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AWARD- D-WINNI NNING SERIES

5

Second edition

Tanya Gibb

Grammar in the real world


Contents

Note to Teachers and Parents.............................................. 2

Scope and Sequence............................................................. 4

Units 1–35............................................................................ 6

Grammar Rules – a glossary and index.............................. 76

Writing Log......................................... centre pull-out pages

This edition published in 2021 by

Matilda Education Australia, an imprint

of Meanwhile Education Pty Ltd

Level 1/274 Brunswick St

Fitzroy, Victoria Australia 3065

T: 1300 277 235

E: customersupport@matildaed.com.au

www.matildaeducation.com.au

First edition published in 2008 by Macmillan Science and Education Australia Pty Ltd

Copyright © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Science and Education Australia 2016

All rights reserved.

Except under the conditions described in the Copyright Act 1968 of Australia and subsequent amendments,

no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or

by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior

written permission of the copyright owner.

Educational institutions copying any part of this book for educational purposes under the Act must be

covered by a Copyright Agency Limited (CAL) licence for educational institutions and must have given a

remuneration notice to CAL. Licence restrictions must be adhered to. Any copies must be photocopies

only, and they must not be hired out or sold. For details of the CAL licence contact: Copyright Agency

Limited, Level 11, 66 Goulburn Street, Sydney, NSW 2000. Telephone: (02) 9394 7600.

Facsimile: (02) 9394 7601. Email: memberservices@copyright.com.au

Publisher: First edition Sharon Dalgleish

Designers: Trish Hayes and Stephen Michael King

Illustrator: Stephen Michael King

Printed in Singapore by Markono Print Media Pte Ltd

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 25 24 23 22 21 20

Supports the English curriculum

Student Book Foundation 1 2 3 4 5 6

Australian Curriculum F 1 2 3 4 5 6

NSW Syllabus Early Stage 1 Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3

New Zealand Curriculum 1 2 3 4 5 6 7


Second edition

Tanya Gibb

STUDENT BOOK5

Grammar in the real world

Name:

Class:


Grammar Rules!

Grammar Rules! comprehensively meets the requirements of the Australian Curriculum English. The scope and

sequence outlined on pages 4–5 integrates Language, Literature and Literacy to develop students’ knowledge,

understanding and skills in listening, reading, viewing, speaking and representing.

Grammar Rules! also supports the New Zealand English Curriculum strands: Listening, Reading and Viewing;

and Speaking, Writing and Presenting. Students will use processes and strategies to develop knowledge, skills

and understandings, related to purposes and audiences, ideas, language features and structure.

Grammar can be defined as the way language is organised to make meaning. Knowledge of the grammatical

features that make language use more effective is vital for all students. They need an understanding of

grammar to be able to make appropriate choices to get their message across in speaking and writing

(creating texts); and they need to know how to analyse the language used by others when they are listening

and reading (interpreting texts). Grammatical knowledge will assist students to become analytical, critical and

evaluative language users.

Grammar Rules! shows students how grammatical structures and features function in texts to achieve meaning,

from the contextual level of the whole text down to sentence level and to the level of words and word

parts. The series explains appropriate grammatical structures for particular types of texts, language functions

and social purposes.

Student Book 5

Units of work

Student Book 5 contains 35 weekly units of work presented in a conceptually sound scope and sequence. The

intention is for students to work through the units in the sequence in which they are presented. See the

Scope and Sequence Chart on pages 4–5 for more information. There are also regular Revision Units that

can be used for consolidation or assessment purposes.

The sample texts in Student Book 5 are based around the theme of space. The subject matter of the sample

texts is not tied to any particular content across other curriculum areas. This allows teachers and students

to focus on the way language is structured according to purpose and audience. Students can then use this

knowledge to evaluate, respond to and create texts in other learning areas. The concepts in the sample texts

link well with the Cross-Curriculum Priority of Sustainability, as well the General Capabilities of Critical and

Creative Thinking, Personal and Social Capability, Ethical Understanding and Intercultural Understanding, as

described in the Australian Curriculum.

Icons

Note to teachers and parents

Try it

yourself!

Encourages students to create texts of their own to demonstrate their understanding of the

grammatical concepts taught in the unit. These activities focus on written language; however,

many also provide opportunities for using spoken language to engage with others, make

presentations and develop skills in using ICT.

Rule!

Highlights useful grammatical rules and

concepts. The rule is always introduced

the first time students need it to

complete an activity.

Tip!

Tells students that a special hint is provided

for an activity. It might be a tip about language

functions, or a reminder to look at a rule in a

previous unit.

2

Grammar Rules Glossary

A valuable glossary is provided at the end of Student Book 5. Teachers and students can use this as a

straightforward dictionary of grammar terminology, or as a summary of important grammar rules used in

Student Book 5. Page references are also given for the point in the book where the rule was first introduced,

so that students can go back to that unit if they need more information or further revision of the rule.


Copyright © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia 2016

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

Copyright © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia 2016

Pull-Out Writing Log

At the centre of Student Book 5 is a practical pull-out Writing Log so that students can directly relate

the grammar they learn back to their own writing. Students could store the Writing Log in their writing

folders, and use it to keep track of the grammar, language functions and types of texts they use. The

Writing Log also includes a handy reminder of the writing process, as well as a checklist of types of texts

and text forms for students to try.

Grammar Rules!

's Writing Log

I Think

What is your topic?

What is the purpose of the writing?

Who is the audience?

What type of text and text form will you use?

3 Revise

Check your writing for meaning and ideas.

Have you chosen the best words and

phrases for your topic?

Do you need to add anything?

Do you need to take anything away?

Do you need to move anything?

Check your writing for structure.

Does the structure match the type of

text you chose?

Are your ideas well-sequenced with

connectives?

Do the personal pronouns match the nouns?

Read your writing to a partner.

Read your writing to your teacher.

Ask for advice about your writing.

2

Draft

Gather your ideas.

Organise your ideas.

Write a draft.

4 Proofread

Polish your writing.

Check your grammar.

Check your spelling.

Check your punctuation.

5 Publish

Publish your writing.

Share your writing.

Reflect on your writing.

Create symbols

for a rating scale.

Then each time

you finish a piece

of writing, record

it in the log.

My rating scale

Symbol Meaning

Do you need

some ideas for

other text forms

to try? Look at

the back page!

Date

Write the

date.

Title

Write the title of your

piece.

Text type

Audience Grammar I used My rating Where to next?

and text form

eg recount/ Who were you List the main grammar features you used. Record your What grammar could you try next?

letter writing for or to?

rating.

How could you improve your writing?

Does your teacher have any comments?

I've tried these types of texts and text forms . . .

Narrative (imaginative)

Explanation (informative)

Story

Magazine article

Play script

Reference book

Comic

Other

Ballad

Exposition (persuasive)

Other

(argues one side of an issue)

Recount (imaginative or informative)

Debate

Letter

Speech

Biography

Letter to editor

Autobiography

Editorial

Newspaper article

TV advertisement

Other

Magazine advertisement

Radio advertisement

Description

Leaflet

(imaginative or informative)

Other

Poem

Story

Discussion (persuasive) (presents

Play script

more than one side of an issue)

Biography

Conversation

Other

TV interview

Talk-back radio

Information report (informative)

Dialogue in a story

Scientific report

Panel discussion

Website

Other

Magazine article

Documentary

Response (persuasive)

Other

Film or book review

Diary or journal

Procedure (informative)

Poem

Cookbook

Other

Instruction manual

Game rules

Other

i

ii

Copyright © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia 2016 Copyright © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia 2016 iii iv

Unit at a Glance

Unit tag

States the main

grammar focus

Type of text

description

Highlights the

type of text and

purpose and

any particular

grammar focus of

the sample text

Rule!

Introduces

students to a

new concept

Text sample

Illustrates the grammar focus

at work, in the real context

of a specific type of text

8Unit

7

Prepositional

phrases,

possessive

adjectives

This imaginative

text is an excerpt from

a narrative. It uses

prepositional phrases

to set the scene.

Through the Doorway

Ronnie looked out her window at the blinding light that

was coming from the neighbourhood park. She grabbed

her jumper out of the closet and snuck out the back door

without a sound. She wheeled her bike onto the street,

then climbed on and headed down the road to the park.

Ronnie was astonished to see that all the light was coming

from a small shoe-sized box. She knelt down next to it

and lifted the lid. Inside was a remote control. Ronnie

picked it up. A red light in the centre started flashing.

Without thinking, Ronnie pushed the red button. Bang!

An ear-splitting noise shattered the night. She jumped back

quickly and before her eyes the remote turned into a

gigantic doorway. Ronnie peered inside.

Possessive adjectives are words in a noun or noun group

that show ownership.

Rule!

his window her remote control

his her their your my our its

A preposition is a word that shows the relationship between a noun or pronoun and

another word.

Rule!

in on under with beside

5 The word her is used in Through the Doorway as a possessive adjective.

A prepositional phrase is a preposition linked to a noun or noun group.

Underline it in the text. Notice that it comes before a noun each time.

They can tell where. near the stove under the bed in the kitchen cupboard

They can tell when. during the night after the storm

6 Use a possessive adjective from the box to show ownership in each sentence.

They can tell how. with feeling in a funny way

their her his your my our

I Read Through the Doorway. Underline the prepositional phrases that tell where.

Here, take

compass with you.

2 Circle the prepositions in Through the Doorway. Why do you think the author has used so many? What

They ran to catch

rocket.

effect does this have on the narrative?

Give me

hand.

Ask Giselle if you can borrow

helmet.

Ian has forgotten

jet pack!

There’s

base camp.

3 Finish each sentence with a prepositional phrase that tells where.

Try it

Victoria walked .

Write a narrative titled Through the Doorway. You could continue

yourself! the story started in this unit or create your own magic doorway. Use

The cat sat .

prepositional phrases and adverbs to set the scene. Ask a peer to help

The galaxy was located .

edit your story.

We watched the fireworks .

Prepositional phrase; adverbs; adjectives; possessive adjectives

18 19

Grammar Rules! Teacher Resource Book 3-6

Full teacher support for Student Book 5 is provided by Grammar Rules! Teacher Resource Book 3–6.

Here you will find valuable background information about grammar, along with practical resources, such as:

N strategies for teaching grammar N teaching tips for every unit in Student Book 5

N grammar games and activities N answers for every unit in Student Book 5

N assessment strategies

Tip!

Tip!

Reminds or gives

a special hint

Be careful not to confuse adverbs with adjectives.

Some words can be either an adverb or an adjective.

It was a fast car. fast = adjective

She drives very fast. fast = adverb

Remember that a word functions as an adjective if it describes a noun,

but as an adverb if it describes a verb, an adjective or another adverb.

4 Underline the adverb in each sentence. Circle the verb it describes.

Ronnie pushed the button recklessly.

Ronnie is an inquisitive person and she peered cautiously through the doorway.

Ronnie looked inquisitively at the remote.

Ronnie could see clearly through the well-lit doorway.

Being a clever girl, Ronnie decided to approach carefully.

The remote buzzed loudly.

Sequenced activities

Each activity focuses

on a specific aspect of

grammar

Try it yourself!

Gives students the

opportunity to apply

grammar in the context of

their own texts using the

sample texts as models.

Provides opportunities

for planning, drafting

and editing texts and

using software and word

processing programs to

publish them

Footer

Lists the full grammar

focus covered in the unit

3


4

Scope and Sequence

Clause to whole text level

Unit

Unit name/

Sentences Cohesion: theme, Mood and

Type of text and pronouns, lexical modality,

clauses chains, connectives language and

vocabulary

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

A Doggy Heroine

Information report

Battle for the Planets

Narrative

The Eagle has

Landed

Recount/Newspaper

article

Glittery Moon

Narrative

A Movie Classic

Response/Film review

Through the Doorway

Narrative

Valentina Tereshkova

Recount/Biography

Galactic Airways

Exposition/

Advertisement

The Columbus of the

Cosmos

Recount/Biography

Amateur Astronomer

Recount

Save Planet Earth

Discussion/Interview

transcript

Earth Day

Information report

The Black Hole

Narrative

Does Life Exist on

Other Planets?

Discussion

Life on Earth

Information report

simple and

compound

sentences;

clauses

clauses;

simple

sentences;

commas

complex

sentences; main

clause and

subordinate

clauses

quoted (direct)

speech

ellipses; complex

sentences;

subordinate

clauses

This scope and sequence chart is based on the requirements of the Australian Curriculum.

conjunctions

(connectives): and, so,

because, but, or, until;

personal pronouns: she,

her, he, him, it

conjunctions

(connectives): as, and,

while

relative pronouns: who,

whose, that, which

theme

theme; personal

pronouns

conjunctions

(connectives); relative

pronouns; possessive

pronouns: mine, ours,

yours, his, hers, theirs

relative pronouns

modality

REVISION

commands;

modality with

positive and

negative polarity

modality

REVISION

connectives: or, similarly, acronyms

however, on the other

hand, because, although,

unless, therefore,

alternatively, likewise

technical terms statements

and questions;

question tags

REVISION

Nouns and noun groups

noun groups including

adjectives; proper nouns;

collective nouns

noun groups; descriptive and

classifying adjectives

adjectives; possessive

adjectives

Word and word group level

apostrophes of possession

nominalisation; noun groups

including possessive adjectives,

articles, number adjectives,

descriptive adjectives,

classifying adjectives

noun groups; nominalisation;

adjectives

Verbs and

verb groups

auxiliary verbs;

subject-verb

agreement

verbs

verb groups;

thinking and feeling

verbs; saying verbs;

auxiliary verbs

relating verbs

(being and having

verbs); doing verbs

doing verbs; verb

tense

past tense; regular

and irregular verbs

auxiliary verbs;

thinking and feeling

verbs

verb groups

relating verbs

(being and having

verbs)

Adverbs and

prepositional

phrases

adverbs and

adverb groups

modal adverbs

prepositional

phrases;

adverbs

adverbs and

prepositional

phrases

modal adverbs

adverbs


Clause to whole text level

Unit

Unit name/

Sentences Cohesion: theme, Mood and

Type of text and pronouns, lexical modality,

clauses chains, connectives language and

vocabulary

19

20

21

22

23

Cosmonaut Cookies

Procedure/Recipe

Film Review

Response/Film review

Dear Mr Armstrong

Response/Letter

Alien

Description/Poem

Ecological Footprint

Information report

addressing

envelopes;

commas

colons

clauses;

commas

Nouns and noun

groups

Verbs and verb

groups

theme commands noun groups verbs; present tense;

past tense suffixes and

auxiliaries

fact and opinion; adjectives

evaluative

language;

modality;

exclamations

conjunctions

(connectives): or, and

relative pronouns:

who, whose,

which; conjunctions

(connectives): so, both,

neither/nor, either/or,

because

evaluative

language

metaphor

noun groups;

descriptive and

classifying adjectives

nominalisation

Word and word group level

Adverbs and

prepositional

phrases

adverbs

adverbs and

prepositional

phrases

24

REVISION

25

Mass Panic – UFO

Terrorises City

Information report/

Newspaper article

quoted

(direct) and

reported

(indirect)

speech

emotive

language; gender

inclusive language

26

Mars, the Red Planet

Description

noun groups;

superlative and

comparative adjectives;

adjectival phrases

relating verbs (being

and having verbs)

27

How is the Earth

Magnetic?

Explanation

technical terms past and present tense prepositional

phrases to tell

how, where and

when

28

Who Needs Science?

Response/Letter to the

editor

connectives to link

arguments

modality;

vocatives

29

Today’s Debate

Exposition/Parliamentary

debate

vocatives;

emotive language

30

REVISION

31

Dear Diary

Response/Diary

colloquial

language; similes;

metaphors

noun groups

thinking and feeling

verbs; relating verbs;

auxiliary verbs

32

What to Do if

Aliens Land in Your

Neighbourhood

Procedure/Instructions

conjunctions

(connectives): if; theme

commands;

tongue-in-cheek

humour

verbs; present tense

33

Andy Thomas, Astronaut

Recount/Biography

connectives; reference

chains

fact and opinion

adding suffixes to form

nouns for people

34

The Cost of the Space

Program

Discussion

connectives: on

the other hand,

nevertheless, whereas,

despite, however, yet,

though; lexical chains

point of view

35

REVISION

5


Unit

I

Sentences,

pronouns

This informative

text is an information

report. It uses simple and

compound sentences to

provide information.

A Doggy Heroine

The first animal to orbit Earth was a dog named

Laika. She was sent to space in a Soviet Union

spacecraft named Sputnik II in 1957. Laika was a

stray dog caught on the streets of Moscow and

she was nicknamed ‘Muttnik’ by the American

media. While in space, her heart rate and other

vital signs were monitored so that scientists could

determine whether it was safe to send humans

into orbit. She was harnessed into the spacecraft

but she could reach her food and water. The

mission was not a return mission and there was

never any intention to bring Laika home. There

is some debate among scientists about how long

Laika survived in space.

Rule!

A clause is a group of words that expresses an idea and contains a verb.

A simple sentence is a single clause.

A compound sentence is a sentence that contains more than one clause. Each clause

makes sense on its own.

I

Read A Doggy Heroine. How many sentences does it contain?

2

Write whether each sentence is a simple or compound sentence.

Laika was born in Moscow.

Laika was the first animal to orbit the Earth and she became famous.

Laika was harnessed into the spacecraft.

Laika was the first animal to orbit Earth but she was not the first animal in space.

Rule!

Conjunctions are joining words. They link clauses in a sentence.

and so because but or until

3

Cross out the incorrect conjunction in each example.

Laika ran out of oxygen (so/or) she died.

Laika died (so/because) she ran out of oxygen.

The dog’s name was Laika (but/so) the media called her ‘Muttnik’.

6

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia


4

Join the simple sentences using conjunctions.

Laika was harnessed into the spacecraft. She didn’t move around too much.

Some scientists believe Laika showed no ill effects of her space flight. The oxygen ran out. She died.

Laika was a stray dog. No-one protested Laika’s journey into space.

Laika died in space. She became famous.

Rule!

Pronouns replace nouns.

Personal pronouns replace nouns for people, animals and things.

5

Circle the personal pronouns in A Doggy Heroine.

Tip!

The personal pronoun it is often used to refer to an animal.

The personal pronoun she is used in A Doggy Heroine. This makes Laika seem more human.

6

Use a personal pronoun from the box to complete each sentence.

him he it it her she

Laika ate her dinner and then

licked her lips.

Ralph, the dog, sat under his favourite tree while

I bought a new lunch box and took

to school.

My cat was sick so I took

to the vet.

Lena doesn’t like it when I tickle .

Russell is funny, but don’t tell

I said so!

waited for dinner.

7

Rewrite the pair of simple sentences as one compound sentence. Use a conjunction and a personal pronoun.

Laika was a stray dog. The media named Laika ‘Muttnik’.

Try it

yourself!

Find out about some other animals that were sent into space, such as

spiders, monkeys or mice. Write an information report. Use conjunctions

to connect clauses in the sentences. Use pronouns to refer to the animals.

Simple and compound sentences; clauses; conjunctions (connectives): and, so, because, but, or, until; personal pronouns: she, her, he, him, it

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

7


Unit

2

Nouns

groups

This imaginative

text is an excerpt from

a narrative. It uses noun

groups to represent

people and things.

Battle for the Planets

In the deep wilderness of space, there lived a peaceful community of

Ferlings. The Ferlings were kind, gentle, nomadic creatures. For centuries,

they had roamed from planet to planet, constantly under threat of

attack by the not-so-friendly Grimlies, of the planet Grima. One day a

group of Ferlings was collecting sweet, juicy Moonberries and tasty little

Jupiternuts when they realised that a gang of huge, fierce Grimlies was

moving towards them. They quickly and quietly transported themselves

behind a nearby rocky outcrop and, hoping that the Grimlies wouldn’t

see them, waited until they thought the coast was clear before hopping

out. They were wrong!

Rule!

A noun group is a group of words that contains a noun. The other words in the noun

group tell more about the noun.

We approached the enormous cratered planet.

A noun group can contain more than one noun. The extra noun

or nouns tell more about the main noun.

the planet with red oceans

main noun

noun

I

Read Battle for the Planets. Write some adjectives that could describe these nouns from the story.

Ferling

Moonberries

space

Grimly

planet

Jupiternuts

2

Write adjectives to describe each noun.

classroom

school

homework

library

8

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia


3

In Battle for the Planets underline the noun groups containing adjectives. The first one is the deep

wilderness of space.

4

Ferlings and Grimlies each begin with a capital letter because they are proper nouns. They are the names

for creatures from particular places. Write the proper nouns for people from the following places.

Australia

Iraq

Japan

Somalia

Earth

Germany

Mars

England

Rule!

An auxiliary verb helps another verb in a verb group.

is called

5

Underline the auxiliary verb in each sentence. Circle the verb groups.

The alien was flying.

Joseph is jumping.

The star has exploded.

The children were giggling.

The Grimly was shouting.

Rule!

A plural noun needs a matching auxiliary verb.

A singular noun needs a matching auxiliary verb.

Collective nouns are singular.

Grimlies were coming.

A Grimly was coming.

The gang was coming.

6

Circle the collective nouns in Battle for the Planets.

7

Circle the auxiliary verb that matches each underlined noun.

A group of Grimlies (are/is) setting a trap.

The dogs (were/was) running through the park.

A pack of wolves (was/were) hunting.

The seagulls (is/are) flying overhead.

The boy (is/are) going to be late.

The pod of whales (are/is) moving north past Moreton Bay.

The herd (is/are) heading for the river.

Try it

yourself!

Write an ending for the narrative Battle for the Planets. Or write a

narrative of your own about creatures from outer space. Create interesting

descriptions of characters and settings using noun groups with adjectives.

Noun groups including adjectives; proper nouns; collective nouns; auxiliary verbs; subject-verb agreement

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

9


Unit

3

Clauses,

commas

This informative

text is a recount in the

form of a newspaper article.

It uses complex sentences

with many clauses to carry

the information.

Daily News, 20 July 1969

THE EAGLE HAS LANDED

An estimated 700 million

people around the world

watched in awe as the lunar

module Eagle landed in the

dusty Sea of Tranquillity,

and its Commander, Neil

Armstrong, and Lunar Module

Pilot, Edwin ‘Buzz’ Aldrin,

stepped onto the surface of the

Moon, while the Command

Module Pilot, Michael Collins,

orbited above them.

Apollo 11 was launched on

16th July from the Kennedy

Space Centre in Florida. The

astronauts spent two and a half

hours on the surface taking

photographs, collecting rocks

and drilling core samples.

Tip!

The first paragraph of a newspaper article is called the lead paragraph. Its aim is to get

readers interested and deliver the most important parts of the news. The lead paragraph

can include sentences with many clauses.

I

2

Read The Eagle has Landed. The first paragraph is a single sentence with four clauses.

Mark where each clause begins.

Hint! Look for the conjunctions as, and and while. They function to link clauses.

Also remember, a clause must contain a verb. Underline the verbs.

Write the clauses from question 1 as four simple sentences.

3

Mark the clauses in the sentences. Hint! Find the conjunctions and the verbs first.

Over half a billion people watched televisions around the world as Armstrong climbed down the

ladder of the lunar module and took his first footstep on the Moon’s surface.

Aldrin joined Armstrong on the lunar surface and described the moonscape as ‘magnificent desolation’.

The astronauts were trained to control all equipment and land the module themselves if the

computers broke down.

10

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia


4

Use conjunctions to join each group of simple sentences.

The Daily News sold out on 20th July. The paper had to be reprinted. Everyone wanted souvenir

copies of the paper.

Armstrong and Aldrin walked on the Moon. Collins orbited above the Moon. The team on Earth

watched excitedly.

5

Every clause (or simple sentence) needs a verb.

Circle the verb in each row.

watched lunar ship astronaut

Moon dust rock landed

newspaper stepped daily space centre

Michael orbited while surface

6

Write clause or not clause next to each word

group. Add a capital letter and a full stop to the

clauses to make simple sentences.

the astronauts collected materials

rocks, soil and dust

they reprinted the paper

souvenir copies of the paper

the Kennedy Space Centre

Rule!

Commas are used to separate parts of a sentence to make meaning clearer.

They can separate phrases or clauses.

After lunch, we went for a walk.

The new PE teacher, called Ms Harding, is a state basketball champion.

Commas can also be used to separate words in a list.

7

Add commas to these sentences to make the meaning clear.

During their walk Armstrong and Aldrin collected rocks soil and dust from the surface.

Because of their Moon mission Neil Armstrong Buzz Aldrin and Michael Collins are very famous.

During his time in orbit Collins checked his instruments and equipment.

He was not injured luckily.

Neil Armstrong Commander of the mission was the first person to walk on the Moon.

Try it

yourself!

With a partner, role-play an interview with one of the Eagle astronauts.

Or, conduct a hot seat activity or circle of viewpoints activity. Then reflect

on any new ideas, viewpoints or questions you now have about the topic.

Write a recount.

Clauses; simple sentences; verbs; conjunctions (connectives): as, and, while; commas

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

11


Unit

4

Adjectives,

adverbs, relative

pronouns

This imaginative

text is the orientation for a

narrative. It contains noun

groups with descriptive

and classifying adjectives

to introduce the main

character.

Glittery Moon

Once upon a time, on a moon far, far away,

there lived a gentle, quiet man whose job

it was to sprinkle glitter all over the moon

every day so that it glimmered and sparkled.

One day, something terrible happened. The

entire supply of glitter ran out! The moon

man was devastated. He didn’t know what to

do. He was frightened. He had never travelled

beyond his home on the moon and was worried

about the weird and mystical things that could

await him out in space, but what else could

he do? He had to replenish his glitter supplies

or forever sentence the moon to dullness. He

decided to take his spacecraft on its first ever

journey and go and find glitter for his moon.

Rule!

Descriptive adjectives are words that describe a noun.

gentle quiet round pretty

Classifying adjectives classify, or tell the group that a noun belongs to.

washing machine glitter supplies wedding cake

To test if an adjective is a classifying adjective, try to add the word very in front of it. It won’t make sense.

a very space station

I

2

Read Glittery Moon. Underline all the descriptive adjectives.

Write a descriptive adjective and a classifying adjective for each noun.

Descriptive adjective Classifying adjective Noun

exciting space journey

station

supplies

home

Rule!

Adverbs add meaning to a verb, adjective or another adverb.

They can tell how. slowly

They can tell when. tomorrow

They can tell where. here

An adverb group is a group of words that does the job of an adverb.

He walked back and forth.

12

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia


3

Use an adverb or adverb group from the box to complete each sentence. The adverb or adverb group

will tell when.

last night tomorrow soon later before

I will walk to the shop .

we went to the movies.

We will go fishing .

we go to bed, we can watch television for half an hour.

I’ll finish reading my book .

4

Complete each sentence with an adverb

ending in -ly that tells how.

5

Complete each sentence with an adverb that

tells where.

I walked .

I ran .

You need to work .

Dad sang .

My sister ate .

here there above below inside

The key is on the shelf .

Look

the window.

I ran .

Tracey is .

I saw the bird .

Rule!

Relative pronouns introduce relative clauses. They relate to people, places, animals or things

already mentioned in a text. who whose which that

Use relative pronouns to make your writing flow more easily and sound less repetitive.

The man built a house. The house is on a moon.

The house that the man built is on a moon.

6

Rewrite each pair of sentences as a single sentence. Use a relative pronoun.

The man was supposed to sprinkle glitter on the moon. He was on holiday.

Here is the blueberry pie. The restaurant is famous for its blueberry pie.

The koala had a sore toe. It climbed to the top of the tree.

The man came to dinner. The man was Dad’s friend from work.

Try it

yourself!

Write a narrative using adverbs and adverb groups to tell when,

where and how the actions take place. Use relative pronouns to help

the flow of your narrative.

Noun group; descriptive and classifying adjectives; adverbs and adverb groups; relative pronouns: who, whose, that, which

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

13


Unit

Verb groups,

5 modality A Movie Classic

This persuasive text

is a response. It uses

thinking and feeling

verbs and saying verbs

to give opinions.

I recently saw an old movie on television. It was called E.T.: the

Extra-Terrestrial. Mum suggested I watch it with her. It was made

in 1982 when she was ten years old. My mother told me that when

the movie first came out she saw it with her parents and she really

loved it. She remembered feeling really sad about the little alien,

E.T. She also remembers thinking that the scientists were extremely

mean planning to experiment on E.T. and kill him. They should

have tried to help E.T. go home. Watching the movie together last

week, we both cheered when E.T. managed to escape.

E.T.: the Extra-Terrestrial is a science fiction adventure that the

whole family will definitely enjoy. Even though it was made decades

ago, I believe it still has a relevant message for Earthlings today.

Rule!

Saying verbs are verbs that show that something is being said.

Thinking and feeling verbs represent mental activities, such as loving, hoping and believing.

You can’t see these activities taking place.

I

2

Read A Movie Classic. Circle the three saying verbs.

Write five saying verbs that you could use in your own writing.

Rule!

A verb group does the job of a verb.

It can contain two verbs that both contribute equally to the meaning.

I remembered feeling happy.

It can contain a main verb and an auxiliary verb.

It was made.

3

Underline the five thinking and feeling verb groups in A Movie Classic.

4

Write five thinking and feeling verbs that you could use in your own writing.

Rule!

Auxiliary verbs can tell you the degree of certainty the speaker

or writer has about something. This is called modality.

High modality means certain. will will not

Low modality means uncertain. might might not

Modal adverbs can also convey modality. possibly probably absolutely certainly

14

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia


5

In A Movie Classic, find two auxiliary verbs that help express the writer’s opinion.

6

In A Movie Classic, find two modal adverbs used to show the writer’s opinion.

7

If you desperately needed to go to the toilet in class, tick the line you would use with your teacher.

I might need to go to the toilet.

I possibly should go to the toilet.

Maybe you’ll let me go to the toilet.

I really must go to the toilet!

8

If you wanted to stop a bully from hurting someone, which line would you use and why?

You must stop.

Would it be possible for you to stop?

Maybe you could stop.

I think you should stop.

9

Tick a column to show the modality of each statement.

To experiment on E.T. a scientist... High modality Lower modality

must be extremely mean

might be considered mean

might not be considered mean

is definitely not mean

IO

Complete each sentence with a high modality adverb.

E.T. is an

I

We should

There is

good movie.

love watching old movies.

make a movie ourselves!

no way that I would experiment on E.T.

Try it

yourself!

Write a response to a movie you have

seen. Include thinking and feeling verbs.

Use auxiliary verbs and modal adverbs

to help express your opinions.

Verb groups; saying verbs, thinking and feeling verbs; auxiliary verbs; modal adverbs; modality

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

15


Unit

6

Revision

I

Use a conjunction from the box to connect each pair of simple sentences.

It is cold in space. I need to wear a jacket.

and so but because or

I need to wear a coat. I don’t want to get cold.

I could put my jacket on. I could just go in my T-shirt.

I’ll wear a jacket. I’ll wear gloves.

I could take my coat. I don’t want to carry it around.

2

Use a personal pronoun from the box to complete each sentence.

he her she it

The scientist washed her hands before

Roger, the cat, sat on his favourite chair while

I borrowed Jacob’s skateboard and rode

My dog was hungry so I fed

a snack.

put on her gloves.

waited for dinner.

after dinner.

3

Circle the correct verb form for each sentence.

The pancakes (were/was) delicious.

They (was/were) hoping to earn extra pocket money.

The fish (were/was) swimming around their tank.

The seagull (is/are) trying to steal my sandwich.

The team (is/are) blasting off to Jupiter.

The shark (are/is) a harmless grey nurse.

4

Add commas in the correct places.

Ben bought a jumper shorts socks and a pair of jeans.

During the television commercial Dad made a snack of cookies milk cheese and crackers.

Even though it was raining the soccer team practised corners penalty kicks and shoot-outs.

16

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia


5

Write a descriptive adjective and a classifying adjective for each noun.

Descriptive adjective Classifying adjective Noun

shuttle

pie

boots

6

Complete each sentence with an adverb to tell when.

last night tomorrow soon later before

Dan says he will mow the lawn .

we had a barbeque.

We will go to the zoo .

we eat dinner we need to wash our hands.

I’ll finish wrapping the presents .

7

Complete each sentence with an adverb ending in -ly that tells how.

The tortoise crawled .

Finish your ice-cream .

Howard sang .

The party ended .

The mouse scurried .

8

Rewrite each pair of sentences as a single sentence. Use a relative pronoun from the box.

who that that which

The person normally answers the phone. She is sick.

Here is the pizza. The pizza has ham and pineapple topping.

Possums lived in the tree. The tree burned down in the fire.

The astronaut wore the spacesuit. The spacesuit has a hole.

9

Write a high modality sentence that tells exactly what you want for your birthday.

Revision

Grammar Rules! Student Book 5 (ISBN 9781420236613) © Tanya Gibb/Macmillan Education Australia

17

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