Issue 06/2022

Highlights: Films / Flexibles / Bags Consumer Electronics Basics: Chemical Recycling K'2022 review

Films / Flexibles / Bags
Consumer Electronics
Chemical Recycling
K'2022 review


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Bioplastics - CO 2 -based Plastics - Advanced Recycling<br />

Nov/Dec <strong>06</strong> / <strong>2022</strong><br />

Highlights<br />

Films / Flexibles / Bags | 40<br />

Consumer Electronics | 48<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE Vol. 17<br />

Cover Story<br />

Test to fail – or fail to test?<br />

Faulty test design and questionable<br />

composting conditions lead to a<br />

foreseeable failure of the DUH<br />

experiment | 44<br />

Basics<br />

Chemical recycling | 54<br />

... is read in 100 countries<br />

ISSN 1862-5258

Category<br />

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paruntent ut por re bioplastics MAGAZINE et carnival.<br />


dear<br />

Editorial<br />

readers<br />

Looking back at this issue of bioplastics MAGAZINE I can’t help but notice two<br />

themes that currently seem very central in many different areas of plastics,<br />

be it in the topic of composting or (advanced) recycling. These two themes are<br />

also very related, on the one hand, we have the question of quality and on the<br />

other the view on and value of waste. Let’s start with quality. While I wrote an<br />

extensive review of the Advanced Recycling Conference hosted by the<br />

nova-institute I will repeat, or perhaps spoil, one central point here,<br />

the considerations around the quality of a feedstock and the quality<br />

of the resulting material. While the point of some advanced recycling<br />

technologies is to turn low-quality or highly contaminated feedstocks<br />

back into virgin level raw materials many processes need fairly clean<br />

streams. On the other hand, recyclate was for a long time seen as more<br />

of a low-quality necessary evil – the materials had little value and it was<br />

just a way to deal with waste. Similarly composting is for many just a<br />

good way to deal with waste. Now, however, especially in the recycling<br />

sector, there seems to be a shift away from recycling simply as an endof-life<br />

option towards seeing waste as a new value-adding feedstock.<br />

In our cover story on page 44 we report about an experiment of the<br />

Deutsche Umwelthilfe (DUH – a German non-profit) that touches<br />

on a completely different topic of quality – the quality of test design<br />

and scientific rigour, which, sadly, we found lacking and not up to<br />

par. However, we also touch on the view and role of biodegradable<br />

plastics in this report and how, e.g. biodegradable bin bags and<br />

certain forms of packaging, such as coffee capsules, can bring valueadding<br />

feedstocks to the compost, potentially increasing the quality<br />

of the compost (like coffee is known to do). Here again, the question<br />

is, what should be at the core of these considerations, getting rid of<br />

a certain of waste or compost as a product? And are these perhaps<br />

combinable? In any case, systems that have existed for decades<br />

seem to be slowly changing, things are in flux and, hopefully, will<br />

pick up more and more speed in the near future.<br />

Next to the conference reviews of the Advanced Recycling Conference<br />

and the Bioplastics Business Breakfast we also have our K-Review looking<br />

back at a couple of companies we noticed during the week-long plastics<br />

extravaganza in Düsseldorf. Beyond that, we have two Basics articles, one<br />

giving a comprehensive overview of Advanced Recycling technologies and<br />

another looking at digital bookkeeping and mass balance. And of course, we<br />

also have articles for our editorial focus points of Films, Flexibles, Bags and<br />

Consumer Electronics. I for one am now looking forward to more relaxed times<br />

after the K-show is over and the year is slowly coming to an end. In Germany,<br />

the time of Glühwein and Feuerzangenbowle (google it – it’s great fun) has<br />

begun, and I am all for it. And if we don’t run into each other in Berlin during<br />

the European Bioplastics Conference I already wish you happy holidays and a<br />

happy new year right now.<br />

Sincerely yours<br />

@bioplasticsmag<br />

Follow us on twitter!<br />

@bioplasticsmagazine<br />

Like us on Facebook!<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17<br />


Imprint<br />

Content<br />

Nov / Dec <strong>06</strong>|<strong>2022</strong><br />

Project<br />

16 EU Open Innovation Test Bed (BIOMAC)<br />

Recycling<br />

18 Adhesives: A problem and solution in a<br />

circular economy<br />

20 Cobalt-based catalysts for chemical plastic<br />

recycling<br />

From Science & Research<br />

22 Enzymes to boost plastic sustainability<br />

23 Steel mill gases transformed into<br />

Bioplastic<br />

Feedstock<br />

24 Cyanobacteria 101<br />

26 World’s largest CO 2<br />

-to-methanol plant<br />

starts production<br />

Materials<br />

42 New glass fibre reinforced biopolymer<br />

compounds<br />

43 Amorphous PHA meets PLA<br />

3 Editorial<br />

5 News<br />

8 Events<br />

50 Application News<br />

53 Basics<br />

56 10 years ago<br />

58 Glossary<br />

62 Suppliers Guide<br />

66 Companies in this issue<br />

Applications<br />

27 R&D solution to tackle plastic waste<br />

for nurseries<br />

28 First stroller portfolio made with<br />

biobased materials<br />

29 Cove PHA bottles hit the market<br />

30 Work and relax in an Organic Shell<br />

32 Bacteria help make music more<br />

sustainable<br />

K-Review<br />

34 K-Review<br />

Films<br />

40 Biodegradable packaging from<br />

marine algae polymers<br />

Report / Opinion<br />

44 Test to fail or fail to test?<br />

Consumer Electronics<br />

48 Biobased PA 6.10 for robot vacuum<br />

cleaner<br />

Publisher / Editorial<br />

Dr Michael Thielen (MT)<br />

Alex Thielen (AT)<br />

Samuel Brangenberg (SB)<br />

Head Office<br />

Polymedia Publisher GmbH<br />

Hackesstr. 99<br />

41<strong>06</strong>6 Mönchengladbach, Germany<br />

phone: +49 (0)2161 664864<br />

fax: +49 (0)2161 631045<br />

info@bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

Media Adviser<br />

Samsales (German language)<br />

phone: +49(0)2161-6884467<br />

fax: +49(0)2161 6884468<br />

sb@bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

Michael Thielen (English Language)<br />

(see head office)<br />

Layout/Production<br />

Philipp Thielen<br />

Print<br />

Poligrāfijas grupa Mūkusala Ltd.<br />

1004 Riga, Latvia<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE is printed on<br />

chlorine-free FSC certified paper.<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE<br />

Volume 17 - <strong>2022</strong><br />

ISSN 1862-5258<br />

bM is published 6 times a year.<br />

This publication is sent to qualified<br />

subscribers (179 Euro for 6 issues).<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE is read in<br />

100 countries.<br />

Every effort is made to verify all information<br />

published, but Polymedia Publisher<br />

cannot accept responsibility for any errors<br />

or omissions or for any losses that may<br />

arise as a result.<br />

All articles appearing in<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE, or on the website<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.com are strictly<br />

covered by copyright. No part of this<br />

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in any form, including electronic format,<br />

without the prior consent of the publisher.<br />

Opinions expressed in articles do not<br />

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Publisher.<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE welcomes contributions<br />

for publication. Submissions are<br />

accepted on the basis of full assignment<br />

of copyright to Polymedia Publisher GmbH<br />

unless otherwise agreed in advance and in<br />

writing. We reserve the right to edit items<br />

for reasons of space, clarity, or legality.<br />

Please contact the editorial office via<br />

mt@bioplasticsmagazine.com.<br />

The fact that product names may not be<br />

identified in our editorial as trademarks is<br />

not an indication that such names are not<br />

registered trademarks.<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE tries to use British<br />

spelling. However, in articles based on<br />

information from the USA, American<br />

spelling may also be used.<br />

Envelopes<br />

A part of this print run is mailed to the<br />

readers wrapped bioplastic envelopes<br />

sponsored by Sidaplax/Plastic Suppliers<br />

Belgium/USA).<br />

Cover<br />

DUH Field test<br />

(Photo: Philipp Thielen)<br />



NatureWorks new<br />

facility in Thailand<br />

NatureWorks (Plymouth, MN, USA) the world’s<br />

leading manufacturer of low-carbon polylactic acid<br />

(PLA) biopolymers made from renewable resources,<br />

has selected TTCL Public Company Limited<br />

(Bangkok, Thailand) as the general contractor for<br />

procurement, construction, commissioning, and<br />

startup support services for their new Ingeo PLA<br />

manufacturing complex in Thailand. The new facility<br />

is designed to be fully integrated and will include<br />

production of lactic acid, lactide, and polymer.<br />

Located on the Nakhon Sawan Biocomplex (NBC)<br />

in Nakhon Sawan Province, the manufacturing<br />

site will have an annual capacity of 75,000 tonnes<br />

of Ingeo biopolymer and will produce the full<br />

portfolio of Ingeo grades.<br />

In June <strong>2022</strong>, site preparation for the new<br />

manufacturing facility at the NBC was completed<br />

and NatureWorks signed an agreement with Sino<br />

Thai Engineering and Construction PCL (Bangkok,<br />

Thailand) to begin early-works construction<br />

for piling, underground piping, stormwater<br />

management, and tank foundations. Currently<br />

underway, the early-works construction progress<br />

keeps the completion of the facility on schedule for<br />

the second half of 2024.<br />

“We are pleased to see the continued progress on<br />

the construction of our second Ingeo manufacturing<br />

complex that will help us address the increasing<br />

global market demand for sustainable materials”,<br />

said Steve Bray, VP of Operations at NatureWorks.<br />

“With the selection of TTCL as our general<br />

contractor, we are looking forward to leveraging<br />

their expertise in executing large, highly technical<br />

capital projects in Thailand”.<br />

NatureWorks expects to hold a cornerstone<br />

laying ceremony to honour the progress of site<br />

construction in February 2023. MT<br />

www.natureworksllc.com<br />

Neste, Idemitsu Kosan,<br />

CHIMEI Corporation, and<br />

Mitsubishi Corporation<br />

join forces<br />

Neste (Espoo, Finland) Idemitsu Kosan (Tokyo, Japan), CHIMEI<br />

(Tainan City, Taiwan), and Mitsubishi Corporation (Tokyo, Japan)<br />

have agreed to build a renewable plastics supply chain utilizing<br />

biobased hydrocarbons (Neste RE ) for the production of styrene<br />

monomer (i.e. bio-SM), and its mass balanced renewable plastics<br />

derivatives including acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (i.e. bio-<br />

ABS*). The bio-SM production in Japan and the renewable plastics<br />

production in Taiwan will mark the first of such production in each<br />

country, and they are planned to take place in the first half of 2023.<br />

Neste, the world’s leading producer of renewable and circular<br />

feedstock for the polymers and chemicals industry uses, will<br />

provide Neste RE to Idemitsu Kosan, the biggest SM manufacturer<br />

in Japan. For this collaboration, Neste RE is produced from 100 %<br />

biobased raw materials such as waste and residues and its use can<br />

significantly reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared<br />

with conventional fossil feedstock use.<br />

Idemitsu Kosan will then produce bio-SM based on the<br />

mass balance method and supply it to Chimei, the biggest<br />

ABS manufacturer in the world for its renewable plastics<br />

production. Mitsubishi Corporation will be coordinating the<br />

collaboration between the value chain partners to develop the<br />

renewable products’ market.<br />

Through developing an even stronger partnership and closer<br />

collaboration than conventionally seen in plastics value chains,<br />

the companies are introducing new renewable contents into the<br />

value chain to enable plastic production where fossil feedstock<br />

has been replaced with renewable feedstock. With this, the<br />

companies are contributing to the plastics industry GHG emission<br />

reduction targets and the transition towards a low-carbon<br />

emission society. MT<br />

*) ABS resin is a thermoplastic polymer made from acrylonitrile, butadiene, and<br />

styrene monomer, and given its properties of impact resistance, toughness, and<br />

rigidity, it is used across different sectors which include automobile, electronics,<br />

and toys.<br />

www.neste.com | www.chimeicorp.com<br />

www.idemitsu.com/en | www.mitsubishicorp.com<br />

News<br />

daily updated News at<br />

www.bioplasticsMAGAZINE.com<br />

Picks & clicks<br />

Most frequently clicked news<br />

Here’s a look at our most popular online content of the past two months.<br />

The story that got the most clicks from the visitors to<br />

bioplasticsmagazine.com was:<br />

tinyurl.com/news-<strong>2022</strong>0927<br />

Interzero to supply Eastman planned molecular<br />

recycling facility in France with PET waste<br />

(27 September <strong>2022</strong>)<br />

Interzero (Cologne, Germany) and Eastman (Kingsport, TN,<br />

USA) recently announced a long-term supply agreement for<br />

Eastman’s previously announced molecular recycling facility<br />

in Normandy, France. Interzero will provide up to 20,000 tonnes<br />

per year of hard-to-recycle PET household packaging waste that<br />

would otherwise be incinerated.<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17<br />


News<br />

daily updated News at<br />

www.bioplasticsMAGAZINE.com<br />

Agreement to produce<br />

100,000 tonnes of<br />

raw materials from<br />

plastic waste<br />

INEOS Olefins & Polymers Europe (Cologne, Germany)<br />

and Plastic Energy (London, UK), recently announced<br />

a Memorandum Of Understanding to produce 100,000<br />

tonnes per annum of recycled raw materials from plastic<br />

waste. This will be the largest use of Plastic Energy<br />

technology on the market. These new raw materials will<br />

enable a circular approach to produce essential plastic<br />

items that meet the requirements of demanding food<br />

contact and medical applications.<br />

Production will be based in Cologne, Germany. Plastic<br />

Energy’s patented TAC recycling technology will turn<br />

difficult-to-recycle plastic waste otherwise destined<br />

for incineration or landfill, into a valuable raw material<br />

TACOIL , a Plastic Energy product that can be used to<br />

create virgin-quality polymers.<br />

INEOS will also invest in technology to process the<br />

TACOIL further before feeding it to their steam crackers,<br />

where it will replace traditional raw materials derived<br />

from oil. This use of advanced recycling enables plastic<br />

waste to be turned into new, virgin-quality materials<br />

that can be used in demanding applications where<br />

safety standards require the highest level of product<br />

purity and performance.<br />

As well as reducing the risk of plastic pollution and the<br />

use of fossil-based raw materials, the circular re-use of<br />

end-of-life plastic will also help to reduce total emissions,<br />

supporting the transition to net zero.<br />

INEOS and Plastic Energy first announced a<br />

collaboration to explore the construction of a commercialscale<br />

plant in 2020. Working together TACOIL has already<br />

been successfully converted into virgin-quality polymer<br />

through the INEOS cracker in Cologne, Germany, and<br />

used by selected customers and brands to demonstrate<br />

the viability and demand for materials from advanced<br />

recycling. As a result, INEOS and Plastic Energy are now<br />

delighted to announce this extension of their partnership.<br />

Production is targeted for the end of 2026.<br />

Using a mass balance approach, an independent, thirdparty<br />

organization such as ISCC or RSB will certify that<br />

fossil-based feedstocks have been substituted by the new,<br />

recycled materials and ensure that recycled benefits are<br />

being accounted for correctly. A mass balance approach<br />

enables co-processing of circular and fossil feedstocks, a<br />

key step in the transition to a circular economy”. MT<br />

www.ineos.com/sustainability | https://plasticenergy.com<br />

New bioplastics pilot<br />

plant in the Flanders<br />

The launch of a new bioplastics pilot plant in the Flanders<br />

region in Belgium will enable a new bioplastics production<br />

technology, ready for implementation at industrial scale.<br />

In December 2019, Stora Enso (Helsinki, Finland)<br />

announced an investment of EUR 9 million to build a pilot<br />

facility enabling the production of bioplastics. The objective<br />

is to test FuraCore ® , Stora Enso’s breakthrough technology<br />

to produce furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA), a major building<br />

block of bioplastic PEF (PolyEthylene Furanoate).<br />

Since the initial investment announcement, things have<br />

advanced at a rapid pace. Construction of the plant has<br />

been completed, and the commissioning is well underway.<br />

Initial production will start by year-end <strong>2022</strong>, and, after<br />

that, things will quickly move towards regular production<br />

of FDCA, and PEF with partners. MT<br />

www.storaenso.com<br />

TotalEnergies Corbion<br />

and BGF collaborate<br />

Be Good Friends (BGF, Seoul, Republic of Korea) and<br />

TotalEnergies Corbion (Gorinchem, the Netherlands),<br />

have entered a long-term collaborative arrangement<br />

for application development and the supply of Luminy ®<br />

PLA. Both leading bioplastic companies are focused<br />

on the development and production of biodegradable<br />

materials and products.<br />

BGF recently launched for the Korean market a singleuse,<br />

noodle cup which is aesthetically very pleasing<br />

and 100 % biobased and compostable. The lightweight,<br />

foamed noodle cup minimizes the use of materials and<br />

is being produced using high-heat Luminy PLA as a base<br />

resin. The development of the cup has been the result<br />

of joint development efforts between the two companies,<br />

and more developments are set to follow in the future.<br />

Chul-Ki Hong Chief Executive Officer of BGF, said<br />

“Bringing more environmentally friendly products to<br />

the Korean market remains a key focus of our business,<br />

PLA is a part of some compounds that we formulate to<br />

meet specific customers’ functionality needs for different<br />

applications. The collaboration with TotalEnergies<br />

Corbion is supporting our long-term growth strategy”.<br />

Thomas Philipon, Chief Executive Officer of<br />

TotalEnergies Corbion, said, "We are delighted to have<br />

signed this long-term collaboration agreement with BGF.<br />

The biopolymers market is experiencing strong growth<br />

and customers are requesting innovative solutions tailormade<br />

to their market needs. Collaboration through the<br />

value chain is the only efficient way to bring circular<br />

solutions to the customers". MT<br />

www.bgf.co.kr<br />

| www.totalenergies-corbion.com<br />

6 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17

LanzaTech produces ethylene from<br />

CO 2<br />

in a continuous process...<br />

LanzaTech (Skokie, IL, USA), an innovative Carbon Capture<br />

and Transformation company that transforms waste<br />

carbon into materials such as sustainable fuels, fabrics,<br />

packaging, and other products that people use in their daily<br />

lives, recently announced it has successfully engineered<br />

specialized biocatalysts to directly produce ethylene from CO 2<br />

in a continuous process. This breakthrough in bacterium bioengineering<br />

from LanzaTech represents a potential source<br />

of advancement towards the company’s mission of replacing<br />

fossil-based feedstocks used in the manufacture of everyday<br />

consumer goods with waste carbon. In addition to the potential<br />

broad-reaching implications for global carbon reduction<br />

and sustainability, the development represents a significant<br />

opportunity for LanzaTech to further penetrate the global<br />

ethylene market, which is estimated at approximately USD<br />

125 billion in <strong>2022</strong>.<br />

Around 160 million tonnes of ethylene are produced annually.<br />

It is the most widely used petrochemical in the world, primarily<br />

produced today from fossil inputs in an energy-intensive<br />

reaction that releases climate-damaging CO 2<br />

gas. This<br />

development can reverse this paradigm by turning CO 2<br />

into a<br />

resource from which ethylene can be produced in a continuous,<br />

low-temperature, energy-efficient process.<br />

Ethylene is a building block for thousands of chemicals<br />

and materials and is necessary to make many of the plastics,<br />

detergents, and coatings that keep hospitals sterile, people<br />

safe, and food fresh. Its production process is also one of the<br />

largest sources of carbon dioxide emissions in the chemical<br />

industry and remains one of its most challenging processes<br />

to defossilise. With increased pressure to find carbon-neutral<br />

alternatives to fossil-based feedstocks and fulfil net-zero<br />

pledges, chemical companies and manufacturers using<br />

ethylene as their primary feedstock are looking for a more<br />

robust and sustainable choice in a post-pollution future.<br />

LanzaTech has previously produced ethylene via the indirect<br />

ethanol pathway, taking ethanol produced from carbon<br />

emissions and then converting this ethanol to ethylene.<br />

This latest development bypasses this conversion step in<br />

sustainable ethylene production, making the process less<br />

energy intensive and more efficient.<br />

LanzaTech is already a leader in the scale-up and<br />

commercialization of gas-conversion biotechnology. The<br />

company is also at the forefront of leveraging synthetic biology to<br />

precisely engineer specialized gas-eating microbes to produce<br />

sustainable versions of key chemicals that are currently made<br />

from fossil resources. Through synthetic biology, LanzaTech<br />

has consistently translated lab-scale developments into<br />

commercial-scale operations driving the development of<br />

solutions for climate change mitigation by designing direct<br />

pathways from CO 2<br />

and CO, to produce cheaper, less energyintensive,<br />

and more sustainable chemicals. We believe that this<br />

track record will now extend to the production of ethylene", said<br />

LanzaTech CEO Jennifer Holmgren. MT<br />

www.lanzatech.com<br />

News<br />

daily updated News at<br />

www.bioplasticsMAGAZINE.com<br />

New standard work on recycling of plastics<br />

INEOS Styrolution (Frankfurt, Germany), the global leader<br />

in styrenics, has recently announced the availability of a new<br />

publication on the recycling of plastics. Together with a team<br />

of renowned authors from across the industry,<br />

Norbert Niessner, Global Innovation Director<br />

at INEOS Styrolution, published the new<br />

‘Recycling of Plastics’ book that leaves no<br />

question on the topic unanswered.<br />

In times, when the value of plastics to<br />

society is taken for granted and at the same<br />

time is overshadowed by issues caused by<br />

the inappropriate handling of plastics after<br />

use, recycling of this material becomes<br />

more relevant than ever before. The new<br />

book on ‘Recycling of Plastics’[1], published<br />

by the Hanser Publishing House, addresses<br />

all aspects of the topic in almost twenty<br />

chapters – from understanding the value<br />

chain in a circular economy to recycling<br />

technologies for a broad range of polymers,<br />

the recycled materials and their properties and life cycle<br />

assessments to determine the impact on the ecological<br />

footprint. First copies of the book became available just<br />

recently at the K <strong>2022</strong> Fair in Düsseldorf, Germany.<br />

About fifty international industry leaders and renowned<br />

researchers contribute to the over 800-page long book<br />

exploring all aspects of recycling of polymers, including new<br />

advanced recycling technologies. The result is<br />

a comprehensive and state-of-the-art guide on<br />

the global recycling value chain with focus on<br />

the most important technologies.<br />

[1] ISBN: 978-1-56990-856-3<br />

www.ineos-styrolution.com<br />

Niessner says, “The book intends to<br />

show the current state in plastics recycling.<br />

I am happy that so many distinguished<br />

recycling experts joined me in contributing<br />

to this ambitious project. We all share one<br />

vision, which is as well the basis of INEOS<br />

Styrolution´s strategy: Used plastics need<br />

to be treated as precious resources for highquality<br />

applications in all industry segments.<br />

They must not be buried in landfills, burnt nor<br />

end up in the ocean. Therefore, recycling is the<br />

key step for a circular economy, providing a<br />

sustainable and healthy lifestyle for all of us”. AT<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17<br />


Events<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE<br />

presents<br />

For the third time, bioplastics MAGAZINE and narocon are inviting material suppliers and<br />

toy brands to come together for the must-attend conference of the year. The bio!TOY is a<br />

unique event that offers not only top-notch presentations from industry powerhouses of both<br />

industries but is also an excellent networking opportunity. The goal of the conference is to<br />

bring toymakers that are eager for sustainable solutions together with material suppliers that<br />

have sustainable solutions but don’t necessarily know all the specific material properties that the vast field of applications, simply<br />

called toys needs. A tabletop exhibition invites the exhibitors to show and talk about their products, allowing toymakers to touch,<br />

feel, and get a general sense of what is on offer.<br />

To make it possible to bring as many stakeholders to the table as possible, from large to tiny, the bio!TOY offers on-site as well<br />

as only online-only participation (as it is a hybrid event), but also special discount opportunities for independent designers, small<br />

businesses, and students. Please contact the conference team for more information.<br />

21-22 March 2023 – Nuremberg, Germany. Registration is possible via the conference website.<br />

www.bio-toy.info<br />

bio!TOY: materials for sustainable toys<br />

About half of the total environmental and climate footprint of a product is related to the material, the rest is energy utilisation.<br />

For toymakers, materials are key to markets and hearts of toy buyers and owners: We love toys because of haptic, design,<br />

function, and feelgood. However, today design and materials are rarely supporting the sustainability targets of companies,<br />

consumers, or policymakers. The next generation will not accept that.<br />

That’s our starting point: We are experts in sustainable materials and at our conference, we will inform you how it can be<br />

achieved. The solution is to leave fossil resources and products that are hard to reuse or recycle behind and reach out to better<br />

material alternatives:<br />

– Biobased polymers from renewable feedstocks which are functional, long-lasting, and fit for circularity<br />

– Circular plastics from recycled plastic waste which are safe and fit for application<br />

The conference is a showcase on what is available and how it’s done. Listen to the frontrunners in supply / marketing / services<br />

and explore ideas and concepts of a growing competent community driving toy sustainability. Become a part of it!<br />

Preliminary programme:<br />

Toy brands on stage<br />

LEGO<br />

Mattel<br />

Schleich<br />

GEOMAG<br />

fischertechnik<br />

biobuddi<br />

Nelleke van der Puil<br />

Jason Kroskrity<br />

Phillipp Hummel<br />

Filippo Gallizia<br />

Hartmut Knecht<br />

Steven van Bommel<br />

Plastic innovators and supply chain on stage<br />

Braskem<br />

FKUR<br />

INEOS<br />

Borealis<br />

Covation Biomaterials<br />

Martin Clemesha<br />

Patrick Zimmermann<br />

Ralf Leinemann<br />

Floris Buijzen<br />

Hao Ding<br />

Services for a sustainable toy world<br />

Circularise<br />

ISCC Plus<br />

Sustainable Toys Action Consulting STAC<br />

Univ. Bologna<br />

Hounslow Toy Design<br />

AIJU<br />

Phil Brown<br />

Jasmin Brinkmann<br />

Sharon Keilthy, Sonia Sanchez, Harald Kaeb<br />

Eleonora Foschi<br />

Elise Hounslow<br />

Ana Ibáñez-García<br />

Policy and framework drivers<br />

PlasticsEurope<br />

Toy Industry of Europe TIE<br />

German Toy Industry Association DVSI<br />

Alexander Kronimus<br />

Catherine van Reeth<br />

Ulrich Brobeil<br />

Plus<br />

Open Mic<br />

Time to stand up and voice your opinion<br />

Playfull and inspiring – We will inform and entertain you!<br />

(subject to changes, visit www.bio-toy.info for updates)<br />

8 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17

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21+ 22 March 2023 – Nuremberg, Germany<br />

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save EUR 100<br />

until 31 Jan 2023<br />

www.bio-toy.info<br />

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Innovation Consulting Harald Kaeb

Cover Story<br />

5 th Bioplastics Business Breakfast<br />

during the K’<strong>2022</strong> – Review<br />

Juliette Thomazo-Jegou<br />

Every three years representatives of the plastics industry<br />

pour into Düsseldorf from all over the planet for the<br />

biggest plastics and rubber trade fair in the world –<br />

the K show (see pp 34). And for the fifth time, for three days<br />

(October 20 to 22, <strong>2022</strong>) of this humongous fair, bioplastics<br />

MAGAZINE organized the Bioplastics Business Breakfasts (B³).<br />

The fifth anniversary of the B³ was once again a huge success,<br />

with 125 participants from 27 countries, most of the hybrid<br />

event participated in person.<br />

From 8 am to 12:30 pm the delegates used the opportunity<br />

to listen to and discuss high-class presentations and<br />

benefited from a unique networking opportunity hosted in<br />

Congress Centre Ost on the fairgrounds of the K show.<br />

For those who missed the event, here is a very brief review<br />

with some highlights from each of the three conference days.<br />

Video recordings and proceedings are still available (more<br />

info at the end of this article).<br />

Bioplastics in Packaging<br />

Already in the first session, it became clear that the topic<br />

of Advanced Recycling did not pass by the bioplastics sector.<br />

François de Bie (TotalEnergies Corbion – Gorinchem, the<br />

Netherlands), a veteran in the field of bioplastics talked about<br />

not only mechanical but also chemical recycling of PLA. One<br />

issue often associated with chemical recycling, high energy<br />

consumption, is not so much an issue with PLA (see also bM<br />

issue 03/22 – Not all plastics are recycled equally).<br />

Next to François many other well-known bioplastics<br />

emissaries presented, among them Allegra Muscatello<br />

(Taghleef Industries – S. Giorgio di Nogaro, Italy ) who was on<br />

the cover of bioplastics MAGAZINE issue 03/22 in connection<br />

with another well-received event, the 7 th PLA World Congress.<br />

This time her presentation focused not only on Taghleef’s PLA<br />

solutions but also on their bio-PP which, for example, has a<br />

carbon footprint reduction of about 4 kg of CO 2<br />

per kg of resin.<br />

She further explained why compostability is advantageous<br />

for certain packaging applications (of course not biobased<br />

PP) where the packaged product could contaminate the<br />

packaging as is the case with food packaging.<br />

Staying with the topic of compostability, the session<br />

ended with a bang of a presentation by Bruno de Wilde<br />

(OWS – Gent, Belgium), going into the ins and outs of<br />

biodegradation. If you think you already know all there<br />

is to know about biodegradation, decomposition, and<br />

composting this presentation might still be worth your time.<br />

Bruno has the ability to bring depth and clarity to the often<br />

still misunderstood concepts. In his presentation, Bruno<br />

compared the composting strategies of Italy and Germany in<br />

the last decade, and took, among other things, a closer look<br />

at aerobic and anaerobic digestion.<br />

PHA, opportunities and challenges<br />

Day two was all about PHA, and a session on PHAs would<br />

not be complete without the godfather of this biobased family<br />

of polymers – Jan Ravenstijn. Jan talked about the Global<br />

Organization GO!PHA and the development of PHAs going<br />

into more detail on PHBH, showing the versatility of the<br />

material ranging from uses in adhesives over nonwovens<br />

to blow moulding applications, and many more (he noted<br />

that materials like PHBV or P3HB4HB would show a similar<br />

range of potential applications). The potential in the fields of<br />

thermoplastics and thermosets was also discussed. He also<br />

addressed the elephant in the room of every discussion about<br />

PHAs – price competitiveness and production volumes and<br />

admitted that these are still areas that need improvement<br />

for PHAs as a whole, but that a couple of companies already<br />

claim to be price competitive. However, with demand<br />

outpacing supply by a huge amount prices are likely to stay<br />

on the higher side as it is a sellers’ market.<br />

Gruppo Maip also went all out serving not one but two<br />

Martinis, Eligio and Emanuele. The father-son team presented<br />

the newest developments of the Italy-based company. They<br />

talked about the advantages of the materials, but also about<br />

how to overcome disadvantages – which, in most cases, is<br />

through compounding. The Martini duo had many PHA-based<br />

product samples with them so participants got a chance to<br />

get up close and personal with the biobased materials during<br />

networking and coffee breaks (see also pp 30).<br />

The session ended with Hiroyuki Ueda (Mitsubishi<br />

UFJ Research – Tokyo, Japan) who pulled our attention<br />

from Düsseldorf to the other side of the planet – Japan.<br />

10 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17

By Alex Thielen<br />




(Photos: Messe Düsseldorf)<br />

Events<br />

In his presentation, Hiroyuki talked about the roadmap for<br />

the introduction of bioplastics into the Japanese market<br />

and about plans to phase out fossil-based plastics in favour<br />

of biobased plastics including the increase of recycled<br />

biobased plastics. He sees huge potential in Japan to use<br />

PHA to collect organic waste and move these waste streams<br />

from incineration (which is highly inefficient with food waste<br />

as you are mainly burning water) towards composting,<br />

anaerobic digestion and biogas production – which in times<br />

of uncertainty about energy supply might be interesting for<br />

reasons that only secondarily have to do with the general<br />

discussion of material feedstocks and sustainability.<br />

Bioplastics in Durable Applications<br />

One noteworthy presentation on the last day of the<br />

Bioplastics Business Breakfast was given by Christina<br />

Granacher (BeGaMo – Hohenfels, Germany). She started<br />

her presentation by reminding the audience that while many<br />

in the room are very aware of what bioplastics are and the<br />

differences between biobased and biodegradable plastics,<br />

etc. this is still very much not the case for everybody in the<br />

wider plastics industry (let alone on consumer level). She also<br />

pointed out that the view of bioplastics is often very European,<br />

or perhaps western, in the sense that most people are not<br />

aware of the huge role of Asia in both bioplastics production<br />

as well as development. The real reason, however, why<br />

this presentation was noteworthy is how Christina shone<br />

a light on many different bioplastic projects in the field of<br />

durable applications. One of these, from the Japan Advanced<br />

Institute of Science and Technology (Nomi, Japan), was truly<br />

remarkable. They created a lightweight biobased plastic with<br />

a heat resistance of more than 740°C – yes, you read that right,<br />

740 degrees Celsius. To put this into perspective, aluminium<br />

melts at 660°C. It is the highest heat resistance achieved in<br />

plastics ever, not just in bioplastics, but in plastics as a whole.<br />

And the technique used in the process can, apparently, be<br />

transferred to other polymers to increase their performance.<br />

One of the last to present during the event was Juliette<br />

Thomazo-Jegou from AIMPLAS (Paterna, Spain), the second<br />

presentation of the research institute of the conference after<br />

her colleague Lorena Rodríguez had already presented<br />

on day one. In her presentation, Juliette talked about<br />

thermosets and the opportunities across industries that<br />

biobased alternatives offer – ironically during the discussion<br />

of the last Q&A session (that we could not record due to a<br />

minor technical issue) it became apparent that the most<br />

prominent biobased thermosets, biobased epoxies, usually<br />

do not advertise the fact that they are biobased, because<br />

they are cheaper and simply sell without having to deal<br />

with the often misinformed assumptions that go along with<br />

a biobased feedstock. On page 18 you can also read about<br />

a completely different field that Aimplas is researching –<br />

advanced recycling in the context of adhesives.<br />

The last presentation of the event was held by no other<br />

than our very own Michael Thielen (bioplastics MAGAZINE,<br />

Germany), who showed how quick he can be on his feet<br />

when a presenter has to cancel on very short notice. Due<br />

to unforeseen circumstances, Harald Käb (narocon – Berlin,<br />

Germany) could not make it – so Michael decided to present<br />

in Harald’s stead. Luckily, it was a topic Michael is quite<br />

versed in himself – bioplastics in toys. He freestyled himself<br />

through Harald’s presentation, giving the audience a decent<br />

overview of the recent developments in the toy sector, albeit<br />

a little quicker than Harald would have as he skipped one or<br />

two slides, in a making-it-up-as-you-go kind of presentation.<br />

However, Michael was, in a way, uniquely prepared for this<br />

topic due to his deep involvement with the bio!TOY conference<br />

which will be held in Nuremberg, Germany on the 21 st and<br />

22 nd of March next year once again. Check out page 8 for a<br />

sneak preview of the line-up.<br />

Of course, there were many more noteworthy presentations,<br />

and many riveting discussions that started in coffee breaks<br />

and were carried into the K-show towards the booths of<br />

companies, sometimes even the joint booth of bioplastics<br />

MAGAZINE and European Bioplastics.<br />

If any, or perhaps all, of this sounds interesting to you<br />

fret not – the whole event was recorded and we still offer an<br />

“online-only” discount of 10 % for the video recordings of the<br />

presentations (including a PDF download of all PPTs). The<br />

video-recordings will be available for at least until the end of<br />

the year. Just write an email to mt@bioplasticsMAGAZINE.com.<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.com | www.bioplastics-breakfast.com<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17<br />


Events<br />

Advanced Recycling Conference<br />

Review<br />

The first Advanced Recycling Conference organised by<br />

the nova-institute in Cologne was by all measures a<br />

full success. The two-day hybrid conference on the 14 th<br />

and 15 th of November had 224 participants from 21 countries,<br />

150 of them were in the room, 34 speakers spread over 8<br />

different sections, 9 exhibitors, and a wide range of topics<br />

in and around advanced recycling. It was an event of open<br />

exchange and active discussion of ideas and technological<br />

approaches probably best shown by the question-andanswer<br />

sessions which were very much alive with more<br />

questions than time to answer them in every single session –<br />

or as Michael Carus, who spearheads the Renewable Carbon<br />

Initiative within the nova-institute (Hürth, Germany), said it<br />

“you are the best audience we ever had at a conference”<br />

with almost 60 questions from participants for the very first<br />

session of the conference alone! This might already show<br />

that it will be impossible to fully encapsulate every aspect of<br />

the conference in this review so instead of even attempting<br />

that this review will focus on the key points of discussion that<br />

crystalized both on and off stage of the event.<br />

Complementary technologies and the question<br />

of feedstock scarcity<br />

There was nary a presentation that did not mention at<br />

least once that advanced recycling and mechanical recycling<br />

can and will coexist, and that they are complementary<br />

technologies that will both be necessary for the future. Yet,<br />

some voices in the audience seemed to remain doubtful. As<br />

both industry sectors, mechanical and advanced recycling,<br />

are likely to grow in the future securing enough feedstock<br />

may be an issue. On the one hand, the current systems in<br />

place have a fixed amount of waste that goes to recyclers, and<br />

mechanical recyclers are, perhaps unreasonably, nervous<br />

about the availability of that feedstock if new competition in<br />

form of advanced recycling will rapidly grow in the near future.<br />

On the other hand, the current infrastructure is not sufficient<br />

or even non-existing in some parts of Europe to provide the<br />

feedstock that will be needed to fulfil EU quotas of recycled<br />

content in the future – this could be seen as a challenge that<br />

might pit the two technologies against each other in a fight<br />

for waste or be an opportunity to build / expand this part<br />

of the industry. One of the numbers quoted in this context<br />

was that 50 % of waste is not even sorted at the moment<br />

and goes straight to incineration or worse – landfill. Another<br />

interesting suggestion came from the audience: landfills as<br />

future source of (waste) material – this would effectively turn<br />

an outdated End-of-Life solution into a new resource provider.<br />

However, it quickly became clear that such considerations are<br />

very much “future talk” as so far nobody has considered such<br />

a business model in any serious way or form.<br />

One clear message that echoed through the presentations<br />

was that “if you can recycle it mechanically, you should recycle<br />

it mechanically” and that advanced recycling technologies<br />

are aimed at the part of the waste stream that so far is not<br />

recycled because it cannot (easily) be recycled mechanically.<br />

The point being that mechanical recycling is both easier<br />

and more sustainable (GHG, energy efficiency, etc.). Other<br />

ideas focus on the combination of the two, not talking in<br />

“either ors”, but rather in “first mechanical, then advanced<br />

recycling” Mathieus Berthoud from Carbios (Saint-Beauzire,<br />

France), for example, pointed out that their enzymatic<br />

recycling process uses (low value) plastic flakes to then turn<br />

them into food grade virgin like material – their process is<br />

therefore by definition a step after mechanical recycling and<br />

thus dependent on it, rather than replacing it. Here, as well<br />

as in many other presentations, it was pointed out that the<br />

technology aims to reintroduce material back into the value<br />

chain at top quality. Which leads to the next topic.<br />

What goes in, what goes out? Quality matters!<br />

Staying with the example of food grade materials – they<br />

can probably be considered the golden standard for material<br />

purity and cleanness, and being able to transform low-quality<br />

material into food grade material might be one of the best<br />

examples of upcycling. And there were a couple of companies<br />

talking about food grade, Solenne Brouard Gaillot, Founder<br />

and CGO of Polystyvert (Montreal, Canada), presented their<br />

technology that “can treat any kind of feedstock” and turn<br />

it into food grade material with a yield of 95 % at industrial<br />

scale and all of that in a cost-efficient manner. “We all want<br />

to save the planet, but to do this (realistically) you need a<br />

12 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17

By Alex Thielen<br />

Events<br />

profitable process”, Solenne pointed out. Another noteworthy<br />

technology in this regard was TruStyrenyx developed by Agilyx<br />

(Portsmouth, NH,USA) in cooperation with Technip Energies<br />

(Nanterre, France), Carsten Larsen from Agilyx mentioned,<br />

almost in passing, that this technology can turn highly<br />

contaminated polystyrene from e.g. the construction sector<br />

into food grade material.<br />

mentioned a planned joint venture for a liquefaction plant and<br />

Bart Suijkerbuijk from Shell (London, UK) admitted with a<br />

smile that “not even Shell can do it alone”. Yet, it is not all<br />

brotherhood and kumbaya – one comment from the audience<br />

welcomed the idea of cooperation but mentioned that they<br />

experienced “first-hand unwillingness (to cooperate) across<br />

the industry”, saying that “we block our own progress by<br />

But quality was a big topic overall,<br />

going far beyond just food grade<br />

materials. The question about<br />

quality goes much further than<br />

just what you get out of a process<br />

and is also very heavily focused on<br />

what you throw into a process. And<br />

here a fundamental challenge, and<br />

potentially a future paradigm shift<br />

crystalised: the value of waste. Tom<br />

Hesselink from KPMG (Amstelveen,<br />

the Netherlands) was one of the first<br />

to present the perhaps harsh reality<br />

of the current recycling system. For<br />

a truly circular economy, the goal<br />

of recycling should in general be to<br />

recycle product-to-product – the<br />

same product. Tom called this onpar<br />

recycling which is currently only<br />

done with 2–3 % in Europe, and for Tom the reason for this<br />

was quite clear, “the current system does not value quality”,<br />

he stated rather matter of factly. Yet, with recycling quotas in<br />

effect and more on the horizon, this is likely to change – the<br />

quality of the feedstock matters. While some technologies<br />

like Polystyvert “can treat any feedstock” this does not hold<br />

true for every material and there are a whole lot of different<br />

materials. While most technologies can handle some<br />

contamination of their feedstock it does have an impact on<br />

either the yield or the quality of the end product, and there<br />

are limits to this. The solution to this probably lies a step<br />

before the actual recycling – sorting. Virginie Bussières<br />

from Pyrowave (Montreal, Canada) made exactly this point,<br />

that better sorting will be necessary in the future. “Sorting<br />

upstream has more impact than sorting downstream – this<br />

way the whole value chain can have an impact”, so Virginie.<br />

What is clear is that there is still much to work on and improve<br />

– but how will this work in practice?<br />

Cooperation, cooperation, cooperation<br />

The topic of cooperation and working together was probably<br />

mentioned almost as often as complementary technologies.<br />

And as if to drive home the point, the first two presentations<br />

were collaborations between two companies each. Plastic<br />

Energy (London, UK) presented with DSD – Duales System<br />

(Cologne, Germany) and Eastman (Kingsport, TN, USA)<br />

presented with Interzero (Cologne, Germany), the former<br />

both involved in the recycling process and the latter in the<br />

sorting of waste. Maiju Helin from Neste (Espoo, Finland) also<br />

First Question & Answer session of the conference (Photos: nova Institut)<br />

hanging on to secrecy” and inflexibility in matters of price,<br />

asking “how can we break this vicious cycle?”<br />

Things do seem to change and move in the right direction,<br />

but only time will tell if this change – from a rather rigid every<br />

man for himself system towards a time of building bridges<br />

and working together – will happen quickly enough, for both<br />

recycling quotas and the climate. There is still much to do,<br />

but also much to gain.<br />

Challenges and opportunities<br />

Talking about quotas, one question raised was whether<br />

recycling quotas are the right strategy or if punishing the<br />

use of virgin material would be a better solution. Here Tom<br />

Hesselink shared his point of view saying that, “penalizing<br />

virgin (material) makes recycling dependant on virgin,<br />

creating quotas creates a separate market, independent<br />

from virgin”. He went on to point out that “mandatory content<br />

requirements are the driver of the industry”, and that “without<br />

(price) premiums it will be impossible to make recycling<br />

happen” because recycling is (currently) simply more<br />

expensive. As already mentioned earlier, the issue of costs<br />

was also echoed by Solenne as she talked about the need for<br />

cost-efficient technologies. Aspects that influence the other<br />

side of the coin of costs, production capabilities, were also<br />

highly discussed. Many of these technologies are still in a<br />

phase of scale-up – some said that advanced recycling was<br />

still in its infancy. Some, perhaps long overlooked, industry<br />

veterans like Eastman (their process has been around since<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17<br />


Events<br />

the 1970s), Plastic Energy (who has been working on this<br />

technology for more than 25 years), and Agilyx (with 18 years<br />

of experience) might disagree with that assessment, but all of<br />

them need to scale up their production as these technologies<br />

are only now becoming more relevant, or rather popular.<br />

Franz-Xaver Keilbach from KraussMaffei Extrusion<br />

(Laatzen, Germany) indirectly spoke up against the infancy<br />

of the industry saying that it’s not just theory, “there is a lot<br />

of machinery already in the market”. He further elaborated<br />

on the limitations of such machines saying that it is mainly<br />

throughput which basically depends simply on the size of the<br />

extruders themselves – “customers are asking for 5 tonnes<br />

per hour minimum”. Throughput and time involved in a<br />

process are also of consideration for other processes, Carbios<br />

enzymatic recycling can “easily reach recycling yields of up<br />

to 98 %”, however, when considering the industrialisation of<br />

the process they aim to strike a balance between yield and<br />

speed wanting to limit their process at 16 hours aiming for a<br />

yield of 92 %. Finetuning a process takes time and expertise<br />

and “more isn’t always better” as Frieder Dreisbach from TA<br />

Instruments (New Castle, DE, USA) pointed out talking about<br />

the use of catalysts in advanced recycling processes.<br />

Commenting on the bigger picture in Europe in the<br />

context of plastic waste export bans, Luis Hoffmann from<br />

Sulzer Chemtech (Winterthur, Switzerland) says that the fact<br />

that “plastics have to be processed locally in the future is<br />

an opportunity for the industry”. This opportunity has to be<br />

financed somehow of course so it is maybe not that strange<br />

that ING (Amsterdam, the Netherlands) send Marc Borghans<br />

to talk about how to finance such projects. When asked about<br />

legislation he pointed out that legislative decisions are not<br />

unimportant (e.g. the classification of advanced recycled<br />

materials for recycling quotas) but even if these technologies<br />

won’t be accepted by regulation that would not mean that<br />

banks would not finance them. Perhaps connected to that,<br />

Michael Wiener from DSD – Duales System also pointed out<br />

that “mechanical recycling has still room to improve” and<br />

grow. Another big issue is how to get all the sorted waste<br />

streams to the installations that will recycle them – there is<br />

still a need for a whole (or many) new infrastructure(s). There<br />

is sadly no one-fix-all solution, no silver bullets, or as Joop<br />

Groen representing the Circular Biobased Delta (Bergen op<br />

Zoom, the Netherlands) pointed out, “the best solution is<br />

(always) feedstock specific”. Scale-up, efficiency, location,<br />

and how to pay for all of that are, however, not the only hurdles<br />

to master on the road ahead.<br />

Let’s talk about energy<br />

Especially in more recent times, energy and energy security<br />

has become a huge topic. And in the context of sustainability,<br />

one doesn’t get around to talking about the cousin of<br />

renewable materials – renewable energies. All these projects<br />

and installations are going to need a huge amount of energy<br />

and while Luis pointed out that “resource recovery tends to<br />

be less energy intensive than virgin production” the problem<br />

of even having enough energy remains. And if we want these<br />

processes to be truly sustainable that energy needs to be<br />

renewable, or we are just lying to ourselves saving greenhouse<br />

gas (GHG) emissions left while adding them right.<br />

While talking about energy BioBTX (Groningen, the<br />

Netherlands) deserves an honorary mention, in his<br />

presentation, Tijmen Vries talked about how their process<br />

creates high-quality graphite which is needed for the building<br />

of batteries, which is really cool – albeit a bit too far from the<br />

topic of plastics to focus on in more detail.<br />

The bottom lines & LCAs<br />

At the end of the day, we have two bottom lines<br />

sustainability and costs. Companies were eager to show<br />

how much less energy a process takes or how much GHG<br />

emissions can be reduced, even how much throughput<br />

their machines have or how great their technology is.<br />

Anne-Marie de Moei-Galera from Alfa Laval (Lund, Sweden),<br />

for example, proudly exclaimed that their centrifugal<br />

separation works with 9000 G (as in 9000 times the gravity<br />

of earth) saying that she “heard yesterday (on day 1) about<br />

separation in minutes, we do separation in seconds”.<br />

Which is certainly really impressive (and a quote picked<br />

because of that and not to rain on Alfa Laval’s parade) but<br />

price comparisons with virgin materials were noticeably<br />

missing (or I missed them). Perhaps it is because, as Tom<br />

says, recycled materials and virgin will be on two separate<br />

Networking opportunities at the ARC. (Photo: nova Institut)<br />

14 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17

Events<br />

markets, yet it is still relevant information to estimate how<br />

much the big players will invest. Companies like Shell are<br />

not really known for their environmental ambition and one<br />

participant even provocatively asked how “Shell can ask us<br />

to take them seriously when they put Shareholder Value on<br />

the same footing as Respecting Nature while just having<br />

posted incredibly high windfall profits with a majority going to<br />

shareholder”. On the other hand, statements like “Chemical<br />

recycling should stay in the hands of those that know<br />

chemistry” (meaning, big oil companies) by Wolfgang Hofer<br />

from OMV Downstream (Vienna, Austria) do hold at least some<br />

water. Whether you like the oil industry or not Wolfgang does<br />

have a point – they know the playing field and they already<br />

have at least some infrastructure in place. If they deserve the<br />

benefit of the doubt to put sustainability and circular economy<br />

ideals before profit is a whole other story, however.<br />

Going back to the framework of sustainability it was also<br />

pointed out by Matthias Stratmann from the nova-institute,<br />

that LCAs focus a lot on GHG emissions but go broader and<br />

assess more potential trade-offs, like water use, energy,<br />

toxicity, etc. And technologies like pyrolysis are currently the<br />

go-to he did also cite a study that showed that there might be<br />

some unintentional bias towards pyrolysis it is a technology<br />

with a higher TRL (technology readiness level) and with<br />

more (and higher quality) data available. Furthermore, LCAs<br />

aren’t necessarily comparable either as they tend to focus<br />

on different aspects despite using similar methodologies<br />

– the bottom line here is, mechanical recycling is better<br />

than pyrolysis which in turn is better than the production<br />

of virgin feedstock.<br />

The role of recycling<br />

The Advanced Recycling Conference touched on plenty<br />

of topics with a broad array of experts and information and<br />

one thing is clear – times are changing. Matthias named<br />

this change quite accurately as he talked about the role of<br />

recycling, how these technologies as a whole are going to<br />

be considered, is recycling still (just) an End-of-Life solution<br />

or will it be considered as a new provider of feedstock, and<br />

thus, value. Only time will tell, but after two days and dozens<br />

of presentations and conversations I can say I learned a lot<br />

but as Joop said in his presentation, “I am still confused but<br />

on a much higher level”.<br />

https://nova-institute.eu/<br />

https://advanced-recycling.eu/<br />

The only conference dealing exclusively with<br />

cellulose fibres – Solutions instead of pollution<br />

Cellulose fibres are bio-based and biodegradable, even in marine-environments,<br />

where their degrading does not cause any microplastic.<br />

250 participants and 30 exhibitors are expected in Cologne to discuss the following topics:<br />

<br />


FIBRE<br />



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A W A R D<br />

• Strategies, Policy<br />

Framework of Textiles<br />

and Market Trends<br />

• New Opportunities<br />

for Cellulose Fibres in<br />

Replacing Plastics<br />

• Sustainability and<br />

Environmental Impacts<br />

• Circular Economy and<br />

Recyclability of Fibres<br />

• Alternative Feedstocks<br />

and Supply Chains<br />

• New Technologies for<br />

Pulps, Fibres and Yarns<br />

• New Technologies and<br />

Applications beyond<br />

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Call for Innovation<br />

Apply for the “Cellulose<br />

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cellulose-fibres.eu<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17<br />


Project<br />

EU Open Innovation Test Bed<br />

BIOMAC launches open call for nano-enabled,<br />

biobased material solutions<br />

The “European Sustainable BIO-based nanomaterials<br />

Community”, in short BIOMAC, a Horizon 2020 funded<br />

project, is planning the launch of an open, competitive<br />

call for SMEs, large companies, research and development<br />

organisations working in the field of nano-enabled biobased<br />

material (NBM) technologies and solutions. The goal of<br />

this call is to offer a wide range of free services through the<br />

existing Open Innovation Test Bed (OITB). In total, five<br />

applicants will be able to benefit from the call<br />

and take their existing nanotechnologies<br />

and advanced materials from validation<br />

in a laboratory (technology readiness<br />

level TRL 4) to prototypes in<br />

industrial environments (TRL 7).<br />

These five Test Cases will<br />

be granted free access to<br />

physical facilities, capabilities<br />

and services required for the<br />

development, testing and<br />

upscaling of nanotechnology<br />

and advanced materials in<br />

industrial environments.<br />

What is so<br />

special about BIOMAC?<br />

The BIOMAC open innovation test<br />

bed approach to NBM production is<br />

comprehensive. A pilot plant supreme hub<br />

includes seventeen expert partners for<br />

production, from biomass processing to final<br />

biobased polymer product. Three transversal<br />

service hubs cover all complementary services of quality<br />

control, characterization, standardization, modelling,<br />

innovation management, health and safety, regulation,<br />

data management, sustainability assessment, supply<br />

management and circularity.<br />

Why is this call relevant for the<br />

bioplastics community?<br />

After the selection process, five applicants will access<br />

services and facilities provided by the BIOMAC ecosystem<br />

from September 2023 to December 2024. For members of<br />

the bioplastics’ community seeking to improve and scaleup<br />

their product properties with innovative, sustainable<br />

bionanomaterial solutions, this is an unprecedented<br />

opportunity. Lifetimes, UV resistance, barrier functions,<br />

and antimicrobial effects are just some of the properties<br />

which can be addressed and improved. With respect to<br />

bioplastic applications, no limitations apply. Specifically,<br />

the five applicants will have access to the “Pilot Lines” of<br />

The BIOMAC ecosystem.<br />

BIOMAC, which can perform biomass fractionation and<br />

pre-treatment, production of intermediate materials and<br />

nanocomposites, and produce the final products and<br />

formulations. Some examples of the materials that the Pilot<br />

Lines can produce are cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin,<br />

their nanosized equivalents (nanocellulose, nanolignin),<br />

biochar, monomers such as glycols, succinic and lactic acid.<br />

Processes for final product formulation include<br />

but are not limited to reactive extrusion,<br />

additive manufacturing, coating, resin<br />

production, and nanopatterning.<br />

• Who can apply and how?<br />

The BIOMAC OITB will accept<br />

applications from SMEs, mid<br />

– and large-cap companies<br />

as well as from research<br />

organisations based in<br />

European Member States and<br />

EU-associated countries [1],<br />

whose bionanomaterial projects<br />

reach TRL4 to TRL5. The open call<br />

landing page will take applicants<br />

through the straight-forward<br />

process of submitting their proposals,<br />

which will be up to 6 pages long.<br />

• The Open-Call will open in December<br />

<strong>2022</strong> and close in Mid-June 2023.<br />

• The proposals will be submitted online using the<br />

application form available on the BIOMAC Open Call<br />

platform on the project website<br />

A handbook containing information on the call and guiding<br />

users through the application process will be available for<br />

download on the Open Call platform.<br />

Where is BIOMAC heading to?<br />

The long-term goal of BIOMAC is to establish a truly<br />

collaborative ecosystem where technologies and solutions<br />

utilising NBMs will be upscaled and prepared for market<br />

applications. It will constitute a one-stop-shop, accessible<br />

at fair conditions and costs through a single entry point,<br />

represented by the ΙΒΒ Netzwerk in Munich, Germany.<br />

BIOMAC project has received funding from the European<br />

Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme<br />

under Grant Agreement No. 952941. AT<br />

https://www.biomac-oitb.eu/<br />

[1] https://ec.europa.eu/research/participants/data/ref/h2020/other/<br />

wp/2018-2020/annexes/h2020-wp1820-annex-a-countries-rules_en.pdf<br />

16 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17


bio PAC<br />

Business Breakfast @ Interpack<br />

Recycling<br />

Conference on Biobased Packaging<br />

08 – 10 May 2023 – Düsseldorf, Germany<br />

supported by<br />

Media Partner<br />

Organized by<br />

Co-organized by<br />

Packaging is necessary for:<br />

» protection during transport and storage<br />

» prevention of product losses<br />

» increasing shelf life<br />

» sharing product information and marketing<br />

BUT :<br />

Packaging does not necessarily need to be made from petroleum based plastics.<br />

Most packaging have a short life and therefore give rise to large quantities of waste.<br />

Accordingly, it is vital to use the most suitable raw materials and implement good<br />

‘end-of-life’ solutions. Biobased and compostable materials have a key role to play<br />

in this respect.<br />

Biobased packaging<br />

» is packaging made from mother nature‘s gifts.<br />

» can be made from renewable resources or waste streams<br />

» can offer innovative features and beneficial barrier properties<br />

» can help to reduces the depletion of finite fossil resources and CO 2<br />

emissions<br />

» can offer environmental benefits in the end-of-life phase<br />

» offers incredible opportunities.<br />

That‘s why bioplastics MAGAZINE ,in cooperation with Green Serendipity is now<br />

organizing the fifth edition of bio!PAC. This time again as a Business Breakfast<br />

during interpack 2023<br />

Call for Papers now open: Please send your proposal to mt@bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

www.bio-pac.info<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17<br />


Recycling<br />

Adhesives:<br />

A problem and solution<br />

in a circular economy<br />

Adhesives are compounds that are used to bond<br />

materials and hold them together once their surfaces<br />

come into contact. Their properties allow them to<br />

easily join materials of different natures. This has led to<br />

the development of myriad adhesive products for different<br />

sectors and applications, which is why these materials are of<br />

such indisputable value. But their very benefits sometimes<br />

lead to rejection in a society where sustainability and the<br />

circular economy are increasingly permeating all areas of our<br />

lives. These materials can become an obstacle when trying<br />

to recover components and separate materials to create<br />

pure flows and achieve adequate recycling. In some sectors<br />

such as construction, materials can be joined using other<br />

methods (dry connections), but this is not easy to implement<br />

in all sectors and much less in the packaging sector.<br />

As in other applications, adhesives in the packaging sector<br />

are a fundamental part of most products. Most food is now<br />

packaged in materials made of plastic due to properties<br />

such as lightness, easy transformation, and barrier<br />

properties. However, a single plastic material cannot meet<br />

all the requirements to guarantee proper food preservation.<br />

Therefore, a great deal of plastic packaging is made by<br />

combining different polymers on demand, depending on<br />

the products to be packaged. This is known as multilayer<br />

packaging. Currently, the main problem with these kinds of<br />

packaging is that they are very difficult to recycle because the<br />

polymer layers tend to be immiscible. Multilayer packaging<br />

makes up the greatest proportion of nonrecyclable packaging,<br />

around 20 % of all flexible packaging.<br />

Therefore, in order to increase the recycling rate, new<br />

strategies are required. Tackling this problem based on<br />

packaging design is a commonly used option and involves<br />

replacing heterogeneous multilayer packaging with singlematerial<br />

packaging. However, as mentioned, it is often<br />

not possible to provide the necessary properties for the<br />

proper preservation of some foods and this has a direct<br />

effect on food waste.<br />

Another option would be to join multilayer packaging<br />

materials in such a way that they could be separated again<br />

at the end of their shelf life. The individual components could<br />

then be recycled separately.<br />

It is here where adhesives can provide a solution for<br />

recycling multilayer packaging. As mentioned, the main<br />

function of adhesives is to join, but what would happen if these<br />

same adhesives could also help with separation?<br />

18 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17

Magnetic<br />

for Plastics<br />

www.plasticker.com<br />

• International Trade<br />

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• Daily News<br />

from the Industrial Sector and the Plastics Markets.<br />

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and Services.<br />

• Job Market<br />

for Specialists and Executive Staff in the Plastics Industry.<br />

Up-to-date • Fast • Professional<br />

Recycling<br />

But adhesives don’t only play an important role in<br />

recycling solutions for packaging. They are also of interest<br />

in compostable packaging solutions, given that not all<br />

packaging is designed to be recycled. Some applications<br />

and packaged foods require compostable solutions. Like<br />

conventional packaging, this packaging can be made of a<br />

mixture of biopolymers, it can be attached to other materials<br />

such as paper and the adhesive can even be on labels. In<br />

these cases, the adhesive used should not compromise the<br />

packaging’s compostability, which means that it should also<br />

be compostable. Companies such as BASF are working on<br />

the development of these adhesives and have launched some<br />

solutions on the market.<br />

In recent years, the study of this type of adhesives, called<br />

reversible adhesives, has generated great interest. These<br />

adhesives can be intrinsically reversible, that is, they are<br />

formulated so that, at the end of their shelf life, an external<br />

stimulus (UV radiation, IR, temperature, pH) produces a<br />

reversible reaction in the adhesive so it loses its binding<br />

function, and the materials are completely separated. Other<br />

types of adhesives can be formulated with additives sensitive<br />

to a specific stimulus (radiation, UV, IR, temperature, pH)<br />

so that, when they are subject to this stimulant, breakage<br />

points are created in the adhesive and the materials separate<br />

more easily. Reversible adhesives are therefore seen as<br />

the perfect solution for recycling multilayer packaging,<br />

but implementation of these solutions requires changes<br />

in current recycling systems and a firm commitment from<br />

recyclers. In recent years, in both Spain and Europe, there<br />

has been special interest in this type of solution due to the<br />

European Circular Economy strategy, which set the goal of<br />

recycling 100 % of European packaging by 2030.<br />

AIMPLAS, the Plastics Technology Centre, is aligned with<br />

the European Circular Economy strategy and its mission<br />

with society is to promote environmental sustainability<br />

and innovative product models that have impact. People at<br />

Aimplas, therefore, work intensely on the development of<br />

effective and environmentally sustainable solutions. One<br />

example of this is the ADHBIO Project, which is funded by<br />

the Valencian Innovation Agency (AVI). Its main goal is to<br />

obtain a hot-melt adhesive with 95 % of renewable content<br />

that provides the same functionality as conventional<br />

nonbiodegradable adhesives of fossil origin. This adhesive<br />

must do two things. It must allow the layers to be separated<br />

because it is removable or peelable, which represents an<br />

advantage when managing multilayer packaging that will<br />

be recycled at its end of life. It must also be possible to<br />

manage the adhesive jointly when both the adhesive and the<br />

packaging are compostable.<br />

Aimplas has also worked on the development of reversible<br />

adhesives for sectors other than packaging, although the<br />

knowledge acquired can be applied to this sector.<br />

/www.aimplas.net<br />

By:<br />

Jezabel Santomé,<br />

Packaging Researcher<br />

AIMPLAS, Plastics Technology Centre<br />

Paterna, Valencia, Spain<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17<br />


From Science & Research<br />

Cobalt-based catalysts for<br />

chemical plastic recycling<br />

The accumulation of plastic waste in the oceans, soil, and<br />

even in our bodies is one of the major pollution issues<br />

of modern times, with over five billion tonnes disposed<br />

of so far. Despite major efforts to recycle plastic products,<br />

actually making use of that motley mix of materials has<br />

remained a challenging issue.<br />

A key problem is that plastics come in so many different<br />

varieties, and chemical processes for breaking them down into<br />

a form that can be reused in some way tend to be very specific<br />

to each type of plastic. Sorting the hodgepodge of waste<br />

material, from soda bottles to detergent jugs to plastic toys,<br />

is impractical at large scale. Today, in many countries much<br />

of the plastic material gathered through recycling programs<br />

ends up in landfills anyway. Surely there’s a better way.<br />

Recycling plastics has been a thorny problem, Román-<br />

Leshkov explains, because the long-chain molecules in<br />

plastics are held together by carbon bonds, which are “very<br />

stable and difficult to break apart”. Existing techniques<br />

for breaking these bonds tend to produce a random mix<br />

of different molecules, which would then require complex<br />

refining methods to separate out into usable specific<br />

compounds. “The problem is”, he says, “there’s no way to<br />

control where in the carbon chain you break the molecule”.<br />

But to the surprise of the researchers, a catalyst made<br />

of a microporous material called a zeolite that contains<br />

cobalt nanoparticles can selectively break down various<br />

plastic polymer molecules and turn more than 80 %<br />

of them into propane.<br />

According to new research from MIT (Cambridge, MA, USA)<br />

and elsewhere, it appears there may indeed be a much better<br />

way. A chemical process using a catalyst based on cobalt has<br />

been found to be very effective at breaking down a variety of<br />

plastics, such as polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP),<br />

the two most widely produced forms of plastic, into a single<br />

product, propane. Propane can then be used for instance as<br />

a feedstock for the production of a wide variety of products<br />

– including new plastics, thus potentially providing at least a<br />

partial closed-loop recycling system.<br />

The finding was recently described in the open-access<br />

journal JACS Au, in a paper [1] by MIT professor of chemical<br />

engineering Yuriy Román-Leshkov, postdoc Guido Zichitella,<br />

and seven others at MIT, the SLAC National Accelerator<br />

Laboratory, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.<br />

[1] https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/jacsau.2c00402<br />

Although zeolites are riddled with tiny pores less than a<br />

nanometer wide (corresponding to the width of the polymer<br />

chains), a logical assumption had been that there would be<br />

little interaction at all between the zeolite and the polymers.<br />

Surprisingly, however, the opposite turned out to be the<br />

case: Not only do the polymer chains enter the pores, but<br />

the synergistic work between cobalt and the acid sites in the<br />

zeolite can break the chain at the same point. That cleavage<br />

site turned out to correspond to chopping off exactly one<br />

propane molecule without generating unwanted methane,<br />

leaving the rest of the longer hydrocarbons ready to undergo<br />

the process, again and again.<br />

“Once you have this one compound, propane, you lessen the<br />

burden on downstream separations”, Román-Leshkov says.<br />

“That’s the essence of why we think this is quite important.<br />

We’re not only breaking the bonds, but we’re generating<br />

A new chemical process<br />

can break down a variety of<br />

plastics into usable propane<br />

– a possible solution to our<br />

inability to effectively recycle<br />

many types of plastic.<br />

Image: Courtesy of the<br />

researchers.<br />

Edited by MIT News.<br />

20 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17

mainly a single product” that can be used for<br />

many different products and processes.<br />

The materials needed for the process, zeolites<br />

and cobalt, “are both quite cheap” and widely<br />

available, he says, although today most cobalt<br />

comes from troubled areas in the Democratic<br />

Republic of Congo. Some new production is being<br />

developed in Canada, Cuba, and other places.<br />

The other material needed for the process is<br />

hydrogen, which today is mostly produced from<br />

fossil fuels but can easily be made in other ways,<br />

including electrolysis of water using carbon-free<br />

electricity such as solar or wind power.<br />

COMPEO<br />

Leading compounding technology<br />

for heat- and shear-sensitive plastics<br />

From Science & Research<br />

The researchers tested their system on a real<br />

example of mixed recycled plastic, producing<br />

promising results. But more testing will be<br />

needed on a greater variety of mixed waste<br />

streams to determine how much fouling takes<br />

place from various contaminants in the material<br />

– such as inks, glues, and labels attached to the<br />

plastic containers, or other nonplastic materials<br />

that get mixed in with the waste – and how that<br />

affects the long-term stability of the process.<br />

Together with collaborators at NREL (Golden,<br />

CO, USA), the MIT team is also continuing to<br />

study the economics of the system, and analysing<br />

how it can fit into today’s systems for handling<br />

plastic and mixed waste streams. “We don’t have<br />

all the answers yet”, Román-Leshkov says, but<br />

preliminary analysis looks promising. MT<br />

The research team included Amani Ebrahim<br />

and Simone Bare at the SLAC National<br />

Accelerator Laboratory; Jie Zhu, Anna Brenner,<br />

Griffin Drake and Julie Rorrer at MIT; and Greg<br />

Beckham at the National Renewable Energy<br />

Laboratory. The work was supported by the<br />

U.S. Department of Energy (DoE), the Swiss<br />

National Science Foundation, and the DoE’s<br />

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable<br />

Energy, Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO),<br />

and Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO),<br />

as part of the Bio-Optimized Technologies to<br />

keep Thermoplastics out of Landfills and the<br />

Environment (BOTTLE) Consortium.<br />

Uniquely efficient. Incredibly versatile. Amazingly flexible.<br />

With its new COMPEO Kneader series, BUSS continues<br />

to offer continuous compounding solutions that set the<br />

standard for heat- and shear-sensitive applications, in all<br />

industries, including for biopolymers.<br />

• Moderate, uniform shear rates<br />

• Extremely low temperature profile<br />

• Efficient injection of liquid components<br />

• Precise temperature control<br />

• High filler loadings<br />

www.busscorp.com<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17<br />


From Science & Research<br />

Enzymes to boost plastic<br />

sustainability<br />

The power of evolved ancestral enzymes and biotechnology<br />

Plastic pollution has become one of the most pressing<br />

environmental issues, as the rapidly increasing<br />

production of disposable plastic products overwhelms<br />

the world’s ability to deal with them. Global plastic waste<br />

generation more than doubled from 2000 to 2019 to 353<br />

million tonnes. Nearly two-thirds of plastic waste comes<br />

from plastics with lifetimes of under five years, with 40 %<br />

coming from packaging, 12 % from consumer goods and<br />

11 % from clothing and textiles.<br />

To repair the present, building and implementing a more<br />

circular economy is key to sustainable growth and addressing<br />

challenges like climate change, with targeted measures at all<br />

levels of society to address the challenges posed by plastic<br />

pollution. The circular economy also needs optimal waste<br />

management to promote plastic waste efficient recovery<br />

and recycling to avoid further plastic littering, eventually<br />

contaminating our soils and seas.<br />

Initiating the “RevoluZion”<br />

As a holistic solution to plastic pollution, the participants<br />

of the RevoluZion project are developing innovative biobased<br />

formulations, combining advanced enzyme engineering<br />

techniques together with biodegradable plastic resins as a<br />

matrix with programmed biodegradation to conciliate ondemand<br />

biodegradation in different managed (industrial<br />

and home composting) and unmanaged environments (soil,<br />

freshwater, marine water).<br />

The idea of the project is to reduce the typical times for<br />

composting to fasten the industrial treatment of compostable<br />

plastic articles and make it attractive and economically<br />

viable, or to allow compostability in domestic conditions<br />

and/or biodegradability in open environments (water, soil)<br />

of resins exclusively reserved for industrial composting.<br />

The formulations could serve different applications,<br />

for example, to produce coffee capsules or articles for<br />

agriculture. Therefore, the obtained blends of polyesters as<br />

matrix and enzymatic functional additives aspire to contribute<br />

as an integral solution to plastics waste management.<br />

In order to design highly active and robust enzymes for<br />

programmed biodegradation and compostability, RevoLuzion<br />

project is bringing together cutting-edge protein engineering<br />

methods based on directed evolution strategies and<br />

ancestral resurrection.<br />

The transformation processes of plastics through<br />

extrusion and compounding processes usually involve<br />

high temperatures and shear, which can negatively affect<br />

the activity of the enzymes developed. A delicate process<br />

of encapsulation and integration of such enzymes will<br />

be carried out to inhibit any associated degradation from<br />

the enzyme structures during its integration into the<br />

thermoplastic matrix.<br />

The aim of the project is to develop up to three prototypes<br />

of innovative biobased bioplastic materials using the<br />

disclosed advanced enzyme technology for different sectors<br />

of application of the plastic industry:<br />

• Food packaging: to enable home compostability for thick<br />

articles like meat trays and other containers.<br />

• Coffee capsules/pods: to reduce typical industrial/home<br />

composting time down to a third without impairing<br />

shelf-life capacity.<br />

• Agricultural films: to support excellent mechanical<br />

properties aboveground and biodegradation in soil<br />

without leaving residues.<br />

https://revoluzionproject.eu/<br />

Grégory Coué<br />

Technical Manager<br />

Kompuestos<br />

Palau Solità i Plegamans, Spain<br />

The RevoluZion project is part of the Next Generation EU<br />

European Plan. Grant PLEC2021-008188 funded by MCIN/<br />

AEI/ 10.13039/501100011033 and by the “European Union<br />

NextGenerationEU/PRTR”. “The consortium is made up of<br />

Kompuestos as the project leader, together with different topquality<br />

research centres and universities: AITIIP Tecnological<br />

Centre, the University of Granada and 2 research groups<br />

from the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC: CIB and<br />

ICP)”For more information about the project:<br />

AITIIP: https://aitiip.com/<br />

CSIC-CIB: https://www.cib.csic.es/<br />

CSIC-ICP: https://icp.csic.es/<br />

Kompuestos: https://www.kompuestos.com/<br />

University of Granada: https://www.ugr.es/<br />

22 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17

Steel mill gases transformed<br />

into bioplastic<br />

Recently, a Korea-Spain joint research team recreated<br />

bioplastic from wasted by-products from gas<br />

fermentation from steel mills.<br />

Through joint research with Spain’s Centre for Research<br />

in Agricultural Genomics<br />

(CRAG – Barcelona), a<br />

research team led by<br />

Gyoo Yeol Jung, Dae-yeol<br />

Ye, Jo Hyun Moon, and<br />

Myung Hyun Noh in the<br />

Department of Chemical<br />

Engineering at POSTECH<br />

(Pohang, South Korea)<br />

has developed a<br />

technology to generate<br />

artificial enzymes from<br />

E. coli. The joint research<br />

then succeeded in<br />

mass-producing itaconic<br />

acid, a source material<br />

for bioplastic, from<br />

acetic acid in E. coli.<br />

enzyme can be used in E. coli to produce itaconic acid. With<br />

this technology, it is now possible to build a microbial cell<br />

factory that can easily produce itaconic acid from cheap and<br />

various raw materials.<br />

From Science & Research<br />

Recognized for its<br />

significance, this study<br />

was recently published<br />

in the Editor’s<br />

Highlights section of the<br />

international academic<br />

journal Nature Communications [1].<br />

Comparison of itaconic acid production in the natural metabolic pathway in E. coli and the construction of a<br />

new itaconic acid biosynthesis pathway through the introduction of a new artificial enzyme. The itaconic acid<br />

production increased as a result. (Picture: POSTECH)<br />

Itaconic acid produced by fungi with membrane-enclosed<br />

organelles is used as a raw material for various plastics,<br />

as well as cosmetics and antibacterial agents. Although its<br />

global market value is estimated high at around 130 billion<br />

KRW (USD 91 million) this year, its production and utilization<br />

have been limited due to the complex production process and<br />

high cost of production.<br />

For this reason, studies are being actively conducted to<br />

produce itaconic acid with industrial microorganisms such<br />

as E. coli. Although E. coli can be produced using inexpensive<br />

raw materials and is easy to culture, additional raw materials<br />

or processes were required to produce itaconic acid since it<br />

lacks membrane-enclosed organelles.<br />

This research result is evaluated as a key original<br />

technology for producing itaconic acid from byproducts of gas<br />

fermentation products from steel mills, seaweed, as well as<br />

agricultural and fishery byproducts such as lignocellulosic<br />

biomass. By replacing the raw material from petrochemicals<br />

with biosynthesized itaconic acid, the new technology is<br />

anticipated to contribute to a carbon-neutral society and<br />

significantly expand the itaconic acid market.<br />

This study was supported by the C1 Gas Refinery R&D<br />

Program, the Mid-career Researcher Program, and<br />

the Basic Science Program of the National Research<br />

Foundation of Korea. AT<br />

www.postech.ac.kr/eng<br />

www.cragenomica.es<br />

Using biosynthesis, the joint research team developed an<br />

artificial enzyme to pave the way for E. coli to directly produce<br />

itaconic acid without membrane-enclosed organelles.<br />

The research results showed that the newly developed<br />

[1] Dae-yeol Ye et al, Kinetic compartmentalization by unnatural<br />

reaction for itaconate production, Nature Communications (<strong>2022</strong>).<br />

https://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-33033-1<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17<br />


Feedstock<br />

Cyanobacteria 101 – How to get<br />

from wastewater to PHB<br />

PlastoCyan is a project developing an eco-innovative<br />

technology for the production of bioplastics in<br />

cyanobacteria that uses nutrients from municipal<br />

wastewater and wastewater from the dairy industry.<br />

Biodegradable plastics produced by microorganisms<br />

such as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are among the best<br />

solutions to replace conventional petroleum-based plastics<br />

to protect the environment.<br />

Despite the non-comparable price and productivity with<br />

conventional plastics, scientists are looking for a way<br />

to make them more feasible, economically, ecologically<br />

friendly, and sustainable.<br />

In the production of PHB by bacteria, up to 50 % cost is<br />

precursor substrate material, especially the carbon source.<br />

Most cyanobacteria naturally produce 20 % PHB of their cell<br />

mass. Cyanobacteria cannot<br />

compete with chemotrophic<br />

bacteria in terms of PHB content<br />

or biomass growth rate [1].<br />

However, since cyanobacteria<br />

are photosynthesizing<br />

organisms, they can metabolize<br />

CO 2<br />

. Unlike bacterial PHB<br />

producers, photoautotrophic<br />

cyanobacteria do not require<br />

the addition of substrate and<br />

are not dependent on crops,<br />

making them a more sustainable<br />

alternative production system.<br />

Production of PHB by<br />

cyanobacteria is a complex<br />

phenomenon that needs to<br />

be fully described. (Cyano)<br />

bacteria synthesize PHB under<br />

different stress conditions and<br />

form inclusion bodies in their<br />

cells, which are accumulated as<br />

intracellular energy and reserve<br />

carbon source. Mainly nitrogen<br />

starvation induces so-called<br />

chlorosis, a survival process in<br />

which cyanobacteria degrades<br />

photosynthetic machinery and<br />

accumulate biopolymers such<br />

as glycogen or PHB. Two stages<br />

of cyanobacterial growth are necessary to obtain PHB from<br />

bacteria for the biotechnology industry:<br />

1. growth of biomass in nutrient-rich conditions and<br />

2. accumulation of PHB during nutrient-stress conditions.<br />

Culture of Synechocystis growing in urban wastewater in a<br />

stage of chlorosis with specific orange colour. The thin-layer<br />

raceway pond was placed in a greenhouse with a cultivation<br />

area of 5 m 2 and a working volume of 100 – 600 l, mixing is<br />

provided by a paddle wheel.<br />

The project emphasizes establishing a cyanobacteria<br />

cultivation process where wastewater is used as a substrate<br />

for mixotrophic growth. Wastewater from a municipal<br />

treatment plant and wastewater from dairy products are<br />

tested as potential substrates.<br />

The Plastocyan project joins three institutes – The<br />

Institute of Microbiology of the Czech Academy of Sciences –<br />

Algatech Centre in Třebon, in cooperation with the Technical<br />

University of Vienna and the University of Applied Sciences in<br />

Wels in Upper Austria.<br />

The Institute of Microbiology, a project lead partner, focuses<br />

on growing cyanobacteria on a pilot scale using wastewater<br />

as a source of nutrients. The aim is to develop sustainable<br />

remediation and valorisation of wastewater for a zerocarbon<br />

circular economy.<br />

Bacteria and protozoa are<br />

usually used in secondary<br />

treatment to remove<br />

biodegradable organic matter<br />

by producing biomass. However,<br />

this biomass has no further use<br />

and often ends up in landfills.<br />

Recently, a new idea came up<br />

using specific microorganisms<br />

which can produce valuable<br />

biomass. This would also<br />

address the demands of a<br />

circular economy, resulting in the<br />

bioconversion of waste streams<br />

from dairy industries. When<br />

processing milk, approximately<br />

three litres of cleaning water<br />

are necessary per litre of<br />

milk. Those wastewaters are<br />

excellent substrates containing<br />

a large amount of nitrogen<br />

and phosphorus, the primary<br />

nutrients required for the<br />

growth of cyanobacteria.<br />

Tomáš Grivalský, the lead<br />

project coordinator, says:<br />

“Microalgae, including<br />

cyanobacteria, produce a<br />

fantastic diversity of metabolites.<br />

The main issue is scale-up. They grow very well in a laboratory<br />

under defined conditions, but if you start to grow them in tens<br />

of litres, you will encounter completely new problems, such<br />

as grazers or predators, which can completely devastate<br />

the culture in a matter of hours. When we started a pilotscale<br />

cultivation, we had a similar problem. The culture was<br />

24 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17

By:<br />

Tomáš Grivalský<br />

Institute of Microbiology, CAS, Centre Algatech,<br />

Třebon, Czech Republic<br />

Julian Kopp<br />

Technical University of Vienna,<br />

Vienna, Austria<br />

attacked overnight by predators. We searched the literature<br />

to find a solution. The only recommendation was to adjust<br />

the pH. During the subsequent cultivation, as soon as the<br />

predators appeared, we changed the pH to highly alkaline,<br />

and the cyanobacteria continued to grow without predators”.<br />

In the project, we use a strain generated by UV mutagenesis<br />

at the Technical University of Vienna with higher PHB<br />

production [2]. The advantage of random mutagenesis is<br />

that it is not subject to the standards for genetically modified<br />

organisms. The strain achieved 37 % PHB cell dry weight<br />

(CDW) under laboratory conditions on a small scale in the<br />

optimal growth substrate, which is more than 20 % higher in<br />

PHB content per cell compared to the wild-type.<br />

From Science & Research<br />

In the PlastoCyan project, the strain was tested in an<br />

outdoor cultivation unit called a thin layer hybrid raceway<br />

pond in a volume of 100 litres using urban wastewater and<br />

high alkaline pH, reaching biomass content of 2 – 2.5 g/L and<br />

23 % PHB per CDW which makes it a promising result.<br />

The eco-friendly approach is still ongoing after wastewater<br />

remediation and cyanobacterial biomass production. The<br />

group led by Oliver Spadiut at Technical University in Vienna<br />

is developing an extraction procedure based on ionic liquids<br />

(ILs). Conventionally PHB extraction is performed with<br />

chloroform; a well-established method referred to in the<br />

literature. However, the project also deals with developing<br />

an ecological and economically friendly alternative of PHB<br />

extraction from biomass using ionic liquids, belonging<br />

to the category of green solvents. The ILs, chosen for this<br />

study were highly corroding, can dissolve biomass, are very<br />

polar (so PHB should not be soluble), and are partially able<br />

to cleave ester bonds. As PHB should not dissolve due to<br />

its high polarity, the IL-biomass mixture can be separated<br />

from the resulting PHB via centrifugation/filtration. However,<br />

the biomass-IL mixture has currently such a high viscosity<br />

that a complete separation from the precipitating PHB is<br />

impossible. Therefore, cosolvents obtaining similar Kamlett<br />

Taft parameters are currently tested to decrease the viscosity.<br />

Once the viscosity issue to separate the dissolved biomass IL<br />

mixture from the PHB pellet is addressed, nothing should<br />

stand in the way of a suitable standard operation procedure<br />

for a green dissolution of PHB in ionic liquids (IL).<br />

The project is also dedicated to generating a cyanobacterial<br />

strain that would be able to process the lactose present in<br />

dairy wastewater. Having such a strain would be fascinating<br />

not only for biotechnologies but also for the scientific<br />

community. However, cyanobacteria can metabolize glucose;<br />

they do not have a system to break down more complex<br />

sugars such as lactose. This is the part where scientists<br />

from the University of Applied Sciences in Wels, Austria, are<br />

modifying the genome to improve the strain. Additionally,<br />

they attempt to enhance the metabolic pathway for PHB<br />

A 30 l annular photobioreactor with with adjustable internal LED<br />

lighting. The culture is mixed with air through tubes located at the<br />

bottom of the photobioreactor. This culture of Synechocystis is<br />

growing in dairy waste.<br />

production. This can lead to more than 60 % PHB per cell<br />

biomass production under nutrient-limited conditions, as<br />

referred by Koch et al [3].<br />

The project PlastoCyan (ATCZ260) is funded by the Interreg<br />

V-A Austria-Czech Republic programme. In <strong>2022</strong>, it was<br />

awarded by the Austrian Federal Ministry of Education,<br />

Science and Research with the “Sustainability award” for<br />

second place in the “Research” category.<br />

www.alga.cz/en/a-1<strong>06</strong>-centre-algatech.html<br />

www.tuwien.at/en/<br />

www.fh-ooe.at/en/<br />

References<br />

[1] B. Drosg, I. Fritz, F. Gattermayr, L. Silvestrini, Photo-autotrophic<br />

production of poly(hydroxyalkanoates) in cyanobacteria, Chem. Biochem.<br />

Eng. Q. 29 (2015) 145–156. https://doi.org/10.15255/CABEQ.2014.2254.<br />

[2] D. Kamravamanesh, T. Kovacs, S. Pflügl, I. Druzhinina, P. Kroll,<br />

M. Lackner, C. Herwig, Increased poly-Β-hydroxybutyrate production<br />

from carbon dioxide in randomly mutated cells of cyanobacterial strain<br />

Synechocystis sp. PCC 6714: Mutant generation and characterization,<br />

Bioresour. Technol. 266 (2018) 34–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.<br />

biortech.2018.<strong>06</strong>.057.<br />

[3] M. Koch, J. Bruckmoser, J. Scholl, W. Hauf, B. Rieger, K. 5<br />

Forchhammer, Maximizing PHB content in Synechocystis sp. PCC 2 6803:<br />

development of a new photosynthetic 3 overproduction strain. 4, BioRxiv.<br />

(2020) 2020.10.22.35<strong>06</strong>60. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.10.22.35<strong>06</strong>60.<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17<br />


Feedstock<br />

World’s largest<br />

CO 2<br />

-to-methanol plant<br />

starts production<br />

The world’s first commercial-scale CO 2<br />

-to-methanol<br />

plant has started production in Anyang,<br />

Henan Province, China.<br />

The cutting-edge facility is the first of its type in the<br />

world to produce methanol – a valuable fuel and chemical<br />

feedstock – at this scale from captured waste carbon<br />

dioxide and hydrogen gases.<br />

The plant’s production process is based on the Emissionsto-Liquids<br />

(ETL) technology developed by Carbon Recycling<br />

International (CRI) and first demonstrated in Iceland. The<br />

new facility can capture 160,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide<br />

emissions a year, which is equivalent to taking more than<br />

60,000 cars off the road. The captured carbon dioxide is then<br />

reacted with the recovered hydrogen in CRI’s proprietary ETL<br />

reactor system with the capacity to produce 110,000 tonnes<br />

of methanol per year.<br />

The successful start-up marks the end of a two-year project<br />

and months-long commissioning phase. Following sign-off by<br />

the CRI’s technical service team, the plant operations are now<br />

in the hands of Shunli, the project company (majority-owned<br />

by the Henan Shuncheng Group – Anyang, Henan, China).<br />

This flagship plant represents the achievement of an<br />

important milestone in the ongoing development of carbon<br />

capture and utilization (CCU) technology as well as the<br />

progression in the industry towards a circular carbon economy.<br />

At the heart of the process is CRI’s bespoke reactor that<br />

uses specialised catalysts to convert the carbon and hydrogen<br />

feed gases into low carbon-intensity methanol. The entire<br />

unit weighs around 84 tonnes or the weight of a fully-loaded<br />

Boeing 737. The reactor is mounted in a dedicated steel<br />

frame and connected to a specialised gas compressor and a<br />

distillation column that is just under 70 metres tall.<br />

The ETL process uses emissions that would have<br />

otherwise been released into the atmosphere, producing<br />

liquid methanol – from carbon dioxide that is recovered<br />

from existing lime production emissions and hydrogen that<br />

is recovered from coke-oven gas. Methanol production and<br />

use have grown rapidly in China in recent years and this new<br />

production method offers an alternative to the traditional<br />

coal-based methanol currently manufactured in China,<br />

reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improving air quality.<br />

Björk Kristjánsdóttir, CEO of CRI, emphasizes the<br />

importance of the plant’s start-up, “We are proud to have<br />

successfully realized this important project and to bring<br />

our environmentally friendly, ETL technology into the global<br />

market. We take great pleasure in being able to offer our proven<br />

technical solution to produce a valuable product directly<br />

from waste streams. This can support large-scale reduction<br />

of CO 2<br />

emissions and help facilitate the energy transition.<br />

With increased demand for such solutions, we look forward<br />

to continuing to make a meaningful impact by deploying the<br />

technology with our current and future partners”.<br />

CRI’s second project in China was announced last year and<br />

is already well on its way. It is expected to come online in the<br />

second half of 2023. AT<br />

www.carbonrecycling.is<br />

26 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17

R&D solution to tackle plastic<br />

waste for nurseries<br />

Application<br />

Scion (Rotorua, New Zealand) scientists have been<br />

instrumental in developing and testing biodegradable<br />

nursery pots that will help nurseries and Kiwi gardeners<br />

to reduce plastic waste and its impact on the environment.<br />

The biodegradable pots, made from biopolymers and a<br />

biofiller, will offer an alternative to the estimated 350 million<br />

plants in pots produced by New Zealand nurseries each year.<br />

Manufacturing of the pots will scale up after production<br />

processes are finetuned using funding received from the<br />

Government’s Plastics Innovation Fund announced recently<br />

by Environment Minister David Parker. The pots are expected<br />

to be commercially available by September 2023.<br />

The successful prototype, PolBionix, has been four years<br />

in development at Scion as part of a project with commercial<br />

client Wilson and Ross Limited. Director Peter Wilson<br />

engaged the services of Scion’s expert biomaterials and<br />

biodegradable testing team to develop and test a formulation<br />

for a product that meets the requirements of a nursery, last at<br />

least 12 months above ground then, after it’s planted in soil,<br />

continues to biodegrade. The pot then provides fertiliser for<br />

the plant as it breaks down, supporting plant growth.<br />

Polymer technologist Maxime Barbier developed various<br />

formulations in the project’s discovery phase, with product<br />

testing carried out in small batches. Early results were<br />

mixed, however, the team eventually developed a prototype<br />

that showed promising biodegradation properties in 2020.<br />

Scientist and technical lead of Scion’s Biodegradation<br />

Testing Facility, Gerty Gielen, joined the project after the<br />

strong candidate was found. More in-depth analysis was then<br />

done using Scion’s accredited biodegradation testing facility,<br />

the only one of its kind in Australasia.<br />

“Biodegradation is defined as the breakdown of material<br />

into carbon dioxide, water and microbial biomass. That’s<br />

what we were testing for in our facility that mimics typical<br />

conditions for home composting. We found one product<br />

responded very favourably after 12 months”.<br />

Gielen says the results are extraordinary. “People have<br />

explored the idea of creating biodegradable plant pots for<br />

at least 10 years and many companies have given up along<br />

the way. There are so many<br />

formula combinations and<br />

permutations, so to discover a<br />

formula that works feels like<br />

winning the lottery”.<br />

Barbier says the research<br />

is a perfect example of Scion’s<br />

scientific focus on helping<br />

New Zealand transition to<br />

a circular bioeconomy and<br />

be less reliant on products<br />

made from fossil fuel.<br />

“The new product uses biopolymers made from sustainably<br />

grown sugarcane, cassava or corn. We combine that with a<br />

biofiller of waste organic matter. Diverting that waste into a<br />

product like this adds value in the manufacturing process,<br />

which is the circular bioeconomy in action. Importantly, the<br />

end result is products that can reduce plastic pollution in<br />

New Zealand and carbon emissions”.<br />

Scion’s scientific discovery during the testing phase has<br />

resulted in the filing of two international patents.<br />

Wilson handles the commercialisation of the PolBionixtrademarked<br />

product, which can be produced using existing<br />

plastic injection moulding processes. The product can also be<br />

manufactured with thermoforming and film-blown processes.<br />

The biodegradable pots are currently being tested in<br />

three commercial nurseries. Auckland City Council has<br />

also trialled the planting of 100 PolBionix pots in Waitawa<br />

Regional Park. A further 100 pots were planted in August<br />

at Anchorage Park School as part of Auckland’s Eastern<br />

Busway Infrastructure project.<br />

In addition to significant private investment, funding<br />

support over the past four years of research has come<br />

from Callaghan Innovation (Lower Hutt, New Zealand),<br />

Auckland Council’s Waste Minimisation Fund and the<br />

Ministry for Primary Industries through its Sustainable Food<br />

and Fibre Futures fund.<br />

Wilson is excited about the opportunities ahead for<br />

the product and its widespread adoption by nurseries,<br />

both for home gardeners and planners of large-scale<br />

infrastructure and environmental restoration projects,<br />

especially near waterways.<br />

“Raw material costs for PolBionix are higher than for<br />

traditional fossil-based plastic pots, so PolBionix pots will<br />

be more expensive. However, there are costs saved by not<br />

having to add fertiliser, or face charges for disposing of<br />

the traditional pots in landfill. Any recycled pots currently<br />

need cleaning which adds a cost to nurseries. Planting<br />

should also be quicker, so there’s reduced labour costs for<br />

large-scale projects too”.<br />

Long-term, Wilson is keen to explore other applications<br />

for the product across<br />

agriculture and horticulture.<br />

“The problem of plastic<br />

pollution we face in New<br />

Zealand and, indeed, the<br />

world is significant. This<br />

project demonstrates Scion’s<br />

capability in helping solve<br />

these challenges. Their input<br />

has been invaluable to the<br />

success of this project”. AT<br />

www.wilsonandross.com<br />

www.scionresearch.com<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17<br />


Applications<br />

First stroller portfolio made<br />

with biobased materials<br />

Bugaboo (Amsterdam, the Netherlands), DSM<br />

Engineering Materials (Emmen, the Netherlands),<br />

Fibrant (Urmond, the Netherlands) and Neste<br />

(headquartered in Espoo, Finland) recently announced that<br />

their cross-value chain partnership has successfully enabled<br />

the launch of an entire Bugaboo stroller portfolio made with<br />

biobased materials. Specifically, the majority of the strollers’<br />

plastic parts are made using DSM Engineering Materials’<br />

Akulon ® 100 % biobased B-MB polyamide 6 (PA6), which in<br />

turn is made using biobased feedstock from both Fibrant and<br />

Neste. DSM Engineering Materials uses a mass-balancing<br />

approach with renewable waste and residue raw material to<br />

enable a ~75 % PA6 carbon footprint reduction compared to<br />

conventional PA6 and up to 24 % of the entire stroller.<br />

Earlier in <strong>2022</strong>, Bugaboo announced ambitious targets to<br />

achieve net-zero carbon dioxide (CO 2<br />

) emissions by 2035.<br />

As most of Bugaboo’s impact derives from its Scope 3<br />

emissions, a transition toward lower fossil carbon materials<br />

is a key element of the company’s environmental, social,<br />

and governance (ESG) strategy. This aligns closely with the<br />

ambitions of the other partners: DSM Engineering Materials’<br />

ongoing ambition of a full alternative portfolio of biobased<br />

and circular solutions, helping to defossilise the economy as<br />

part of its SimplyCircular initiative, Fibrant’s commitment<br />

to make the entire value chain more sustainable and Neste’s<br />

offering of Neste RE feedstock for polymers and chemicals.<br />

While conventional Akulon PA6 is already an excellentin-class<br />

for carbon footprint, switching to Akulon 100 %<br />

biobased B-MB PA6 offers a significant carbon footprint<br />

reduction compared to conventional PA6 and helps to further<br />

de-fossilize the value chain. Used in the entire stroller<br />

line, the new material was developed by DSM Engineering<br />

Materials in collaboration with its partners Fibrant and<br />

Neste. Specifically, Neste provided renewable Neste RE, a<br />

feedstock for polymers made 100 % from biobased materials<br />

such as waste and residues, which was used to replace fossil<br />

feedstock in the value chain. DSM Engineering Materials,<br />

Fibrant, and Neste are all ISCC-PLUS certified.<br />

With identical mechanical performance and characteristics<br />

to conventional Akulon grades, this mass-balanced biobased<br />

Akulon PA6 offers the quality and durability necessary to<br />

comply with Bugaboo’s strict safety standards, making it a<br />

drop-in substitution while enabling a CO 2<br />

reduction of up to<br />

24 % per stroller in line with the company’s ambitious ESG<br />

targets. This first line of strollers will be gradually available<br />

online and in stores worldwide in the coming period. In<br />

addition, over the course of 2023, Bugaboo will transition its<br />

entire stroller portfolio to production with biobased materials.<br />

Bugaboo Donkey stroller in action. Photo: Bugaboo.<br />

Adriaan Thiery, CEO at Bugaboo, comments: “Tackling the<br />

imminent climate crisis and all its consequences requires<br />

companies to take responsibility now – but no company<br />

can achieve a circular economy alone. By partnering<br />

along the value chain, we can benefit from innovative lowcarbon<br />

emission solutions like biobased PA6, which enable<br />

companies like Bugaboo to achieve our ESG goals, stick to<br />

our Paris Agreement targets, and move toward a circular,<br />

low-carbon economy”.<br />

Roeland Polet, President DSM Engineering Materials,<br />

says: “As Bugaboo becomes one of the earliest pioneers of<br />

biobased PA6, we’re very proud that our collaboration with<br />

Fibrant and Neste has produced such an innovative material.<br />

Collaboration remains key as we work toward the sustainable<br />

economy that consumers know we need, and sustainable<br />

circular solutions like our biobased PA6 are practical ways<br />

for our partners to get ahead by realising their environmental<br />

ambitions while making positive impacts at scale. We’re<br />

looking forward to supporting many more of our partners<br />

as they follow Bugaboo’s example and lead the way toward a<br />

more sustainable society”.<br />

Martijn Amory, CEO Fibrant, says: “Acting now is at the<br />

core of Fibrants’ commitment to climate neutrality. We are<br />

proud that by applying our EcoLactam ® Bio in this crossvalue-chain<br />

collaboration, we are enabling a significant and<br />

excellent-in-class carbon footprint reduction. This confirms<br />

our view that innovation and partnership lead the way to a<br />

sustainable future”.<br />

Mercedes Alonso, Executive Vice President at Neste<br />

Renewable Polymers and Chemicals: “The cooperation with<br />

Bugaboo, DSM and Fibrant shows what joint efforts can<br />

achieve in our industry: a high quality, yet more sustainable<br />

product leading to significant reductions in our industry’s<br />

dependence on fossil resources. It shows once more that<br />

where there is a will to cooperate, there is change and it also<br />

is another example that change is possible in all kinds of<br />

industries and applications: Industry-wise, there are no limits<br />

when it comes to making polymers more sustainable”. MT<br />

www.bugaboo.com<br />

www.dsm.com<br />

| www.neste.com<br />

| www.fibrant52.com<br />

28 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17

Cove PHA bottles hit the market<br />

Cove, the California-based material innovation company,<br />

recently announced its partnership with Erewhon, the<br />

Los Angeles premium organic grocer, making it the first<br />

retailer of Cove’s fully biodegradable water bottles. Cove’s<br />

water bottles will be available at Erewhon stores throughout<br />

Los Angeles, as well as online at cove.co. Cove will announce<br />

new retail partners in the coming months as they scale up<br />

manufacturing at their production facility in Los Angeles.<br />

“Cove entering retail is a significant milestone for the<br />

company and it was important for us to find a mission-aligned<br />

retail partner to debut Cove. We’ve found that in Erewhon and<br />

are excited to take a big step forward in our mission to create<br />

a sustainable material world”, said Alex Totterman, Founder<br />

and CEO of Cove. “Erewhon will also offer a valuable end-oflife<br />

option for our customers by allowing them to deposit their<br />

used Cove bottles into their bins for compostables, which will<br />

then be routed to a local compost operation for biological<br />

recycling”, said Totterman.<br />

“Erewhon has celebrated the amazing benefits of naturally<br />

grown foods and the importance of preserving the earth for<br />

more than 50 years and continues to lead the way in conscious<br />

consumption today”, said Vito Antoci, Executive Vice President<br />

of Erewhon Markets. “When we were introduced to Cove,<br />

we were incredibly excited to be part of this innovative and<br />

potentially world-changing moment for CPG – the world’s<br />

first fully biodegradable water bottle is something we are very<br />

proud to be launching at Erewhon”.<br />

In spring 2021 Cove had announced an exclusive<br />

partnership deal with RWDC Industries (bM reported in<br />

issue 02/2021). RWDC, based in Athens, Georgia, USA and<br />

Singapore, now supplies its proprietary PHA to produce<br />

Cove’s water bottles. RWDC Industries uses plant-based oils,<br />

including post-consumer or used cooking oils, to produce<br />

PHA, which it has branded Solon . The biotech company<br />

combines deep expertise in PHA properties and applications<br />

with the engineering know-how to reach a cost-effective<br />

industrial scale. RWDC – the only PHA supplier of Cove’s<br />

that the startup would name – adds secret ingredients to<br />

its concoction, but Blake Lindsey, the company’s chief<br />

commercial officer, said that there’s nothing synthetic<br />

involved, according to Bloomberg.<br />

“We are thrilled to be working with the Cove team to make<br />

PHA-based water bottles a reality. In a world where over<br />

one million plastic bottles are purchased per minute, our<br />

collaboration is an important step toward providing materials<br />

that enable healthier options for people and the environment”,<br />

said Daniel Carraway, co-founder and CEO of RWDC.<br />

The PHA in Cove’s bottles and caps is certified biodegradable<br />

by TÜV Austria in marine, soil, and freshwater environments,<br />

as well as in industrial and home compost. Cove bottles and<br />

caps will compost in industrial settings within 90 days. MT<br />

Info<br />

See a video-clip at:<br />

https://www.youtube.com/<br />

watch?v=Fx-2iusi0j4<br />

Applications<br />

www.drinkcove.com | www.rwdc-industries.com<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17<br />


Applications<br />

Work and relax in<br />

an Organic Shell<br />

N<br />

uez Lounge Bio ® is a beautiful and comfortable<br />

armchair that respects the environment. It was<br />

designed by Patricia Urquiola (Milan, Italy) for<br />

the international brand Andreu World (Valencia, Spain). The<br />

unique furniture is made using IamNature ® , a new generation<br />

of biobased PHA material.<br />

In its robust casing one sits as if wrapped in the soft felt<br />

of a cape and protected as is the kernel of a walnut. With<br />

an unmistakable material texture, the natural feeling of<br />

Nuez Lounge Bio arises from the harmonious simplicity of<br />

lines and volumes, and the choice of ethical materials that<br />

are no less aesthetic.<br />

Responsible design and manufacturing are key principles<br />

in Patricia Urquiola’s design, that at its heart is an armchair<br />

designed to reduce the associated environmental impact to<br />

a minimum along with giving the maximum to the user in<br />

terms of comfort and beauty. Paper, walnut, PET, PHA: the<br />

formal idea at the centre of Nuez Lounge Bio is the gesture of<br />

folding paper, the leitmotif of the Nuez armchair designed by<br />

Urquiola, of which this lounge model is the natural, literally<br />

and figuratively, continuation.<br />

“The backrest folds to create a large ripple to form the<br />

seat in soft and continuous curves, simple and beautiful”,<br />

says Patricia. “Nuez means walnut in Spanish: the rough<br />

ribbed surface of the shell is shot in the undulating texture<br />

of the body. In this project, we have adopted an extremely<br />

contemporary approach, inspired by the flexibility and<br />

mutability of spaces dedicated to smart working. We did this”,<br />

she continues, “by designing an office chair as comfortable<br />

as a lounge chair, suitable for a ‘soft office’ created in a home<br />

environment, or for a workstation”.<br />

For Patricia it is also important to use natural and circular<br />

materials. “Today”, Patricia goes on, “a designer must pay<br />

attention to the durability of the product design, we must<br />

interpret and use the materials in a better way than in the<br />

past, always keeping in mind the principles of circularity and<br />

including the end of life of the object in the design process:<br />

for example, making sure it is easy to disassemble and study<br />

the possibilities of the reuse of all components. My work with<br />

Andreu World and with many other customers is based on<br />

these issues. In the case of Nuez Lounge Bio, the choice of a<br />

biopolymer was a prerequisite. Our intention since the initial<br />

briefing was to make an armchair sustainable in all respects:<br />

we have never taken into consideration the idea of using a<br />

traditional plastic material.<br />

Born to be green<br />

The upholstery of Nuez Lounge Bio by Andreu World is made<br />

with the developed Circular One ® fabric by Andreu World<br />

which is made entirely from recycled PET bottles and textile<br />

waste. The covers come from 100 % recycled padding and are<br />

recyclable as the absence of glues makes it easier to replace<br />

when the need or the desire suggests it. All components are<br />

designed to be disassembled and / or repaired to ensure a<br />

long life for the chair of use. The central base in ash wood is<br />

FSC ® 100 % certified.<br />

The decisive trump in terms of sustainability, however,<br />

even the most innovative aspect of this soft office armchair<br />

is represented by the shell; probably the first application of a<br />

bioplastic material in a structural and aesthetic component of<br />

large dimensions in the furniture industry. For Andreu World<br />

its realization was a stimulating challenge that appeared<br />

right from the start.<br />

The shell of the armchair is made entirely with Iam Nature,<br />

a special grade of PHA. “Maip has in recent years mainly<br />

dedicated itself to the study of compounds based on PHA,<br />

which we describe as the sleeping giant, the only biopolymer<br />

in the world absolutely of natural origin capable of degrading<br />

in any environment, controlled and uncontrolled”, as Eligio<br />

Martini, CEO of MAIP told bioplastics MAGAZINE.<br />

The compound used is based on a special PHBH and<br />

contains natural fillers as well as additives of vegetable<br />

and/or organic nature. In this case, the PHA is obtained<br />

from the bacterial fermentation of sugar processing waste.<br />

The compound meets the needs of Andreu World for a<br />

material with very high dimensional stability, as well as<br />

mechanical strength, thermal resistance, colour stability,<br />

and hardness, while also offering the possibility of highly<br />

precise surface texture reproduction, so as to make it<br />

possible to avoid painting.<br />

Circularity in the team<br />

The bioplastic material was developed by Andreu World<br />

in collaboration with the Maip Group (Settimo Torinese,<br />

Italy). The PHBH-based compound had already been used<br />

before, but not yet on a wide scale and its use in an industrial<br />

product of significant dimensions (the armchair measures<br />

80.5 x 86 x 102 cm in height, including the 43.5 cm high fourstar<br />

swivel base) required considerable effort in terms of<br />

research and development.<br />

This article is based on an Italian article previously published in Plastix (Italy).<br />

30 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17

Applications<br />

“All components are conceived for<br />

easy disassembly “, emphasizes<br />

the designer Patricia Urquiola. “The<br />

coated part it’s completely removable<br />

from the body, which it is attached<br />

to with a mechanical solution, which<br />

eliminates the use of glue“.<br />

The Nuez armchair BIO lounge,<br />

ergonomic and luxuriously welcoming,<br />

marries the needs for smart working,<br />

in whose times and spaces of work<br />

and relaxation are fluid, with an<br />

interconnected mutability that is<br />

required for furnishings.<br />

The shell is printed with<br />

biothermopolymer or IamNature bio<br />

thermopolymer by Maip, obtained<br />

from the fermentation of waste of<br />

sugar processing, enriched from<br />

reinforcing fillers and original<br />

vegetable and / or organic additives.<br />

“The moulded component has a weight of 12.5 kg and is<br />

moulded on a 25,000 kN machine. Cycle time is just over<br />

a minute, despite the thickness of the component in some<br />

places being more than 10 mm”, Eligio continued<br />

“Experimenting with thermoplastics implies many<br />

technological challenges and not just a few critical issues.<br />

Andreu World worked closely together with Maip and with the<br />

manufacturer of the mould for about two years, formulating<br />

various compounds that have been tested by the Turin<br />

company through a further selection process in which the<br />

materials were subjected to printing tests, to solve every<br />

possible problem in the manufacturing process. The material<br />

had to satisfy multiple requirements: excellent dimensional<br />

stability, mechanical strength and thermal, lasting colour<br />

(it is produced in four colours), stiffness, and a high aesthetic<br />

quality surface finish that allows us to eliminate the varnish.<br />

The final formulation, based on PHA reinforced and modified<br />

on impact, has outlined all the specifications required for the<br />

approval of the sessions. In addition, all of their products are<br />

guaranteed for a lifetime of use of at least ten years; they<br />

must therefore undergo very rigorous quality tests. Obtaining<br />

this result with a new material,” concludes Andreu World,<br />

“makes us very proud”. MT<br />

www.maipsrl.com<br />

www.andreuworld.com<br />

www.patriciaurquiola.com<br />

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bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17<br />


Applications<br />

Bacteria help make music<br />

more sustainable<br />

W<br />

aving ‘Bye Bye’ to vinyl: Bye Bye Plastic &<br />

Evolution Music team up to change the fate of<br />

the music industry and launch the world’s first<br />

bacteria-made vinyl record<br />

The plastic problem becomes a bigger issue every single<br />

day. And with that come more solutions; like the very first<br />

vinyl record made entirely free of fossil-based plastic, which<br />

could forever change the music industry.<br />

Vinyl is experiencing a resurgence in popularity, but<br />

many people are unaware of the environmental impact of<br />

traditional vinyl production. Bye Bye Plastic (Amsterdam,<br />

the Netherlands) & Evolution Music (Brighton, UK) via<br />

BLOND:ISH’s Abracadabra Records is innovating the music<br />

industry by producing entirely PVC free vinyl records.<br />

Pioneering Evolution Music’s new technology, the upcoming<br />

record will be the first-ever PHA record made by bacteria.<br />

This petroleum-free innovation scores double, morphing ecoconscious<br />

lyrics that make both audiophiles and fish happy!<br />

An eclectic mix of galvanising<br />

artistry, the PHA record is<br />

mainly underpinned by one<br />

striking force: the desire to<br />

eliminate single-use plastic<br />

from the music industry.<br />

Why the switch to PHA?<br />

As seductive as the<br />

temptation may be to slide<br />

a classic PVC disc from its<br />

glossy sleeve and get lost<br />

in its heady frequencies,<br />

archaic production<br />

techniques ensure<br />

that traditional<br />

vinyl pressings are<br />

responsible for 12<br />

times the greenhouse<br />

gas emissions of other<br />

physical music media.<br />

Evolution Music has spent the last four years working<br />

on R&D to identify non-toxic natural solutions for the<br />

music industry. Their first project focused on a plant-based<br />

biopolymer to create the world’s first Evo-Vinyl made from<br />

PLA. Following the launch of EM’s original plant-based disc<br />

via Music Declares Emergency in July <strong>2022</strong>, Bye Bye Plastic<br />

have now joined with Evolution Music to take the research<br />

forward with the next iteration of polymer development.<br />

Evolution Music’s R&D into bioplastics has ensured<br />

scalability, as these utilise the same manufacturing<br />

infrastructure used for traditional vinyl pressings. This<br />

means that any pressing plant can adopt this new material in<br />

the future. Not only is it a low-touch adoption for them, but the<br />

new materials also prove energy-efficient! Evolution Music<br />

has seen their product create energy savings estimated at<br />

about 10 – 15 % if a plant is to make a complete switch to<br />

a fossil fuel-free PLA or PHA compound. The rewards are<br />

stacking up in favour of these exciting non-PVC alternatives.<br />

#PlasticFreeParty’s finest<br />

Uniting a powerful collective of artists sick of seeing<br />

plastic on their dance floors, Parisian duo Chambord<br />

curated #PlasticFreeParty to life, mixing a visionary blend<br />

of artistic passion for the planet with a drive to deliver<br />

astounding results. Featuring tracks from 14 environmental<br />

tastemakers, the album is a glimmer of a greener future in the<br />

electronic dance scene. Uniting eco-minded thrill-seekers<br />

sonically and lyrically, #PlasticFreeParty packs a punch.<br />

Co-founder of Bye Bye Plastic, Camille Guitteau, shares<br />

this is just the start of a green revolution. “This is a HUGE<br />

milestone, not just for us as a collective, but for the entire<br />

vinyl industry. We’re helping our industry and the planet<br />

evolve in the right direction”.<br />

“I Give Freedom is a track that I<br />

started with my friend and<br />

collaborator, Millad. The<br />

song speaks to the ability<br />

we all have to inspire<br />

change in ourselves<br />

and the world around<br />

us. The freedom<br />

to choose what we<br />

leave behind, and<br />

what impact we<br />

have on the earth”,<br />

says artist Shiba San.<br />

Environmental<br />

significance aside,<br />

industry innovators<br />

have been left with<br />

an artistic dilemma:<br />

what do you call a vinyl that isn’t<br />

made of vinyl at all? From Earth-disc to ’non-vinyl’, the name<br />

debate for this entirely eco-based material is one thing: but<br />

needless to say, the rebrand to plastic-free records might not<br />

be so far in the future!<br />

You can now hold a piece of history in your hand, & preorder<br />

the very limited edition version (see link below to<br />

Abracadabrarecords/Bandcamp). All proceeds from the<br />

release will support Bye Bye Plastic Foundation as they move<br />

one step closer to eliminating single-use, fossil-fuel plastics<br />

from the music industry. MT<br />

https://evolution-music.co.uk<br />

www.byebyeplastic.life<br />

https://abracadabrarecords.bandcamp.com/album/plasticfreeparty<br />

32 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17


New<br />

Edition<br />

2020<br />

NEW NEW<br />

NEW<br />

This book, created and published by Polymedia<br />

Publisher – maker of bioplastics MAGAZINE, is available in<br />

English and German (now in the third, revised edition),<br />

and brand new also in Chinese, French, and Spanish.<br />

Intended to offer a rapid and uncomplicated introduction<br />

to the subject of bioplastics, this book is aimed at all<br />

interested readers, in particular those who have not yet<br />

had the opportunity to dig deeply into the subject, such<br />

as students or those just joining this industry, as well<br />

as lay readers. It gives an introduction to plastics and<br />

bioplastics, explains which renewable resources can be<br />

used to produce bioplastics, what types of bioplastics<br />

exist, and which ones are already on the market. Further<br />

aspects, such as market development, the agricultural<br />

land required, and waste disposal, are also examined.<br />

The book is complemented by a comprehensive<br />

literature list and a guide to sources of additional<br />

information on the Internet.<br />

The author Michael Thielen is the publisher of<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE.<br />

He is a qualified mechanical design engineer<br />

with a PhD degree in plastics technology from<br />

the RWTH University in Aachen, Germany. He<br />

has written several books on the subject of<br />

bioplastics and blow-moulding technology<br />

and disseminated his knowledge of plastics<br />

in numerous presentations, seminars, guest<br />

lectures, and teaching assignments.<br />

New<br />

Edition<br />

2020<br />

ORDER<br />

NOW<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.com/en/books<br />

email: books@bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

phone: +49 2161 6884463 33<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17

K’<strong>2022</strong> Review<br />

K <strong>2022</strong>, the innovation driver for the global plastics and rubber<br />

industry showed a multitude of concrete solutions, machines,<br />

and products for the transformation towards a circular economy<br />

The joy of the plastics and rubber industry at finally being<br />

able to exchange ideas in person on a global level again after<br />

three years characterised K <strong>2022</strong> Düsseldorf and ensured<br />

an excellent mood among the 3,037 exhibitors who again<br />

unanimously underscored the necessity of having operational<br />

circular economies along the complete material chain and to this<br />

end already presented numerous concrete solutions. 176,000<br />

trade visitors from all continents travelled to their most relevant<br />

sectoral event in Düsseldorf.<br />

“Especially now in turbulent times and where the plastics<br />

industry is undergoing a transformation towards the circular<br />

economy K <strong>2022</strong> was the ideal place to jointly and actively chart<br />

the course for the future”, said Ulrich Reifenhäuser, Chairman<br />

of the Exhibitor Advisory Board at K <strong>2022</strong>.<br />

And certainly, bioplastics and plastics made from CO 2<br />

or advanced recycling played an ever increasing role at the<br />

mega-event. By far more than 200 companies were listed in<br />

the official catalogue with the keyword bioplastic. Our joint<br />

booth with European Bioplastics was constantly crowded<br />

with visitors interested in sustainable solutions to get away<br />

from fossil resources.<br />

Show<br />

Review<br />

The 5 th Bioplastics Business Breakfast organized by<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE again attracted more than 125 attendees<br />

from 27 countries around the globe. And for those attendees<br />

that could not travel to Düsseldorf, the hybrid format offered<br />

a solution to participate remotely. Video recordings are still<br />

available. Just contact the editor.<br />

This year’s K has again exceeded the organizers’ expectations<br />

and was able to generate key impetus for sustainable governance<br />

and new business models.AT/MT<br />

(Foto: Messe Düsseldorf / Constanze Tillmann)<br />

Westlake Vinnolit<br />

Westlake Vinnolit (Ismaning, Germany) continues to<br />

expand its lower-carbon GreenVin ® product line: Effective<br />

immediately, the company also offers GreenVin bio-attributed<br />

PVC based on renewable ethylene from e.g. used cooking oil.<br />

Westlake Vinnolit’s lower-carbon GreenVin product line<br />

continues to expand: in addition to GreenVin PVC, with<br />

approximately 25 % CO 2<br />

savings through the use of renewable<br />

electricity (Guarantees of Origin with quality label) in the<br />

Westlake Vinnolit production chain, GreenVin bio-attributed<br />

PVC is now also available. GreenVin bio-attributed PVC<br />

is produced with renewable electricity and ISCC PLUScertified<br />

renewable ethylene from biomass. The CO 2<br />

savings<br />

of GreenVin bio-attributed PVC is about 90 %, compared to<br />

conventionally produced Vinnolit PVC.<br />

“With GreenVin bio-attributed PVC, we rely on non-food<br />

biomass (second generation), such as plant residues and<br />

waste materials, which does not compete with the food<br />

chain”, said Karl-Martin Schellerer, Managing Director.<br />

“Westlake Vinnolit sources the renewable ethylene from<br />

OMV and other partners, replacing fossil ethylene in PVC<br />

production. GreenVin bio-attributed PVC is both ISCC PLUS<br />

and REDcert2 certified, using the mass balance approach”.<br />

www.westlake.com<br />

34 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17

Avient<br />

Avient (Avon Lake, OH, USA, formerly PolyOne) exhibited its latest innovations and initiatives for the plastics industry as part<br />

of its drive toward creating sustainable and specialized material solutions. This includes offering lower-carbon alternatives to<br />

thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) without sacrificing performance, expanding their portfolios to include the use of bio-renewable<br />

feedstock and post-industrial or post-consumer recycled (PCR) content, and introducing new materials and services focused on<br />

meeting specific customer needs while helping to advance a circular economy.<br />

New launches by Avient include New Maxxam REC, Maxxam BIO, and Nymax BIO grades, an expanded portfolio of recycled<br />

and biobased polyolefin and polyamide formulations now manufactured in Europe. These grades can offer a more sustainable<br />

alternative to traditional grades while achieving equivalent performance in many applications and industries, including<br />

transportation, industrial, consumer, electrical and electronic, and building and construction.<br />

TheSound Ultra-Low Carbon Footprint TPEs offer an industry-first<br />

cradle-to-gate negative, neutral, or near-zero product carbon footprint<br />

(PCF) while delivering comparable performance to traditional TPEs.<br />

Among other things Avient also announced customer success<br />

collaboration with L’Oréal and a joint study with Borealis using<br />

Avient’s Post-Consumer Recycled (PCR) Colour Prediction Service:<br />

A digital service using sophisticated technology to illustrate the colour<br />

possibilities or limitations of certain types of PCR. This can improve the<br />

customer experience of working with PCR content for materials used in<br />

packaging by offering options that can create global colour consistency,<br />

improved quality, and greater circularity.<br />

www.avient.com<br />

K’<strong>2022</strong> Review<br />

DSM<br />

DSM Engineering Materials (Geleen, the Netherlands)<br />

showcased its recent innovations in circularity, sustainable<br />

mobility, and digitalization that are driving transformation<br />

and empowering customers across automotive, electric,<br />

electronics, and consumer goods.<br />

Akulon ® RePurposed is a high-performance polymer (PA6,<br />

PA66) made from recycled fishing nets collected from the<br />

Indian Ocean and is used by Samsung in key components<br />

across its Galaxy S22 and Galaxy Tab S8 series in an industryfirst<br />

smartphone application. It is also at the centre of DSM’s<br />

successful partnership with Schneider Electric for its Merten<br />

range of sustainable home socket and switch solutions,<br />

and with Ford Motor Company in the Ford Bronco Sport –<br />

recognized by Ford as the first of many potential applications<br />

in a major vehicle platform.<br />

Several biobased mass-balanced polymers unlock a huge<br />

range of more sustainable applications across demanding<br />

consumer products, automotive and sports. Ranging from 75 %<br />

to 100 % biobased mass-balanced content, solutions include<br />

Akulon PA6 B-MB line, specific grades in the Arnitel ® TPC<br />

B-MB family, and an industry-first biobased mass-balanced<br />

high-temperature polyamide PA46 as an exciting addition to<br />

the flagship Stanyl ® brand.<br />

Stanyl B-MB (Biobased Mass Balanced), with up to 100 %<br />

bio-attributed content enables DSM Engineering Materials to<br />

halve the carbon footprint of this product line and, in turn, of<br />

the Stanyl B-MB-based products of its customers. Launched<br />

in June, this 100 % bio-attributed high-temperature polyamide<br />

underlines the business’s ongoing commitment to helping<br />

customers fulfil their sustainability ambitions by making<br />

planet-positive choices and supporting the transition to a<br />

circular and biobased economy.<br />

www.dsm.com<br />

TotalEnergies<br />

During K <strong>2022</strong> TotalEnergies announced the launch<br />

of its new product range RE:clic for its low-carbon<br />

polymers that contribute to addressing the challenges<br />

of the circular economy.<br />

The RE:use polymers range contains recycled plastic<br />

obtained through a mechanical recycling process.<br />

They are derived from post-consumer and postindustrial<br />

plastic wastes.<br />

The RE:build polymers are produced through an<br />

advanced recycling process that converts hard-torecycle<br />

plastic waste into circular feedstock. The recycled<br />

content of the resulting polymers is tracked throughout<br />

the production process thanks to the ISCC PLUS<br />

certification. These polymers exhibit identical properties<br />

to virgin polymers and are therefore suitable for highend,<br />

demanding applications, including food contact.<br />

The RE:newable polymers are derived from biobased<br />

products. Produced from renewable feedstocks certified<br />

under ISCC PLUS, these polymers substantially reduce<br />

the carbon footprint of finished products and retain<br />

virgin-like properties.<br />

“This announcement marks yet another step forward<br />

in TotalEnergies’ development of a circular economy<br />

for plastics and is fully aligned with the Company’s<br />

ambition”, said Nathalie Brunelle, Vice President<br />

Polymers at TotalEnergies. “The products associated<br />

with these new ranges are concrete solutions to<br />

help us reach our ambition of commercializing 30 %<br />

circular polymers by 2030”.<br />

www totalenergies.com<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17<br />


K’<strong>2022</strong> Review<br />

Mynusco<br />

Mynusco Spectrus Sustainable Solutions (Bengaluru, India)<br />

is a world leader in biocomposite materials and a platform for<br />

circular economy adoption.<br />

The company uses crop residue and fast-renewable raw<br />

materials to make biocomposite materials that replace certain<br />

conventional plastics and other carbon-intensive materials. The<br />

company’s portfolio of more than 1,000 biomaterials includes<br />

BioDur for durable products and BioPur for biodegradable and<br />

compostable products.<br />

Biomaterials are only part of the circular economy solution.<br />

It is important to bring together all stakeholders to ensure that<br />

our entire economic system is sustainable. For this, Mynusco<br />

pioneered a biomaterials platform on which companies can<br />

collaborate to develop circular solutions.<br />

The Biocomposites centre of excellence and R&D capabilities<br />

enables Mynusco to develop new biomaterials that meet your<br />

specifications and needs. They can calibrate their biomaterials<br />

portfolio to alter material properties, appearance, and usability.<br />

Mynusco is the first biomaterials producer in the world to offer IT<br />

systems to track resources and carbon footprint across the value<br />

chain – from the origin of resources to the products’ end-of-life.<br />

“We are a grassroots sustainability company”, as the website<br />

says, “we are happy to support champions of sustainability,<br />

innovation and circular economy with the material selection,<br />

processing, product engineering, mould development, part<br />

manufacturing and provide clarifications about our materials”.<br />

www.mynusco.com<br />

DuPont<br />

DuPont (Wilmington, Delaware, USA) announced that its<br />

global Delrin ® (acetal homopolymer – Polyoxymethylene POM)<br />

production facilities have achieved an estimated 10 % reduction<br />

in total scope 1 and 2 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from 2019<br />

to 2021. Scope 1 covers direct emissions from owned or controlled<br />

emissions sources while scope 2 covers indirect emissions from<br />

purchased energy resources.<br />

The reduction is principally due to Delrin plant<br />

modernization efforts which are part of the business’s overall<br />

commitment to sustainability.<br />

Part of the contributions to the reduction in scope 1 and 2<br />

manufacturing emissions is the production of Delrin Renewable<br />

Attributed resin at the Dordrecht Works facility in the Netherlands.<br />

The Delrin Renewable Attributed product portfolio is produced<br />

entirely with electricity backed by renewable energy credits from<br />

wind. Furthermore, steam is sourced from municipal waste energy<br />

recovery. The Delrin Renewable Attributed product line, whose<br />

base polymer is produced with 100 % ISCC-certified bio-feedstock<br />

from waste, provides up to 75 % reduction in global warming<br />

potential (GWP) impacts compared to fossil-based Delrin. Delrin<br />

Renewable Attributed was the first commercial biobased acetal<br />

homopolymer and has been recognized for its world-class<br />

environmental profile, winning an R&D 100 Award in 2021 as well<br />

as a <strong>2022</strong> Gold Edison Award.<br />

www.dupont.com<br />

Sabic<br />

Sabic (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia) showcased its<br />

broad expertise in Trucircle solutions for more<br />

sustainable packaging.<br />

One example is Orkla, who launched its first<br />

chips packaging using certified renewable<br />

polypropylene (PP) polymer from Sabic’s Trucircle<br />

portfolio that is a drop-in solution for replacing<br />

fossil-based plastics in the packaging industry with<br />

no compromise on food safety, and is converted<br />

into a BOPP or Natural BOPP (NOPP) food<br />

packaging film by Irplast. In Orkla’s chips bags,<br />

the material solution from biobased feedstock<br />

reduces the carbon footprint of the three partners’<br />

value chain by about 50 % compared to the use<br />

of traditional non-renewable plastics. “With our<br />

certified circular and renewable polymers, we are<br />

aiming to create a sustainable value chain where<br />

we collaborate with downstream customers<br />

like Irplast and Orkla in the use of biobased<br />

feedstock”, a spokesperson said.<br />

Bottles using certified renewable HDPE<br />

polymer from Sabic’s Trucircle portfolio as inner<br />

layer is a drop-in solution for replacing fossilbased<br />

plastics with no compromise on food safety.<br />

Sabic’s certified renewable products are based<br />

on a mass balance system and fully certified via<br />

ISCC PLUS. Core and outer layers are made of<br />

Sabic HDPE mechanical recycled compounds,<br />

contributing to circularity by saving virgin material<br />

in bottles without facing processing issues or<br />

machine efficiency reduction while keeping the<br />

quality standards for the bottles.<br />

www.sabic.com<br />

Imerys<br />

Imerys (Paris, France) is the world’s leading<br />

supplier of specialty minerals, with best-in-class<br />

operations, delivering excellence and marketdriven<br />

innovation to customers around the world.<br />

Whether it be promoting lightweighting,<br />

fostering recyclability, extending the lifespan<br />

or lowering the ecoprofile of the end product,<br />

sustainability is at the core of Imerys’ innovations<br />

for plastics and rubber markets.<br />

Among other flame retardant, calcium<br />

carbonate, graphite, clay, carbon black, talc and<br />

other products, the company presented Jetfine ®<br />

3 C talc for lighter, stronger biopolymers. Jetfine<br />

3 C is an ultrafine engineered mineral solution<br />

for biodegradable plastics which renders<br />

biopolymers fit for use as an alternative for<br />

conventional thermoplastics.<br />

www.imerys.com<br />

36 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17

Chimei<br />

A Taiwan-based performance materials company that designs and<br />

manufactures advanced polymer materials, synthetic rubbers, and<br />

specialty chemicals, CHIMEI Corporation is adding a range of International<br />

Sustainability and Carbon Certification (ISCC) PLUS approved (mass<br />

balance) bioplastics to its newly released Ecologue sustainable materials<br />

portfolio. The brand Ecologue was officially launched during K <strong>2022</strong>.<br />

Approval from ISCC<br />

PLUS reinforces the<br />

renewable plastics value<br />

chain, which Chimei has<br />

been building together with<br />

Neste, Idemitsu Kosan, and<br />

Mitsubishi Corporation,<br />

allowing them to introduce<br />

new, renewable biomass<br />

materials that can effectively<br />

replace fossil feedstock<br />

in plastic production.<br />

The ISCC PLUS approvals apply to ABS, SAN, MS (SMMA), HBR, and SSBR<br />

products, which are produced at Chimei’s factory in Tainan, Taiwan. Chimei<br />

will officially launch ISCC PLUS bio-ABS products, under the Ecologue<br />

trademark, in the first half of 2023.<br />

Bioplastics are one of three innovation areas in Chimei’s Ecologue<br />

sustainable materials portfolio. Chimei’s ongoing bioplastic innovations<br />

include biodegradable materials, which have the potential to replace singleuse<br />

plastics in the near future. Chimei aims to expand its bioplastic offerings<br />

over the coming years.<br />

Production is an ongoing innovation area in Chimei’s Ecologue sustainable<br />

materials portfolio. This includes carbon capture and utilization at Chimei<br />

facilities. Of the three innovation areas at CHIMEI, recycling has proffered<br />

the most development; featuring optical-grade, chemically recycled MMA,<br />

and mechanically recycled PCR materials.<br />

www.chimeicorp.com<br />

Lanxess<br />

Lanxess (Cologne, Germany)<br />

presented (among other products)<br />

Adiprene Green – biobased prepolymers<br />

with excellent properties.<br />

Under the brand name Adiprene Green<br />

LF Lanxess provides a range of biobased,<br />

low free monomer prepolymers for<br />

polyurethane CASE (Coatings, Adhesives,<br />

Sealants, Elastomers) applications.<br />

Biobased LF prepolymers focus on<br />

renewable chemical building blocks that<br />

are designed to the specific needs of<br />

many different applications by exploring<br />

additional chemistries and optimization of<br />

molecular weight and structure.<br />

Progress has been made developing<br />

biobased LF MDI prepolymers over a<br />

wide range of NCO content (free reactive<br />

isocyanate groups) which yield systems<br />

with lower viscosity at application<br />

temperature, improved high crystallinity,<br />

better wetting ability, and fast green<br />

strength in reactive hot melt and twocomponent<br />

adhesives formulations. The<br />

new LF MDI prepolymers enable hot-melt<br />

formulations with a biocontent of up to<br />

75 %. Other Adiprene Green systems allow<br />

the manufacturing of PU elastomers with<br />

a biocontent of up to 90 %.<br />

www.lanxess.com<br />

K’<strong>2022</strong> Review<br />

Benvic<br />

Benvic (Chevigny-Saint-Sauveur, France), Europe’s leader in PVC<br />

compounds, technical compounds and ecological biopolymers presented<br />

its recently reborn ProVinyl range of PVC compounds and a reworked<br />

and rebranded the second strand of materials – largely polyolefinbased<br />

polymer technology.<br />

The third leg of the Benvic portfolio involved both polymer recyclates<br />

and biopolymeric materials in order to service the growing eco-conscious<br />

and circular economy. Benvic’s French subsidiary Ereplast is helping<br />

drive a growing number of solutions in recycled PVC grades. Meanwhile,<br />

Benvic’s Plantura product lines showed K visitors a range of biobased and/<br />

or compostable polymers for the development of successful eco-designed<br />

products and solutions.<br />

These four new groupings reflect the fact that Benvic is no longer simply<br />

a supplier of polymer compounds but is a solutions business; offering<br />

forward integration through its plastics processing companies or providing<br />

environmental ‘cradle to cradle’ service with respect to materials.<br />

Benvic is also a supplier of niche materials for specialist product sectors,<br />

including medical, biopolymers, conductive and self-sanitizing polymers,<br />

as well as creating materials for stringent uses in the construction and<br />

electrical industries.<br />

www.benvic.com<br />

Eckart<br />

With its trade show motto "Discover<br />

Nexxt", Eckart (Hartenstein, Germany)<br />

presented pigment solutions for the<br />

plastics industry that demonstrably<br />

improve the carbon footprint. At K <strong>2022</strong><br />

Eckart showed their forward-looking<br />

pigment solutions, such as Mastersafe<br />

BCR. With this product, the manufacturer<br />

of effect pigments is the first company<br />

worldwide to present biobased<br />

preparations for aluminium pigments.<br />

By replacing fossil raw materials<br />

with renewable biobased materials,<br />

Mastersafe BCR enables greenhouse gas<br />

emissions to be saved in the value chain<br />

leading to a reduction of the product’s<br />

carbon footprint by 50 %.<br />

www.eckart.net<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17<br />


K’<strong>2022</strong> Review<br />

Di Mucci<br />

Di Mucci (Izola, Slovenia) is an innovative film-producing<br />

company committed to the development of innovative<br />

solutions, to replace conventional plastic films with<br />

compostable solutions for automatic packaging machines.<br />

Di Mucci is the first world producer of transparent<br />

low-thickness shrinkable film awarded as the best<br />

packaging innovation in 2021.<br />

Vincentius-POF is a transparent film with reticular<br />

molecular structure. It can weld and shrink at low<br />

temperatures and works as a cross-linked (irradiated) film<br />

that is not recyclable and can replace also the standard POF<br />

shrink film. It works with conventional packaging machines<br />

such as side sealers, L sealers, box motions and chamber<br />

machinery with shrink tunnels. It is certified for food contact<br />

and industrial composting.<br />

Vincentius-SuperPower is a film that replaces the<br />

classic PE film (also shrinkable) with compostable<br />

materials capable of degrading and composting without<br />

specific environmental conditions. So, even if accidentally<br />

dispersed in nature, it naturally decomposes without leaving<br />

microplastics or substances harmful to the environment<br />

and human health. The film has a natural porosity, able to<br />

keep good barrier to oxygen prolonged the shelf life of fresh<br />

food, can be laminated and can be used as lidding film. It is<br />

certified home compostable.<br />

Vincentius-BOVI is a bi-oriented compostable film able<br />

to replace the classical BOPP and or CPP films. It has good<br />

rigidity and transparency and works in high-speed flowpack,<br />

flow-wraps, VFFS vertical packaging machines and in<br />

all applications where the BOPP is applied. It can be coated,<br />

laminated, and metallized and it can keep food fresh longer,<br />

increasing shelf life compared to the standard BOPP film<br />

due to its natural porosity. It is certified for food contact and<br />

is industrial compostable.<br />

“Vincentius is not our arrival point, but our first step. We<br />

are not just imagining a greener future, but making it real”,<br />

said Luca Di Mucci, founder and CEO.<br />

www.dimucci.si<br />

Kompuestos<br />

To celebrate their first encounter with a general audience<br />

after the pandemic, Kompuestos (Palau Solità i Plegamans,<br />

Spain) officially launched Neory, their new brand for<br />

biodegradable and compostable resins.<br />

In addition to exhibiting at the K’<strong>2022</strong>, Kompuestos<br />

(Palau Solità i Plegamans, Spain) has also been presenting<br />

its latest R&D developments during the Bioplastics<br />

Business Breakfast event on the sidelines of the fair.<br />

These developments include compostable solutions for<br />

food packaging and catering services to tackle plastic<br />

pollution. Compostable plastics could have a role to play<br />

here, especially where products are contaminated with food<br />

residues. Compostable packaging and any leftovers can be<br />

disposed of together in a food waste bin for collection and<br />

treatment (where permitted).<br />

Neory is a range of duly certified compostable resins,<br />

based on completely or partially biobased raw materials<br />

such as starches and other renewable sourced polymers.<br />

Neory resins have been designed to cover the current<br />

demands of the plastics industry, with solutions for blown<br />

film extrusion, injection moulding, sheet extrusion, profile<br />

extrusion and cast extrusion.<br />

The fit-for-purpose materials have been designed to<br />

be processed on existing industrial equipment, offering<br />

the opportunity to replace traditional fossil plastics<br />

without added technological investment. Neory grades<br />

have been certified as OK Compost INDUSTRIAL and/<br />

or OK Compost HOME following TÜV AUSTRIA Belgium<br />

certification schemes or are undergoing certification. These<br />

certifications ensure that the products fully biodegrade in<br />

the specified conditions, not leaving microplastics, heavy<br />

metals or toxic components behind.<br />

Kompuestos also believes in the potential of<br />

biodegradability in the soil for a more sustainable<br />

agriculture and in this sense has developed a special grade<br />

for biodegradable mulch films. In addition to suppressing<br />

weeds and promoting crop growth, biodegradability in the<br />

soil offers added benefits for agricultural and horticultural<br />

products, as when left in the soil to break down in situ after<br />

being used, the mulch films provide nutrients to the soil and<br />

enhance soil structure.<br />

www.kompuestos.com<br />

38 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17

Novamont<br />

Mix-Me, the multivitamin and multimineral nutritional supplement produced by DSM Nutritional Products, designed to combat<br />

malnutrition in developing countries and already distributed for years in numerous countries reaching millions of consumers,<br />

now comes to the market in a compostable pack with high renewable raw material content and low environmental impact.<br />

At K <strong>2022</strong> the first stick pack for a powdered multivitamin and multimineral supplement made of a paper laminate and Novamont<br />

Mater-Bi bioplastic film was officially launched.<br />

It is compostable and recyclable together with<br />

household food waste.<br />

It is a highly innovative application, which<br />

products to offer a highly sustainable product<br />

stability of the product.<br />

This packaging solution is the result of<br />

SAES Coated Films and Gualapack, an<br />

been engaged in intensive joint research and<br />

based on the companies’ respective expertise in<br />

and the transformation of these materials for<br />

on regenerating resources and decarbonising<br />

arises from the will of DSM Nutritional<br />

without compromising the quality and<br />

Novamont’s collaboration with Ticinoplast,<br />

entirely Italian industrial chain that has<br />

development for years. This association is<br />

biodegradable materials, functional materials<br />

the packaging sector, focusing in particular<br />

production processes.<br />

Unlike conventional packaging<br />

– employing PET, aluminium and<br />

PE – the new packaging is made<br />

of paper and film in Mater-Bi – the<br />

Novamont bioplastic produced<br />

from raw materials of agricultural<br />

origin. This means it is compostable<br />

in accordance with standard EN<br />

13432, with a biobased raw material content of over 65 %.<br />

The water-based biodegradable coating technology Coathink ® from SAES Coated Films provides a high water vapour and oxygen<br />

barrier, necessary for optimum preservation of the powdered product and its micronutrient content throughout its shelf life. The<br />

pack is compatible with traditional automatic packaging lines thanks to its excellent sealability properties. The innovative pack<br />

not only guarantees shelf life and productivity similar to traditional laminates but also solves the difficulties of recycling small<br />

packaging made from non-separable laminated materials.<br />

www.novamont.com<br />

K’<strong>2022</strong> Review<br />

23–25 May • Siegburg/Cologne<br />

23–25 May • Siegburg/Cologne (Germany)<br />

renewable-materials.eu<br />

The brightest stars of Renewable Materials<br />

The unique concept of presenting all renewable material solutions at<br />

one event hits the mark: bio-based, CO2-based and recycled are the only<br />

alternatives to fossil-based chemicals and materials.<br />

First day<br />

• Bio- and CO2-based<br />

Refineries<br />

• Chemical Industry,<br />

New Refinery Concepts<br />

& Chemical Recycling<br />

Second day<br />

• Renewable Chemicals<br />

and Building Blocks<br />

• Renewable Polymers<br />

and Plastics –<br />

Technology and Markets<br />

• Innovation Award<br />

• Fine Chemicals<br />

(Parallel Session)<br />

Third day<br />

• Latest nova Research<br />

• The Policy & Brands<br />

View on Renewable<br />

Materials<br />

• Biodegradation<br />

• Renewable Plastics<br />

and Composites<br />








OF THE<br />

YEAR 2023<br />

Call for Innovation<br />

Submit your Application<br />

for the “Renewable Material<br />

of the Year 2023”<br />

Organiser<br />

Award<br />

Sponsor<br />

Platin<br />

Sponsor<br />

Gold<br />

Sponsors<br />

<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17<br />


Films<br />

Production of biodegradable packaging<br />

from seaweed<br />

The company Brabender, together with the TU Dresden<br />

(Dresden, Germany) and the University of the Philippines<br />

(Quezon City, Philippines), is researching the processing<br />

of seaweed into a cost-effective and sustainable plastic<br />

alternative. The films and packaging made from seaweed<br />

could be used in the future as films for detergent pods or<br />

dishwasher tabs, for example.<br />

Seaweed as a sustainable solution<br />

Plastic pollution in combination with the longevity of mostly<br />

fossil-based materials is a well-known issue of modern<br />

times. Part of the solution to counteract this issue might<br />

lie in naturally occurring seaweed. While many biobased<br />

and biodegradable plastics struggle to be sustainable and<br />

economically viable alternatives due to high prices, poor<br />

processability, or limited availability, seaweed have great<br />

advantages. They are available in large quantities at low cost<br />

and the seaweed can easily be processed into a polymer<br />

material, providing an alternative to conventional plastics.<br />

This new material can be used, for example, for<br />

environmentally friendly packaging. These sea plants have<br />

various advantages: they grow quickly and need neither<br />

freshwater nor fertilisers. In addition, there is a huge area<br />

of cultivable land in the oceans: “Around 70 % of the earth’s<br />

surface is covered with ocean water, so we have a large<br />

theoretical area of cultivable land that is currently barely<br />

used. In comparison, 20 % of the Earth’s surface is covered<br />

with fertile land and is intensively used for, e.g. agriculture,<br />

forestry, infrastructure, or nature reserves. There is therefore<br />

a lot of potential in seaweed as a renewable raw material<br />

to partially replace plastics, which is currently not yet being<br />

used”, explains Ludwig Schmidtchen, Application Engineer at<br />

Brabender. In addition, the cultivation of seaweed counteracts<br />

the eutrophication of the oceans caused by over-fertilisation<br />

in agriculture and the acidification of the oceans, and would<br />

thus be helping with the protection of the marine ecosystem.<br />

Schmidtchen is conducting research on the topic of<br />

producing a sustainable alternative to petrochemical plastics<br />

from seaweed at Brabender, as part of his PhD thesis at the<br />

TU Dresden. The doctorate, at the Institute for Processing<br />

Machines/Processing Technology at TU Dresden, is taking<br />

place in cooperation with the Marine Science Institute of the<br />

University of the Philippines in Quezon City.<br />

Processing seaweed on laboratory scale<br />

So far, results of the investigations in the fields of<br />

characterisation, quality assessment, and processing of the<br />

seaweed raw material using various Brabender analytical<br />

instruments to develop a suitable quality analysis and process<br />

are quite impressive: With the help of the Brabender<br />

TwinLab-C 20/40 twin-screw extruder and Univex flat film<br />

take-off, Schmidtchen has processed the seaweed into a<br />

brownish film. “In its current state, the extruded seaweed<br />

film can be used, for example, as a water-soluble casing for<br />

detergent pods and dishwasher tabs”, says Schmidtchen. In<br />

conventional dishwasher tabs, the cover is made of the<br />

water-soluble synthetic polymer polyvinyl alcohol, which is<br />

proven and scaled in its processing but is still more costintensive<br />

than seaweed. “In the long run, processing seaweed<br />

into films is much cheaper than polyvinyl alcohol, because<br />

the processing of seaweed requires less energy than polyvinyl<br />

alcohol production and is much easier”, Schmidtchen notes.<br />

In addition, closed material cycles in the sense of a circular<br />

bioeconomy can be achieved with the seaweed material for<br />

water-soluble applications, which is hardly possible<br />

with any other polymer.<br />

Life cycle of seaweed-based material<br />

The seaweed material is a natural polymer material that<br />

can become economically competitive with conventional<br />

thermoplastics. It has similar mechanical properties to<br />

currently used packaging materials and can be heat-sealed,<br />

as is the case with chips bags or other packaging, for example.<br />

The idea is not new<br />

The cultivation potential for seaweed is huge and does not<br />

compete with food crops. The idea of using seaweed polymers<br />

for film production is not new – as early as 1934, there were<br />

initial ideas for seaweed film production in Japan. However,<br />

this idea did not catch on at the time due to a lack of political<br />

and social interest. In addition, there were only insufficient<br />

technical solutions for industrial production. Today, things<br />

are different. This is made possible by the novel approach<br />

of semi-dry extrusion to produce a 100 % seaweed-based<br />

packaging material. The semi-dry extrusion of seaweed<br />

biomass into various packaging products saves not only<br />

water but also energy resources with minimal negative<br />

environmental impact.<br />

40 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17

By:<br />

By Ludwig Schmidtchen<br />

Application Engineer for Biopolymers<br />

Films<br />

Brabender,<br />

Duisburg, Germany<br />

Before the seaweed can be processed, it grows in<br />

aquacultures, is harvested and dried in the sun. Then the raw<br />

material is crushed with the help of a grinder. A quality analysis<br />

with the Brabender ViscoQuick is used to characterise the raw<br />

material for further processing. “We have developed extra<br />

methods for this application. Based on our measurements,<br />

we can make statements about the quality and how to use<br />

the material”, Schmidtchen summarises.<br />

Life cycle of conventional plastic<br />

Scaling up of the project is still pending<br />

After characterisation, the ground seaweed can be<br />

processed in an extruder into pellets for further processing<br />

or the film product. The seaweed material can additionally<br />

be used in combination with natural plasticisers or natural<br />

pigments to adapt the colour and material properties for<br />

specific applications. In the processing stage, Brabender<br />

contributes its expertise in raw material characterisation and<br />

extrusion processing. The entire value chain, from quality<br />

control of the seaweed to the finished film or injectionmoulded<br />

part, can be covered with Brabender equipment<br />

and the respective experts accompany the tests in the<br />

application laboratories.<br />

The seaweed project proves that the prerequisites for<br />

the development of a sustainable, environmentally friendly,<br />

feasible, and economical plastic alternative have been<br />

created. Now the project could also be implemented on a<br />

larger scale, but suitable partners and co-investors are still<br />

lacking. “After the implementation works on laboratory scale,<br />

the process can now be scaled up to a pilot plant. For this,<br />

we are currently looking for investors or partners who are<br />

interested in large-scale implementation”, says Schmidtchen.<br />

www.msi.upd.edu.ph | www.brabender.com/en<br />

https://tu-dresden.de<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17<br />


C<br />

M<br />

Y<br />

CM<br />

MY<br />

CY<br />

CMY<br />

K<br />

Materials<br />

New glass fibre reinforced<br />

biopolymer compounds<br />

Something not deemed possible has become a reality: fully biobased and biodegradable glass-fibre-reinforced compounds.<br />

Arctic Biomaterials (ABM) from Tampere, Finland, are delighted to announce the recently established collaboration with<br />

Helian Polymers (Belfeld, the Netherlands).<br />

By combining ABM’s unique ArcBiox degradable and reinforcing glass fibres with Helian Polymers’ signature PHAradox PHA<br />

compounds, new functional material possibilities emerge due to improved mechanical and thermal properties. No less than six<br />

grades have been developed so far.<br />

The established synergy between both companies enables the industry and interested parties to test and validate new sustainable<br />

materials for a range of applications where glass fibre reinforcements are a requirement.<br />

These new PHA compounds with ArcBiox glass fibres, which are in a developmental stage, will degrade in the environment<br />

without the formation of persistent microplastics or remaining glass fibres.<br />

With these exciting and still experimental materials, both companies are open to discussing application development with their<br />

customers and exploring further opportunities.<br />

From government regulation to social pressure, the call for sustainable materials is getting louder every day. By combining<br />

their strengths, both Arctic Biomaterials and Helian Polymers help potential customers to lower the threshold to develop new<br />

applications with their latest sustainable materials – which are fully biobased and 100 % biodegradable – with the sole intention<br />

to minimise the end product’s negative impact on the environment. AT<br />

https://abmcomposite.com/<br />

| https://helianpolymers.com | https://pharadox.com<br />

TPE<br />

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• Material flows of<br />

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42 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17<br />

Dr. Gupta Verlag

Amorphous PHA meets PLA<br />

CJ Biomaterials and NatureWorks will develop innovative sustainable<br />

materials solutions<br />

Materials<br />

CJ Biomaterials (Woburn, MA, USA), a division<br />

of South Korea-based CJ CheilJedang and<br />

NatureWorks (Plymouth, MN, USA) have signed a<br />

Master Collaboration Agreement (MCA) that calls for the<br />

two organizations to collaborate on the development of<br />

sustainable materials solutions based on CJ Biomaterials’<br />

PHACT Biodegradable Polymers and NatureWorks’<br />

Ingeo biopolymers. The two companies will develop<br />

high-performance biopolymer solutions that will replace<br />

petrochemical-based plastics in applications ranging<br />

from compostable food packaging and food serviceware to<br />

personal care, films, and other end products.<br />

The initial focus of this joint agreement will be to develop<br />

biobased solutions that create new performance attributes<br />

for compostable rigid and flexible food packaging and food<br />

serviceware. The new solutions developed will also aim to<br />

speed up biodegradation to introduce more after-use options<br />

consistent with a circular economy model. The focus on<br />

compostable food packaging and serviceware will create<br />

more solutions for keeping methanegenerating<br />

food scraps out of landfills,<br />

which are the third largest source of<br />

methane emissions globally, according to<br />

the World Bank. Using compostable food<br />

packaging and serviceware, more food<br />

scraps can be diverted to composting<br />

where they become part of a nutrientrich,<br />

soil amendment that improves soil<br />

health through increased biodiversity<br />

and sequestered carbon content.<br />

CJ Biomaterials and NatureWorks<br />

plan to expand their relationship beyond<br />

cooperative product development for<br />

packaging to create new applications<br />

in the films and nonwoven markets.<br />

For these additional applications,<br />

the two companies will enter into<br />

strategic supply agreements to support<br />

development efforts.<br />

Rich Altice and Seung-Jin Lee<br />

“We are excited to build on our strong relationship with<br />

NatureWorks to tackle the challenge of plastic waste”, says<br />

Seung-Jin Lee, Head of Biomaterials business from CJ<br />

CheilJedang. “Plastic pollution is a major global concern,<br />

and to successfully address this problem, it is critical to<br />

introduce new solutions that will have a real impact by<br />

improving the biodegradability and compostability of plastic.<br />

Using its Ingeo PLA technology, NatureWorks has served as<br />

a leader in developing sustainable solutions for more than<br />

30 years. By combining our PHACT amorphous PHA [aPHA]<br />

biopolymers with their Ingeo PLA biopolymers, we can deliver<br />

advanced solutions that improve the biodegradability and<br />

compostability of plastic in almost limitless applications”.<br />

“We feel strongly that the next generation of sustainable<br />

materials needs to begin with renewable, biobased<br />

feedstocks, have a wide range of tailorable performance<br />

attributes, and be designed for after-use scenarios from<br />

compostability to chemical recycling. These principles are<br />

inherent in both CJ’s PHACT PHA and our Ingeo PLA, and we<br />

have witnessed very positive early results when incorporating<br />

these two industry-leading biomaterials. This collaboration<br />

between our two organizations is going to lead to the<br />

development of exciting, industry-advancing technologies”,<br />

said NatureWorks CEO, Rich Altice.<br />

NatureWorks is a pioneer in the development of biobased<br />

materials that have a small carbon footprint and enable new<br />

after-use options with its Ingeo technology. As a company, it<br />

has developed many of the leading high-volume applications<br />

for PLA. In recent years, Ingeo has experienced significant<br />

growth as a biobased material in a broad range of finished<br />

products. Due to its unique functionality, it has been used to<br />

replace petrochemical-based plastics with 100 % renewable,<br />

biobased content and to enable more<br />

after-use options which include<br />

compostability, chemical recycling, and<br />

mechanical recycling.<br />

CJ Biomaterials is a business unit of<br />

CJ BIO part of CJ CheilJedang. Earlier<br />

this year, the company announced<br />

commercial-scale production of<br />

PHA following the inauguration of<br />

its production facility in Pasuruan,<br />

Indonesia. Today, CJ Biomaterials is the<br />

only company in the world producing<br />

aPHA, including the first product<br />

under its new PHACT brand, named<br />

PHACT A1000P. Amorphous PHA is a<br />

softer, more rubbery version of PHA<br />

that offers fundamentally different<br />

performance characteristics than<br />

crystalline or semi-crystalline forms of<br />

PHA. It is certified biodegradable under<br />

industrial compost, soil (ambient), and<br />

marine environments. Modifying PLA with amorphous PHA<br />

leads to improvements in mechanical properties, such as<br />

toughness, and ductility, while maintaining clarity. It also<br />

allows adjustment in the biodegradability of PLA and could<br />

potentially lead to a home compostable product. MT<br />

www.cjbio.net<br />

www.natureworksllc.com<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17<br />


Report<br />

Test to fail – or fail to test?<br />

Faulty test design and questionable composting conditions lead<br />

to a foreseeable failure of the DUH experiment<br />

The Deutsche Umwelthilfe (Environmental Action<br />

Germany – DUH) invited the press in Mid-October,<br />

including bioplastics MAGAZINE, for what they called<br />

“a field test” (Praxistest). Under the title “Is ’compostable‘<br />

bioplastic really degradable?” a field test was scheduled to<br />

start on October 12 th , <strong>2022</strong> in an industrial composting plant<br />

in Swisttal, Germany.<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE participated in this first event and<br />

witnessed the preparation of some experimental bags to be<br />

buried in one of the huge compost heaps of the composting<br />

plant. Some bags used for the trial had been prepared before<br />

meeting the media representatives on site. Fresh yard<br />

clippings were mixed with virgin, unused biowaste collection<br />

bags, coffee capsules, plates, cutlery, candy bar wrappers,<br />

and a sneaker marketed as biodegradable.<br />

The first doubts that we had about the bioplastics samples<br />

were that unused products were chosen for the experiment.<br />

When asked about the use of empty, mint condition,<br />

waste bags and unused coffee/tea capsules that had not<br />

been exposed to heat, pressure, or water the response<br />

was: “Because, if a product is marketed as biodegradable/<br />

compostable on the packaging it should be compostable as<br />

it comes out of the retail box”.<br />

Oliver Ehlert of DIN CERTCO (Berlin, Germany), a<br />

recognized certifying institute, comments: “Using products<br />

such as certified compostable biowaste bags and coffee<br />

capsules in unused condition neither corresponds to reality<br />

nor to the test criteria (as described in e.g. DIN EN 13432).<br />

Only biowaste bags filled with organic household waste or<br />

coffee capsules filled with brewed coffee residues are in line<br />

with real consumer behaviour”.<br />

The samples and yard clippings were packed in orangecoloured<br />

potato sacks, a method that would also be used by<br />

BASF, for example, as a spokesperson of the DUH pointed<br />

out. These sacks, closed with cable ties, were buried in one<br />

of the huge compost heaps and marked with coloured flags<br />

in order to easily find them again at the end of the test period.<br />

The end of the field test was scheduled for the 2 nd of<br />

November, just three weeks later. bioplastics MAGAZINE was<br />

invited and participated in this second date too. To put this<br />

timeframe into perspective to the certification that this<br />

experiment was supposedly testing, “the usual certifications<br />

for industrial compostability in Germany require composting<br />

after 12 and 6 weeks respectively. This test provided for a<br />

rotting time of only 3 weeks. As a rule, it is hardly possible<br />

to achieve sufficient decomposition results in such a short<br />

time interval”, Ehlert explained. The test conditions were,<br />

therefore, in the best-case scenario half as long as the<br />

certification requires and in worst-case one fourth of the time.<br />

44 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17

By:<br />

By Alex and Michael Thielen<br />

Opinion<br />

Predictions of DUH oracles and<br />

hard realities of compost<br />

As pointed out by Ehlert, the test had little hope to be<br />

successful – depending on how you define success that is.<br />

The DUH seemed to have jumped the gun regarding the<br />

predictable failure (or success?) as they proclaimed the test<br />

a failure on the 31 st of October (two days before digging out<br />

and examining the test samples) stating (in German): “Our<br />

bioplastics experiment has shown: Statements about the<br />

degradation of bioplastics are not to be trusted. Even in<br />

industrial composting plants, many plastic products marketed<br />

as biodegradable do not degrade without leaving residues and<br />

pollute the compost”. ([1] shows the version after the test).<br />

It has been a while since we were involved in the academic<br />

processes of scientific testing but, usually, you don’t make<br />

conclusions before you have even seen the results. Another<br />

aspect that makes this test rather dubious is the lack of one<br />

or more control groups. This is no attempt to compare apples<br />

with oranges of course, but what about comparing PLA with<br />

oranges or other normal biowaste products that are difficult<br />

to compost? However, there is no arguing with the past – we<br />

have to deal with the results that we actually have, so let’s<br />

look at these failed test objects.<br />

A closer look at the photographs we took on the 2 nd of<br />

November very clearly reveals a couple of things:<br />

1. The timeframe for such an experiment is<br />

indeed much too short, and<br />

2. compostable plastic products do begin to biodegrade.<br />

Thus, to really nobody’s surprise, after three weeks the<br />

bioplastics products did not turn into compost. But let’s not<br />

jump to any hasty conclusions just yet, we wouldn’t want to<br />

appear biased when analysing the results of an experiment.<br />

As it turns out we do have a control group after all, kind of<br />

at least. While this seems not originally intended for this<br />

purpose, we should look at all available data – let’s look<br />

at regularly accepted biowaste used in this experiment,<br />

i.e. yard clippings.<br />

Looking at the before and after photos from the yard<br />

clippings, you can see that the leaves and twigs are, well,<br />

still leaves and twigs, albeit a bit more on the brown side.<br />

This suggests that they are en route to decompose but are<br />

nowhere near what constitutes proper compost. If leaves and<br />

twigs don’t properly break down in three weeks, then what<br />

are we even talking about here?<br />

Biowaste-bag before …<br />

... and after 3 weeks<br />

Yardclippings before…<br />

... and after 3 weeks<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17<br />


Report<br />

If you don’t break down – you fail.<br />

If you do break down – you also fail.<br />

When examining the degraded bioplastic samples, Thomas<br />

Fischer, Head of Circular Economy at the DUH showed small<br />

flakes of disintegrated PLA cups into the press cameras and<br />

called these a severe problem. These small particles, he<br />

called microplastics, cannot be sieved out of the compost<br />

and are seen as contaminants. As a result, the whole batch<br />

of compost needed to be incinerated and could not be sold<br />

as compost, according to Mr. Fischer. Had the composting<br />

phase been a bit longer, these flakes would probably have<br />

been completely degraded.<br />

DUH shows flakes of disintegrated PLA cups.<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE took a sample of this compost-fraction<br />

and after another three weeks of (home) composting, the picture<br />

is indeed significantly different. The left photo shows the PLA<br />

particles we could separate from approx 0.2 litres of compost.<br />

Missed opportunity or trials made in bad faith?<br />

The German Association for Compostable Products<br />

(Verbund kompostierbare Produkte e.V., Berlin, Germany) is<br />

severely disappointed in view of this experiment. In particular,<br />

the selection of the tested products as well as the composting<br />

conditions are considered misleading.<br />

“In general, we welcome any trial that examines how well<br />

our members’ products compost”, says Michael von Ketteler,<br />

Managing Director of the association. “However, in this trial we<br />

see fundamental flaws, the results of which were foreseeable<br />

before the trial began. An opportunity was missed here”.<br />

Yet, looking at the results and the (premature) reaction of<br />

the DUH leaves a bad taste in our mouths. The statement<br />

of the DUH calls (certified) claims of compostability “fraud”<br />

aimed to mislead consumers with the goal of making a<br />

quick buck on the back of the environmentally conscious.<br />

These brazen claims not only attack a whole industry trying<br />

to bring progress but also patronises consumers – and the<br />

environmentally conscious consumer tends to know what is<br />

and isn’t allowed in the bio bin.<br />

Trial violates waste legislation<br />

Peter Brunk, chairman of Verbund, warns: “Non-certified<br />

products, such as a shoe, have no place in the organic waste<br />

bin, please”. Except for certified compostable biowaste<br />

bags, no other products may be disposed of in the biowaste<br />

bin or in composting facilities, according to the current<br />

(German) biowaste ordinance. Thus, in the DUH composting<br />

experiment, there is a clear violation of the current organic<br />

waste law for almost all tested products. “I have major<br />

scientific and waste law concerns about this experiment.<br />

It gives the general public a completely false impression”,<br />

criticises Peter Brunk.<br />

Composting made in Germany – is the DUH<br />

barking up the wrong tree?<br />

“We advocate for sustainable lifestyles and economies”,<br />

the (German version of) the website of the DUH proudly<br />

proclaims while standing shoulder to shoulder with the<br />

German composting industry which, at large, has been<br />

against biodegradable plastics for as long as they are in the<br />

market. Let’s examine how the business of composting works<br />

in Germany and what the purpose of composting is, to begin<br />

with. The German business model of composting works via a<br />

gate fee, a composter gets a certain fee per tonne of biowaste<br />

that goes through the plant. This explains why the cycle times<br />

of German composting facilities are so short that even yard<br />

trimmings seem to have trouble properly decomposing in the<br />

given time frame as proven by the recent DUH experiment.<br />

The German system is a problem focussed system – there<br />

is biowaste that we don’t want in landfills that we need to<br />

deal with, preferably quickly. Now, the DUH says that they<br />

are active not only on the national, but also on the European<br />

stage, so let’s look at another European composting system<br />

– for example Italy.<br />

46 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17

In a recent presentation during the Bioplastics Business<br />

Breakfast, Bruno de Wilde, Laboratory Manager of Organic<br />

Waste Systems (OWS – Ghent, Belgium) cited a study [2]<br />

comparing the two systems. One core focus of the study<br />

was how much kg of organic waste per person per year ends<br />

up in composting facilities – and therefore not in landfill. In<br />

Germany, it was 20-25 kg in 2010 and 25 kg in 2020 – hardly<br />

any progress. In Italy on the other hand, it was 10-15 kg in<br />

2010 and 60 kg in 2020, more than double the amount than in<br />

Germany. The Italians seem to have done a much better job<br />

than the Germans in increasing the amount of organic waste<br />

that ends up in composting – why is that?<br />

The difference seems to be philosophical in nature, it’s<br />

fundamentally in how bio-waste is seen – in Germany it is<br />

seen as a problem, in Italy as an opportunity (as it is also<br />

the case in e.g. Austria, Spain and other European countries<br />

around Germany). Italy has a problem with desertification<br />

and soil erosion, high-quality compost is a remedy for these<br />

issues and helps to promote “sustainable lifestyles and<br />

economies”. Compost has a more intrinsic value in Italy,<br />

while in Germany the focus is more on throughput. The Italian<br />

system is solution driven and open to change. Let’s take the<br />

example of one of our failed test subjects – coffee capsules.<br />

Used coffee grounds are great for compost quality and a<br />

huge quantity of coffee is in coffee capsules usually made<br />

from aluminium or plastics. If the plastic is compostable, it<br />

is a great way to deliver the coffee to the composters. This is<br />

also not a problem in Italy because, as opposed to Germany,<br />

compost quality is of higher importance than throughput –<br />

compost cycle times are longer to increase quality and create<br />

a mature compost (according to de Wilde, German compost<br />

tends to be immature compost). Longer cycle times also allow<br />

for compostable plastics to properly break down – they even<br />

bring an added value in form of the coffee (in the example<br />

of coffee capsules).<br />

Compost quality and rigid systems<br />

Why does this comparison between Italy and Germany<br />

matter? A harsh view of the German system could be, that<br />

it is rather rigid and only values total volumes of waste dealt<br />

with in the shortest amount of time – anything that doesn’t<br />

break down in that time, is a problem. The Italian system<br />

seems more solution-focused, and more open to change,<br />

which in the last decade has led to more biowaste diverted<br />

from landfill – one of the main reasons we do composting. The<br />

argument here is not that German compost is by definition<br />

of inferior quality but rather that the system seems to value<br />

throughput over quality – it is designed that way. And the DUH<br />

is not wrong to say that bioplastic materials, even certified<br />

ones, should not end up in a system that is not designed for<br />

them – and looking at the timeframes of certification and the<br />

reality of composting cycles in Germany that argument holds<br />

some water. And in the design phase of any application where<br />

biodegradability and compostability are being considered, we<br />

should always ask, “why should we do this – what is the added<br />

value?” – and if there is none, don’t make it biodegradable/<br />

compostable! To question and criticize the cases that don’t add<br />

value is right and important. Yet, in case added value can be<br />

German language version available at<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.de/<strong>2022</strong><strong>06</strong><br />

provided by compostable items, this should be acknowledged,<br />

take for example biowaste collection bags or compostable<br />

fruit and vegetable bags – and use such products, also in<br />

Germany, rather than generally disapproving the concept<br />

of biodegradability, not differentiating thoroughly enough.<br />

And advocating for sustainable lifestyles and economies is<br />

noble and worthwhile and it is good that the DUH has these<br />

goals, but maybe the problem lies not with biodegradable and<br />

compostable plastics, but with a gate fee system that rewards<br />

shorter cycle times.<br />

Wouldn’t it be more sustainable and lead to better<br />

compost when, e.g. coffee from coffee capsules ends up in<br />

our compost? Sure, one could argue that there are perhaps<br />

recycling schemes that are suitable for those, but do they<br />

work properly (it’s not like recycling these applications<br />

is always easy, economical, or ecological)? We see these<br />

materials can work in a composting system, supported<br />

by rules and guided by certifications. The DUH could, for<br />

example, invest some of its resources in investigating the<br />

opportunities and the potential a system change might have<br />

for sustainable lifestyles and economies – and by extension<br />

the German consumer.<br />

Conclusions<br />

The DUH is a German organization and by all means should<br />

focus on what is best for Germany, German consumers,<br />

and the German environment. In Germany, only biowaste<br />

bags are allowed in the biowaste collection system and for<br />

good reason. And if handled properly, these will completely<br />

break down in industrial composting environments. Yet, it<br />

is always easy to defend the status quo, and to indulge in<br />

plastic bashing – however, to critically evaluate or even try<br />

to change a system is difficult. There is a strong argument<br />

against using compostability claims for marketing, especially<br />

if these claims are not based on third-party certification.<br />

Biodegradability and compostability, as attributes, only<br />

make sense if they actually add value to a product – and<br />

a biodegradable shoe sole brings added value (reducing<br />

microplastics created by wear and tear while using the shoe),<br />

but perhaps it’s something that should simply be done, but<br />

not be advertised with, to avoid customer confusion. To call all<br />

such claims “advertising lies” and “fraud”, as the DUH does<br />

in its press release is, however, arguable as well (we are not<br />

saying that there is no greenwashing – but these things are<br />

rarely all or nothing in nature).<br />

At the end of the day, we see the whole experiment as a<br />

biased and poorly performed action with only one goal<br />

– bashing bioplastics. We would wish that the DUH would<br />

be a bit more ambitious in its attempts, to operate with<br />

scientific rigour and arguments based on hard facts when<br />

promoting “sustainable lifestyles and economies”. And at<br />

the very least – wait until a test is actually finished before<br />

proclaiming it a failure.<br />

[1] https://www.duh.de/bioplastik-werbeluege/<br />

[2] Vink, E. et al; The Compostables Project, Presentation at bio!PAC <strong>2022</strong>,<br />

online conference on bioplastics and packaging, 15-16 March, organized by<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE<br />

https://www.derverbund.com<br />

Opinion<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17<br />


Consumer Electronics<br />

Biobased PA 6.10 for<br />

robot vacuum cleaner<br />

Renewably sourced polyamide brings style, durability, and<br />

performance to households<br />

Today’s families focus on quality of life, purchasing<br />

appliances such as robot vacuums that are efficient,<br />

durable, and operate quietly. According to Celanese<br />

Engineered Materials (Dallas, TX, USA), these small home<br />

appliances went from expensive novelty (costing up to USD<br />

1,800 in 2001) to mainstream appliances in just a few years.<br />

Today, analysts estimate that 20 % of all vacuum cleaners<br />

sold worldwide are robotic.<br />

Recently, a global leader in the design and manufacturing of<br />

robot vacuum cleaners approached the Celanese Engineered<br />

Materials team seeking more sustainable, higher-performing<br />

materials for its newest robot vacuum. Celanese engineers<br />

collaborated with the OEM to identify manufacturing and<br />

aesthetic challenges; then the team customized a solution<br />

that combined performance with style and sustainability.<br />

Before creating the custom material, the engineers<br />

considered that materials for robot vacuums must be:<br />

• Durable and protective: Robot vacuums must have a<br />

durable housing that’s able to bounce off chair legs and<br />

other hard objects while protecting precision sensors<br />

inside the appliance.<br />

• Stylish and quiet: Consumers want a stylish look because<br />

robot vacuums spend most of their useful lives perched<br />

in a docking station waiting for their next mission –<br />

and visible to all. Additionally, noise must be kept to a<br />

minimum to help preserve a peaceful home environment.<br />

• Lightweight: Reducing the weight of robot vacuums<br />

increases their range and makes it easier for<br />

consumers to carry them from room to room or<br />

between floors of a home.<br />

• Sustainable: Materials selected for the robot<br />

vacuum need to help the manufacturer achieve its<br />

sustainable development goals.<br />

To fulfil the manufacturer’s sustainability goals, the<br />

Celanese team selected Zytel ® RS polyamide customized<br />

to meet the manufacturer’s high standards for the robot<br />

vacuum’s LIDAR-based laser distance sensor cover. Zytel RS<br />

resins typically contain between 20 % and 100 % renewably<br />

sourced biomass (by weight) derived from castor beans. In<br />

this case, the PA 6.10 grade contained up to 65 % renewably<br />

sourced biomass content.<br />

The customized material provided an optimized balance of<br />

high stiffness and suitable strength, while the dimensional<br />

stability of the polymer contributed to the laser sensor’s<br />

precision and sensitivity. And the vivid white colour of the<br />

Zytel RS compound provided the sophisticated aesthetic<br />

finish product designers sought.<br />

Celanese also provided Computer Aided Engineering (CAE)<br />

support that helped reduce the time from the initial concept<br />

to commercial introduction of this new appliance.<br />

Note: Celanese acquired DuPont Mobility & Materials<br />

division, which includes Zytel RS, on November 1, <strong>2022</strong>. For<br />

additional information, please visit the website. MT<br />

https://mobility-materials.com<br />

48 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17

Mechanical<br />

Recycling<br />

Extrusion<br />

Physical-Chemical<br />

Recycling<br />

available at www.renewable-carbon.eu/graphics<br />

Dissolution<br />

Physical<br />

Recycling<br />

Enzymolysis<br />

Biochemical<br />

Recycling<br />

Plastic Product<br />

End of Life<br />

Plastic Waste<br />

Collection<br />

Separation<br />

Different Waste<br />

Qualities<br />

Solvolysis<br />

Chemical<br />

Recycling<br />

Monomers<br />

Depolymerisation<br />

Thermochemical<br />

Recycling<br />

Pyrolysis<br />

Thermochemical<br />

Recycling<br />

Incineration<br />

CO2 Utilisation<br />

(CCU)<br />

Gasification<br />

Thermochemical<br />

Recycling<br />

CO2<br />

© -Institute.eu | <strong>2022</strong><br />

PVC<br />

EPDM<br />

PP<br />

PMMA<br />

PE<br />

Vinyl chloride<br />

Propylene<br />

Unsaturated polyester resins<br />

Methyl methacrylate<br />

PEF<br />

Polyurethanes<br />

MEG<br />

Building blocks<br />

Natural rubber<br />

Aniline Ethylene<br />

for UPR<br />

Cellulose-based<br />

2,5-FDCA<br />

polymers<br />

Building blocks<br />

for polyurethanes<br />

Levulinic<br />

acid<br />

Lignin-based polymers<br />

Naphtha<br />

Ethanol<br />

PET<br />

PFA<br />

5-HMF/5-CMF FDME<br />

Furfuryl alcohol<br />

Waste oils<br />

Casein polymers<br />

Furfural<br />

Natural rubber<br />

Saccharose<br />

PTF<br />

Starch-containing<br />

Hemicellulose<br />

Lignocellulose<br />

1,3 Propanediol<br />

polymer compounds<br />

Casein<br />

Fructose<br />

PTT<br />

Terephthalic<br />

Non-edible milk<br />

acid<br />

MPG NOPs<br />

Starch<br />

ECH<br />

Glycerol<br />

p-Xylene<br />

SBR<br />

Plant oils<br />

Fatty acids<br />

Castor oil<br />

11-AA<br />

Glucose Isobutanol<br />

THF<br />

Sebacic<br />

Lysine<br />

PBT<br />

acid<br />

1,4-Butanediol<br />

Succinic<br />

acid<br />

DDDA<br />

PBAT<br />

Caprolactame<br />

Adipic<br />

acid<br />

HMDA DN5<br />

Sorbitol<br />

3-HP<br />

Lactic<br />

acid<br />

Itaconic<br />

Acrylic<br />

PBS(x)<br />

acid<br />

acid<br />

Isosorbide<br />

PA<br />

Lactide<br />

Superabsorbent polymers<br />

Epoxy resins<br />

ABS<br />

PHA<br />

APC<br />

PLA<br />

available at www.renewable-carbon.eu/graphics<br />

O<br />

OH<br />

HO<br />

OH<br />

HO<br />

OH<br />

O<br />

OH<br />

HO<br />

OH<br />

O<br />

OH<br />

O<br />

OH<br />

© -Institute.eu | 2021<br />

All figures available at www.bio-based.eu/markets<br />

Adipic acid (AA)<br />

11-Aminoundecanoic acid (11-AA)<br />

1,4-Butanediol (1,4-BDO)<br />

Dodecanedioic acid (DDDA)<br />

Epichlorohydrin (ECH)<br />

Ethylene<br />

Furan derivatives<br />

D-lactic acid (D-LA)<br />

L-lactic acid (L-LA)<br />

Lactide<br />

Monoethylene glycol (MEG)<br />

Monopropylene glycol (MPG)<br />

Naphtha<br />

1,5-Pentametylenediamine (DN5)<br />

1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PDO)<br />

Sebacic acid<br />

Succinic acid (SA)<br />

© -Institute.eu | 2020<br />

fossil<br />

available at www.renewable-carbon.eu/graphics<br />

Refining<br />

Polymerisation<br />

Formulation<br />

Processing<br />

Use<br />

renewable<br />

Depolymerisation<br />

Solvolysis<br />

Thermal depolymerisation<br />

Enzymolysis<br />

Purification<br />

Dissolution<br />

Recycling<br />

Conversion<br />

Pyrolysis<br />

Gasification<br />

allocated<br />

Recovery<br />

Recovery<br />

Recovery<br />

conventional<br />

© -Institute.eu | 2021<br />

© -Institute.eu | 2020<br />

nova Market and Trend Reports<br />

on Renewable Carbon<br />

The Best Available on Bio- and CO2-based Polymers<br />

& Building Blocks and Chemical Recycling<br />

Category<br />

Mapping of advanced recycling<br />

technologies for plastics waste<br />

Providers, technologies, and partnerships<br />

Mimicking Nature –<br />

The PHA Industry Landscape<br />

Latest trends and 28 producer profiles<br />

Bio-based Naphtha<br />

and Mass Balance Approach<br />

Status & Outlook, Standards &<br />

Certification Schemes<br />

Diversity of<br />

Advanced Recycling<br />

Principle of Mass Balance Approach<br />

Feedstock<br />

Process<br />

Products<br />

Plastics<br />

Composites<br />

Plastics/<br />

Syngas<br />

Polymers<br />

Monomers<br />

Monomers<br />

Naphtha<br />

Use of renewable feedstock<br />

in very first steps of<br />

chemical production<br />

(e.g. steam cracker)<br />

Utilisation of existing<br />

integrated production for<br />

all production steps<br />

Allocation of the<br />

renewable share to<br />

selected products<br />

Authors: Lars Krause, Michael Carus, Achim Raschka<br />

and Nico Plum (all nova-Institute)<br />

June <strong>2022</strong><br />

This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at<br />

www.renewable-carbon.eu/publications<br />

Author: Jan Ravenstijn<br />

March <strong>2022</strong><br />

This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at<br />

www.renewable-carbon.eu/publications<br />

Authors: Michael Carus, Doris de Guzman and Harald Käb<br />

March 2021<br />

This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at<br />

www.renewable-carbon.eu/publications<br />

Bio-based Building Blocks and<br />

Polymers – Global Capacities,<br />

Production and Trends 2020 – 2025<br />

Polymers<br />

Carbon Dioxide (CO 2) as Chemical<br />

Feedstock for Polymers<br />

Technologies, Polymers, Developers and Producers<br />

Chemical recycling – Status, Trends<br />

and Challenges<br />

Technologies, Sustainability, Policy and Key Players<br />

Building Blocks<br />

Plastic recycling and recovery routes<br />

Intermediates<br />

Feedstocks<br />

Primary recycling<br />

(mechanical)<br />

Virgin Feedstock<br />

Monomer<br />

Polymer<br />

Plastic<br />

Product<br />

Product (end-of-use)<br />

Landfill<br />

Renewable Feedstock<br />

Secondary recycling<br />

(mechanical)<br />

Tertiary recycling<br />

(chemical)<br />

Quaternary recycling<br />

(energy recovery)<br />

Secondary<br />

valuable<br />

materials<br />

CO 2 capture<br />

Energy<br />

Chemicals<br />

Fuels<br />

Others<br />

Authors: Pia Skoczinski, Michael Carus, Doris de Guzman,<br />

Harald Käb, Raj Chinthapalli, Jan Ravenstijn, Wolfgang Baltus<br />

and Achim Raschka<br />

January 2021<br />

This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at<br />

www.renewable-carbon.eu/publications<br />

Authors: Pauline Ruiz, Achim Raschka, Pia Skoczinski,<br />

Jan Ravenstijn and Michael Carus, nova-Institut GmbH, Germany<br />

January 2021<br />

This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at<br />

www.renewable-carbon.eu/publications<br />

Author: Lars Krause, Florian Dietrich, Pia Skoczinski,<br />

Michael Carus, Pauline Ruiz, Lara Dammer, Achim Raschka,<br />

nova-Institut GmbH, Germany<br />

November 2020<br />

This and other reports on the bio- and CO 2-based economy are<br />

available at www.renewable-carbon.eu/publications<br />

Genetic engineering<br />

Production of Cannabinoids via<br />

Extraction, Chemical Synthesis<br />

and Especially Biotechnology<br />

Current Technologies, Potential & Drawbacks and<br />

Future Development<br />

Plant extraction<br />

Plant extraction<br />

Cannabinoids<br />

Chemical synthesis<br />

Biotechnological production<br />

Production capacities (million tonnes)<br />

Commercialisation updates on<br />

bio-based building blocks<br />

Bio-based building blocks<br />

Evolution of worldwide production capacities from 2011 to 2024<br />

4<br />

3<br />

2<br />

1<br />

2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2024<br />

Levulinic acid – A versatile platform<br />

chemical for a variety of market applications<br />

Global market dynamics, demand/supply, trends and<br />

market potential<br />

HO<br />

OH<br />

diphenolic acid<br />

H 2N<br />

O<br />

OH<br />

O<br />

O<br />

OH<br />

5-aminolevulinic acid<br />

O<br />

O<br />

levulinic acid<br />

O<br />

O<br />

ɣ-valerolactone<br />

OH<br />

HO<br />

O<br />

O<br />

succinic acid<br />

OH<br />

O<br />

O OH<br />

O O<br />

levulinate ketal<br />

O<br />

H<br />

N<br />

O<br />

5-methyl-2-pyrrolidone<br />

OR<br />

O<br />

levulinic ester<br />

Authors: Pia Skoczinski, Franjo Grotenhermen, Bernhard Beitzke,<br />

Michael Carus and Achim Raschka<br />

January 2021<br />

This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at<br />

www.renewable-carbon.eu/publications<br />

Author:<br />

Doris de Guzman, Tecnon OrbiChem, United Kingdom<br />

Updated Executive Summary and Market Review May 2020 –<br />

Originally published February 2020<br />

This and other reports on the bio- and CO 2-based economy are<br />

available at www.bio-based.eu/reports<br />

Authors: Achim Raschka, Pia Skoczinski, Raj Chinthapalli,<br />

Ángel Puente and Michael Carus, nova-Institut GmbH, Germany<br />

October 2019<br />

This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at<br />

www.bio-based.eu/reports<br />

renewable-carbon.eu/publications<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17<br />


Application News<br />

Headrest covers made<br />

with plant-based<br />

polyester<br />

Toray Industries (Tokyo, Japan) recently announced<br />

it has developed a new variety of Ultrasuede nu which<br />

partially consists of 100 % plant-based polyester. All<br />

Nippon Airways (ANA – Tokyo, Japan) adopted this<br />

developed material to the headrest covers in ANA Green<br />

Jet, the special aircraft since November this year. These<br />

aircrafts will selectively use products and services using<br />

sustainable materials to embody the ANA Future Promise,<br />

a slogan for that carrier’s commitment to realizing a<br />

sustainable society and enhancing corporate value.<br />

Ultrasuede nu is a non-woven material for a genuine<br />

leather appearance with a base material of Ultrasuede<br />

and a special resin treatment applied to its surface.<br />

The latest Ultrasuede nu developed by Toray is the first<br />

Ultrasuede product which partially consists of 100 %<br />

plant-based polyester for the ultra-fine fibres on the<br />

surface of the base material. In addition, about 30 %<br />

plant-based polyurethane is used inside of the nonwoven<br />

structure, and about 30 % plant-based polyester<br />

is used in the reinforcement fabric called scrim, making<br />

this developed product the world’s highest level of plantbased<br />

raw material content for the non-woven material<br />

for a genuine leather appearance. ANA decided to adopt<br />

Ultrasuede nu because it is an environmentally conscious<br />

material that combines luxurious texture, design, and<br />

high functionality. MT<br />

www.toray.com<br />

New solution for<br />

thermoformed applications<br />

BIOTEC (Emmerich, Germany) proudly announces a new<br />

solution, called BIOPLAST 800, for meeting market demands<br />

in thermoforming applications, like trays and cups. This<br />

new formulation has unique characteristics compared with<br />

existing products in the market, as it can provide resistance<br />

against boiling water without the necessity of using a<br />

hot mould in thermoforming. This new feature enables<br />

converters to now produce heat-stable compostable products<br />

without changing their hardware, as was the case with<br />

previously existing options.<br />

Erik Pras (Global Marketing & Sales Director) says, “we<br />

have been working on Bioplast 800 for almost two years now<br />

and are proud to share that we can make this compound to<br />

the market. We have built up experience with more than 1,000<br />

tonnes of finished products in the market, even in challenging<br />

applications like drinking cups for coffee, plates, and trays”.<br />

Bioplast 800 is suitable for food contact applications and is<br />

certified for industrial compostability (EN1432). The current<br />

formulation has a biobased carbon content of more than<br />

60 %, in order to comply with legislation in countries like Italy.<br />

Upon demand, it will however be possible for Biotec to offer<br />

even a 100 % biobased alternative (at a premium).<br />

In the upcoming months, various industrial trials with<br />

different converters are scheduled, and both brand owners<br />

and converters are kindly invited to contact Biotec to explore<br />

new possibilities with Bioplast 800. AT<br />

www.biotec.de<br />

(a) Ultra-fine fibres<br />

100 % plant-based polyester made of ethylene glycol from<br />

sugarcane molasses byproducts and dimethyl terephthalate from<br />

corn starch.<br />

(b) Elastomer, is composed of about 30 % plant-based<br />

polyurethane made with polyol from castor oil plant.<br />

(c) Scrim, composed of about 30 % plant-based polyester made<br />

from ethylene glycol from sugarcane molasses byproducts.<br />

50 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17

Bags for crafted chocolate beads<br />

Incorporating sustainability and provenance into branding has<br />

been key to changes being made at luxury drinking chocolate<br />

manufacturer Cocoa Canopy (Weybridge, UK), with the help of<br />

compostable packaging provider Futamura (Wigton, UK).<br />

Consistent growth has seen the company<br />

move from hand-packing its products into<br />

film bags and selling at food and gift fairs, to<br />

a new film and automated bagging line that<br />

continuously packs the product, ready to stock<br />

supermarket shelves.<br />

As early adopters of NatureFlex, a cellulose<br />

film made by the manufacturer Futamura ,<br />

Cocoa Canopy’s forward-thinking is getting<br />

them noticed within their competitive market<br />

– when the company discussed future listings<br />

with Waitrose, the leading supermarket<br />

was greatly encouraged by Cocoa Canopy’s<br />

exploratory approach to alternatives to<br />

conventional plastic packaging routes.<br />

NatureFlex film handles differently to<br />

conventional plastics, so in order to be certain<br />

its bagging machinery was compatible with<br />

the new substrate, the chocolate specialist worked closely with<br />

its suppliers. Ably assisted by engineers from both Futamura and<br />

the bagging machinery company, BW Flexibles (Nottingham, UK)<br />

a solution was found that enabled Cocoa Canopy to manufacture<br />

at speed and meet demand from its growing customer base.<br />

Cocoa Canopy is the only UK drinking-chocolate company to<br />

offer crafted chocolate beads designed to be melted into milk or<br />

water for an in-home experience of luxurious hot chocolate that<br />

can be enjoyed anywhere, hot or iced.<br />

The company recently re-staged to<br />

encompass its values across all platforms:<br />

product, packaging, and marketing, all<br />

designed to reflect the ethos of the company<br />

and provenance of the product. The<br />

partnership with Futamura will help Cocoa<br />

Canopy achieve its expansion goals – it<br />

needed to explore new, automated packaging<br />

options as although the UK remains its key<br />

market, contacts made in the US show<br />

buyers there are increasingly focused on<br />

renewables and sustainable packaging.<br />

For a start-up or small company,<br />

NatureFlex film is an ideal solution,<br />

offering reliability, flexibility and on-shelf<br />

stability. Futamura has the knowledge<br />

and passion to help companies grow,<br />

supporting packaging choices that are<br />

sustainable and responsible. MT<br />

www.natureflex.com/uk | www.cocoacanopy.co.uk<br />

Application News<br />

World’s first climate-neutral synthetic hockey turf<br />

With the 100 % climate-neutral Poligras Paris GT zero, Polytan (Burgheim, Germany) has developed a new and improved<br />

successor to its Poligras Tokyo GT, which is used in all leading field hockey nations around the world. Poligras Paris GT zero is the<br />

world’s first carbon-neutral synthetic turf and will help the 2024 Olympic Games in Paris meet its self-declared environmental<br />

goals while setting new standards in playing quality and environmental friendliness.<br />

During the manufacture of the turf fibres, fossil-fuel-based polyethylene is replaced with biobased I’m Green polyethylene by<br />

Braskem (São Paulo, Brazil). The material for the carbon-neutral hockey turf is manufactured using a by-product of sugar cane<br />

processing in Brazil. In the production process for I’m Green polyethylene, the first two pressings of the sugar cane are used for<br />

sugar production. The third – which is no longer useful for this purpose – is used as a raw material for organic polyethylene, which<br />

makes up approximately 80 % of Poligras Paris GT zero. This saves around 73 tonnes of CO 2<br />

compared to a conventional synthetic<br />

turf.<br />

Less water consumption, thanks to Turf Glide<br />

A major component in maximising the sustainability of Poligras Paris GT zero is the permanently improved product design,<br />

which consumes less water than before. For example, the synthetic turf used at<br />

the Olympic Games in Tokyo consumed 39 % less water than the turf used in Rio<br />

only four years earlier. Polytan Paris GT zero takes this development even further<br />

with the introduction of Turf Glide, a new, patent-protected technology that reduces<br />

surface friction so that even less water is needed to reduce friction resistance and<br />

minimise the risk of injury.<br />

A leap forward in field hockey development<br />

Paul Kamphuis, Global Head of the Sport Group’s hockey business summarises:<br />

“Having developed turfs for eight Olympic Games, we have seen how the Olympic turf<br />

sets the standard for innovation. Poligras Tokyo GT turf, with over 50 installations,<br />

was extremely popular and demonstrated that the hockey community is choosing a<br />

more sustainable future for their sport. Poligras Paris GT zero takes this commitment<br />

to another level. It will make carbon-zero hockey a reality, not just for Paris, but for<br />

clubs, colleges and communities all over the world”. MT<br />

www.polytan.com | www.braskem.com<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17<br />


Application News<br />

Green Dot Bioplastics achieves a compostable<br />

living hinge<br />

Green Dot Bioplastics (Emporia, KS, USA), a leading developer and supplier of bioplastic materials for innovative, sustainable<br />

end-uses, recently announced a compostable living hinge.<br />

Creating fully-compostable packaging has stymied developers because of one component: the living hinge. Living hinges are a<br />

type of hinge made from an extension of the parent material, acting as a connection between two larger plastic sections, such as<br />

on a shampoo bottle. Typically the larger plastic pieces and the living hinge are made of one continuous piece of plastic. Because<br />

a living hinge must be very thin, flexible, and withstand repeated usage without breaking, typically manufacturers have used<br />

polypropylene to create the entire unit. Until now.<br />

Green Dot is proud to announce that the new, expanded Terratek ® BD line includes materials with the same malleability and<br />

durability as materials traditionally used to manufacture living hinges. Two new injection moulding grades deliver higher heat<br />

performance and enhanced processability (lower cycle times) for caps/closures, food service ware, and takeout containers with<br />

a higher rate of biodegradability and the functional performance that the market demands.<br />

Biodegradable Terratek BD materials are a line of rigid, compostable materials that<br />

are created from a proprietary blend of starch-based ingredients and other polymers.<br />

“During the application development process, we worked with a customer<br />

to commercially develop a living hinge for an injection moulded package”, said<br />

Mike Parker, Director of Research & Development, at Green Dot Bioplastics. “It<br />

was highly successful, resulting in a package made entirely from Terratek BD<br />

compostable resins. Developing a solution to the living hinge challenge opens<br />

a lot of doors for sustainable packaging”. The injection moulding grades are<br />

currently undergoing certification by TUV Austria. MT<br />

https://greendotbioplastics.com<br />

World’s first plant-based medical grade face<br />

mask authorized under EUA by US FDA<br />

PADM Medical Group of Companies (PADM Medical Canada and PADM Medical USA), a global leader in the design and<br />

development of sustainable medical consumables and eco-friendly sustainable medical products, recently announced that it has<br />

received its Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to market Precision Eco, the<br />

world’s first plant-based, procedural mask with ear loops for use in healthcare and medical settings in the United States of America.<br />

Billions of petroleum-based, synthetic disposable surgical masks are discarded globally on an annual basis. Increasingly,<br />

governments and consumers are recognizing the environmental threats posed worldwide by plastic pollution. Most disposable<br />

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) consists of petroleum-based, non-biodegradable polymers that can take up to 450 years<br />

to decompose in our landfills, rivers, lakes, and other natural environments.<br />

PADM Medical’s Precision Eco plant-based procedural masks, made using ECOFUSE plant-based materials manufactured by<br />

Roswell Textiles (Calgary, AB, Canada) from renewable crop resources, will help reduce the adverse impact on the environment<br />

of petroleum-based, single-use disposable face masks. The Ecofuse materials are industrially compostable and by being plantbased,<br />

help reduce the CO 2<br />

emissions of Precision Eco by approximately 55 % compared to conventional petroleum-based masks.<br />

Precision Eco procedural masks generate carbon credits as a result of the net carbon reduction.<br />

Additionally, the Precision Eco compostable/plant-based procedural mask with earloops is a USDA Certified<br />

Biobased product under the USDA BioPreferred Program with a biobased content of 82 %.<br />

Derek Atkinson, VP of Business Development at TotalEnergies Corbion<br />

(Gorinchem, the Netherlands) said: “We should not accept the limitations<br />

of the current way of doing things as being the only way. As we try to<br />

minimize the impact of our products on the environment, it is these<br />

developments that help us realize these ambitions”. He continued, “as the<br />

supplier to PADM Medical Group of the high purity polylactic acid Luminy ®<br />

PLA needed in the production of these groundbreaking biobased surgical<br />

masks, we are delighted to learn that PADM has succeeded in obtaining<br />

Emergency Use Authorization from the US FDA”. AT<br />

www.padmmedicalusa.com | www.totalenergies-corbion.com<br />

52 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17

Mass balancing towards a<br />

Circular Economy<br />

Basics<br />

Growing awareness around environmental and<br />

ethical issues continues to drive demand and need<br />

for more sustainable practices and products. In<br />

order for companies to be able to prove sustainability<br />

claims, a robust chain of custody process is necessary for<br />

credibility and compliance with new regulations, such as<br />

the (European) Renewable Energy Directive (RED II) and<br />

the EU Packaging Levy.<br />

The mass balance approach provides the most promising<br />

approach for the chemicals and plastics industry to<br />

incrementally transition to using sustainable feedstocks,<br />

without the need to set up separate production lines for<br />

sustainable products.<br />

Allowing for sustainable, biobased materials to be mixed<br />

with fossil-based materials, companies are able to state<br />

sustainability claims such as “made with recycled plastic”<br />

on products. For credibility, this approach requires the strict<br />

tracking of the exact mass of sustainable content flowing<br />

through the supply chain system and ensuring an appropriate<br />

allocation of this content to the finished product.<br />

Certification schemes for mass balance approaches vary,<br />

with differences in their method of accounting for the balance<br />

of material, energy, and carbon use relating to specific<br />

targeted industry segments or governance requirements for<br />

sustainability criteria reporting.<br />

• Better Biomass (previously NEN)<br />

• Ecoloop<br />

• EU Standards: Material Balance Standard<br />

for Bio-Based Products<br />

• EUCertPlast<br />

• ISCC PLUS<br />

• REDcert2<br />

• RSB Advanced Products<br />

• RSPO<br />

• UL 2809<br />

However, mass balance bookkeeping and reporting is a<br />

complex and expensive process to do manually, limiting the<br />

scalability of mass balancing for businesses. Certification<br />

systems currently rely on pdfs and paper for maintaining an<br />

audit trail. This creates a significant administrative burden<br />

with a high risk of human error which can lead to double<br />

counting or premature allocation of sustainability credits.<br />

This can, in turn, lead to the loss of your certification, and<br />

even worse, losing the trust of your customers.<br />

While some large organisations have built their own mass<br />

balancing systems to solve their bookkeeping needs, not every<br />

company can undertake this difficult and costly endeavour.<br />

You can still have accurate and scalable bookkeeping to<br />

prove sustainability claims with MassBalancer, an automated<br />

solution for mass balance bookkeeping that is able to<br />

accommodate complex, multi-tiered supply chains. It can<br />

manage multiple sites and units in one place, and can be<br />

used by anyone along the supply value chain in the plastics<br />

and petrochemicals industry.<br />

“Blockchain technology is revolutionising how data is stored<br />

and shared. Now companies don’t need to individually keep<br />

a balance of goods and transactions in excel. Instead, they<br />

can use blockchain and smart contracts to store balances,<br />

record transactions, and apply mass balance rules. Every<br />

transaction is fully traceable. Auditors can therefore rely on<br />

the blockchain for parts of the audit”, said Mesbah<br />

Sabur, Circularise’s Founder.<br />

Traceability in the chain of custody plays a critical<br />

role in the transition towards a circular economy.<br />

Setting up the bookkeeping system and auditing<br />

process can make or break this initiative within<br />

companies. When done effectively, it can generate<br />

more value for the business and act as a means<br />

of sustainable transformation. Automating mass<br />

balance bookkeeping is a simple, scalable solution<br />

that helps you save time, money, and resources.<br />

Where to start with implementing a<br />

mass balance approach?<br />

1. Firstly you need to be sure mass balance is the chain<br />

of custody model that is best for your market and your<br />

business operations.<br />

2. Next select a certification scheme that best suits your<br />

business, considering the benefits, market demand,<br />

scalability, and standards that will need to be met.<br />

3. Outline a plan or MVP for a system which will allow<br />

your company to maintain reliable bookkeeping for the<br />

certification you have selected.<br />

4. Find a certification body that will conduct the auditing for<br />

the certification of your site(s) and product(s).<br />

5. Outline a practical timeline for implementation,<br />

considering the operational change and<br />

auditing steps required.<br />

www.circularise.com<br />

By:<br />

Tian Daphne and<br />

Igor Konstantinov<br />

Circularise<br />

The Hague, Netherlands<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17<br />


Basics<br />

Advanced Recycling – overview of<br />

the most common technologies<br />

Industry experts at the nova-institute have worked tirelessly to provide a structured, in-depth overview and insight into all<br />

advanced recycling technologies. While a full report on these technologies is available it can be quite daunting for beginners to<br />

the topic – hence here a quick overview and short explanation of the most common advanced recycling technologies.<br />

Depending on the technology various products can be obtained which can be reintroduced into the cycle at various positions<br />

in the value chain of plastics (Figure 1). Below, the capabilities as well as the feedstocks and products of each technology are<br />

described in more detail.<br />

Figure 1: Full spectrum of available recycling technologies divided by their basic working principles.<br />

Dissolution (Figure 2) is a solvent-based technology that is based on physical processes. Targeted polymers from mixed plastic<br />

wastes can be dissolved in a suitable solvent while the chemical structure of the polymer remains intact. Other plastic components<br />

(e.g. additives, pigments, fillers, non-targeted polymers) are not dissolved and can be cleaned from the dissolved target polymer.<br />

After cleaning an anti-solvent is added to initiate the precipitation of the target polymer. After the process the polymer can directly<br />

be obtained, in contrast to solvolysis, no polymerisation step is needed.<br />

The solvent-based solvolysis (Figure 3) is a chemical process based on depolymerisation which can be realised with different<br />

solvents. The process breaks down polymers (mainly PET) into their building units (e.g. monomers, dimers, oligomers). After<br />

breakdown, the building units need to be cleaned from the other plastic components (e.g. additives, pigments, fillers, non-targeted<br />

polymers). After cleaning, the building units need to be polymerised to synthesise new polymers.<br />

With pyrolysis (Figure 4), a thermochemical recycling process is available that converts or depolymerises mixed plastic wastes<br />

(mainly polyolefins) and biomass into liquids, solids, and gases in presence of heat and absence of oxygen. Obtained products can<br />

be for instance different fractions of liquids including oils, diesel, naphtha, and monomers as well as syngas, char, and waxes.<br />

Depending on the obtained products new polymers can be produced from these renewable feedstocks.<br />

Gasification (Figure 5) represents another thermochemical process that is capable to convert mixed plastics wastes and<br />

biomass in presence of heat and oxygen into syngas and CO 2<br />

.<br />

Enzymolysis represents a technology based on biochemical processes utilising different kinds of biocatalysts to depolymerise<br />

a polymer into its building units. Being in early development the technology is available only at lab-scale.<br />

The market study “Mapping of advanced recycling technologies for plastics waste” provides an in-depth insight into advanced<br />

recycling technologies and their providers. More than 100 technologies and their status are presented in detail which also lists<br />

the companies, their strategies, and investment and cooperation partners. The study is available online for EUR 2,500.<br />

www.renewable-carbon.eu<br />

54 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17

By:<br />

Lars Krause, Senior Expert – Technology & Markets<br />

Basics<br />

nova Institute<br />

Hürth, Germany<br />

Figure 2: Process diagram showing the inputs and outputs of the solvent-based dissolution process.<br />

Figure 4: Process diagram showing the inputs and outputs of different secondary valuable materials (SVM) from the pyrolysis<br />

process. The main products are usually pyrolysis oil (via thermal-/catalytic-/hydro-cracking) or monomers (via thermal<br />

depolymerisation) Adapted from Stapf et al. (2019).<br />

Figure 5: Process diagram showing the inputs and<br />

outputs of secondary valuable materials (SVM) from the<br />

gasification process.<br />

Figure 3: Process diagram showing the solvent-based solvolysis of PET<br />

including the inputs and outputs (polyols, bis(hydroxyethyl)terephthalate<br />

(BHET), dimethyl terephthalate (DMT), terephthalic acid (TPA), and<br />

TPA amide). Adapted from Aguado et al. (1999).<br />

References<br />

Aguado, J., Serrano, D. P. and Clark, J. H. 1999: Feedstock Recycling<br />

of Plastic Wastes The Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, United<br />

Kingdom.<br />

Stapf, D., Seifert, H. and Wexler, M. 2019: Thermische Verfahren<br />

zur rohstofflichen Verwertung kunststoffhaltiger Abfälle. Energie<br />

aus Abfall, Band 16. Thiel, S., Thomé – Kozmiensky, E., Quicker,<br />

P. and Gosten, A. (Ed.). Thomé-Kozmiensky Verlag GmbH,<br />

Neuruppin, Germany.<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17<br />


10<br />

Years ago<br />

In November <strong>2022</strong>, Lars Börger,<br />

Vice President Strategy and<br />

Long-term Development, Neste<br />

Renewable Polymers and<br />

Chemicals, said:<br />

Category<br />

Published in<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE<br />

N<br />

Materials<br />

este Oil, Espoo, Finland - the world´s largest producer<br />

of renewable diesel - has launched the commercial<br />

production and sales of renewable naphtha for corporate<br />

customers. Among others NExBTL renewable naphtha<br />

can be used as a feedstock for producing bioplastics. Neste<br />

Oil is one of the world´s first companies to supply bio-naphtha<br />

on a commercial scale. NExBTL naphtha is produced as<br />

a side product of the biodiesel refining process at Neste Oil´s<br />

sites in Finland, the Netherlands, and Singapore. NExBTL<br />

biodiesel is made of more than 50% crude palm oil, over<br />

40% of waste and residue (such as waste animal fat), and<br />

the rest out of various vegetable oils. Thus the bio-naphta is<br />

100% based on renewable resources. “All our raw materials<br />

are fully traceable and comply fully with sustainability criteria<br />

embedded in biofuels-related legislation (e.g. EU RED)”, as<br />

Kaisa Hietala, Vice President, Renewable Fuels at Neste Oil<br />

explained to bioplastics MAGAZINE.<br />

Renewable naphtha for<br />

producing bioplastics<br />

All ethylene, propylene, butylene, and butadiene-based<br />

polymers can be derived from NExBTL Renewable Naphtha.<br />

These are for example PE, PP, PVC, Acrylates, PET, ABS,<br />

SAN, ASA, Epoxies, Polyurethanes and include biodegradable<br />

polymers such as PBAT or PBS. Bioplastics produced from<br />

NExBTL naphtha can be used in numerous industries<br />

that prioritize the use of renewable and sustainable raw<br />

materials, such as companies producing plastic parts<br />

for the automotive industry and packaging for consumer<br />

products. The mechanical and physical properties of<br />

bioplastics produced from NExBTL renewable naphtha are<br />

fully comparable with those of plastics produced from fossil<br />

naphtha; and the carbon footprint of these plastics is smaller<br />

than that of conventional fossil-based plastics.<br />

Bioplastic products produced from NExBTL renewable<br />

naphtha can be recycled with conventional fossil-based<br />

plastic products, and can be used as a fuel in energy<br />

generation following recycling.<br />

www.nesteoil.com<br />

Probably not many people, including<br />

myself, thought that the news ten<br />

years ago was actually the beginning<br />

of something really big. Neste had sold<br />

the first tonnes to a large chemical<br />

enterprise as a replacement for<br />

naphtha. And not even everyone in the team understood why<br />

and how that had happened. However, we are all somewhat<br />

wiser today. In fact, the chemical industry is undergoing<br />

an incredible transition. Starting with a project to support<br />

IKEA in getting biobased polypropylene, we have turned<br />

into a sizable sustainable business that serves value<br />

chains all over the globe. We have created<br />

the Neste RE TM brand which combines our<br />

renewable and recycled hydrocarbons for<br />

polymers and chemicals under one roof.<br />

And we at Neste have shifted our renewable<br />

feedstock pool from mostly vegetable oils to<br />



more than 90 % waste and residue and are<br />

working on introducing innovative materials<br />

such as plastic waste. That all is driven by<br />

our corporate purpose to create a healthier<br />

planet for our children and our ambition to<br />

transform the chemical industry towards<br />

fossil-free renewable and circular solutions.<br />




Thus, a lot has changed over ten years,<br />

but some things didn’t at all. Neste RE is still<br />

a drop-in solution that can be used within<br />

the existing infrastructure. Properties and<br />

characteristics of polymers and end products<br />

remain unchanged. That’s one of the reasons<br />

why several collaborations with value chain<br />

partners have led to market launches of<br />

products made from renewable materials in a<br />

very short time – ranging from baby soothers to<br />

BioAdimide additives are specially suited to improve the hydrolysis resistance and the processing stability of bio-based<br />

polyester, specifically polylactide (PLA), and to expand its range of applications. Currently, there are two BioAdimide grades<br />

available. The BioAdimide 100 grade improves the hydrolytic stability up to seven times that of an unstabilized grade, thereby<br />

helping to increase the service life of the polymer. In addition to providing hydrolytic stability, BioAdimide 500 XT acts as a<br />

chain extender that can increase the melt viscosity of an extruded PLA 20 to 30 percent compared to an unstabilized grade,<br />

allowing for consistent and easier processing. The two grades can also be combined, offering both hydrolysis stabilization and<br />

improved processing, for an even broader range of applications.<br />

diapers, from plastic film to coffee capsules and<br />

infrastructure like pipes.<br />

For an industry used to CAPEX-heavy<br />

transformations, ten years isn’t a long period of<br />

time. A lot can still happen in that timeframe.<br />

Renewable polymers keep reminding us of that.<br />

Focusing on performance for the plastics industries.<br />

Whatever requirements move your world:<br />

We will move them with you. www.rheinchemie.com<br />

30 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/12] Vol. 7<br />

And what has also not changed is that we<br />

need solid information in this ever-changing<br />

environment. Information that Michael and his<br />

team from the bioplastics MAGAZINE are providing<br />

on a continuous basis.<br />

56 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17

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Month<br />

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01/2023 Jan/Feb <strong>06</strong>.02.2023 23.12.<strong>2022</strong> Automotive Toys<br />

02/2023 Mar/Apr 10.04.2023 10.03.2023 Thermoforming / Rigid Packaging Foam<br />

03/2023 May/Jun 05.<strong>06</strong>.2023 05.05.2023 Injection moulding Joining / Adhesives<br />

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04/2023 Jul/Aug 07.08.2023 07.07.2023 Blow Moulding Biocomposites / Thermoset<br />

05/2023 Sep/Oct 02.10.2023 01.09.2023 Fibres / Textiles / Nonwovens Polyurethanes / Elastomers<br />

<strong>06</strong>/2023 Nov/Dec 04.12.2023 03.11.2023 Films / Flexibles /Bags Barrier materials<br />

01/2024 Jan/Feb 05.02.2024 23.12.2023 Automotive Foam<br />

Subject to changes<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17<br />


Basics<br />

Glossary 5.0 last update issue <strong>06</strong>/2021<br />

In bioplastics MAGAZINE the same expressions appear again<br />

and again that some of our readers might not be familiar<br />

with. The purpose of this glossary is to provide an overview<br />

of relevant terminology of the bioplastics industry, to avoid<br />

repeated explanations of terms such as<br />

PLA (polylactic acid) in various articles.<br />

Bioplastics (as defined by European Bioplastics<br />

e.V.) is a term used to define two different kinds<br />

of plastics:<br />

a. Plastics based on → renewable resources<br />

(the focus is the origin of the raw material<br />

used). These can be biodegradable or not.<br />

b. → Biodegradable and → compostable plastics<br />

according to EN13432 or similar standards (the<br />

focus is the compostability of the final product;<br />

biodegradable and compostable plastics can<br />

be based on renewable (biobased) and/or nonrenewable<br />

(fossil) resources).<br />

Bioplastics may be<br />

- based on renewable resources and<br />

biodegradable;<br />

- based on renewable resources but not be<br />

biodegradable; and<br />

- based on fossil resources and biodegradable.<br />

Advanced Recycling | Innovative recycling<br />

methods that go beyond the traditional<br />

mechanical recycling of grinding and<br />

compoundig plastic waste. Advanced recycling<br />

includes chemical recycling or enzyme<br />

mediated recycling<br />

Aerobic digestion | Aerobic means in the<br />

presence of oxygen. In →composting, which is<br />

an aerobic process, →microorganisms access<br />

the present oxygen from the surrounding<br />

atmosphere. They metabolize the organic<br />

material to energy, CO 2<br />

, water and cell biomass,<br />

whereby part of the energy of the organic<br />

material is released as heat. [bM 03/07, bM 02/09]<br />

Anaerobic digestion | In anaerobic digestion,<br />

organic matter is degraded by a microbial<br />

population in the absence of oxygen and<br />

producing methane and carbon dioxide<br />

(= →biogas) and a solid residue that can be<br />

composted in a subsequent step without<br />

practically releasing any heat. The biogas can<br />

be treated in a Combined Heat and Power Plant<br />

(CHP), producing electricity and heat, or can be<br />

upgraded to bio-methane [14]. [bM <strong>06</strong>/09]<br />

Amorphous | Non-crystalline, glassy with<br />

unordered lattice.<br />

Amylopectin | Polymeric branched starch<br />

molecule with very high molecular weight<br />

(biopolymer, monomer is →Glucose). [bM 05/09]<br />

Since this glossary will not be printed<br />

in each issue you can download a pdf version<br />

from our website (tinyurl.com/bpglossary).<br />

[bM ... refers to more comprehensive article previously published in bioplastics MAGAZINE)<br />

Amylose | Polymeric non-branched starch<br />

molecule with high molecular weight<br />

(biopolymer, monomer is →Glucose). [bM 05/09]<br />

Biobased | The term biobased describes the<br />

part of a material or product that is stemming<br />

from →biomass. When making a biobasedclaim,<br />

the unit (→biobased carbon content,<br />

→biobased mass content), a percentage and the<br />

measuring method should be clearly stated [1].<br />

Biobased carbon | Carbon contained in or<br />

stemming from →biomass. A material or<br />

product made of fossil and →renewable<br />

resources contains fossil and →biobased carbon.<br />

The biobased carbon content is measured via<br />

the 14 C method (radiocarbon dating method)<br />

that adheres to the technical specifications as<br />

described in [1,4,5,6].<br />

Biobased labels | The fact that (and to<br />

what percentage) a product or a material is<br />

→biobased can be indicated by respective labels.<br />

Ideally, meaningful labels should be based on<br />

harmonised standards and a corresponding<br />

certification process by independent thirdparty<br />

institutions. For the property biobased<br />

such labels are in place by certifiers →DIN<br />

CERTCO and →TÜV Austria who both base their<br />

certifications on the technical specification<br />

as described in [4,5]. A certification and the<br />

corresponding label depicting the biobased<br />

mass content was developed by the French<br />

Association Chimie du Végétal [ACDV].<br />

Biobased mass content | describes the amount<br />

of biobased mass contained in a material or<br />

product. This method is complementary to<br />

the 14 C method, and furthermore, takes other<br />

chemical elements besides the biobased<br />

carbon into account, such as oxygen, nitrogen<br />

and hydrogen. A measuring method has been<br />

developed and tested by the Association Chimie<br />

du Végétal (ACDV) [1].<br />

Biobased plastic | A plastic in which<br />

constitutional units are totally or partly<br />

from → biomass [3]. If this claim is used, a<br />

percentage should always be given to which<br />

extent the product/material is → biobased [1].<br />

[bM 01/07, bM 03/10]<br />

Biodegradable Plastics | are plastics that are<br />

completely assimilated by the → microorganisms<br />

present a defined environment as food for<br />

their energy. The carbon of the plastic must<br />

completely be converted into CO 2<br />

during the<br />

microbial process.<br />

The process of biodegradation depends on the<br />

environmental conditions, which influence it<br />

(e.g. location, temperature, humidity) and on the<br />

material or application itself. Consequently, the<br />

process and its outcome can vary considerably.<br />

Biodegradability is linked to the structure of the<br />

polymer chain; it does not depend on the origin<br />

of the raw materials.<br />

There is currently no single, overarching standard<br />

to back up claims about biodegradability.<br />

One standard, for example, is ISO or in Europe:<br />

EN 14995 Plastics - Evaluation of compostability<br />

- Test scheme and specifications.<br />

[bM 02/<strong>06</strong>, bM 01/07]<br />

Biogas | → Anaerobic digestion<br />

Biomass | Material of biological origin excluding<br />

material embedded in geological formations<br />

and material transformed to fossilised<br />

material. This includes organic material, e.g.<br />

trees, crops, grasses, tree litter, algae and<br />

waste of biological origin, e.g. manure [1, 2].<br />

Biorefinery | The co-production of a spectrum<br />

of biobased products (food, feed, materials,<br />

chemicals including monomers or building<br />

blocks for bioplastics) and energy (fuels, power,<br />

heat) from biomass. [bM 02/13]<br />

Blend | Mixture of plastics, polymer alloy of<br />

at least two microscopically dispersed and<br />

molecularly distributed base polymers.<br />

Bisphenol-A (BPA) | Monomer used to produce<br />

different polymers. BPA is said to cause health<br />

problems, because it behaves like a hormone.<br />

Therefore, it is banned for use in children’s<br />

products in many countries.<br />

BPI | Biodegradable Products Institute, a notfor-profit<br />

association. Through their innovative<br />

compostable label program, BPI educates<br />

manufacturers, legislators and consumers<br />

about the importance of scientifically based<br />

standards for compostable materials which<br />

biodegrade in large composting facilities.<br />

Carbon footprint | (CFPs resp. PCFs – Product<br />

Carbon Footprint): Sum of →greenhouse gas<br />

emissions and removals in a product system,<br />

expressed as CO 2<br />

equivalent, and based on a<br />

→ Life Cycle Assessment. The CO 2<br />

equivalent<br />

of a specific amount of a greenhouse gas is<br />

calculated as the mass of a given greenhouse<br />

gas multiplied by its → global warming potential<br />

[1,2,15]<br />

Carbon neutral, CO 2<br />

neutral | describes a<br />

product or process that has a negligible impact<br />

on total atmospheric CO 2<br />

levels. For example,<br />

carbon neutrality means that any CO 2<br />

released<br />

when a plant decomposes or is burnt is offset by<br />

an equal amount of CO 2<br />

absorbed by the plant<br />

through photosynthesis when it is growing.<br />

Carbon neutrality can also be achieved by<br />

buying sufficient carbon credits to make up the<br />

difference. The latter option is not allowed when<br />

communicating → LCAs or carbon footprints<br />

regarding a material or product [1, 2].<br />

Carbon-neutral claims are tricky as products<br />

will not in most cases reach carbon neutrality<br />

if their complete life cycle is taken into<br />

consideration (including the end-of-life).<br />

58 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17

If an assessment of a material, however, is<br />

conducted (cradle-to-gate), carbon neutrality<br />

might be a valid claim in a B2B context. In this<br />

case, the unit assessed in the complete life<br />

cycle has to be clarified [1].<br />

Cascade use | of →renewable resources means<br />

to first use the →biomass to produce biobased<br />

industrial products and afterwards – due to<br />

their favourable energy balance – use them<br />

for energy generation (e.g. from a biobased<br />

plastic product to → biogas production).<br />

The feedstock is used efficiently and value<br />

generation increases decisively.<br />

Catalyst | Substance that enables and<br />

accelerates a chemical reaction<br />

CCU, Carbon Capture & Utilisation | is a broad<br />

term that covers all established and innovative<br />

industrial processes that aim at capturing<br />

CO 2<br />

– either from industrial point sources or<br />

directly from the air – and at transforming it<br />

into a variety of value-added products, in our<br />

case plastics or plastic precursor chemicals.<br />

[bM 03/21, 05/21]<br />

CCS, Carbon Capture & Storage | is a<br />

technology similar to CCU used to stop large<br />

amounts of CO 2<br />

from being released into the<br />

atmosphere, by separating the carbon dioxide<br />

from emissions. The CO 2<br />

is then injecting it into<br />

geological formations where it is permanently<br />

stored.<br />

Cellophane | Clear film based on →cellulose.<br />

[bM 01/10, <strong>06</strong>/21]<br />

Cellulose | Cellulose is the principal component<br />

of cell walls in all higher forms of plant life, at<br />

varying percentages. It is therefore the most<br />

common organic compound and also the most<br />

common polysaccharide (multi-sugar) [11].<br />

Cellulose is a polymeric molecule with very<br />

high molecular weight (monomer is →Glucose),<br />

industrial production from wood or cotton, to<br />

manufacture paper, plastics and fibres. [bM 01/10,<br />

<strong>06</strong>/21]<br />

Cellulose ester | Cellulose esters occur by the<br />

esterification of cellulose with organic acids.<br />

The most important cellulose esters from a<br />

technical point of view are cellulose acetate<br />

(CA with acetic acid), cellulose propionate (CP<br />

with propionic acid) and cellulose butyrate<br />

(CB with butanoic acid). Mixed polymerisates,<br />

such as cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) can<br />

also be formed. One of the most well-known<br />

applications of cellulose aceto butyrate (CAB)<br />

is the moulded handle on the Swiss army knife<br />

[11].<br />

Cellulose acetate CA | → Cellulose ester<br />

CEN | Comité Européen de Normalisation<br />

(European organisation for standardization).<br />

Certification | is a process in which materials/<br />

products undergo a string of (laboratory)<br />

tests in order to verify that they fulfil certain<br />

requirements. Sound certification systems<br />

should be based on (ideally harmonised)<br />

European standards or technical specifications<br />

(e.g., by →CEN, USDA, ASTM, etc.) and<br />

be performed by independent third-party<br />

laboratories. Successful certification<br />

guarantees a high product safety - also on this<br />

basis, interconnected labels can be awarded<br />

that help the consumer to make an informed<br />

decision.<br />

Circular economy | The circular economy is a<br />

model of production and consumption, which<br />

involves sharing, leasing, reusing, repairing,<br />

refurbishing and recycling existing materials<br />

and products as long as possible. In this<br />

way, the life cycle of products is extended.<br />

In practice, it implies reducing waste to a<br />

minimum. Ideally erasing waste altogether,<br />

by reintroducing a product, or its material, at<br />

the end-of-life back in the production process<br />

– closing the loop. These can be productively<br />

used again and again, thereby creating further<br />

value. This is a departure from the traditional,<br />

linear economic model, which is based on a<br />

take-make-consume-throw away pattern. This<br />

model relies on large quantities of cheap, easily<br />

accessible materials, and green energy.<br />

Compost | A soil conditioning material of<br />

decomposing organic matter which provides<br />

nutrients and enhances soil structure.<br />

[bM <strong>06</strong>/08, 02/09]<br />

Compostable Plastics | Plastics that are<br />

→ biodegradable under →composting<br />

conditions: specified humidity, temperature,<br />

→ microorganisms and timeframe. To<br />

make accurate and specific claims about<br />

compostability, the location (home, → industrial)<br />

and timeframe need to be specified [1].<br />

Several national and international standards<br />

exist for clearer definitions, for example, EN<br />

14995 Plastics - Evaluation of compostability -<br />

Test scheme and specifications. [bM 02/<strong>06</strong>, bM 01/07]<br />

Composting | is the controlled →aerobic, or<br />

oxygen-requiring, decomposition of organic<br />

materials by →microorganisms, under<br />

controlled conditions. It reduces the volume and<br />

mass of the raw materials while transforming<br />

them into CO 2<br />

, water and a valuable soil<br />

conditioner – compost.<br />

When talking about composting of bioplastics,<br />

foremost →industrial composting in a managed<br />

composting facility is meant (criteria defined in<br />

EN 13432).<br />

The main difference between industrial<br />

and home composting is, that in industrial<br />

composting facilities temperatures are<br />

much higher and kept stable, whereas in the<br />

composting pile temperatures are usually lower,<br />

and less constant as depending on factors such<br />

as weather conditions. Home composting is<br />

a way slower-paced process than industrial<br />

composting. Also, a comparatively smaller<br />

volume of waste is involved. [bM 03/07]<br />

Compound | Plastic mixture from different raw<br />

materials (polymer and additives). [bM 04/10)<br />

Copolymer | Plastic composed of different<br />

monomers.<br />

Cradle-to-Gate | Describes the system<br />

boundaries of an environmental →Life Cycle<br />

Assessment (LCA) which covers all activities<br />

from the cradle (i.e., the extraction of raw<br />

materials, agricultural activities and forestry)<br />

up to the factory gate.<br />

Cradle-to-Cradle | (sometimes abbreviated as<br />

C2C): Is an expression which communicates<br />

the concept of a closed-cycle economy, in which<br />

waste is used as raw material (‘waste equals<br />

food’). Cradle-to-Cradle is not a term that is<br />

typically used in →LCA studies.<br />

Cradle-to-Grave | Describes the system<br />

boundaries of a full →Life Cycle Assessment<br />

from manufacture (cradle) to use phase and<br />

disposal phase (grave).<br />

Crystalline | Plastic with regularly arranged<br />

molecules in a lattice structure.<br />

Density | Quotient from mass and volume of a<br />

material, also referred to as specific weight.<br />

DIN | Deutsches Institut für Normung (German<br />

organisation for standardization).<br />

DIN-CERTCO | Independant certifying<br />

organisation for the assessment on the<br />

conformity of bioplastics.<br />

Dispersing | Fine distribution of non-miscible<br />

liquids into a homogeneous, stable mixture.<br />

Drop-In bioplastics | are chemically indentical<br />

to conventional petroleum-based plastics, but<br />

made from renewable resources. Examples are<br />

bio-PE made from bio-ethanol (from e.g. sugar<br />

cane) or partly biobased PET; the monoethylene<br />

glycol made from bio-ethanol. Developments<br />

to make terephthalic acid from renewable<br />

resources are underway. Other examples are<br />

polyamides (partly biobased e.g. PA 4.10 or PA<br />

6.10 or fully biobased like PA 5.10 or PA10.10).<br />

EN 13432 | European standard for the<br />

assessment of the → compostability of plastic<br />

packaging products.<br />

Energy recovery | Recovery and exploitation<br />

of the energy potential in (plastic) waste for<br />

the production of electricity or heat in waste<br />

incineration plants (waste-to-energy).<br />

Environmental claim | A statement, symbol<br />

or graphic that indicates one or more<br />

environmental aspect(s) of a product, a<br />

component, packaging, or a service. [16].<br />

Enzymes | are proteins that catalyze chemical<br />

reactions.<br />

Enzyme-mediated plastics | are not<br />

→bioplastics. Instead, a conventional nonbiodegradable<br />

plastic (e.g. fossil-based PE)<br />

is enriched with small amounts of an organic<br />

additive. Microorganisms are supposed to<br />

consume these additives and the degradation<br />

process should then expand to the nonbiodegradable<br />

PE and thus make the material<br />

degrade. After some time the plastic is<br />

supposed to visually disappear and to be<br />

completely converted to carbon dioxide and<br />

water. This is a theoretical concept which has<br />

not been backed up by any verifiable proof so<br />

far. Producers promote enzyme-mediated<br />

plastics as a solution to littering. As no proof<br />

for the degradation process has been provided,<br />

environmental beneficial effects are highly<br />

questionable.<br />

Ethylene | Colour- and odourless gas, made<br />

e.g. from, Naphtha (petroleum) by cracking or<br />

from bio-ethanol by dehydration, the monomer<br />

of the polymer polyethylene (PE).<br />

European Bioplastics e.V. | The industry<br />

association representing the interests of<br />

Europe’s thriving bioplastics’ industry. Founded<br />

in Germany in 1993 as IBAW, European<br />

Bioplastics today represents the interests of<br />

about 50 member companies throughout the<br />

European Union and worldwide. With members<br />

from the agricultural feedstock, chemical and<br />

plastics industries, as well as industrial users<br />

and recycling companies, European Bioplastics<br />

serves as both a contact platform and<br />

catalyst for advancing the aims of the growing<br />

bioplastics industry.<br />

Extrusion | Process used to create plastic<br />

profiles (or sheet) of a fixed cross-section<br />

consisting of mixing, melting, homogenising<br />

and shaping of the plastic.<br />

Glossary<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17<br />


Basics<br />

FDCA | 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid, an<br />

intermediate chemical produced from 5-HMF.<br />

The dicarboxylic acid can be used to make →<br />

PEF = polyethylene furanoate, a polyester that<br />

could be a 100 % biobased alternative to PET.<br />

Fermentation | Biochemical reactions controlled<br />

by → microorganisms or → enyzmes (e.g. the<br />

transformation of sugar into lactic acid).<br />

FSC | The Forest Stewardship Council. FSC is<br />

an independent, non-governmental, not-forprofit<br />

organization established to promote the<br />

responsible and sustainable management of<br />

the world’s forests.<br />

Gelatine | Translucent brittle solid substance,<br />

colourless or slightly yellow, nearly tasteless<br />

and odourless, extracted from the collagen<br />

inside animals‘ connective tissue.<br />

Genetically modified organism (GMO) |<br />

Organisms, such as plants and animals, whose<br />

genetic material (DNA) has been altered are<br />

called genetically modified organisms (GMOs).<br />

Food and feed which contain or consist of such<br />

GMOs, or are produced from GMOs, are called<br />

genetically modified (GM) food or feed [1]. If GM<br />

crops are used in bioplastics production, the<br />

multiple-stage processing and the high heat<br />

used to create the polymer removes all traces<br />

of genetic material. This means that the final<br />

bioplastics product contains no genetic traces.<br />

The resulting bioplastics are therefore well<br />

suited to use in food packaging as it contains<br />

no genetically modified material and cannot<br />

interact with the contents.<br />

Global Warming | Global warming is the rise in<br />

the average temperature of Earth’s atmosphere<br />

and oceans since the late 19th century and its<br />

projected continuation [8]. Global warming is<br />

said to be accelerated by → greenhouse gases.<br />

Glucose | is a monosaccharide (or simple<br />

sugar). It is the most important carbohydrate<br />

(sugar) in biology. Glucose is formed by photosynthesis<br />

or hydrolyse of many carbohydrates<br />

e. g. starch.<br />

Greenhouse gas, GHG | Gaseous constituent<br />

of the atmosphere, both natural and<br />

anthropogenic, that absorbs and emits<br />

radiation at specific wavelengths within the<br />

spectrum of infrared radiation emitted by the<br />

Earth’s surface, the atmosphere, and clouds [1,<br />

9].<br />

Greenwashing | The act of misleading<br />

consumers regarding the environmental<br />

practices of a company, or the environmental<br />

benefits of a product or service [1, 10].<br />

Granulate, granules | Small plastic particles<br />

(3-4 millimetres), a form in which plastic is sold<br />

and fed into machines, easy to handle and dose.<br />

HMF (5-HMF) | 5-hydroxymethylfurfural is<br />

an organic compound derived from sugar<br />

dehydration. It is a platform chemical, a<br />

building block for 20 performance polymers<br />

and over 175 different chemical substances.<br />

The molecule consists of a furan ring which<br />

contains both aldehyde and alcohol functional<br />

groups. 5-HMF has applications in many<br />

different industries such as bioplastics,<br />

packaging, pharmaceuticals, adhesives and<br />

chemicals. One of the most promising routes is<br />

2,5 furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA), produced as<br />

an intermediate when 5-HMF is oxidised. FDCA<br />

is used to produce PEF, which can substitute<br />

terephthalic acid in polyester, especially<br />

polyethylene terephthalate (PET). [bM 03/14, 02/16]<br />

Home composting | →composting [bM <strong>06</strong>/08]<br />

Humus | In agriculture, humus is often used<br />

simply to mean mature →compost, or natural<br />

compost extracted from a forest or other<br />

spontaneous source for use to amend soil.<br />

Hydrophilic | Property: water-friendly, soluble<br />

in water or other polar solvents (e.g. used in<br />

conjunction with a plastic which is not waterresistant<br />

and weatherproof, or that absorbs<br />

water such as polyamide. (PA).<br />

Hydrophobic | Property: water-resistant, not<br />

soluble in water (e.g. a plastic which is water<br />

resistant and weatherproof, or that does not<br />

absorb any water such as polyethylene (PE) or<br />

polypropylene (PP).<br />

Industrial composting | is an established<br />

process with commonly agreed-upon<br />

requirements (e.g. temperature, timeframe) for<br />

transforming biodegradable waste into stable,<br />

sanitised products to be used in agriculture.<br />

The criteria for industrial compostability of<br />

packaging have been defined in the EN 13432.<br />

Materials and products complying with this<br />

standard can be certified and subsequently<br />

labelled accordingly [1,7]. [bM <strong>06</strong>/08, 02/09]<br />

ISO | International Organization for Standardization<br />

JBPA | Japan Bioplastics Association<br />

Land use | The surface required to grow<br />

sufficient feedstock (land use) for today’s<br />

bioplastic production is less than 0.02 % of the<br />

global agricultural area of 4.7 billion hectares.<br />

It is not yet foreseeable to what extent an<br />

increased use of food residues, non-food crops<br />

or cellulosic biomass in bioplastics production<br />

might lead to an even further reduced land use<br />

in the future. [bM 04/09, 01/14]<br />

LCA, Life Cycle Assessment | is the<br />

compilation and evaluation of the input, output<br />

and the potential environmental impact of a<br />

product system throughout its life cycle [17].<br />

It is sometimes also referred to as life cycle<br />

analysis, eco-balance or cradle-to-grave<br />

analysis. [bM 01/09]<br />

Littering | is the (illegal) act of leaving waste<br />

such as cigarette butts, paper, tins, bottles,<br />

cups, plates, cutlery, or bags lying in an open<br />

or public place.<br />

Marine litter | Following the European<br />

Commission’s definition, “marine litter consists<br />

of items that have been deliberately discarded,<br />

unintentionally lost, or transported by winds<br />

and rivers, into the sea and on beaches. It<br />

mainly consists of plastics, wood, metals, glass,<br />

rubber, clothing and paper”. Marine debris<br />

originates from a variety of sources. Shipping<br />

and fishing activities are the predominant<br />

sea-based, ineffectively managed landfills as<br />

well as public littering the mainland-based<br />

sources. Marine litter can pose a threat to<br />

living organisms, especially due to ingestion or<br />

entanglement.<br />

Currently, there is no international standard<br />

available, which appropriately describes<br />

the biodegradation of plastics in the marine<br />

environment. However, several standardisation<br />

projects are in progress at the ISO and ASTM<br />

(ASTM D6691) level. Furthermore, the European<br />

project OPEN BIO addresses the marine<br />

biodegradation of biobased products. [bM 02/16]<br />

Mass balance | describes the relationship<br />

between input and output of a specific substance<br />

within a system in which the output from the<br />

system cannot exceed the input into the system.<br />

First attempts were made by plastic raw<br />

material producers to claim their products<br />

renewable (plastics) based on a certain input of<br />

biomass in a huge and complex chemical plant,<br />

then mathematically allocating this biomass<br />

input to the produced plastic.<br />

These approaches are at least controversially<br />

disputed. [bM 04/14, 05/14, 01/15]<br />

Microorganism | Living organisms of microscopic<br />

sizes, such as bacteria, fungi or yeast.<br />

Molecule | A group of at least two atoms held<br />

together by covalent chemical bonds.<br />

Monomer | Molecules that are linked by<br />

polymerization to form chains of molecules and<br />

then plastics.<br />

Mulch film | Foil to cover the bottom of<br />

farmland.<br />

Organic recycling | means the treatment of<br />

separately collected organic waste by anaerobic<br />

digestion and/or composting.<br />

Oxo-degradable / Oxo-fragmentable |<br />

materials and products that do not biodegrade!<br />

The underlying technology of oxo-degradability or<br />

oxo-fragmentation is based on special additives,<br />

which, if incorporated into standard resins, are<br />

purported to accelerate the fragmentation of<br />

products made thereof. Oxo-degradable or oxofragmentable<br />

materials do not meet accepted<br />

industry standards on compostability such as<br />

EN 13432. [bM 01/09, 05/09]<br />

PBAT | Polybutylene adipate terephthalate, is<br />

an aliphatic-aromatic copolyester that has the<br />

properties of conventional polyethylene but is<br />

fully biodegradable under industrial composting.<br />

PBAT is made from fossil petroleum with first<br />

attempts being made to produce it partly from<br />

renewable resources. [bM <strong>06</strong>/09]<br />

PBS | Polybutylene succinate, a 100 %<br />

biodegradable polymer, made from (e.g. bio-<br />

BDO) and succinic acid, which can also be<br />

produced biobased. [bM 03/12]<br />

PC | Polycarbonate, thermoplastic polyester,<br />

petroleum-based and not degradable, used for<br />

e.g. for baby bottles or CDs. Criticized for its<br />

BPA (→ Bisphenol-A) content.<br />

PCL | Polycaprolactone, a synthetic (fossilbased),<br />

biodegradable bioplastic, e.g. used as<br />

a blend component.<br />

PE | Polyethylene, thermoplastic polymerised<br />

from ethylene. Can be made from renewable<br />

resources (sugar cane via bio-ethanol). [bM 05/10]<br />

PEF | Polyethylene furanoate, a polyester made<br />

from monoethylene glycol (MEG) and →FDCA<br />

(2,5-furandicarboxylic acid , an intermediate<br />

chemical produced from 5-HMF). It can be a<br />

100 % biobased alternative for PET. PEF also<br />

has improved product characteristics, such as<br />

better structural strength and improved barrier<br />

behaviour, which will allow for the use of PEF<br />

bottles in additional applications. [bM 03/11, 04/12]<br />

PET | Polyethylenterephthalate, transparent<br />

polyester used for bottles and film. The<br />

polyester is made from monoethylene glycol<br />

(MEG), that can be renewably sourced from bioethanol<br />

(sugar cane) and, since recently, from<br />

plant-based paraxylene (bPX) which has been<br />

60 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17

converted to plant-based terephthalic acid<br />

(bPTA). [bM 04/14. bM <strong>06</strong>/2021]<br />

PGA | Polyglycolic acid or polyglycolide is a<br />

biodegradable, thermoplastic polymer and the<br />

simplest linear, aliphatic polyester. Besides<br />

its use in the biomedical field, PGA has been<br />

introduced as a barrier resin. [bM 03/09]<br />

PHA | Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) or<br />

the polyhydroxy fatty acids, are a family<br />

of biodegradable polyesters. As in many<br />

mammals, including humans, that hold energy<br />

reserves in the form of body fat some bacteria<br />

that hold intracellular reserves in form of<br />

of polyhydroxyalkanoates. Here the microorganisms<br />

store a particularly high level of energy<br />

reserves (up to 80 % of their own body weight) for<br />

when their sources of nutrition become scarce.<br />

By farming this type of bacteria, and feeding<br />

them on sugar or starch (mostly from maize), or<br />

at times on plant oils or other nutrients rich in<br />

carbonates, it is possible to obtain PHA‘s on an<br />

industrial scale [11]. The most common types of<br />

PHA are PHB (Polyhydroxybutyrate, PHBV and<br />

PHBH. Depending on the bacteria and their food,<br />

PHAs with different mechanical properties, from<br />

rubbery soft trough stiff and hard as ABS, can be<br />

produced. Some PHAs are even biodegradable in<br />

soil or in a marine environment.<br />

PLA | Polylactide or polylactic acid (PLA), a<br />

biodegradable, thermoplastic, linear aliphatic<br />

polyester based on lactic acid, a natural acid,<br />

is mainly produced by fermentation of sugar<br />

or starch with the help of micro-organisms.<br />

Lactic acid comes in two isomer forms, i.e. as<br />

laevorotatory D(-)lactic acid and as dextrorotary<br />

L(+)lactic acid.<br />

Modified PLA types can be produced by the use<br />

of the right additives or by certain combinations<br />

of L- and D- lactides (stereocomplexing), which<br />

then have the required rigidity for use at higher<br />

temperatures [13]. [bM 01/09, 01/12]<br />

Plastics | Materials with large molecular chains<br />

of natural or fossil raw materials, produced by<br />

chemical or biochemical reactions.<br />

PPC | Polypropylene carbonate, a bioplastic<br />

made by copolymerizing CO 2<br />

with propylene<br />

oxide (PO). [bM 04/12]<br />

PTT | Polytrimethylterephthalate (PTT),<br />

partially biobased polyester, is produced<br />

similarly to PET, using terephthalic acid or<br />

dimethyl terephthalate and a diol. In this case<br />

it is a biobased 1,3 propanediol, also known as<br />

bio-PDO. [bM 01/13]<br />

Renewable Carbon | entails all carbon<br />

sources that avoid or substitute the use of any<br />

additional fossil carbon from the geosphere.<br />

It can come from the biosphere, atmosphere,<br />

or technosphere, applications are, e.g.,<br />

bioplastics, CO 2<br />

-based plastics, and recycled<br />

plastics respectively. Renewable carbon<br />

circulates between biosphere, atmosphere,<br />

or technosphere, creating a carbon circular<br />

economy. [bM 03/21]<br />

Renewable resources | Agricultural raw materials,<br />

which are not used as food or feed, but as<br />

raw material for industrial products or to generate<br />

energy. The use of renewable resources<br />

by industry saves fossil resources and reduces<br />

the amount of → greenhouse gas emissions.<br />

Biobased plastics are predominantly made of<br />

annual crops such as corn, cereals, and sugar<br />

beets or perennial cultures such as cassava<br />

and sugar cane.<br />

Resource efficiency | Use of limited natural<br />

resources in a sustainable way while minimising<br />

impacts on the environment. A resourceefficient<br />

economy creates more output or value<br />

with lesser input.<br />

Seedling logo | The compostability label or<br />

logo Seedling is connected to the standard<br />

EN 13432/EN 14995 and a certification process<br />

managed by the independent institutions<br />

→DIN CERTCO and → TÜV Austria. Bioplastics<br />

products carrying the Seedling fulfil the criteria<br />

laid down in the EN 13432 regarding industrial<br />

compostability. [bM 01/<strong>06</strong>, 02/10]<br />

Saccharins or carbohydrates | Saccharins<br />

or carbohydrates are named for the sugarfamily.<br />

Saccharins are monomer or polymer<br />

sugar units. For example, there are known<br />

mono-, di- and polysaccharose. → glucose is a<br />

monosaccarin. They are important for the diet<br />

and produced biology in plants.<br />

Semi-finished products | Plastic in form<br />

of sheet, film, rods or the like to be further<br />

processed into finished products<br />

Sorbitol | Sugar alcohol, obtained by reduction<br />

of glucose changing the aldehyde group to<br />

an additional hydroxyl group. It is used as a<br />

plasticiser for bioplastics based on starch.<br />

Starch | Natural polymer (carbohydrate)<br />

consisting of → amylose and → amylopectin,<br />

gained from maize, potatoes, wheat, tapioca<br />

etc. When glucose is connected to polymer<br />

chains in a definite way the result (product)<br />

is called starch. Each molecule is based on<br />

300 -12000-glucose units. Depending on the<br />

connection, there are two types known →<br />

amylose and → amylopectin. [bM 05/09]<br />

Starch derivatives | Starch derivatives are<br />

based on the chemical structure of → starch.<br />

The chemical structure can be changed by<br />

introducing new functional groups without<br />

changing the → starch polymer. The product<br />

has different chemical qualities. Mostly the<br />

hydrophilic character is not the same.<br />

Starch-ester | One characteristic of every<br />

starch-chain is a free hydroxyl group. When<br />

every hydroxyl group is connected with an<br />

acid one product is starch-ester with different<br />

chemical properties.<br />

Starch propionate and starch butyrate |<br />

Starch propionate and starch butyrate can<br />

be synthesised by treating the → starch<br />

with propane or butanoic acid. The product<br />

structure is still based on → starch. Every<br />

based → glucose fragment is connected with a<br />

propionate or butyrate ester group. The product<br />

is more hydrophobic than → starch.<br />

Sustainability | An attempt to provide the<br />

best outcomes for the human and natural<br />

environments both now and into the indefinite<br />

future. One famous definition of sustainability is<br />

the one created by the Brundtland Commission,<br />

led by the former Norwegian Prime Minister<br />

G. H. Brundtland. It defined sustainable<br />

development as development that ‘meets the<br />

needs of the present without compromising<br />

the ability of future generations to meet their<br />

own needs.’ Sustainability relates to the<br />

continuity of economic, social, institutional and<br />

environmental aspects of human society, as<br />

well as the nonhuman environment. This means<br />

that sustainable development involves the<br />

simultaneous pursuit of economic prosperity,<br />

environmental protection, and social equity. In<br />

other words, businesses have to expand their<br />

responsibility to include these environmental<br />

and social dimensions. It also implies a<br />

commitment to continuous improvement that<br />

should result in a further reduction of the<br />

environmental footprint of today’s products,<br />

processes and raw materials used. Impacts<br />

such as the deforestation of protected habitats<br />

or social and environmental damage arising<br />

from poor agricultural practices must be<br />

avoided. Corresponding certification schemes,<br />

such as ISCC PLUS, WLC or Bonsucro, are<br />

an appropriate tool to ensure the sustainable<br />

sourcing of biomass for all applications around<br />

the globe.<br />

Thermoplastics | Plastics which soften or melt<br />

when heated and solidify when cooled (solid at<br />

room temperature).<br />

Thermoplastic Starch | (TPS) → starch that<br />

was modified (cooked, complexed) to make it a<br />

plastic resin<br />

Thermoset | Plastics (resins) which do not<br />

soften or melt when heated. Examples are<br />

epoxy resins or unsaturated polyester resins.<br />

TÜV Austria Belgium | Independant certifying<br />

organisation for the assessment on the<br />

conformity of bioplastics (formerly Vinçotte)<br />

WPC | Wood Plastic Composite. Composite<br />

materials made of wood fibre/flour and plastics<br />

(mostly polypropylene).<br />

Yard Waste | Grass clippings, leaves, trimmings,<br />

garden residue.<br />

References:<br />

[1] Environmental Communication Guide,<br />

European Bioplastics, Berlin, Germany, 2012<br />

[2] ISO 14<strong>06</strong>7. Carbon footprint of products<br />

- Requirements and guidelines for<br />

quantification and communication<br />

[3] CEN TR 15932, Plastics - Recommendation<br />

for terminology and characterisation of<br />

biopolymers and bioplastics, 2010<br />

[4] CEN/TS 16137, Plastics - Determination of<br />

bio-based carbon content, 2011<br />

[5] ASTM D6866, Standard Test Methods for<br />

Determining the Biobased Content of Solid,<br />

Liquid, and Gaseous Samples Using Radiocarbon<br />

Analysis<br />

[6] SPI: Understanding Biobased Carbon<br />

Content, 2012<br />

[7] EN 13432, Requirements for packaging<br />

recoverable through composting and<br />

biodegradation. Test scheme and<br />

evaluation criteria for the final acceptance<br />

of packaging, 2000<br />

[8] Wikipedia<br />

[9] ISO 14<strong>06</strong>4 Greenhouse gases -- Part 1:<br />

Specification with guidance..., 20<strong>06</strong><br />

[10] Terrachoice, 2010, www.terrachoice.com<br />

[11] Thielen, M.: Bioplastics: Basics. Applications.<br />

Markets, Polymedia Publisher, 2012<br />

[12] Lörcks, J.: Biokunststoffe, Broschüre der<br />

FNR, 2005<br />

[13] de Vos, S.: Improving heat-resistance of<br />

PLA using poly(D-lactide),<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE, Vol. 3, <strong>Issue</strong> 02/2008<br />

[14] de Wilde, B.: Anaerobic Digestion,<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE, Vol 4., <strong>Issue</strong> <strong>06</strong>/2009<br />

[15] ISO 14<strong>06</strong>7 onb Corbon Footprint of<br />

Products<br />

[16] ISO 14021 on Self-declared Environmental<br />

claims<br />

[17] ISO 14044 on Life Cycle Assessment<br />

Glossary<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17<br />


Suppliers Guide<br />

1. Raw materials<br />

AGRANA Starch<br />

Bioplastics<br />

Conrathstraße 7<br />

A-3950 Gmuend, Austria<br />

bioplastics.starch@agrana.com<br />

www.agrana.com<br />

Mixcycling Srl<br />

Via dell‘Innovazione, 2<br />

36042 Breganze (VI), Italy<br />

Phone: +39 04451911890<br />

info@mixcycling.it<br />

www.mixcycling.it<br />

Biofibre GmbH<br />

Member of Steinl Group<br />

Sonnenring 35<br />

D-84032 Altdorf<br />

Fon: +49 (0)871 308-0<br />

Fax: +49 (0)871 308-183<br />

info@biofibre.de<br />

www.biofibre.de<br />

39 mm<br />

Simply contact:<br />

Tel.: +49 2161 6884467<br />

suppguide@bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

Stay permanently listed in the<br />

Suppliers Guide with your company<br />

logo and contact information.<br />

For only 6,– EUR per mm, per issue you<br />

can be listed among top suppliers in the<br />

field of bioplastics.<br />

For Example:<br />

Polymedia Publisher GmbH<br />

Dammer Str. 112<br />

41<strong>06</strong>6 Mönchengladbach<br />

Germany<br />

Tel. +49 2161 664864<br />

Fax +49 2161 631045<br />

info@bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

Sample Charge:<br />

39mm x 6,00 €<br />

= 234,00 € per entry/per issue<br />

Sample Charge for one year:<br />

6 issues x 234,00 EUR = 1,404.00 €<br />

The entry in our Suppliers Guide<br />

is bookable for one year (6 issues)<br />

and extends automatically if it’s not<br />

cancelled three months before expiry.<br />

Arkema<br />

Advanced Bio-Circular polymers<br />

Rilsan ® PA11 & Pebax ® Rnew ® TPE<br />

WW HQ: Colombes, FRANCE<br />

bio-circular.com<br />

hpp.arkema.com<br />

BASF SE<br />

Ludwigshafen, Germany<br />

Tel: +49 621 60-76692<br />

joerg.auffermann@basf.com<br />

www.ecovio.com<br />

Gianeco S.r.l.<br />

Via Magenta 57 10128 Torino - Italy<br />

Tel.+390119370420<br />

info@gianeco.com<br />

www.gianeco.com<br />

Tel: +86 351-8689356<br />

Fax: +86 351-8689718<br />

www.jinhuizhaolong.com<br />

ecoworldsales@jinhuigroup.com<br />

Bioplastics — PLA, PBAT<br />

www.lgchem.com<br />

youtu.be/p8CIXaOuv1A<br />

bioplastics@lgchem.com<br />

PTT MCC Biochem Co., Ltd.<br />

info@pttmcc.com / www.pttmcc.com<br />

Tel: +66(0) 2 140-3563<br />

MCPP Germany GmbH<br />

+49 (0) 211 520 54 662<br />

Julian.Schmeling@mcpp-europe.com<br />

MCPP France SAS<br />

+33 (0)2 51 65 71 43<br />

fabien.resweber@mcpp-europe.com<br />

Xiamen Changsu Industrial Co., Ltd<br />

Tel +86-592-6899303<br />

Mobile:+ 86 185 5920 15<strong>06</strong><br />

Email: andy@chang-su.com.cn<br />

Xinjiang Blue Ridge Tunhe<br />

Polyester Co., Ltd.<br />

No. 316, South Beijing Rd. Changji,<br />

Xinjiang, 831100, P.R.China<br />

Tel.: +86 994 22 90 90 9<br />

Mob: +86 187 99 283 100<br />

chenjianhui@lanshantunhe.com<br />

www.lanshantunhe.com<br />

PBAT & PBS resin supplier<br />

Zhejiang Huafon Environmental<br />

Protection Material Co.,Ltd.<br />

No.1688 Kaifaqu Road,Ruian<br />

Economic Development<br />

Zone,Zhejiang,China.<br />

Tel: +86 577 6689 0105<br />

Mobile: +86 139 5881 3517<br />

ding.yeguan@huafeng.com<br />

www.huafeng.com<br />

Professional manufacturer for<br />

PBAT /CO 2<br />

-based biodegradable materials<br />

1.1 Biobased monomers<br />

1.2 Compounds<br />

Earth Renewable Technologies BR<br />

Estr. Velha do Barigui 10511, Brazil<br />

slink@earthrenewable.com<br />

www.earthrenewable.com<br />

eli<br />

bio<br />

Elixance<br />

Tel +33 (0) 2 23 10 16 17<br />

Tel PA du +33 Gohélis, (0)2 56250 23 Elven, 10 16 France 17 - elixb<br />

elixbio@elixbio.com/ www.elixbio.com<br />

www.elixance.com - www.elixb<br />

FKuR Kunststoff GmbH<br />

Siemensring 79<br />

D - 47 877 Willich<br />

Tel. +49 2154 9251-0<br />

Tel.: +49 2154 9251-51<br />

sales@fkur.com<br />

www.fkur.com<br />

P O L i M E R<br />


Ege Serbest Bolgesi, Koru Sk.,<br />

No.12, Gaziemir, Izmir 35410,<br />

Turkey<br />

+90 (232) 251 5041<br />

info@gemapolimer.com<br />

http://www.gemabio.com<br />

Global Biopolymers Co., Ltd.<br />

Bioplastics compounds<br />

(PLA+starch, PLA+rubber)<br />

194 Lardproa80 yak 14<br />

Wangthonglang, Bangkok<br />

Thailand 10310<br />

info@globalbiopolymers.com<br />

www.globalbiopolymers.com<br />

Tel +66 81 9150446<br />

www.facebook.com<br />

www.issuu.com<br />

www.twitter.com<br />

www.youtube.com<br />

Microtec Srl<br />

Via Po’, 53/55<br />

30030, Mellaredo di Pianiga (VE),<br />

Italy<br />

Tel.: +39 041 519<strong>06</strong>21<br />

Fax.: +39 041 5194765<br />

info@microtecsrl.com<br />

www.biocomp.it<br />

BIO-FED<br />

Member of the Feddersen Group<br />

BioCampus Cologne<br />

Nattermannallee 1<br />

50829 Cologne, Germany<br />

Tel.: +49 221 88 88 94-00<br />

info@bio-fed.com<br />

www.bio-fed.com<br />

GRAFE-Group<br />

Waldecker Straße 21,<br />

99444 Blankenhain, Germany<br />

Tel. +49 36459 45 0<br />

www.grafe.com<br />

62 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17

Green Dot Bioplastics Inc.<br />

527 Commercial St Suite 310<br />

Emporia, KS 66801<br />

Tel.: +1 620-273-8919<br />

info@greendotbioplastics.com<br />

www.greendotbioplastics.com<br />

Sukano AG<br />

Chaltenbodenstraße 23<br />

CH-8834 Schindellegi<br />

Tel. +41 44 787 57 77<br />

Fax +41 44 787 57 78<br />

www.sukano.com<br />

Sunar NP Biopolymers<br />

Turhan Cemat Beriker Bulvarı<br />

Yolgecen Mah. No: 565 01355<br />

Seyhan /Adana,TÜRKIYE<br />

info@sunarnp.com<br />

burc.oker@sunarnp.com.tr<br />

www. sunarnp.com<br />

Tel: +90 (322) 441 01 65<br />

GRAFE-Group<br />

Waldecker Straße 21,<br />

99444 Blankenhain, Germany<br />

Tel. +49 36459 45 0<br />

www.grafe.com<br />

Suppliers Guide<br />

a brand of<br />

Helian Polymers BV<br />

Bremweg 7<br />

5951 DK Belfeld<br />

The Netherlands<br />

Tel. +31 77 398 09 09<br />

sales@helianpolymers.com<br />

https://pharadox.com<br />

Kingfa Sci. & Tech. Co., Ltd.<br />

No.33 Kefeng Rd, Sc. City, Guangzhou<br />

Hi-Tech Ind. Development Zone,<br />

Guangdong, P.R. China. 51<strong>06</strong>63<br />

Tel: +86 (0)20 6622 1696<br />

info@ecopond.com.cn<br />

www.kingfa.com<br />

Trinseo<br />

1000 Chesterbrook Blvd. Suite 300<br />

Berwyn, PA 19312<br />

+1 855 8746736<br />

www.trinseo.com<br />

1.3 PLA<br />


- Sheets 2 /3 /4 mm – 1 x 2 m -<br />

GEHR GmbH<br />

Mannheim / Germany<br />

Tel: +49-621-8789-127<br />

laudenklos@gehr.de<br />

www.gehr.de<br />


Parque Industrial e Empresarial<br />

da Figueira da Foz<br />

Praça das Oliveiras, Lote 126<br />

3090-451 Figueira da Foz – Portugal<br />

Phone: +351 233 403 420<br />

info@unitedbiopolymers.com<br />

www.unitedbiopolymers.com<br />

1.5 PHA<br />

CJ Biomaterials<br />

www.cjbio.net<br />

hugo.vuurens@cj.net<br />

www.granula.eu<br />

Treffert GmbH & Co. KG<br />

In der Weide 17<br />

55411 Bingen am Rhein; Germany<br />

+49 6721 403 0<br />

www.treffert.eu<br />

Treffert S.A.S.<br />

Rue de la Jontière<br />

57255 Sainte-Marie-aux-Chênes,<br />

France<br />

+33 3 87 31 84 84<br />

www.treffert.fr<br />

2. Additives/Secondary raw materials<br />

Plásticos Compuestos S.A.<br />

C/ Basters 15<br />

08184 Palau Solità i Plegamans<br />

Barcelona, Spain<br />

Tel. +34 93 863 96 70<br />

info@kompuestos.com<br />

www.kompuestos.com<br />

Natureplast – Biopolynov<br />

11 rue François Arago<br />

14123 IFS<br />

Tel: +33 (0)2 31 83 50 87<br />

www.natureplast.eu<br />

NUREL Engineering Polymers<br />

Ctra. Barcelona, km 329<br />

50016 Zaragoza, Spain<br />

Tel: +34 976 465 579<br />

inzea@samca.com<br />

www.inzea-biopolymers.com<br />

TECNARO GmbH<br />

Bustadt 40<br />

D-74360 Ilsfeld. Germany<br />

Tel: +49 (0)7<strong>06</strong>2/97687-0<br />

www.tecnaro.de<br />

TotalEnergies Corbion bv<br />

Stadhuisplein 70<br />

4203 NS Gorinchem<br />

The Netherlands<br />

Tel.: +31 183 695 695<br />

www.totalenergies-corbion.com<br />

PLA@totalenergies-corbion.com<br />

Zhejiang Hisun Biomaterials Co.,Ltd.<br />

No.97 Waisha Rd, Jiaojiang District,<br />

Taizhou City, Zhejiang Province, China<br />

Tel: +86-576-88827723<br />

pla@hisunpharm.com<br />

www.hisunplas.com<br />

1.4 Starch-based bioplastics<br />

BIOTEC<br />

Biologische Naturverpackungen<br />

Werner-Heisenberg-Strasse 32<br />

46446 Emmerich/Germany<br />

Tel.: +49 (0) 2822 – 92510<br />

info@biotec.de<br />

www.biotec.de<br />

Plásticos Compuestos S.A.<br />

C/ Basters 15<br />

08184 Palau Solità i Plegamans<br />

Barcelona, Spain<br />

Tel. +34 93 863 96 70<br />

info@kompuestos.com<br />

www.kompuestos.com<br />

Kaneka Belgium N.V.<br />

Nijverheidsstraat 16<br />

2260 Westerlo-Oevel, Belgium<br />

Tel: +32 (0)14 25 78 36<br />

Fax: +32 (0)14 25 78 81<br />

info.biopolymer@kaneka.be<br />

TianAn Biopolymer<br />

No. 68 Dagang 6th Rd,<br />

Beilun, Ningbo, China, 315800<br />

Tel. +86-57 48 68 62 50 2<br />

Fax +86-57 48 68 77 98 0<br />

enquiry@tianan-enmat.com<br />

www.tianan-enmat.com<br />

1.6 Masterbatches<br />

Albrecht Dinkelaker<br />

Polymer- and Product Development<br />

Talstrasse 83<br />

60437 Frankfurt am Main, Germany<br />

Tel.:+49 (0)69 76 89 39 10<br />

info@polyfea2.de<br />

www.caprowax-p.eu<br />

GRAFE-Group<br />

Waldecker Straße 21,<br />

99444 Blankenhain, Germany<br />

Tel. +49 36459 45 0<br />

www.grafe.com<br />

3. Semi-finished products<br />

3.1 Sheets<br />

Customised Sheet Xtrusion<br />

James Wattstraat 5<br />

7442 DC Nijverdal<br />

The Netherlands<br />

+31 (548) 626 111<br />

info@csx-nijverdal.nl<br />

www.csx-nijverdal.nl<br />

4. Bioplastics products<br />

Bio4Pack GmbH<br />

Marie-Curie-Straße 5<br />

48529 Nordhorn, Germany<br />

Tel. +49 (0)5921 818 37 00<br />

info@bio4pack.com<br />

www.bio4pack.com<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17 63

Suppliers Guide<br />

Plant-based and Compostable PLA Cups and Lids<br />

Great River Plastic Manufacturer<br />

Company Limited<br />

Tel.: +852 95880794<br />

sam@shprema.com<br />

https://eco-greatriver.com/<br />

6.1 Machinery & moulds<br />

Buss AG<br />

Hohenrainstrasse 10<br />

4133 Pratteln / Switzerland<br />

Tel.: +41 61 825 66 00<br />

info@busscorp.com<br />

www.busscorp.com<br />

6.2 Degradability Analyzer<br />

nova-Institut GmbH<br />

Tel.: +49(0)2233-48-14 40<br />

contact@nova-institut.de<br />

www.biobased.eu<br />

Bioplastics Consulting<br />

Tel. +49 2161 664864<br />

info@polymediaconsult.com<br />

10. Institutions<br />

Institut für Kunststofftechnik<br />

Universität Stuttgart<br />

Böblinger Straße 70<br />

70199 Stuttgart<br />

Tel +49 711/685-62831<br />

silvia.kliem@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de<br />

www.ikt.uni-stuttgart.de<br />

Minima Technology Co., Ltd.<br />

Esmy Huang, Vice president<br />

Yunlin, Taiwan(R.O.C)<br />

Mobile: (886) 0-982 829988<br />

Email: esmy@minima-tech.com<br />

Website: www.minima.com<br />

w OEM/ODM (B2B)<br />

w Direct Supply Branding (B2C)<br />

w Total Solution/Turnkey Project<br />

MODA: Biodegradability Analyzer<br />


143-10 Isshiki, Yaizu,<br />

Shizuoka, Japan<br />

Tel:+81-54-624-6155<br />

Fax: +81-54-623-8623<br />

info_fds@saidagroup.jp<br />

www.saidagroup.jp/fds_en/<br />

7. Plant engineering<br />

10.1 Associations<br />

BPI - The Biodegradable<br />

Products Institute<br />

331 West 57th Street, Suite 415<br />

New York, NY 10019, USA<br />

Tel. +1-888-274-5646<br />

info@bpiworld.org<br />

Michigan State University<br />

Dept. of Chem. Eng & Mat. Sc.<br />

Professor Ramani Narayan<br />

East Lansing MI 48824, USA<br />

Tel. +1 517 719 7163<br />

narayan@msu.edu<br />

10.3 Other institutions<br />

Naturabiomat<br />

AT: office@naturabiomat.at<br />

DE: office@naturabiomat.de<br />

NO: post@naturabiomat.no<br />

FI: info@naturabiomat.fi<br />

www.naturabiomat.com<br />

Natur-Tec ® - Northern Technologies<br />

4201 Woodland Road<br />

Circle Pines, MN 55014 USA<br />

Tel. +1 763.404.8700<br />

Fax +1 763.225.6645<br />

info@naturtec.com<br />

www.naturtec.com<br />

NOVAMONT S.p.A.<br />

Via Fauser , 8<br />

28100 Novara - ITALIA<br />

Fax +39.0321.699.601<br />

Tel. +39.0321.699.611<br />

www.novamont.com6. Equipment<br />

EREMA Engineering Recycling<br />

Maschinen und Anlagen GmbH<br />

Unterfeldstrasse 3<br />

4052 Ansfelden, AUSTRIA<br />

Phone: +43 (0) 732 / 3190-0<br />

Fax: +43 (0) 732 / 3190-23<br />

erema@erema.at<br />

www.erema.at<br />

9. Services<br />

Osterfelder Str. 3<br />

46047 Oberhausen<br />

Tel.: +49 (0)208 8598 1227<br />

thomas.wodke@umsicht.fhg.de<br />

www.umsicht.fraunhofer.de<br />

Innovation Consulting Harald Kaeb<br />

narocon<br />

Dr. Harald Kaeb<br />

Tel.: +49 30-28096930<br />

kaeb@narocon.de<br />

www.narocon.de<br />

European Bioplastics e.V.<br />

Marienstr. 19/20<br />

10117 Berlin, Germany<br />

Tel. +49 30 284 82 350<br />

Fax +49 30 284 84 359<br />

info@european-bioplastics.org<br />

www.european-bioplastics.org<br />

10.2 Universities<br />

IfBB – Institute for Bioplastics<br />

and Biocomposites<br />

University of Applied Sciences<br />

and Arts Hanover<br />

Faculty II – Mechanical and<br />

Bioprocess Engineering<br />

Heisterbergallee 12<br />

30453 Hannover, Germany<br />

Tel.: +49 5 11 / 92 96 - 22 69<br />

Fax: +49 5 11 / 92 96 - 99 - 22 69<br />

lisa.mundzeck@hs-hannover.de<br />

www.ifbb-hannover.de/<br />

Green Serendipity<br />

Caroli Buitenhuis<br />

IJburglaan 836<br />

1087 EM Amsterdam<br />

The Netherlands<br />

Tel.: +31 6-24216733<br />

www.greenseredipity.nl<br />

GO!PHA<br />

Rick Passenier<br />

Oudebrugsteeg 9<br />

1012JN Amsterdam<br />

The Netherlands<br />

info@gopha.org<br />

www.gopha.org<br />

Our new<br />

frame<br />

colours<br />

Bioplastics related topics, i.e.<br />

all topics around biobased<br />

and biodegradable plastics,<br />

come in the familiar<br />

green frame.<br />

All topics related to<br />

Advanced Recycling, such<br />

as chemical recycling<br />

or enzymatic degradation<br />

of mixed waste into building<br />

blocks for new plastics have<br />

this turquoise coloured<br />

frame.<br />

When it comes to plastics<br />

made of any kind of carbon<br />

source associated with<br />

Carbon Capture & Utilisation<br />

we use this frame colour.<br />

The familiar blue<br />

frame stands for rather<br />

administrative sections,<br />

such as the table of<br />

contents or the “Dear<br />

readers” on page 3.<br />

If a topic belongs to more<br />

than one group, we use<br />

crosshatched frames.<br />

Ochre/green stands for<br />

Carbon Capture &<br />

Bioplastics, e. g. PHA made<br />

from methane.<br />

Articles covering Recycling<br />

and Bioplastics ...<br />

Recycling & Carbon Capture<br />

We’re sure, you got it!<br />

64 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17

Subscribe<br />

now at<br />

bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

the next six issues for €179.– 1)<br />

Special offer<br />

for students and<br />

young professionals<br />

1,2) € 99.-<br />

2) aged 35 and below.<br />

Send a scan of your<br />

student card, your ID<br />

or similar proof.<br />

p<br />

Event Calendar<br />

You can meet us<br />

18 th LAPET Series - Circular Plastics Packaging LATAM<br />

<strong>06</strong>.12. - 07.12.<strong>2022</strong>, Mexico City, Mexico<br />

www.cmtevents.com/eventschedule.aspx?ev=221230&<br />

17th European Bioplastics Conference<br />

<strong>06</strong>.12. - 07.12.<strong>2022</strong>, Berlin, Germany (hybrid)<br />

https://www.european-bioplastics.org/events/eubp-conference/<br />

9 th European Biopolymer Summit<br />

08.02. - 09.02.2023, London, UK<br />

https://www.wplgroup.com/aci/event/european-biopolymer-summit/<br />

World Biopolymers and Bioplastics Innovation Forum<br />

01.03. - 02.03.2023, Berlin, Germany<br />

www.leadventgrp.com/events/world-biopolymers-and-bioplasticsinnovation-forum/details<br />

Plastics Recycling Conference<br />

<strong>06</strong>.03. - 08.03.2023, National Harbour, MD, USA<br />

https://www.plasticsrecycling.com/<br />

Cellulose Fibres Conference 2023 (CFC)<br />

08.03. - 09.03.2023, Cologne, Germany (hybrid)<br />

https://cellulose-fibres.eu<br />

bio!TOY<br />

21.03. - 22.03.2023, Nuremberg, Germany<br />

Events<br />

daily updated eventcalendar at<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

by bioplastics MAGAZINE<br />

https://www.bio-toy.info<br />

Conference on CO 2 -based Fuels and Chemicals 2023<br />

19.04. - 20.04.2023, Cologne, Germany (hybrid)<br />

https://co2-chemistry.eu<br />

interpack 2023<br />

04.05. - 10.05.2023, Düsseldorf, Germany<br />

https://www.interpack.com<br />

bio!PAC<br />

08.05. - 10.05.2023, Düsseldorf, Germany<br />

by bioplastics MAGAZINE<br />

https://www.bio-pac.info<br />

CO 2 Capture, Storage & Reuse 2023<br />

16.05. - 17.05.2023, Copenhagen, Denmark<br />

https://fortesmedia.com/co2-capture-storage-reuse-2023,4,en,2,1,21.<br />

html<br />

Renewable Materials Conference 2023 (RMC)<br />

23.05. - 25.05.2023, Siegburg, Germany (hybrid)<br />

www.renewable-materials.eu<br />

+<br />

Plastics for Cleaner Planet<br />

26.<strong>06</strong>. - 28.<strong>06</strong>.2023, New York City Area, USA<br />

https://innoplastsolutions.com/conference/<br />

Subject to changes.<br />

For up to date event-info visit https://www.bioplasticsmagazine.com/en/event-calendar/<br />

Use the promotion code ‘book‘ and you will get the basics<br />

book 3) Bioplastics Basics. Applications. Markets.<br />

for free. (New subscribers only).)<br />

Tell us by e-mail the desired language (EN, ES, FR or CN.<br />

1) Offer valid until 31 Jan 2023.<br />

3) Gratis-Buch in Deutschland leider nicht möglich (Buchpreisbindung).<br />

.<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17 65

Company Editorial Advert<br />

Company Editorial Advert<br />

Companies and people in this issue<br />

Agrana Starch Bioplastics 62<br />

AIMPLAS 11,18<br />

AITIIP 22<br />

Alfa Laval 14<br />

All Nippon Airways ANA 50<br />

Andreu World 30<br />

Arctic Biomaterials 42<br />

Arkema 62<br />

Avient 35<br />

BASF 19,44 62<br />

Be Good Friends BGF 6<br />

BeGaMo 11<br />

Benvic 37<br />

Better Biomass 53<br />

Bio4Pac 63<br />

BioBTX 14<br />

Bio-Fed Branch of Akro-Plastic 62<br />

Biofibre 62<br />

Biotec 50 63,67<br />

BLOND:ISH Abracadabra 32<br />

Borealis 35<br />

BPI 64<br />

Brabender 40<br />

Braskem 51<br />

Bugaboo 28<br />

BUSS 21,64<br />

BW Flexibles 51<br />

Bye Bye Plastic 32<br />

Callaghan Innovation 27<br />

CAPROWAX P 63<br />

Carbios 12<br />

Carbon Recycling International 26<br />

Interzero 5,13<br />

ISCC 6,28,34,53<br />

JinHui ZhaoLong High Technology 62<br />

Kaneka 63<br />

Kingfa 63<br />

Kompuestos 22,38 63<br />

KPMG 13<br />

KraussMaffei 14<br />

Lanxess 37<br />

LanzaTech 7<br />

LG Chem 62<br />

L'Oréal 35<br />

Maip 10, 30<br />

Michigan State University 64<br />

Microtec 62<br />

Minima Technology 64<br />

MIT 20<br />

Mitsubishi Corporation 5,10, 37<br />

Mixcycling 62<br />

Mynusco 36<br />

narocon InnovationConsulting 9, 11 64<br />

Naturabiomat 64<br />

Natureplast-Biopolynov 63<br />

NatureWorks 5,43<br />

NaturTec 13 64<br />

Neste 5,12,28,37,56<br />

nova Institute 12,15,54 15,31,39,49,64<br />

Novamont 39 64,68<br />

NREL 21<br />

Nurel 63<br />

OMV 15,34<br />

Orkla 36<br />

Alonso,Mercedes 28<br />

Altice, Rich 43<br />

Amory, Martijn 28<br />

Barbier, Maxime 27<br />

Berthoud, Mathieus 12<br />

Börger, Lars 56<br />

Borghans, Marc 14<br />

Bray, Steve 5<br />

Brouard Gailloit, Solenne 12<br />

Brunelle, Nathalie 35<br />

Brunk, Peter 46<br />

Bussières, Virginie 13<br />

Carraway, Daniel 29<br />

Carus, Michael 12<br />

Coué,Gregory 22<br />

Daphne, Tian 53<br />

de Bie, Francois 10<br />

de Wilde, Bruno 10,47<br />

Di Mucci, Luca 38<br />

Dreisbach, Friedrich 14<br />

Ehlert, Oliver 44<br />

Fischer, Thomas 46<br />

Gielen, Gerty 27<br />

Granacher, Christine 11<br />

Grivalský, Tomáš 24<br />

Groen, Joop 14<br />

Guitteau, Camille 32<br />

Helin, Maiju 13<br />

Celanese Engineered Materials 48<br />

OWS 10,47<br />

Hesselink, Tom 13<br />

Centre for Res. in Agricult. Genomics 23<br />

PADM 52<br />

Hofer,Wolfgang 15<br />

Chimei 5,37<br />

Plastic Energy 13<br />

Hoffmann,Luis 14<br />

Circular Biobased Delta 14<br />

CJ Biomaterials 43 63<br />

Cocoa Canopy 51<br />

Cove 29<br />

CSIC 22<br />

Customized Sheet Extrusion 63<br />

plasticker 19<br />

polymediaconsult 64<br />

Polystyvert 12<br />

Polytan 51<br />

POSTECH 23<br />

PTT/MCC 62<br />

Hong, Chul-Ki 6<br />

Kaeb, Harald 11<br />

Kamphuis, Paul 52<br />

Keilbach, Franz-Xaver 14<br />

Konstantinov, Igor 53<br />

Di Mucci 38<br />

Pyrowave 13<br />

Kopp, Julian<br />

DIN CERTCO 44<br />

REDcert 53<br />

Krause, Lars 54<br />

Dr. Heinz Gupta Verlag 42<br />

DSD Duales System Deutschland 13<br />

DSM 28,35,39<br />

DUH Deutsche Umwelthilfe 44<br />

DuPont 36,48<br />

Earth Renewable Technologies 62<br />

Roswell Textiles 42<br />

RSB 6,53<br />

RSPO 53<br />

RWDC 29<br />

Sabic 36<br />

SAES Coated Films 39<br />

Kristjánsdóttir, Björk 26<br />

Larsen, Carsten 13<br />

Lee, Seung-Jin 43<br />

Lindsey, Blake 29<br />

Martini, Eligio 10, 30<br />

Eastman 13<br />

Saida 64<br />

Martini, Emanuele 10<br />

Eckart 37<br />

Samsung 35<br />

Moei-Galera, Anne-Marie 14<br />

Ecoloop 53<br />

Schneider Electric 35<br />

Moon, Jo Hyun 23<br />

Elixance 37 62<br />

Erema 64<br />

Erewhon 29<br />

EUCertPlast 53<br />

European Bioplastics 11 64<br />

Scion 27<br />

Shell 13<br />

Sino Thai Engieering and Construction 5<br />

Stora Enso 6<br />

Sukano 64<br />

Muscatello, Allegra 10<br />

Niessner, Norbert 7<br />

Noh, Myung Hyun 23<br />

Parker, David 27<br />

Evolution Music 32<br />

Sulzer Chemtech 14<br />

Parker, Mike 52<br />

Fibrant 28<br />

Sunar NP 63<br />

Philipon, Thomas 6<br />

FKuR 62<br />

TA Instruments 14<br />

Polet, Roeland 28<br />

Ford Motor Company 35<br />

Fraunhofer UMSICHT 64<br />

Futamura 51<br />

Gehr 34 63<br />

Gema Polimers 62<br />

Tacoil 6<br />

Tech. Univ. Vienna 24<br />

Technip Energies 13<br />

Tecnaro 63<br />

Tianan Biologic Material 63<br />

Pras, Erik 50<br />

Ravenstijn, Jan 10<br />

Reiffenhäuser,Ulrich 34<br />

Sabur, Mesbah 53<br />

Gianeco 62<br />

Ticinoplast 39<br />

San, Shiba 32<br />

Global Biopolymers 62<br />

Toray 50<br />

Schellerer, Karl-Martin 34<br />

GO!PHA 10 64<br />

TotalEnergies Corbion 6,10,35,52 63<br />

Schmidtchen, Ludwig 40<br />

Grafe 28 62,63<br />

Granula 63<br />

Great River Plastic Manuf. 64<br />

Green Dot Bioplastics 52 63<br />

Green Serendipity 17 64<br />

Gualapack 39<br />

Treffert 63<br />

Trinseo 63<br />

TTCL 5<br />

TÜV Austria 29,38<br />

United Bioplolymers 63<br />

Univ Philippines 40<br />

Stratmann, Matthias 15<br />

Suijkerbruijk, Bart 13<br />

Thiery, Adriaan 28<br />

Thomazo-Jegou, Juliette 11<br />

Totterman, Alex 29<br />

Helian Polymers 42 63<br />

Univ. App. Sc. Upper Austria 24<br />

Ueda, Hiroyuki 10<br />

Henan Shuncheng Group 26<br />

Verbund kompostierbarer Produkte 46<br />

Urquiola, Patricia 30<br />

Idemitsu Kosan 5,37<br />

Imerys 36<br />

INEOS 6,7<br />

ING 14<br />

Inst. F. Bioplastics & Biocomposites 64<br />

Institut f. Kunststofftechnik, Stuttgart 64<br />

Westlake Vinnolit 34<br />

Wilson & Ross 27<br />

Xiamen Changsu Industries 62<br />

Xinjiang Blue Ridge Tunhe Polyester 62<br />

Zeijiang Hisun Biomaterials 63<br />

Zeijiang Huafon 62<br />

von Ketteler, Michael 46<br />

Vries, Tijmen 14<br />

Wilson, Peter 27<br />

Ye, Dae-yeol 23<br />

Yung, GyooYeol 23<br />

Institute of Microbiol. Centra Algatech 24<br />

66 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>06</strong>/22] Vol. 17

ycle.<br />

cresource: a virtous<br />



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6 • 7 DECEMBER <strong>2022</strong><br />





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