Water & Wastewater Asia January/February 2023

Water & Wastewater Asia is an expert source of industry information, cementing its position as an indispensable tool for trade professionals in the water and wastewater industry. As the most reliable publication in the region, industry experts turn this premium journal for credible journalism and exclusive insight provided by fellow industry professionals. Water & Wastewater Asia incorporates the official newsletter of the Singapore Water Association (SWA).

Water & Wastewater Asia is an expert source of industry information, cementing its position as an indispensable tool for trade professionals in the water and wastewater industry. As the most reliable publication in the region, industry experts turn this premium journal for credible journalism and exclusive insight provided by fellow industry professionals. Water & Wastewater Asia incorporates the official newsletter of the Singapore Water Association (SWA).


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“Data is the new

water”: Monitoring

water infrastructure

with digital twins

From unknown

organism to effluent

remover: The story

of Anammox

Micro effects, Macro

leaps: Effective

irrigation in a water

scarce world





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04 Editor’s Note

06 News

49 SWA Newsletter

63 What’s Next?

64 Advertisers’ Index


11 NanoPure: Novel nanofiltration

membrane for water and

wastewater treatment


14 Winners of the 2022 Going Digital

Awards in Infrastructure

15 “Data is the new water”:

Monitoring water infrastructure

with digital twins

17 “The path of least resistance”:

Managing data efficiently with

Bentley’s software

19 Predictive maintenance of water

infrastructure with OpenFlows



21 From unknown organism to effluent

remover: The story of Anammox

24 Micro effects, macro leaps:

Effective irrigation in a water

scarce world

26 Evermore: GenX and the future of

water filtration





28 Greentech Festival: A platform for

water innovators and educators


30 A case study in NRW in Kuala Kumpur

32 Containerised wastewater treatment


34 Nanostone enables cost-effective

wastewater reuse for semi-conductor


36 Managing excess rainwater with Wavin



37 Condition assessment planning: Where

to start and where to take it

40 Overcoming excess: Adapting

biological treatments to high ammonia,

salt and chemical wastewaters

43 Wars, salinisation and climate drive the

demand for small, dual water plants

45 Four countries, one river, one data

platform, one voice


47 Imagine H2O Asia Cohort 4:

Introducing the region’s water



54 Digitalisation: The key to smarter

facilities monitoring

56 Andritz expands its range of

C-Press screw presses for

efficient dewatering

57 Echologics introduces a new

valve-based leak monitoring


58 NivuFlow Stick: “Simple and

accurate” flow measurement

of surface water bodies in

accordance with ISO

59 A smart water level sensor

for long-term accuracy and



62 The 12th edition of ASIAWATER

2022 ends with a bang




Climate change-related water crises, such Key to this is digital technology. In this

as droughts and floods, have undeniably issue, we spoke to various people about

affected global water security. This fact the uses of Bentley Systems’ software

has been repeated everywhere, including for the water and wastewater industry. To

the recent COP27 which concluded in

know more about how software solutions

November 2022. But it is a fact worth

can speed up the construction of water

repeating over and over again.

infrastructure, or better manage pipes and

sewers, such as monitoring leakages or

By 2050, at least 5 billion people

damages, flip to page 14.

worldwide will face at least one month

of water shortage, according to World

On page 24, we had the opportunity of

Meteorological Organisation. Frankly, you speaking to Khaled Zalghoul, general

do not need the World Meteorological

manager of Rivulis Egypt, a micro-irrigation

Organisation to tell you this to know

solutions provider. Micro-irrigation can

that our water security is threatened.

help to improve water management,

Uttar Pradesh, a northern state in India, especially for agricultural uses, and in turn

faced extreme seesaws of drought

this improves water security. However,

and monsoon in different districts from irrigation methods are only one aspect of

July to September 2022. Several states the solution. Zalghoul said: “We will have

in Africa, the likes of Ethiopia, Kenya

to provide more comprehensive solutions

and Somalia, are facing extreme water to farmers addressing fertiliser usage and

shortages. In turn, such water crises

other sustainable farming methods… To

affect other industries as well, especially succeed, it will require more partnerships

the agriculture and food industries, such within our ecosystem between agricultural

as droughts in Uttar Pradesh destroying input manufacturers, product buyers and

sugarcane harvests.


Another thing that bears repeating is that Going into the new year, we hope that

these crises of threatened water security, more and more businesses will come up

and of climate change, are not felt evenly with innovative solutions to ensure water

throughout the world. Singapore, for

security in a long-run. When such solutions

instance, has enjoyed some semblance of pop up, Water & Wastewater Asia will be

water security for quite some time. Aiding sure to spread the word. Lastly, a Happy

this is Binnies, who built Singapore’s

New Year to all, and the team wishes

water infrastructure critical to ensuring a everyone a fruitful and successful year!

steady supply of water, and who recently

celebrated its 100th anniversary of water

excellence in Singapore in December


But let’s not be complacent: There is no

panacea for water shortage or scarcity.

Ensuring long-term water security is an

endless journey, and we need to all do our

Yap Shi Quan



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William Pang • Publisher


Yap Shi Quan • Editor


Amira Yunos • Assistant Editor


Agatha Wong • Assistant Editor


Czarmaine Masigla • Assistant Editor


Kimberly Liew • Assistant Editor


Pang YanJun • Business Development Manager


let's connect!

Goh Meng Yong • Graphic Designer


Shu Ai Ling • Circulation Manager



Ellen Gao • General Manager



Daisy Wang • Editor



Water & Wastewater Asia

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Singapore and around the world to address

constantly evolving needs as we secure

and safeguard a water future for all.”

Since 1922, Binnies has been a present and

supportive partner in Singapore’s journey

to water self-sufficiency, playing significant

roles in many water projects.

From left to right: Mike Collins, head of sustainable infrastructure (APAC) for Department for International Trade

(DIT); William Yong, managing director of Binnies Singapore; Alan Ryder, CEO and founder of RSK Group; Dr Amy

Khor, Senior Minister of State for Sustainability and the Environment of Singapore; Her Excellency Kara Owen,

British High Commissioner to Singapore; Goh Si Hou, CEO of PUB; and Lucy Thomas, managing director of RSK

Centre for Sustainability Excellence (Image: Binnies Singapore)



Binnies, a RSK Group company providing

water, wastewater and flood resilience

solutions, has celebrated its 100th year

of water excellence in Singapore on

5 Dec 2022.

As they look back on a century of

partnering with Singapore in securing

adequate and affordable water supply

for future generations, Binnies prepares

for a future powered by new digital water

technologies, with advancements in

artificial intelligence (AI), digital twins and

data analytics.

Singapore is considered one of the most

water-stressed countries in the world with

limited land for water storage and a lack

of water resources, but it is also a global

success story in water resilience.

As Singapore strides forward with plans

to achieve a water-sustainable future, the

collaboration of Binnies across the RSK

Group and with innovation leaders will

ensure the next 100 years see as much

success as the first.

Having already developed an advanced

digital twin platform, Binnies will

reportedly look to expand into AI,

augmented reality (AR) and more

granular data collection for a more

technologically advanced platform that

will yield greater efficiencies at a lower


“Celebrating the centenary of Binnies in

Singapore is a momentous occasion for

us to acknowledge our heritage as we

look to the future,” said William Yong,

managing director of Binnies Singapore.

“Binnies is committed to drawing

on our expertise and experience in

solving complex global water and

environmental challenges, and working

with governments and stakeholders in

In recent years, Binnies has provided

engineering solutions and technology for

four out of the five desalination plants in

Singapore: SingSpring Desalination Plant,

a large-scale seawater desalination facility

for the country located in Tuas; Tuaspring

Desalination Plant, a seawater reverse

osmosis desalination plant; Keppel Marina

East Desalination Plant, the only facility

capable of treating both sea and reservoir

water in Singapore; and Jurong Island

Desalination Plant, an energy-efficient


More recently, Binnies has delivered a

feasibility study commissioned by PUB,

Singapore’s National Water Agency for

underground stormwater drainage and

storage systems to mitigate the impact of

rainfall-induced floods.

“Binnies is a name synonymous with

world-class engineering and has seen great

success in Singapore and the region, and

it is great to see the organisation thrive

further since joining the RSK Group in early

2021,” said Alan Ryder, CEO and founder of

RSK Group.

“With Binnies and the other businesses

in the RSK Group leveraging each other’s

expertise, our low- and zero-carbon

solutions and digital innovations are helping

global governments and organisations

mitigate environmental impacts.

“As we celebrate Binnies’ 100th

anniversary in Singapore, we look forward

to collaborating closely with various

stakeholders to advance Singapore’s

standing as a global hydro hub.”




Xylem has announced the appointment

of Matthew Pine as COO, effective

1 Jan 2023. In this role, Pine will

accelerate Xylem’s operational

excellence, driving cost leadership and

scaling innovation across the global

organisation. He will report to Xylem

president and CEO, Patrick Decker, and

will oversee the company’s business

segments and regions.

“Xylem is a global leader in solving

water challenges in thousands of

communities around the world,” said

Decker. “We are evolving our operating

structure to make sure every customer

benefits from both our global scale

and the local agility we bring to each

community’s challenges. Matthew has

an exceptional track record of delivering

operational excellence, and we will

be working hand-in-hand to serve

our customers, deliver above-market

growth with margin expansion, and

continue to create economic and social

value for Xylem’s stakeholders.”

Pine has more than 25 years of

experience in general management,

sales, marketing, digital and product

management. He joined Xylem in 2020,

most recently leading the applied

water systems and measurement and

control solutions segments, and Xylem

Americas. He previously held senior

and international leadership roles at

United Technologies Corporation, Vestas

Wind Systems, and Lennox International.

“It is a privilege to step into this role

and partner with Patrick to continue

to sharpen our focus on operational

excellence across the organisation,” said

Pine. “With strong technology leadership

on a proven business model, and a large

and growing installed base in attractive

markets, we are already exceptionally

well positioned on the long-term water

trends driving demand for our solutions.

Now, we are further tuning our operating

model to remove complexity and drive

cost leadership as we scale innovation

globally and provide solutions to serve our



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Data logger

Flow and pressure monitoring

Night flow analysis

Flow rate alerts

Leak detection

CSO monitoring & detection

learn mOre:


Autonomous chlorine

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Real-time monitoring

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Immediate notification in

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A LEGO-like modular stadium, a

ball with an inertial measurement

unit (IMU) sensor to detect off-side

incidents, artificial intelligence (AI)-

based player tracking, and climatecontrolled

stadiums, have been a

few of the innovations showcased

at the 2022 World Cup.

However, FIFA faced a major

challenge: the efficient use of water

during an event attended by over

1.5 million people, in a country with

one of the world’s highest water

stress rates.

To respond to this issue, Idrica

Qatar (Aguas de Valencia WLL),

through its GoAigua Sewer Twin

solution, was involved in optimising

water resource operations and

management to provide greater

control and monitoring over critical

locations. This tool integrates,

processes and exploits data from

multiple sources, thanks to the

application of advanced algorithms,

thus centralising indicator

visualisation and asset control.

The digital solution monitored

the areas around seven football

stadiums, the teams’ training and

accommodation areas, and the

‘fan zones’, where 76 sensors and

1,500 field signal meters have been


Christian Perez, Idrica’s technical

manager, pointed out that this

initiative started after the 2021 FIFA

Arab Cup, “where shortcomings

were detected in the monitoring of

stadiums, water levels in manholes,

and in treated water pressures and


At this point, both the Arab Cup

and the World Cup were held

during the rainy season, when

rainfall was very heavy and caused

severe flooding.

“Despite being an arid climate,”

said Perez, “the rainy season was

a challenge, because Qatar was

not sufficiently prepared to provide

a solution to this type of critical

events that led to flooding and

crippled the region.”

Therefore, in addition to real-time

monitoring, alarms had also been

set up based on rainfall forecasts.

“The integration of GoAigua Sewer

Twin with the Qatar Met Office

has maximised the mobilisation

of resources specifically for the

areas of the country that would be

affected by a rainfall event,” Perez

explained. GoAigua can display

data from multiple sources, making

it more efficient and reliable.


Thanks to the installation

of pressure gauges and the

deployment of operational plans,

the GoAigua solution has provided

Ashghal, Qatar’s Public Works

Authority, with greater control

over potential adverse situations

that could occur during the World


As FIFA states on its website,

many stadiums have systems

for detecting leaks and

measuring water flows, helping

administrators with management,

optimising response times and

streamlining water use. The

Idrica specialist pointed out that

GoAigua Sewer Twin “monitors

water levels, water speed and

flow rates in the sewage and

rainwater network manholes, and

keeps check on the pressure

in the treated water network,

setting up alarms to prevent

potential issues and improve


At the beginning of October,

Idrica Qatar was given a ‘Green

Award’ for its work in boosting

sustainability. More specifically,

Idrica won first prize in the

Green Awards’ Green Design

category with the smart irrigation

pilot programme in which the

GoAigua Smart Green solution

was deployed in two parks in the

city of Al Khor. Thus, Ashghal,

Qatar’s Public Works Authority,

was acknowledged for the

hard work carried out by the

company in a project regarded

as a Sustainable Development

initiative, in line with the Qatar

National Vision 2030, as well

as with environmental and

sustainability policies.

Thanks to these projects, Idrica

Qatar has established itself as

one of the companies that has

helped Qatar on its road to digital






De Nora has signed a Memorandum of

Understanding (MoU) with water technology

company Aclarity to target treating harmful

contaminants, such as per- and poly-

fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), in water at an

industrial scale.

The MoU combines Aclarity’s PFAS

destruction technology with the De Nora

SORB FX product line to quickly and safely

eliminate PFAS in groundwater.

“De Nora is committed to contributing to

achieving the Sustainable Development Goals

defined in the United Nations 2030 Agenda,”

said Daryl Weatherup, De Nora’s water

technologies general manager.

“While looking for partners, we seek likeminded

organisations that are driving

change. Aclarity embodies that and their

PFAS destruction technology is an exciting

development in the fight against PFAS.”

Nearly all industries around the globe,

including water, are impacted by PFAS

contamination. In the US, the Environmental

Protection Agency (EPA) estimates more

than 10,000 known chemical substances

containing PFAS, establishing preliminary

advisory levels that will eventually transition to

federal law.

Under the terms of the MoU, De Nora and

Aclarity have agreed to pilot novel water

Aclarity team with their PFAS destruction

technology (Image: Aclarity)

treatment applications with concentration

and destruction steps for PFAS and other

contaminants of emerging concern in

groundwater, where 98% of the Earth’s

available freshwater can be found.

“PFAS contamination in groundwater is a

great concern across the globe,” stated Julie

Bliss Mullen, CEO of Aclarity. “Partnering with

De Nora is a tremendous milestone, as we

are both focused on delivering sustainable

water treatment solutions that can solve this

worldwide problem.”



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Singapore-based industrial liquid-waste

treatment company Memsift Innovations

has received a 37.2m rupee contract from

India to build a resource recovery plant for

the manmade fibres (MMF) industry using its

improved membrane distillation technology,

the TS-30. The plant will be commissioned in

the Q3 of 2023 at the state of Gujarat in India.

The technologies from Memsift recovers more

than 98% of water and up to 100% chemicals

from industrial liquid-waste streams with a

benefit of lower carbon footprint compared to

the currently available best technologies. The

‘no chemicals, no steam’ project may achieve

a negative carbon footprint by considering

the manufacturing carbon footprint of the

chemicals to be recovered in this project. The

estimated emission reduction will be about

1.47 million kg of CO2 every year, which is

equal to 3,356 barrels of fossil fuel. About

67% of the emission reduction is due to the

direct energy savings compared to the current

method in place and the remaining 33%

emission reductions comes from the tonnes of

chemicals to be recovered. Typically, it takes a

mini forest of approximately more than 58,000

trees to absorb the same amount of carbon

from the atmosphere over a period of one year.

Dr J Antony Prince, founder and CEO of

Memsift Innovations, said, “This project

is a key stepping stone for the full-scale

commercialisation of membrane distillation

technology for real-world applications. Memsift

will continuously focus on the key industrial

verticals (pharma, chemical, pulp & paper,

mining and metal finishing) to achieve resource

Memsift will provide its TS-30 improved

membrane distillation system for the resource

recovery plant in India

circularity by closing the liquid-waste loop and

play our part in decarbonising these industries.”

With the growing demand for resource

circularity and the challenges in handling

toxic industrial liquid-waste due to the

emerging stringent global legislation and

heightened corporate environmental

consciousness, Memsift has opened its first

round of fundraising to capture the emerging

green circular market. Memsift is seeking to

accelerate its growth to build its first full-scale

membrane manufacturing and engineering

hub to scale larger industrial production of its

membranes and the modules, expand market

share by opening oversea sales and aftermarket

service offices and strengthen its organisation








Perstorp has invested in a project that will allow

it to use wastewater from a nearby municipal

treatment plant for production operations in

Stenungsund, Sweden. This will save 1.1 million

litres of freshwater per year.

The project will enable Perstorp to secure the

future supply of water for the Stenungsund

plant. It also fits with the company’s longterm

sustainability ambition to become finite

material neutral.

“This is an important development of core

technology for Perstorp,” said Anna Berggren,

vice-president of sustainability. “We plan to

implement it at more sites around the world

in the future in our drive to reduce freshwater

consumption. Freshwater scarcity is already a

fact around the world. The chemical industry

has a responsibility to reduce its use and find

new solutions that can also support society

as a whole.”

All Perstorp production plants use water

for multiple purposes: as a solvent for

chemical reactions, a carrier for products,

a heat-transfer medium, and for cooling, for

example. One way of reducing consumption

of freshwater is to purify and recycle

wastewater. The Stenungsund project will

enable wastewater from the water treatment

plant run by the municipality to be further

purified and reused at the Perstorp Oxo

production plant.

The recycled water will also be used for

production of renewable hydrogen via

electrolysis for Perstop’s Project Air, as well

as for other investments.

“This project is a key enabler to combining

business growth and sustainable

development,” added Berggren.

Project Air is an initiative to transform the

chemical industry towards climate neutrality.

Perstorp Group and its partner Uniper will

produce sustainable methanol for chemical

manufacturing using circular production

methods, reducing carbon dioxide

emissions by about 500,000 tonnes per

year. This is equal to the annual emissions

of around 340,000 new cars running on

fossil fuel.

Andreas Utbult, project manager from

global technology and investment,

commented: “This exciting water treatment

and recycling project will involve close

collaboration with several partners in the

Stenungsund region. It exemplifies how

Perstorp uses its technology expertise

to transform a sustainability vision into

concrete investments.”




Novel nanofiltration

membrane for water

and wastewater


Fig. 1: NanoPure

hollow fibre NF

membrane and


Nanofiltration (NF) membrane

process is a pressure-driven filtration

process that employs membrane with

a pore size in the range of 0.5-5nm

which can reject solute via steric,

dielectric and/or Donnan exclusion.

In general, the NF membrane

process would benefit from a higher

water flux at a lower operating

pressure as compared to the

reverse osmosis (RO) membrane

process. Its applications in water and

wastewater treatment encompass

water softening, micropollutant

decontamination, colour removal,

heavy metal removal, etc.

In addition, NF membrane process

also exhibits great potential in

replacing the ultrafiltration (UF)

membrane process for RO pretreatment

due to its better organic and

salt rejection for effective mitigation

of fouling and scaling issues of the

subsequent RO membrane process.

To date, most of the commercial NF

membranes are available in spiralwound

modules that are consisted of

flat-sheet NF membranes.

The major suppliers of spiral-wound

NF modules in the market are DuPont

(FilmTec), Hydranautics, Suez (GE-

Osmonics), and Toray, to name a few.

These NF membranes are usually

made up of polyamide and produced

through interfacial polymerisation

process which forms a thin skin layer

with pore size down to 200 Dalton

molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) on

top of a substrate membrane.

Since the chemical composition and

module configuration of these NF

membranes are fairly similar to those

of the RO membranes, they share

numerous similarities in terms of the

membrane characteristics, application

conditions, as well as the technical

limitations. It is well-known to the

industry that the omnipresence of

chlorine in water is detrimental towards

the polyamide spiral-wound NF or

RO membranes since the polyamide

bond can be easily degraded by free

chlorine, which leads to performance

loss over the long-term operation.

Moreover, polyamide membranes

barely withstand the high and low pH

conditions because of the hydrolysis of

polyamide bond.



Herein, Mempure offers an alternative

option with the novel hollow fibre

NF membrane, i.e., NanoPure, for

water and wastewater treatment

applications. In contrast to the

spiral-wound membrane module, the

configuration of NanoPure membrane

module (Fig. 1) is much simpler and

identical to the traditional hollow fibre

UF membrane module which exhibits

several advantages e.g., low operating

pressure, high packing density, etc.

The operating pressure for NanoPure

membrane module is designed at

three to four bar that consumes much

less energy as compared to that of

the spiral-wound configuration that

usually requires more than seven

bar. Notably, NanoPure is backwashable

that reduces the membrane

fouling tendency owing to its robust

membrane structure. The fabrication

of NanoPure membrane utilises

charged-polymeric solutions that does

not comprise any polyamide-related

material and thus able to handle tough

feed water conditions.

For instance, the membrane

performance is able to sustain

under the chlorine exposure up to

250,000ppm/hr contact time, which

is significantly higher than that of the

polyamide NF membrane, typically at


Hence, the membrane is able to

operate with 1-5ppm free chlorine

in the feed water and the free



Fig. 2: Performance

of NanoPure

membrane for

hardness removal

(left) and its

application for

drinking water

treatment (24 m 3 /

day) in Myanmar


chlorine can prevent the membrane

According to the World Health

provides one-step direct treatment of

from bacteria growth to mitigate

Organization, water with hardness of

surface water for hardness reduction.

the biofouling issue that commonly

more than 120ppm is defined as hard

The membrane was tested with a

occurs in the spiral-wound membrane

water and the hardness of drinking

feed solution of 300ppm MgSO4 at

module. The chemical stability of the

water is an important consideration

50% recovery and two-bar operating

NanoPure membrane over the pH range

for healthy lifestyle and economical

pressure. A stable membrane

of 0-14 enables handling of acidic and

system operation. There are several

performance was observed with an

caustic wastewater without worrying

techniques available to reduce

average 85-90% MgSO4 removal over

about disintegration of the membrane

the hardness in water and among

the two months’ operation (Fig. 2),


them, membrane filtration and water

bringing down the concentration from

softening are the popular solutions in

300ppm to approximately 30-45ppm,

With the above-mentioned membrane

drinking water treatment.

which is within the range of soft water

features, the NanoPure NF membrane

less than 60ppm for potable usage.

can be applied for various water and

wastewater treatment applications.

These applications include, but not

limited to, water softening for drinking

water, industrial wastewater treatment

In comparison with water softening

process, membrane filtration process

produces less waste with easier

system operation and maintenance.

As such, NanoPure membrane system

Textile wastewater treatment:

Colour removal

Removal of colour and organic content

of wastewater in textile industry

Fig. 3: Colour

removal using

NanoPure membrane

for organic and colour removal, pretreatment

for seawater RO with a higher

recovery, acidic and caustic resource

recovery from industrial processes, etc.

The following paragraphs showcase

several recent case studies with the

NanoPure membranes.

Drinking water treatment: Hardness


In drinking water treatment process,

hardness removal (predominantly

calcium and magnesium cations) is

often required because excessive

hardness in the drinking water will

cause undesired scaling and corrosion

issues in the water distribution system,

while exposure to hard water may

cause skin irritation and potentially




remains challenging as regulations

around the world are tightened to

restrict the discharge of wastewater

with high colour and organic content.

In Singapore, the discharge of

wastewater into public sewers would

require control on the chemical oxygen

demand of less than 600ppm and the

discharge of trade effluent into the

watercourse must comply with colour

content of less than or equal to seven

Lovibond unit. Conversely India which

houses a huge textile industry, is

producing thousands of cubic metre

wastewater daily while adopting similar

control on the wastewater discharge.

Currently, this wastewater is sent to

centralised-treatment facilities for

treatment and charged based on the

wastewater volume and content to be

Semiconductor wastewater

treatment: Fluoride removal

In semiconductor industry, hydrogen

As shown in Fig. 4, the membrane

demonstrated a consistent fluoride

removal efficiency up to 85%, resulting

Fig. 4: Application of

NanoPure membrane

for fluoride removal


fluoride, also known as the ‘etching

in about 2.5ppm fluoride content in

gas’, is an essential chemical that

the permeate collected, well below the

As a consequence, there is a strong

is used in the etching process. Due

regulatory requirement level.

demand for a wastewater treatment

technology which can provide a

de-centralised solution to the textile

industry in treating their wastewater

to the extensive usage of hydrogen

fluoride, the wastewater from

semiconductor industry generally

contains a significant amount




effectively and economically. Nanopure

of hydrogen fluoride. A typical

NanoPure hollow fiber NF membrane,

NF membrane technology provides a

semiconductor wastewater treatment

as a unique type of NF membrane

well-fitted solution for such application.

consists of chemical treatment

with optimal membrane properties

for pH neutralisation, followed by

such as good chlorine tolerance,

A case study on the colour and organic

precipitation technology (e.g., fluidised

wide pH range stability, low energy

removal for dye solution was conducted

crystallisation bed) to precipitate

consumption, and is back-washable,

using the NanoPure membrane with a

out the fluoride content from the

can treat various water and wastewater

100ppm Reactive Blue 19 dye solution

wastewater. The remaining trace

to meet the desired water quality.

as feed water, three-bar operating

amount of fluoride content in the

pressure and 50% recovery. The test

wastewater usually requires a finishing

The application scenarios presented

was run over a period of more than

step such as NF membrane technology

with the membrane ranging

two months with a stable total organic

in order to meet the regional regulatory

from drinking water to industrial

carbon (TOC) removal recorded


wastewater justified the robustness

averagely at 90% (Fig. 3). Nevertheless,

of the membrane for effective water

clear and transparent permeate

Taking Malaysia as an example, the

and wastewater decontamination.

solution was collected throughout

fluoride content of the final discharged

More applications of the NanoPure

the test period which aligned with the

wastewater needs to be less than or

membrane beyond the current scope

TOC removal efficiency. Therefore, the

equal to 5ppm. Hence, a study on

which potentially include removal of

NanoPure membrane has potential in

the fluoride removal using NanoPure

heavy metal and micropollutants,

efficient colour and organic removal for

membrane was established with

as well as resources recovery from

the application of textile wastewater

15ppm fluoride solution as feed water,

wastewater, are yet to be explored in


operating at three-bar pressure.

future studies.



Company: POWERCHINA Hubei

Project: Full Lifecycle Digital

Application in Wuhan Xudong

200kV Substation Project

Location: Wuhan, Hubei, China

Winners of the 2022 Going Digital Awards in Infrastructure (Image: Bentley Systems)


2022 Going

Digital Awards in


Bentley Systems, the infrastructure

engineering software company, has

announced the winners of their 2022

Going Digital Awards in Infrastructure. The

annual awards programme honours the

work of Bentley software users advancing

infrastructure design, construction, and

operations throughout the world.

The finalists presented their projects at the

2022 Year in Infrastructure and Going Digital

Awards event in London before global press

and 11 independent jury panels, illustrating

how Bentley’s users master project

challenges and achieve set objectives by

leveraging the latest digital advancements.

Jurors determined the winners of the 12

award categories from 36 finalists that were

shortlisted from over nearly 300 nominations

submitted by more than 180 organisations

from 47 countries.

The award winners of the 12 categories are:


Company: Ferrovial Construction and


Alamo Construction

IH35 Nex Central Station

Location: San Antonio, Texas, US


Company: ACCIONA


Safely Removing

Dangerous Level

Crossings through Digital


Location: Melbourne, Victoria,



Company: Mott MacDonald


Location: UK

Smart Object Library for

the Environment Agency



Company: Sydney Airport



Location: Sydney, New South

Wales, Australia


Company: Mott MacDonald


Driving Efficiency and

Sustainability in Material

Reuse through GeoBIM

Location: Birmingham, West

Midlands, UK



Company: OQ Upstream


Location: Oman

OQ Asset Reliability


Digitalisation with Purpose

Company: PT Wijaya Karya (Persero)



Integrated High-Speed

Rail and Station Jakarta –


Location: Jakarta, Indonesia


Company: Waka Kotahi and FH/HEB JV,



Takitimu North Link

Location: Tauranga, Western Bay of

Plenty, New Zealand


Company: WSP


Unity Place Delivered with

Optimised Design by WSP

Using Innovations from


Location: Milton Keynes,

Buckinghamshire, UK


Company: Singapore Land Authority


SG Digital Twin Empowered

by Mobile Mapping

Location: Singapore


Company: Jacobs and PUB, Singapore’s


National Water Agency

Tuas Water Reclamation

Plant (TWRP)

Location: Singapore



Monitoring water infrastructure

with digital twins

From building water treatment plants and developing flood warning systems,

to detecting cracks and leakages in pipes and sewers, digital twinning

can contribute to healthier and longer-lasting water infrastructure,

as Francois Valois, vice-president of civil infrastructure with

Bentley Systems, tells Water & Wastewater Asia.

How have digital twin solutions from

Bentley Systems been used in the water


Francois Valois: Bentley Systems has been

working with PUB, Singapore’s National Water

Agency, to build one of their largest water

treatment plants, to treat, recycle, and reclaim

water directly over there. It was actually one

of the winners this year in the Going Digital

Awards In Infrastructure, in the water and

wastewater category — a fantastic project

that leverages digital twin technologies for

the design and modelling aspects, going

3D from the ground up, using that same

information for construction and to monitor

the construction by flying drones around the

site. With digital twins, all these aspects and

information are connected, becoming a system

instead of just being a bunch of files. And

with the data visible, users can unlock it for

design, construction, and operations, making

it easier to study. Plus, in this project, the

team connects the data with gaming engine

technologies like the NVIDIA software to

enable virtual and augmented realities, all to

train the staff on the job, and to see how they

would operate the plant in the future.

What do you hope to achieve with Bentley

Acceleration Initiatives, especially in

relation to the water industry?

Valois: If we look at it from a macro level, what

we are trying to do with Bentley Acceleration

Initiatives is to elevate the playing field. There

is a lot of information locked in engineering

files, but about 5% of this information is

actually being used to make 100% of the

decisions in projects. Hence, we want to make

the information available for engineers and

infrastructure professionals at their fingertips

to make the right decisions, by having these

acceleration programmes unlock the data and

make them usable for design, construction

and operation, across all phases. Also, the

data is there to be reused. The engineer and

infrastructure professional do not have to redo

or relearn the data. All these are through our

various initiatives and Bentley Infrastructure

Cloud, enabled by our iTwin Platform that

connects all of it — that is the secret sauce.

Our various products, from ProjectWise to

SYNCHRO and AssetWise, every one of them

is now iTwin-enabled, sharing the Bentley

infrastructure schema, thus allowing information

to be shared across the whole lifecycle and

ecosystem of the project. In this context, we

really want to accelerate all infrastructure

aspects using digital twins across various

industries, from water, to transportation, to

energy, to smart cities.

For example, for the PUB project, when it

is completed in 2026, it will be the largest

membrane bioreactor in the world. With

the Bentley initiatives, there is a significant

improvement in the savings and efficiencies.

It was reported among the contractors that

by using 3D models, the process was more


efficient by 50%. The contractors had to create

the detail model, returning into the system and

around the Bentley Infrastructure Cloud and

ProjectWise software, and this made the data

exchange between the various contractors and

teams easier, saving 50% of the time invested.

This sets a new benchmark by using modelbased

digital delivery and bidding.

As I mentioned earlier, what we are trying to

do is to elevate the playing field. Now it takes

half the time to do the same thing with Bentley

software. You can use that extra time to make

better and more informed decisions, and

really make sure that the engineering is done

right. This is opposed to projects that do not

use digital twin technology, instead, using 2D

or 3D plans and printing them. They will end

up losing all the information upon giving the

contractors the plans, because you cannot see

them virtually. That is not to say that plans and

files are not useful. They are fundamental to

the whole process. But modelling unlocks and

provides real-time data. People say data is the

new oil, but I would say data is the new water.

It is fundamental and essential for the survival

of our infrastructure in the long term.

How else can the water industry use

digital twins in our processes and to our


Valois: There are multiple things we want

to do with utilities. Not everywhere is the

water being used fully. There would usually

be leaks in the water network. Unlike oil,

people typically do not see the problem in

this, but in a few years, this is going to be

a bigger and bigger problem. There have

also been an increasing number of places,

like India and South East Asia, where these

problems are getting critical. So, this whole

idea of addressing leakages, whether it is

in developed or developing countries, can

be solved by our solutions like WaterGEMS,

which can identify leaks. Another thing our

solutions can do is optimise pumping, such as

Digital twinning can unlock

data and make it available

for the design, construction

and operations of a project

reducing pumping by having better network

design. For instance, WaterGEMS has

helped cities like Rotterdam save up to 30%

in energy costs.

Another thing: We also encourage people

to focus on flooding. Are your stormwater

system and network resilient to a huge storm

or floods? Which areas will be affected?

We have just added new capabilities to

our SewerGEMS product to consider the

whole network. We call this 2D flooding

analysis — 2D in the sense that we analyse

the surface, and the 1D aspect in analysing

the pipes. The two are connected, and they

provide a single way to model and analyse

the flooding considerations in a city or region.

And you could do this for an existing network

or planning; are you planning a big enough

network for the next storm event? Our

technology therefore connects all the phases

and makes the data available.

In your opinion, how do you think the

water industry can improve using digital


Valois: The next frontier is enabled by our

WaterSight product. WaterSight is essentially

a digital twin solution for the operation of

the water utilities. It leverages modelling our

strength — for the water flow within the piping

and sewage networks — and combines it

with sensor information from supervisory

control and data acquisition (SCADA) and

Internet of Things (IoT) systems. WaterSight

helps to fill gaps in these systems with a 3D

model. Because the SCADA systems are

not installed everywhere in the network, the

modelling helps to make users understand

what is going on between one sensor and the

other. If something abnormal is detected, then

it is probably a leak to be fixed. So, users

have that real-time context with WaterSight

models. Compared to static modelling, which

occurs maybe once every year, WaterSight

can help to constantly model and get IoT

information to improve the network state. And

that is really the next frontier, and where I think

the industry is going. We have early adopters

of this technology in Brazil and around the

world, trying to push the boundaries and get to

the next level.

Another thing is dams. We have been

working on — and there have been early

adopters — the AssetWise Dam Monitoring,

which combines IoT and reality modelling

capabilities. Like our Bentley infrastructure

cloud, this is iTwin-enabled, so there is an

iTwin capture product that flies drones around

the dam, generating wonderful 3D models

which you can use to overlay and detect cracks

through artificial intelligence (AI), discover

where issues are in the large dam, and tag,

label, and inspect them. Then there is also the

whole notion of IoT, installing sensors in the

dams and bridges. It goes back to what I said

earlier about constant monitoring. We want

every infrastructure to be monitored, whether it

is for bridges, tunnels, or dams.

What do you think the future of digital

twins will be like in the next five years?

Valois: I think a lot of this will be around AIenabled

cloud services that can react faster

and better to events like flooding, or constant

network monitoring, or detecting of cracks in

pipes and sewers. I hope we will not leave

anyone behind. I hope we will consider the

whole problem realistically. It is not only about

rich countries, because water is very important

for everybody, right? It’s really important we

bring the whole world with us. And Bentley is

all about this, and doing it in a sustainable way

— helping the infrastructure industry design,

construct and operate better, not only for profit,

but also to help global problems.

Francois Valois,

vice-president of

civil infrastructure in

Bentley Systems




Managing data efficiently with

Bentley’s software

Building large water treatment plants requires the efficient management of data

and resources. Moving away from 2D drawings and relying instead on digital

twins and data visualisation is a step towards a quicker, more efficient and simpler

workflow, as realised at the Tuas Water Reclamation Plant (Tuas WRP) project.

Without proper software systems to handle

large amounts of resources and data, the

project might crumble under the weight of its


The Tuas WRP project by Jacobs and PUB, Singapore’s National Water Agency


reclamation and disposal needs. The first

Seventy-five facilities, 16 contractors,

phase of the DTSS covering the eastern half

50-over hectares of site space: This is the of the country was completed in 2008. The

magnitude of the Tuas WRP project that PUB, second phase is currently under construction,

Singapore’s National Water Agency, and consisting of a conveyance system of deep

Jacobs, a technical services provider serving tunnels and link sewers and Tuas WRP to serve

the engineering and construction industries, the western and southern parts of Singapore.

had to contend with.

The scale and complexity of the Tuas WRP

The Tuas WRP is part of the larger, two-phase project is daunting: the initial capacity of the

Deep Tunnel Sewerage System (DTSS) project Tuas plant is expected to be 800,000m 3 per

in Singapore, developed for the country’s day. As of December 2022, 11 out of the

long-term used water collection, treatment, 16 contract packages have been awarded.

“There are not only many contract interfaces

from a horizontal perspective, but also the

vertical layering of different contracts that

have to interact with each other, such as

‘mechanical, electrical, instrumentation,

control and automation (MEICA)’ upon Civils

and Structures,” explained Matt Warburton,

Jacobs’s project director for Tuas WRP. “The

software and the technology that we adopted

should fundamentally be able to manage

such a level [of data]. We would not be able

to manage it with a traditional method and for

the level of interface we are dealing with.”

Using traditional 2D drawings was therefore

not an option. Jacobs recommended

PUB to use software by Bentley Systems,

whose software solutions leverage on

digital twinning and data visualisation to

complement construction projects.


But the design and management teams soon

encountered another problem. Since the

Tuas WRP project was expected to last over

10 years — the project began in 2017 — the


previous generation of Bentley software they

used could not easily comprehend its scale

and complexity.

“Time is of the essence,” said Mark Wong,

PUB’s chief engineer of Tuas WRP. “When

the project started, we envisaged our

engineers using a tablet to deftly open,

zoom and review the data-rich model

anytime and anywhere.”

Hence, to tackle the scale of the project

and to render models fast and efficiently,

Jacobs and PUB had to update their range

of Bentley software. From OpenBuildings

and OpenPlant to ProjectWise and iTwin,

the new Bentley software that Jacobs

and PUB are using allowed the design,

engineering, and construction management

teams to access the construction models

and interfaces anywhere on-site, and

also are able to track the progress of the

construction in real-time. All these tapped

into photogrammetry, which extracts 3D

information from photos, digital twins, virtual

and augmented realities, model-based

tendering, and more.

“With the latest Bentley software, it is

possible to load the models faster, where

unimportant features could be turned off so

that they will open easily,” Wong elaborated.

The various teams were therefore able

to standardise the workflow and data, all

while considering each other’s different

perspectives and disciplines during

construction. One example is using

iTwin, Bentley’s digital twinning solution

which creates data blueprints of the water

reclamation plant in-progress. As Warburton

said: “Using the iTwin platform is part of our

engineering team’s day-to-day job. Users

can go in and navigate easily, as opposed

to the old-school method which would have

required 2D physical drawings, where they

would have to mark all of them up by hand

and identify any clashes or errors. All that is

over now, and we work in a very close matrix

organisation, with the design team working

with the other engineering and construction

management teams, yet still completing their

roles effectively.”



1 Rendering of Tuas

Nexus, comprising

of PUB’s Tuas

WRP and National

Environment Agency

(NEA)’s Integrated

Waste Management

Facility (IWMF) in a

simulated model

2 The design,

engineering, and

project management

teams can access

the BIM files anytime

and anywhere

Although Jacobs has rendered about 3,500

building information modelling (BIM) files,

they only needed five people in the team to

manage them successfully. Even so, there

was initial resistance from the contractors

to using Bentley software due to the novelty

of the work process. However, once the

personnel were accustomed to it, once they

experienced the benefits first-hand and saw

how the software could speed up the project,

it become part of their roles.

“I believe people usually adopt new

technology to make their work and life

easier, if it is shown to be the path of least

resistance. So, if you can show them that

BIM is the path of least resistance — it is

very intuitive and quick to use — that really

is the game-changer. It has been useful in

our project to de-conflict potential clashes

at interfaces, and presents more visual

information that you would not be able to

appreciate on a 2D drawing. And with real-life

images taken by the drones or laser scans,

you can overlay them on the BIM model to

see the actual progress of the project,” said



Having invested significantly on BIM, PUB

plans to keep the model for future operations

and maintenance of Tuas WRP. They believe

in the value of investing in BIM, and the

returns they bring not only to the plant, but to

the water industry and beyond.

However, no matter how time- and costsaving

using digital twinning and BIM can be,

they ultimately need to be useful for the end

user and everybody in the ecosystem — be

it Jacobs or PUB, or the contractors, the

designers or engineers.

Warburton concluded: “From a commercial

perspective, it is about the return on

investment (ROI). If you can do things with

less resource and quicker, if you can do them

right for the first time with fewer mistakes,

you can deliver value back to everybody.

Once people see the potential for the ROI,

they start to come onboard with the initiative.

This is a springboard for future projects

in Singapore, we hope to see more of this

happening because of the good track record

we have experienced at Tuas WRP.”

Images: Jacobs and PUB, Singapore’s National Water





water infrastructure

with OpenFlows


understand what is happening underground

in those pipes,” explained Gregg Herrin,

vice-president of water infrastructure

division in Bentley Systems. “[With

OpenFlows], you can make better decisions

about your planning, designing, and how to

operate the infrastructure.”


Interoperable with GIS, SCADA, billing

records, and other data formats, OpenFlows

takes all the sensor information that comes

in, simulates it, and recognises if something

in the system is behaving differently than

it should. Operators can then analyse it

to understand why, and send out a field

crew to inspect or fix the infrastructure, if


Water distribution networks, in all their large

and complex pipe and sewer systems, buried

underground, can be difficult to manage and

maintain. Internet of Things (IoT) sensors that

gather geographic information system (GIS)

and supervisory control and data acquisition

(SCADA) data have been helpful in detecting

problems and making better infrastructural

decisions. What if there is a software that can

pull all these data together to generate more

immediate, and more complete insights into

the infrastructure?

OpenFlows technology by Bentley Systems

aims to do that. In essence, OpenFlows

simulates and models water networks. As

utilities have increasingly been installed with

sensor technology in recent years, acquiring

better GIS and SCADA data, OpenFlows

brings all the data together and provides

users more connected insights into what is

happening in the system at that moment.

Any type of water distribution network,

wastewater collection network, stormwater

collections and management, from the size

of a small site up to an entire city, can be

managed by OpenFlows. This technology has

been also used for designing and managing

water treatment plants as well, such as the

Tuas Water Reclamation Plant (TWRP) project

in Singapore. Furthermore, it can cover the

entire lifecycle of an asset, predicting where

likely problems might appear, allowing

operators to react before these problems


“You have to be able to understand

the networks through simulation tools,

Herrin emphasised that the OpenFlows

technology is able to bridge other Bentley

and non-Bentley technologies together,

enabling the whole infrastructure network

to work better digitally. He elaborated:

“We want our software to become more

flexible, more open, and connect more

broadly into the lifecycle phases [of a water

infrastructure]. We have a history of being

the first software provider that can do this

type of water modelling. This is different

from other vendors where they take what

they want and try to control your data and

environment, so that you only use their

tools. But the infrastructure itself will be

here for 100 years.”

He added: “The other thing that we focus on

is trying to make sure that everything we do

is usable. Part of that is the user interface,

making sure that engineers can interact

with these tools well. We are expanding

that to make it friendlier for operators and

non-engineers to use. The easier it is to

use the software, the more options you can

evaluate, the better decision you can make

about what choice you are going to use.”


Water crises caused by climate change,

including but limited to issues like water


scarcity, droughts and floods, and industry

problems like non-revenue water (NRW)

have posed various challenges to the

water industry. Different regions may face

different intensities of the same problem.

“Depending on where you are, you might

not have enough water, you might have too

much water, or the water you have might

not be clean. You may be taking water from

a source that might not be there in five

years,” clarified Herrin.

Addressing these challenges is at the top

of everyone’s minds, but to Herrin, there

is a bigger problem at hand: “I think the

biggest problem, overall, is unpredictability

— not knowing what might happen, and

then trying to prepare for the worst case.”

And this unpredictability extends to water

infrastructure as well. Leakages, cracks,

NRW, among other problems, might occur

without notice.

That is where OpenFlows technology, with

its capabilities of assessing an asset’s

lifecycle, might come into play. Herrin

explained that with OpenFlows and other

software solutions by Bentley, users

can anticipate and identify where the

likely problems are, and understand the

magnitude of the problem. Users can also

plan around how to create district metered

areas to help control the flow of water better

through the city, and then manage the

pressures better. And once the engineers

finish analysing the problems, managers

or operators can take that information,

visualise it in laymen terms, and explain

to decision-makers clearly where that

particular problem in the infrastructure lies.

This, Herrin explained, can help companies

to get better funding to solve the problem,

or to put bigger plans in place, such as a

water conservation programme.

“We have gotten better today at predicting

better what might happen in the future,”

declared Herrin. “If we are looking at

something like water scarcity, for example,

if we understand what the city is likely

to look in 10-20 years, we can look at

the plans and understand what we can

do with the people to try to adjust their

behaviour. For instance, what happens

if we can get individuals to reduce their

water consumption by 10%? Get industries

to reuse and recycle more water, instead

of just taking freshwater? We can help

evaluate these what-if scenarios to

help understand which can make a big

difference, and which cannot.”



This predictive maintenance, in turn, can

help utilities and infrastructures to improve

sustainability measures. According to

Herrin, sustainability comes back to

ensuring that water utilities do what they

need to do — be it a water distribution

utility ensuring potable water, or a

wastewater utility collecting and treating

wastewater effectively. But each utility

doing their job may not be enough. Digital

twinning, such as OpenFlows solutions,

would therefore be at the centre of this

communication, connecting different


OpenFlows technology

can cover the entire

lifecycle of an asset,

predicting where

likely problems

might appear in it

“Any individual utility might think it is

doing okay, but the bigger picture is still

changing in a way that is not sustainable,”

said Herrin. “With Bentley, we see the

connection of the different professionals

that are responsible for infrastructure

as being very important, when these

professionals communicate with each

other — whether it is a water utility and

a power utility working together to figure

out, for example, if there is a better time for

the electric grid [to function], or the water

utility to pump its water. Or if there is a

more efficient way of doing things that will

reduce the carbon footprint of the entire


Ultimately, even though Bentley sees

themselves as a software provider they

hope to help the entire ecosystem of the

water industry by advancing successful

infrastructure. In doing so, they can

advance successful communication,

connection, and sustainability too.

Herrin concluded: “We are seeing a lot

of changes where utilities are looking for

better ways to improve their operations,

and we know that there is so much value in

the planning and design that can improve

through construction and operations.

As such, we see ourselves helping the

industry take advantage of connecting

the dots between those different lifecycle


Gregg Herrin, vice-president of water infrastructure

division in Bentley Systems






The story of Anammox

Kimberly Liew speaks to Prof Mark van Loosdrecht,

head of section, environmental biotechnology at

Technical University of Delft, Willie Driessen, global

technology and product manager at Paques and

Victor Lim, CEO of MattenPlant, about Anammox, an

ammonium wastewater removal process that could

be a carbon-friendly alternative to present technologies.

Anammox biomass

come in various

shades and sizes

— the specific red

colour of Anammox

bacteria is due to

the heme c group

of the protein

cytochrome c that

plays an important

role in Anammox


How did the concept of

Anammox first come about?

Prof Mark van Loosdrecht:

In an anoxic pilot plant in Delft,

the Netherlands, ammonium

unexpectedly disappeared from the

wastewater. Upon investigation by

the Technical University of Delft,

it appeared to be due to a then

unknown type of micro-organism.

After studying and understanding

the microbiology, a process was

designed to exploit this microbial

conversion for efficient wastewater

treatment. The process was named

Anammox — an acronym for

anaerobic ammonia oxidation.

Then, Anammox was scaled up

by Paques, a Dutch environmental

technology company, and applied

for the first time at a wastewater

facility in Rotterdam in 2002. This

technology was based on granular

sludge since that gives the most

compact and efficient conversion


The first application was a process

where ammonium with nitrite was

converted to nitrogen gas. Soon

after, a technology was developed

based on a community of nitrifying

and Anammox bacteria in granular

sludge. This technology allowed

direct conversion of ammonium

to nitrogen gas, and it is mostly

suited for higher temperatures as well

as higher concentrations — such as

sludge digestor effluent and industrial

wastewater. Currently, the research is

focused on the potential of integrating

Anammox in municipal wastewater

treatment plants.

How has the process of ANAMMOX

been refined since its creation in


Willie Driessen: The first Anammox

reactors, like in Rotterdam, were

built using a two-step approach —

in which partial nitritation (PN) and

the Anammox (A) process were

conducted by two separate reactor

systems. Paques later developed the

one-step Anammox reactor system,

where nitritation and Anammox

were combined in a single reactor

system (PN/A). The development

of well settleable concentrated

granules helped allow for compact

reactor systems, facilitating the

start-up of new reactors. Currently,

most Anammox installations are for

the treating of industrial effluent or

municipal side-stream dewatering


What were the specific roles

of Paques and MattenPlant in

developing or promoting Anammox?

Driessen: MattenPlant and Paques,

both owned by SKion Water, have

teamed up to promote and develop



Anammox opportunities in the

With the Anammox process, the

South East Asian region. Paques is

set-up is not just about building

a global provider of environmental

the plant or having key equipment

technologies that operates regional

in place. Equally important, if not

business entities in Europe, North

more vital, is the availability of

America, Latin America, India, China,

sufficient Anammox biomass for the

and the Asia-Pacific.

technology to work and we have

secured globally a steady supply of

Victor Lim: While Paques

the Anammox bacteria. By working

has a presence in South East

closely with the customer, Matten

Asia, MattenPlant adopts the

will devise a seeding plan for the

active role of recommending

Anammox biomass and ensure the

the Anammox technology to

plant is ready to go, right when the

industrial manufacturers or

bacteria arrive on-site.

factories, consultants, and

municipal operators, where it is

Similarly, what were some

deemed suitable. With our in-

challenges encountered during

house engineering capabilities,

the initial test runs of Anammox at

Matten partners with and supports

Paques’s facilities?

customers with a full suite of

Driessen: When we were starting

services, including design, supply,

up the world’s first Anammox

project execution, as well as

plant in 2002, there was hardly

operation and maintenance. It is our

any Anammox biomass available

desire to stay close to our customers

in the region and to provide timely

deliveries. Our team manufactures

the various pre-treatment equipment

and Anammox reactor internal

for seeding other than some small

lab-scale units. The first order of

business was to grow enough sludge

for seeding. Although this initial

start-up took almost three years, it

in China, has been handling a

load of 11,000kgN per day since

2009, and there are many more

installations involving thermal

From left to right:

Victor Lim, Willie

Driessen, Prof Mark

van Loosdrecht

separators in our facilities, which

has been running for 20 years now.

hydrolysis process (THP), which

helps to cushion against any supply

Since then, nearly 70 Anammox

make the application even more

shock and logistics issues.

installations have been built using

challenging. Throughout these

and producing granular Anammox

plants, what we have observed is

What were some challenges that


that the Anammox installations are

MattenPlant encountered when

implementing Anammox?

Lim: As every project is unique



all working well, even under tough


— from wastewater load factor,

What are some benefits of using

Compared to conventional

physical space consideration,

Anammox? Could you also

nitrification and denitrification

to greenfield or retrofitting — we

share with us some successful

methods, the Anammox technology

believe that having local presence is


offers a cost-effective and

paramount. We have found that the

Lim: The Anammox process as

sustainable approach to ammonia

ability to understand project specific

a side-stream nitrogen removal

removal. The innovative biological

requirements and stay close to our

application has been gaining ground

process is an elegant shortcut in

customers is key. Matten’s regional

over the years. Aside from the

the natural nitrogen cycle where

presence has enabled us to connect

fact that it is offered by Paques,

ammonium is directly converted

with customers readily, and my

the technology has proven to

into nitrogen gas. Some of the

team’s engineering competence and

be effective and reliable in both

key benefits include savings on

the timely support that they render

industrial and municipal sectors.

energy from aeration, minimal

provides a firm assurance to the

For one, the world largest industrial

waste sludge production, and the


Anammox installation, located

ability to achieve very compact



installations. Furthermore, the

process eliminates the need for

a carbon source while allowing

the production of useful granular


Driessen: The Anammox process

has been used for treating industrial

and municipal wastewater. The

industrial application typically

includes sectors like food,

fermentation, and rendering

industries, while the municipal

application involves mainly sidestream

sludge dewatering reject

liquors. These reject liquors are

derived from anaerobic digestion

of sewage sludge, sometimes

including co-digestion of organic

waste residues.

What are some trends observed

with the application of Anammox

technology across the world?

Prof van Loosdrecht: Most

attention for research is to

integrate Anammox in municipal

wastewater treatment, to make it

more energy efficient. In tropical

regions, Anammox is sometimes

spontaneously present, while for

more temperate conditions, there

are several potential processes to

integrate Anammox in wastewater


Driessen: Sewage treatment

plants that have been primarily

built for wastewater purification

are increasingly being regarded

as water and resources recovery

facilities (WRRF). Increasingly, the

application of anaerobic treatment

of wastewater and sludge for

producing biogas has resulted

in the growing interest in the

Anammox process for the energyefficient

removal of nitrogen. The

application of thermal THP for

reducing sewage sludge amounts

and improving biogas production,

has led to increased nitrogen

loadings in the sludge dewatering

rejects. The Anammox process

is an ideal process to treat these

reject liquors, removing the nitrogen

without the need for a carbon

source (COD), using up to 60% less

aeration energy than conventional


Lim: We see more interest and

adoption in biological treatment

processes like Anammox, and

also for nitrogen and phosphorus

removal solutions such as Phospaq.

This is likely a direct result of

countries adopting higher standards

of effluent discharge to protect

humans and the environment, and

this trend is observed across both

industrial and municipal sectors.

What are some challenges faced

by the water treatment industry

today and how can Anammox

technology mitigate those


Prof van Loosdrecht: The

greatest challenge is to become

energy neutral or positive. By

having ammonium removed by

Anammox, the organic carbon can

be converted into biogas instead

of being needed for the nitrogen

removal processes.

Driessen: Aeration energy,

currently still mainly fossil fuelbased,

often represents the

main operational costs for many

wastewater treatment plants.

The production of excess waste

sludge is another major concern.

The use of the Anammox

process in combination with

anaerobic sludge digestion allows

the production of biogas, or

renewable energy, and

the saving of aeration energy,

producing a minimum amount

of excess sludge. Paques’

Anammox process produces

granular sludge, which can

be considered as an asset

for starting up other new


Could you share with us any

upcoming projects that utilise


Driessen: There is a

commissioning of a side-stream

plant in Hong Kong planned for

2023. This plant, comprising the

Anammox process for nitrogen

removal and a Phospaq struvite

reactor for the recovery and

removal of phosphorus, will

be treating sludge dewatering

rejects from thermally hydrolysed

and anaerobically digested


A typical Anammox

plant layout

comprises three

reactor tanks with

connected walls,

with the Anammox

separator openings





Effective irrigation

in a water

scarce world

In the face of rapidly depleting water resources

and increasing demand for agricultural

commodities, how should farmers approach

irrigation for a more sustainable future?

By Agatha Wong, assistant editor

witnessing the challenges water scarcity

could unleash upon a country: in 2018, the

country’s pure water production reached

a historic low of 555 cubic metres. For the

company, which was founded in 1966 in a

kibbutz (a small agricultural community) in

northern Israel, improved water management

for a more robust agriculture landscape

seemed a necessary step forward in the

water-scarce nation. And as the conversation

on water scarcity evolved from regional

cases to a global issue, Rivulis now offers

its solutions to over 120 countries, based on

technology developed in its R&D centres in

Israel, California, and Greece.

Specific to the Egyptian market, Rivulis has

produced drip lines, online drippers, filters,

hydrocyclones, and ReelView, a mobile app

providing agronomic satellite imagery of one’s



“2022 has seen some of the most severe

droughts in centuries in regions that were

not used to such water stress. Last summer,

dinosaur footprints in dry rivers in Texas

dating back more than 100 million years or

sunken World War II warships in the Danube

River appeared in the heart of Europe. All

stakeholders — farmers, decision-makers,

and society — understand that our approach

to water consumption must change. This is

where micro-irrigation systems come in to

address this challenge,” explained Khaled

Ζaghloul, general manager of Rivulis Egypt.

Since the turn of the century, the global

South has been home to immense changes

sweeping through its diverse landscape;

from a surge in urban population to a

rise in industrial growth, culminating in

an emerging middle-class with greater

purchasing power and shifting demands.

Accompanying this climbing trend is also

the participation of the global South in the

agri-food market as both exporters and


Yet, the region is more vulnerable than ever

to the tides of climate change: a record of 30

wildfires in Greece were observed barely a

few months into 2022; on the other hand, the

harsh 2022 Pacific typhoon season continues

to wreak havoc across South East Asia,

ravaging homes and livelihoods.

Rivulis Egypt, the Egyptian subsidiary of

Rivulis, a micro-irrigation solutions provider

based in Israel, has had a front row seat in

Unlike conventional forms of irrigation, such

as surface irrigation, which results in water

loss from evaporation, infiltration, and runoff,

micro-irrigation delivers water slowly and

precisely in the form of discrete droplets,

continuous drops, and streams. This ensures

an efficient use of water resources with

minimal wastage, using only what is needed

for the crops.

There are, according to Zaghloul, four types

of micro-irrigation: Sprinkler irrigation utilises

high-pressure sprinklers to supply the plant



with the exact amount of water needed for

optimum growth. Spray irrigation, meanwhile,

relies on a jet spray to deliver water. It is also

mobile, and can be applied in smaller lawns

or across larger farms.

Drip irrigation, on the other hand, uses

emitters to deliver water directly to the plant

root into the soil. These emitters optimise and

distribute the pressure from the water source

using vents, twisters, and convoluted or long

flow paths which allow only a limited amount

of water to pass through. Emitters may be

placed on the ground or planted deep into

the soil, where water flowing through moves

without barriers at the desired speed.

Lastly, subsurface irrigation applies water

to plants from below the soil surface. Highly

efficient, the system requires only low-levels

of water pressure to perform effectively. In

this system, tubes and pipes are hidden under

the soil for water delivery, which means there

is no waste of water.

Besides reducing water consumption by

90%, micro-irrigation also yields a host of

other benefits. Zaghloul elaborated that

micro-irrigation systems are often used to

“fertigate”, a process where liquid fertilisers

are injected directly into irrigation pipes rather

than spread across the field. As a result,

fertilisers are distributed more accurately and

evenly, saving energy by pumping less water,

or keeping a patch of soil moist where the

microbiome thrives. In all, farmers can expect

greater yields and improved crop quality.


As the world faces increasing water scarcity,

micro-irrigation will rise to the fore as a viable

means of conserving previous resources.

Indeed, the Intergovernmental Panel on

Climate Change has assessed that “most

regions have already experienced negative

impacts on the water cycle and agricultural


Zaghloul believes that micro-irrigation

technology will benefit from double-digit

growth in the coming 5- 10 years. This will,

of course, be accompanied by other solutions

that can work hand-in-hand with microirrigation

to enhance water management:

Wireless monitoring, for example, can enable

remote management of irrigation systems and

an easier control of pressure, flow, and water

levels anytime, anywhere, supporting greater

cost-effectiveness and sustainability.

Meanwhile, manufacturers will continue with

the reduction of their environmental footprint

through the upgrading of manufacturing

capabilities, which can support the increased

use of recycled materials in their products.

Collecting used products and circling

them back into the manufacturing process

also create a more resilient supply chain,

according to Zaghloul.

“We are starting to see more control,

more intelligence, and more integration.

For example, we are seeing more control

over each valve and each outlet, bringing

precision irrigation to the next level,”

observed Zaghloul. “We are also seeing

more intelligence through forecasting and

predictive analysis. This is a game-changer

for agriculture. It helps to reduce errors and

minimise the risk of crop failures. Additionally,

it gives growers a better idea of general water

trends in their soil to create more efficient and

effective plans.

“Also, we expect more integration between

designing the system, manufacturing, and

installing it on the ground, as well as operating

and monitoring it. We strongly believe in this

concept of more integration which is why we

acquired our own irrigation design software

in 2022 called WCADI.” Rivulis is currently

integrating the software into their own

production systems and monitoring solutions

to create a smooth process from design to



Consistent to the theme of water conservation

are teamwork and cooperation. In that regard,

micro-irrigation is but a small step towards

Khaled Ζaghloul serves as the general manager of

Rivulis Egypt

a larger picture of sustainable agriculture

and climate resilience. Fortifying soil

health, for example, can yield more carbon

sequestration from the atmosphere, increase

biodiversity, and promote more sustainable

food production.

Bringing in key players, such as farmers

and smallholders, are also vital to enabling

change. In 2022, Rivulis established a

customer financing division to expand its

financing solutions for their distributors and

farmers; the company had been cognizant

of the financial hurdles that farmers might

experience, as they are investing in a

technology that will pay-off only once their

harvest has been sold. For smallholders,

Rivulis has also partnered with Agriwise,

an India-based agri-financier supported

by Temasek Holdings and a sugar mill in

Maharashtra. The mill pays Agriwise and the

farmers pay back their loans directly through

the deduction of the cane harvest at the

factory, with the payback period for the farmer

being less than three years due to the yield


Zaghloul concluded by adding: “Irrigation

methods is only one aspect of the solution.

We will have to provide more comprehensive

solutions to farmers addressing fertiliser

usage and other sustainable farming

methods (such as cover crops, tillage, residue

management, etc). Moreover, this transition

can only go hand in hand with affordable

financing solutions to support farmers in this

transition. To succeed, it will require more

partnerships within our ecosystem between

agricultural input manufacturers, product

buyers and financiers.”




GenX and the

future of water


Henrik Hagemann serves as CEO of Puraffinity

In 2013, while studying bromide sources

at the Cape Fear River watershed in North

Carolina, US, Dr Detlef Knappe and his team

of researchers discovered high levels of

industrial chemicals in the area’s drinking

water. Among familiar names of per- and

polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), which

include perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA),

perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), they

also found GenX, a Chemour trademarked

compound for exafluoropropylene oxide

dimer acid (HFPO-DA).

At its inception, GenX was created as

replacement for PFOA in the manufacturing of

fluoropolymers, as the latter was discovered

to be toxic and carcinogenic. However,

subsequent studies have shown that GenX

was just as liable to causing the same health

issues as PFOA. More than that, GenX

belongs to the family of PFAS, a collective of

4700 man-made chemicals deemed “forever

chemicals” as they do not degrade naturally

in the environment. Highly mobile, these

chemicals have been found across in drinking

water, surface water and seawater across the


“We used to think that these persistent

forever chemicals would be discharged

locally and then eventually disappear, like

most other chemicals in water. However, what

we have seen is that the GenX chemicals

integrate across the water cycle, from a local

discharge point to a river, to the clouds, to

the oceans,” shared Henrik Hagemann, CEO

of Puraffinity. “Prior to the 2020s, we really

only had estimates about what happens with

GenX once it hits the oceans for example.

Now, there has been pioneering studies to

show what happens. GenX and other lipophilic

chemicals end up concentrating in something

called the sea Surface MicroLayer (SML) — a

tiny layer at the top of the oceans — where it

then forms little transportable droplets called

aerosols, which nucleate water vapour to form

clouds. What surprised me about the studies

was just how concentrated forever chemicals

get in this little SML layer.”

The hydrophobicity of the SML layer attracts

forever chemicals by a much larger factor,

with more than a 500-fold increase in

concentration according to Dryden 2022 1 .

The concentration of GenX in clouds is thus

very high. This is problematic, as these clouds

provide surface water refills in reservoirs. And

with climate change exacerbating droughts

and drought-prone regions like the Colorado

River basin relying on reservoirs as their main

source of drinking water, there is an urgent

call across the water industry for effective

materials to capture PFAS and remove them

from water sources.


London-based science materials company,

Puraffinity, has developed a bio-based

and highly-selective absorbent material

designed to capture and retain a wide

range of PFAS species, including GenX, via

binding mechanisms based on a combination

of electrostatic charge attractions and


“They bind like building blocks as the water

flows past,” explained Henrik Hagemann, in

a separate news release. “And, once all the

Puraffinity material is filled up with GenX, the

material is engineered to unclick the bound

GenX using a safe regeneration step. The

Puraffinity material can then be re-used for

non-point-of-use (non-POU) applications,

like industrial or environmental remediation,

enabling a circular economy for the future of

water filtration materials.”

In comparison with ion exchange and

activated carbon technologies, which were

developed in the 1940s, and are effective

at only tackling the more contaminants and

pollutants such as chlorine residuals and

heavy metals, Puraffinity’s material can

capture PFAS at the levels which the US

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has

mandated. This is also in light of dropping

health advisor levels for PFAS; Hagemann

noted that in the US alone, PFAS regulations

have gone down 37.5 million times for the US

alone — equivalent to a lower concentration

of almost 10 times every two years.

To that end, Puraffinity’s media can capture

and retain highly toxic forever chemicals of

both short and long-chains, and its targeted

materials allow for broad-spectrum removal

performance with higher throughput and

longer lifespan. In fact, according to a trial

conducted at the Water Hub at Colorado

School of Mines and at the Heritage Research

Group, Puraffinity’s PFAS-absorbent material

was shown to remove GenX chemicals to



below the health advisory guidelines as

proposed by the US EPA (10 parts per

trillion), treating three times the amount of

GenX compared to the aforementioned

ion exchange and activated carbon

technologies. It also lasts longer.

The new technology is also mindful of the

most common concern raised by end-users

and water companies: disruption to existing

water infrastructure. While customers are

keen to remove forever chemicals from their

plants, they often find it costly to implement

treatment technology in current plants that

will be amortised over 10-30 years.

“Therefore, our customers incorporate

our media into their existing systems and

solutions, combining Puraffinity’s advanced

material with other adsorbent technologies

more focused to tackle common

contaminants and pollutants,” elaborated

Hagemann. “The fast kinetics of Puraffinity’s

advanced material means water and

wastewater industry can choose to do more

with less: They can increase the treatment

capacity of an existing plant to fulfil

requirements to treat PFAS to lower levels,

without needing to expand their treatment

plant. This combination maximises the water

treatment performance and amplifies the

spectrum of unwanted substances removal,

allowing customers to get sustainable

removal of PFAS at the lowest total cost of



Another issue that goes hand-in-hand with

the removal of forever chemicals is the

development of sustainable solutions in

water filtration technologies. According to

the US National Institute of Environmental

Health Sciences, current PFAS removal

processes have “involved extreme

heat, sorbents, and bioremediation (the

use of microorganisms to break down

contaminants), all of which can be costly

and inefficient, and create secondary

pollutants”. In that regard, the goals of

safeguarding drinking water for the masses

and ensuring sustainable, reusable water

filtration processes go hand in hand with

one another. Hagemann concurred with this


“Ultimately, we want to see a reusable

media addressing PFAS — driving down

waste generation and improving the carbon

footprint of treatment. Demonstrating a

longer lifespan in third-party case studies

is a key step on that journey and gives

confidence in the performance, stability

and longevity of the material. We think of the

development cycle much like a stage gated

approach, where we have strict internal

success criteria before we proceed to the

next stage of applications.”

Puraffinity’s third-party validated material

thus serves residential and commercial

market sectors with POU and point-ofentry

(POE) solutions. These decentralised

systems, especially as a sustainable

material can reduce the carbon footprint of

treating PFAS in these applications.

“In a larger scale, we supply our media

across the industrial space. Each segment

has different needs and specific challenges,

but all of them has been under pressure by

evolving changes in the various regulatory

frameworks across the globe,” added

Hagemann. “We believe in sutainable,

green materials, with low carbon footprint

and zero impact to the environment. Our

current development efforts have been

focusing on developing a safe and efficient

regeneration process, which will be a

major milestone across the water treatment

industry since the media can be re-used

for non-POU applications, like industrial

or environmental remediation, enabling a

circular economy for the future of water

filtration materials.”


1 https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/1392

Puraffinity’s renewable material binds and retains a wide spectrum of PFAS species,

including GenX. Deemed “forever chemicals”, these compounds pose health risks to

the human body

Puraffinity’s material can be implemented into current water treatment processes

with minimal disruptions




A platform for water

innovators and educators

The Greentech Festival made its

splashing debut in Singapore in

November 2022. How can the water

industry benefit from participating in

such an event? Founder Nico Rosberg

provides his insights on the matter

and more. By Kimberly Liew

Nico Rosberg, former 2016 F1 World Champion, is now an advocate for

sustainability and is the founder of the Greentech Festival, which hosted

its inaugural edition in Singapore. (Image: Tom Ziora)

Water scarcity has become a pressing issue,

as its effects are felt throughout the globe in

various ways — from the livestock industry

consuming up to 70% of all freshwater

consumption worldwide, to developed areas

like Berlin facing record-breaking droughts

that affected agricultural outputs during the

summer of 2022.

Even Singapore, which has come a long

way from its water rationing exercises in the

1960s, still has issues with water security.

Although the country has made strides

in rainwater and reservoir technology, it

continues to be dependent on Malaysia for

freshwater. This issue is compounded by

water consumption per head increasing by

20% over the course of the last two years,

from 130l to 160l per person per day.

Nico Rosberg, founder of Greentech Festival,

felt it was essential for Singapore to reduce

water consumption to “guarantee a stable

future” in water security. Technology is one

front in tackling water security. However,

innovations can only go so far. Education

needs to be paired with innovations in order to

create an effective impact.

“I am sure not many Singaporeans even know

this problem that they are using more water

than before and are using too much water,”

Rosberg said. “It is really about education, and

this is where we, the Greentech Festival, as a

platform wish to support, in as many ways as

we can.”



Greentech Festival aims to promote ideas

and innovations in the field of sustainability.

Particularly for the water industry, the festival

showcases innovations aligned with the sixth

United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals

(SGDs), pursuing clean water and sanitation.

Rosberg came up with the idea of the festival

in 2018 during a Formula-E event. Formula-E



is a motorsport championship race for

electric cars, with the purpose of promoting

sustainability. From there, Rosberg met

his fellow co-founders Marco Voigt and

Sven Krüger, who helped to set up the first

Greentech Festival in Berlin in May 2019. The

event was met with great success, attracting

more than 35,000 visitors on-site and 80-over

exhibitors. 1

Following this optimistic start, the three

founders decided to expand the festival’s

outreach beyond its initial home in Berlin.

Confining Greentech Festival to Berlin would

limit the festival’s outreach to just Europe, as

not many people from far-away places would

be able to attend the event. When it was time

to host the festival in Asia, Singapore was the

“perfect choice”.

Although this is a first for the festival in

Singapore, for Rosberg, the island is more

than familiar territory. The former motorsports

racer has been throughout the course of his

“past life” a racer in the F1 Race, clinching

the championship here back in 2016. Now

a sustainability advocate and entrepreneur,

Rosberg hopes to raise awareness on creating

a better environment for humans to live in and

the ideas that could make that dream possible.

It was not just familiarity that made Rosberg

gravitate towards Singapore, however.

Singapore has been pivotal in “leading

the way” in accelerating South East Asia’s

transition to sustainability, particularly through

the Singapore Green Plan 2030, which sets

long-term goals for the country to work

towards in achieving growth, while minimising

its impact on the environment. Rosberg thus

felt the “most opportunities” could be yielded

from hosting the Greentech Festival here.

Singapore’s inaugural Greentech Festival was

held from 17-18 Nov 2022. The festival was

attended by over 1,000 delegates, including

organisations like Audi, World Wildlife

Federation (WWF), Imhotep Industries, Hydro

Intelligence and others. Entrepreneurs and

innovators had opportunities to showcase their

ideas for a sustainable future through events

such as product exhibitions, conferences,

fireside chats and awards shows.



Through these fireside chats and

conferences, Greentech Festival aims

to promote sustainability education with

relevant experts, as well as collaborations

with local celebrities, such as singersongwriter

JJ Lin, whom Rosberg had a

fireside chat with earlier that day. Rosberg

noted that Lin could use his public

presence to reach his “over 4 million fans”

on Instagram and spread a message of

sustainability, hopefully attracting a wider

audience in working towards that goal.

Apart from being a platform for education,

Greentech Festival aims to “have a direct

impact” on businesses selling their solutions.

Companies can showcase their products

and create new business deals through

connecting with new clients at the festival,

increasing their customer base and income

in the process. This is especially helpful for

the water industry, which Rosberg laments

receives visibility compared to the other

causes such as carbon neutrality or zero


Over the course of visits to Greentech Festival

exhibits throughout the years, Rosberg has

seen a few outstanding inventions that tackle

different problems within the water industry.

Of note, he cited Technical University of

Munich (TUM)’s Water 3.0, which utilises

microplastic retention technology to filter

microplastics out of drinking water, which will

make the water healthier for consumption.

He also cited HydroWater’s contamination

detection technology.

As for the exhibits during Greentech Festival

Singapore that left an impression on Rosberg,

Imhotep Industries’ PHANTOR atmospheric

water generator (AWG) impressed him

through its ability to efficiently extract drinking

water from the humidity in the air.

“The technology is old, but it is the efficiency

that they are leading the way,” he commented.

“Out there, they were producing 600l of water

from the air in 20 minutes.”

Rosberg also believes that Greentech Festival

is an opportunity for different stakeholders—

ranging from governments, start-ups with

sustainable solutions, non-governmental

organisations (NGOs), to business leaders and

even local celebrities— to “come and sit at the

table” and create effective action plans that

they could act on and stick to.


Rosberg stated that there were no current

plans to change the festival’s locations apart

from planning to add an additional stop, but

provided no further details. Rather, Greentech

Festival intended to focus on growing their

satellites, as well as having a “measurable

impact” as a platform through the number of

partnerships formed and actions agreed upon

on their platform, particularly through B2B


Greentech Festival’s measurable goals are

not just business-oriented, however. Rosberg

also hopes that the festival will encourage

employees to adopt sustainable practices

within their own businesses through utilising

the technologies they have acquired during

Greentech Festival, such as reducing their

water consumption. He also hopes that festival

has been a platform for “discovery” in finding

new sustainable technologies, ideas for

sustainability and finding inspirational figures

that had a chance to share their voice on stage.

Rosberg concluded: “I hope people can

walk out today with optimism. Seeing so

many like-minded people coming together

with such a passion and optimism is quite

beautiful, so I hope that they can go away

with that kind of energy. I could see that in

everyone today.”


1 Greentech Festival Facts and Figures 2019, https://






in NRW in Kuala Lumpur

An example of the

90-series Cla-Val

pipes installed in

Kuala Lumpur

In 1998, Kuala Lumpur, the capital

city of Malaysia and home to over 1.5

million people, was running out of


To avert the looming crisis, the nonrevenue

water performance-based

contract (NRW-PBC) project was

implemented. A pilot phase ran for 18

months, with a target to reduce NRW

by 18.5 megalitres per day (MLD).

After the implementation of this

phase, the contractor, Cla-Val, was

awarded phase two, which had an

implementation period of nine years

and a target to save 198.9 MLD.

Cla-Val reported that they were

able to reduce NRW by 198 million

litres per day, which was equal

to about 10% of the city’s total

water production at the start of

the contract. They repaired more

than 11,000 leaks across the city,

replaced 119,000 water meters,

avoided capital expenditure on

additional water sources estimated

at US$110m, and added revenue

from the sales of saved water. They

also reduced operating cost per

units of water sold, in addition to

establishing more than 220 district

metered areas (DMAs).





The company stated that the use of

pressure reducing valves was a key

element of the process and helped

to regulate the network, even in

low-pressure situations. They also

claimed that much like what they

observed in Jakarta 1 , the results

in Kuala Lumpur showed that

even as the benefits of lowering

pressure have been utilised in

various parts of the world, the

impact that pressure management

had on low-pressure situations

was less appreciated, with the

application resulted in NRW

savings. According to Cla-Val,

over 600 Cla-Val 90-series valves

were installed in Kuala Lumpur

and continue to operate to this


1 The pilot phases of the 90-series Cla-Val pipes occurred in two

phases: the first over 18 months and the second over nine years

2 The 600 90-series Cla-Val pipes installed in Kuala Lumpur managed

to reduce 198 million litres per day, which was equal to about 10%

of the city’s total water production at the start of the contract


1. Water & Wastewater Asia. Reducing leaks in Jakarta’s

water networks.




wastewater treatment plant

WOG has set up containerised wastewater treatment

plant based on WOG’s SMART Membrane bioreactor (MBR)

technology with automation, producing negligible amount of

sludge from the plant. Complete plant is executed in two phases.

By Manpreet Kaur, process engineer, WOG Technologies Pte Ltd

(Image: Thakur Dutt



• Chemical oxygen demand (COD)

to biological oxygen demand

(BOD) ratio was high for the

complete biodegradation through


• Space constraint for the

expansion of the plant

• Tie in points integration with

existing and new set up


Plant process comprises the oil

skimming chamber for removal of oil

and grease, and equalisation tank for

equalising the effluent parameters

throughout the day.

Inline screens are provided to remove

the particles for protection of MBR

modules which are placed downstream

for BOD, COD, organic and total

suspended solid (TSS) removal.

After inline screens, anoxic tank

and bioreactor tank which are

containerised, are placed with high

efficiency jet aerators for providing

oxygen to the system. In the anoxic

and bioreactor tank, active biomass

is being maintained and total Kjeldahl



(Image: Manpreet Kaur)

(Image: Thakur Dutt Sharma)

nitrogen (TKN), BOD, COD are being removed

in these tanks by providing oxygen through jet

aerators, placed in the tanks.

From bioreactor, effluent passes through

the MBR modules which remove the active

biomass as well as suspended solids and

turbidity to provide clear effluent at the outlet

of MBR modules.

This effluent is further polished through the

advanced oxidation system using ozonator to

remove remaining BOD/COD which is hard to


(Image: Sunil Rajan)


With containerised wastewater treatment

plant, automated, human-machine interface

(HMI)-based plant with less manpower and

negligible sludge production as compared to

other conventional biological process can be


In addition, the laboratory facility is available

within the container with panel, MBR

modules, motor control centres (MCCs) or

programmable logic controllers (PLCs) housed

inside. It also features advanced oxidation

system using ozonator for further polishing

organics and UV for reducing bacteria count in

the treated water.


Anoxic tank retention time is two hours for

de-nitrification. Nitrification-denitrification is

a simultaneous process which is performed

by bacteria in the presence and absence of

oxygen respectively.

Mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS mg/l)

or bacteria population which is consistently

maintained high in the anoxic and bioreactor

tank is on the tune of 18,000-22,000mg/l.

In the bioreactor tank, biodegradable BOD

and COD are removed, and the oxygen

transfer rate per ejector for providing

oxygen is considered as 1.2kg O2 per hour.

Permeate flux through the MBR modules is

kept as 65 litres per m 2 per hour.


BOD: 95% removal achievement

• BOD in: 1000mg/l

• BOD out: 50mg/l

COD: 90% removal achievement

• COD in: 4000mg/l

• COD out: 400mg/l

TSS: 98% removal achievement

• TSS in: 120mg/l

• TSS out:






reuse for semiconductor



A leading global foundry sought

to increase capacity in a limited

footprint while managing a challenging

wastewater that made stable operations

difficult to maintain. The foundry

struggled with:

• Lost productivity: Chemicalmechanical

planarisation (CMP)

wastewater irreversibly fouled existing

tubular ceramic membranes, reducing

treatment capacity by nearly 25%

• Limited footprint to accommodate

expanded capacity: Tightening

regulations necessitated expansion

of the CMP wastewater treatment

capacity; however, there was limited

space available for expansion

• Prolonged downtime: The existing

tubular membrane system operated

in cross-flow filtration resulting in

concentrate build-up in the feed tank,

which required frequent shut down to

drain manually

• Increased operating cost: Monthly

cleanings were required to restore

membrane permeability


Nanostone’s ceramic ultrafiltration (UF)

addressed these challenges, enabling

expanded treatment capacity within

the existing footprint limitations. By

adopting Nanostone, the foundry was

able to:

• Increase capacity: Nanostone UF

membranes were installed within

the existing space constraints,

doubling the capacity of the CMP

wastewater treatment system

• Ensure reliable, low-maintenance

operation: Nanostone’s foulingresistant

membrane coating

extended time between chemical

cleanings to longer than five


• Improve uptime: Nanostone

membranes operate predominantly

in dead-end filtration, sharply

reducing concentrate build-up

and avoiding system shutdown

for feed tank cleaning; further,

the less frequent concentration

build-ups were drained using an

automated back wash process

• Reduce power consumption:

Operating largely in dead-end

filtration and eliminating an air

scrub resulted in a 90% reduction

in power consumption of

compared to the existing tubular




1 Nanostone Membrane Module

2 Nanostone Membrane Microstructure


CMP — used widely in the

manufacture of integrated circuits

— introduces chemical oxidation

and mechanical abrasion to remove

unwanted material and produces

high planarised polished surfaces

for subsequent processing. CMP

typically accounts for 30-40% of the

total freshwater consumed in the

manufacturing process. As transistor



dimensions shrink, integrated circuits

become increasingly complex and

require additional processing steps,

including CMP, leading to increased

CMP wastewater generation.

CMP slurries generally consist of

a suspension of abrasive materials

— silica, alumina, or ceria — and

chemical additives (e.g., complexing

agents, oxidisers, corrosion

inhibitors, pH adjustors, surface

active agents, high molecular weight

polymers, and biocides) in ultrapure

water. Wastewater procured from

CMP processes contains high solids

content (often exceeding 10% by

weight) with total concentrations of

used silica reaching up to 4000mg/l.

This high solids content together

with total organic carbon (TOC)

concentrations of up to 15mg/l

makes CMP wastewater challenging

to treat.





A leading Taiwanese manufacturer of

customised logic, integrated circuits,

and discrete components relied on a

tubular ceramic filtration membrane

system to treat CMP wastewater;

treated water was recycled and used

for cooling tower make-up water.

The tubular filtration system suffered

irreversible permeability loss due to

membrane fouling, which resulted

in a decrease in treatment capacity

of nearly 25% (from 168m 3 /d to

130m 3 /d). This capacity reduction

coincided with a need to expand

treatment capacity (in a constrained

footprint) due to regulation promoting

recycling and reuse of reclaimed

water. To address these issues, the

foundry piloted and subsequently

installed Nanostone ceramic UF

membranes, increasing the treatment

capacity by 200m 3 /d.

Nanostone’s compact system design

enabled this expanded capacity

within the existing constrained

footprint while simplifying operations

by eliminating the air scrub. Further,

operating predominantly in dead-end

filtration mode (rather than crossflow,

which is required by the tubular

membrane system) reduced pumping

requirements, significantly lowering

power requirements by 90%. This

approach also eliminated frequent

shutdown required to clean the feed

tank due to concentrate build-up

caused by cross-flow filtration. The

Nanostone system has proven to be

reliable, requiring minimal cleaning

and oversight, achieving 80% recovery

rate with no sign of permeability


Nanostone’s advanced

manufacturing plant

is home to the largest

ceramic membrane

production capacity in

the world





with Wavin AquaCell

and gradually released to the ground or sewer

network slowly. Attenuation and infiltration

can help to control the level of surface water,

especially in areas prone to flooding or heavy


Climate change is having a visible toll on infrastructure

Due to climate change, cities worldwide

constantly face challenges such as floods,

droughts, heat stress, groundwater

depletion and surface-water pollution,

putting tremendous pressure on their civic

infrastructure. To tackle these burgeoning and

ongoing challenges, businesses need to adopt

future-proof and smart measures that help in

building climate-resilient cities designed on a

sustainable pattern.



Excessive rainfall is one aspect of climate

change which causes places to collect

rainwater or results in a full-fledged floodlike

situation, creating emergencies in the

process. Therefore, it is necessary to manage

the excessive water to avoid damage to civic

infrastructure and provide optimal living

conditions for human beings residing there.

Finding a smart and future-proof solution

to manage excess water due to heavy rain

is key to creating cities that are designed to

tackle future challenges arising due to climate




Recently, Wavin completed an AquaCell

project in the Asia-Pacific region. At Baptcare

Retirement Living, Victoria state, Australia,

managing excess rainwater was one of the

major requirements in creating a climateresilient

and sustainable retirement living

facility. A solution that could handle the

excess water and manage it to create a floodproof

and sustainable system was sought.

Wavin’s AquaCell system was selected for its

technology that could manage excess rainfall,

in addition for its ability to be assembled to

create an underground structure, either as

a temporary attenuation tank or infiltration


The soakaway crates or attenuation tanks, or

on-site detention tanks, are interlocking crate

systems that allow surface water to be stored

To create a fool-proof attenuation and infiltration

underground system at Baptcare Retirement

Living, two on-site detention tanks (OSD),

each having a total volume of 105m 3 /min, were

installed to create a sustainable excess water

management facility that will provide a system

in green zones for a period of 50 years without

requiring any maintenance, as claimed by


Wavin AquaCell was the technology-of-choice

for a variety of other reasons. Firstly, the

attenuation and infiltration units were made of

modular and versatile virgin polypropylene units,

allowing for the underground tanks to be built

quickly. Unlike traditional concrete attenuation

tanks, these units required no-drying time and

less excavation, which resulted in less labourintensive

installation and made them easier to

manipulate and position due to their light weight.

Secondly, the Wavin AquaCell Lite units reduced

the risk of flooding through their management

of excess water, as well as being inspectable,

accessible and cleanable.

Lastly, the units also provided the controlled

release of stormwater into watercourses such

as sewer systems, could also be used to

recharge groundwater, and offered a sustainable

and cost-effective management of the water





PLANNING: Where to start

and where to take it

By Laura Sproule, product manager,

Mueller Water Products

The term condition assessment has been used

in the water distribution industry to refer to

anything from a desktop analysis to destructive

testing. There is a time and a place in any

asset management or condition assessment

programme for each of these approaches, but

knowing when and how to best leverage these

tools is imperative to optimising condition

assessment and asset management. This

article highlights some key considerations

and best practices utilities should consider

when building a condition assessment or asset

management plan.

Two field technicians use Echologics acoustic sensors to collect data on buried pipe, which will be used to

calculate the average remaining wall thickness

Utilities across the world are facing

challenges of ageing infrastructure in their

drinking water distribution systems. To be

able to continue serving their communities

and customers, utilities have been putting

an increasing emphasis on effective asset

management planning for sustainable asset

management. To build an asset management

plan that allocates spending efficiently to

areas that need it and defers for areas that

do not, an understanding of current asset

condition is necessary.

That is where condition assessment comes

in, particularly when it comes to distribution

networks where the assets are buried, and

visual or operational assessments are not

possible. Condition assessment is important

in ensuring that utilities are not replacing

a pipe that has many years left in service,

while other pipes are left in the ground that

need replacement. Time and time again,

the efficiency of replacement programmes

has seen an improvement by capitalising on

condition assessment tools, technologies,

and services, whether it is quantified by

dollars not spent replacing good pipes, or

by reduced replacement expenditure, or

other social, economic, and environmental




Effectively building a condition assessment

plan hinges on the knowledge and

understanding of the key objectives and

budget. These two criteria are important

in managing expectations of the condition

assessment plan and in narrowing down

possible technologies or solutions to fit users’

needs. While many utilities may not have any

immediate control over the budget allocated

for condition assessment, defining objectives

and programme success criteria can be a

great place to get a condition assessment

programme started. Often, building a plan

within this framework for condition assessment

as part of an asset management programme

can serve to identify where a budget is needed

or can be better allocated.

It is recommended that utilities look to answer

the following questions to help ensure that

the key objectives and programme success

criteria are well-defined and understood:

What problem are you trying to solve, such as

ageing infrastructure, system maintenance,



or water loss? What are the targets to come

out of the condition assessment to address

the problems — for instance, is there a target

break rate to achieve? Is there a reduction in

network risk target? Is there a target to reduce

replacement of good pipe? Is there a target to

reduce replacement budgets? Finally, what is

the plan of action for the data obtained from

the condition assessment? This can include

building long-term asset management plans,

planning short-term condition assessment, or

identifying repair or replacement needs.

Establishing these criteria early in the planning

process can help to manage expectations

and provide support and justification for

the selection of the appropriate strategy or

technology to obtain the data. However, it is

important that a utility is comfortable iterating

on these criteria to ensure that objectives align

with the budget as a utility moves into the

approach and technology selection.



Once the key objectives and success criteria

are understood and with a budget in mind, a

utility can then begin identifying the right type

of condition assessment to meet its needs.

Most asset management plans use some

version of the inverse triangle with desktop

analysis at the top and material testing at

the bottom. The structure of the inverse

triangle is such that the technologies at the

top typically cover more area at a higher level

and have lower time and money investment

requirements per unit than the bottom of the


At the top of the inverse triangle, as seen in

Fig. 1, is the desktop analysis or risk model,

which can provide an overview of risks across

the entire distribution network. Effective

models can provide information to support

data-backed long-term asset planning.

These models are valuable in targeting asset

management resources, such as repair,

replacement, or condition assessment,

to areas that have a higher risk, likelihood

of failure or consequence of failure, and

ultimately enable budgets to go to the regions

that need it the most. There is a range of

options available for technologies that fall into

the category of desktop models, from agebased

asset tracking to artificial intelligence

(AI) risk models that factor in multiple

contributing factors to pipe failure. The latter

has been proven to more effectively predict

where the risk exists in a utility network and

many have built-in planning functions to help

utilities plan next steps such as condition

assessment, repair or replacement. If a utility

lacks funding, does not know where to start,

or needs data to justify a budgetary request, a

desktop model is a great place to start.

Down the triangle is survey-level condition

assessment, which can be done separately

from or after desktop modelling. This level

of assessment typically requires a higher

per-unit investment of time and money

than desktop modelling and therefore

is often carried out on a smaller portion

of the network to confirm the current

actual condition of specific assets. It is

recommended that utilities deploy surveylevel

condition assessment on pipes that

have been identified for assessment or

replacement by desktop models to validate

the need for replacement of those specific

Fig. 1: The inverted

pyramid of condition

assessment solution

shows solution types

from the least to most


assets. Using desktop models, even as simple

as an age-based asset model if needed,

can enable utilities to target this level of

condition assessment. There are several

technologies that fall into this category of

condition assessment, with an emphasis on

a look at the overall structural integrity of the

pipe, as opposed to localised defects. At this

level of detail, utilities can make informed

decisions about replacement plans to target

replacements where needed. Due to the

granularity of the data and the intended

network coverage at this level of condition

assessment, technologies offered in this band

tend to strive to minimise impact on network

operation during the survey assessment.

For more critical pipes, larger transmission

mains, pipes, or pipe types where localised

defects have caused significant issues over

time or ones where replacement is more

difficult, there is often value in moving to the

next stage of the triangle: detailed condition

assessment. In some instances, utilities

have used desktop models or survey-level

condition assessment to identify specific

pipes or areas of pipes where further, a more

detailed inspection is required. Much like the

level before it, this level of the inverse triangle

involves a higher per-unit investment of time



and money than the previous level. These

technologies and tools provide more discrete

information about assets and are likely to be

deployed to a subset of the network where

the cost of replacement, consequence of

failure or other utility-specific criteria are


Finally, on a select portion of the network,

utilities will look to do materials destructive

testing to understand the actual condition

of small sections of pipe that have been

removed. Due to the requirement of

physically removing a section of the pipe

to facilitate this type of testing, it is not

recommended to use this as a primary

strategy for condition assessment. This

type of testing can, however, be used to

validate condition assessment or desktop

analysis results, or to calibrate maintenance

programmes, where necessary.

The selection of the correct technology

involves an understanding of both levels of

the triangle and the available technology that

fits within a utility’s budget and objectives. In

many cases, the available budget allocated

for condition assessment can drive a

utility into one of the approach levels or a





For utilities that are just starting out with a

condition assessment approach, budgets

allocated for this service are often lower and

data on the network can be limited, making

it hard to set objectives or make informed

decisions about selection. It is typically

recommended that utilities that fall into this

category look to start with desktop models

or survey level assessment. As these have

lower cost-to-coverage ratios, a utility can

typically get a better picture of more of

its network sooner. These categories may

be driven by budget alone or primarily by

objectives, as there is significant variance

within each category on price points and

output data.

Alternatively, if a utility has more immediate

needs or risks to address through condition

assessment, there may be value in

circumventing the first two categories and

focusing on detailed inspection. Utilities in

these circumstances may not have a regular

condition assessment plan, as it often involves

a small area or set of pipes that a utility knows

is a problem and wants to understand the

problem more completely before making

repair or replacement decisions.

Below are some suggested approaches to

manage competing interests for utilities that

are striving for effective condition assessment

but lack the budget to deploy:

Restructure condition assessment plans to

a phased approach: Spreading out condition

assessment into phases across budget years

can enable utilities to meet their objectives

within severe budget constraints. Further, it

enables the utility to better map out planned

expenditure on condition assessment to

identify and remedy potential future budget


Reduce scope to maintain objectives:

As an alternative to phasing, utilities could

explore reducing scope by means of reducing

additional features or add-ons of a service or

narrowing the physical scope of pipes in the

network that a condition assessment project

will cover for that year. Though this would

require lower network coverage, it could strike

a balance between budget and objectives,

depending on priorities.

Proceed with a pilot project on targeted

high-risk pipes or areas: This enables

utilities to explore condition assessment

solutions with a lower investment in a

manner that, upon the success of the

pilot, can provide strong justification

to increase budgetary allotments for

condition assessment in subsequent years.

Many utilities also use this approach to

validate technologies prior to making a

larger investment when significant budget

constraints are of concern.

Reallocate budget from capital

replacement plans: Leverage condition

assessment to instead prioritise replacement

where it is needed most. As noted above,

conducting condition assessment can have

financial benefits to the capital replacement


At each level of the inverse triangle, there are

multiple technology options for a utility to

choose from, each with its own advantages

and disadvantages. Selection of the right

technology for a given utility requires the

utility to circle back to the established

objectives and success criteria.


In an ideal world, every utility’s asset

management plan would include condition

assessment that is addressed in stages

through the inverse triangle and hitting every

step along the way. The reality, however, is

that often the value of leveraging a staged

condition assessment approach is not

reflected in allocated budgets, and utilities

are forced to be more selective about

which levels of condition assessment to hit.

The best way to manage the limitation on

resources in delivering the best results for the

utility is to circle back to the initial questions

and leverage objectives and success criteria

to select condition assessment approach and

technology that will truly address specific

utility needs.

As a best practice approach, it is also

important for utilities to evaluate the success

of their asset management and condition

assessment programmes at regular intervals

to ensure that time and money expended

on these plans continue to align with

utility objectives. More specific steps and

information on best practices of condition

assessment can be explored in AWWA

Manual M77. The manual is dedicated to

condition assessment best practices and

provides more detailed information on

acceptable approaches and specifications for

different types of condition assessments and

pipe materials.







to high ammonia,

salt, and chemical


By Julie Holmquist, marketing content writer, Cortec Corp, and

Tonya Decterov, technical sales representative, Bionetix International

their normal life processes of growth

and reproduction. The more carbon

is available, the larger the colony

can become, and the more waste

the colony can degrade. Microorganisms

also derive nutrients from

wastewater pollutants in order to

grow. To put it simply, wastewater

provides food and nourishment for

micro-organisms, making it an ideal

environment for micro-organisms to

flourish in, all while providing a service

to humankind.

One of the major challenges of

wastewater treatment comes in

dealing with excess pollutants from

industrial wastewaters. However, by

properly understanding the content

of the wastewater loads, as well as

the aptitudes and abilities of the

microbes chosen, industrial and

municipal wastewater operators can

leverage biological treatment to the

best advantage. This article will look at

adaptability of biologicals with regards

to three common factors of excess:

high-ammonia, high-chemical, and

high-salinity wastewater.


Ammonia is a common wastewater

pollutant, both because of its

widespread industrial use and

because nitrogen is converted into

ammonia under anaerobic conditions.

Ammonia not only causes malodours,

but can also be harmful to aquatic life

and is therefore carefully regulated

under wastewater effluent guidelines*.

One option for ammonia removal is to

add nitrifiers. However, nitrifiers are

temperature dependent and require

abundant oxygen to function. They

Glove factories

have high chemical

wastewaters that may

need an extra dose

of chemical resistant

biologicals (Image:


Biological wastewater treatment takes

advantage of what micro-organisms

do best: biodegrade organic

chemicals into harmless substances

in the course of everyday activities.

The main food source for microbial

growth in heterotrophic bacteria is

carbon, which happens to be the

backbone of organic chemicals. By

digesting organic compounds found in

wastewater, the micro-organisms are

able to consume carbon to support

also need a certain level of alkalinity.

Furthermore, the ammonia removal

process by nitrification requires two

steps: first converting ammonia to

nitrites, before converting nitrites to







Another set of challenges arises with

wastewater effluents from chemical

plants or factories that use many

chemicals in their processes. These

problems are nutrient deficiency and

chemical toxicity. While high chemical

wastewaters often contain carbon-rich

organic chemicals for micro-organisms

to feed on, they often lack nutrients

critical to microbial health. Just as

humans need a full range of vitamins and

minerals as well as carbohydrates, fats,

and proteins to function healthily, microorganisms

need the proper nutrients to

support their growth into a colony that

is large enough to handle digestion of

abundant chemicals. When nutrients

are deficient, the micro-organisms grow

too slowly to keep up with pollutants,

leading to problem indicators, such as

foam and filament growth.

Adding BCP10

to waste at the

chemical plant

(Image: Cortec)

In contrast, some heterotrophic

bacteria have a better advantage and

can use a variety of mechanisms to

remove nitrogen from waste. They can

bacteria. Ultimately, they can increase

wastewater treatment efficiency.

Since the main cause of high

For this reason, biological treatments

that need to function in a high chemical

environment should be supplemented

with the proper nutrients to support

use organic nitrogen to build their cells

ammonia levels is the presence of

healthy microbial growth and resist the

and grow, as well as act as denitrifiers

anaerobic environments, it is also

inhibitions of a chemical environment.

when they use oxygen from nitrate and

important to support healthy levels

A simple solution is for operators to

nitrite to grow. Nitrogen gas is thus

of dissolved oxygen in wastewater.

either add nutrients to the wastewater

produced as a by-product and can

Aeration can go a long way towards

as a separate supplement, or buy them

evaporate. Some bacteria can even

helping micro-organisms have

prepackaged in an enriched microbial

use ammonia as a food source under

sufficient oxygen for aerobic

formula designed for high chemical

favourable conditions.

digestion, which is overall less

environments. Bionetix International,

odourous and is a faster process

a biotechnology company based in

Under certain conditions and when

than anaerobic digestion. Another

Quebec, Canada, offers both forms and

the denitrifying bacteria population

strategy for low-oxygen wastewaters

has seen results with several examples

is large enough, it can remove more

is to use facultative bacteria that

of the latter.

nitrogen in the form of nitrate and

can function in both aerobic and

nitrite than nitrifying bacteria can. As

anaerobic conditions, because

In one instance, a chemical

heterotrophs, these bacteria can also

facultative bacteria can derive some

manufacturing plant faced surcharges

consume certain organic compounds

oxygen from nitrates. A third option

for excess chemical oxygen demand

that can become toxic to nitrifiers. A

for low-oxygen wastewaters is to add

(COD) loading of wastewater effluent

further advantage of heterotrophic

an oxygen booster — a slow-release

to the municipal plant at COD levels

denitrifying bacteria is that they can

supply of oxygen — to the effluent to

ranging from 4,000-10,000mg/l. They

be used in cooler temperatures and

help micro-organisms carry out their

began adding a three-day shock dose of

at lower oxygen levels than nitrifying

normal metabolism.

a biological formula, BCP10, which was



designed to degrade phenols, benzene

compounds, surfactants, and alcohols.

This was followed by a weekly dose of

BCP10 for the remainder of six weeks.

By the end of this treatment period,

COD had dropped to 2600mg/l. Six

months later, COD had dropped to its

lowest level since the plant opened.*

In another case, a paint plant

measured a pre-trial COD level of

57,300 and 68,100mg/l in two holding

tanks. A seven-week treatment

with the biological formula BCP10,

which was designed for a surfactant

environment, brought the COD levels

down to 33,800mg/l. Total suspended

solids (TSS) also decreased. By

lowering COD in their effluent, the paint

plant was able to save on costs.*

More recently, a glove factory in

South East Asia was seeking to bring

its high COD and biological oxygen

demand (BOD) levels into compliance.

They started a five-day shock dose

of chemical-resistant biologicals,

BCP11, and subsequently modified the

dose as needed. Two weeks into the

treatment, COD had already dropped,

and the factory continued using the

treatment with satisfactory results for

the intervening year and a half.*

In another example, in April 2021,

an original equipment manufacturer

(OEM) of toiletries in Malaysia

experienced BOD levels of 200-

400mg/l, along with heavy foaming

in their wastewater. Cosmetics and

toiletries create another chemical-rich

wastewater environment — mostly

from a variety of surfactants in soap,

shampoo, and sanitisers that can

create a high BOD or COD level. The

company applied a shock dose of

BCP10, a chemical-resistant biological

formulation, targeting surfactants

for one week, followed by a much

lighter maintenance dose. Within a

few months, BOD loading dropped

to 81mg/l. Treatment has continued

since April 2021, with the manufacturer

modifying the dose according to BOD




Just as industrial chemicals can

inhibit the growth of micro-organisms,

wastewater with high salt content

can also slow down biological

activity. Many industrial wastewater

environments, such as petrochemicals

and leather production, have naturally

high levels of salt that make biological

treatments ineffective enough

for wastewater operators to use

more expensive physico-chemical

treatment*. Biological treatment

has not been completely ruled out,

because some microbes tolerate salt

better than others and have been

shown to enhance COD removal in the

presence of higher salt content.*

With this concern in mind, Bionetix

International decided to test some of

its own probiotic strains to see how

they fared in saltwater. The product

chosen, BCP35M for treatment of

petroleum wastewaters, included a key

component of many of its wastewater

treatment products. This meant results

would be representative of how other

products would function.

The laboratory prepared samples

with tryptone soya agar (TSA) as

a bacterial growth medium in five

different levels of saltwater content:

0.5%, 1.5%, 2.5%, 3.5% (average

seawater concentration), and 4.5%.

BCP35M was added to each of

the TSA plates and left to incubate

at 35°C for 18-24 hours. At the

end of this time, each plate had

approximately the same number

of colonies growing in it. The

colonies in 3.5% and 4.5% saltwater

concentrations were smaller than the

others, but had grown, nevertheless.

The laboratory concluded that the

bacterial strains used could be viable

in seawater environments. Although it

may take slightly longer for the colonies

to grow and make an impact, they are

predicted to do so at an effective rate*.

While this can be interpreted as a general

indication of success, it would be ideal to

examine each situation and treatment on

a case-by-case basis. By consulting the

manufacturer of the biological product,

the operator can have help selecting

the right formulation of biologicals and

nutrients for the job and then perform

necessary testing to confirm that the

micro-organisms will tolerate the setting.


As long as industries — from gloves

and paint to petroleum and toiletries

— continue to be productive, they will

have to deal with excess wastewater

pollutants. It would therefore be good

for them to be prepared with a biological

solution that can adapt to the excesses

of ammonia, chemicals, and chlorides.

Part of that adaptability will depend on

the products used. The other component

of adaptability lies in the expertise of

the one prescribing the treatment. By

leveraging these resources and asking

the right questions, wastewater treatment

operators can tailor the right biologicals

and nutrients to the scene, which could

ultimately mean the difference between

low and high BOD levels, between

compliance and unwanted fines.

*References are available upon request.

Growth of Bionetix

bacteria at

different saltwater


(Image: Bionetix

and Cortec)





drive the demand for

small, dual water plants

Research results from the Mekong Delta are transferable to many

regions worldwide, according to the Institute for Environmental

Engineering & Management (IEEM).

Fig. 1: Service water is

distributed via the house

network and can be taken

from the outside water

tap, while drinking water

is only provided in small

quantities when required

at the stainless steel sink

outside the operating


Water is becoming scarce in more and

more regions worldwide, with technologies

that were originally intended for use in arid

regions being on the rise in Germany. The

IEEM has developed a new concept for small

waterworks, as part of a project funded by

the German Federal Ministry of Education and

Research (BMBF).

This is intended to help where one natural

water source alone is no longer sufficient.

Small waterworks should be “multi-fed”, or

fed from several water sources, in addition to

being able to process groundwater, surface

water, rainwater and, if necessary, treated

wastewater, depending on the climate, current

availability and demand. Since most of the

supply water is used for washing, cleaning,

and other uses, it is worthwhile to produce

service and drinking water in parallel — a

process known as “dual water” — whenever

there is a shortfall of clean natural water.

Therefore, IEEM has developed a technology

called Multi-fed dual water system (MFDWS)

and tested it at three pilot plants in the

Mekong Delta, in cooperation with the

industrial partner Wilo/Martin Membrane

Systems. Project leader Dr Karl Rudolph

expects growing demand for this new type

of system: “The need is not only for remote

settlements in coastal regions and river deltas

but in all areas where central systems do not

work. In addition to countries plagued by war

and turmoil, this also includes cities where the

public water supply fails or does not deliver

reliably — whether for technical reasons or

simply due to state failure.”

ViWaT is a German-Vietnamese research

project and is jointly supported by the

respective ministries of both countries, BMBF

in Germany and Ministry of Science and

Technology (MOST) in Vietnam. The Ruhr-

University Bochum is in charge of ViWaT-

Planning, the University of Karlsruhe for the

ViWaT-Engineering and IEEM is responsible

for the project ViWaT-Operation. Part of the

ViWaT-Operation includes a work package

that helps to develop small waterworks

for people living in the remote areas of the



Mekong Delta that are not accessible via

central supply networks.

After decades of over-exploitation of

groundwater reserves and severe droughts,

as well as increasing pollution from

wastewater discharges into water bodies,

there is a shortage of clean raw water in

many places. In those areas, small water

pilot plants produce water supplies from

low-polluted rainwater, frequently polluted

groundwater and heavily polluted surface

water from a river or canal. Groundwater

needs to be conserved as much as possible

in those areas, because the available

reserves are running out and the lowering

groundwater levels in the Mekong Delta

will lead to permanent salinisation of the

soils and soil subsidence, which could have

enormous damage to structures and nature.

This scenario was the impetus behind the

ViWaT-Operation project. Depending on the

season, location and current conditions,

comparatively clean rainwater is preferred

as the first choice of raw water supply.

As the second choice, depending on the

current demand situation and pollution,

surface water is used. Only after the previous

two options have been exhausted that

groundwater is used as the third choice, to

save as much of the groundwater reserves

as possible. Additionally, wastewater can be

treated for water reuse. A successful pilot for

this has already been conducted by a shrimp

farm to refill ponds for breeding sensitive

baby shrimps, which can only survive in

high-quality water.

For the small waterworks, automationcapable

mechanical-physical processes

were used and chemical or biological

components were dispensed with. The heart

of the plant is an ultrafiltration module, with

an upstream protective filter. To ensure

operation under optimal working conditions,

the unit prepared for remote monitoring and

maintenance using the Aquacube made

by Wilo/Martin Membrane-Systems. The

company is responsible for water recycling

Fig. 2: Participants of a ViWaT-Operation workshop in front of the ViWaT-MobiLab, which is used for the

monitoring of the pilot plants in the Mekong Delta

in cruise ships, with the technology being

adapted to fit the specific requirements in the

Mekong delta and equipped with advanced

UV irradiation for water disinfection.

Due to the disadvantageous combination

of the natural water resources with iron and

manganese, salt and organic contaminants,

which are measured as total organic carbon

(TOC), an additional pre-treatment system

had to be installed at two of the three pilot

sites. This pre-treatment consists of a free-air

drip aeration with a gravity downflow multilayer

filter, which was manufactured by local

craftsmen, using a design template from


To desalinate the raw water during dry

periods, it was necessary to install a reverse

osmosis (RO) system at two of the three sites

for post-purification of the otherwise clean

water from the Aquacube. To reduce the

operating costs from this process, portable

water was made available with a separate

tap made specifically for that purpose and

offering domestic water, made without

downstream RO treatment, through another

tap, as seen in Fig. 1. Thus, the RO system

runs only when the salinity would otherwise

exceed the permissible values, and only for

the partial flow that is called up for drinking


As similar needs exist and are emerging

from not just the Mekong Delta, but also in

many other regions across the world, IEEM

expects growing demand for this new type of

water supply plant. According to Dr Rudolph,

not only would this demand come from the

coastal regions and river deltas, but also

inland areas affected by salinisation of inland


In addition, he said, the need for MFDWS

systems is expected to expand to regions

where centralised systems of water are

unable to be implemented. This would apply

not only to countries plagued by war or civil

turmoil, but also where the public water

supply systems fail, or do not work reliably

enough — whether for technical reasons, or

simply due to state failure. In these places,

consumers who depend on a reliable water

supply would desire for decentralised small

waterworks, even if they are only able to

supply themselves autonomously in the event

of a malfunction. For instance, in developing

and emerging countries, better-quality

hotels would have their own water reservoir

for safety, in case of supply interruptions.

The larger, top-quality hotels would often

maintain the quality of their own drinking

water supply which the hotel management

and their customers could trust — at least as





one data platform, one voice

How the Mekong River Commission (MRC) aims to provide reliable,

accurate water data to water authorities in Cambodia, Laos,

Thailand, and Vietnam using Aquarius Systems.

By Nicole Nally, regional manager, Oceania, Aquatics Informatics

monitoring, 48 water-quality sampling

stations, 41 active ecology health

sampling sites, over 100 fisheries

monitoring sites, and other places.

Prior to 2016, this data was collected

in Excel spreadsheets, which made it

difficult to work with and was limiting

when it came to sharing meaningful

outcomes. With the addition of

sensors, MRC captured more data, but

still received manual entry data from

its member countries. Turning raw

data into usable information required

modern data management software.

The Mekong River

has been used by

millions of people

for transport,

fishing, agriculture,

and more recently,


The Mekong River is the third largest

river in Asia, originating in the Tibetan

Plateau and running through China,

Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia

and Vietnam. Millions of people rely

on the river for transport, fishing,

agriculture, and more recently,

hydropower. Protecting this water and

promoting collaborative sustainable

use of the river is vital to the peace and

prosperity of the region.

The Mekong River Commission

Secretariat (MRCS) is an intergovernmental

organisation that is

tasked with providing the basin’s four

countries, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand,

and Vietnam, with information to

sustainably manage and share these

water resources. To do this effectively,

they require dialogue and cooperation,

and a lot of data and information to

support their analysis for balancing

protection and development.

MRC’s collection of data can be traced

back to the 1950s, with scientists and

researchers going into the field and

measuring, recording, and cataloguing

information. Today, MRC collects data

from more than 600 stations, including:

73 automated telemetry hydrometeorological

stations, 139 traditional

stations for rainfall or water level

Soukaseum Phichit, information

system and database specialist of

MRCS, said: “We recognised the

need to centralise our data so that we

could run quality assurances across

the board and then turn this data into

meaningful actionable insights that are

easily accessible for all stakeholders in

a timely manner. This was way beyond

the limits of spreadsheets and manual


MRCS chose the Aquarius Time Series,

an analytics software programme that

is used by monitoring agencies around

the world to acquire, process, model,

and publish data in real time. This

would allow the four member countries

to have access to the same data

when they need it and further share the

outcomes with other nations that are

impacted by the Mekong River.





As the population in the area increases, the

need for more food sourced from the river

and water to irrigate the farms also increases.

As development expands, wetlands shrink

and the whole ecology of the river is affected.

MRC monitors the health of the river for

fisheries and collects water quality data

to identify potential contaminants. The

software gives MRC flexibility to measure

water velocity, turbidity, carbon dioxide,

photosynthetic light, and chlorophyll levels.

The information provides the basis for

discussion between river communities and

governments on the implications of water

usage and infrastructure developments.


1 Aquarius Time

Series has a broad

range of tools for

in-depth analysis of

hydrological data

2 The MRC team at



The Mekong basins’ discrete data on water,

air, soil, and biology are stored and validated

in the Aquarius platform for quick analysis and

visualisation. The software allows integration

of data from different sources, such as rainfall

and stream loggers, as well as weather

data. It also includes integrated data from

upstream partners, such as China. The use of

transboundary lens on data analysis allows

communities at one location of the river to

better understand water trends occurring at



The region is known for extreme seasonal

variations causing flooding and drought. A

major increase in flow can cause rapids in

the river, making navigation difficult. The

MRC data and information service portal

can automatically inform authorities of rapid

changes in flow levels outside of any set

parameters, enabling authorities to warn

the public and water traffic and prepare

emergency services if necessary.

Climate change is amplifying the need for

better forecasting of floods and drought.

Using data within Aquarius Time-Series data

management, users can investigate various

climate parameters, such as rainfall and mean

temperatures, on an interactive map and

assess the impacts of changing weather.


Having reliable data is essential, especially

when the basin’s four countries are entering

into water usage agreements. Aquarius has

a portfolio of capabilities for error detection,

data cleansing and flagging, automatic bias

corrections, and rating shift management.

These automated procedures eliminate

tedious manual data workup processes. By

automating quality assurance and quality

control activities, the MRC is confident that

the information they are sharing is clean and

without bias.

Winai Wangpimool, director of technical

support division management of MRCS,

commented: “We have made considerable

investments to improve our information

system with easy-to-use assessment,

modelling and forecasting tools so that our

member countries can be assured that they

have accurate, reliable, and timely data,

as well as historical information to make

evidence-based decisions.”


The MRC Data Portal allows users to search,

discover, and download over 10,000 datasets,

including current and historical hydrometeorological

and climate time-series,

spatial maps, atlases, photographs, and

sectorial datasets that can be easily searched

and filtered. For example, visitors can view

daily or weekly water levels at various

hydrology stations along the Mekong on an

interactive map and examine weekly flood

situation reports from 2008 onwards on the

flood forecasting sites.

Dr Sarann Ly, chief hydrologist of the MRCS,

explained: “Having all our information

securely stored and available online provides

us with the opportunity to collaborate with

other research institutions and organisations,

further deepening our understanding of

impacts on the region’s hydrological and

ecological conditions.”

The new Aquarius platform has strengthened

MRC’s role as the regional transboundary

knowledge hub. This allows them to have

one voice for one river, allowing researchers,

practitioners, and policymakers to access

scientific data and information, and more

easily monitor and understand the current

trends of the Mekong River basin.





Introducing the

region’s water


Thirteen companies

will participate in the

Singapore-based water

accelerator and market

access programme

to tackle the region’s

water and wastewater


accelerator and market access

programme. Several second- and

third-time water start-up founders

joined an equal number of founders

who entered the water sector for the

first time. As the spotlight turned to

COP27, more water entrepreneurs

than ever before referred to

themselves as a climate start-up.

Spanning six different countries –

from Spain, to the Philippines and

Timor Leste – the 13 companies

selected for Cohort 4 this year

are tackling a range of shared

challenges across Asia-Pacific

including flood prediction, septic

tank cleaning, wastewater treatment

process efficiency and more.

Participating companies will benefit

from start-up development, market

access, and an expanded pool

of pilot funding resources over

the next 12 months. In addition,

as a lifecycle partner, all Cohort

4 companies can join a growing

alumni network of 175 start-ups,

which will continue to receive

support from Imagine H2O to help

deploy and scale their solutions.

Similie’s IoT data

logger being installed

in Timor-Leste

The pressures facing many communities

on the frontlines of the global water

and climate crisis across Asia are

spurring new commitments to

accelerate the uptake of innovation.

India has committed to meeting 20%

of overall water demand in cities

through wastewater reuse. Singapore

is operating one of the world’s first

100% green waterworks systems using

floating solar farms. Indonesia is rolling

out its first digital flood management

system in Jakarta this year.

In response to these incentives and

opportunities, the quality and diversity

of innovators committed to solving

the region’s water challenges is

increasing. Imagine H2O Asia Cohort

4 is no exception. Over 100 applicants,

two-thirds of which were based in

Asia, applied to the Singapore-based

Led by Imagine H2O, Imagine H2O

Asia is supported by Founding

Partner Enterprise Singapore

as well as Veolia, Xylem, Kurita,

Kubota, PUB, Singapore’s National

Water Agency, Singapore Water

Association (SWA), World Bank and

Asian Development Bank (ADB).

Meet the 13 finalists and their

solution offerings:



Teredo Analytics (Singapore)

An event-based anomaly detection

system using acoustic monitoring

technology, with applications in

pipeline inspection, as well as

water plant machinery to identify



leaks and machinery faults. The company

has four ongoing projects in Singapore,

approximately saving 100,000l of water and

garnering SG$280,000 worth of savings

from equipment monitoring and accident



Solinas Integrity (India)

A suite of robotic solutions in the pipeline

and sanitation industry, which includes

semi-automated septic tank cleaning

robots that homogenise hard sludge to

create a pumpable slurry to minimise

human interaction with waste. The system

can reach tank depths between 5-7m, and

reduce slurry particle size to 40-50mm.

Other solutions offerings include water leak

reduction and pipeline condition monitoring.


Createch 360 (Spain)

Process control solutions that optimise

processes in treatment plants and ensures

effluent quality compliance throughout the

plant’s lifecycle. The process intelligence

platform includes self-customisation

features and is hosted locally on-site using

a PC server, allowing up to 50% in aeration

energy savings and up to 40% reduction

in chemical use. The product has over 150

global installations and the company has

nine projects in Asia over the last two years.


Power & Water (UK)

A modularised sono-electrochemical

treatment process that combines the

power of ultrasound and electrolysis to

address passivation and reduce energy

consumption, while demonstrating lower

costs than liquid chemicals for electrocoagulation.

The company has secured

commercial contracts across the municipal

and industrial sector including oil and

gas, construction and aquaculture in the

UK. Some of their other ongoing projects

are in carbon capture through Advanced

Oxidation Processes, with utilities in Asia

and the US.

H2MO (Singapore)

Biomimetic hollowfibre reverse osmosis

(RO) membranes without Aquaporin

that use bio-programmable membrane

(BPM) technology to increase throughput

by three times, to meet effluent quality

and improve fouling resistance. The

company’s multiple pilots in Singapore

demonstrated 50% savings in energy

consumption and over 80% reduction

in chemical cleaning from reduced

maintenance requirements.

SideStroem (Singapore)

A nanofiltration-type forward

osmosis (FO) membrane technology

demonstrating high water flux and

salt extraction efficiency, compared

to conventional FO membranes. The

company is looking to scale technology

for industrial production with a focus

in textile, tannery and fermentation



Similie (Timor Leste)

An end-to-end solution that digitises rural

water management systems by deploying

sensors, gathering data on water flow,

levels, quality and more, as well as

generating insights for municipalities to

monitor community water resources and

supply. The company currently has two

ongoing projects in Timor Leste.

TeamSolve (Singapore)

A digital knowledge companion that

integrates institutional SOPs, workforce

knowledge and field reports to generate

problem-solving insights during daily

operations, incident troubleshooting and

management through a conversational

artificial intelligence (AI) platform.

WeavAir (Singapore)

Predictive solution for operations and

management teams looking to reduce

energy in buildings and facilities through

the holistic tracking, diagnosis and

detection of anomalies using data.



Komunidad (Philippines)

A climate risk decision support tool that

integrates multiple weather data sets

with local environmental data to generate

precise, customisable and communityspecific

insights and alarms for improved

climate adaptation and resilience. The

company has multiple projects in the

Philippines and India, working with local

governments for disaster risk management,

as well as across a range of sectors

including energy, agriculture, transport and


Ekatvam Innovations (India)

A community-level water governance

tool that gathers and integrates locallygathered

data on groundwater levels, water

intensity of crops and satellite imagery

to inform climate adaptation strategy for

non-governmental organisation (NGO)-led

projects in villages across India.

Ossus Biorenewables (India)

A combined electrical and biological

process in a single reactor producing

green hydrogen directly on-site using

waste carbon from effluents or wastewater.

Reactors are autonomously controlled,

retrofittable into existing plants, and can

be scaled up in capacity. The product has

applications in steel, O&G, chemical and

textile industries. A pilot has been set up in

India, with a steel manufacturer recycling

97% of effluents and producing 30kg of

hydrogen gas from 6,000l of effluents per



Aprisium (Singapore)

Internet of Things (IoT)-enabled

electrochemical sensors for on-site

contaminant profiling and early-warning

detection and insights for industries.

The product is currently available to

profile heavy metals and volatile organic

compounds (VOC), with plans to increase

profiling suite and capabilities.












[Webinar]: IP Expert Series -

Anchor Your Business with IA/IP

for Sustained Growth

Co-organised with IPOS international and TeamSolve

22 Sep 2022, complimentary, WebEx

Speakers Andrea Chiu (IP Strategist, IPOS International) and

Mudasser Iqbal (founder and CEO, TeamSolve) shared the

fundamentals of IA/IP perspectives on how water technology

companies can sustain business growth; provided practical IA/IP

management tips on how to boost your competitive advantage;

and uncovered the IA/IP journey of a Singapore-based digital

workforce start-up for the industries and utilities sector.

The IP experts also shared actionable tips on IP and intangible

asset management. This edition spotlighted the urban solutions

and sustainability industry, and is an associated event of IP Week@

SG 2022. More than 40 attendees participated in this webinar.


State of Water in Australia

Co-organised with Platinum Circle

27 Oct 2022, complimentary, WebEx

Co-hosted with Platinum Circle, Singapore Water Association

brought this webinar “State of Water in Australia” with panel of

speakers from DeltaPearl Partners and GHD who shared their

insights and understanding of the state of water in Australia

including real-time challenges and opportunities for Singapore

water players.

[Webinar]: Sg-IL Connects: Sustainable

Water Resources for the Future

Co-organised with Israeli Economic and Trade Mission

(Singapore) and supported by PUB

9 Nov 2022, complimentary, WebEx

Noa PartukEitan, head of the Economic and Trade Mission to

Singapore at Ministry of Economy and Industry, Israel, gave the

welcome remarks while Winnie Tan, PUB senior assistant director

INTEC presented on “The Singapore Water Story”, followed by

sharing session on “Sustainable Water Resources for the Future”

by Biokube Asia, NeoTopWater Systems, SG Enviro and UET.

More than 60 attendees attended the webinar and the presenters

provided insight into the state of Water Resources globally and

relevance to Singapore.

[Webinar]: UK-Singapore Knowledge

Information Transfer Briefing

Co-organised with British Water and supported by PUB

24 Nov 2022, complimentary, TEAMS

More than 50 attendees got to hear how the Singaporean water

market is structured, its challenges and the available water

opportunities for the UK supply chain and companies. This

session featured presentations from PUB, IPOS International,

TeamSolve, Binnies Singapore, Jacobs and Mott McDonalds


[Webinar]: State of ESG Investing

Co-organised with Platinum Circle

30 Nov 2022, complimentary, WebEx

Co-hosted with Platinum Circle for the

third time, Singapore Water Association

brought the webinar on “State of ESG

Investing” to more than 40 attendees.

Today, environmental, social and

governance (ESG) investing continues

to gain traction with investors seeking

alignment with net zero outcomes,

UN SDGs and long-term value.

Speakers from Manualife Investment

Management, Kilara Capital and

Golden Equator shared the progress of

ESG investing in Singapore and how can

the frameworks that support reporting,

evaluation and measurable outcomes

be improved.

[Webinar]: Ozone and AOP: Going beyond traditional

wastewater treatment

Co-organised with De Nora Water Technologies

12 Dec 2022, 3:00pm complimentary, WebEx

Micropollutants such as 1,4-dioxane, recalcitrant organics, and

others can pose serious human health concerns. Traditional

wastewater treatments are not always powerful enough to render

these contaminants harmless. Speakers from De Nora Water

Technologies provided insights into how technologies in ozone, UV

and advanced oxidation processes (AOP) offer effective solutions

for destroying organic contaminants.

[Visit]: Visit by The Polish Chamber of

Waste Management (PIGO)

31 Oct 2022, Singapore Water Exchange

[Visit]: Visit by Sarawak’s LAKU

Management Sdn Bhd

9 Nov 2022, Singapore Water Exchange

The Polish Chamber of Waste Management (PIGO) visited

Singapore Water Exchange at PUB WaterHub (SgWX) on 31 Oct

2022. Hosted by SWA and SICC, supported by PUB; PIGO, SWA, and

PUB shared on Poland’s and Singapore’s Water Landscape while

members of SWA and SICC had an eventful networking session.

PUB gave a tour on the SGWX gallery. It was a fruitful session and

the attendees enjoyed the afternoon with some snacks while


LAKU Management visited Singapore Water Exchange at PUB

WaterHub (SgWX) on 9 Nov 2022. Hosted by SWA, supported

by PUB; LAKU CEO shared their problem statements and water

challenges with Singapore industry players while some members

of SWA; each shared on their own company’s capability on water

treatment, water quality, water discolouration and non-revenue

water. Everyone had an eventful networking lunch and made new

contacts while some attendees established connection to the

upcoming Sarawak Project and Chapter.

[Visit]: Visit by WILO Group

16 Nov 2022, Singapore Water Academy

Wilo Group’s senior vice-president of Sales for Region Emerging

Markets, Jens Dallendoerfer, and WILO’s Singapore office visited

SgWX. He shared about Wilo and its future plan in SEA region with

SgWX tenants and SWA members. Dallendoerfer also took the

opportunity to learn more about Singapore’s water management

and met with Singapore’s water industry players to explore further

the potential business partnership. Wilo’s entourage was given a

tour of SgWX followed by brunch and networking.

[Trade show]: VietWater 2022

9-11 Nov 2022 at SECC, Ho Chi Min City

This was the 13th time SWA organised and

led a Singapore pavilion at Vietwater 2022

from 9-11 Nov in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

The Singapore pavilion was occupied by

six companies with an exhibition space

of 72sqm. The three-day exhibition has

been excellent with many good business

opportunities for the SG exhibitors;

showcasing their water expertise and

solutions, enquires for innovative

technology, trading with solution providers

and sharing best practices as well as staying

up-to-date with the latest global trends

with other exhibitors. For 2023, SG Pavilion

will be expended to 90sqm.

[Trade show]: Camwater 2022

16-18 Nov 2022 at DIECC, Phnom Penh, Cambodia

For first time, SWA led and participated

in Camwater 2022 with seven Singapore

companies. It was held after three years

hiatus. Seven Singaporean companies

occupied a floor space of 171sqm and

enjoyed an iMAP subsidy of up to 70% on

booth participating fees. Registration was

closed with an overwhelming 100% sign

up two months prior to the event.

[Visit]: Visit to Takeda Manufacturing

Support Building (MSB)

16 Dec 2022, Takeda’s Zero Carbon Emission Building

Exclusive to 20 SWA members, a technical

site visit to Takeda Manufacturing Support

Building and tour to the Solar Panel

and Rainwater Harvesting System were

arranged to understand Takeda’s zero

carbon emission. Participants were able

to gain great insights into the new energy

efficiency technologies and innovations.


[Technical Site Visit]: Keppel Marina

East Desalination Plant

11 Jan 2023, KMEDP

Limited to only 30 participants, SWA is pleased to organise a

technical site visit to Keppel Marina East Desalination Plant

on Wednesday, 11 Jan 2023, SGT, 2pm. KMEDP incorporates

innovative, energy-efficient systems and equipment, such as the

compact Dissolved Air Flotation system which reduces the plant

footprint by 30%. This is vital for land-scarce Singapore. It is also

the first plant in Singapore to feature the energy-efficient direct

coupling of the ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO)

systems, where water filtered from the upstream UF process is fed

directly to the downstream RO process, eliminating intermediate

break tanks and pumping stages while retaining booster pressure,

resulting in significant cost and space saving, as omitting one

pumping cycle saves 15% of the energy used in a pumping cycle.

Join us at a fee of $30/pax to visit the Keppel Marina East

Desalination Plant.


46th Singapore Water Industry Nite, Sponsored by DuPont Water Solutions


2nd Feb 2023, e2i West Hall 1

The Singapore Water Industry Nite (46th edition) will be held on

2 Feb 2023, 6pm to 9pm at e2i West Hall 1 with a Lo-Hei Session.

The networking dinner is sponsored by DuPont Water Solutions

Singapore and be attended by PUB, JTC and SWA Members.

[Trade show]: WATER PHILLIPINES 2023

22-24 Mar 2023 at SMX Convention Center, Pasar City Manila

The 6th edition of WATER PHILIPPINES returns after four years from

22-24 Mar 2023. Philippines' most comprehensive international

water supply, sanitation, industrial wastewater treatment, and

purification event, WATER PHILIPPINES showcases solutions in the

fields of water management, sewerage, industrial wastewater,

purification, irrigation and water resources management as well

as the latest technology from around the globe with attendance

of crucial buyers and sellers from all segments of the water and

wastewater industry.


Be a part of this growing industry today and join the leading

water and wastewater event in Asia!

More info contact: jasvinder@swa.org.sg

Invitation to join Internationalisation

Networking Consortium (INC)

Hunt-in-a-pack initiative

To form an Internationalisation Networking Consortium (INC) led

by 10-20 selected SWA member companies who are capable,

ready and willing, by pooling together resources for collective

business development and market intelligence activities. This

invitation is open to all SWA members.


(joined from October to November 2022)


1. Aprisium Pte Ltd

2. Zingametall (Singapore) Pte Ltd

3. Grafoid Research (Singapore) Pte Ltd

4. Waltero AB


1. Augustine

Ho Choong Ming

2. Li Rui

For more info, click here: https://bit.ly/SWA_INC

or contact: jasvinder@swa.org.sg


2022 has been filled with ups and downs from the pandemic.

Nevertheless, we thank all our members for their support and

participation in our events — webinars, conferences, trade

fairs, missions and sharing sessions. We look forward to your

continuous support and to meeting you again in the upcoming

events in 2023!


SWA welcomes all organisations who are actively involved

and interested in the water and wastewater industry to join

Singapore Water Association as either an Ordinary, Associate or

Institutional member.

Sign up at https://www.swa.org.sg/membership/sign-up-online

Download the SWA 2023 Events Calendar at


For further queries, please contact SWA at 65150812 or

enquiry@swa.org.sg. To stay connected on the latest updates

on SWA, visit www.swa.org.sg, and follow us on LinkedIn,

Facebook, Telegram and Instagram.



The key to smarter

facilities monitoring

environmental regulations while improving

efficiency. Artificial intelligence (AI) and

machine learning (ML) make it far easier for

reliability engineers and technicians to evaluate

water and air filtration systems across sensitive

environments like biotech labs and hospitals,

maintaining quality control with fewer errors.

From processing facilities like cleanrooms to

air quality at the manufacturing unit, air purity

levels need to be kept pristine to avoid the

threat of airborne contamination.

To help customers optimise their filtration

systems and the assets they protect, we

ventured into providing new digital solutions

platforms, STREAMETRIC and qlair, to

complement our products. As a company that

has been in business for 80 years, constant

innovation and support is something our

customers can rely on us to provide.

STREAMETRIC is an AI-enabled water monitoring system that

forecasts membrane permeability and trans-membrane pressure

By consequence, the economic surge of

pharmaceuticals sector in India has accelerated

pharmaceutical pollution across the country,

Varieties of pharmaceuticals have been detected in

the surface, ground, and even in drinking water, with

sources of pollutants traced back to pharmaceutical

manufacturing plants, hospitals, and wastewater

treatment plants. Furthermore, to ensure the high

standards, safety, and efficacy of pharmaceutical

products, stringent regulations must be observed.

By Charles Vaillant, CTO/CDO of MANN+HUMMEL

In the global pharmaceuticals sector, India

has grown from a rising player to a significant

contributor. Low cost of production and

R&D place India competitively as the world’s

largest provider of generic medicines, with

20% share of total pharmaceutical exports,

and the largest vaccine supplier in the

world. About 3,000 drug companies and

10,500 manufacturing units are advancing

the country’s reputation for producing high-

quality, low-cost generic drugs.

As a solutions provider observing this shift

across numerous industries, MANN+HUMMEL

have found that digitalisation offers

tremendous opportunities to comply to



The effects of the accumulation of

pharmaceutical residues in the environment

are many folds, affecting species living in the

water to the spread of antimicrobial resistance.

However, facilities can improve the reliability

of their filtration systems, reduce engineering

hours, and even enjoy enhanced reporting if

they implement digital water quality monitoring

through a platform like STREAMETRIC.

Through a streamlined framework, engineers

can build cleaning schedules and prediction

parameters, use Al-based predictive

technology to set limits and detect anomalies,

including forecasting membrane permeability

and transmembrane pressure. More

importantly, STREAMETRIC is compatible

with all membrane types and most major

programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and

protocols and can be installed on systems

ranging from small pilot plants to full-scale

manufacturing facilities.

To facilitate reporting for engineers and

technicians, managers can also design

personalised dashboards for team members,

operators, and service providers. All data



is gathered and stored in the secure and

scalable STREAMETRIC cloud, while a digital

logbook allows teams to capture and store all

historical data without the need for manual

referencing or data entry. When it comes to

sustainability and environmental reporting,

data and insights can be readily obtained to

ensure a facility remains in compliance with

company or government regulations.



Air purification is vital to pharmaceutical

companies, and it is easy to understand why.

Unclean air can contaminate drugs which leads

to devastating health impacts, for both workers

at the lab as well as those who consume these

products. Improved ventilation and filtration

in pharma environments can be achieved with

intelligent air quality monitoring, which is why

we developed qlair: a platform that leverages

machine learning for proactive clean air

management in commercial buildings.

qlair’s indoor air quality (IAQ) monitoring

platform uses highly accurate sensors that

can help pharmaceutical facilities meet air

filtration guidelines set forth by the American

Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-

Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the

Centres for Disease Control and Prevention

(CDC), and World Health Organization (WHO).

In addition to getting real-time IAQ data across

multiple spaces, technicians can integrate

qlair analytics into existing systems for

more effective air quality recommendations

— all on-the-go through web and mobile



With these data-driven insights, companies

can generate up to 20% savings in heating,

ventilation, and other energy costs. In the

case of Atrium Health, a North Carolinabased

healthcare group with 40 hospitals and

more than 1,400 care locations, the facilities

management team was changing out their air

handling unit (AHU) filters every three months

on a time-based schedule. However, by

installing AI-enabled filter lifecycle monitoring

systems, they found that their AHU filters only

need changing every 10-12 months. This led

to a cost savings of US$345 per AHU, and

the ROI from implementing qlair was reached

within nine months.



Besides manufacturing conditions, businesses

also need to consider the impact of IAQ on

occupant health, and the COVID-19 pandemic

has made this patently important. Yet,

how can facility managers without heating,

ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC)

expertise be able to maintain optimal IAQ

at all times? To solve this, qlair developed

the COVID-19 Airborne Infection Risk Score

(CAIRS). CAIRs automatically analyses all

relevant IAQ factors that have a scientifically

proven impact on indoor virus transmission,

producing an easy-to-understand score

so facility managers can promptly work on

factors needing improvement, and occupants

enjoy greater health and well-being.


In a climate of uncertainty and fluctuating

costs, having reliable real-time data to

manage research or manufacturing facility’s

air and water quality can provide a muchneeded

dose of confidence in remaining

productive and profitable. Digitalisation is

the way forward, and as a global provider of

filtration solutions, we will continue to innovate

and provide key technologies alongside the

pharmaceutical industry to ensure a healthier


This article was first published in Pharma Bio World

and republished with MANN+HUMMEL’s permission.




range of C-Press screw presses

for efficient dewatering

excellent performance in terms of

cake dewatering and filtrate quality.

Furthermore, it has a very low noise

level and a low operating cost, as it

operates at extremely low speeds.

Due to these features, the C-Press

has much lower energy consumption

than other technologies and results

in very low maintenance costs,

leading to a very long life of the


International technology group

ANDRITZ has expanded its C-press

screw presses product range to

meet the dewatering needs of the

wastewater or industrial treatment


With its direct drive system and

conical shaft with constant screw

pitch, the C-Press screw press has

now a feed capacity ranging from

1-95m 3 /hr, with an outlet capacity

from 20-1,300kg of dry solids per

hour. In addition to a long lifecycle,

the press is claimed to also offer

easy operation, low maintenance,

and — due to bi-sequential cleaning

— 30% less water consumption than

comparable equipment. Lastly, the

C-press complies with all regulations

on issues such as safety, hygiene, and

environmental protection.

The C-Press from ANDRITZ offers a

compact design and ‘low operating

costs’ in the sludge dewatering

processes. Furthermore, it also offers

simplified operation and processes free

from contact with dewatered sludge,

combined with low maintenance and

energy consumption costs.

Nicolas Perrier, product manager at

ANDRITZ, said: “The screw dewatering

technology is the best solution from

low to high flow ranges, as it has an

The C-Press maximises the basket’s

open area, featuring high specific

capacity and optimal capture rate,

when compared to equivalent

technologies. The screw speed is

automatically adjusted according

to the input oscillation, ensuring

a continuous flow with optimised

performance in terms of drying

and capture rate, even during the

washing phases.

Perrier concluded: “The equipment

offers low consumption of water for

washing. We do not need to stop the

sludge feed to carry out washings, so

we operate continuously with greater

productivity. In addition, the latest

developed model, the C12060, with

an average dry solids throughput

from 420-1,300kg/h — one of the

highest capacities on the market

— the machine is an alternative to

other large technologies for sludge

dewatering, such as large belt

presses, which are more energyintensive

and more demanding in

terms of maintenance.”




a new valve-based leak

monitoring sensor



acoustic leak

monitoring sensor is

capable of attaching

itself to any access

point in a water

distribution network

Echologics has announced the launch

of the new EchoShore-DXe acoustic

leak monitoring sensor, a new valvebased

sensor that aims to extend the

leak monitoring capabilities of the

previously released EchoShore-DX

system. The EchoShore-DXe sensor

can attach itself to any access point

in a water distribution network and

work in tandem with the EchoShore-

DX hydrant-based sensors, so utilities

can get coverage where they need it.

“In addition to reducing water

loss, the EchoShore-DX system

also helps utilities protect their

local communities by addressing

environmental concerns, while

providing important information that

assists utilities in reducing the risk

of catastrophic breaks within their

distribution networks,” said Kenji

Takeuchi, senior vice-president of

Water Management Solutions. “Now,

utilities around the world can enhance

their water loss programmes with

our advanced technology, multidimensional

analysis, and the Sentryx

Water Intelligence platform – our userfriendly,

secure software interface.”

EchoShore-DXe sensors

attach magnetically to various

appurtenances, including valves,

boundary boxes, and underground

hydrants. They perform a scheduled,

system-wide correlation to monitor,

detect, and locate leaks — even small

and growing leaks.

“Backed by our advanced algorithms

and dedicated analysis team, our

solution can detect emerging leaks

in monitored areas, which increases

validated leak alerts,” added Takeuchi.

“In addition to delivering reliable leak

alerts, our technology also helps

accurately locate leaks, so utilities can

save time in their investigation and

repair work.”

Similar to the hydrant-based

EchoShore-DX sensors, the valvebased

EchoShore-DXe sensors have

a battery life of up to 10 years and

support communications via LTE

Cat-M1 and narrowband Internet of

Things (NB-IoT) networks. Both the

hydrant-and valve-based sensors

work together with the goal to provide

enhanced sensitivity and reliability.

Interested parties may visit the

company’s official website for

more information at Echologic’s





“Simple and accurate”

flow measurement of

surface water bodies in

accordance with ISO

The simultaneous measurement

of up to 32 individual velocity

“windows“ within each vertical

section measurement provides the

user with a full understanding of the

velocity curve, as well as greater

information and understanding

of how the average velocity is

calculated within the vertical section.

The single measured velocities and

flow velocity curve is shown directly

on the unit display, and with each

individual measurement, help to

build up a full channel velocity profile

for the location being measured.

The water depth in each vertical can

also be measured by an integrated

hydrostatic level measurement,

allowing for a river bed profile to

be automatically determined and

displayed during the gauging.

When the measurement of all

verticals has been completed,

the NivuFlow Stick automatically

computes the total discharge in

accordance with both the meansection

and mid-section methods.

A complete PDF measurement

report is then created by the device,

including information about the

cross-sectional area, discharge in

each section, average velocity and

water depth in the verticals, as well

as the graphic representation of the

flow profile.

The new NivuFlow

Stick is an easy

to use AEVC that

can measure full

velocity profiles

The new NivuFlow Stick acoustic

echo correlation velocimeter (AECV)

from Nivus, a developer, producer

and supplier of measurement

technology and data management

for the water industry, claims to

be not be only easy to use due

to its simple and accurate flow

measurement of surface water

bodies, but also complies with the

latest ISO 748 guidelines.

The multipoint-measurement AECV

is capable of measuring the full

flow velocity profile, with velocities

automatically measured from the

bottom of the channel up to the water

surface. This improves measurement

accuracy, allowing discharge

measurements to be completed in a

shorter time, as the meter does not

have to be positioned at the different

sampling depths.

As an added benefit, under the new

2021 edition of ISO 748, the Nivus

cross correlation technology is

included within the accepted type of

measurement devices under AEVCs.

Water and environmental agencies

carry out discharge measurements

in accordance with ISO guidelines

and ISO 748 outlines methods for

determining the velocity and the

cross-section area in open channels,

as well as procedures for calculating

the discharge.





for long-term accuracy

and reliability

that measurements are being taken

correctly, with the ability to raise

alarms if necessary.”

In addition to pressure (water

level), the device also measures

temperature to facilitate the

automatic compensation of level

measurements based on variation

in water density.

OTT Hydromet has launched a

new water level sensor, the OTT

PLS 500, which combines robust

reliability and accuracy with the

advantages of smart sensor

technology. Building on decades

of experience, the redesigned PLS

500 retains key elements of the

original OTT PLS, while enhancing

the sensor to be intuitive and userfriendly.

The OTT PLS 500 is a vented water

level and temperature sensor with

a stainless-steel body and a robust

ceramic pressure cell for improved

accuracy and reliability. As a smart

sensor it includes built-in quality

assurance (QA) / quality control

(QC) and metadata to verify sensor

performance and validate data.

This means that the sensor is ideal

for extended deployment in remote


The OTT PLS 500 combines the

original features of the OTT PLS

and smart sensors to deliver an

accurate and reliable performance

“This new technology is all about

long-term accuracy and reliability,”

explained Greg Koch, global product

manager of OTT HydroMet. “The

PLS 500 is fitted with a humidity

sensor and an inclinometer

to provide insight to mitigate

condensation in the vented line and

sensor movement or misalignment.

The result is a smart sensor that

continually checks itself to ensure

A key feature of the PLS 500 will

be a new capability to conduct

data processing to improve

the efficiency of data reporting

and eliminate manual data

post-processing/analysis. For

example, the probe will be able to

automatically undertake internal

calculations such as averages,

minima and maxima, as well as

discharge calculations from either a

user-defined rating table or an ISO

1100-2 exponential formula set-up

via SDI-12 commands.

Communication with the PLS 500

has also been enhanced, with the

standard/simple communication

protocols of SDI-12 or Modbus RTU

(via RS-485).

Neatly summarising the main

advantages of the PLS 500, a

device beta tester with the State of

Colorado Natural Resource Agency

said: “The metadata and sensor

flags are a game-changer to ensure

quality data remotely.”






sustainable future use

and supply of chlorine

quality of sodium hypochlorite being

compromised, further resulting in

lower quality water being produced

at their facilities. Production was thus

difficult, especially during the arid

summer, where demand for water

would be higher than usual. MICC

considered switching to UV and

ozone treatments as an alternative

filtration method, as well as gaseous

chlorine, but ultimately settled for De

Nora’s on-site generation of sodium

hypochlorite, due to the technology’s

comparative safety and convenience.

Utilising De Nora’s CECHLO systems

to generate sodium hypochlorite

on-site at Mount Isa’s Wastewater

Treatment Facility, MICC became the

primary chlor-alkali production hub

in north Queensland, Australia. They

served partners in the surrounding

municipalities by selling their locallymade

chlorine compounds to these

partners for use in wastewater

treatment. Aquadex helped to

manage business development,

sales and distribution, on behalf of

MICC. These partnerships would

help to generate income for MICC

from chemical sales and create local

employment, as well as sustainable


Jason Brooks, chief

growth officer of

Aquadex, explaining

the ‘hub-and-spoke’

model adopted by

Mount Isa

Electrochemical and sustainable

solutions provider De Nora Water

Technologies held a webinar on 10

Nov 2022 to discuss the benefits of

green chlorine production, through

a decentralised model of production

for water treatment. The webinar,

moderated by Daniel Chua from

Water & Wastewater Asia, was

helmed by three guests who have

experience with this model: Stephen

Jewell, director of Water, Mount Isa

City Council (MICC); Jason Brooks,

chief growth officer of Aquadex; and

Marwan Nesicolaci, general manager

of De Nora Water Technologies, Asia-

Pacific hub.

The webinar officially began with a

sharing session from Brooks on the

decentralised model adopted by

MICC, dubbed the “hub-and-spoke

model”. MICC adopted the model

because they were dissatisfied with

Australia’s centralised duopoly model

for chlorinated water treatment,

especially with logistical issues

that occurred as a result of the

geographical distance between

Mount Isa, located in the rural

Australian outback, and the chlorine

producers, who were in city centres

like Sydney. The 40-hour drive

distance between the producers

and end-users resulted in the

Brooks then went into further detail

on the benefits of the collocated

Mount Isa model. He highlighted

that the shorter distance between

producers and customers meant

that the latter could have access

to fresh sodium hypochlorite that

would not decay into gas over the

long transportation process, saving

on chlorine supplies. Access to

fresh chlorine also allowed for higher

quality portable water that better

complied with the Australian drinking

water guidelines, as producers would

not be required to disinfect the water

as much, thus reducing disinfection



by-products such as chlorates. The shorter

distances also reduced the carbon footprint

created from transporting the chlorine

products to treatment plants, in addition to

allowing rural communities easier access to

fresh chlorine products for water treatment.

The collocated model also allowed for

a fully-partnered approach, end-to-end

service between Aquadex and their

customers, providing a range of “turnkey”

solutions beyond immediate production.

On the right-hand side of the screen, from top to bottom: Jason Brooks, chief growth officer, Aquadex;

Stephen Jewell, director of water, MICC; and Marwan Nesicolaci, general manager, De Nora Water

Technologies, Asia-Pacific hub

A Q&A session followed Brooks’ sharing,

where the three panellists shared more

information about green chlorine and

other relevant information on the subject.

Highlights included the following:

First, Nesicolaci and Brooks expanded

on the benefits a decentralised model of

production could bring to producers and

end-users, such as local operational issues

being more easily troubleshot through

remote monitoring of equipment, as well as

greater safety through mitigating the need

for long-distance transportation of chlorine


Second, Brooks explained that Aquadex’s

decision to partner with De Nora was due

to the quality of their after-sale services

and technical expertise, as they “did not

want someone else to help them after 50

years”. Brooks even highlighted that De

Nora’s specialists were willing to fly down to

Australia and oversee the implementation


Third, Nesicolaci shared the potential

limitations of on-site chlorine production

model, such as the lack of equipment

with multiple production functions like

machines that could produce both sodium

hypochlorite and caustic soda, as well as

safety issues that stemmed from a lack of

technical expertise on the part of handlers.

He also shared how De Nora mitigated

those issues, such as customising

machines to fit the specific needs to


An infographic showcasing the range of solutions Aquadex could provide with the decentralised model of

green chlorine at MICC

Nesicolaci also shared applications of the

green chlorine model in other countries,

such as Saudi Arabia, South Korea, Spain

and Singapore, and how De Nora adapted

their model to fit the specific needs of these

different countries. Nesicolaci mentioned

that South Korea had switched from a

fluorine gas model of purification to green

chlorine a few years ago, due to safety

concerns over transporting chemicals

used for purification over long distances,

similar to Mount Isa. Singapore had also

adopted the model several years ago, but

“decentralised it even further” by producing

sodium hypochlorite over several different

decentralised plants across the country.

Nesicolaci explained that a large central

plant was not required, as the country’s

small geographic size meant that longdistance

transportation was a non-issue.

Lastly, Brooks closed the Q&A session with

his thoughts on how the current green chlorine

model could be improved, suggesting that the

model be further decentralised to allow the

freshest chlorine possible to be produced onsite

“at the point of use”.

The webinar ended with each speaker giving

their one key thought. Nesicolaci reiterated

the importance of partnerships between

manufacturer and end-users in providing

sustainable technologies, while Jewell

expressed a hope that the decentralised

model of green chlorine would eventually

disrupt the “increasingly centralised” model

present in Australia. Brooks capped off the

webinar by echoing the previous speakers’

thoughts on the simplicity of the decentralised

model and Aquadex’s role in “connecting the

dots” between the two partners.





ends with a bang

as well as the ability to connect with

exhibitors online with just a scan.

Moreover, trade visitors could also

download the digital version of the

event floor map as well as the show

directory booklet in a digital format,

providing all they needed at their


The opening ceremony was

graced with the presence of newly

appointed minister of the Ministry of

Natural resources, Climate Change

and Environment, YB Tuan Nik

Nazmi bin Nik Ahmad; the former

secretary-general of Ministry of

Environment and Water, YBhg Dato

Seri Ir Dr Zaini bin Ujang; and the

president of the Malaysian Water

Association, Dr Ir Ts Hj Mohmad

Asari Daud. The minister addressed

the water industry as a gateway for

the country’s economy to prosper.

The region’s leading water and

wastewater event for developing

Asia has officially ended its 12th

tenure at Kuala Lumpur Convention

Centre (KLCC) at Kuala Lumpur,

Malaysia. ASIAWATER 2022 was a

comprehensive event, heightening the

prospects of the water and wastewater

industry, its members, potential

business visitors, and consumers

by providing the platform for these

stakeholders to engage and in-depth

information range on the progress of

the water and wastewater industry.

ASIAWATER 2022 opened its gates

to exhibitors and trade visitors from

65 countries, forming connections

and converging business relations

for 17,000 trade attendees locally

and internationally, along with more

than 700 exhibiting brands and

companies from all segments of the

water and wastewater industry.

Embracing the smart and

sustainable way of management,

this year’s ASIAWATER Expo and

Forum has adapted a sustainable

approach in the event by

establishing their digital directory,

WATERFEEDS. Trade visitors could

easily access the event’s agenda,

exhibitor’s booth and their location,

Over the three-day exhibition, paid

and free-to-attend conferences

commenced in partnership with

water and innovation associations

in the region. Global and local

industry professionals as well

as educators were part of the

speaker line-up for each of these

events respectively. ASIAWATER’s

free-to-attend conferences

weighed on topics such as

technology and innovation and

sustainable environment. Apart

from that, ASIAWATER featured

the third instalment of Regional

Water Talks connecting six

speakers from the region’s water

association discussing on water

resource management, policy and

governance, and financial and

technical sustainability.

ASIAWATER Expo and Forum will

return bigger and better in its 13th

edition on the 23-25 Apr 2024 at

KLCC, Malaysia.






1 – 3 Feb

Interaqua 2023

Tokyo, Japan

20 – 23 Feb


Indiana, USA

21 – 23 Feb

World Water-Tech Innovation


London, United Kingdom


21 – 23 March

Water Korea 2023

South Korea

22 – 24 March

Water Philippines

Manila, Philippines


18 – 20 April

WQA Convention &


Las Vegas, USA

19 – 21 April

IE Expo

Shanghai, China


8 – 10 May

Global Water Summit

Berlin, Germany

10 – 12 May


Sydney, Australia


4 – 6 June

Singapore International Water

Week Spotlight


5 – 7 June

Aquatech China

Shanghai, China

28 – 30 June

IE Expo Chengdu

Chengdu, China


5 – 7 July

IndoWater Expo & Forum

Jakarta, Indonesia


30 Aug – 1 Sep


Bangkok, Thailand

30 Aug – 1 Sep

Pumps & Valves Asia

Bangkok, Thailand


14 – 16 Sep

Water & Wastewater Expo

Binh Duong, Vietnam


11 – 13 October


Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam


14 – 16 November

Enlit Asia

Jakarta, Indonesia


















Announcing our most efficient, highest-capacity

energy recovery device for seawater reverse osmosis

desalination and industrial wastewater facilities—the

PX Q400—the next evolution of our trusted, leading

PX ® Pressure Exchanger ® technology.

Highly efficient

Higher capacity,

flows at 400 GPM

Lowest life cycle cost

25-year life with no

scheduled maintenance

Experience the next evolution

for yourself.

Learn more about the Q400 at:





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