit name/

Sentences Cohesion: theme, Mood and

Type of text and pronouns, lexical modality,

clauses chains, connectives language and

vocabulary

1

Dear Timmy

Recount/Email

2

My Day at the Beach

Recount

The Big Catch

conjunctions

3 Narrative

(connectives): so, but,

because

4

Dear Diary

personal pronouns:

Recount/Diary

me, I, we, us

5

A Tale of Little Fish

personal pronouns

Narrative

Nouns and noun

groups

nouns

proper and common

nouns

noun groups

noun groups

Word and word group level

Verbs and verb

groups

past tense doing verbs

past tense saying verbs

thinking and feeling

verbs

Adverbs and

prepositional

phrases

6

REVISION

7

Kakadu Seasons

Description/Poem

noun groups;

descriptive adjectives

8

Our New Dam

Recount

personal pronouns:

we, I

noun groups including

number adjectives,

singular and plural

nouns, collective

nouns

9

Dear Mum

Recount/Email

possessive pronouns

possessive adjectives;

apostrophes to show

possession

10

Australia’s Mightiest

River System

Information report

simple

sentences

technical

vocabulary

relating verbs (being

and having verbs): is,

belongs, equals, was,

had, are

11

The Driest Place

on Earth

Information report

clauses

conjunctions

(connectives): and, so,

because

questions and

statements;

technical

vocabulary;

question words

12

REVISION

13

14

15

16

17

18

Under the Sea

Description/Illustration

Frog Potion

Procedure/Recipe

How to Catch a Fish

Procedure/Instructions

Sun Safety

Procedure/Instructions

Directions to the

Olympic Pool

Procedure/Instructions

commands

noun groups with

prepositional phrases

doing verbs

prepositions: in,

on, under, over,

beside, off, with,

near, during,

after, at, before,

from, inside;

prepositional

phrases

prepositional

phrases

commands doing verbs adverbs to tell

how

noun groups

verb tense

commands proper nouns doing verbs

REVISION

4


Clause to whole text level

Unit

Unit name/

Sentences Cohesion: theme, Mood and

Type of text and pronouns, lexical modality,

clauses chains, connectives language and

vocabulary

Super Crab

quoted

Narrative/Comic strip (direct)

19

speech;

reported

(indirect)

speech

Isabel Letham, Surfie

theme

statements;

20 Legend

commands

Recount/Biography

21

Recycled Water

technical

Explanation

vocabulary

22

23

We Tank You

Advertisement

Lake Eyre

Information report

compound

sentences

Nouns and noun

groups

Verbs and verb

groups

verb tense; verb

groups; helping verbs

personal pronouns; commands doing verbs in theme

position

personal pronoun it;

conjunctions

(connectives):

however, so, and

technical

vocabulary

comparative and

superlative adjectives

Word and word group level

Adverbs and

prepositional

phrases

24

REVISION

25

Sewage

Information report

lexical chains

technical

vocabulary

commas in noun lists

26

How a Pearl is Made

Explanation

conjunctions

(connectives to show

cause and effect, to

show time sequence)

technical

vocabulary

verb groups; helping

verbs; verb tense

27

Cane Toads

Information report

reference chains;

theme position

classifying adjectives;

proper nouns

28

What’s Your Favourite

Sea Animal?

Discussion/Interview

transcript

conjunctions

(connectives to show

cause and effect, to

compare and contrast)

question tags

thinking and feeling

verbs

29

Daintree

Response/Travel review

compound

sentences

noun groups with

adjectives; subjectverb

agreement

thinking and feeling

verbs

30

REVISION

31

Tsunami

Information report

technical

vocabulary

verb groups; regular

and irregular verbs

adverbs

32

High Tide Sends

Residents to the Roof

Newspaper article

direct

(quoted)

speech;

indirect

(reported)

speech

modality;

emotive

language

modal verbs: will, will

not, might, might not,

should, should not

33

Vote Against School

Swimming

Exposition

connectives: firstly,

secondly, in addition

modality

modal verbs: might,

should, could, must;

thinking and feeling

verbs

34

Bobby and the Quest

for the Hidden Treasure

Narrative

varying themes

prepositional

phrases to

tell when and

where; adverbs

to tell how

35

REVISION

5


Unit

I

Nouns,

doing verbs

Dear Timmy,

This informative

text is an email.

It uses nouns

and past tense

verbs to recount

an event.

Last weekend I went fishing with my grandparents.

We fished from the end of the jetty not far from where

they live. My grandma caught the first fish. It was only

small so she threw it back. I caught the second fish.

My grandma shouted “Way to go, Milly!” My fish

was too small to keep so I kissed it and let it go.

My grandpa didn’t catch anything but he didn’t mind.

We bought fish and chips on the way home. I like

going fishing with my grandparents.

From Milly.

Rule!

Nouns are words for people, places, animals or things.

I

Read Dear Timmy. Write the nouns used for these people, places, animals or things.

the people

a place to stand and fish

a place to live

the food they ate

2 In the following sentences, underline 3 Circle the noun in each row.

ten nouns.

Grandma lived in a caravan.

Dad cooked noodles.

I stood on the footpath.

The children rode bikes to school.

mum jump hop skip

eat beach ate licked

sand kiss yell drag

swim swam float bird

6

We saw dolphins in the waves.

listen talk ice speak

Grammar Rules! Student Book 4 (ISBN 9781420236606) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia


Rule!

Doing verbs tell the actions. Sometimes the way a verb is written lets you

know that the action happened in the past. This is called past tense.

4 Underline the past tense doing verbs. 5 Write the past tense forms for each doing

verb. Hint! You’ll find them all in Dear Timmy.

I jumped over the fence.

Dad cooked dinner.

Mum fixed my bike.

He swam slowly.

She walked swiftly.

fish

catch

throw

kiss

buy

6

Change the form of the doing verb in brackets, so that the event happened in the past.

I (ride)

We (eat)

Mum (buys)

Grandpa (bounces)

a bike to school.

apples for morning tea.

bananas at the fruit market.

the basketball.

7

Choose a past tense doing verb from the box to complete each sentence.

made chased sailed ate ran

We

lunch in the park.

Dad

our sandwiches.

The yacht

into the harbour.

The dog into the yard and the bird.

Try it

yourself!

Write your own recount about something that happened to

you last weekend. Use nouns for people, places and things.

Remember to use the past tense forms of the verbs.

Nouns; doing verbs; past tense

Grammar Rules! Student Book 4 (ISBN 9781420236606) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

Reflection

I can do this.

I am not sure.

I need help.

7


Unit

2

Common and

proper nouns,

saying verbs

This informative

text is a recount. It

uses proper nouns for

names of particular

people and places.

My Day at the Beach

Last Saturday I went to Sandy Bay beach with my

family. As soon as we got there I slathered on my

sunscreen and went for a swim. After a while the waves

started to get really rough so I helped my sister build a

sandcastle. When it started to get cold, Mum announced

it was time to leave. We shook off all the sand and got

in the car. On the way home we stopped for

ice-creams. Mine was strawberry-flavoured.

It was really yummy!

I

Read My Day at the Beach. Write the nouns used for people, places and things.

people

places

things

Rule!

Proper nouns are the names of particular people, places, animals or things.

They begin with a capital letter.

Saturday Stephen March Australia

Common nouns are everyday naming words.

jetty fish day boat

2

Rewrite the sentences using capital letters for the proper nouns.

Did jasmine and daniel have a holiday in darwin?

I hope maria can come to my party on wednesday.

My birthday is in march and nellie’s birthday is in may.

8

Grammar Rules! Student Book 4 (ISBN 9781420236606) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia


3

Write common nouns for things you can see.

at the beach

in your car

at an ice-cream shop

in your kitchen

Rule!

Saying verbs are verbs that show that something is being said.

4

In My Day at the Beach, Mum announced that it was time to leave. Underline the saying verbs.

said yelled jumped called thought stated

5

Write a saying verb on each line.

Mum

, “Hurry up, we’re late for school!”

“I want one too!” my little brother.

“Let’s get out of here,”

Jessie.

“Where are we?”

Lou.

6

Write sentences using the words in the box as saying verbs.

chuckled reminded meowed screamed

Try it

yourself!

Write a recount of a conversation you had with someone

recently. Remember to write the past tense forms of saying

verbs to show your conversation happened in the past.

Remember that people’s names are proper nouns.

Reflection

I can do this.

I am not sure.

I need help.

Proper and common nouns; past tense saying verbs

Grammar Rules! Student Book 4 (ISBN 9781420236606) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

9


Unit

3

Thinking and

feeling verbs,

conjunctions

This imaginative

text is the opening

paragraph of a

narrative. It uses

thinking and feeling

verbs to introduce

the main character.

The Big Catch

Joe loved sharks. He thought they were

fascinating animals. He wanted to study them

when he was older. Joe was excited today

because, at long last, his uncle had agreed to

let him go on his boat during a shark-tagging

expedition. Joe had been nagging for months

but his uncle had always claimed that being

on a shark-tagging boat was too dangerous

for a ten-year-old boy. Joe desperately

hoped that today his uncle would be able to

catch, tag and release a great white shark.

Joe would quickly photograph it before it

was released back into the ocean.

Rule!

Thinking and feeling verbs represent mental activities, such as loving,

hoping and believing. You can’t see these activities taking place.

I

Circle the thinking and feeling verbs in the sentences.

Joe thought sharks were fascinating.

I think Joe cares for animals.

Joe’s uncle wonders how many sharks he’ll tag.

2

Write thinking and feeling verbs from the box to complete each sentence.

hoped loved felt worried

Joe

sharks.

Joe’s uncle

Joe

Joe

10

about Joe’s safety.

they’d tag a shark.

proud that his uncle had an important job.

Grammar Rules! Student Book 4 (ISBN 9781420236606) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia


Conjunctions are words that link ideas in a sentence.

Rule!

Joe was happy because they tagged a great white shark.

3

Join the following sentences using the conjunctions in the box. Write the new sentences on the lines.

so because because but

I like carrots. I don’t like pumpkin.

It rained all day. We had to play inside.

I won the spelling contest. I studied hard.

I invited Ludmilla to my party. She is my friend.

4

Finish each sentence.

Joe likes sharks because

Joe behaved well on the trip so

They caught a bull shark but

The weather was fine but

Joe’s uncle decided to take Joe because

Joe took a photo so

Try it

yourself!

Write an orientation for a story. Use thinking and feeling

verbs to represent the way the characters think and feel.

Ask a peer to help edit your work.

Reflection

I can do this.

I am not sure.

I need help.

Thinking and feeling verbs; conjunctions (connectives): so, because, but

Grammar Rules! Student Book 4 (ISBN 9781420236606) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

11


Unit

4

Noun groups,

personal pronouns

This informative

text is a diary

entry. It recounts

events in a time

sequence.

Dear Diary,

Yesterday our school held its annual

swimming carnival. I was excited because

I swam in three events. My first event was

a twenty-five metre medley relay. I swam

the backstroke leg. We came third. Next

I had a twenty-five metre backstroke

race. I finished first! I felt really proud

when our school principal, Ms Ng, shook

my hand and gave me a medal. My last

event was freestyle. I’m pretty hopeless at

freestyle but I tried my hardest and came

fifth. I think I did a really good job at the

carnival. I can’t wait for next year.

Rule!

A noun group is a group of words that contains a noun.

The other words in the group tell more about the noun.

We ate my deliciously moist birthday cake.

I Read Dear Diary. Write the noun groups used for these nouns.

relay

race

carnival

Ms Ng

2

Write noun groups of your own for each noun in the box.

kitten friend game

12

Grammar Rules! Student Book 4 (ISBN 9781420236606) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia


Rule!

Pronouns replace nouns.

Personal pronouns replace nouns for people and things.

Personal pronouns stand for the speaker or writer of the text.

me I we us

3

4

Circle the personal pronouns used in Dear Diary.

Use each personal pronoun in a sentence.

I me we us

Tip!

I and me can be tricky when you are talking about yourself and someone

else. To choose the correct personal pronoun follow this pattern:

I went to the shop. Ben and I went to the shop.

Mum bought me a cake. Mum bought Ben and me cakes.

5

Join the following sentences correctly, using either me or I.

Jai ate an apple. I ate an apple. Jai and ate apples.

Dad helped me. Dad helped Debbie. Dad helped Debbie and .

Mum took my brother to the movies. Mum took me to the movies.

Mum took my brother and

to the movies.

Try it

yourself!

Write a recount in the form of a diary entry about

something exciting that has happened to you recently.

Use the personal pronouns me, I, we and us.

Noun groups; personal pronouns: me, I, we, us

Grammar Rules! Student Book 4 (ISBN 9781420236606) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

Reflection

I can do this.

I am not sure.

I need help.

13


Unit

Noun groups,

personal pronouns

5 A Tale of Little Fish

This imaginative

text is the orientation of

a narrative. It uses noun

groups to represent

characters, places and

things. It uses personal

pronouns to refer to

characters.

A long time ago, in the depths of the deep, dark

ocean, there lived a school of tiny, jittery fish. The

fish were scared out of their minds because of one

thing: a shark! The shark had a very big appetite

and loved having visitors for dinner – visitors to

eat, of course! The little fish had a major problem.

You see, they needed to get to the other side of

the shark’s territory to find food. They needed to

find a way to get to their food and then make it

home to shelter before nightfall when the shark

would be hungry!

I

Read A Tale of Little Fish. Write the noun

groups for each noun.

2

Circle the word in each row that is not

a noun.

ocean

fish

appetite

problem

fish shark eat dinner

food shelter night swim

think brain eye fin

territory see sand ocean

3

Write a noun group of your own to describe each of the following nouns.

elephant

dog

banana

feet

kindergarten

14

Grammar Rules! Student Book 4 (ISBN 9781420236606) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia


Rule!

Personal pronouns stand for the person speaking.

I me us we

Personal pronouns stand for the person or people being spoken to.

you

Personal pronouns stand for the people or things spoken about.

she her he him it they them

4

Circle the personal pronoun used in this sentence.

When you get to the house you will find the key under the doormat.

5

Circle the personal pronouns that stand for the baby.

The baby was bored. He crawled around the garden and chewed on his toys.

He wanted to play. I took him for a walk around the block in his stroller.

6

Rewrite the sentences replacing each underlined word with a personal pronoun from the box.

we

us

My friends and I are going to the bowling alley after school. My friends and I enjoy tenpin

bowling. The owner of the alley lets my friends and I have the same lane each week.

7

Choose a pronoun from the box that could represent each noun or noun group.

she they it it he

Bill

Diane

the boat

Helen and Kirstin

the house

Try it

yourself!

Write the rest of the story A Tale of Little Fish. How will

the little fish escape the shark and get enough to eat?

Use noun groups to describe the characters in the story.

Use personal pronouns to refer to the characters.

Reflection

I can do this.

I am not sure.

I need help.

Noun groups; personal pronouns

Grammar Rules! Student Book 4 (ISBN 9781420236606) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

15


Unit

6

Revision

I

Underline ten nouns for people, places and

things in the following sentences.

The children went fishing off the wharf.

Nan and Pop cooked porridge for breakfast.

Bethany rides a bike to school.

I like tadpoles.

2 Underline the doing verbs.

I stepped on a thumbtack.

Dad grated the carrots for the salad.

Mum mowed the lawn.

Katy cooked spaghetti.

Melek picked flowers.

3

Change the form of the doing verbs in the sentences so that the events happened in the past.

The sheep (hop)

We (eat)

Mum (buys)

Nonna (walks)

over the log.

Anzac biscuits.

sausages at the butcher’s.

to the shop.

4

Write a saying verb on each line.

Mum

, “Time for bed.”

“I’ll share with you,”

my little brother.

“Go away!”

Jessie.

“Where did you put my book?”

Tam.

Dad

, “Somebody needs to clean the mouse cage.”

5 Rewrite each sentence using capital letters for the proper nouns.

My aunty likes the music of the band, the beetles.

I told andre to come after school on friday.

My birthday is in september and emily’s birthday is in october.

16

Grammar Rules! Student Book 4 (ISBN 9781420236606) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia


6

Circle the thinking and feeling verbs.

I believe she is telling the truth.

I think my cat is the cutest.

The coach worried about the game.

7

Use a thinking and feeling verb from the box to complete each sentence.

believed thought worried

The little fish

The little fish

The shark

about the shark.

of a plan.

it was the boss of the sea.

8

Join these sentences using a conjunction from the box. Write the new sentence on the line.

so but because

I walked to the shop. I caught a bus home.

It was a beautiful sunny day. We went on a picnic.

I was allowed to watch television. I had finished all my homework.

9

Write noun groups for these things.

a family member

a pet

a television personality

IO

Rewrite the paragraph below replacing the underlined words with personal pronouns.

My family and I like playing tennis together. My family and I play each Saturday

afternoon during the summer. The exercise keeps my family and me fit.

Revision

Grammar Rules! Student Book 4 (ISBN 9781420236606) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

17

Hooray! Your file is uploaded and ready to be published.

Saved successfully!

Ooh no, something went wrong!