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DON’T LET YOUR BUSINESS GO UP IN FLAMES!<br />

100% TAX DEDUCTIBLE<br />

INSTALL OR RETROFIT FIRE<br />

SPRINKLERS TODAY!<br />

DEDUCT THE FULL COST OF QUALIFIED PROPERTY IMPROVEMENT!<br />

CARES ACT<br />

The Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES)<br />

Act closed a loophole that was included in the TCJA by<br />

making QIP 15-year property. This change made businesses<br />

of all sizes, regardless of the amounts spent on equipment,<br />

eligible to deduct the full cost of commercial fire sprinkler<br />

systems using bonus depreciation.<br />

The time is now to upgrade your building's fire safety with a<br />

fire sprinkler system or a sprinkler retrofit. Under the new<br />

Section 179 guidelines, the one year deduction period<br />

phases out after 2022. Any new sprinkler system or retrofit<br />

completed between September 27, 2017 and December 31,<br />

2022 will be able to be fully expensed in one year. After<br />

2022, the allowed deduction percentage is as follows:<br />

2021: 100%<br />

2022: 100%<br />

<strong>2023</strong>: 80%<br />

2024: 60%<br />

2025: 40%<br />

2026: 20%<br />

2027 and after: The depreciation schedule becomes<br />

permanently set at 15 years.<br />

WHAT IS QIP?<br />

The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA), passed in December,<br />

2017, gave small businesses the ability to deduct the full<br />

cost of Qualified Improvement Property (QIP) up to $1.04<br />

million in the year of installation using Section 179.<br />

QIP is defined as improvements to the interior of an existing<br />

building that is not residential property. Commercial fire<br />

sprinkler systems, including upgrades of existing systems or<br />

retrofitting in existing structures, are considered QIP.<br />

The Section 179 deduction is not phased out over time.<br />

However, there is a phase out of the amount allowed as a<br />

deduction based on a maximum spending amount of $2.59<br />

million on equipment in a year. Businesses that spend over<br />

that amount will see a dollar for dollar reduction of their<br />

eligible deduction. So a business that spends $3.63 million<br />

or more on equipment in a given year would not be allowed<br />

any Section 179 Deduction.<br />

WHAT HAS CHANGED?<br />

Prior to the TCJA allowing Section 179 on qualified<br />

improvement property, including sprinkler systems,<br />

property of this type was only allowed a deduction on a<br />

straight line basis over a period of 39 years. In other words,<br />

a company spending $390,000 on a commercial sprinkler<br />

system prior to the TCJA would only deduct $10,000 per<br />

year for 39 years.<br />

While many believe that the intention of Congress was to<br />

make Qualified Improvement Property 15-year property,<br />

which would have made this property eligible for bonus<br />

depreciation, the TCJA left the life of this property at 39<br />

years. So, a taxpayer who did not elect to use the Section<br />

179 Deduction or who has that deduction phased out would<br />

have been left to depreciate the remaining balance of the<br />

assets over a 39-year period.<br />

Neither of these deductions is currently available for fire<br />

sprinkler systems installed in residential high rises. The<br />

National Fire Sprinkler Association (NFSA) continues to fight<br />

to obtain incentives for residential structures.<br />

For more information on how these tax incentives might impact the business of your<br />

contractors, we would recommend that they contact their tax professionals, as<br />

situations differ based on the facts and circumstances for each business. As a general<br />

rule, we would not recommend that the Local provide tax advice to the contractors.<br />

CALL OR CLICK 708­710­1448 • FireProtectionContractors.com


<strong>January</strong> <strong>2023</strong><br />

VOLUME 88 • Number 1<br />

Official Magazine of<br />

38<br />

cover story:<br />

Water-tube Boilers Dominate<br />

Commercial/Industrial Markets<br />

Advantages of water-tube boilers have many considering<br />

their benefits in spite of their elevated cost.<br />

Founded 1934<br />

Dedicated to the Precept “That Anything Being<br />

Done - Can Be Done Better”<br />

Business and Editorial Office:<br />

4701 Midlothian Turnpike, Ste. 4<br />

Crestwood, IL 60418<br />

Phone: 708-293-1720 | Fax: 708-293-1432<br />

E-mail: info@chiefengineer.org<br />

www.chiefengineer.org<br />

Chief Engineer magazine<br />

(ISSN 1553-5797) is published 12 times per year for<br />

Chief Engineers Association of Chicagoland by:<br />

Fanning Communications<br />

4701 Midlothian Turnpike, Ste 4<br />

Crestwood, IL 60418<br />

www.fanningcommunications.com<br />

13<br />

29<br />

Stadiums Can Keep Emergency<br />

Communications Out of the “Dead<br />

Zone”<br />

State-of-the-art Emergency Responder Communication<br />

Enhancement Systems (ERCES) ensure reliable two-way radio<br />

communication at stadiums, preventing lost communication<br />

in potential life-or-death situations.<br />

PVC Roofing: Recyclable at End of<br />

Service Life<br />

PVC roofing membranes are the only commercial roofing<br />

material that, after they run through their life cycle, can be<br />

completely reprocessed into the same product, ready for use.<br />

Publisher<br />

John J. Fanning<br />

john@chiefengineer.org<br />

Editor In Chief<br />

Karl J. Paloucek<br />

karlp@chiefengineer.org<br />

Editor/Graphic Designer<br />

Rob Durkee<br />

robertd@chiefengineer.org<br />

Event Planner/Public<br />

Relations<br />

Alex Boerner<br />

alexb@chiefengineer.org<br />

Accounting/Billing<br />

Leslie Johnson<br />

lesliej@chiefengineer.org<br />

Social Media Specialist<br />

Jamal Mizyed<br />

jamalm@chiefengineer.org<br />

Subscription rate is $36.00 per year in the United States and Canada; $110.00<br />

per year in all other foreign countries. POSTMASTER: Send address changes<br />

to 4701 Midlothian Tpk, Ste. 4, Crestwood, IL 60418.<br />

All statements, including product claims, are those of the person or<br />

organization making the statement or claim. The publisher does not adopt<br />

any such statements as its own, and any such statement or claim does not necessarily<br />

reflect the opinion of the publisher © <strong>2023</strong> Fanning Communications.<br />

5 president’s message<br />

6 in brief<br />

8 news<br />

48 member news<br />

50 techline<br />

56 new products<br />

62 events<br />

64 ashrae update<br />

66 american street guide<br />

68 boiler room annex<br />

70 advertisers list<br />

Volume 88 · Number 1 | 3


DON’T LET YOUR<br />

BUSINESS GO UP<br />

IN FLAMES!<br />

The Fire Protection Contractors work on all aspects of fire protection<br />

systems. Starting with the initial design of your system to the installation we<br />

are with you every step of the way. Almost as important as installing a fire<br />

sprinkler system is the routine maintenance. This includes inspection and<br />

testing to ensure the system is working and, in most areas, required by law.<br />

24 Hour Emergency Service<br />

Inspection, Testing and<br />

Maintenance<br />

Fire Pump Testing<br />

Design and Installation –<br />

Residential, Commercial,<br />

Industrial<br />

Retrofit and Remodel<br />

Fire Suppression Systems<br />

CALL OR CLICK ANYTIME FOR<br />

EMERGENCY OR ROUTINE SERVICE<br />

708­710­1448 • FireProtectionContractors.com


PRESIDENT’S MESSAGE<br />

Dear Members,<br />

BOARD OF DIRECTORS<br />

Dan Carey<br />

Trustee<br />

312-446-1967<br />

Bryan McLaughlin<br />

Doorkeeper<br />

708-687-6254<br />

Robert Jones<br />

Warden<br />

773-407-5111<br />

Patrick Wawrzyniak<br />

Warden<br />

773-410-2326<br />

OFFICERS<br />

Ken Botta<br />

President<br />

708-952-1879<br />

Douglas Kruczek<br />

Vice President<br />

312-287-4915<br />

Laurence McMahon<br />

Vice President<br />

708-535-7003<br />

Ralph White<br />

Recording Secretary<br />

708-579-0259<br />

Brian Staunton<br />

Treasurer<br />

312-533-1575<br />

Brendan Winters<br />

Financial Secretary<br />

773-457-6403<br />

Barbara Hickey<br />

Sergeant-At-Arms<br />

773-350-9673<br />

Kevin Kenzinger<br />

Corresponding Secretary<br />

312-296-5603<br />

DIRECTORS<br />

John McDonagh<br />

Curator<br />

312-296-7887<br />

Brock Sharapata<br />

Warden<br />

312-617-7115<br />

Michael Collins<br />

Warden<br />

708-712-0126<br />

Sean Casey<br />

Warden<br />

312-890-9282<br />

A new year is upon us, and before<br />

we get down to business, let<br />

me thank everyone who attended<br />

the December meeting at<br />

Maggiano’s and gave so generously<br />

to support the Raddatz-Kulak<br />

family at their time of loss.<br />

The Chief Engineers have always<br />

been generous in such situations,<br />

and it was good to see people<br />

acting in the spirit of the season.<br />

We also need to thank, as always,<br />

our sponsors for the event,<br />

including Air Comfort, BEAR<br />

Construction and LionHeart, for<br />

their generosity and helping our<br />

Christmas event to successful as it<br />

was. As always, we encourage everyone<br />

to give them your support as they support us. And let’s not forget<br />

Alex Boerner, our longtime event planner who helped us to plan this and<br />

so many other memorable Chiefs events, who is moving on to different<br />

opportunities with the start of this new year.<br />

Our <strong>January</strong> meeting will be held Wednesday, Jan. 18th, at the Embassy<br />

Suites Hotel (Downtown, 511 N. Columbus Drive). We hope to see you<br />

there. A note on sponsoring opportunities: With Alex’s departure, those<br />

organizations seeking to sponsor a Chiefs event can get in touch with me<br />

via phone (number at left) or via email at kbotta@sbcglobal.net.<br />

Even as we plan our <strong>January</strong> meeting, our popular February Skatefest<br />

is coming together. If you’re a sponsor or vendor and would like to get<br />

involved in this family-friendly event, please don’t hesitate to reach out.<br />

We’ll announce dates and times in due course, but in the meantime, get<br />

those skates sharpened, practice your hockey skills, and we’ll look forward<br />

to seeing you out there.<br />

In the meantime, this month represents a challenging time for us chief<br />

engineers, as you well know, as we balance maintaining our tenants’<br />

comfort levels and coping with the harsh conditions of winter on both<br />

our equipment and our budgets. Remember that should you need them,<br />

our Associate Member organizations are always just a phone call, text or<br />

email away, and are reachable via our biannual Quick Shopper.<br />

All Active members remember to renew your membership for the upcoming<br />

year. If you are having difficulties, please call the office for any help<br />

needed at (708) 293-1430.<br />

As we welcome the new year, please let’s all remember to keep in mind<br />

our men and women of the military and our first responders, on whom<br />

we depend for our freedom and safety.<br />

Sincerely,<br />

Pat Biesty<br />

Warden<br />

312-618-6864<br />

Thomas Phillips<br />

Past President<br />

773-445-7423<br />

Ken Botta<br />

Volume 88 · Number 1 | 5


In Brief<br />

Explosion Tears Through Russian Gas<br />

Pipeline During Repairs<br />

MOSCOW (AP) — An explosion during repairs on a section of<br />

a Europe-bound natural gas pipeline in western Russia killed<br />

three people on Tuesday, Dec. 20, but didn’t affect export<br />

supplies, officials said.<br />

The explosion ripped through a section of the Urengoy-Pomary-Uzhhorod<br />

pipeline in the Chuvashia region during<br />

repair work. Three repair workers were killed and one was<br />

injured by the blast, which sent a huge plume of burning gas<br />

skyward, regional authorities said.<br />

The pipeline that originates at a gas field in Siberia and<br />

crosses Ukraine along its way to Europe is one of the main<br />

routes for Russian gas exports to the EU.<br />

Chuvashia’s governor, Oleg Nikolayev, said in televised<br />

remarks that it wasn’t immediately clear how long it would<br />

take to fix the section of the pipeline cut by the explosion.<br />

The regional branch of Russia’s state-controlled natural gas<br />

giant, Gazprom, said volumes of gas transit weren’t affected<br />

by the blast as supplies were rerouted along parallel lines.<br />

The pipeline crossing Ukraine has become the main conduit<br />

for Russian natural gas supplies to Europe since an explosion<br />

ripped through the Nord Stream 1 and 2 pipeline under the<br />

Baltic Sea in September, causing extensive damage.<br />

Investigators in Sweden have found traces of explosives at<br />

the Baltic Sea site where two natural gas pipelines were<br />

damaged in an act of “gross sabotage,” but they stopped<br />

short of apportioning blame.<br />

West Virginia Poultry Farm Equipped<br />

With 1,400 Solar Panels<br />

OLD FIELDS, W.Va. (AP) — A West Virginia poultry farm is<br />

now equipped with 1,400 solar panels, the largest such system<br />

so far in the state, a company said.<br />

Solar Holler said it installed the panels at Oak Tree Farm in<br />

Hardy County. The company partnered with Davis Hill Development,<br />

Skyview Ventures and West Virginia Poultry Partners<br />

on the project, which will provide the farm with 941,371<br />

kilowatt hours of energy per year.<br />

Thirty-party power purchase agreements allow companies<br />

like Solar Holler to own and operate a solar panel system<br />

while the farm reaps the benefits of low-cost fixed utility<br />

rates and clean energy.<br />

The farm will see a 10-percent reduction in the cost of its<br />

electricity and the solar panel system will allow for expanded<br />

operations, Shepherdstown-based Solar Holler said in a Dec<br />

20 statement.<br />

“We are thrilled to have reached our latest milestone, building<br />

and turning on the largest solar system in West Virginia<br />

history.” Solar Holler founder and CEO Dan Conant said.<br />

Large Indiana Employers Asking<br />

Utilities for ‘Green Tariffs’<br />

INDIANAPOLIS (AP) — Several of Indiana’s major employers<br />

want their local utilities to make it easier for them to buy<br />

power generated by wind and solar farms so they can move<br />

closer to their renewable energy goals.<br />

Cummins, Salesforce, Roche and other companies recently<br />

joined with the cities of Indianapolis and Bloomington in<br />

signing a letter that asks Duke Energy and AES Indiana to<br />

offer more options for large customers to source their electricity<br />

through renewable energy.<br />

They want what’s often called a Green Tariff, which would<br />

allow the cities and companies to buy locally produced renewable<br />

energy, The Indianapolis Star reported.<br />

The companies, including Walmart and Rivian, penned the<br />

letter in conjunction with the Advanced Energy Economy<br />

Indiana — the local chapter of a national association of businesses<br />

working to accelerate the transition to clean energy.<br />

Caryl Auslander, executive director of Advanced Energy Economy<br />

Indiana, said large customers “want to choose renewable<br />

energy, and we’re asking Duke and AES to give them<br />

more options.”<br />

All green tariff programs would need to be approved by<br />

the Indiana Utility Regulatory Commission, the state’s utility<br />

regulator.<br />

Brewery, Salisbury Pair to Rehab Union<br />

Station<br />

SALISBURY, Md. (AP) — Thanks to a landmark $500,000<br />

grant, one of Salisbury’s most iconic structures will finally get<br />

much-needed rehabilitation as part of a bike trail project.<br />

The grant was awarded through the state’s Strategic Demolition<br />

Fund, a program designed to catalyze projects and<br />

activities that accelerate job production and economic development.<br />

Union Station, located at 611 Railway Ave., was<br />

one of 22 projects in the state awarded from this fund, and<br />

the owners of the building, John and Thomas Knorr, have big<br />

plans for the property.<br />

“The initial plan is to stabilize the property by fixing roof<br />

6<br />

| Chief Engineer


window and door damage,” said Thomas Knorr, co-founder<br />

of Evolution Craft Brewing Co. “There are structural parts<br />

of the building that need to be [repaired]. The initial money<br />

will be going to replacing the roof and bring it back to its<br />

condition from 1913 when it was originally built. We want to<br />

separate the building into three different sections.”<br />

Salisbury’s Union Station building will get much-needed<br />

rehabilitation with a landmark grant of $500,000.<br />

World’s Coal Use Creeps to New High<br />

in 2022<br />

BERLIN (AP) — Coal use across the world is set to reach a<br />

new record this year amid persistently high demand for the<br />

heavily polluting fossil fuel, the International Energy Agency<br />

said Friday, Dec. 16.<br />

The Paris-based agency said in a new report that while coal<br />

use grew by only 1.2 percent in 2022, the increase pushed it<br />

to all all-time high of more than 8 billion metric tons, beating<br />

the previous record set in 2013.<br />

“The world’s coal consumption will remain at similar levels<br />

in the following years in the absence of stronger efforts to<br />

accelerate the transition to clean energy,” the agency said,<br />

noting that “robust demand” in emerging Asian economies<br />

would offset declining use in mature markets.<br />

“This means coal will continue to be the global energy<br />

system’s largest single source of carbon dioxide emissions by<br />

far,” the IAE said.<br />

The use of coal and other fossil fuels needs to be cut drastically<br />

to cap global warming at 1.5 degrees Celsius (2.7<br />

degrees Fahrenheit) this century. Experts say the ambitious<br />

target, which governments agreed to in the 2015 Paris<br />

climate accord, will be hard to meet given that average<br />

temperatures worldwide have already risen by 1.2 degrees<br />

Celsius since pre-industrial times.<br />

Contested Natural Gas Pipeline<br />

Granted Permanent Certificate<br />

ST. LOUIS (AP) — Federal officials on Thursday, Dec. 15,<br />

granted Spire Inc. a permanent certificate to operate a natural<br />

gas pipeline in Missouri and Illinois, angering the environmental<br />

group that had sued over the project.<br />

concerns that the pipeline was approved without adequate<br />

review. Last year, a three-judge panel of the U.S. Court of<br />

Appeals for the District of Columbia ruled that FERC had not<br />

adequately demonstrated a need for the project, vacating<br />

approval of the pipeline.<br />

For the past year, the pipeline had been operating under a<br />

temporary certificate while FERC conducted a court-ordered<br />

review.<br />

Scott Smith, president of the Spire STL Pipeline, said in a<br />

statement that he was pleased with the decision. He described<br />

the review the project underwent as “thorough.”<br />

But Ted Kelly, an Environmental Defense Fund attorney,<br />

disagreed, saying that FERC had “again failed to fulfill its<br />

obligation,” alleging that some landowners, ratepayers and<br />

stakeholders were shut out of the review.<br />

He said that FERC should reverse its decision to grant the permanent<br />

certificate and reopen the process with a temporary<br />

certificate in place so there is no disruption in service.<br />

$698M Deal to End Monsanto PCB Pollution<br />

Lawsuit in Oregon<br />

PORTLAND, Ore. (AP) — Bayer, the German pharmaceutical<br />

and biotechnology company, will pay Oregon $698 million<br />

to end a lawsuit over PCB pollution associated with products<br />

made by Monsanto, the agriculture giant it now owns.<br />

It’s the largest environmental damage recovery in Oregon’s<br />

history and “magnitudes larger” than any other state settlement<br />

over PCB contamination by Monsanto, Rosenblum said.<br />

The settlement stems from a lawsuit filed by Oregon against<br />

Monsanto in 2018 for 90 years of pollution in the state until<br />

PCBs were banned in the late 1970s.<br />

PCBs are toxic compounds formerly used in coolants, electrical<br />

equipment such as fluorescent lights, and other devices.<br />

They still contaminate Oregon’s landfills and riverbeds and<br />

show up in fish and wildlife.<br />

“Monsanto’s toxic legacy unfortunately lives on in our lands,<br />

rivers and other waterways — and poses ongoing risks to the<br />

health of our people and our environment,” Rosenblum said.<br />

“This is all the more reason why this settlement is so vitally<br />

important. Oregon and Oregonians will be the better for it.”<br />

The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission first granted<br />

approval for the Spire STL Pipeline in 2018 and it became<br />

fully operational in 2019. It connects with another pipeline in<br />

western Illinois and carries natural gas to the St. Louis region,<br />

where Spire serves around 650,000 customers.<br />

But the Environmental Defense Fund sued in 2020, raising<br />

Volume 88 · Number 1 | 7


News<br />

EPA Investigating Colorado for<br />

Discriminatory Air Pollution<br />

By Michael Phillis and Brittany Peterson | Associated Press<br />

DENVER (AP) — The Environmental Protection Agency is<br />

investigating whether Colorado’s regulation of air pollution<br />

from industrial facilities discriminates against Hispanic<br />

residents and other racial minorities, according to a letter<br />

released Wednesday, Dec. 28.<br />

That’s a level of scrutiny long sought by Lucy Molina whose<br />

daughter goes to school near Colorado’s only petroleum<br />

refinery. Three years ago Molina had just stepped outdoors<br />

when she noticed a coating of ash on her Nissan Altima that<br />

wiped off on her fingers. Then she received a message that<br />

her daughter’s school was locked down and panicked. She<br />

later learned the refinery had malfunctioned, spewing a<br />

clay-like material into the air. She’d heard of lockdowns for<br />

shootings, but never for pollution.<br />

Since then she’s pushed for community air monitoring and<br />

stronger protections, but says it all feels too late. She’s lived<br />

here for 30 years, and her kids are already young adults.<br />

“If we would have known” years ago, she said. “We would<br />

have moved.”<br />

Advocates say the Suncor refinery too often malfunctions,<br />

spiking emissions. They say Colorado rarely denies permits<br />

to polluters, even in areas where harmful ozone already<br />

exceeds federal standards.<br />

Federal investigators said in the letter they will scrutinize the<br />

state’s oversight of Colorado’s biggest polluters including the<br />

Suncor oil refinery in North Denver where Molina lives, and<br />

whether the effect of that pollution on residents is discriminatory.<br />

Suncor did not respond to a request for comment.<br />

But it is already harder for oil and gas companies to get their<br />

air permits in Colorado than in some other energy-producing<br />

states, said John Jacus, chair of the Colorado Chamber of<br />

Commerce board of directors and an environmental compliance<br />

attorney. He said recent allegations that the state’s<br />

permit review process was faulty had the effect of slowing<br />

air permitting, a blow to business.<br />

“It would be really good for air quality to shut everything<br />

down, but that’s not good for society,” Jacus said, adding<br />

there needed to be a balance between environmental protection<br />

and economic activity.<br />

The EPA launched its investigation under Title VI of the Civil<br />

Rights Act of 1964. It has been going on since March but<br />

went little noticed until the letter, which explains its scope.<br />

The Act allows the EPA to negotiate agreements with states<br />

to promote equity. The Biden administration has stepped up<br />

its enforcement of environmental discrimination.<br />

Colorado officials said they welcome the EPA review, more<br />

community participation and are reviewing their permitting<br />

policies to ensure they are focused on environmental justice.<br />

“We’ve always prioritized the health and wellbeing of every<br />

Coloradan no matter their ZIP code, but we know we have<br />

even more to do,” said Trisha Oeth, our Director of Environmental<br />

Health and Protection in a statement.<br />

But the EPA has found those priorities lacking at times.<br />

The agency scrutinized the state’s handling of Suncor. Colorado’s<br />

only oil refinery is roughly 90 years old and is a major<br />

emitter of greenhouse gas emissions in the state.<br />

In March, the EPA objected to a key air permit for the facility<br />

that state regulators were still reviewing 10 years after its<br />

original expiration date. The agency raised “significant environmental<br />

justice concerns” and said that the public wasn’t<br />

given enough opportunity to weigh in. The EPA didn’t object<br />

when the state issued a revised permit.<br />

In July, the agency also said the state had issued permits<br />

for a mine, oil and gas wells and other small polluters even<br />

though they could contribute to violations of federal air<br />

quality standards. Colorado said it would improve its reviews,<br />

but balked at revisiting its permitting decisions.<br />

There are some signs the agency chose Colorado because it<br />

could prove a willing partner.<br />

“Colorado has been one of the states that has been a leader<br />

in addressing environmental justice in the legislature,” said<br />

KC Becker, the head of the EPA region that includes Colorado<br />

and a former state legislative leader.<br />

Colorado has strengthened air monitoring requirements.<br />

It increased funding for air permit reviews. The state’s<br />

greenhouse gas reduction plan aims to reduce pollution in<br />

overburdened areas. It also worked with the EPA to ensure<br />

inspections target the most polluted areas and when companies<br />

reach settlements for wrongdoing, they pay for projects<br />

8<br />

| Chief Engineer


A view of the Suncor Energy oil refinery in Commerce City, Colo., on Nov. 23, 2020. The Environmental Protection Agency is investigating whether Colorado’s<br />

regulation of air pollution from industrial facilities discriminates against Hispanic residents and other racial minorities. Federal investigators said in<br />

a letter released Wednesday, Dec. 28, 2022, that they will scrutinize the state’s oversight of Colorado’s biggest polluters, like the Suncor oil refinery near<br />

Denver. (Rachel Ellis/The Denver Post via AP, File)<br />

that benefit communities.<br />

The EPA may have an easier time convincing Colorado to<br />

change than it would, say, Texas, said Jeremy Nichols, head<br />

of climate and energy programs at WildEarth Guardians.<br />

Family Foundation for coverage of water and environmental<br />

policy. The AP is solely responsible for all content. For all of<br />

AP’s environmental coverage, visit https://apnews.com/hub/<br />

climate-and-environment<br />

Colorado’s changes have “given EPA an opening to say, ‘well,<br />

if that is what you are committed to then let’s really test this<br />

out, let’s see you prove your mettle here,’” said Nichols.<br />

Nichols said Colorado is too deferential to industry. He wants<br />

to see the state deny permits much more often.<br />

Ian Coghill, an attorney with Earthjustice that is challenging<br />

the Suncor permit, says the push and pull between the EPA<br />

and state hasn’t yielded major improvements. Revisions to<br />

Suncor’s permit, he said “didn’t change a lot.”<br />

He is hopeful the civil rights investigation will force the state<br />

to make changes and detail the cumulative effect of pollution<br />

from industry on residents of North Denver.<br />

“I’m definitely optimistic,” he said.<br />

The Associated Press receives support from the Walton<br />

Volume 88 · Number 1 | 9


News<br />

Retailers Find Daylighting Reveals<br />

Product’s True Colors for More Sales<br />

Good lighting has always been the retailer’s friend and<br />

scientific research shows that natural light — sunlight — may<br />

be their very best friend. A seminal study, Daylighting and<br />

Productivity, from 1999, by the environmental consulting<br />

firm the Heschong Mahone Group, found that retail spaces<br />

lit with daylight had increased sales by more than 40 percent<br />

over similar spaces selling comparable products.<br />

Wal-Mart further confirmed this approach when it built<br />

its first energy-efficient model store in Kansas in 1993. The<br />

store was constructed with skylights on one half of the store.<br />

Tom Scay, the company’s vice president for real estate at the<br />

time, told the Wall Street Journal in 1995 that the products<br />

illuminated by the skylights sold much better than those<br />

under fluorescent lights. To rule out other factors that might<br />

explain the higher sales volume, Wal-Mart swapped the<br />

products and when they were lit by the skylights, their sales<br />

numbers went up significantly and the previously well-selling<br />

products’ numbers dropped.<br />

Natural lighting or “daylighting” with skylights is also a winwin<br />

generationally. Retailers can stand out in a crowd targeting<br />

millennial shoppers with their sensitivity to energy usage<br />

and climate change. Older customers are accommodated as<br />

well. Studies by the Illuminating Engineering Society have<br />

shown that after 55 people can need 2.3 times more light<br />

and higher quality light than 25-year-olds. The high cost of<br />

artificially providing the full spectrum light needed by older<br />

folks is eliminated by intelligently placed skylights.<br />

The cherry on top for retailers using daylighting, confirmed<br />

by a study done at the Eneref Institute, is increased foot traffic.<br />

Customers interviewed for the study said that the stores<br />

felt more inviting. And having the checkout counters lit with<br />

daylight made those customers feel more at ease. Salespeople<br />

felt more approachable under skylights and overall, the<br />

shopping experience was more pleasant. Customers are more<br />

likely to spend more time in sunlit retail spaces.<br />

Even retail staff working in sunlit environments are happier,<br />

more productive and are absent less often than those working<br />

for long hours under artificial lights.<br />

Artificial light is also a problem for perceiving color accurately<br />

— something that is crucial for selling many products. In<br />

clothing stores, not only are the clothing colors more attractive<br />

under natural lighting, but so are the customers when<br />

they see themselves in mirrors. Paint, home goods, furniture<br />

and flooring retailers similarly benefit from warm, natural<br />

lighting that enables the true colors to shine through.<br />

For these types of businesses especially, daylighting is crucial<br />

because it provides the best color perception available. Sales<br />

Harnessing renewable and free natural light not only cuts the cost of generating<br />

artificial lighting but reduces collateral expenses as well.<br />

go up because the product looks better and is seen more<br />

accurately. Customers’ color perceptions are directly affected<br />

by the full light spectrum. In fact, the only way to see “true”<br />

color is in full-spectrum light.<br />

That is why when custom furniture producer and retailer,<br />

Marlin Gingerich was planning his new showroom space, he<br />

decided that letting the sunshine in was just good business.<br />

“LEDs and fluorescent lighting really distort colors and it is<br />

hard to discern exactly what the true colors of the furniture<br />

pieces are,” he says.<br />

To remedy this, Gingerich installed daylighting skylights<br />

when he built Midwest Woodworks’ new Kalona, IA’s 7,000<br />

square showroom in 2009. These special sun gathering skylights<br />

harvest and amplify sunlight to illuminate the space<br />

below. The technique is called daylighting and its effect is<br />

dramatic, flooding a space with bright light without any<br />

harshness or glare.<br />

For Gingerich, natural light is important because it highlights<br />

the grains and colors in his furniture well.<br />

“Our store was small, the lighting wasn’t great, and we<br />

determined we could probably do a lot more in sales [by<br />

adding natural lighting],” he says, “People bring in wood<br />

samples and ask us to match a specific color. In our previous<br />

store, we always went out into the direct sunlight which was<br />

not convenient especially in the winter. I discouraged doing<br />

any matching in the store just because the colors weren’t<br />

accurate. With our new skylights, we can do accurate color<br />

matching pretty much anywhere in the showroom.”<br />

Gingerich purchased the daylighting system from DayStar<br />

(Continued on pg. 12)<br />

Volume 88 · Number 1 | 11


(Continued from pg. 11)<br />

News<br />

Systems in Campbell Hill, Ill., after seeing their skylights in<br />

local businesses. “There were other natural lighting systems,<br />

but DayStar had the best overall design and appearance,”<br />

Gingerich says.<br />

DayStar engineers have developed high-performance skylight<br />

systems that capture the sun’s natural light and collect,<br />

amplify and diffuse a broad, even pattern of indoor illumination.<br />

This is accomplished using a four-part system. First, sunlight<br />

is gathered and diffused through an ultra-clear outer dome<br />

and inner collimation lens. The dome is supported by insulated<br />

roof curbs of galvalume steel or aluminum continuously<br />

welded for watertight seams. Then a light shaft made of insulated<br />

panels with highly reflective interior surfaces amplify<br />

light as it is captured. And finally, an attractive ceiling lens,<br />

engineered to diffuse highly concentrated light into a broad<br />

lighting pattern, is installed on the interior ceiling.<br />

Each component can be customized for the building’s specifications.<br />

Gingerich worked with DayStar when he was designing<br />

his new showroom to determine how many skylights he<br />

needed, and their optimal placement.<br />

“We wanted to display our bedroom furniture in individual<br />

rooms,” Gingerich says. “So, we had seven bedrooms along<br />

one side of the showroom and each had its own DayStar<br />

skylight. No one ever complained that there was too much<br />

light in there.”<br />

Aaron Petersheim of Shade Mtn Countertops, in McAlisterville,<br />

PA. also found that natural sunlight is his best salesman.<br />

“Natural light is a full-spectrum daylight, where any artificial<br />

lighting would also need to be the full spectrum, or it would<br />

be a handicap,” Petersheim explains. “Artificial light has<br />

limited wavelengths. Lamps can be too yellow or too blue.<br />

You really need the correct lighting for the countertops, and<br />

natural daylight is perfect for it.”<br />

roofs. The DayStar skylights are easy to install and come with<br />

detailed instructions and all the materials required. Petersheim<br />

hired a local DayStar dealer to install the skylights<br />

after an initial trial of seven in a separate fabrication shop in<br />

2014. “The installation process took about a week,” he says.<br />

“They were installed well and are watertight.”<br />

Harnessing renewable and free natural light not only cuts<br />

the cost of generating artificial lighting but reduces collateral<br />

expenses as well. Some artificial light creates greater heat<br />

loads, which must be offset by a building’s cooling system.<br />

Direct sunlight from standard windows can be an issue too.<br />

One thing that Gingerich noticed immediately in the new<br />

showroom was the light was even and diffused and illuminated<br />

the entire showroom. “In the old showroom,” he says<br />

“On a nice sunny day, there was, what I would call a pool of<br />

light inside every window. And the light did not extend very<br />

far into the showroom.”<br />

With a good thermal designed daylighting system, energy<br />

costs can be reduced.<br />

Gingerich found that the skylights provided an additional<br />

benefit even before they were installed. When asking the<br />

bank for the loan he needed to construct the new showroom,<br />

he explained that he expected to increase sales by<br />

installing the DayStar System.<br />

“I told the loan officer that based on what we were hearing<br />

from our clients if we had more natural lighting that our<br />

business would increase,” says Gingerich. “Our sales ended<br />

up higher than I initially projected. So, if you are retailer considering<br />

bringing in more natural lighting, your sales have<br />

nowhere to go but up.”<br />

For more information on natural daylighting systems, visit<br />

www.daystarskylightsystem.com; email roman@daystar1.com<br />

or call (618) 426-1868.<br />

Petersheim has installed more than 40 daylighting skylights<br />

on his countertop showroom and fabrication production<br />

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| Chief Engineer


Stadiums Can Keep Emergency<br />

Communications Out of the “Dead<br />

Zone”<br />

At stadiums across the country, first responders including<br />

police, fire and Emergency Medical Services (EMS) depend on<br />

reliable two-way radio communication when lives and property<br />

are at risk. In-building radio signals are often blocked or<br />

attenuated by structures that are large and primarily constructed<br />

of metal and concrete and with below grade areas.<br />

When this occurs, weak or obstructed signals result in radio<br />

communication “dead zones” that can jeopardize emergency<br />

coordination among first responders.<br />

Stadiums bring together thousands of spectators and participants<br />

for games, concerts and other gatherings, making<br />

real-time radio coordination among police, fire and EMS<br />

services essential. This is not only necessary for routine<br />

traffic, crowd control and medical services, but also to facilitate<br />

response to the unexpected. Incidents can range from<br />

transporting an injured player to the hospital to responding<br />

immediately to a fire or other emergency on the premises.<br />

When lives are on the line, a quick, coordinated response can<br />

help de-escalate a situation before it intensifies.<br />

“Stadiums often have one or two levels below grade, which<br />

is a major problem for emergency communication,” says<br />

Deron Bone, president of RF DAS Systems, Inc., a national<br />

provider of emergency responder radio coverage systems for<br />

more than 30 years. “Pre-cast walls, pipes, rebar or structural<br />

steel can also disrupt communication, which can be prevalent<br />

in areas such as stairwells or tunnels. Signal failure in any<br />

critical area will require installing an Emergency Responder<br />

Communication Enhancement Systems (ERCES).”<br />

ERCES are mandated by fire code in most places for the<br />

construction of new stadiums and some existing stadiums.<br />

These advanced systems boost the signal within all areas of<br />

the stadium, providing clear, two-way radio communication<br />

without dead spots.<br />

“Basically, all stadiums from high school to college to pro<br />

need an ERCES, since there can be communication dead spots<br />

throughout. Many do not have these systems, so testing is<br />

essential to support safety and compliance,” adds Bone.<br />

State-of-the-art ERCES are available that amplify and accommodate<br />

all the necessary emergency signals required, even<br />

in the largest stadiums. The approach facilitates meeting all<br />

codes while reducing overall installation cost and complexity<br />

— helping to expedite tight project deadlines.<br />

A World-Class Stadium<br />

Recently, RF DAS Systems installed an ERCES at a new West<br />

Coast stadium with more than 30,000 seat capacity, that<br />

hosts both professional and collegiate sports as well as large<br />

festivals, concerts and events.<br />

According to Bone, when RF DAS Systems initially conducted<br />

a pre-test on the stadium, there was no signal in much of the<br />

first floor and the entire lower level, so installing additional<br />

antennas was required in the ERCES system throughout these<br />

areas.<br />

“Even though a radio transmission tower is close, there were<br />

a number of weak points in coverage that needed to be<br />

accommodated,” says Bone.<br />

ERCES were first introduced in the 2009 International Building<br />

Code. The latest version requires all buildings to have an<br />

approved level of emergency communication coverage for<br />

first responders.<br />

ERCES systems function by connecting through an over-theair<br />

link that the installer optimizes to the public safety radio<br />

communications tower network using a rooftop directional<br />

antenna. This antenna is then connected via coaxial cable to<br />

a bi-directional amplifier (BDA), which increases the signal<br />

level to provide sufficient coverage within a stadium based<br />

on life safety standards. The BDA is connected to a distributed<br />

antenna system (DAS), a network of relatively small<br />

antennas installed throughout the structure that serve as repeaters<br />

to improve the signal coverage in any isolated areas.<br />

In stadiums, multiple amplifiers are usually required to drive<br />

an adequate signal level across the system.<br />

Fire, police and EMS frequencies vary across the country. To<br />

increase safety and compliance, the specific radio frequency<br />

used must be customized to the stadium configuration,<br />

the frequencies used by emergency services specifically in<br />

the area, and the geographic topography, i.e., nearby hills,<br />

mountains, etc. The design usually involves tuning the ERCES<br />

to prevent signal interference with other frequencies and<br />

avoid running afoul of the FCC, which can levy significant<br />

fines when violations occur.<br />

To streamline the process, Bone selected the Fiplex by Honeywell<br />

BDA and fiber DAS system.<br />

(Continued on pg. 14)<br />

Volume 88 · Number 1 | 13


(Continued from pg. 13)<br />

News<br />

The compliant, FCC-certified system was developed to reliably<br />

provide superior RF amplification and coverage without<br />

noise, enhancing two-way radio signal strength inside buildings<br />

including stadiums. The system is specifically designed<br />

to meet NFPA and IBC/IFC code compliance with the UL 2524<br />

Second Edition listing.<br />

One vital aspect that sets the Fiplex ERCES apart is that Fiplex<br />

can “tune” the device to the channels used before shipping.<br />

The installer can further optimize the BDA’s RF tuning onsite<br />

to achieve the precise frequency required with channel<br />

selective, software programmable or adjustable bandwidths.<br />

This mitigates the issue of wideband transmission, which can<br />

otherwise cause outside interference in highly congested RF<br />

environments like stadiums and potentially lead to FCC fines.<br />

Bone points out another aspect that distinguishes Fiplex<br />

BDAs from other digital signal boosters: the availability of a<br />

dual-band option for dedicated UHF or VHF models.<br />

“One of the best features of the system is that it can incorporate<br />

both UHF and VHF in one unit, which saves space<br />

and simplifies installation,” says Bone. “Previously, I had to<br />

purchase separate units.”<br />

To meet tight deadlines, companies rely on OEMs to quickly<br />

deliver ERCES system components.<br />

“My customers cannot wait eight weeks, let alone 18 to 20<br />

weeks, for an amplifier,” Bone says. “Although this happens<br />

in the industry, I don't have that problem with Fiplex. They<br />

coordinate with us so we always have a ready supply.”<br />

For the stadium project, RF DAS Systems relayed the specific<br />

fire, police, EMS and public service frequencies to Fiplex,<br />

which programmed the RF signal band.<br />

Bone appreciates how the ERCES system enhances design<br />

flexibility. This can be particularly important after a stadium<br />

project is complete if modifications are made or a certain<br />

material is denser and more prone to blocking RF signals<br />

than originally believed.<br />

“With a BDA software upgrade, I can change the amplifier<br />

At stadiums across the country, weak or obstructed signals result in radio communication “dead zones” that can jeopardize emergency coordination<br />

among first responders.<br />

14 | Chief Engineer


from a half-watt to a two-watt BDA,” he says. “That flexibility<br />

is key because it allows easy adjustment, so I don’t need to<br />

purchase and install another amplifier if a structure is denser<br />

than I thought.”<br />

Additionally, the compact size of the BDA eases installation.<br />

“Fiplex’s BDA is much smaller than the industry norm, and<br />

has its own mounting bracket, which streamlines field installation,”<br />

Bone says. He notes that the system’s DAS and fiber<br />

components are much easier to install than the equipment he<br />

previously used.<br />

For Bone, installing a reliable system that works as expected<br />

is the most important aspect of any project.<br />

“When there’s an incident at a stadium, like an injured player<br />

who is taken off the field by ambulance, it is a communications<br />

frenzy with RF signals flying everywhere — which is<br />

tough on an ERCES system, but if you are installing a quality<br />

system, then everything is OK,” says Bone.<br />

ERCES are mandated, advanced systems that boost the signal within all areas<br />

of the stadium, providing clear, two-way radio communication without<br />

dead spots.<br />

This was put to the test when the final sign-off by the AHJ<br />

(Authority Having Jurisdiction) was the day of the first game,<br />

due to tight timelines for stadium completion.<br />

The inspection went off without a hitch and the fire marshal<br />

signed off on the ERCES.<br />

“The Fiplex system passed with flying colors,” concludes<br />

Bone.<br />

To avoid delays and technical challenges, stadium developers,<br />

architects and engineering firms can benefit from an expert<br />

contractor’s familiarity with ERCES requirements. With quick<br />

shipment of an advanced ERCES tuned by the manufacturer<br />

to the required RF channel, a skilled contractor can install<br />

and further optimize the device to the specific local band<br />

frequencies. The approach expedites the project and compliance,<br />

enhancing safety during an emergency.<br />

For more information, contact Megan McGovern, Director of<br />

External Communications at Honeywell Building Technologies,<br />

email megan.mcgovern@honeywell.com or call<br />

(404) 216-6186.<br />

Volume 88 · Number 1 | 15


News<br />

Industrial-Grade VIZZ Headlamps<br />

Maximize Safety, Reliability<br />

For professional trades like utilities, facility maintenance,<br />

and construction, Princeton Tec’s industrial-grade VIZZ<br />

series headlamps are designed to provide powerful, lasting,<br />

reliable, hands-free illumination to increase operator safety<br />

and productivity in the many low-light work conditions that<br />

require it. Whether the job starts before the sun rises or ends<br />

after it sets, or operators are working in small or large dark<br />

spaces, they need a light that is going to work as hard as<br />

they do in whatever conditions that are thrown their way.<br />

Princeton Tec designs and manufactures its headlamps in<br />

the U.S. with durable thermoplastic material engineered to<br />

withstand drops and rough handling. An IPX7 waterproof<br />

rating means the headlamps are thoroughly protected from<br />

moisture, providing waterproof integrity down to 1 meter<br />

for up to 30 minutes. The U.S. military and numerous utilities<br />

use these products, which offer a lifetime warranty.<br />

Lightweight 3.2oz VIZZ series headlamps flexibly light up the<br />

workspace with two separate modes that the operator can<br />

easily switch between at the push of a button: flood, which<br />

widely illuminates the surroundings, and spot, which focuses<br />

a bright beam on the task at hand.<br />

The operator can dim and adjust the light level to their<br />

personal preference in both modes by holding down the<br />

pushbutton to the desired setting. The dimming capability<br />

also extends battery life. The raised button provides ease of<br />

use when the operator is wearing gloves.<br />

Since battery life is an important consideration for technicians<br />

working 8-to-12-hour shifts, VIZZ series headlamps offers<br />

consistent regulated LED illumination. Traditional lights<br />

are very bright initially, but immediately begin to dim and<br />

continue to dim until the batteries are drained.<br />

These headlamps come with an industrial headlamp kit with<br />

a nylon head strap, a rubber hard hat strap, and double-sided<br />

Velcro to affix the light to a helmet, if preferred. Three<br />

AAA batteries are included.<br />

The VIZZ series is offered in two distinctive headlamp models,<br />

the VIZZ II and VIZZ IND. Both appear in POP packaging<br />

for facility managers that want to display the products in<br />

their vending machines as all specifications are clearly listed.<br />

The VIZZ II<br />

For trades that work in potentially hazardous environments,<br />

the intrinsically safe VIZZ II headlamp meets essentially all<br />

safety requirements whether for OSHA, Zone 0, or state<br />

standards (Classes I, II, III; Divisions 1,2; and Groups A-G). So,<br />

there is nothing from the light that could spark a potential<br />

fire or explosion in a work environment that could have<br />

flammable gases, vapors, materials, or dusts present.<br />

One Maxbright LED creates a powerful 200 lumen spot beam<br />

for long-throw illumination, while 4 Ultrabright LEDs deliver<br />

a dimmable flood beam. At close range, the wide beams simulate<br />

normal daylight conditions, allowing technicians to use<br />

their peripheral vision, while focused narrow beams provide<br />

distance illumination. The smooth, white, wide-beam light<br />

emitted by Ultrabright LEDs is ideal for close to mid-range<br />

tasks. Ultrabright LEDs are usually grouped together to offer<br />

a more powerful light source. The headlamp offers a burn<br />

time of 102 hours.<br />

VIZZ IND<br />

The VIZZ IND headlamp is like the VIZZ II but provides even<br />

brighter illumination with a 550-lumen spot beam. However,<br />

it is not safety-rated for hazardous environments. The headlamp<br />

offers a burn time of 100 hours.<br />

Although professional industrial-grade headlamps cost a little<br />

more up front, the overall cost of ownership is often lower<br />

because the batteries typically last 5-6 times longer and do<br />

not need to be replaced constantly during work shifts.<br />

Since the rugged headlamps are designed to last for many<br />

years in harsh conditions, frequent replacement also is not<br />

necessary the way it is with more fragile consumer-grade<br />

units.<br />

For more info, call 1-800-257-9080; email<br />

questions@princetontec.com; visit princetontec.com; or write<br />

to Princeton Tec, PO Box 8057, Trenton, NJ 08650.<br />

Princeton Tec’s industrial-grade VIZZ<br />

series headlamps provide powerful,<br />

lasting, reliable, hands-free illumination.<br />

Princeton Tec’s VIZZ series<br />

headlamps increase operator<br />

safety and productivity in the<br />

many low-light work conditions<br />

that require it.<br />

16<br />

| Chief Engineer


All-Volunteer Firefighting Team at Point<br />

Pleasant Fire Company #1 Now Trains on<br />

The Fire Chief<br />

SUN PRAIRIE, Wis. — Point Pleasant Fire Company #1 got<br />

a truly great present for its 98th birthday this year — a<br />

30-foot-tall training tower, The Fire Chief. The structure was<br />

first put into service on May 22, 2022, by members of the<br />

all-volunteer fire company to enhance their live fire training<br />

skills.<br />

“Fortunately, we don’t have many structure fires in our<br />

area,” says Battalion Chief/Training Officer Will Dobron with<br />

Point Pleasant Fire Company #1 in Point Pleasant, Pa. “That’s<br />

specifically why it’s so important for us to have a building<br />

where we can train for live fires. We need to continually<br />

hone our skills so that we’re prepared to make an aggressive<br />

attack when a fire does occur, and our firefighters are called<br />

into action.”<br />

Selecting Fire Facilities<br />

The Fire Chief tower selected by the Point Pleasant Fire Co.<br />

#1 features a residential-like design. There’s a burn room on<br />

the first floor with interior stairs leading to multiple floors.<br />

The 60-foot-long structure features an interior ships ladder,<br />

roof-mounted chop-out curbs, and parapet roof guard<br />

with chain opening. The Fire Facilities structure is made of<br />

all-American steel and designed for multiple training exercises,<br />

including hose advancement, fire attack, search and<br />

rescue, rappelling, laddering, confined space, and high-angle<br />

rescue operations.<br />

“We specifically invested in this Fire Facilities structure<br />

because, after much research, it seemed to be the closest<br />

building to a structure that you will see on the streets,” says<br />

Dobron, a fourth-generation firefighter. “The smooth walls<br />

allow you to ladder anywhere on the building. We compared<br />

this to competitor’s buildings where they are corrugated and<br />

need to have metal plates installed for a smooth surface for<br />

ladders to be placed, which is inconvenient.”<br />

#1 was started. A group of concerned citizens formed the<br />

volunteer department after a local fire destroyed a store because<br />

area firefighters were too far away to help. Since that<br />

time the department has relied on volunteers to keep Point<br />

Pleasant safe.<br />

“Our training in the past was on an old homemade tower,<br />

along with a 40-foot overseas container for search and rescue<br />

drills,” says Dobron, a 14-year firefighter veteran. “When<br />

available, we’d use acquired structures too, but they were<br />

few and far between.<br />

“With The Fire Chief, we’re looking forward to the variety of<br />

training scenarios we can perform in this building. From the<br />

normal live fire training, search and rescue, ventilation and<br />

laddering to rappelling, there’s lots of options.<br />

“We custom-designed the three-story tower to be 18-feet<br />

long to give ourselves more room to work around the floor<br />

door area in the tower. This will help us with confined space<br />

rescue training. Every aspect of using The Fire Chief is dedicated<br />

to helping make our volunteer firefighters more skilled<br />

and prepared for handling real emergency situations on a<br />

daily basis.”<br />

Fire Facilities, Inc. (FFI), founded in 1989 and an ISFSI corporate<br />

sponsor, manufactures a full line of steel fire training<br />

structures engineered to withstand real-life firefighting conditions.<br />

From mobile units to burn rooms to high-rise towers,<br />

FFI training models are available in a multitude of configurations.<br />

For more information, visit www.firefacilities.com or<br />

call 800-929-3726.<br />

Dobron relates that the process to procure the structure took<br />

about four years. From initial planning to completion included<br />

many meetings with the township to gain approvals. “For<br />

funding, we were fortunate that past members made wise<br />

investments over the years,” says Dobron. “That made it possible<br />

for the fire company to purchase the training tower.”<br />

Preparing for Service<br />

Getting to the point of having a new Fire Facilities tower all<br />

began back in 1924 when the Point Pleasant Fire Company<br />

Volume 88 · Number 1 | 17


News<br />

Social Ventures and Innovators Around<br />

the World Invited to Apply for the ASME<br />

ISHOW Accelerator<br />

NEW YORK — The American Society of Mechanical Engineers<br />

(ASME) is currently accepting applications from social entrepreneurs<br />

focusing on hardware innovations for the <strong>2023</strong><br />

ASME Innovation Showcase (ISHOW). The prestigious global<br />

hardware accelerator is open to individuals and organizations<br />

taking physical products to market that will have a positive<br />

social and/or environmental impact and that improve<br />

the quality of life around the world.<br />

Applicants should have an existing prototype and interest in<br />

receiving financial/technical support and access to expert networks<br />

that can assist in taking their product to market. ASME<br />

ISHOW finalists receive product exposure, advice, and technical<br />

insights through ISHOW’s rigorous review methodology.<br />

Finalist will have a chance to earn a share of $200,000 in seed<br />

grants, in-kind support, design services, travel stipends, and<br />

marketing and business development assets.<br />

Eight finalists are chosen for each of three regional events<br />

from hundreds of applications received each year. The deadline<br />

for applications is Feb. 7 for entrepreneurs in India and<br />

the Asia Pacific region seeking consideration for ISHOW India.<br />

Finalists for ISHOW India will be invited to present their<br />

pitches as part of ASME India Innovation Week, a weeklong<br />

program of events for engineering educators, students, and<br />

entrepreneurs April 1-4 in Bengaluru.<br />

“We are proud to offer a forum for engineering problem-solving<br />

that truly improves lives,” said ASME Executive<br />

Director/CEO Tom Costabile. “We are continually impressed<br />

by the creative talent of ASME ISHOW participants and their<br />

passion for helping underserved communities around the<br />

world. We look forward to engaging in person with the<br />

vibrant engineering community within India when we return<br />

to Bengaluru this spring.”<br />

“Social enterprises, now more than ever, need the support of<br />

the global impact community,” says Iana Aranda, director of<br />

ASME’s Engineering Global Development sector that houses<br />

ISHOW. “Social entrepreneurs around the world, including<br />

many ISHOW ventures, are on the frontlines of crisis response<br />

and the advancement of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development<br />

Goals. We are aggressively focused on providing<br />

these innovators with accessible platforms for capacity building,<br />

expert engagement and co-design of scaling strategies<br />

suited for today’s dynamic markets. Ensuring their success is<br />

of paramount importance.”<br />

The <strong>2023</strong> ISHOW cohort will be invited to the annual ISHOW<br />

Bootcamp in the fall to receive an extensive and customized<br />

design and engineering review by experts recruited to guide<br />

them as they scale to market. They will also have a chance<br />

to earn a second round of seed grants from ASME. They<br />

become part of the ISHOW alumni network, an international<br />

community of hardware innovators and stakeholders with<br />

exclusive access to experts and resources.<br />

ASME ISHOW annually matches up to 24 carefully selected<br />

innovators with appropriate engineering experts to ensure<br />

that the proposed hardware solutions are technologically,<br />

environmentally, culturally and financially sustainable.<br />

ASME’s panel of judges and experts includes successful entrepreneurs,<br />

academics, engineers, designers, investors and<br />

industry representatives from leading organizations in India,<br />

Kenya, and the United States. These subject-area experts provide<br />

technical and strategic guidance based on ISHOW’s four<br />

key pillars: customer/user knowledge, hardware validation,<br />

manufacturing optimization, and implementation strategy.<br />

Earlier this year, ASME launched the Idea Lab incubator,<br />

extending the reach of the ISHOW hardware accelerator<br />

platform.<br />

The application deadline is April 14 for innovators in the<br />

Middle East and Africa seeking consideration for ISHOW Kenya,<br />

a virtual event to be held June 6-14; applications are due<br />

June 1 for social entrepreneurs in the Americas seeking consideration<br />

for ISHOW USA scheduled for July. Three companies<br />

selected at each event will join the ISHOW <strong>2023</strong> cohort.<br />

18<br />

| Chief Engineer


Between ASME’s and Idea Lab incubator and ISHOW showcase, the event covers the full spectrum of tech development, from idea inception to product<br />

launch.<br />

With Idea Lab, ASME moves “upstream” to aid budding<br />

social entrepreneurs in developing and implementing their<br />

social impact hardware concepts from the pre-prototype<br />

stage. Applications for the <strong>2023</strong>-2024 Idea Lab class will open<br />

in summer <strong>2023</strong>.<br />

To date, ISHOW has enabled more than 200 startups from<br />

30-plus countries to solve critical quality-of-life challenges<br />

for vulnerable populations worldwide. ISHOW alumni have<br />

developed affordable devices to address key issues related to<br />

clean combustion, crop threshing, fetal health, food waste<br />

prevention, health diagnostics, safe drinking water, and<br />

many more that advance the U.N. Sustainable Development<br />

Goals.<br />

ASME is grateful to The Lemelson Foundation for its continued<br />

support of the ISHOW with a three-year strategic<br />

investment and to ISHOW implementation partners around<br />

the globe. Learn more about ISHOW’s global impact in this<br />

dynamic dashboard.<br />

Follow the journeys of ISHOW alumni including PayGo<br />

Energy, PlenOptika, Himalayan Rocket Stove, SAYeTECH and<br />

others here.<br />

Volume 88 · Number 1 | 19


News<br />

Steps to Follow for a Successful School<br />

Renovation by Sam Cicero<br />

PLAINFIELD, Ill. — Renovating a school offers an opportunity<br />

for a community to invest in its own future and provide a<br />

safe, welcoming environment for all students. More importantly,<br />

renovation offers new possibilities to make the school<br />

an academic environment in which children can thrive.<br />

A community has one of two choices when it comes to<br />

an outdated school: renovating the building or tearing it<br />

down to start from scratch with a new facility featuring the<br />

latest learning technologies. Of course, new construction is<br />

considerably more expensive than renovation, and typically<br />

requires a much longer timeline measured in years, rather<br />

than months. Renovations, correctly planned by an experienced<br />

contractor, can have excellent results much faster at a<br />

vastly lower price.<br />

If the community decides on a renovation, the final cost<br />

will be largely dependent on the condition and age of the<br />

existing building. A much older school may need new HVAC,<br />

electrical and plumbing. One that has been in service for<br />

only a decade or two, in contrast, will not need new mechanicals<br />

but may require upgrades such as high-speed Ethernet<br />

cabling to replace an aging coaxial network.<br />

project team will need to address.<br />

Here is a rough overview of the process that you can use for<br />

your school renovation journey:<br />

1. Data Collection: Your in-house project team should gather<br />

all files on the original school design, its electrical, HVAC<br />

and plumbing systems, and any other structural details.<br />

It’s essential to share this information with the renovation<br />

team you’ve hired, including architect, interior designer,<br />

mechanical engineer, and general contractor, to ensure<br />

everything goes smoothly. No detail is too small.<br />

2. Collect Input: Conduct a survey to gauge opinions about<br />

the current state of the school and what changes those<br />

most affected by a renovation — the school’s students,<br />

staff, neighbors — would like to see made. Meet with<br />

school board members to collect ideas on what kind of<br />

environment they believe students need to best succeed.<br />

Renovation costs will also be determined by the goals set<br />

forth by the district. Below are a few that renovation contractors<br />

are often asked to meet:<br />

• Improve student safety and building security<br />

• Expand classrooms and administrative offices<br />

• Redesign floor layouts including additions<br />

• Update mechanical and technological infrastructures<br />

• Reduce building energy consumption and improve sustainability<br />

• Bring the school up to current building codes (fire, accessibility).<br />

A school renovation project should not only enhance the<br />

facility but also student academic performance and job opportunities.<br />

For instance, upgrading the school’s technology<br />

will better prepare students for a life beyond the classroom,<br />

especially where the school space reflects the modern workplace.<br />

Multiple studies have shown that good school design<br />

is a key factor in academic excellence and in improving the<br />

wellbeing of pupils, as well as in helping to attract and retain<br />

the best staff and teachers.<br />

When undertaking a school renovation project, it’s important<br />

to create a plan or “roadmap” that takes you through each<br />

step of the process — from initial planning and budgeting to<br />

final construction and commissioning new equipment. Renovations<br />

of this magnitude can be overwhelming, often filled<br />

with hurdles and hassles the school district and your in-house<br />

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3. Initial Design and Layout: Now it is time to work with the<br />

renovation team. Share your goals, structural information<br />

and input so that an initial layout can be created, usually<br />

by the architect and engineer, who are well-versed in local<br />

safety and ADA requirements, community building codes,<br />

and current material costs and availability. This first draft<br />

will likely go through several revisions before being finalized.<br />

4. Prepare the Budget: Establish a detailed budget for a<br />

school board presentation that includes all architectural,<br />

technology and furniture solutions, as well as a timeline<br />

for construction. This budget will be carefully reviewed,<br />

revised and approved by the school board before renovations<br />

can begin.<br />

5. Final Review: Next, it is the responsibility of your in-house<br />

project team to review and approve all final contractor<br />

quotes, construction details and schedule, and to generate<br />

a purchase order.<br />

6. Renovation Begins: School renovations often have a<br />

narrow window to be completed, usually over summer<br />

vacation or extended holiday breaks. Here is where the<br />

renovation contractor’s skills are crucial in areas such as<br />

permitting, material deliveries and storage, scheduling subcontractor<br />

work, and conducting inspections. Every phase<br />

must be sequenced by the contractor to avoid delays. Communications<br />

between your contractor and project team will<br />

ensure problems are quickly resolved.<br />

7. Project Delivery: Your school renovation is now complete<br />

and delivered. Although the work is done, your general<br />

contractor will continue to act as a liaison between the<br />

school and the project’s sub-contractors and material suppliers<br />

should an issue arise.<br />

Whether you’re renovating a single classroom or constructing<br />

a major addition to the school from the foundation up,<br />

Cicero Construction Group can ensure a safe, quality-driven,<br />

cost-effective project. Contact us at<br />

www.cicero-construction.com.<br />

Sam Cicero is president of Cicero Construction Group.<br />

Cicero Construction Group renovating Chicago Math and Science Academy<br />

in Chicago’s Rogers Park neighborhood.<br />

Volume 88 · Number 1 | 21


News<br />

Scientists: Atmospheric Carbon Might<br />

Turn Lakes More Acidic<br />

By John Flesher | AP Environmental Writer<br />

TRAVERSE CITY, Mich. (AP) — The Great Lakes have endured<br />

a lot the past century, from supersized algae blobs to invasive<br />

mussels and bloodsucking sea lamprey that nearly wiped<br />

out fish populations.<br />

Now, another danger: They — and other big lakes around<br />

the world — might be getting more acidic, which could make<br />

them less hospitable for some fish and plants.<br />

Scientists are building a sensor network to spot Lake Huron<br />

water chemistry trends. It’s a first step toward a hoped-for<br />

system that would track carbon dioxide and pH in all five<br />

Great Lakes over multiple years, said project co-leader Reagan<br />

Errera of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.<br />

“If you change things chemically, you’re going to change<br />

how things behave and work and that includes the food<br />

web,” said Errera, a research ecologist with NOAA’s Great<br />

Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory in Ann Arbor,<br />

Mich.<br />

“Does that mean your favorite fish might not be around anymore?<br />

We don’t know that, but we know things will change.<br />

Maybe where and when they spawn, where they’re located,<br />

what they eat.”<br />

Oceans are becoming more acidic as they absorb carbon<br />

dioxide that human activity pumps into the atmosphere —<br />

the primary cause of climate change. Acidification endangers<br />

coral reefs and other marine life.<br />

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Studies based on computer models suggest the same thing<br />

may be happening in big freshwater systems. But few programs<br />

are conducting long-term monitoring to find out — or<br />

to investigate the ecological ripple effects.<br />

“This doesn’t mean the waters are going to be unsafe to<br />

swim in. It’s not like we’re making super acid battery liquid,”<br />

said Galen McKinley, a Columbia University environmental<br />

sciences professor. “We’re talking about long-term change in<br />

the environment that to humans would be imperceptible.”<br />

A 2018 study of four German reservoirs found their pH levels<br />

had declined — moving closer to acidity — three times faster<br />

in 35 years than in oceans since the Industrial Revolution.<br />

Researchers say Great Lakes also could approach acidity<br />

around the same rate as in oceans by 2100. Data from the<br />

Lake Huron project will help determine if they’re right.<br />

Two sensors have been attached to a floating weather buoy<br />

at Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary near Alpena,<br />

Mich. One measures carbon dioxide pressure in the water<br />

column and the other pH. Additionally, crews are collecting<br />

water samples at varying depths within the 4,300-squaremile<br />

area for chemical analysis.<br />

Besides disrupting aquatic life and habitat, acidification<br />

could deteriorate hundreds of wooden shipwrecks believed<br />

resting on the bottom, said Stephanie Gandulla, the sanctuary’s<br />

resource protection coordinator and a study co-leader.<br />

Other monitoring stations and sampling sites are planned,<br />

Errera said. The goal is to take baseline measurements, then<br />

see how they change over time.<br />

Data also is needed from lakes Erie, Michigan, Ontario and<br />

Superior, she said. All are part of the world’s largest surface<br />

freshwater system but have distinct characteristics, including<br />

water chemistry, nutrients and other conditions needed for<br />

healthy biological communities.<br />

Acidification from carbon dioxide overload in the atmosphere<br />

is different than acid rain caused by sulfur dioxide<br />

and nitrogen oxides from fossil fuel burning for electric<br />

power generation or manufacturing.<br />

While more potent, acid rain covers relatively small areas and<br />

can be reduced with scrubbing equipment, as the U.S. Clean<br />

Air Act requires. But the effect of carbon-related acidifica-


tion is worldwide and potentially more damaging because<br />

there’s no easy or quick fix.<br />

“The only solution is a global solution,” McKinley said. “Everyone<br />

cuts their emissions.”<br />

Regardless of how well nations accomplish that, big lakes<br />

probably will continue acidifying as they absorb carbon<br />

dioxide already in the atmosphere, plus carbon-laden water<br />

runoff from land, she said.<br />

Less certain are effects on ecosystems, although initial studies<br />

have raised concerns.<br />

Based on laboratory tests, scientists who documented soaring<br />

acidity in the German reservoirs found it can imperil a type<br />

of water flea by hampering defense from predators. The tiny<br />

crustaceans are an important food for amphibians and fish.<br />

Scientists in Taiwan experimented with Chinese mitten crabs,<br />

an Asian delicacy but an invasive species elsewhere. Increasing<br />

water acidity in lab tanks to projected 2100 levels more<br />

than tripled their mortality rates, according to a report last<br />

year.<br />

Other studies have found freshwater acidification harms<br />

development and growth of young pink salmon, also known<br />

as humpback salmon, an important commercial and sport<br />

fishing species in Alaska and the Pacific Northwest.<br />

But it’s unknown how big such problems will get, said Emily<br />

Stanley, a University of Wisconsin freshwater ecology professor.<br />

“I honestly don’t see this as a thing that we as lake scientists<br />

should be freaking out about,” Stanley said. “There are so<br />

many other challenges facing lakes that are larger and more<br />

immediate,” such as invasive species and harmful algae.<br />

Many lakes emit more carbon dioxide than they take in, she<br />

said. But other scientists say even those could acidify because<br />

their outflow will slow as atmospheric concentrations surge.<br />

Either way, tracking lakes’ carbon dioxide levels is a good<br />

idea because the compound is fundamental to processes<br />

including photosynthesis that algae and other aquatic plants<br />

use to make food, Stanley said.<br />

A crucial question is the effect of CO2-related acidification<br />

on microscopic plants called phytoplankton, said Beth<br />

(Continued on pg. 24)<br />

Volume 88 · Number 1 | 23


News<br />

In this photo provided by Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary, Michigan Sea Grant intern Cassidy Beach collects Lake Huron water samples aboard a<br />

research vessel on July 13, 2022, near Alpena, Mich. Beach was assisting a multi-year project at Thunder Bay Marine Sanctuary to determine whether the<br />

lake is becoming more acidic. (Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary/NOAA via AP)<br />

(Continued from pg. 23)<br />

Stauffer, a University of Louisiana at Lafayette biologist<br />

studying the situation around river mouths where fresh and<br />

ocean waters meet.<br />

Studies suggest some of the tiniest phytoplankton may thrive<br />

in acidic waters, while larger types — more nutritious for fish<br />

— fade.<br />

The potential upheaval in freshwater ecosystems is one example<br />

among many of global warming’s long reach, she said.<br />

“Those greenhouse gases we’re putting into the atmosphere<br />

have to go somewhere,” Errera said. “The oceans and large<br />

freshwater bodies are where they’re going, and acidification<br />

happens as a result.”<br />

“It’s like walking into a buffet and instead of having the salad<br />

bar and roast turkey, you have just Skittles,” Stauffer said.<br />

Of particular interest for the Great Lakes are quagga mussels,<br />

said Harvey Bootsma, a University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee<br />

lake scientist. The prolific invaders have elbowed aside other<br />

plankton eaters and fueled nuisance algae. Acidification<br />

could weaken quaggas’ calcium carbonate shells, as it has<br />

with ocean mussels and clams.<br />

But that’s hardly a silver lining, Errera said. The same fate<br />

could befall native mussels that conservationists are struggling<br />

to protect.<br />

24<br />

| Chief Engineer


Derry Township, Pa., Takes Landmark<br />

Step Toward Organics-to-Energy Vision<br />

HERSHEY, Pa. — The Derry Township Municipal Authority<br />

(DTMA) has taken a significant step on its journey toward<br />

energy and nutrient recovery from organic waste at its Clearwater<br />

Road Wastewater Treatment Facility (WWTF).<br />

Ongoing upgrades at the five million gallons per day WWTF,<br />

part of a $12 million biosolids facility improvements program,<br />

will expand capacity and increase energy efficiency, boosting<br />

the plant’s sustainability.<br />

Already accepting organic waste from industrial and municipal<br />

sources, and with plans to receive future additional waste<br />

streams, the Authority has a long-term vision to recover and<br />

reuse resources, reduce landfill waste, and generate alternate<br />

revenue sources to lessen the financial burden to customers.<br />

In a landmark step, the Authority has purchased Ecoremedy®’s<br />

Fluid Lift Gasification (FLG) technology. The full-scale<br />

biosolids drying and gasification process is the world’s most<br />

advanced platform for simultaneous gasification and nutrient<br />

and energy recovery from industrial residuals and municipal<br />

biosolids. A major advantage of the state-of-the-art system<br />

is its ability to reduce or eliminate emerging contaminants,<br />

such as PFAS.<br />

“This major investment aligns with our mission to provide<br />

a cost-effective public service to protect and enhance the<br />

water environment and quality of life for our community,”<br />

said DTMA Executive Director William Rehkop. “By implementing<br />

self-sustaining facility improvements and expanding<br />

our hauled waste program, the Authority has generated<br />

alternate revenue sources which have significantly subsidized<br />

operation and maintenance costs to benefit our customers.”<br />

Leading environmental engineering and construction services<br />

firm Brown and Caldwell is providing construction management,<br />

design services, and permitting to accommodate the<br />

new system and development of a biosolids receiving facility<br />

at the plant. Once operational, the FLG system will process<br />

higher amounts of biosolids into renewable thermal energy,<br />

biochar, and concentrated minerals, thus keeping biosolids<br />

out of landfill and creating a sustainable fuel source.<br />

Derry Township, Pa., has moved toward enhanced resource recovery with a<br />

revolutionary biosolids process investment.<br />

As local manufacturer’s representative, Kappe Associates, Inc.<br />

played a pivotal role in developing the system’s scope, performance,<br />

throughput, and capabilities.<br />

“We congratulate DTMA for their visionary approach to<br />

recovering resources and reducing environmental impacts,”<br />

said Brown and Caldwell Project Manager Colin O’Brien. “Our<br />

team is honored to help transform the facility and position<br />

DTMA as a waste-to-energy leader at a time when our industry<br />

seeks innovative ways to manage biosolids.”<br />

Volume 88 · Number 1 | 25


News<br />

Why Modern Electric Boilers Are Safer<br />

Choice<br />

In industry, gas-fired boilers have largely been the standard<br />

for many decades to produce steam as well as heat process<br />

water. However, not all boilers are created equal in terms<br />

of safety. By definition, combustion-fueled boilers can emit<br />

harmful vapors, leak gas, and even cause explosions and<br />

fires.<br />

In a recent example, a natural gas boiler was cited as the<br />

cause of a massive explosion and fire at a food processing<br />

plant in eastern Oregon that injured six and caused severe<br />

damage to the facility’s main building. Given the risks, many<br />

processors are turning to a new generation of electric boilers<br />

to dramatically reduce these hazards.<br />

“With gas burning boilers, any gas leak can increase the risk<br />

of an explosion wherever there are fuel lines, fumes, flames<br />

or storage tanks. So, gas units must be continually monitored<br />

or periodically inspected,” says Robert Presser, Vice President<br />

of Acme Engineering Products, who notes that state and<br />

municipal safety guidelines vary depending on boiler type<br />

and the expected frequency of inspection. Acme Engineering<br />

is a North American manufacturer of boilers for large<br />

industrial and commercial applications. The company is an<br />

ISO 9001:2015 certified manufacturer of environmental controls<br />

and systems with integrated mechanical, electrical and<br />

electronic capabilities.<br />

In gas-fired boilers, explosions can result in the ignition and<br />

instantaneous combustion of highly flammable gas, vapor,<br />

or dust that has accumulated in a boiler. The force of the<br />

explosion is often much greater than the boiler combustion<br />

chamber can withstand.<br />

Minor explosions, known as flarebacks or blowbacks, can also<br />

suddenly blow flames many feet from firing doors and observation<br />

ports, seriously burning anyone in the path of a flame.<br />

Natural gas-fired boiler emissions also pose potential hazards<br />

in the form of emissions. This can include nitrogen oxides<br />

(NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrous oxide (N2O), volatile<br />

organic compounds (VOCs), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and particulate<br />

matter (PM), as well as the greenhouse gasses carbon<br />

dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), which accelerate global<br />

warming.<br />

In addition, fossil-fuel-burning boilers can also face potentially<br />

dangerous operational issues stemming from excessive<br />

heat accumulation, particularly if the water is too low in the<br />

system to properly absorb the heat. High heat conditions<br />

can compromise the boiler, electrodes, and other equipment<br />

essential to operation.<br />

To dramatically improve operator and environmental safety,<br />

industry is turning toward modern electric boilers that<br />

eliminate many of these risks. The most advanced electrode<br />

boilers not only match the capacity of large gas or oil-fired<br />

boilers but are safer and more compact, maximizing energy<br />

efficiency, improving reliability, and minimizing maintenance.<br />

Although many facility engineers are familiar with gas-fired<br />

boilers, many believe that electric boilers cannot match the<br />

output of the traditional, fossil-fuel-burning units. Due to<br />

considerable advances in electric boiler technology, however,<br />

such technology can now match the capacity of large gas or<br />

oil-fired boilers in a much smaller footprint.<br />

Presser explains that electric boilers utilize the conductive<br />

and resistive properties of water to carry electric current and<br />

generate steam. An A.C. current flows from an electrode of<br />

one phase to ground using the water as a conductor. Since<br />

chemicals in the water provide conductivity, the current flow<br />

generates heat directly in the water itself. The more current<br />

(amps) that flows, the more heat (BTUs) is generated, and<br />

the more steam produced.<br />

As an example, in Acme’s CEJS High Voltage Electrode Steam<br />

Boiler, almost 100 percent of the electrical energy is converted<br />

into heat with no stack or heat transfer losses. The<br />

electrodes of the jet type electrode steam boiler are vertically<br />

mounted around the inside of the pressure vessel. This<br />

enables the unit to produce maximum amounts of steam in<br />

a minimum amount of floor space, with boiler capacity from<br />

6MW to 52MW. Operating at existing distribution voltages,<br />

4.16 to 25 KV with up to 99.9-percent efficiency, the boiler<br />

can produce up to 170,000 pounds of steam per hour. With<br />

pressure ratings from 105 psig to 500 psig, the boilers are<br />

designed to ASME Section 1, and are certified, registered<br />

pressure vessels at the location of the boiler.<br />

“With the jet-type electrode boilers, there are no combustion<br />

hazards because there are no flames, fumes, fuel lines<br />

or storage tanks, which minimizes the risk of explosions and<br />

fires,” says Presser. In case of an electrical short, the breaker<br />

that protects the high voltage circuit trips in a matter of milliseconds,<br />

protecting the boiler and the electrical network.<br />

There is no chance of electrical mishap or fire from the boiler.<br />

Since the design does not rely on combustion, it does not create<br />

emissions that would endanger the operator or environment.<br />

In addition, the design eliminates many environmental<br />

issues associated with fuel burning boilers such as fuel fumes,<br />

fly ash, and large, obtrusive exhaust stacks.<br />

The approach resolves safety issues related to potentially<br />

excessive heat accumulation with the system as well. Low<br />

26<br />

| Chief Engineer


water protection is absolute since the absence of water<br />

prevents current from flowing and the electrode boiler from<br />

producing steam. Unlike conventional electric boilers or fossil<br />

fuel boilers, nothing in the electrode boiler is at a higher<br />

temperature than the water itself. This prevents the risk of<br />

dangerous heat buildup in the boiler, electrodes, and other<br />

important components even if scaling should occur, and thermal<br />

shock is eliminated.<br />

“Electric boilers, and specifically the electrode units, are<br />

inherently the safest boiler design today. These units do<br />

not need an operator because if anything goes wrong, the<br />

breaker trips, preventing further escalation of the issue,”<br />

explains Presser.<br />

The electric boilers also improve safety by reducing industrial<br />

noise, which is an OSHA-regulated issue. Under OSHA’s Noise<br />

Standard, the employer must lower noise exposure through<br />

engineering controls, administrative controls, or Hearing Protection<br />

Devices (HPDs) to attenuate the occupational noise<br />

received by the employee’s ears to within levels specified.<br />

In this regard, the electric units are also exceptionally quiet<br />

compared to fuel-fired boilers. “Unlike gas-powered burners<br />

that throttle like turbine engines almost continually, electric<br />

boilers keep operational noise levels down,” says Presser.<br />

“Because the loudest boiler component is a circulating pump<br />

motor, you can have a conversation next to one without the<br />

need to elevate your voice.”<br />

As safer, more energy-efficient electrode boilers become more widely available,<br />

companies can protect their people and processes more completely<br />

while minimizing required maintenance.<br />

While safety of the electrode units is superior, there are also<br />

significant benefits in terms of reliability and maintenance.<br />

The absence of excessive temperatures and burnout assures<br />

longer operating life. The boilers have a minimum number<br />

of components and electrical controls. With no fuel residues,<br />

along with fewer parts and simple control systems, cleaning<br />

and maintenance requirements are reduced, and reliability is<br />

enhanced.<br />

Processors have long sought to improve safety, yet options<br />

have been limited. Now, as safer, more energy-efficient<br />

alternatives become more widely available in the form of<br />

state-of-the-art electrode boilers, companies can protect<br />

their people and processes more completely while minimizing<br />

required maintenance.<br />

For more info, contact Robert Presser at Acme Engineering<br />

via e-mail: rpresser@acmeprod.com, phone: (888) 880-5323,<br />

or Web: www.acmeprod.com/.<br />

Del Williams is a technical writer based in Torrance, Calif.<br />

Advanced electrode boilers like those from Acme Engineering dramatically<br />

reduce the risk of explosion, fire and noxious emissions associated with<br />

fossil-fuel-burning units.<br />

Volume 88 · Number 1 | 27


News<br />

EPA to Tighten Nitrogen Oxide Limits<br />

for New Heavy Trucks By Tom Krisher | AP Auto Writer<br />

DETROIT (AP) — In a little over four years, new heavy truck<br />

makers will have to cut harmful nitrogen oxide pollution<br />

more than 80 percent under new standards released Tuesday<br />

by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.<br />

Some environmental and health advocates praised the<br />

standards, but others said they don’t go far enough to curb<br />

nitrogen oxide, which can cause issues including respiratory<br />

illness, cardiovascular problems and even death.<br />

Problems are more acute in industrial and port areas, causing<br />

health problems for low-income residents who live there.<br />

The EPA says 72 million people live near freight routes in the<br />

U.S.<br />

The standards, coupled with greenhouse gas emission limits<br />

coming next year, and government investments, eventually<br />

will lead to zero-emissions electric and hydrogen fuel cell<br />

trucks carrying most of the nation’s freight, the agency said.<br />

“This is just the first action under EPA’s clean trucks plan to<br />

pave the way toward a zero-emission future,” Administrator<br />

Michael Regan said in a prepared statement.<br />

The standards, the first update in more than 20 years, limit<br />

nitrogen oxide emissions from new semis and other heavy<br />

trucks to 35 milligrams per horsepower hour. The current<br />

standard is 200 milligrams, the EPA said.<br />

One horsepower hour is the equivalent of energy consumed<br />

by working at the rate of one horsepower for a single hour.<br />

EPA officials say catalytic reduction technology is available<br />

for truck engine manufacturers to meet the large reduction<br />

when the standards take effect in 2027. The agency also says<br />

the standards can be met at a reasonable cost. The stronger<br />

standard will not change and will remain in place for multiple<br />

years, the EPA said.<br />

As the fleet of heavy trucks is replaced by newer vehicles,<br />

it should reduce nitrogen oxide pollution by 48 percent by<br />

2045, the EPA said.<br />

The agency expects greenhouse gas standards and incentives<br />

in the Inflation Reduction Act to bring the replacement of<br />

all diesel trucks with zero-emissions alternatives, said Margo<br />

Oge, a former director of the EPA’s transportation and air<br />

quality office.<br />

Oge, now a volunteer with the Environmental Protection<br />

Network, expects at least half of all new heavy trucks to be<br />

powered by batteries or hydrogen fuel cells by 2030.<br />

Tractor-trailers are stacked up along the eastbound lanes of Interstate 70<br />

near East Airpark Road, Tuesday, Dec. 13, 2022, in Aurora, Colo. A massive<br />

winter storm closed roads throughout northeast Colorado. (AP Photo/David<br />

Zalubowski)<br />

The Truck and Engine Manufacturers Association said the<br />

new standards will be challenging to put in place, but its<br />

members will work with the EPA.<br />

“Ultimately the success or failure of this rule hinges on the<br />

willingness and ability of trucking fleets to invest in purchasing<br />

the new technology to replace their older, higher-emitting<br />

vehicles,” the association said in a prepared statement.<br />

A group representing independent truck drivers, the Owner<br />

Operator Independent Drivers Association, said small business<br />

truckers won’t be able to afford new trucks, so they’ll<br />

stay with older, less-efficient ones.<br />

The new rule lets the trucking industry keep making vehicles<br />

that pollute the air, the Natural Resources Defense Council<br />

said.<br />

“The agency missed a critical opportunity to slash soot and<br />

smog and accelerate the shift to the cleanest vehicles,” the<br />

group said in a prepared statement.<br />

However, the American Lung Association called the rule an<br />

important step in reducing emissions that can cause lifelong<br />

lung damage.<br />

“Now, EPA must build on today’s rule,” the group said.<br />

“These standards must dramatically reduce greenhouse gas<br />

emissions from trucks to drive a nationwide transition to<br />

zero-emission vehicles.”<br />

28<br />

| Chief Engineer


PVC Roofing: Recyclable at End of<br />

Service Life<br />

For more than 50 years, durable PVC roofing membranes<br />

have cooled and protected buildings in climates around the<br />

world. Their long life cycle has helped earn them excellent<br />

ANSI ratings for sustainability. (To date, PVC materials are<br />

the only products to be rated gold or platinum.) But there’s<br />

more. PVC roofing is the only commercial roofing material<br />

that is being recycled, at the end of decades of service life,<br />

into the feedstock to make new roofing membranes.<br />

PVC has an inherent advantage over many other roofing<br />

materials when it comes to recycling. As a thermoplastic, it<br />

can readily be heated and reprocessed without loss of key<br />

physical properties. Thus, it has long been an industry best<br />

practice to reintroduce production trimmings and scrap as<br />

raw materials into the vinyl roofing membrane manufacturing<br />

processes. In 2021, the member manufacturers of the<br />

Chemical Fabrics & Film Association (CFFA) Vinyl Roofing<br />

Division recycled a combined 20.5 million pounds of pre-consumer<br />

materials.<br />

The Vinyl Roofing Division has a new white paper covering<br />

the topic, “Avoiding the Landfill: The Recycling of PVC Roof<br />

Membranes,” available for download on its website. Focusing<br />

on post-consumer recycling, this paper examines the evolution<br />

and current state of commercial PVC roof membranes<br />

as a sustainable building product at the end of its service life.<br />

According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,<br />

construction and demolition waste from buildings totals an<br />

estimated 332 billion pounds annually. Skyrocketing raw<br />

material costs, higher landfill tipping fees, legislation to<br />

restrict disposal of construction materials, and an architectural<br />

community that demands the lightest environmental<br />

footprint that can be achieved, have led to the mainstreaming<br />

of post-consumer recycling and a vision of the day when<br />

specifiers will routinely call for post-consumer content in a<br />

roof membrane.<br />

In 2021, some participating manufacturers of CFFA’s Vinyl<br />

Roofing Division recycled a combined 758 thousand pounds<br />

of membranes at the end of their service lives. These were<br />

reprocessed into either new PVC roofing membranes (closed<br />

loop recycling) or other non-roofing products such as flooring<br />

(open loop recycling).<br />

For more information on the benefits of cool PVC roofing,<br />

visit https://vinylroofs.org/.<br />

PVC is the only commercial roofing material that can be transformed into<br />

feedstock and manufactured as the same product it previously had been.<br />

Volume 88 · Number 1 | 29


News<br />

Pasternack Celebrates Its 50th<br />

Anniversary<br />

IRVINE, Calif. — Pasternack, an Infinite Electronics brand and<br />

a leading provider of RF, microwave and millimeter-wave<br />

products, is celebrating its 50th anniversary this year.<br />

Pasternack was established on Jan. 9, 1972, by its founder<br />

Murray Pasternack, who ran the business out of his home<br />

in southern California. His sole purpose was to address the<br />

unique product needs of RF and microwave engineers.<br />

From its humble beginnings in Murray’s garage, Pasternack<br />

has since grown to become a global leader in the RF and microwave<br />

industry, providing its customers with an extensive<br />

range of actives, passives and cable assemblies.<br />

Many things have changed since the company’s inception in<br />

1972. However, one thing that has not is its customers’ demand<br />

for a reliable source of high-quality RF and microwave<br />

products backed by superior technical and customer service.<br />

Pasternack continues to thrive by aligning its products and<br />

services with the needs of its customers. Its inventory of more<br />

than 40,000 products is always available, granting customer<br />

access to the broadest array of industry standards as well as<br />

rare and hard-to-find specialty items. In addition to thousands<br />

of off-the-shelf products, Pasternack is an expert at<br />

building custom cable assemblies with same-day shipping.<br />

“We are so proud to be celebrating Pasternack’s 50th anniversary,”<br />

said Penny Cotner, President and CEO of Infinite<br />

Electronics. “Our success has come from listening to what our<br />

customers need and by providing responsive, technical and<br />

customer service as well as offering the industry’s broadest<br />

selection of in-stock products to address the urgent needs of<br />

From the garage to the globe — Pasternack celebrates its 50-year legacy in<br />

the RF/microwave industry.<br />

our customers. As the flagship brand of Infinite Electronics,<br />

Pasternack has set the standard of service for our company.”<br />

To commemorate this milestone anniversary, the company<br />

recently interviewed Murray Pasternack to get all the details<br />

on the company’s inception and growth. To read the interview,<br />

visit bit.ly/3YywQKO.<br />

For inquiries, contact Pasternack at (949) 261-1920.<br />

GOT A STORY TO TELL?<br />

Call Chief Engineer at 708-293-1720 or email<br />

editor@chiefengineer.org, and let us know<br />

about your project, product, service, or other<br />

industry news!<br />

www.chiefengineer.org<br />

30<br />

| Chief Engineer


Purdue, Accenture Sign 5-year<br />

Agreement in Support of Smart<br />

Manufacturing<br />

WEST LAFAYETTE, Ind. — Purdue University and Accenture<br />

have agreed to a five-year commitment supporting Purdue’s<br />

mission to prepare a next-generation smart-manufacturing<br />

workforce.<br />

Accenture has committed to provide funding in support of<br />

two strategic areas:<br />

• The Accenture Smart Factory, which will meet the needs<br />

of a growing College of Engineering and Purdue Polytechnic<br />

Institute student population. Located in Dudley Hall,<br />

the facility will provide instructional laboratories, design<br />

studios and spaces where students from various disciplines<br />

will collaborate on smart-manufacturing projects. The<br />

Smart Factory will also serve as a central hub for joint innovation<br />

among Purdue, Accenture and industry.<br />

• The Accenture Smart Manufacturing Scholars Program,<br />

which will provide funds for select qualified students to<br />

receive the equivalent of in-state tuition every year for up<br />

to four years. The program will include a Women in Manufacturing<br />

scholarship designed to attract more women to<br />

manufacturing fields and drive inclusion and diversity in<br />

the industry.<br />

“With the Accenture Smart Factory and the Accenture<br />

Manufacturing Scholars Program, we can prepare more<br />

students for exciting future careers in smart manufacturing,”<br />

said Daniel Castro, dean of the Purdue Polytechnic<br />

Institute, through which Purdue offers an undergraduate<br />

major in smart manufacturing industrial informatics. “At the<br />

same time, this venture allows Purdue to meet the needs of<br />

our partners in industry who are desperately seeking career-ready<br />

graduates with the skills we will teach in this new<br />

facility.”<br />

Smart manufacturing uses digital technologies such as artificial<br />

intelligence, the cloud, robotics and 5G to build products.<br />

Industry experts believe the United States’ need for a workforce<br />

with core knowledge and skills in this field is growing<br />

faster than the country’s current ability to produce qualified<br />

workers. Fast-track workforce training programs help fill<br />

this gap, and Purdue — a proven leader in manufacturing,<br />

engineering and innovation — is advancing several projects<br />

to meet the long-term need.<br />

“We are excited about this new partnership, particularly the<br />

Women in Manufacturing scholarship, which will help drive<br />

more inclusion and diversity in engineering roles,” said Shiv<br />

Iyer, Accenture’s market unit lead for the U.S. Midwest. “By<br />

Purdue University and Accenture have come together in an attempt to<br />

inspire more students to consider careers in digital manufacturing.<br />

partnering with Purdue, we hope to inspire more students to<br />

pursue a career in digital manufacturing of the future.”<br />

Accenture is a global professional services company with<br />

721,000 employees offering leading capabilities in digital,<br />

cloud and security to clients in more than 120 countries.<br />

“Companies are not just rebuilding manufacturing in North<br />

America, they are reinventing it,” said Aaron Saint, who<br />

leads Accenture’s digital engineering and manufacturing<br />

service, Industry X, in North America. “Factories of the future<br />

will rely on automation, data analysis and digital twin replicas<br />

to enhance productivity, safety and quality. They need a<br />

workforce with those skills. The Accenture Smart Factory will<br />

provide the right platform for innovation in this next era,<br />

and this collaboration with Purdue will equip tomorrow’s<br />

workforce with the skills they need for a successful career in<br />

digital manufacturing.”<br />

Volume 87 · Number 11 | 31


News<br />

California Approves Roadmap for<br />

Carbon Neutrality by 2045<br />

By Sophie Austin | Associated Press/Report for America<br />

SACRAMENTO, Calif. (AP) — California air regulators voted<br />

unanimously Thursday, Dec. 15, to approve an ambitious plan<br />

to drastically cut reliance on fossil fuels by changing practices<br />

in the energy, transportation and agriculture sectors, but<br />

critics say it doesn’t go far enough to combat climate change.<br />

The plan sets out to achieve so-called carbon neutrality by<br />

2045, meaning the state will remove as many carbon emissions<br />

from the atmosphere as it emits. It aims to do so in part<br />

by reducing fossil fuel demand by 86 percent within that<br />

time frame.<br />

California had previously set this carbon neutrality target,<br />

but Gov. Gavin Newsom signed legislation making it a mandate<br />

earlier this year. The Democrat has said drastic changes<br />

are needed to position California as a global climate leader.<br />

“We are making history here in California,” Newsom said in<br />

a Dec. 15 statement.<br />

But the plan’s road to approval by the California Air Resources<br />

Board was not without criticism. Capturing large amounts<br />

of carbon and storing it underground is one of the most<br />

controversial elements of the proposal. Critics say it gives the<br />

state’s biggest emitters reason to not do enough on their<br />

part to mitigate climate change.<br />

In a meeting that lasted several hours, activists, residents and<br />

experts used their last chance to weigh in on the plan ahead<br />

of the board’s vote. Many said the latest version, while not<br />

perfect, was an improvement from earlier drafts, committing<br />

the state to do more to curb planet-warming emissions.<br />

Davina Hurt, a board member, said she was proud California<br />

is moving closer to its carbon neutrality goal.<br />

“I’m glad that this plan is bold and aggressive,” Hurt said.<br />

The plan does not commit the state to taking any particular<br />

actions but sets out a broad roadmap for how California can<br />

achieve its goals. Here are the highlights:<br />

Renewable Power<br />

The implementation of the plan hinges on the state’s ability<br />

to transition away from fossil fuels and rely more on renewable<br />

resources for energy. It calls for the state to cut liquid<br />

petroleum fuel demand by 94 percent by 2045, and quadruple<br />

solar and wind capacity along that same timeframe.<br />

Another goal would mean new residential and commercial<br />

buildings will be powered by electric appliances before the<br />

next decade.<br />

The calls for dramatically lowering reliance on oil and gas<br />

come as public officials continue to grapple with how to<br />

avoid blackouts when record-breaking heat waves push Californians<br />

to crank up their air conditioning.<br />

And the Western States Petroleum Association took issue<br />

with the plan’s timeline.<br />

“CARB’s latest draft of the Scoping Plan has acknowledged<br />

what dozens of studies have confirmed — that a complete<br />

phase-out of oil and gas is unrealistic,” said Catherine Reheis-Boyd,<br />

the group’s president, in a statement. “A plan that<br />

isn’t realistic isn’t really a plan at all.”<br />

At the beginning of the Dec. 15 meeting, California Air Resources<br />

Board Chair Liane Randolph touted the latest version<br />

of the plan as the most ambitious to date. It underwent<br />

changes after public comments earlier in the year.<br />

“Ultimately, achieving carbon neutrality requires deploying<br />

all tools available to us to reduce emissions and store carbon,”<br />

Randolph said.<br />

Transportation<br />

Officials hope a move away from gas-powered cars and<br />

trucks reduces greenhouse gas emissions while limiting the<br />

public health impact of chemicals these vehicles release.<br />

In a July letter to the air board, Newsom requested that the<br />

agency approve aggressive cuts to emissions from planes.<br />

This would accompany other reductions in the transportation<br />

sector as the state transitions to all zero-emission vehicle<br />

sales by 2035.<br />

The plan’s targets include having 20 percent of aviation fuel<br />

demand come from electric or hydrogen sources by 2045 and<br />

ensuring all medium-duty vehicles sold are zero-emission by<br />

2040. The board has already passed a policy to ban the sale<br />

of new cars powered solely by gasoline in the state starting<br />

in 2035.<br />

Carbon Capture<br />

The plan refers to carbon capture as a “necessary tool” to<br />

32<br />

| Chief Engineer


Gen Nashimoto, of Luminalt, installs solar panels in Hayward, Calif., on April 29, 2020. California air regulators are set to approve an ambitious plan for<br />

the state to achieve carbon neutrality by 2045. Doing so will require a rapid transition away from oil and gas and toward renewable energy to power<br />

everything from cars to buildings. (AP Photo/Ben Margot, File)<br />

implement in the state alongside other strategies to mitigate<br />

climate change. It calls for the state to capture 100 million<br />

metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent and store it underground<br />

by 2045.<br />

Connie Cho, an attorney for environmental justice group<br />

Communities for a Better Environment, called the plan’s goal<br />

of phasing down oil refining “a huge step forward” to mitigate<br />

climate change and protect public health.<br />

“Our communities have been suffering from chronic disease<br />

and dying at disproportionate rates for far too long because<br />

of the legacy of environmental racism in this country,” Cho<br />

said.<br />

But Cho criticized its carbon capture targets, arguing they<br />

give a pathway for refineries to continue polluting as the<br />

state cuts emissions in other areas.<br />

Agriculture<br />

One of the goals is to achieve a 66 percent reduction in<br />

methane emissions from the agriculture sector by 2045. Cattle<br />

are a significant source for releasing methane — a potent,<br />

planet-warming gas.<br />

The plan’s implementation would also mean less reliance by<br />

the agriculture sector on fossil fuels as an energy source.<br />

Sophie Austin is a corps member for the Associated Press/<br />

Report for America Statehouse News Initiative. Report for<br />

America is a nonprofit national service program that places<br />

journalists in local newsrooms to report on under-covered<br />

issues.<br />

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Volume 88 · Number 1 | 33


News<br />

Regulators Grant Critical Approval for<br />

Dominion Wind Farm By Sarah Rankin | Associated Press<br />

RICHMOND, Va. (AP) — Virginia regulators granted a critical<br />

approval Thursday, Dec. 15, for Dominion Energy’s plans to<br />

construct and operate a 176-turbine wind farm in the Atlantic<br />

Ocean.<br />

The State Corporation Commission effectively signed off on<br />

an agreement Dominion reached this fall with the Virginia<br />

attorney general and other parties, in which the company<br />

agreed to implement several consumer protections in connection<br />

with the Coastal Virginia Offshore Wind project.<br />

“We thank the Commission for its approval and appreciate<br />

the collaboration of the parties involved to reach an agreement<br />

that advances offshore wind and the clean energy<br />

transition in Virginia,” the Richmond-based company said<br />

in a statement. “Coastal Virginia Offshore Wind has many<br />

benefits for our customers. It is fuel free, emissions free,<br />

diversifies our energy mix and is a transformative economic<br />

development opportunity for Hampton Roads and Virginia.”<br />

In its order, the commission also issued a warning about the<br />

impact the project will have on the electricity bills of Dominion’s<br />

captive electric utility customers.<br />

“The magnitude of this project is so great that it will likely<br />

be the costliest project being undertaken by any regulated<br />

utility in the United States. And the electricity produced<br />

by this Project will be among the most expensive sources<br />

of power — on both a per-kilowatt-of-firm-capacity and a<br />

per-megawatt-hour basis — in the entire United States,” the<br />

order said.<br />

Dominion filed its application to build and recover the costs<br />

Two of the offshore wind turbines, which have been constructed off the coast of Virginia Beach, Va., are seen, June 29, 2020. Virginia regulators granted<br />

a critical approval Thursday, Dec. 15, 2022, for Dominion Energy’s plans to construct and operate a 176-turbine wind farm in the Atlantic Ocean. (AP<br />

Photo/Steve Helber, File)<br />

34 | Chief Engineer


of the project with the State Corporation Commission in<br />

2021. That kicked off a lengthy process before the regulatory<br />

agency, one that has included voluminous filings and an<br />

evidentiary hearing last May.<br />

The commission initially signed off on the project in August,<br />

but it included a consumer protection provision — a performance<br />

guarantee — that Dominion strenuously objected to,<br />

saying it would kill the project.<br />

Several parties to the SCC proceeding, including Walmart,<br />

the AG’s office and conservation groups, began to hash out<br />

a compromise, announcing a proposed agreement in late<br />

October that did away with the performance guarantee but<br />

does include performance reporting requirements and provisions<br />

laying out a degree of construction cost sharing.<br />

The agreement now approved by the SCC calls for a<br />

cost-sharing arrangement for any overruns beyond the<br />

estimated $9.8 billion price tag. The company would cover 50<br />

percent of construction costs between the range of $10.3-<br />

$11.3 billion and 100 percent of costs between $11.3-$13.7<br />

billion. If construction costs were to exceed $13.7 billion, the<br />

issue would go back to the commission.<br />

calls for an in-service date of late 2026 or early 2027. Dominion<br />

expects the project to generate enough clean energy to<br />

power up to 660,000 homes.<br />

The Dec. 15 SCC order noted that while Dominion estimates<br />

the capital cost of the project to be nearly $10 billion, total<br />

project costs, including financing, are estimated to be approximately<br />

$21.5 billion.<br />

Clean Virginia, a clean energy and rate-reform advocacy<br />

group, said in a statement that the approved compromise<br />

would help hold Dominion accountable.<br />

“With its final ruling today, the State Corporation Commission<br />

demonstrated that consumer protection must go hand<br />

in hand with Virginia’s clean energy transition,” Clean Virginia<br />

Energy Policy Manager Laura Gonzalez said. “Absent<br />

the Commission’s leadership and pressure from environmental<br />

groups, the Attorney General, and Walmart, Dominion<br />

Energy would have zero incentive to actually produce clean<br />

energy from its offshore wind project or keep costs reasonable.”<br />

The proposal would not require the company to guarantee<br />

certain energy production levels, like the SCC had initially<br />

ordered. Rather, Dominion will have to report average net<br />

capacity factors annually and “provide a detailed explanation<br />

of the factors contributing to any deficiency.” Capacity<br />

factor is a measure of how often a generating facility runs<br />

during a period of time.<br />

The commission will also have the continuing authority to inspect<br />

Dominion’s expenditures on the project to ensure they<br />

are reasonable and prudent under state law.<br />

The project, which will be located about 27 miles off the<br />

coast of Virginia Beach, has drawn broad support from local<br />

officials, policymakers, business groups and trade unions,<br />

who say it will help fight climate change and create jobs.<br />

The company already has a two-turbine pilot project up and<br />

running. The 2.6-gigawatt, utility-scale project’s schedule<br />

Volume 88 · Number 1 | 35


News<br />

Japanese Court Says 45-Year-Old Nuclear<br />

Reactor Can Operate By Mari Yamaguchi | Associated Press<br />

TOKYO (AP) — A Japanese court ruled Tuesday, Dec. 20, that<br />

a 45-year-old nuclear reactor in central Japan can continue<br />

to operate, rejecting demands by residents that it be suspended<br />

because of safety risks, a decision supportive of the<br />

government’s push for greater use of nuclear energy because<br />

of possible global fuel shortages and the country’s pledge to<br />

reduce carbon emissions.<br />

The Osaka District Court’s decision came just days before<br />

Prime Minister Fumio Kishida’s Cabinet is expected to approve<br />

a new nuclear energy policy that would accelerate<br />

restarts of reactors that were idled after the 2011 Fukushima<br />

nuclear power plant disaster and extend the operating life of<br />

aging reactors.<br />

The Economy and Industry Ministry has drafted a plan to<br />

allow extensions every 10 years for reactors after 30 years of<br />

operation, while also permitting utilities to subtract offline<br />

periods in calculating reactors’ operational life beyond the<br />

current 60-year limit.<br />

The Dec. 20 ruling was the first on the safety of reactors that<br />

have operated more than 40 years.<br />

Chief Judge Naoya Inoue said the operator of the Mihama<br />

No. 3 reactor, Kansai Electric Power Co., has taken adequate<br />

steps to prevent equipment degradation to fulfil the requirements<br />

of the Nuclear Regulation Authority and obtain an<br />

operational permit. The ruling said the reactor’s age doesn’t<br />

require more stringent safety standards than normal.<br />

Nine residents — seven from Fukui prefecture and one each<br />

from neighboring Kyoto and Shiga — filed a lawsuit against<br />

Kansai Electric in June 2021 demanding the suspension of the<br />

Mihama reactor, citing safety risks at the aging facility.<br />

The court also dismissed other safety concerns raised by the<br />

plaintiffs, including earthquake resistance and evacuation<br />

plans, citing a lack of concrete proof of potential risk.<br />

Lawyers for the plaintiffs said it was obvious that aging increases<br />

risks for reactors and said they plan to appeal.<br />

Most nuclear reactors in Japan are more than 30 years old.<br />

While four reactors that have operated more than 40 years<br />

have cleared the Nuclear Regulation Authority’s safety standards<br />

and have received permission to operate, the Mihama<br />

No. 3 reactor is the only one that is currently in operation.<br />

36<br />

| Chief Engineer<br />

Petitioners display banners in front of Osaka District Court in Osaka,<br />

western Japan Tuesday, Dec. 20, 2022. A Japanese court ruled Tuesday that<br />

a 45-year-old nuclear reactor in central Japan is safe to operate, rejecting<br />

demands by local residents that it be suspended because of corrosion and<br />

inadequate safety measures — a decision supportive of the government’s<br />

push toward a greater use of nuclear energy amid power crunch concern<br />

and decarbonization obligation. The banners read “Unfair decision cannot<br />

be permitted. Immediate appeal!” right, and “We’ll settle at Osaka Hight<br />

Court.” (Kyodo News via AP)<br />

Anti-nuclear sentiment and safety concerns rose sharply<br />

in Japan after the Fukushima disaster, in which a massive<br />

earthquake and tsunami damaged reactor cooling systems,<br />

causing three to melt and release large amounts of radiation.<br />

The government initially planned to phase out nuclear<br />

power but has since reversed that stance.<br />

Kishida said in August that Japan needs to consider all<br />

options in its energy mix, including nuclear, to secure a<br />

stable energy supply amid potential shortages resulting<br />

from Russia’s war on Ukraine, while strengthening its “green<br />

transformation” to meet greenhouse gas emissions reduction<br />

targets. Japan has pledged to reach carbon neutrality by<br />

2050.<br />

While maintaining a 20-22 percent target for nuclear energy<br />

in its energy mix for 2030, the government previously insisted<br />

it was not planning to build new nuclear plants or replace<br />

aging reactors, apparently to avoid triggering criticism from<br />

a still wary public.<br />

Under the newly adopted nuclear policy, the government<br />

will seek to develop and construct “new innovative reactors”<br />

such as small modular nuclear reactors.<br />

Some experts say extending the operational lifespan of reactors<br />

is not desirable because utility operators would need<br />

to invest in old equipment to keep it working instead of in<br />

new technology or renewables. They also say developing<br />

next-generation reactors involves huge costs and uncertain<br />

prospects.


Company Starting to Recover Oil From<br />

Kansas Pipeline Spill By John Hanna | Associated Press<br />

TOPEKA, Kan. (AP) — The company operating a pipeline<br />

that leaked about 14,000 bathtubs’ worth of crude oil into a<br />

northeastern Kansas creek is recovering at least a small part<br />

of it from what was the largest onshore crude oil spill in nine<br />

years.<br />

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency said Tuesday,<br />

Dec. 13, that Canada-based TC Energy has recovered 2,163<br />

barrels of oil mixed with water from the 14,000-barrel spill<br />

on a creek running through rural pastureland in Washington<br />

County, Kansas, about 150 miles northwest of Kansas City.<br />

The EPA also said the company has recovered 435 barrels<br />

from the ruptured pipeline, to bring the total amount of oil<br />

and water recovered to 2,598 barrels, a figure also released<br />

by the company. Each barrel is enough to fill a household<br />

bathtub, and the total spill was 588,000 gallons.<br />

The rupture in Kansas forced the company to shut down the<br />

Keystone system, and it hasn’t said when it will come back<br />

online. It is using trucks with what essentially are large wet<br />

vacuums to suck out the oil. The company said Dec. 15 that<br />

the trucks are operating around the clock. The company and<br />

the EPA say no drinking water was affected, and no one was<br />

evacuated in the wake of the spill.<br />

“Our commitment to the community is that our response<br />

efforts will continue until we have fully remediated the site,”<br />

the company said in a statement.<br />

The company used booms, or barriers, to contain the oil in<br />

the creek and also built an earthen dam to prevent it from<br />

moving into larger waterways. The EPA said the company<br />

built a second earthen dam to helps support the first.<br />

It was the biggest onshore spill since a Tesoro Corp. pipeline<br />

rupture in North Dakota leaked 20,600 barrels in September<br />

2013, according to U.S. Department of Transportation data.<br />

The agency’s data also said it was the largest spill on the<br />

Keystone system since it began operating in 2010 and bigger<br />

than 22 previous spills on the system combined.<br />

The spill prompted the U.S. Department of Transportation’s<br />

pipeline safety arm to order TC Energy to take corrective<br />

action.<br />

It said the company must reduce the operating pressure by<br />

20 percent inside the 96-mile segment running from Steele<br />

City, Neb., south to Hope, Kan. It also said the company cannot<br />

restart operations in that segment without the permission<br />

of the pipeline safety regulators.<br />

The company also must identify the root cause of the spill<br />

and submit a plan for finding similar problems elsewhere<br />

and conducting additional tests by early March.<br />

Bill Caram, executive director of the advocacy Pipeline Safety<br />

Trust, said much of the order is standard “boilerplate,” and it<br />

would be possible for TC Energy to get the 96-mile segment<br />

back online once it does a repair.<br />

“They need to excavate the pipe in such a way that it’s preserved<br />

just for the investigation, for that root-cause analysis,<br />

and that takes probably the most time,” Caram said. “But<br />

the actual repair can be pretty quick.”<br />

Concerns that spills could pollute waterways spurred opposition<br />

to plans by TC Energy to build another crude oil pipeline<br />

in the Keystone system, the 1,200-mile Keystone XL, which<br />

would have cut across Montana, South Dakota and Nebraska.<br />

Critics also argued that using crude from western Canada’s<br />

oil sands would worsen climate change, and President Joe<br />

Biden’s cancelation of a U.S. permit for the project led the<br />

company to pull the plug last year.<br />

Volume 87 · Number 12 | 37


WATER-TUBE BOILERS<br />

DOMINATE<br />

COMMERCIAL/<br />

INDUSTRIAL MARKETS<br />

by Greg Hughes<br />

Three boiler types loom large among conventional (non-condensing)<br />

commercial water boilers used for process or space<br />

heat, with input sizes of 400 MBH and up: those with cast iron<br />

sectional, fire-tube, and water-tube heat exchangers.<br />

For a variety of reasons, the latter two have been most prevalent<br />

in the commercial process heating market. Advantages<br />

include relatively compact size, lower standby heat loss, and<br />

the speed with which heat can be generated and delivered into<br />

distribution piping.<br />

First out of the gate for a wide range of uses was the fire-tube<br />

boiler — with early design dating back centuries. Hollywood<br />

gave great prominence to horizontal fire-tube boilers, though<br />

few producers, actors or moviegoers were aware of it. Every<br />

time a steam locomotive — aka the iron horse — blew its whistle<br />

or raced across the great plains, an uncelebrated fire-tube<br />

boiler was doing its part.<br />

Still today, fire-tube boilers offer a wide range of uses. Within<br />

these boilers, fire tubes are immersed in water; hot flue gases<br />

produced by the combustion chamber flow inside them. The<br />

hot flue gases transfer their heat to the outside water through<br />

the conduction.<br />

Water-tube boiler designs, introduced later, essentially invert<br />

the fire-tube boiler construct: Water is contained within the<br />

boiler’s internal tubes.<br />

WATER-TUBE ADVANTAGES<br />

In water-tube boilers, combustion occurs within the shell that<br />

surrounds the tubes, forcing combusted gas over the water<br />

tubes for exceptionally fast, efficient heat transfer.<br />

A Thermal Solutions AMP water-tube boiler is rated at 97% efficient.<br />

Water-tube boilers offer quick startup and response time to<br />

changing conditions with very little standby loss. By design,<br />

38 | Chief Engineer


comparatively little water passes through the heat exchanger;<br />

this translates into a smaller footprint and broader range of<br />

capabilities and output ranges.<br />

“Their ability to make steam, or hot water, very rapidly, from a<br />

cold start, and without damaging the boiler is a beneficial asset,”<br />

says Lane Blackwell, Sales Engineer, Service, for Peru, Ind.-based<br />

Thornton & Associates, Inc., a manufacturer’s rep firm. “This is<br />

valuable in applications where the systems aren’t running 24/7.”<br />

Because the burner in a water-tube boiler is located centrally,<br />

most water-tube designs provide higher temperature outputs<br />

and higher operational pressures than fire-tube boilers — key<br />

advantages for process heating application. Another advantage<br />

to the design of these systems is that, as a result of the requirement<br />

for water to flow continuously during operation, hot spots<br />

in the heat exchanger don’t threaten the operation or lifespan of<br />

the boiler.<br />

A Thermal Solutions water-tube boiler is manufactured in Lancaster, Pa.<br />

Water-tube heat exchangers also operate at higher pressures, a<br />

capability that can — for steam-producing systems — produce<br />

saturated or superheated steam depending on the design and<br />

application they’re required for.<br />

Blackwell also points to the advantage of water-tube maintenance,<br />

“Or, rather, lack of it. A surprisingly high number of<br />

water-tube systems may go several years without more than<br />

occasional attention to the water quality [within them],” he says.<br />

“And, if there would be a need to replace individual tubes, that<br />

can be accomplished with hand tools — no rolling or welding.<br />

It’s not uncommon for a well-maintained water-tube boiler to<br />

last 40-plus years with little maintenance.”<br />

“A few years ago, we specified two non-condensing water-tube<br />

boilers for a high school expansion project in Cass County<br />

[Ind.],” Blackwell adds. “The boilers were 72 and 50 HP in size,<br />

and it wasn’t long before facility managers found that they<br />

could provide heat for the rest of the school with them, so they<br />

decommissioned two old, enormous — and way oversized —<br />

fire-tube boilers. The following year, they added another 100 HP<br />

water-tube system, and within a few years, they verified 30 to 40<br />

percent annual fuel savings. I could reel off countless instances<br />

where water-tube boilers have exceeded expectation.”<br />

Water-tube systems are designed to work with high-ash fuels<br />

that, when combined with soot blowers, typically meet environmental<br />

regulations. This also means that they’re well-suited for<br />

biomass applications and waste-to-energy plants.<br />

The primary factor that determines heat transfer is the heat<br />

transfer coefficient, based on the transfer fluid’s flow pattern,<br />

characteristics and chemistry (including density, conductivity<br />

and viscosity), geometry of the flow passage, and surface conditions.<br />

Of these factors, the most important to thermal efficiency<br />

in a water-tube boiler is flow through the water tubes and the<br />

fluid’s velocity and density. When all of these variables are optimal,<br />

water-tube boilers provide exceptionally reliable operation,<br />

while offering performance and efficiency that is difficult to<br />

match with any other heat exchanger design.<br />

For these and other reasons, water-tube boilers are the equipment<br />

of choice for many industrial process applications. Their<br />

ability — in a steam boiler configuration — to handle greater<br />

pressures and very high temperatures provides superior steam<br />

generation in the millions of pounds/hr.<br />

WATER-TUBE CAVEATS<br />

Most advantages come with a counterbalance; water-tube boilers<br />

are no exception.<br />

The initial cost for a water-tube boiler is usually higher than that<br />

of a fire-tube boiler of similar capacity. And, depending on size,<br />

some water-tube boilers can be assembled onsite, which can add<br />

to the cost and the time required for installation.<br />

By design, the concern of heat transfer fouling — typically in<br />

the form of accumulated mineral scale — is heightened. For that<br />

reason, fill-water quality and the steady monitoring and maintenance<br />

of water chemistry are essential to peak operation.<br />

The accumulation of scale is by no means specific only to the<br />

(Continued on pg. 40)<br />

A technician handles a diagnostic check on a water-tube boiler.<br />

Volume 88 · Number 1 | 39


(Continued from pg. 39)<br />

water-tube design. Scale can accumulate faster because of the<br />

water-tube boiler’s lower water mass, but it’s still a concern across<br />

all heat exchanger types. “But reduced water volume also equates to<br />

savings on chemical treatment,” adds Blackwell.<br />

Finally, the reduced volume of water affects the water-tube boiler’s<br />

ability to meet the call for sudden changes in heat demand. This<br />

shortcoming is often remedied by the addition of an indirect water<br />

storage tank.<br />

FIRE-TUBE ADVANTAGES<br />

Advantages to fire-tube boilers include their simple construction<br />

and their ability to easily meet rapid fluctuations in the need for<br />

heat. As a lower-cost alternative to water-tube boilers, they’re often<br />

used for smaller commercial or industrial facilities with lower<br />

operating pressures.<br />

Fire-tube boilers are designed with water in the unit’s main vessel,<br />

achieving higher mass. Because of their higher water volume, system<br />

design also offers the benefit of a less urgent need to maintain<br />

tight control of water quality. If water quality deteriorates and isn’t<br />

corrected quickly, there’s less chance — when compared to water-tube<br />

technology — that system performance will be affected.<br />

Another advantage to fire-tube boilers may be lower upfront cost.<br />

“However, said Blackwell, “In our market, there’s very little, if any,<br />

difference in pricing.”<br />

FIRE-TUBE CAVEATS<br />

A fire-tube boiler’s higher water volume and lower flow rates also<br />

mean that they may offer less efficient heat transfer. Likewise, the<br />

greater water volume requires a longer wait for system start-up, and<br />

may also challenge the boiler’s ability to meet demand for constant<br />

water flow — and heat transfer — at peak conditions. Standby losses<br />

are greater because of the boiler’s higher volume of water.<br />

The main disadvantage of fire-tube boilers is that they tend to have<br />

smaller capacities and can’t handle internal pressures over 250 psig.<br />

(The steam capacity range of fire-tube steam boilers is approximately<br />

5,000 to 75,000 pounds/hr.) Or, if configured as a hot water<br />

boiler, hot water capacity is between 2 million to 100 million BTUs.<br />

Traditional, horizontal fire-tube steam boilers may offer a capacity<br />

as low as 690 pph — pounds (of steam) per hour. Traditional<br />

fire-tube steam boilers in a vertical configuration will go smaller —<br />

offering as little as 207 pph, for example.<br />

BOILER SAFETY — BE WARNED<br />

Operationally, water-tube boilers are known to be safer than firetube<br />

systems. This is because of the much greater volume of water<br />

40<br />

| Chief Engineer<br />

Thermal Solutions’ stainless steel, modulating-condensing boiler line offers a<br />

size range of 1,000-4,000 MBH.<br />

held within fire-tube boilers — containing as much as 10 times the<br />

volume of a water-tube boiler of similar capacity.<br />

When fire-tube boilers are inadvertently operated with low water<br />

volume, very dangerous risks can develop. Initially, the metal in the<br />

boiler warps and contracts. Then, if cold fill-water enters the boiler<br />

in a hot, low-water condition, the metal could rapidly expand,<br />

causing an explosion.<br />

Should a similar scenario take place in a water-tube boiler with<br />

lower internal water volume, an explosion would be much less<br />

severe. In most instances — should fill-water enter a hot water-tube<br />

boiler with an insufficient fluid level — conditions would likely lead<br />

to metal fatigue, a crack, and leakage.<br />

SERVICE AND MAINTENANCE<br />

Some boiler designs are built to facilitate ease of service and<br />

maintenance. The assumption, however, is that a newly installed<br />

boiler is ready for the rigors of duty, 24-7-365. Yet, all mechanical<br />

equipment is not created equal. Service and maintenance work<br />

ideally happens systematically to maintain optimal performance<br />

and efficiency — not to deal with challenges that arise as a result of<br />

faulty or compromised design.<br />

Commercial boilers should be designed to ensure long-term durability<br />

and optimal performance. Ideally, the burner is mounted<br />

front and center, fully accessible and serviceable. Removable panels<br />

around the boiler should provide access to the burner chamber<br />

and entire heat exchanger. There should be no need to disconnect<br />

blowers or gas piping.<br />

COMMERCIAL CONDENSING SYSTEMS<br />

As with all technology, improvements emerge to enhance operation,<br />

durability or efficiency. The emergence of condensing capability<br />

— often going hand-in-hand with “turn-down” (or modulation,<br />

offering very efficient, partial firing) — constitutes the most<br />

substantial enrichment to boiler systems in decades.<br />

Condensing boilers are based on a remarkably simple concept.<br />

They achieve higher efficiencies by condensing the flue gasses. In<br />

contrast — in a conventional boiler, latent heat contained in the


complete access to the entire heat exchanger, byproducts of combustion<br />

can be easily removed with a service brush. This is an<br />

important facet to maintaining a boiler’s original high-efficiency<br />

rating.<br />

Burnham Commercial Boilers offers a convenient solution with<br />

efficient, easily portable, mobile boilers. (Image courtesy of<br />

Burnham Commercial Boilers)<br />

flue gas escapes through the flue vent. They’re also quite effective<br />

at reducing NOx, COx and other harmful emissions.<br />

Modulating condensing boilers (AKA “mod-con” boilers)<br />

earned “greatest achievement” recognition as a result of their<br />

dramatic contribution — pushing fuel efficiency from 80 percent<br />

for non-condensing boilers, and up into the 90-plus-percent<br />

range for mod-con systems. Condensing water-tube boilers<br />

achieve efficiencies of up to 98 percent, higher than most condensing<br />

fire-tube systems — a result of their better heat transfer.<br />

With modulation, they provide a range of firing rates to match<br />

the variable heating load of the building.<br />

However, mod-con boiler efficiency depends on the temperature<br />

of the water returning to the boiler. The lower the return water<br />

temperature, the higher the efficiency. Low boiler return water<br />

temperature depends on the overall boiler system design, not<br />

just the boiler.<br />

Condensing boilers cost 40 to 50 percent more, on average, than<br />

conventional systems. However, the difference in cost is typically<br />

recovered in four months to four years, depending on a wide<br />

range of variables. Substantial cost-saving incentives may apply.<br />

After the initial cost recovery period, the fuel savings are quite<br />

significant over the life of the boiler.<br />

There are a few disadvantages. For instance, one fire-tube boiler<br />

design change involved the arrangement of internal tubing<br />

from a horizontal format, to vertical. The revision was warmly<br />

welcomed by facility owners and installers alike because their<br />

now-smaller size permitted movement through a standard door<br />

frame. As a result, the products of combustion and condensate<br />

were redirected: Rather than gradually absorbing heat as flue<br />

gas passes through tubes, the contemporary vertical fire-tube<br />

burner sits inches away, forcing heat directly on the tube sheet,<br />

welds and tube tops. All materials expand and contract as they’re<br />

heated and cooled, and these internal components of the vertical<br />

fire-tube boiler are no exception. The design tends to concentrate<br />

too much heat on metal components.<br />

CLEANINGS AND REPARABILITY<br />

If a condensing boiler’s panels are easily removed, providing<br />

Should repair work be required, all components of the heat exchanger<br />

should be easily accessible for service or replacement —<br />

including even the possibility of changing one or more internal<br />

tubes in the field.<br />

With properly isolated equipment, service work could and<br />

should be completed within hours, not days or weeks.<br />

Systems that offer the greatest resistance to cleaning are those<br />

with tight, top access and — when opened — may have many<br />

welded tubes. Those that do typically require entirely new heat<br />

exchangers, sometimes costing as much as 60 percent of the<br />

original install.<br />

KNOCKDOWN REWARDS<br />

Knockdown condensing boilers were, for good reason, greeted<br />

enthusiastically by the commercial market. Some of these systems<br />

use no welds in securing tubing to the header.<br />

The “knockdown” moniker stems from the ability to assemble<br />

or disassemble a boiler of any size with relative ease and precise<br />

repeatability. The systems arrive on jobsites, similar to old castiron<br />

sectional boilers, or partially assembled, based on space<br />

requirements.<br />

Even elevator weight constraints pose no challenge to getting<br />

the boilers in place. If there’s a need to maximize mechanical<br />

room space, some systems are available with reverse construction<br />

models to optimize clearance space between units or to be<br />

placed side by side, to be serviced from outside.<br />

Greg Hughes is Internal Sales Manager at Thermal Solutions and<br />

Burnham Commercial, and can be reached at ghughes@heatingsolutionssales.com.<br />

Additional Sources:<br />

Fire-tube merits: Jim Knauss – Engineer for Burnham Commercial.<br />

(Retired, but now consulting.)<br />

jknauss@burnhamcommercial.com<br />

Water-tube merits: Joe Tinney – Internal Sales Manager for Bryan<br />

Boilers. jtinney@heatingsolutionssales.com<br />

Rick Constantino – Owner/COO Boileroom Equipment Company.<br />

rconstantino@bresales.com<br />

Theodore (Ted) Dreyer – Sales, Gardiner.<br />

TDreyer@WHGardiner.com<br />

Volume 88 · Number 1 | 41


News<br />

Nevada Flower Listed as Endangered at<br />

Lithium Mine Site By Scott Sonner | Associated Press<br />

RENO, Nev. (AP) — A Nevada wildflower was declared<br />

endangered at the only place it’s known to exist — on a<br />

high-desert ridge where a lithium mine is planned to help<br />

meet growing demand for electric car batteries, U.S. wildlife<br />

officials announced Wednesday, Dec. 14.<br />

The Fish and Wildlife Service’s formal listing of Tiehm’s<br />

buckwheat and its accompanying designation of 910 acres of<br />

critical habitat for the 6-inch-tall flower with yellow blooms<br />

raises another potential hurdle for President Joe Biden’s<br />

“green energy” agenda.<br />

With an estimated remaining population of only about<br />

16,000 plants, the service concluded that Tiehm’s buckwheat<br />

is on the brink of extinction.<br />

“We find that a threatened species status is not appropriate<br />

because the threats are severe and imminent, and Tiehm’s<br />

buckwheat is in danger of extinction now, as opposed to<br />

likely to become endangered in the future,” the agency said.<br />

The proposed mining and mineral exploration poses the<br />

biggest threat to the flower. It’s also threatened by roadbuilding,<br />

livestock grazing, rodents that eat it, invasive plants<br />

and climate change, the service said. It said an apparent,<br />

unprecedented rodent attack wiped out about 60 percent of<br />

its estimated population in 2020.<br />

Ioneer, the Australian mining company that’s been planning<br />

for years to dig for lithium where the flower grows on federal<br />

land halfway between Reno and Las Vegas, says it has<br />

developed a protection plan that would allow the plant and<br />

the project to coexist.<br />

But the listing under the Endangered Species Act subjects the<br />

mine to its most stringent regulatory requirement to date.<br />

It also underscores the challenges facing the Biden administration<br />

in its efforts to combat climate change through an<br />

accelerated transition from fossil fuels to renewables.<br />

“Lithium is an important part of our renewable energy<br />

transition, but it can’t come at the cost of extinction,” said<br />

Patrick Donnelly, Great Basin director for the Center for Biological<br />

Diversity, which petitioned for the listing in 2019 and<br />

sued last year to expedite the plant’s protection.<br />

The mining company said the decision “provides further clarity<br />

for the path forward” and is “fully in line with Ioneer’s<br />

expectations” for development of the mine site at Rhyolite<br />

Ridge in the Silver Peak Range west of Tonopah, near the<br />

California border.<br />

“We are committed to the protection and conservation of<br />

the species and have incorporated numerous measures into<br />

our current and future plans to ensure this occurs,” Ioneer<br />

managing director Bernard Rowe said in a statement.<br />

“Our operations have and will continue to avoid all Tiehm’s<br />

buckwheat populations,” he said.<br />

The service’s final listing rule was published Dec. 15 in the<br />

Federal Register.<br />

The conservationists who sued to protect the plant insist that<br />

Ioneer’s mitigation plan won’t pass legal muster. They pledge<br />

to resume their court battle if necessary to protect the<br />

buckwheat’s habitat from the rush to develop new lithium<br />

deposits.<br />

The flowers are found on a total of just 10 acres spread<br />

across about 3 square miles. Federal agencies are prohibited<br />

from approving any activity on federal lands that could<br />

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42<br />

| Chief Engineer


In this Feb. 10, 2020, file photo, a plant ecologist at the University of Nevada, Reno, points to a tiny Tiehm’s buckwheat that has sprouted at a campus<br />

greenhouse in Reno, Nev. U.S. wildlife officials declared a Nevada wildflower endangered Wednesday, Dec. 14, 2022, at the only place it exists — on a<br />

high-desert ridge where a lithium mine is planned to help meet growing demand for electric car batteries. (AP Photo/Scott Sonner, File)<br />

destroy, modify or adversely affect any listed species’ critical<br />

habitat.<br />

Donnelly said the company’s latest operations plan for the<br />

first phase of the mine proposes avoiding a “tiny island of<br />

land” containing 75 percent of its population — surrounded<br />

by an open pit mine and tailings dumps within 12 feet of the<br />

flowers.<br />

The Bureau of Land Management is reviewing the environmental<br />

impacts of Ioneer’s latest operations and protection<br />

plans.<br />

But Donnelley noted that USFWS estimated in the Dec. 14<br />

final listing rule that the proposed scenario would “disturb<br />

and remove up to 38 percent of the critical habitat for this<br />

species, impacting pollinator populations, altering hydrology,<br />

removing soil and risking subsidence.”<br />

“Ioneer’s ‘Buckwheat Island’ scenario would spell doom for<br />

this sensitive little flower,” Donnelly said.<br />

The mine is among several renewable energy-related projects<br />

facing legal or regulatory challenges in Nevada. They include<br />

another lithium mine proposed near the Oregon border and<br />

a geothermal power plant where the Dixie Valley toad has<br />

been declared endangered in wetlands about 100 miles east<br />

of Reno.<br />

“Now that the buckwheat is protected, we’ll use the full<br />

power of the Endangered Species Act to ensure Ioneer<br />

doesn’t harm one hair on a buckwheat’s head,” Donnelly<br />

said.<br />

Volume 88 · Number 1 | 43


News<br />

Pennsylvania Lifts Ban on Gas<br />

Production in Polluted Village<br />

By Michael Rubinkam | Associated Press<br />

One of Pennsylvania’s largest drillers will be allowed to extract<br />

natural gas from underneath a rural community where<br />

it has been banned for a dozen years because of accusations<br />

it polluted the water supply, according to a settlement with<br />

state regulators.<br />

The Department of Environmental Protection quietly lifted<br />

its long-term moratorium on gas production in Dimock,<br />

a small village in northeastern Pennsylvania that gained<br />

national notoriety when residents were filmed lighting their<br />

tap water on fire.<br />

The agency’s agreement with Houston-based Coterra Energy<br />

Inc. is dated Nov. 29 — the same day Coterra pleaded no contest<br />

in a high-profile criminal case accusing the company of<br />

allowing methane to leak uncontrolled into Dimock’s aquifer.<br />

State officials denied that Coterra was allowed to plead to a<br />

misdemeanor charge in exchange for being allowed to drill<br />

for potentially hundreds of millions of dollars’ worth of gas.<br />

The agreement, which is public, was obtained by The Associated<br />

Press.<br />

Some of the residents, who have long accused the Department<br />

of Environmental Protection of negligence in its<br />

handling of the water pollution in Dimock, said they felt<br />

betrayed.<br />

“We got played,” said Ray Kemble, the most outspoken of a<br />

small group of Dimock residents who have battled the drilling<br />

company and state regulators alike.<br />

Coterra will be permitted to drill horizontally underneath a<br />

9-square-mile area of Dimock and frack the gas-bearing shale<br />

that lies thousands of feet down. That’s been forbidden since<br />

2010, when environmental regulators accused Coterra’s corporate<br />

predecessor of failing to keep its promise to restore<br />

or replace Dimock’s water.<br />

The Department of Environmental Protection said it began<br />

negotiations with Coterra in early 2022, shortly after the<br />

company formed from the merger of Cabot Oil & Gas Corp.<br />

— the driller deemed responsible for fouling Dimock’s water<br />

supply — and Cimarex Energy Co.<br />

“When Coterra took over responsibility of the wells after the<br />

Cabot merger, they actively engaged with DEP to address the<br />

remaining issues in the area,” said agency spokesperson Jamar<br />

Thrasher. “Coterra committed to strict controls, monitoring<br />

and evaluation, resulting in some of the most restricted<br />

44 | Chief Engineer<br />

conditions on any drilling in the commonwealth.”<br />

Cabot, the predecessor company to Coterra, was charged in<br />

June 2020 with 15 criminal counts over allegations it drilled<br />

faulty gas wells that leaked flammable methane into residential<br />

water supplies in Dimock and surrounding communities.<br />

Coterra pleaded no contest to a misdemeanor violation of<br />

the state Clean Streams Law. Its plea deal with the state attorney<br />

general’s office requires Coterra to pay more than $16<br />

million to fund construction of a new public water system<br />

for Dimock and to pay affected residents’ water bills for 75<br />

years.<br />

Attorney General Josh Shapiro, a Democrat who takes office<br />

as governor next month, held a celebratory news conference<br />

with Kemble and two other Dimock residents on the day<br />

Coterra entered its plea. At the news conference, Shapiro<br />

punted a reporter’s question about whether Coterra would<br />

be permitted to resume drilling in the moratorium area,<br />

pointing out the administration of Democratic Gov. Tom<br />

Wolf was still in charge.<br />

“That’s obviously a question for the regulators, not for the<br />

attorney general’s office,” Shapiro said then.<br />

Shapiro’s spokesperson said the plea deal was not contingent<br />

on DEP lifting the moratorium.<br />

“Our office plays no role in DEP’s regulatory decisions, and<br />

we do not share confidential information about criminal<br />

investigations,” Jacklin Rhoads said.<br />

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In an interview Friday, Dec. 12, Wolf said he was satisfied<br />

with his administration’s decision to allow Coterra to go back<br />

into Dimock, “as long as they do what we need them to do<br />

with the new water supply and the pipes.” He said the company<br />

had to abide by “some pretty stringent guidelines.”<br />

Coterra will continue to be prohibited from drilling new gas<br />

wells inside the moratorium area itself. But shale gas drillers<br />

like Coterra are able to drill horizontally for miles until they<br />

reach the target, meaning that even though the company<br />

will have to start their new wells outside of the prohibited<br />

area, the gas is easily within reach.<br />

Zacariah Hildenbrand, a Dallas-based biochemist who has<br />

conducted testing in Dimock, said that technically speaking,<br />

the horizontal portion of a gas well is “orders of magnitude<br />

safer” than the vertical portion, from which most incidents<br />

of drilling-related water contamination originate.<br />

But he was incredulous that Coterra would want to risk it in<br />

Dimock — and that regulators would allow it — given it was<br />

at the center of one of the most high-profile contamination<br />

cases to emerge from the U.S. drilling and fracking boom.<br />

“Why even roll the dice for this to happen again? You’ve<br />

already made a colossal mess of this region. It’s already been<br />

a black eye to the industry,” Hildenbrand said. “Why not pick<br />

up your tools and go somewhere else?”<br />

The driller has long said the gas in Dimock’s water wells was<br />

naturally occurring, and over the years, it has periodically<br />

requested permission from the state to resume drilling in the<br />

community.<br />

In a statement, Coterra spokesperson George Stark said<br />

the agreement with DEP “resolves longstanding issues and<br />

provides for the responsible and safe development of natural<br />

resources located inside the nine-square mile area. It also<br />

satisfies the desires of many of the landowners, who communicated<br />

their support for such development over the years.”<br />

Pennsylvania is the nation’s No. 2 gas-producing state after<br />

Texas, and Susquehanna County, where Dimock is located,<br />

produces more natural gas than any other county in the<br />

state.<br />

Alan Hall, vice chair of the Susquehanna County Board of<br />

Commissioners, said many of his constituents in Dimock had<br />

been clamoring for gas production to resume, having leased<br />

their land to the gas company long ago.<br />

“They know the gas in that area is very prolific, and there’s<br />

a lot of it there. And they’d been hoping a resolution would<br />

come through, that their leases would be activated again<br />

and they’d start being able to get royalties out of the process,”<br />

he said.<br />

Anthony Ingraffea, a retired Cornell University engineering<br />

professor who has extensively studied gas well failures in<br />

Pennsylvania, estimates Coterra could frack as many as 50<br />

wells in the moratorium area, and produce as much as $500<br />

Craig Stevens holds a bottle of brown water as he speaks with members of<br />

the media outside the Susquehanna County Courthouse in Montrose, Pa.,<br />

on Nov. 29, 2022. One of Pennsylvania's largest drillers will be allowed to<br />

extract natural gas from underneath a rural Pennsylvania community where<br />

it has been banned for a dozen years because of accusations it polluted the<br />

water supply, according to a settlement with state regulators obtained by<br />

The Associated Press on Thursday, Dec. 8, 2022. (AP Photo/Matt Rourke,<br />

File)<br />

million worth of gas. Energy companies use hydraulic fracturing,<br />

or fracking, to capture natural gas locked in shale rock.<br />

Ingraffea, a drilling industry critic who once testified on<br />

behalf of Dimock residents who had sued Cabot in federal<br />

court, said more methane leaks and more problems are<br />

inevitable.<br />

“This is groundhog day,” he said. “These poor families, the<br />

families that remain and families that are still to be impacted,<br />

are right back to where they were in 2008. The state of<br />

Pennsylvania, the governor’s office and PA DEP, are washing<br />

their hands.”<br />

The promised water line might not be operational until 2027,<br />

according to the settlement agreement with DEP. Until then,<br />

Coterra is supposed to install temporary treatment systems at<br />

the homes of residents who want them. Some residents say<br />

previous attempts at treatment have failed.<br />

Dimock resident Erik Roos, whose well was fouled with<br />

methane and who spent years fetching drinking water from<br />

an artesian well miles from his house, said he was pleased<br />

that he would finally be connected to a public water supply.<br />

But he was surprised when a reporter told him about the<br />

planned resumption of drilling.<br />

“It’s disturbing to me that they rewarded them so quickly,”<br />

he said Monday, Dec. 12. “Seems to me they should wait at<br />

least a year.” He said regulators should have told Coterra: “‘If<br />

you show you’re following this agreement, maybe we’ll let<br />

you do it.’”<br />

Rubinkam reported from northeastern Pennsylvania. Associated<br />

Press writer reporter Marc Levy in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania,<br />

contributed to this report.<br />

Volume 88 · Number 1 | 45


News<br />

Buildings Big and Small Benefit from<br />

Electrification, Decarbonization with<br />

Updated Trane® Heat Pumps, Split and<br />

Rooftop Systems<br />

DAVIDSON, N.C — Trane – by Trane Technologies, a global<br />

climate innovator — has announced updates to its trusted<br />

Precedent®, Odyssey, and Foundation® lines of HVAC<br />

systems that help customers with buildings of all sizes embrace<br />

electrification and decarbonization. The company also<br />

released version five of its essential system design software,<br />

TRACE® 3D Plus, with new capabilities engineers can use to<br />

design and validate projects with confidence and clarity.<br />

“Whether modeling for decarbonization during design and<br />

validation, reducing complexity on the day of installation,<br />

or optimizing energy efficiency during operation, Trane’s<br />

updated software, all-electric systems, and updated unitary<br />

models help to empower owners to create the right solution<br />

for their building,” said Dave Molin, Vice President of Trane<br />

Product Management, Equipment, Controls, and Digital.<br />

Trane Offers First Packaged Heat Pump Unit in 25-Ton<br />

Capacity<br />

Continuing its introduction of the next-generation Precedent<br />

portfolio, Trane has released new standard and high-efficiency<br />

Precedent heat pumps in 12.5- to 25-ton capacities. The<br />

Precedent line meets the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)<br />

<strong>2023</strong> energy efficiency standards. All next-generation units<br />

released to date are now available in a high-efficiency model<br />

that exceeds those standards by 25 percent or more.<br />

Trane’s all-electric Precedent heat pump is among the first<br />

packaged rooftop heat pumps in the industry available in a<br />

25-ton capacity. Convenient characteristics simplify service<br />

and installation, such as hinged access to the control panel,<br />

color-coded wiring, keyed connectors, and no fan belts to<br />

adjust or replace. It arrives ready to install, and most replacements<br />

don’t require a curb adapter.<br />

Trane has equipped all Precedent models with Symbio® 700<br />

controls so owners can immediately enjoy the benefits of<br />

digital connectivity. Symbio 700 is a user-friendly onboard<br />

interface to optimize system performance, helps to improve<br />

serviceability, and facilitate unit connectivity and future<br />

enhancements. Its intuitive user interface displays system<br />

alarms and diagnostic reports building owners can use to<br />

troubleshoot. Use the free Symbio Service and Installation<br />

Mobile App for simplified commissioning and troubleshooting.<br />

Symbio integrates with common building automation<br />

Trane’s Foundation rooftop systems with capacities of 15 to 25 tons are<br />

now updated to meet DOE <strong>2023</strong> efficiency standards.<br />

systems (BAS) and open standard protocols.<br />

In addition to these powerful benefits, all new Precedent<br />

next-generation units:<br />

• Offer several new options, including single- and multi-zone<br />

variable air volume (VAV).<br />

• Comply with ASHRAE® 90.1-2019.<br />

• Include a three-year parts warranty, demonstrating Trane’s<br />

confidence in its quality.<br />

Design Flexibility with Energy Efficient Performance<br />

When rooftop installation isn’t an option, a Trane Odyssey<br />

split system is a versatile choice that delivers up-to-date<br />

energy efficiency, meeting DOE <strong>2023</strong> standards. Split systems<br />

provide the same high-performance heating and cooling of<br />

a packaged rooftop system but allow engineers and contractors<br />

to work around unique building designs such as glass<br />

ceilings or pitched roofs or code and service limitations.<br />

The Odyssey’s exceptional energy efficiency is realized by its<br />

Symbio 700 controller, now standard, and a new multi-speed<br />

air handler that can be configured for two-stage or sin-<br />

46<br />

| Chief Engineer


gle-zone VAV or Variable Volume Zone Temperature (VVZT).<br />

It’s available with several indoor and outdoor compressor<br />

and condenser options, including dual-compressor and dual-circuit<br />

models, so technicians can service either compressor<br />

without shutting down. The Odyssey split system also:<br />

• Come standard with hail guards to protect the components<br />

during shipping, inclement weather, or from vandalism.<br />

• Meet new testing and material flammability requirement<br />

UL 60335-2-40, which goes into effect in <strong>January</strong> 2024.<br />

• Comply with ASHRAE 90.1-2019.<br />

• Have easy-to-use colored-coded wiring, a low voltage terminal<br />

board that’s easy to access, foil-faced insulation, and<br />

one power point.<br />

Convenience, Cost-Efficient Retrofits and Replacements<br />

Trane’s Foundation rooftop systems are available in a broad<br />

range of tonnages (3-25 tons) and have a footprint designed<br />

for quick and easy retrofits or unplanned replacements without<br />

the cost or hassle of a curb adapter. Foundation systems<br />

with capacities of 15 to 25 tons have been updated to meet<br />

the DOE <strong>2023</strong> efficiency standards, and 7.5 to 12.5 tonnages<br />

will be released in the first quarter of <strong>2023</strong>. Foundation units<br />

in the smaller 3- to 5-ton capacities already comply with the<br />

new standards.<br />

With the simple, efficient Foundation line contractors, building<br />

owners and facility managers operating small-to-medium<br />

buildings can save up to $1,500 on installation without the<br />

need for a curb adapter. In addition, mindful design touches<br />

such as colored and numbered wiring and single-side service<br />

doors keep service and maintenance quick and economical.<br />

It can be configured in the field for horizontal or vertical<br />

airflow.<br />

Next-Generation Building Design Software Supports<br />

Decarbonization Approaches<br />

TRACE 3D Plus design and analysis software is now available<br />

in version five, so engineers can quickly and precisely model<br />

HVAC systems. Built on the U.S. Department of Energy’s<br />

EnergyPlus® engine, TRACE 3D Plus is enhanced with Trane’s<br />

industry-leading attributes.<br />

With version five, engineers and specifiers can move from<br />

the project plan to load design to energy and economic analysis,<br />

all in the same project file and interface. For a complete<br />

list of software features, visit www.trane.com/trace3Dplus.<br />

Volume 88 · Number 1 | 47


Member News<br />

Western Specialty Contractors Wins<br />

Trimble 2022 Viewpoint Construction<br />

Award for Best Use of Construction One<br />

Technology<br />

Western Specialty Contractors is proud to announce that it<br />

has received a Trimble Viewpoint Construction Award for<br />

the Best Use of Trimble’s Construction One Technology — an<br />

award recognizing contractors that have leveraged technology<br />

solutions to create more data-driven, connected construction<br />

businesses.<br />

Held annually, the Trimble Viewpoint Construction Awards<br />

honor the technological achievements of North American<br />

contractors as exhibited through the growth and improvements<br />

of their projects, people and processes over the past<br />

year. Honors are given in three categories: Most Outstanding<br />

Project, Most Impressive Human Resource Achievement, and<br />

Best Use of Trimble Construction One Technology. The awards<br />

were announced during the Trimble Dimensions+ Conference<br />

on Nov. 9 in Las Vegas.<br />

Western used Trimble’s Construction One Technology to<br />

centralize and streamline many of its workflows, including<br />

the development of a custom Human Resources Information<br />

System (HRIS) that supports everything from safety training<br />

to performance management. This includes a compensation<br />

dashboard that provides an accessible view of each employee’s<br />

salary history with built-in workflows and notifications<br />

for approvals/rejections.<br />

“Continuing to work with the right<br />

partners and leverage the technology<br />

platforms available provides a<br />

benefit to all our employees and<br />

drives ROIC. We thank Trimble for<br />

partnering with us and recognizing<br />

our efforts with this award.”<br />

— Tom Brooks, Chief Operating Officer<br />

Western Specialty Contractors<br />

The dashboard has helped streamline Western’s merit increase<br />

process and allows managers to see a consolidated<br />

salary view as they prepare their budgets. A process that used<br />

to take weeks to complete, now only takes a few minutes<br />

with Trimble’s Construction One Technology.<br />

“What a great accomplishment and a team effort. First to<br />

human resources for identifying a need and conceptual solution,<br />

followed by our technology team working with Trimble<br />

Viewpoint to create a turn-key solution. We could not be<br />

more pleased with the outcome; definitely a win for Western’s<br />

employees,” said Brooks.<br />

48<br />

| Chief Engineer<br />

Western Specialty Contractors announced its having received the Trimble<br />

Viewpoint Construction Award for Best Use of Trimble’s Construction One<br />

Technology.


Volume 88 · Number 1 | 49


Techline<br />

HyperloopTT to Become First Public<br />

Company Focused on Next Generation of<br />

High-Speed Mobility<br />

LOS ANGELES and NEW YORK — Hyperloop Transportation<br />

Technologies (“HyperloopTT” or “the Company”), a leading<br />

transportation and technology licensing company focused on<br />

realizing the hyperloop, and Forest Road Acquisition Corp. II<br />

(“Forest Road”), a publicly traded special purpose acquisition<br />

company, recently announced it has entered into a definitive<br />

merger agreement (“Merger Agreement”) that is expected<br />

to result in HyperloopTT becoming a publicly listed company.<br />

Upon the closing of the transaction, the newly combined<br />

company will be named “Hyperloop Transportation Technologies”<br />

and will continue to be led by Chief Executive Officer<br />

Andrés de León and the HyperloopTT management team.<br />

A Leading Developer of Hyperloop IP<br />

Led by an experienced team of hyperloop business and technology<br />

professionals, HyperloopTT relies on a global network<br />

of technologists, scientists, engineers and expert contributors,<br />

resulting in an asset-light technology development<br />

business model. Through this partner network, the Company<br />

is driving a suite of next-generation technologies to power<br />

transportation in the future.<br />

Since its inception in 2013, HyperloopTT has made significant<br />

progress towards the adoption of hyperloop systems. The<br />

Company developed a full-scale hyperloop test track in Tou-<br />

HyperloopTT and Forest Road have merged with the expectation of becoming a publicly traded company, Hyperloop Transportation Technologies, with the<br />

goal of redefining the future of transportation.<br />

50<br />

| Chief Engineer


louse, France, a hyperloop insurance framework model, and<br />

model safety and certification guidelines.<br />

With the deployment of the Company’s test track, HyperloopTT<br />

has built a robust technology portfolio relating to<br />

patents across levitation and propulsion, low pressure tube<br />

transportation, and passenger experience. These patents are<br />

the basis of a technology that combines sustainability with<br />

the ability to reach destinations faster, which can redefine<br />

the urban landscape, create new economic opportunities,<br />

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with minimal pressure, reducing resistance. As a mobility<br />

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Volume 88 · Number 1 | 51


Techline<br />

Facebook Parent Meta Will Pay $725M<br />

to Settle User Data Case<br />

SAN FRANCISCO (AP) — Facebook’s corporate parent has<br />

agreed to pay $725 million to settle a lawsuit alleging the<br />

world’s largest social media platform allowed millions of its<br />

users’ personal information to be fed to Cambridge Analytica,<br />

a firm that supported Donald Trump’s victorious presidential<br />

campaign in 2016.<br />

Terms of the settlement reached by Meta Platforms, the<br />

holding company for Facebook and Instagram, were disclosed<br />

in court documents filed Dec. 22. It will still need to be<br />

approved by a judge in a San Francisco federal court hearing<br />

set for March.<br />

The case sprang from 2018 revelations that Cambridge<br />

Analytica, a firm with ties to Trump political strategist Steve<br />

Bannon, had paid a Facebook app developer for access to the<br />

personal information of about 87 million users of the platform.<br />

That data was then used to target U.S. voters during<br />

the 2016 campaign that culminated in Trump’s election as the<br />

45th president.<br />

Facebook’s Meta logo sign is seen at the company headquarters in Menlo<br />

Park, Calif., on Oct. 28, 2021. Facebook’s corporate parent has agreed to<br />

pay $725 million to settle a lawsuit<br />

Uproar over the revelations led to a contrite Zuckerberg<br />

being grilled by U.S. lawmakers during a high-profile congressional<br />

hearing and spurred calls for people to delete<br />

their Facebook accounts. Even though Facebook’s growth<br />

has stalled as more people connect and entertain themselves<br />

on rival services such as TikTok, the social network still boasts<br />

about 2 billion users worldwide, including nearly 200 million<br />

in the U.S. and Canada.<br />

The lawsuit, which had been seeking to be certified as a class<br />

action representing Facebook users, had asserted the privacy<br />

breach proved Facebook is a “data broker and surveillance<br />

firm,” as well as a social network.<br />

The two sides reached a temporary settlement agreement in<br />

August, just a few weeks before a Sept. 20 deadline for Meta<br />

CEO Mark Zuckerberg and his long-time chief operating officer,<br />

Sheryl Sandberg, to submit to depositions.<br />

The company based in Menlo Park, California, said in a Dec.<br />

23 statement that it pursued a settlement because it was in<br />

the best interest of its community and shareholders.<br />

“Over the last three years we revamped our approach to<br />

privacy and implemented a comprehensive privacy program,”<br />

said spokesperson Dina El-Kassaby Luce. “We look forward<br />

to continuing to build services people love and trust with<br />

privacy at the forefront.”<br />

52<br />

| Chief Engineer


Weil-McLain ProTools App Now<br />

Features Real-Time Video Tech Support<br />

BURR RIDGE, Ill. — Just in time for heating season, Weil-Mc-<br />

Lain® has updated its ProTools App with enhanced features<br />

to provide contractors and service technicians with the<br />

support they need to streamline customer visits and provide<br />

clients with a premium experience. Available for iOS and<br />

Android devices, the app now allows heating professionals<br />

to work virtually with Weil-McLain’s Tech Support team to<br />

problem-solve issues as they occur on the job site.<br />

“Our goal is to continuously optimize this platform by adding<br />

additional features that make service technicians’ and installing<br />

contractors’ jobs easier — especially during the busy<br />

heating season period,” said David DeVries, Director of Product<br />

Management with Weil-McLain. “The new Site-Call video<br />

assistance opens new opportunities for service technicians to<br />

receive instant support from our Tech Support team.”<br />

Service technicians who run into complications while on the<br />

job can contact Weil-McLain Tech Support for Site-Call video<br />

and receive immediate real-time assistance. After requesting<br />

support, they simply accept the call from Tech Support on<br />

their smartphone and share a live video of the issue they are<br />

experiencing on the job site. Tech Support will then highlight<br />

the issue on the service technician’s screen and propose corrective<br />

action to solve it.<br />

“This new feature provides heating professionals with<br />

immediate access to our support team and also allows them<br />

the opportunity to learn new methods for troubleshooting,<br />

maintenance and boiler setup,” added DeVries. “As we prepare<br />

for what could be another colder than normal winter,<br />

we want to ensure service technicians have all the digital<br />

tools and knowledge they need to help expedite customer<br />

visits while providing homeowners a best-in-class service<br />

experience.”<br />

The Weil-McLain ProTools App helps enhance service technicians’<br />

hydronic expertise by putting a variety of Weil-McLain<br />

boiler product information at their fingertips. From reviewing<br />

fault codes for troubleshooting and accessing how-to videos<br />

to viewing product manuals and schematics and quickly<br />

finding parts, the app has become a one-stop resource for<br />

boiler installation and maintenance.<br />

Weil-McLain’s ProTools app now features real-time video support for technicians,<br />

ensuring the best and most streamlined service visit experience for<br />

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Volume 88 · Number 1 | 53


Techline<br />

US Opens Probe of Cruise Robotaxi<br />

Braking, Clogging Traffic By Tom Krisher | AP Auto Writer<br />

DETROIT (AP) — U.S. safety regulators are investigating<br />

reports that autonomous robotaxis run by General Motors’<br />

Cruise LLC can stop too quickly or unexpectedly quit moving,<br />

potentially stranding passengers.<br />

Three rear-end collisions that reportedly took place after<br />

Cruise autonomous vehicles braked hard kicked off the<br />

probe, according to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.<br />

At the time, robotaxis were staffed by human<br />

safety drivers.<br />

The agency also has multiple reports of Cruise robotaxis<br />

without human safety drivers becoming immobilized in San<br />

Francisco traffic, possibly stranding passengers and blocking<br />

lanes.<br />

The reports of immobilized vehicles came from discussions<br />

with Cruise, media reports and local authorities, NHTSA said<br />

in an investigation document posted Friday on its website.<br />

was working to minimize collision severity and risk of harm,”<br />

Pusateri wrote.<br />

In the clogged traffic incidents, Pusateri wrote that whenever<br />

Cruise technology isn’t extremely confident in moving, it’s<br />

designed to be conservative, turning on hazard lights and<br />

coming to a safe stop.<br />

“If needed, Cruise personnel are physically dispatched to<br />

retrieve the vehicle as quickly as possible,” Pusateri wrote.<br />

Such stoppages are rare and have not caused any crashes, he<br />

wrote.<br />

NHTSA said Cruise reported the three rear-end accidents<br />

under a 2021 order requiring automated vehicle companies<br />

to notify the agency of crashes.<br />

Reports of Cruise robotaxis becoming immobilized in traffic<br />

There have been two reports of injuries related to the hard<br />

braking, including a bicyclist seriously hurt last March, according<br />

to the NHTSA crash database.<br />

NHTSA says it will determine how often the problems<br />

happen and potential safety issues they cause. The probe,<br />

which covers an estimated 242 Cruise autonomous vehicles,<br />

could bring a recall. “With these data, NHTSA can respond<br />

to safety concerns involving these technologies through<br />

further investigation and enforcement,” the agency said in a<br />

statement.<br />

Cruise CEO Kyle Vogt told The Associated Press that the<br />

company is fully cooperating with the NHTSA. “I am happy<br />

to help educate them on the safety of our products,” Vogt<br />

said during a Friday interview. “Regulators are doing their<br />

job. They are scrutinizing things as they should, asking lots of<br />

questions.”<br />

So far, Cruise vehicles have driven nearly early 700,000 autonomous<br />

miles in San Francisco without causing any life-threatening<br />

injuries or deaths.<br />

“This is against the backdrop of over 40,000 deaths each year<br />

on American roads,” Cruise spokesman Drew Pusateri wrote<br />

in a statement. “There’s always a balance between healthy<br />

regulatory scrutiny and the innovation we desperately need<br />

to save lives.”<br />

He said police didn’t issue tickets in any of the crashes, and<br />

that in each case, the autonomous vehicle was responding to<br />

aggressive or erratic behavior of other road users. “The AV<br />

54<br />

| Chief Engineer


came from the San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency<br />

and the San Francisco County Transportation Authority,<br />

the agency said.<br />

Cruise vehicles may strand passengers in unsafe locations,<br />

such as travel lanes or intersections, increasing the risk to<br />

exiting passengers. And they can become obstacles to other<br />

road users, causing them to make unsafe maneuvers to avoid<br />

collisions. “The vehicles may also present a secondary safety<br />

risk, by obstructing the paths of emergency response vehicles<br />

and thereby delaying their emergency response times,”<br />

NHTSA said in the document.<br />

The municipal transportation agency, in comments to NHTSA,<br />

said that starting in May, the city began to notice 911 calls<br />

from people who were inconvenienced by Cruise operations.<br />

Some city police officers also saw Cruise vehicles disabled in<br />

travel lanes. One incident in June involved 13 Cruise vehicles<br />

stopped on a major road. Two other large blockages were<br />

reported in August, the agency said.<br />

The probe comes at an important time for Cruise, which in<br />

June started charging passengers for autonomous rides without<br />

human safety drivers in part of San Francisco at night. On<br />

Thursday, the company got approval from a state agency to<br />

carry riders citywide, around the clock. One more agency has<br />

to sign off.<br />

It’s also a critical time for the autonomous vehicle industry,<br />

with Google spinoff Waymo running a robotaxi service in the<br />

Phoenix area with plans to expand to San Francisco. Other<br />

companies also are moving toward services without human<br />

safety drivers.<br />

San Francisco-based Cruise plans to expand the service to<br />

Phoenix and Austin, Texas. The startup owned by GM has<br />

been testing autonomous Chevrolet Bolt electric vehicles for<br />

several years.<br />

In this Jan. 16, 2019, photo, Cruise AV, General Motor’s autonomous electric<br />

Bolt EV is displayed in Detroit. U.S. safety regulators are investigating<br />

reports that autonomous robotaxis run by General Motors’ Cruise LLC can<br />

stop too quickly or unexpectedly stop moving, potentially stranding passengers.<br />

(AP Photo/Paul Sancya, File)<br />

Cruise told the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration,<br />

that one of its vehicles was making an unprotected left<br />

turn at an intersection when it was hit by an oncoming vehicle.<br />

The Cruise vehicle had to be towed away from the scene,<br />

according to the regulatory filing.<br />

GM acquired a majority stake in Cruise when it was a startup<br />

in 2016. The company invested to take 80-percent stake in<br />

the company last May.<br />

AP Technology Writer Michael Liedtke contributed from San<br />

Ramon, Calif.<br />

In September Cruise revealed that it recalled 80 of its driverless<br />

vehicles for a software update after one of the cars was<br />

involved in a crash that caused minor injuries.<br />

Volume 88 · Number 1 | 55


New Products<br />

Brass Knuckle®, Application-Specific<br />

Protective Gloves Easy to Source<br />

CLEVELAND — The hand is the leading body part injured at<br />

work and treated in hospital emergency departments, with<br />

acute hand and finger injuries sending more than 1 million<br />

workers to the emergency room annually in the United<br />

States. Brass Knuckle offers a complete line of gloves for<br />

maximum protection along with comfort and dexterity —<br />

and the company strives to make specifying gloves easier,<br />

with robust selection tools that make narrowing down glove<br />

choices a breeze.<br />

In its effort to help make gloves fit better, Brass Knuckle<br />

shines in the “construction of the glove.” Gloves are tested<br />

and measured against the following criteria: longer wear<br />

life, maximum dexterity and defined flex points, plus a wide<br />

range of protective features. Application-specific glove<br />

construction is critical. Brass Knuckle leads in understanding<br />

fibers, coatings, special features and other material construction<br />

attributes that blend protection and value.<br />

5 and from 12- through 18-gauge. The cut lineup includes<br />

the company’s SmartShell glove, a favorite for impact protection.<br />

SmartSkin gloves keep hands dry from nasty and<br />

sometimes dangerous liquid hazards without compromising<br />

comfort. SmartFlex are superior general-purpose gloves<br />

with construction that delivers unparalleled comfort. Clean-<br />

Hand® disposable gloves are also available.<br />

Brass Knuckle provides two ways to find the perfect glove.<br />

An exclusive interactive tool allows you to choose gloves by<br />

type, gauge, shell, and coating. Or, use the Hand Protection<br />

Product Selector Guide and see the full line of Brass Knuckle<br />

gloves at a glance, with 15 individual characteristics that<br />

define each glove.<br />

For more information, visit<br />

https://www.brassknuckleprotection.com/.<br />

Brass Knuckle offers three signature, application-specific<br />

glove lines, with multiple gradient options within each line.<br />

SmartCut gloves are cut-resistant from ANSI cut 2 through<br />

When variable speed is<br />

what you need.<br />

Our qualified team assembles, installs, and<br />

repairs a wide variety of programmable<br />

controllers and drives.<br />

• Retrofitting Pumping Systems to Variable<br />

Frequency Drives<br />

• Extended warranties up to ten years<br />

• Base Mounted or In-Line Pumps<br />

• Sensor-less or with sensors<br />

• Energy savings analysis<br />

Call us today for a complimentary, intelligent<br />

estimate for retrofitting your pumping system to VFD.<br />

(630) 455-1034<br />

novatronicsinc@bornquist.com | www.novatronicsinc.com<br />

56<br />

| Chief Engineer


Pipe Beveler End Prep Tools Handle<br />

Highly Alloyed Small Tubes<br />

A family of right-angle welding end prep tools for highly<br />

alloyed small diameter tubes that require precision beveling<br />

prior to welding to assure high-integrity welds has been<br />

introduced by ESCO Tool of Holliston, Mass.<br />

The ESCO Ground MILLHOG® Beveler is a right-angle drive<br />

I.D. clamping tool that features a push-pull clamp and release<br />

mechanism that engages and disengages easily. Ideal<br />

for beveling tubes and small pipes with a high percentage<br />

of chrome, this tool produces precision welding end preps<br />

without cutting oils and comes in pneumatic, electric and<br />

battery-powered models.<br />

The ESCO Ground MILLHOG Beveler is priced from $4,625.00<br />

and is available for rental at $200.00 weekly, with overnight<br />

shipment.<br />

For more information contact:<br />

For more information, contact Marketing Director Matt Brennan<br />

at ESCO Tool, Holliston, MA 01746, call (800) 343-6926,<br />

FAX (508) 429-2811, email matt@ESCOtool.com or visit<br />

www.ESCOtool.com.<br />

Enabling users to achieve X-ray-certifiable welds without<br />

hand grinding, the ESCO Ground MILLHOG Beveler is suited<br />

for tube and pipe from 0.5" I.D. to 2.25" O.D. with 0.5" thick<br />

walls and only needs a 1.5" radial clearance. It has totally<br />

sealed construction and can be used in any orientation.<br />

The ESCO Ground MILLHOG® Beveler produces precision welding end<br />

preps and is available in pneumatic, electric and battery-powered models.<br />

Volume 88 · Number 1 | 57


New Products<br />

Electrical Connectors and Terminals<br />

Designed for Critical Robotic Medical<br />

Devices<br />

Custom-fabricated electrical connectors and terminals manufactured<br />

to OEM specifications from virtually any alloy, and<br />

that can be inlaid or edgelaid with precious metals, are being<br />

introduced by ETCO Incorporated of Bradenton, Fla.<br />

ETCO connectors and terminals for robotic medical devices<br />

are manufactured to specification from virtually any alloy,<br />

and can be inlaid or edgelaid with precious metals to achieve<br />

specific properties. Permitting OEMs to meet design requirements<br />

for critical robotic medical devices, they are supplied<br />

loose or on reels for use with various automated attachment<br />

systems.<br />

Available in sizes from 0.008" to 0.090" thick with +0.002"<br />

tolerances, depending upon materials and design requirements,<br />

ETCO Connectors & Terminals can include discrete<br />

over-molding and other special characteristics. Parts can also<br />

be made for other medical equipment including mobility<br />

units, monitors, hospital beds, MRI systems and CT scanners.<br />

ETCO Connectors & Terminals for robotic medical devices are<br />

priced according to configuration and quantity. Price quotations<br />

are available upon request.<br />

For more information contact Sean Dunn, VP of Marketing<br />

at ETCO Incorporated, 3004 62nd Ave. East, Bradenton, FL<br />

34203, call (800) 689-3826, email sdunn@etco.com or visit<br />

www.etco.com.<br />

ETCO connectors and terminals for robotic medical devices can be manufactured<br />

to specification in virtually any alloy, and even inlaid or edgelaid<br />

with precious metals as needed.<br />

58<br />

| Chief Engineer


Goodway Technologies Introduces Ultra-<br />

Compact HEPA Industrial Vacuum<br />

STAMFORD, Conn. — This is the industrial vacuum solution<br />

when size, portability, and industrial design need to check all<br />

the boxes. Goodway Technologies is releasing the latest addition<br />

to its heavy-duty, powerful industrial vacuum cleaners<br />

with the DP-E1-H Compact HEPA Industrial Vacuum Cleaner.<br />

In response to customer demand for a more compact, powerful,<br />

yet industrial grade solution, Goodway Technologies has<br />

launched a versatile and portable solution weighing under<br />

43 pounds, making it easier to transport throughout a facility.<br />

Use it for dry or wet applications in industrial facilities,<br />

food and beverage plants, commercial kitchens, and much<br />

more.<br />

The DP-E1-H Compact HEPA Industrial Vacuum is constructed<br />

with stainless steel and features high-performance motors<br />

and HEPA high-efficiency filters, filtering 99.97 percent of<br />

debris to 0.3 microns. It can be used for various industrial<br />

cleaning applications to remove dust, residues, and liquids.<br />

The product features an external filter shaker that allows for<br />

longer pickup times for dry powders and includes a 4-gallon<br />

detachable collection drum that allows for easy disposal of<br />

waste and debris.<br />

Features of the E1 Compact Industrial Vacuum include:<br />

• Ergonomic heavy-duty design<br />

• Lightweight and durable<br />

• Easy to operate<br />

• Stainless steel construction<br />

• 0.3 Micron HEPA Filter (Non-HEPA model available)<br />

• Detachable collection drum<br />

• External filter shaker<br />

• Accessory kit<br />

• The DP-E1-H Compact HEPA Industrial Vacuum is also<br />

available in a standard non-HEPA model. Visit the DP-E1-H<br />

product page for more information.<br />

Visit www.goodway.com for more information.<br />

Power and portability take center stage with the DP-E1-H.<br />

Volume 88 · Number 1 | 59


New Products<br />

Cable Tie Cutter Leaves Smooth Flat<br />

Ends<br />

A compact and lightweight, ergonomic cable tie cutter that<br />

removes the tie ends after tightening and leaves a smooth,<br />

flat cut to protect people from getting cut or scratched has<br />

been introduced by Xuron Corp. of Saco, Maine.<br />

The Xuron® Model 2275 Cable Tie Cutter features soft<br />

Xuro-Rubber hand grips, a Light-Touch return spring, and<br />

provides full cutting along the entire length of the blades.<br />

Featuring bypass cutting that leaves smooth, flat, clean cuts<br />

that are safer for people to handle, it is better than compression<br />

cutters which can leave spikes that can cut or scratch<br />

people.<br />

Easy to cut and release, with no scissor-like finger loops, the<br />

Xuron Model 2275 Cable Tie Cutter was originally developed<br />

for electronics cable harness assembly workers. Comfortable<br />

to hold in any size hand, left or right, this cutter is suited for<br />

any cable tie application such as closing tote boxes, securing<br />

signs to fences, and attaching portable chairs.<br />

The Xuron Model 2275 Cable Tie Cutter sells for $24.25 (list).<br />

A complete catalog is available on request. Distributor and<br />

dealer inquiries invited.<br />

For more information, contact Abby Robey in Marketing at<br />

Xuron Corporation, 62 Industrial Park Rd., Saco, ME 04072-<br />

1840, call (207) 283-1401, FAX (207) 283-0594, email<br />

arobey@xuron.com or visit www.xuron.com.<br />

POWER SYSTEMS SOLUTIONS<br />

Altorfer is the only authorized Caterpillar Dealer in the Chicagoland area.<br />

Altorfer Technicians<br />

• Factory-trained and qualified to service all<br />

major brands of equipment<br />

• Dispatched 24 hours a day, 7 days a week,<br />

365 days a year<br />

• Spread throughout: SE Iowa, NW Missouri,<br />

Northern Illinois and NW Indiana<br />

Altorfer Power Rental<br />

• Over 250 generators available to rent<br />

• Is part of the largest rental network in<br />

the United States.<br />

• Seasoned industry experts ready to help<br />

with your power emergencies.<br />

• Carries a full line of power generation,<br />

electrical distribution, temperature control,<br />

and compressed air solutions.<br />

Get Custom Preventative Maintenance<br />

Agreements for:<br />

• Engines<br />

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• ATS<br />

• Switchgear<br />

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(Resistive & Reactive<br />

Load Bank Testing)<br />

SAME DAY EMERGENCY SERVICE CALL 877-891-4181<br />

60<br />

| Chief Engineer


Nortek Global HVAC Expands High-<br />

Efficiency UEZ Unit Heater Line<br />

ST. LOUIS — Nortek Global HVAC (NGH) announces the<br />

release of three new capacities for the Reznor® UEZ condensing<br />

gas-fired unit heater. This industry-leading model<br />

supplies fuel-efficient heating to ensure cost-effective operation<br />

while promoting the safety and comfort of building<br />

occupants.<br />

Features of the launch include:<br />

• Three new sizes: 55, 85, and 110 MBH.<br />

• Certifications for industrial/commercial use and residential,<br />

non-living space applications (such as workshops and<br />

garages).<br />

• 93-percent fuel efficiency for cost-effective operation.<br />

• Improved sustainability and reduced environmental impact.<br />

• Outside air used for combustion, eliminating drafty infiltration<br />

problems, and improving building performance<br />

and comfort.<br />

• Bright status light, hinged access door, and seven-segment<br />

error code display on the control board for easier service<br />

and maintenance.<br />

• Appliance-grade finish that is attractive for residential<br />

applications while robust enough for commercial and<br />

industrial applications.<br />

The line is expertly designed, tested, and backed by 134 years<br />

of Reznor heating experience. The new sizes enable large<br />

and small spaces to be heated efficiently while reducing<br />

operating costs and the building’s carbon footprint. These<br />

additional capacities provide one-stop-shopping for all unit<br />

heater needs.<br />

Three new sizes round out Reznor’s new high-efficiency UEZ unit heater<br />

line.<br />

achieve their financial and sustainability goals; all while supporting<br />

their building occupants’ safety, health, and productivity,<br />

said Joe Patterson, Reznor General Manager.<br />

For more information about NGH’s products, contractors and<br />

distributors should visit www.nortekhvac.com or<br />

www.reznorhvac.com. Information regarding pricing, submittals,<br />

and quotations can be found by contacting one of<br />

the distributors in Reznor’s 1400+ network.<br />

“Expanding the portfolio of our most efficient products<br />

helps homeowners, buildings owners, and facility managers<br />

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Volume 88 · Number 1 | 61


Events<br />

Associated Builders and Contractors<br />

<strong>2023</strong> Convention<br />

March 15-17, <strong>2023</strong><br />

Gaylord Palms Resort & Convention Center<br />

Kissimee, FL<br />

Associated Builders and Contractors (ABC) is bringing ABC<br />

Convention <strong>2023</strong> to the No. 1 convention destination: the<br />

greater Orlando area. Located a short drive from both of<br />

Florida’s coasts, Kissimmee is a great place for attendees to<br />

mix business and pleasure and escape the winter blues.<br />

The popular location isn’t the only reason to register. ABC<br />

Convention <strong>2023</strong> is the place for contractors to find content<br />

designed to improve their businesses and bottom lines. Plus,<br />

enjoy the celebrations and networking opportunities that<br />

ABC members value and look forward to each year, from the<br />

National Craft Championships and the Construction Management<br />

Competition to the National Excellence in Construction®<br />

Awards. This is THE event for the merit shop construction<br />

industry, and you don’t want to miss it!<br />

All convention events take place at the Gaylord Palms Resort<br />

& Convention Center, located a short distance to Walt Disney<br />

World,® Universal Orlando Resort® and other Orlando<br />

theme parks and attractions. There’s something for everyone<br />

at this four-and-a-half-acre upscale resort, including the Cypress<br />

Springs Water Park and many family-friendly activities<br />

and entertainment, nine award-winning restaurants, bars,<br />

the world-class Relâche Spa, and a state-of-the-art fitness<br />

center.<br />

Opening General Session: “Life Is Magic” With Jon Dorenbos<br />

Jon Dorenbos suffered a devastating family tragedy in his<br />

childhood, but performing magic and playing pro football<br />

saved him, leading him to appearances on America’s Got Talent<br />

and The Ellen DeGeneres Show, as well as playing 14 NFL<br />

seasons. After a life-threatening heart condition, he developed<br />

a road map for finding happiness. “Life Is Magic” is his<br />

story about overcoming life-or-death challenges with grace,<br />

persistence and a childlike sense of wonder.<br />

The Construction Workforce Award winners — the Craft<br />

Instructor, Craft Professional and Young Professional of the<br />

Year — will also be honored during the opening session. In<br />

addition, attendees will be introduced to the <strong>2023</strong> Chair of<br />

the ABC National Board of Directors.<br />

Additional Speakers:<br />

Stephen M.R. Covey<br />

Trust expert, executive thought leader and bestselling author<br />

Stephen M. R. Covey is co-founder of CoveyLink and the<br />

62 | Chief Engineer<br />

FranklinCovey Global Trust Practice. He is a sought-after and<br />

compelling speaker and adviser on trust, leadership, ethics<br />

and collaboration. Covey is a New York Times and Wall Street<br />

Journal bestselling author of The SPEED of Trust — The One<br />

Thing That Changes Everything and recently released Trust &<br />

Inspire: How Truly Great Leaders Unleash Greatness in Others,<br />

which is a Wall Street Journal bestseller.<br />

Duncan Wardle<br />

Former senior executive at The Walt Disney Company and<br />

design-thinking and innovation consultant<br />

As head of innovation and creativity at Disney, Duncan<br />

Wardle and his team helped Imagineering, Lucasfilm, Marvel,<br />

Pixar and Disney Parks innovate, creating magical storylines<br />

and experiences for consumers around the globe. As founder<br />

of iD8 & innov8, he now brings his extensive Disney experience<br />

to audiences around the world using a unique approach<br />

to design thinking. Wardle is a frequent TEDx speaker, a<br />

contributor to Fast Company and teaches master classes at<br />

universities like Yale and Duke.<br />

Early Bird registration deadline: Jan. 9, <strong>2023</strong>.<br />

For more information or to register, visit<br />

abcconvention.abc.org<br />

<strong>2023</strong> ASHRAE Winter Conference/AHR Expo<br />

Feb. 4-8, <strong>2023</strong>/Feb. 6-8, <strong>2023</strong><br />

Omni CNN Center<br />

100 CNN Center NW, Atlanta, GA<br />

ASHRAE is looking forward to returning to Atlanta — home<br />

of the new ASHRAE Global Headquarters. The ASHRAE Winter<br />

Conference will be held February 4-8, <strong>2023</strong>, at the Omni<br />

Hotel at CNN Center and Building A of the Georgia World<br />

Congress Center. The AHR Expo will take place February 6-8<br />

in Buildings B and C of the Georgia World Congress Center.<br />

The <strong>2023</strong> ASHRAE Winter Conference technical program<br />

comprises nine tracks selected to represent areas of focus<br />

common among ASHRAE membership. The track focus areas<br />

include Fundamentals and Applications, HVACR Systems and<br />

Equipment, Refrigerants and Refrigeration, Grid Resilience<br />

and Thermal Storage, Pathways to Zero Energy Emissions and<br />

Decarbonization, Multifamily and Residential Buildings, Operations<br />

and Maintenance, Building Simulation and Virtual<br />

Design in Construction, and a mini track addressing Innovative<br />

Responses to Supply Chain Challenges.<br />

For more information and to register, visit www.ashrae.org/<br />

conferences/<strong>2023</strong>-winter-conference-atlanta.


Volume 88 · Number 1 | 63


Ashrae Update<br />

ASHRAE Commits to Developing an<br />

IAQ Pathogen Mitigation Standard<br />

ATLANTA — ASHRAE’s board of directors recently announced<br />

its commitment to support the expedited development of a<br />

national indoor air quality (IAQ) pathogen mitigation standard.<br />

The goal is to finalize the consensus-based, code-enforceable<br />

standard within six months.<br />

“The health and well-being of building occupants are crucial<br />

factors that must be considered during the design, construction<br />

and operation phases of the building process,” said<br />

2022-23 ASHRAE President Farooq Mehboob, Fellow Life<br />

Member ASHRAE. “ASHRAE’s long history of leadership in<br />

IAQ science and technology, will provide broad-reaching<br />

guidance through this standard to help ensure the use of<br />

best practices for pathogen mitigation, which will assist in<br />

creating safer indoor spaces for us all.”<br />

ASHRAE will set up a balanced team of internationally recognized<br />

experts to work on an accelerated timeline to develop<br />

the standard. Delivery of the standard will include:<br />

• Both design and operation<br />

• Alternative paths (prescriptive or performance), in which<br />

equivalent clean air would be the goal<br />

• Testing, verification, documentation (commissioning) and<br />

periodic re-commissioning<br />

The increased focus on IAQ by governments and the public,<br />

along with the convergence of the flu, respiratory syncytial<br />

(RSV) and SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) threatening public health,<br />

makes ASHRAE’s development of the pathogen mitigation<br />

standard of even greater importance, as jurisdictions and<br />

building owners look to a reputable and non-biased source<br />

for guidance and science-based building standards.<br />

Airborne transmission of pathogens is of concern to the<br />

public writ-large and governments are responding. In March,<br />

the U.S. government launched the National COVID-19 Preparedness<br />

Plan, which included recommendations to improve<br />

ventilation and filtration in buildings. The Clean Air in Buildings<br />

Challenge was also launched this spring, along with a<br />

Summit on Improving Indoor Air Quality in October.<br />

The ASHRAE Epidemic Task Force responded to the COVID-19<br />

pandemic with the release of extensive guidance, including<br />

IAQ resources, referenced by governments, building owners,<br />

and facility managers in the U.S. and internationally.<br />

Conference <strong>2023</strong>, May 11-12, <strong>2023</strong> in Mumbai, India. This is<br />

ASHRAE’s third Developing Economies Conference.<br />

The conference theme is “Decarbonizing and Sustaining<br />

Growth of Healthcare and Residential Infrastructure in<br />

Emerging and Future Markets.”<br />

With a focus on healthcare and residential, the conference<br />

will cover resiliency, indoor environmental quality (IEQ),<br />

building decarbonization, policy making and digitalization<br />

and other topics. Technical sessions will also address the challenges<br />

of rapidly growing energy demand, epidemic effects,<br />

fast-paced advancements, urbanization, sustainability and<br />

the role to be played by the global HVAC&R industry to meet<br />

the building decarbonization targets set during the 2021<br />

United Nations Climate Change Conference, more commonly<br />

referred to as COP26.<br />

Presentation proposals to speak are requested on the following<br />

program tracks:<br />

Healthcare<br />

• Decarbonizing healthcare sector<br />

• Resiliency in healthcare buildings / infrastructure<br />

• Working with nature in designing hospitals<br />

• IEQ in healthcare<br />

• Policies, standards, codes and certifications<br />

• Role of digitalization in healthcare<br />

Residential<br />

• Decarbonizing residential ecosystem: engineering towards<br />

net zero<br />

• Retrofitting to a sustainable future<br />

• New-age products and technologies<br />

• Heating and cooling technologies<br />

• Smart homes<br />

• Policies, standards, codes and certifications<br />

• Future proofing our homes (climate change)<br />

Presentation abstracts (300 words or less) are due Jan. 15,<br />

<strong>2023</strong>, and notifications will be sent by Feb. 28, <strong>2023</strong>. If accepted,<br />

final presentation submissions are due April 30, <strong>2023</strong>.<br />

For more information or to submit a presentation proposal,<br />

visit ashrae.org/DevelopingEcon<strong>2023</strong>.<br />

Call for Speakers Announced for ASHRAE Developing<br />

Economies Conference<br />

ATLANTA — ASHRAE announced a call for healthcare and<br />

residential tracks speakers for the Developing Economies<br />

64<br />

| Chief Engineer


TAKE YOUR PUMP<br />

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We took our already superior pump controller and made it<br />

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based pump controller, makes it easier to manage and control<br />

your system with a new external LED display panel. This<br />

screen provides end-users with crucial alerts and updates<br />

on their system.<br />

• Options to operate from 1–4 pumps based<br />

on requirements<br />

• Variety of enclosure options:<br />

Steel | Stainless Steel | Fiberglass<br />

Nema 1, Nema 3R , Nema 4X ratings<br />

• Mountable NEMA 4x display<br />

• Adjustable pump on/off and emergency pump run delay<br />

• Pump up or Pump down functions<br />

• External silence, reset and alternation control<br />

• Dry contacts for seal fails, pump fails, float/sensor fails,<br />

common alarms, and high & low alarms<br />

• Integrates with any pump, including Metropolitan’s<br />

Self-Priming Pumps, a more accessible and efficiently<br />

designed pump for sump and sewage applications. The<br />

Self-Priming Pump sits on top of the basin cover, making<br />

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• Works with both traditional style float switches<br />

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Ion sensors use strain gauge technology to overcome<br />

issues typical of mechanical float switches<br />

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815-886-9200<br />

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American Street Guide<br />

Former Student Moves, Will Restore<br />

Historic Schoolhouse By Grace King | The Gazette<br />

CEDAR RAPIDS, Iowa (AP) — Stony Point Schoolhouse, moved<br />

recently from the land where it stood since the 1800s, will be<br />

saved by a former student with plans to restore it.<br />

Power lines were raised and the schoolhouse settled on a<br />

new foundation on a 120-acre farm owned by Rae Jeanne<br />

Kilberger, 85, at 6304 Ellis Rd. NW in Cedar Rapids. Kilberger<br />

attended the school for two years as a 7th- and 8th-grader in<br />

1948-50, and wants to see the historical building being given<br />

new life.<br />

Kilberger said she plans to restore the schoolhouse to how<br />

she remembers it when she went to school there, including<br />

replacing the windows, refinishing the floor and repairing<br />

the water-damaged walls and roof.<br />

“There’s not many [one-room schoolhouses] around,” Kilberger<br />

told the Cedar Rapids Gazette. “I really believe kids<br />

today need to learn how it was to have eight grades under<br />

one teacher.”<br />

Stony Point schoolhouse was built on the corner of what is<br />

now Stoney Point Road old Highway 94 (Covington Road and<br />

F Avenue NW) on a farm later acquired in the early 1900s by<br />

Frank and Ida Davis. The Davis family kept the school and<br />

grounds in good condition, letting church and civic groups<br />

use the property for meetings and social events.<br />

The Davis family still owns the property where the schoolhouse<br />

originally sat. Laurie Church, co-owner of the property<br />

with her sister, Vicki Davis, said she hates to see the old<br />

school move but is glad it will be restored.<br />

Church said she painted the schoolhouse and put a new sign<br />

out front years ago, but the building was constantly vandalized.<br />

“I hope it’s a little more protected now,” she said.<br />

Kilberger said she doesn’t care about the expense of relocating<br />

and restoring the school. “Fortunately, I have the money<br />

to pay for it,” she said.<br />

Cindy Hadish, a board member for the historic preservation<br />

group Save CR Heritage, which was not involved in the move,<br />

estimates the cost of moving the schoolhouse to be about<br />

$25,000. Other expenses would include hiring Alliant Energy<br />

to raise power lines for the building to be moved, building<br />

a new foundation for the school and hiring the Sheriff’s<br />

department to escort the building, she said.<br />

“At one point in time, there were hundreds of these schoolhouses<br />

dotting the landscape of Iowa, and now we’re down<br />

to the very last few,” Hadish said. “It’s important to save<br />

what we have left.”<br />

Kilberger recalls walking to Stony Point for school. Every day,<br />

a student would get a bucket of water that would be shared<br />

by everyone and used all day for drinking and hand washing.<br />

It wasn’t until Kilberger went to Roosevelt High School,<br />

where she graduated in 1954 — now Roosevelt Creative<br />

Corridor Business Academy — that she had toilet paper for<br />

the first time. At Stony Point, the students’ restroom was an<br />

outhouse and their toilet paper was magazines, Kilberger<br />

said.<br />

Kilberger was raised by her maternal grandparents, who<br />

purchased the 120 acres on which she still lives off Ellis Road<br />

NW from her fraternal grandparents in the mid-1900s. She<br />

built the house she now lives in, along with her grandfather<br />

and a few neighbors.<br />

To prepare for the schoolhouse to be rehabilitated, Kilberger<br />

has collected about 20 school desks from the early 1900s,<br />

including a teacher’s desk and recitation bench built in 1901<br />

where students would sit and recite their lessons in front of<br />

the class. She also acquired an 1876 brass bell from a oneroom<br />

schoolhouse from Atkinson, Ill., that will be hung in<br />

the Stony Point bell tower.<br />

Stony Point schoolhouse was a site for political gatherings in<br />

the 1870s, according to The Gazette’s archives. When classes<br />

weren’t in session in the one-story school, it also served as a<br />

church, a Sunday school and a place for community celebrations.<br />

It was the last country school in Linn County when it<br />

closed in 1959, and students began attending Cedar Rapids<br />

schools, according to The Gazette’s archives.<br />

The school and its contents were sold at auction Dec. 7, 1959.<br />

C. Russell Davis bought the building for $1,500, and the land<br />

automatically reverted to Davis as its original owner. In the<br />

days of one-room country schools, farmers often allowed<br />

schools to be built on their land with the understanding the<br />

land would revert to them when the school was no longer in<br />

use, according to The Gazette’s archives.<br />

Somewhere along the way, the neighborhood that grew up<br />

around the school added an “e” to the Stony name. The road<br />

where the schoolhouse sat until Monday is now identified as<br />

“Stoney Point.”<br />

Clark “Bud” Derhammer, 81, sat in his car Monday, Dec. 12,<br />

watching the schoolhouse be towed down Ellis Road NW,<br />

where he also once attended school.<br />

Kilberger is “bringing this back to life,” Derhammer said.<br />

“Give her a little time. It’ll take time to restore that, because<br />

it’s pretty well tore up.”<br />

66<br />

| Chief Engineer


The historic Stony Point Schoolhouse is transported along Covington Road in Linn County, Iowa, Monday, Dec. 5, 2022. (Nick Rohlman/The Gazette via AP)<br />

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Volume 88 · Number 1 | 67


ACROSS<br />

1 Greenish-blue<br />

color<br />

5 Compass point<br />

9 Compass point<br />

13 Alack’s partner<br />

17 N.A. Indian<br />

18 Hello!<br />

19 Spring flower<br />

21 Each<br />

22 Manner<br />

23 Green Gables<br />

dweller<br />

24 Defense<br />

25 Split apart<br />

26 Pickpocket<br />

27 Metric weight unit<br />

28 Dale<br />

29 _____ arrest<br />

31 Block<br />

33 Violent thrower<br />

35 African antelope<br />

36 Pastor (abbr.)<br />

38 Note of debt<br />

39 Trigonometry<br />

40 Boat movers<br />

44 Czech<br />

47 British thermal<br />

unit<br />

49 Western Athletic<br />

Conference<br />

50 Pull on loose<br />

thread<br />

51 Central processing<br />

unit<br />

52 Holler<br />

54 Prig<br />

56 Japanese selfdefense<br />

57 __ Minor (Little<br />

Dipper)<br />

59 Den<br />

61 Disrespect<br />

62 Hear<br />

63 Fast plane<br />

64 Rank<br />

66 City<br />

68 All right<br />

70 United Arab<br />

Republic<br />

71 Wise Man<br />

72 Kind<br />

75 Medication<br />

amounts<br />

79 What a doctor<br />

gives<br />

81 Zero<br />

83 Howdy<br />

84 Fire remains<br />

87 Hovercraft<br />

88 Gone by<br />

89 Uh-uh<br />

92 Foray<br />

93 Show off<br />

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16<br />

17 18 19 20 21<br />

22 23 24 25<br />

26 27 28 29 30<br />

31 32 33 34 35<br />

36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43<br />

44 45 46 47 48 49 50<br />

51 52 53 54 55 56<br />

57 58 59 60 61 62 63<br />

64 65 66 67 68 69<br />

70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78<br />

79 80 81 82 83<br />

84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92<br />

93 94 95 96 97 98<br />

99 100 101 102 103 104 105<br />

106 107 108 109 110<br />

111 112 113 114 115 116 117<br />

118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126<br />

127 128 129 130 131<br />

132 133 134 135<br />

136 137 138 139<br />

www.CrosswordWeaver.com<br />

ACROSS<br />

95 Waft<br />

96 Streetcar<br />

1 Greenish-blue color<br />

98 School group<br />

5 Compass point<br />

9 Compass 99 Course point<br />

13 Alack's 100 partner Cap<br />

17 N.A. Indian<br />

101 Genius<br />

18 Hello!<br />

19 Spring<br />

104<br />

flower<br />

Useless<br />

21 Each 106 Gawk<br />

22 Manner<br />

23 Green Gables dweller<br />

24 Defense<br />

25 Split 110 apart __ Lanka<br />

26 Pickpocket 111 Disobey<br />

27 Metric<br />

112<br />

weight<br />

Clench<br />

unit<br />

28 Dale<br />

115 Zeal<br />

29 _____ arrest<br />

31 Block 118 Eject<br />

33 Violent 122 thrower Bang down<br />

35 African antelope<br />

36 Pastor (abbr.)<br />

38 Note of debt<br />

39 Trigonometry<br />

40 Boat movers<br />

44 Czech<br />

47 British thermal unit<br />

49 Western 131 Antelope<br />

Athletic Conference<br />

50 Pull on loose thread<br />

51 Central<br />

133<br />

processing<br />

Squeezeunit<br />

52 Holler<br />

54 Prig<br />

56 Japanese self-defense<br />

57 __ Minor (Little Dipper)<br />

107 Mexican sandwich<br />

108 In possession of<br />

123 Serving of corn<br />

125 Replace a striker<br />

127 Assumed name<br />

128 Gunpowder need<br />

130 Negative (prefix)<br />

132 National capital<br />

134 Told an untruth<br />

135 Colored part of eye<br />

136 End of a loaf<br />

137 Has<br />

138 Land measurement<br />

139 Not one<br />

DOWN<br />

59 Den<br />

61 Disrespect<br />

62 Hear<br />

1 Bloke<br />

63 Fast plane<br />

64 Rank<br />

66 City 3 Month<br />

68 All right<br />

70 United Arab Republic<br />

71 Wise Man<br />

5 Trickery<br />

72 Kind<br />

75 Medication amounts<br />

79 What a doctor gives<br />

8 Sadness<br />

81 Zero<br />

83 Howdy 9 Musty<br />

84 Fire remains<br />

87 Hovercraft<br />

11 Blintz<br />

88 Gone by<br />

12 Sibling<br />

89 Uh-uh<br />

92 Foray 13 Eager<br />

93 Show off<br />

95 Waft<br />

15 Location<br />

96 Streetcar<br />

98 School group<br />

99 Course<br />

100 Cap 21 Goofs<br />

101 Genius<br />

28 Stuff<br />

104 Useless<br />

106 Gawk 30 Fall mo.<br />

107 Mexican sandwich<br />

108 In possession<br />

34 Hustle<br />

of<br />

110 __ Lanka<br />

35 Take<br />

111 Disobey<br />

112 Clench<br />

115 Zeal<br />

2 Belonging to you<br />

4 Famous falls<br />

6 Winding tool<br />

7 National capital<br />

10 Swiss mathematician<br />

14 Jacob’s son<br />

16 In __ (together)<br />

20 Eat alfresco<br />

32 Assembly<br />

37 Bowed stringed<br />

instrument<br />

39 Duces<br />

40 Furniture wood<br />

41 Car rental agency<br />

118 Eject<br />

122 Bang down<br />

team<br />

123 Serving of corn<br />

43 Gap<br />

125 Replace a striker<br />

127 Assumed name<br />

128 Gunpowder flowers need<br />

130 Negative (prefix)<br />

131 Antelope<br />

132 National capital<br />

133 Squeeze<br />

134 Told an (abbr.) untruth<br />

135 Colored part of eye<br />

136 End of a loaf<br />

137 Has<br />

138 Land measurement<br />

139 Not one<br />

DOWN<br />

42 Cincinnati baseball<br />

44 Small bunch of<br />

45 Red-blooded<br />

46 Communication<br />

Workers of America<br />

48 U.S. Department of<br />

Agriculture<br />

50 Middle East capital<br />

51 Adorable<br />

53 Capital of Peru<br />

55 Final inning<br />

56 Boat<br />

58 Swiss mountains<br />

1 Bloke<br />

2 Belonging to you<br />

3 Month<br />

4 Famous<br />

60 Big<br />

falls<br />

truck<br />

5 Trickery 62 Digit<br />

6 Winding tool<br />

7 National capital<br />

67 Jargon<br />

8 Sadness<br />

9 Musty 69 Not mine<br />

10 Swiss mathematician<br />

11 Blintz<br />

12 Sibling<br />

74 Devise<br />

13 Eager<br />

14 Jacob's 76 Cuffs son<br />

15 Location<br />

65 Hydrocarbon<br />

71 I want my ___<br />

73 Yang’s partner<br />

77 Elect<br />

78 Cola<br />

80 Halloween mo.<br />

82 State<br />

16 In __ (together)<br />

84<br />

20 Eat<br />

Hairstyle<br />

alfresco<br />

21 Goofs<br />

85<br />

28 Stuff<br />

Walk<br />

86 30 Fall Draw mo.<br />

88 32 Assembly Dog food brand<br />

34 Hustle<br />

90 Professional<br />

35 Take<br />

91 37 Bowed Grubstringed instrument<br />

94 39 Duces Southwestern Indian<br />

95 40 Furniture Dark beer wood<br />

41 Car rental agency<br />

97 Heavy mud<br />

42 Cincinnati baseball team<br />

100 43 Gap Skill<br />

102 44 Small Pal bunch of flowers<br />

103<br />

45 Red-blooded<br />

Dine<br />

46 Communication Workers of<br />

105<br />

America<br />

Waterproof<br />

(abr.)<br />

cloth<br />

48 U.S. type Department of Agriculture<br />

107 50 Middle Little East bitcapital<br />

51 Adorable<br />

109 Picturesque<br />

53 Capital of Peru<br />

111 55 Final Kissinning<br />

112 56 Boat Bathe<br />

113 58 Swiss Small mountains birds<br />

60 Big truck<br />

114 One who despises<br />

62 Digit<br />

116 65 Hydrocarbon Sporty car brand<br />

117 67 Jargon Lowest point<br />

118<br />

69 Not<br />

Curse<br />

mine<br />

71 I want my ___<br />

119<br />

73 Yang's<br />

Colorpartner<br />

120 74 Devise Fork prong<br />

121 76 Cuffs Revile<br />

77 Elect<br />

122 Thick soup<br />

78 Cola<br />

124 80 Halloween Sit in a mo. car<br />

126 82 State Hectic<br />

129 84 Hairstyle The other half of<br />

85 Walk<br />

Jima<br />

86 Draw<br />

130 88 Dog Wing food brand<br />

90 Professional<br />

91 Grub<br />

94 Southwestern Indian<br />

95 Dark beer<br />

97 Heavy mud<br />

100 Skill<br />

102 Pal<br />

103 Dine<br />

105 Waterproof cloth type<br />

107 Little bit<br />

109 Picturesque<br />

111 Kiss<br />

112 Bathe<br />

113 Small birds<br />

114 One who despises<br />

116 Sporty car brand<br />

117 Lowest point<br />

118 Curse<br />

119 Color<br />

120 Fork prong<br />

121 Revile<br />

122 Thick soup<br />

124 Sit in a car<br />

126 Hectic<br />

129 The other half of Jima<br />

130 Wing<br />

68<br />

| Chief Engineer


dian<br />

h<br />

s<br />

f<br />

Boiler Room Annex<br />

Top 25 Engineering Terms and Expressions (What they say<br />

and what they really mean)<br />

Source: http://www.jokesclean.com/Engineer<br />

• Customer satisfaction is believed to be assured. (We’re<br />

so far behind schedule that the customer will settle for<br />

anything.)<br />

• Please see me/Let’s discuss it. (I need your help. I’ve<br />

screwed up again.)<br />

• The project is in process. (It’s so tied up in red tape that it’s<br />

completely hopeless.)<br />

• We’re trying a number of different approaches. (We still<br />

guessing, at this point.)<br />

• We’re following the standard. (We’ve always done it this<br />

way.)<br />

• Close project coordination. (We met together and had<br />

coffee.)<br />

• Years of development. (It finally worked.)<br />

• Energy saving. (Turn off the power to save electricity.)<br />

•<br />

• We’ll have to abandon the entire concept. (The only person<br />

who understood the thing just quit.)<br />

• We had a major technological breakthrough. (It’s boring,<br />

but it looks high tech.)<br />

• We’re preparing a report with a fresh approach. (We just<br />

hired a couple of kids out of college.)<br />

• Preliminary operational tests proved inconclusive. (It blew<br />

up when we flipped the switch.)<br />

• Test results proved extremely gratifying. (Yahoo! It actually<br />

worked.)<br />

• Please read and initial. (We want to spread around the<br />

responsibility.)<br />

• Tell us what you are thinking. (We’ll listen, but if it disagrees<br />

with what we’ve already done or are planning to<br />

do, forget it.)<br />

• Tell us your interpretation. (Let’s hear your bull.)<br />

• We’ll look into it. (Forget it! We’ve got so many other<br />

problems already, we’ll never get to it.)<br />

• No maintenance. (If it breaks, we can’t fix it.)<br />

• Low maintenance. (If it breaks, we’re no likely able to fix<br />

it.)<br />

• All new. (None of the parts are interchangeable with the<br />

previous design.)<br />

Solution:<br />

A S E A D O D O F A M E S L O B<br />

C O R N A D O B O H I R E R C O A L<br />

T R I G M O T I F O F T E N O N T O<br />

S T E L A R E E F P O S T A U G H T<br />

O F F I W O A P R<br />

S P A T O Y S C O N E E S T G A B<br />

H E R R R E M A I N M A C H F U S E<br />

O R E O L A M A O U C H R A I L<br />

E T N A A L L L T M T O P O V A L<br />

H A N D M A I D E A C H O R G A N<br />

N E T U P E N D S K I<br />

S Q U A B R O U T T A K E B A C K<br />

G A L S A D O M H Z N A Y L O A N<br />

A G U E E M M A W A T T M A Y O<br />

G A B S S E P T T I D I E D A L A S<br />

E S E M O P V O W E D R I G S K Y<br />

P U N C O B M I L<br />

A L K Y D T U F T A C R E N A A C P<br />

R I N G L U C R E C Z A R S T S A R<br />

I T E M E C L A T K A R M A H I R E<br />

D E W Y O K A Y R E A P E A S Y<br />

DECEMBER SOLUTION<br />

• Rugged. (Needs major equipment to lift it.)<br />

• Robust. (More than rugged.)<br />

• Light weight. (A little less than rugged.)<br />

• Fax it to me. (I’m too lazy to write it down.)<br />

• I haven’t gotten your email. (It’s been days since I’ve<br />

checked my email.)<br />

The Six Phases of a Project<br />

Source: anengineersaspect.blogspot.com<br />

1. Enthusiasm<br />

2. Disillusionment<br />

3. Panic<br />

4. Search for the Guilty<br />

5. Punishment of the Innocent<br />

6. Promotion of the Uninvolved<br />

Volume 87 · Number 12 | 69


Dependable Sources<br />

Addison Electric Motors & Drives 63<br />

Restore Construction Inc. 9<br />

Admiral Heating & Ventilating, Inc. 58<br />

Rotating Equipment Specialists 15<br />

Advanced Boiler Control Services 17<br />

Sprinkler Fitters Local 281 Inside Front Cover, 4<br />

Air Comfort Corporation 51<br />

Syserco 21<br />

Air Filter Engineers<br />

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United Radio Communications, Inc. 24<br />

Airways Systems 57<br />

Universal Lighting of America 18<br />

Altorfer Power Systems 60<br />

American Combustion Service Inc. 12<br />

AMS Mechanical Systems, Inc. 47<br />

Bear Construction 43<br />

Beverly Companies 35<br />

Bornquist, Inc. 56<br />

Building Technology Consultants, Inc. 61<br />

Bullock, Logan & Associates, Inc. 67<br />

Chicago Backflow, Inc. 25<br />

Chicago Cooling Tower 55<br />

Chicago Corrosion Group 67<br />

City Wide Pool & Spa 15<br />

ClearWater Associates, Ltd. 58<br />

Competitive Piping Systems 60<br />

Door Service, Inc. 54<br />

Dreisilker Electric Motors 29<br />

F.E. Moran Fire Protection 49<br />

Filter Services, Inc. 53<br />

Glavin Security Specialists 30<br />

Hard Rock Concrete Cutters 51<br />

Hart, Travers & Associates, Inc. 44<br />

Hayes Mechanical 22<br />

HOH Water Technology 33<br />

Hudson Boiler & Tank Co. 42<br />

J & L Cooling Towers, Inc. 37<br />

Kroeschell, Inc. 52<br />

Metropolitan Industries, Inc. 65<br />

MVB Services, Inc. 35<br />

Neuco 23<br />

Olympia Maintenance 19<br />

Preservation Services 20<br />

PuroClean Disaster Services 61<br />

Reliable Fire Equipment Co. 59<br />

70<br />

| Chief Engineer<br />

CA<br />

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