Powertrain International 2023-1

DIESEL OF THE YEAR KOHLER KSD: All around the world: bauma, EIMA, EquipExpo EVENTS FPT INDUSTRIAL: Turin e-plant opening ceremony CNH INDUSTRIAL TECH DAY: We saw electric and LNG tractors in Phoenix H2 LHYFE: Made in France green hydrogen WESTPORT: Interview with the CEO, David Johnson EVENTS BAUMA MUNICH 2022: It is still “number 1” KUBOTA @ BAUMA: D1105-K, P2 Hybrid, 3.8 H2, V5009 PERKINS @ BAUMA: 48-Volt, 300-Volt, 600-Volt batteries EIMA INTERNATIONAL: There were also Cummins and Deutz AG MARINE COMPARISON: At 30 liters, the lead returns to MAN mtu @ CANNES: The methanol way METSTRADE: Password: integration THINK PINK NEETA KHARE: Director battery and fuel cells for FPT COLUMNS Editorial; Newsroom; Automotive; Techno: Bonfiglioli; Sustainable Techno; Techno: Parker

KOHLER KSD: All around the world: bauma, EIMA, EquipExpo
FPT INDUSTRIAL: Turin e-plant opening ceremony
CNH INDUSTRIAL TECH DAY: We saw electric and LNG tractors in Phoenix
LHYFE: Made in France green hydrogen
WESTPORT: Interview with the CEO, David Johnson
BAUMA MUNICH 2022: It is still “number 1”
KUBOTA @ BAUMA: D1105-K, P2 Hybrid, 3.8 H2, V5009
PERKINS @ BAUMA: 48-Volt, 300-Volt, 600-Volt batteries
EIMA INTERNATIONAL: There were also Cummins and Deutz AG
COMPARISON: At 30 liters, the lead returns to MAN
mtu @ CANNES: The methanol way
METSTRADE: Password: integration
NEETA KHARE: Director battery and fuel cells for FPT
Editorial; Newsroom; Automotive; Techno: Bonfiglioli; Sustainable Techno; Techno: Parker


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<strong>Powertrain</strong><br />



rising era<br />

Cover with Liebherr H2 common rail - Hydrogen in the<br />

spotlight: Lhyfe and Westport - CNH Industrial Tech Day<br />

in Phoenix, Arizona - Bauma, EIMA and METS in a glance<br />


www.vadoetorno.com<br />

www.powertraininternationalweb.com<br />

www.dieseloftheyear.com<br />

ISSN 0042<br />

Press Register n. 4596 – April 20th 1994<br />

Poste Italiane Inc. – Mail subscription<br />

D.L. 353/2003 (mod. in L. 27/02/2004 n° 46)<br />

Art. 1, subsection 1, LO/MI<br />


January <strong>2023</strong><br />


JANUARY <strong>2023</strong><br />

powertraininternationalweb.com<br />



ICE<br />


kWe ELECTRIC<br />

GAS<br />

14<br />



06. KOHLER KSD<br />

All around the world: bauma, EIMA, EquipExpo<br />

EVENTS<br />


Turin e-plant opening ceremony<br />


We saw electric and LNG tractors in Phoenix<br />

H2<br />

16. LHYFE<br />

Made in France green hydrogen<br />

20. WESTPORT<br />

Interview with the CEO, David Johnson<br />

EVENTS<br />

24. BAUMA MUNICH 2022<br />

It is still “number 1”<br />

28. KUBOTA @ BAUMA<br />

D1105-K, P2 Hybrid, 3.8 H2, V5009<br />

30. PERKINS @ BAUMA<br />

48-Volt, 300-Volt, 600-Volt batteries<br />


There were also Cummins and Deutz AG<br />

16<br />

24<br />

MARINE<br />

34. COMPARISON<br />

At 30 liters, the lead returns to MAN<br />

38. mtu @ CANNES<br />

The methanol way<br />

40. METSTRADE<br />

Password: integration<br />


48. NEETA KHARE<br />

Director battery and fuel cells for FPT<br />


4. Editorial 8. Newsroom 10. Automotive 44. Techno:<br />

Bonfiglioli 46. Sustainable Techno 50. Techno: Parker<br />

Editorial: POWERTRAIN <strong>International</strong>’s way<br />

We are POWERTRAIN <strong>International</strong>, and we will<br />

provide answers as soon as possible. For now, we<br />

will tell you the facts.<br />



by Fabio Butturi<br />


A<br />

magazine is not born on a whim; it is a living<br />

body that dialogues with its readers and speaks<br />

to its community, not to itself. What we tell you<br />

in this issue is a summary of what we have seen<br />

around the world. At Bauma and IAA , in Germany; at<br />

EIMA <strong>International</strong>, in Italy; at Metstrade, in the Netherlands;<br />

and at CNH Industrial Tech Day, in the USA. The<br />

first issue of POWERTRAIN <strong>International</strong> is not just a<br />

travel report, however. In Munich, Hanover, Amsterdam,<br />

Bologna and Phoenix, we browsed trends in onroad heavy<br />

duty applications, agricultural mechanization, construction<br />

machinery and recreational marine. We witnessed<br />

the growing appeal of hydrogen, even and especially as<br />

applied to the internal combustion engine. We have seen<br />

the explosion of BEV technology onroad and off-road as<br />

well. Not forgetting alternative fuels, also among yachts.<br />

Beneath the Alps FPT Industrial has unveiled the e-plant<br />

for axles and batteries. On the other side of the western<br />

world, in Arizona, New Holland fielded the first fully<br />

electrified utility tractor and backhoe loader. Emphasis<br />

on the off-shore platform and associated green hydrogen<br />

production site off the French Atlantic coast. Not enough<br />

for you? Since anyone who talks with anyone else carries<br />

a soul, ours shows itself by giving voice to German car<br />

association ADAC trials, verifying the efficiency of wallboxes<br />

and charging stations. In ‘Think Pink’ spoke with<br />

us Neeta Khare, scientist and manager, FPT Industrial Director<br />

of Battery and Fuel Cells. She handed us a sense<br />

of identity of a scientist applied to industry, the added<br />

value of being a woman in a predominantly male environment.<br />

It will be a complicated year, <strong>2023</strong>, because of<br />

the scenario we experienced in 2022, from supply chain<br />

shortages, to semiconductor latitude, to deadly increases<br />

in the cost of raw materials and shipping. And, again, the<br />

war in Ukraine, diplomatic tensions, and concerns about<br />

a market that is so voracious for quantity that production<br />

chains cannot satisfy. The stimuli are many: more and<br />

more voices are challenging the European ban on diesel<br />

in 2035. Euro 7 is on the table. We are witnessing the<br />

proliferation of technological solutions competing for the<br />

title of decarbonization kingpin. What will be the replacement<br />

for lithium, in batteries, assuming there can be one?<br />

Is producing hydrogen in situ via electrolyzers really feasible?<br />

We are POWERTRAIN <strong>International</strong>, and we will<br />

provide answers as soon as possible. For now, we will<br />

tell you the facts. Currently, who can know with surgical<br />

precision? For this we reapply to a movie quote: “After<br />

all, tomorrow is another day!”<br />







20M33<br />


Face to face with Baudouin - FPT Smart Hybrid Energy Hub -<br />

Bergen & Langley - Green AG in USA - Alternative Cummins -<br />

Comparison: 13 litre truck - Cat IPU & Perkins IOPU - UFI Filters<br />



winner<br />

www.vadoetorno.com<br />

www.diesel-international.com<br />

www.dieseloftheyear.com<br />

ISSN 0042<br />

Press Register n. 4596 – April 20th 1994<br />

Poste Italiane Inc. – Mail subscription<br />

D.L. 353/2003 (mod. in L. 27/02/2004 n° 46)<br />

Art. 1, subsection 1, LO/MI<br />


March 2022<br />


5000<br />

Perkins 5000 Series - NGV <strong>Powertrain</strong>, ethanol and methanol -<br />

Sustainability according to Scania - Comparison 6.7 liter<br />


engines - Fish-Eye: Fendt and MAN - Bonfiglioli Evo<br />

feeling<br />

IAA: FPT Industrial, Cummins and Weichai - Bauma previews<br />

PG: microgrid by Cummins, mtu, Isotta Fraschini 12V170 G -<br />

Beyond Iveco Group - Boat Shows: SMM and Cannes<br />

Kohler wins Diesel of the Year for the third time - Scania<br />

Super puts ICE back in the lead on the road - Cat and CHP -<br />

Cummins acquisitions summary - Interview with Allison<br />


www.vadoetorno.com<br />

www.diesel-international.com<br />

www.dieseloftheyear.com<br />

ISSN 0042<br />

A FUEL<br />

Press Register n. 4596 – April 20th 1994<br />

Poste Italiane Inc. – Mail subscription<br />

D.L. 353/2003 (mod. in L. 27/02/2004 n° 46)<br />

Art. 1, subsection 1, LO/MI<br />


July 2022<br />

brave choice<br />


www.vadoetorno.com<br />

www.diesel-international.com<br />

www.dieseloftheyear.com<br />

ISSN 0042<br />

MAN likes dual fuel with hydrogen - Report from Venice Boat<br />

Press Register n. 4596 – April 20th 1994<br />

Poste Italiane Inc. – Mail subscription<br />

D.L. 353/2003 (mod. in L. 27/02/2004 n° 46)<br />

Art. 1, subsection 1, LO/MI<br />


November 2022<br />

Show - Rolls-Royce PG Symposium: Our first impressions -<br />

Yanmar and Lyman-Morse - OXE & Cox - FPT Industrial outlook<br />

www.powertraininternationalweb.com<br />


www.vadoetorno.com<br />

www.diesel-international.com<br />

www.dieseloftheyear.com<br />

ISSN 0042<br />

Press Register n. 4596 – April 20th 1994<br />

Poste Italiane Inc. – Mail subscription<br />

D.L. 353/2003 (mod. in L. 27/02/2004 n° 46)<br />

Art. 1, subsection 1, LO/MI<br />


May 2022<br />


www.vadoetorno.com<br />

www.diesel-international.com<br />

www.dieseloftheyear.com<br />

ISSN 0042<br />

Press Register n. 4596 – April 20th 1994<br />

Poste Italiane Inc. – Mail subscription<br />

D.L. 353/2003 (mod. in L. 27/02/2004 n° 46)<br />

Art. 1, subsection 1, LO/MI<br />


September 2022


KOHLER KSD 1403TCA<br />

KSD<br />



What better epilogue than<br />

to scan the trade fair horizon<br />

as a litmus test of<br />

the 1.4-litre’s appeal? We<br />

talked about it with Abhiroop Garg,<br />

KSD Product Manager. First, however,<br />

we question Nino De Giglio, Director<br />

Marketing Communication and Channel<br />

Management (on the left). We ask<br />

him what he felt, with reference to the<br />

global market “sentiment”.<br />

The second half of 2022 was particularly<br />

eventful at the tail end of the<br />

pandemic long wave. What feelings<br />

have you collected, in reference to the<br />

“sentiment” of the global market?<br />

“The success of all the trade shows<br />

Kohler participated in during 2022 is<br />

synonymous with a strong market that<br />

has quickly recovered from the 2020<br />

crisis and with still growing demand<br />

that continues to create difficulties<br />

in the supply chain. On the Munich<br />

stage, machine and engine manufacturers<br />

unveiled a variety of solutions,<br />

breaking away from the idea that the<br />

internal combustion engine is now<br />

part the past, while electric is the future.<br />

Hydrogen, fuel cells, alternative<br />

fuels and electrics are all part of one<br />

big container of solutions for the future:<br />

not one preponderant winning<br />

technology, but a combination of<br />

solutions adapted to different market<br />

needs. For Kohler, 2022 was the year<br />

De Giglio and Garg talk<br />

about the impressions<br />

of Kohler KSD from<br />

three big exhibitions<br />

of the introduction of the compact and<br />

high-performance KSD engine, which<br />

is already attracting the attention of<br />

numerous manufacturers in different<br />

application segments. Alongside<br />

the traditional ICE proposal, Kohler<br />

presented its new hybrid line-up, introducing<br />

the Versatile Hybrid, an<br />

alternative capable of achieving<br />

the zero-emission mantra through<br />

all-electric operation, while keeping<br />

the diesel engine ready to step in to<br />

add mechanical power when needed<br />

or to recharge the battery. Completing<br />

the offer is the possibility of using<br />

alternative fuels such as HVO, a renewable<br />

fuel derived from biological<br />

waste that can reduce overall CO 2<br />

emissions by up to 90 percent, and for<br />

which all diesel engines in the Kohler<br />

range are already compliant.”<br />



Now we give the floor to Abhiroop<br />

Garg, Associate Product Manager<br />

KSD (on the right).<br />

Divergences between KSD and KDI?<br />

“Both engines start from a design<br />

philosophy that responds to the complex<br />

and growing needs of the market.<br />

As a result of the experience gained<br />

with the KDI, the KSD comes already<br />

complete with all the options that can<br />

allow this engine strong integration<br />

with numerous machines in different<br />

application segments. The KSD has<br />

no ATS constraints, despite boasting<br />

a displacement-to-torque ratio similar<br />

to that of engines with higher<br />

power ratings. Its compactness allows<br />

easy installation, even when replacing<br />

higher-displacement engines,<br />

without requiring any kind of machine<br />

redesign effort on the part of the man-<br />

ufacturer. KSD engines offer a wide<br />

range of options that allow manufacturers<br />

and distributors to make their<br />

own version of the engine, making it<br />

adaptable to any application with 60<br />

percent of the optional components.”<br />

Three trade shows (EquipExpo,<br />

Bauma and Eima), three application<br />

families, three target audiences.<br />

What is the most intriguing aspect<br />

of the KSD that can seduce across<br />

the board?<br />

“The flexibility of the configurations<br />

offered by the KSD manages to find<br />

a solution best suited for each target<br />

area with minimal installation effort.<br />

If we talk about EquipExpo, features<br />

such as the compactness and light<br />

weight of the engine, as well as minimized<br />

noise and vibration, make the<br />

KSD the best engine for this sector.<br />

On the other hand, if we talk about<br />

Bauma, the KSD’s winning features<br />

are its heavy-duty architecture with a<br />

high number of service interval hours,<br />

along with its low fuel consumption.<br />

For the Ag sector, and thus the Italian<br />

EIMA, the KSD attracts the market<br />

with specific options for agricultural<br />

tractors and multi-utility machines:<br />

for example, high torque, the third<br />

PTO option that helps the use of hydraulic<br />

pumps in machines, and electronic<br />

control that meets all load variation<br />

requirements.”<br />

EquipExpo: KSD carves out a place<br />

in the sun alongside Command Pro.<br />

Can diesel and gasoline coexist?<br />

“Absolutely yes, diesel and gasoline<br />

can coexist. The KSD will concentrate<br />

in the heavy-duty applications of the<br />

turf world where to date the Command<br />

Pro cannot be as efficient. Thus, we<br />

will strengthen Kohler’s name in the<br />

North American market. The KSD will<br />

have dual Stage V and Tier IV final<br />

homologation, so the same engine will<br />

be usable in both the U.S. and Europe<br />

without changing calibration or other<br />

components. The market is recovering<br />

from the pandemic faster than expect-<br />

ed, and we are expecting demand to<br />

increase in the years to come.”<br />

KSD finds its natural habitat at Bauma.<br />

In what applications does it find<br />

the most acceptance? Will it have a<br />

hybrid future, and which one?<br />

“With all its available options, the<br />

KSD can be integrated into most applications<br />

in the construction world; skid<br />

steer loaders, excavators, wheel loaders,<br />

dump trucks, forklifts, and generators<br />

are available. As mentioned earlier,<br />

KSD engines will go into production<br />

in a wide choice of configurations, allowing<br />

manufacturers and distributors<br />

to make their own version of engine to<br />

meet all kinds of needs. When we first<br />

unveiled the KSD, we announced that<br />

it would comply with all the world’s<br />

regulations and fuels, and it was no<br />

accident. The KSD will become a multi-fuel<br />

range. It will definitely have a<br />

hybrid future; we are already working<br />

on it concretely with some of our customers.<br />

As we expected, the electronic<br />

architecture of the KSD makes it a perfect,<br />

futuristic match for hybrid solutions.<br />

Also, at Bauma, we saw a jump<br />

in demand after the pandemic. We look<br />

forward to introducing the KSD to the<br />

market and taking advantage of these<br />

opportunities. With this future-ready<br />

product, we are ready to meet the demand<br />

for a performance engine suitable<br />

for all geographic areas, compliant<br />

with all regulations worldwide, and<br />

compatible with all kinds of machines.<br />

EIMA aimed mainly at specialized and<br />

corporate. What feedback and prospects<br />

for KSD? Considering our great<br />

interest in the Italian domestic agricultural<br />

market, EIMA has always been a<br />

special fair for us. All our customers,<br />

from Italy and abroad, were excited<br />

to see the KSD on our booth, and we<br />

left the show with a high number of<br />

requests for prototypes and engines.<br />

As always, the many options available<br />

were most appreciated, and our customers<br />

were willing to integrate the<br />

KSD into their product range.”<br />




WE<br />

HAVE<br />


According to this<br />

commentary on LNG by<br />

Sam Reynolds, IEEFA’s<br />

Energy Finance Analyst,<br />

as existing import<br />

terminals go underutilized,<br />

new projects face delays<br />

and cancellation risks<br />

According to the new IEEFA<br />

commentary, Liquefied natural<br />

gas, once heralded as “the<br />

champagne of fuels,” is quickly<br />

falling out of favour in key growth<br />

markets. Volatile, unaffordable prices<br />

and supply challenges in the global<br />

market have crimped demand in Asia,<br />

and the <strong>International</strong> Energy Agency<br />

(IEA) has declared an end to the<br />

“golden age of gas.” As Asian countries<br />

search for less expensive energy<br />

supplies, their fuel-switching choices,<br />

policy shifts, and underutilization of<br />

existing LNG terminals have started<br />

to materialize into high-profile delays<br />

and cancellations of proposed new<br />

LNG import projects. Throughout<br />

Asia, US$490 billion of gas-related<br />

infrastructure projects have been proposed,<br />

but less LNG demand growth<br />

in the region could mean that fewer<br />

import projects are necessary. Projects<br />

in many emerging markets are already<br />

experiencing delays and cancellations.<br />

In India, for example, six new terminals<br />

were anticipated online this year,<br />

according to the <strong>International</strong> Gas Union.<br />

None have been commissioned.<br />

Although some are still aiming for a<br />

December launch, most have delayed<br />

target operations to next year. Some<br />

may face larger setbacks. For instance,<br />

recurring delays at the Jaighar<br />

LNG project prompted floating terminal<br />

provider Hoegh LNG to cancel its<br />

10-year charter and reroute the vessel<br />

to Europe. In China, two out of eight<br />

new terminals expected online this<br />

year have been commissioned. Developers<br />

have cited expensive prices<br />

and lackluster demand as reasons for<br />

delays. In addition, the 8 gigawatts<br />

(GW) of new gas-fired power capacity<br />

added this year was dwarfed by the<br />

158 GW of new wind and solar capacity.<br />

The IEA now expects Chinese gas<br />

demand to grow at just 2% through<br />

2030, compared to 12% average annual<br />

growth over the previous decade.<br />

The government of Bangladesh withdrew<br />

from a 3.6 GW LNG-fired power<br />

plant and terminal project in August,<br />

citing eye-watering fuel prices in the<br />

global market. The Philippines and<br />

Vietnam have delayed plans to commission<br />

their first LNG terminals until<br />

next year, partly due to ongoing turmoil<br />

in global LNG markets. Even if<br />

the terminals are brought online, however,<br />

both countries could face exorbitant<br />

spot LNG prices, since neither<br />

have finalized long-term LNG purchase<br />

contracts. San Miguel Corporation,<br />

the largest gas-fired power plant<br />

developer in the Philippines, reportedly<br />

faces delays with eight proposed<br />

power projects. These setbacks belie<br />

projections that South and Southeast<br />

Asia would account for the lion’s<br />

share of global LNG demand growth.<br />

To make matters worse, Europe is<br />

now absorbing the entire global fleet<br />

of floating import terminals through<br />

2025, further deteriorating the outlook<br />

for proposed LNG import projects in<br />

emerging Asia.<br />




Kässbohrer unveiled a new generation<br />

of highly mobile all-terrain<br />

PowerBully tracked vehicles for use<br />

in the construction industry. With a<br />

payload of over 11.5 metric tons and<br />

ultra-low ground pressure, the dump<br />

trucks enable you to transport large<br />

quantities of material or tools over<br />

ground that is muddy, soft and hard<br />

to negotiate. All models are equipped<br />

with a 6-cylinder Cummins B6.7 engine<br />

with 235 or 285 metric HP and<br />

a hydrostatic propulsion drive. The<br />

rear-wheel drive provides for a high<br />

degree of traction and a maximum<br />

driving speed of 14.5 km/h. With a<br />

slope angle of 45°, it is even possible<br />

to drive on uneven ground and to<br />

cross trenches. The endless rubber<br />

tracks with a width of 750 mm offer<br />

a large contact surface. This results<br />

in low ground pressure: at only 0.19<br />

kg/cm², this is many times lower<br />

than for wheeled vehicles. In addition,<br />

the low ground pressure reduces<br />

the effects on the ground to a minimum.<br />

PowerBully makes it possible<br />

to work all year round – regardless of<br />

the weather conditions. With a payload<br />

of 11.5 metric tons and a capacity<br />

of 8.8 m³, PowerBully transports<br />

large volumes safely and efficiently<br />

to any jobsite. The dump bed can be<br />

controlled easily while driving, using<br />

the joystick.<br />






Kohler Co. has announced the<br />

appointment of Samie Barr as<br />

Chief Brand Officer. This role<br />

was created to fuel strategic<br />

acceleration and further elevate the<br />

Kohler brand globally across a diverse<br />

set of dynamic businesses. Barr<br />

will report to David Kohler, Chair and<br />

CEO, serve on the Kohler Leadership<br />

team and partner with leaders across<br />

the business to deliver the company’s<br />

mission of a higher level of gracious<br />

living for customers, brand partners<br />

and associates. Barr will have responsibility<br />

for leading global creative,<br />

media and digital capabilities and the<br />

global teams responsible for the brand<br />

experience. Barr brings more than 30<br />

years of progressive consumer and<br />

retail experience in fast-paced, highgrowth<br />

companies. She has a proven<br />

track record of leading customer-centric<br />

transformation and delivering<br />

growth. Barr joins Kohler Co. from<br />

CB2, where she was Senior Vice President<br />

of Marketing.<br />

5,555 th mtu to Bell<br />

Rolls-Royce recently<br />

delivered the 5,555 th<br />

mtu engine of Series<br />

1000, 1300 and 1500 to<br />

global articulated dump<br />

truck manufacturer and<br />

construction equipment<br />

manufacturer Bell<br />

Equipment. Rolls-Royce has<br />

been supplying Bell with<br />

mtu engines from Series<br />

1000 to 1500 since 2013.<br />

This business relationship<br />

started in 1998. The majority<br />

family-owned company<br />

was founded in 1954 and<br />

produces, markets and<br />

exports a large number of<br />

different material handling<br />

machines worldwide.


ADAC<br />

THE WAYS<br />

OF<br />


Here is the most traumatic experience<br />

for new owners of<br />

a BEV, besides discovering<br />

that the supply often does<br />

not even come close to the nominal<br />

power of the station. All it takes is a<br />

glance at the on-board computer to<br />

find out that there is a considerable<br />

gap between the supplied (and paid<br />

for) energy and that which is actually<br />

“stored” in the accumulator. An<br />

issue that is accompanied by urban<br />

legends according to which suppliers<br />

use meters that work to the detriment<br />

of users, and an issue that remained<br />

dormant when the electricity<br />

costs were ridiculously low. In fact,<br />

supermarkets and shopping centres<br />

competed to provide free stations to<br />

attract customers.<br />

Due to the Ukrainian crisis, howev-<br />

er, the price of a kWh has rocketed<br />

and, at the superfast stations, some<br />

have come to pay more than one<br />

euro for it. So, as well as having a<br />

general environmental sustainability<br />

value, the issue of having efficient<br />

recharging stations can significantly<br />

weigh on the drivers’ wallet.<br />

This has aroused the curiosity of<br />

the engineers from the ADAC, the<br />

Home charging can<br />

consume up to 24%<br />

of the energy used in<br />

powering an electric<br />

car, revealed a study<br />

by ADAC, the German<br />

automobile association<br />

German car club with more than<br />

20 million members, all of whom<br />

are very cost-conscious, as the proverbial<br />

Teutonic punctiliousness requires.<br />

To shed some light on this,<br />

four popular models such as the Renault<br />

Zoe, VW ID.3, Tesla Model 3<br />

and Fiat 500e were taken to the laboratory<br />

and evaluated on the basis of<br />

two different charging options, with<br />

a battery initially at 20 percent: the<br />

home plug (2.3-kilowatt power) and<br />

an 11-kilowatt wallbox. The result,<br />

first of all, showed that the losses in<br />

case of a home plug recharging are<br />

always more than 12 percent and<br />

even double in the case of a Renault<br />

Zoe. The phenomenon is less pronounced<br />

when using a wallbox, but<br />

the absolute best figure recorded was<br />

with the Fiat 500e, which is top of<br />




The so called BSW Battery swap station is the electric mobility<br />

model brought forward by NIO, an innovative Shanghai-based<br />

brand that presents itself as the made-in-China Tesla. With one<br />

key difference: while Elon Musk with Tesla has built part of his<br />

fortune on the dedicated recharging network – in Europe alone,<br />

there are more than 10,000 Superchargers to date – NIO’s<br />

engineers have built their success at home, with more than<br />

200,000 cars sold, on the principle of rapid battery replacement.<br />

Whoever buys one of the four different NIO-branded BEV<br />

models does not buy the battery, which is provided on the basis<br />

of a monthly fee. For recharging, one must rely on BSW, a fully<br />

automated workshop that in less than five minutes removes the<br />

discharged battery from the vehicle floor and replaces it with a<br />

“full ” one. In addition to having set up a construction plant in<br />

Hungary, NIO has opened the first BSW in Germany, along the<br />

Munich-Stuttgart motorway, and plans to activate no less than<br />

a thousand battery exchange points in the Old Continent.<br />

the sales in Germany, and that is 6.3<br />

percent. The explanation, put down<br />

in black and white by the ADAC<br />

technicians, is significant: given<br />

that traction batteries are recharged<br />

with direct current, the first reason<br />

for these losses is attributable to the<br />

conversion from alternating current<br />

of the mains supply carried out by<br />

the on-board charger in the case of<br />

domestic connection, to which must<br />

be added those losses triggered by<br />

the on-board control units that monitor<br />

recharging and manage battery<br />

temperature. The estimate is that<br />

the charging system alone “eats”<br />

up to 300 watts, without forgetting<br />

the losses along the domestic cables<br />

that go from the drawing point to the<br />

socket (up to 4 percent, in the case of<br />

a recent and perfectly efficient electrical<br />

system) and those due to the<br />

length of the connection cable to the<br />

car (1-2 percent). Losses in the car’s<br />

high-voltage circuit and in the battery<br />

itself during charging are less<br />

significant.<br />

The situation is considerably different<br />

in the case of a wallbox which,<br />

first of all, is connected to a threephase<br />

alternating current grid (and<br />

not a single-phase one as with the<br />

domestic system) and reaches the<br />

drawing point using cables with a<br />

very generous section, drastically<br />

reducing losses due to resistance<br />

up to the charging socket. Secondly,<br />

the high power results in a higher<br />

charging speed which, besides<br />

being a convenience for car users,<br />

reduces the operating time of onboard<br />

systems and consequently<br />

their “self-consumption” effects.<br />

This explains such practically double<br />

efficiency. With two important<br />

corollaries: tests have shown that<br />

losses do not change regardless of<br />

the charge level achieved, whether<br />

the battery reaches 80 percent of<br />

the nominal value or is limited to<br />

50 percent. And this phenomenon is<br />

certainly further reduced by public<br />

charging stations, which are already<br />

connected to a three-phase grid with<br />

cables of generous section, and<br />

which carry out the conversion from<br />

three-phase alternating current to direct<br />

current directly inside of them<br />

to supply traction batteries. A point<br />

for the Tesla superchargers, but also<br />

a big defeat for those promoting energy<br />

self-sufficiency through domestic<br />

solar panels.<br />




WATER<br />

AND<br />

IRON<br />

Placing a fuel cell, a lithium<br />

iron phosphate battery, an engine<br />

that is loaded with Euro 7<br />

spirit and a hydrogen-enabled<br />

ICE on the same booth gives a clear<br />

idea of Cummins’ firepower. There<br />

we interviewed an impressive trio: Jim<br />

Nebergall, General Manager Hydrogen<br />

Engines, Jens Hüttner, Sales Director<br />

Europe, and Duncan Engeham, Director<br />

Research and Technology Europe.<br />

A hydrogen ICE, such as the B6.7,<br />

which “color shade of hydrogen”-<br />

goes best with: brown, grey, blue,<br />

turquoise?<br />

Nebergall: “We might say the engine<br />

doesn’t know what color of hydrogen<br />

it is burning. Ideally, from the carbon<br />

reduction perspective, green hydrogen<br />

is the best solution, and we’ll see more<br />

of it over time, mainly due to the high<br />

investments that major countries are<br />

carrying out.”<br />

How is the 6.7 litre different from<br />

the diesel version, both on road and<br />

High Performance?<br />

Engeham: “The bottom part of the<br />

engine is exactly the same compared<br />

to a diesel engine. The bottom half is<br />

conceived to be an agnostic engine. We<br />

did not make any compromise when we<br />

designed the engine. From a combustion<br />

point of view, we know very well<br />

“Realizing a net-zero<br />

future will require a<br />

range of technologies”<br />

said Amy Davis,<br />

President of New<br />

Power at Cummins<br />

the features of the diesel engine. When<br />

it comes to hydrogen, or even natural<br />

gas, we needed a much more spark-ignited<br />

design.”<br />

Besides EGR, does it allow you to get<br />

rid of ATS?<br />

Nebergall: “I think it depends on the<br />

emissions regulations we are dealing<br />

with. One of the big discussions we’ve<br />

been having here is about Euro 7:<br />

where the PM number ends up on Euro<br />

7 regulations will make a difference<br />

on having DPF or not. The engine itself<br />

is exceptionally clean and wouldn’t<br />

need DPF out of the box, but if the PM<br />

number goes down in the regulations<br />

we may need it for urea, for the SCR<br />

system. It can also depend on the area<br />

of the world where the engine is used.”<br />

What safety systems for a 700-bar<br />

cryogenic tank?<br />



Nebergall: “I think it’s a logical question,<br />

people often ask about safety.<br />

What I like to remind is that we’ve<br />

had natural gas-powered vehicles on<br />

the road for more than 20 years and<br />

these are using more or less the same<br />

technology. Those high-pressure tanks<br />

have been around for quite a long time.<br />

These tanks are quite thicker and their<br />

technology is well-established also in<br />

terms of test protocols they have to<br />

stand. We can follow all the expertise<br />

we have gained from natural gas so<br />

far. Of course, there are certification<br />

protocols and so on.”<br />

Are the power and torque curves<br />

the same as diesel? And what about<br />

power density?<br />

Engeham: “The engine is slightly lower<br />

on power compared to a diesel engine.<br />

If you think about the X15 fuel agnostic<br />

engine we’ve got on display here, it can<br />

go up to 650 hp, we’re more like 530<br />

hp for the hydrogen version. It’s comparable<br />

to natural gas, maybe slightly<br />

better than that. The truth is that most<br />

OEMs actually require more like 530<br />

hp, they don’t need higher power.”<br />

Have you changed materials (piston,<br />

cylinder, etc.), sealing rings, etc.?<br />

Engine oil and lubricants?<br />

Engeham: “All the development we’ve<br />

done so far was carried out with a<br />

standard engine, from the materials<br />

point of view. I must say we’re still<br />

developing, and we’ve got more work<br />

to do, in a similar way compared to<br />

what we usually do when developing<br />

our diesel engine. Something new may<br />

definitely come up in the future.”<br />

For multi-drop distribution haulage,<br />

it seems to me a good solution. But,<br />

if it is tricky to apply full-electric<br />

technology on a 26-tonne truck, isn’t<br />

a range of only 500 km still too restrictive?<br />

Nebergall: “Our point is: if a diesel<br />

engine can do the job, then hydrogen<br />

engines can work as well. The hydrogen<br />

engine does a great job, especially<br />

with extreme duty cycles, extreme conditions:<br />

really cold, dusty, dirty environments<br />

it’s just like a diesel engine.<br />

Our tests have been quite successful so<br />

far. From a TCO perspective, it’s hard<br />

to beat diesel, which is low cost, available<br />

everywhere, fuel efficient and so<br />

on. Customers do not compare diesel<br />

with zero-carbon technology. Customers<br />

who want to move from diesel, they<br />

know they have three choices: battery<br />

electric, fuel cells or hydrogen engines.<br />

In such a scenario, hydrogen engines<br />

look very attractive, because they are<br />

diesel-like, they require more or less<br />

the same amount of space.”<br />

Are you currently working with European<br />

truck manufacturers in the<br />

development of hydrogen-related<br />

projects? Could you mention some<br />

of them?<br />

Nebergall: “We’re getting a lot of cus-<br />

tomer interest in our technology. We’re<br />

working in general with OEMs but we<br />

don’t have anything we’re able to announce<br />

yet. We have signed some letters<br />

of intent so far.”<br />

Do you believe in retrofitting? How<br />

unwilling are truckers to switch<br />

away from diesel engines?<br />

Engeham: “It can be the same transmission,<br />

the same cooling pack, the<br />

same engine mounts. You only need a<br />

new fuel system. The great thing with<br />

the fuel agnostic engine platform is<br />

that we’re talking about the same engines,<br />

the same components.”<br />

What is the main goal of the hydrogen<br />

truck concept we can see here at<br />

IAA?<br />

Hüttner: “The truck conversion took<br />

about six months to convert it from<br />

a diesel truck to a hydrogen truck,<br />

which is remarkably quick, as the entire<br />

driveline was converted. The truck<br />

has 290 hp, 40 kg hydrogen storage at<br />

700 bars, which is good for a range<br />

of approximately 500 km. We keep the<br />

same performances of a diesel truck,<br />

with the same payload, so we don’t<br />

have any penalty on the truck weight.<br />

We also have the same cargo space. We<br />

can say there’s no penalty going into<br />

zero carbon. Also, from a drivability<br />

perspective, it’s the same compared to<br />

a diesel truck. If you look at the installation,<br />

we took the Daimler engine out,<br />

but we kept the Daimler transmission<br />

in. the radiator too, stayed in as well.<br />

We just took the diesel engine out and<br />

put the hydrogen engine in. on the side<br />

of the truck we have no intrusion into<br />

the space of the upfitter and we were<br />

able to locate the hydrogen tanks. We<br />

wanted to keep the same structure of<br />

the original truck. Even the electronics,<br />

it’s the same of a diesel engine. On<br />

this medium-duty truck segment, the<br />

TCO is highly impacted by the cost of<br />

the vehicle itself, not so much by the<br />

fuel cost, as the number of kilometers<br />

is significantly lower compared to<br />

long-haul trucks.”<br />





IS<br />


and axles, to maximise the benefits<br />

in terms of industrial synergies. With<br />

a total area of 15,000 square metres,<br />

the plant has three parallel production<br />

lines respectively dedicated to the assembly<br />

of battery packs and the production<br />

of central drives and electric<br />

axles for heavy commercial vehicles.<br />

At full capacity, the e-plant will employ<br />

around 200 people. Speaking of<br />

employees, the man-machine collaboration<br />

is at the forefront thanks to the<br />

Industry 4.0 technologies adopted in<br />

all areas, which allow for automatic<br />

collection and analysis of all those<br />

data which are indispensable for monitoring<br />

and improving safety, quality<br />

and productivity. All production processes<br />

are based on automated warehouses<br />

for component management<br />

and are developed through electronviding<br />

our partners and customers<br />

with ultra-modern solutions for their<br />

future ranges”. However, beware that<br />

the application horizon is not limited<br />

to Nikola Tre or the new electrified<br />

Daily. The industrial field is another<br />

target: electric axles, battery packs,<br />

control systems will sooner or later<br />

also take the off-highway route. This<br />

plant, which is dedicated to electrification,<br />

is integrated in the FPT<br />

Industrial area, close to the testing<br />

and production facilities for internal<br />

combustion engines, transmissions<br />

In Turin, FPT Industrial<br />

inaugurated its<br />

electrified axle and<br />

battery plant<br />

Call it “e-plant”: at full capacity<br />

it will boast an annual capacity<br />

of 20 thousand axles and<br />

20 thousand batteries for light<br />

commercial vehicles, minibuses and<br />

buses. This is what Alessandro Sezza,<br />

who is in charge of these production<br />

lines, explained. He will report to<br />

Sylvain Blaise, President of the <strong>Powertrain</strong><br />

Business Unit. This place is<br />

the humus that will allow digitisation<br />

and the Internet of Things to make<br />

definitive sense. Since the adjectives<br />

electric and electronic complement<br />

each other in this dimension: that of<br />

the powertrain electrification. Sylvain<br />

Blaise states: “Our new e<strong>Powertrain</strong><br />

plant is a key step in this direction.<br />

The electrified products we produce<br />

here will accelerate the decarbonisation<br />

in the transport sector, pro-<br />




We chatted with Philip Scarth, Head of open innovation,<br />

Arbon’s engineering lead. “We talked about multifuel and<br />

modularity,” Scarth says. “The reality is that multifuel<br />

has a prominent role to play. We are preparing a new<br />

engine for alternative fuels, including hydrogen and<br />

e-fuels if they become available, in addition to diesel and<br />

CNG, all on the basis of the current platform. Although<br />

we are simultaneously working on improving hydrogen<br />

combustion, in this particular scenario we have a new<br />

engine to ensure that there is room and availability for<br />

hydrogen combustion solutions.”<br />

And switching to an electric approach?<br />

“The battery is the main component of an electric system,<br />

and we have one together with Microvast. To build up this<br />

system together, we also require the e-axle, the electrical<br />

drive system used in the Iveco Daily and in medium-duty<br />

and heavy-duty applications. Additionally, one of the more<br />

crucial parts is the BMS, which is a crucial aspect of the<br />

battery’s managing strategy and helps us increase the<br />

battery’s lifespan. In Coventry, Potenza is developing nextgeneration<br />

BMS hardware and software for use in battery<br />

systems. We are developing AI intelligence with Potenza<br />

with the goal of extending the life of the battery.”<br />

ically controlled assembly stations.<br />

The adopted state-of-the-art technologies<br />

include augmented and virtual<br />

reality, which reduces the design time<br />

of production lines by simulating the<br />

operating result before physical installation.<br />

Not least, 3D printing and “Smart<br />

Observer” systems based on smart<br />

sensors, 3D scanners for metrological<br />

quality measurements, 3D reality<br />

simulators and collaborative robots.<br />

These robots, together with cloudbased<br />

quality controls, allow immediate<br />

detection of problems, while<br />

end-of-line robots certify product<br />

conformity in terms of configuration,<br />

performance and safety. On the electric<br />

axle line for heavy commercial<br />

vehicles, a signal light station supports<br />

the operator by indicating the<br />

components and where to assemble<br />

them, thus helping to achieve a zero-error<br />

goal. On the battery assembly<br />

line, dielectric carpets protect operators<br />

from possible electrical leakage,<br />

while thermal imaging cameras automatically<br />

measure the temperature of<br />

the batteries, immediately signalling<br />

any deviation from the norm.<br />

“The key to our success is people. Our<br />

team is invited to acquire a new mindset<br />

to face electric mobility new challenges<br />

and to develop new skills so to<br />

be able to relate to the Industry 4.0<br />

environment,” says Alessandro Sezza,<br />

Plant Manager of Iveco Group’s<br />

Turin plant. “In the Tech Academy we<br />

prepare our people for a completely<br />

new process, in which it is crucial to<br />

manage information flows from robots<br />

and automated tools. But we also<br />

provide the necessary soft skills and,<br />

through a targeted programme called<br />

‘In Transformation’, we prepare our<br />

people to face a complex and fluid<br />

scenario”.<br />

In conclusion, Gerrit Marx, CEO of<br />

Iveco Group, says: “The Group has set<br />

itself the challenging goal of achieving<br />

zero net CO 2<br />

emissions by 2040,<br />

ten years ahead of the Paris Agreement<br />

deadline. This applies equally to<br />

our products and the sites where we<br />

produce them. From this plant we will<br />

be supplying electric propulsion systems<br />

that will complement an already<br />

wide range of powertrains. We thus<br />

confirm our will to offer customers the<br />

right products and services to meet<br />

their rapidly changing needs, as well<br />

as our well-founded ambition to lead<br />

the race towards electric mobility”.<br />


MARINE<br />

LHYFE<br />

GREEN H2<br />

TODAY,<br />


dustrial deployment in order to have an<br />

additional installed capacity of around<br />

3 GW by 2030-2035, offshore.<br />

We talked about this project and much<br />

more with Thomas Créach, Lhyfe’s<br />

technical director. First of all, let’s retrace<br />

the way that led Lhyfe to the idea<br />

behind this project. “Everybody understands<br />

now that we have an issue<br />

on our planet which is called global<br />

Lhyfe has an ambitious<br />

goal to achieve: to make<br />

offshore renewable<br />

hydrogen a reality,<br />

by demonstrating<br />

the reliability of an<br />

offshore electrolyser<br />

Lhyfe and its partners share an<br />

ambitious goal: to make offshore<br />

renewable hydrogen a reality,<br />

by demonstrating the reliability<br />

of an offshore electrolyser. This<br />

represents a world first at a time when<br />

initiatives for offshore hydrogen production<br />

are emerging across Europe.<br />

The world’s first offshore hydrogen<br />

production site, set up by Lhyfe in collaboration<br />

with Plug Power, Chantiers<br />

de l’Atlantique, Geps Techno, Centrale<br />

Nantes, Eiffage Energie Systèmes,<br />

Le Port de Saint-Nazaire and Kraken<br />

Subsea Solutions, is operational on the<br />

SEM-REV site from September 2022.<br />

The offshore test site meets all the<br />

criteria (MRE presence, harsh environmental<br />

conditions) to validate offshore<br />

hydrogen production technology<br />

before moving towards large-scale inwarming,”<br />

states Créach. “If we want<br />

to have a future for our children, we<br />

need to stop this situation. Hydrogen<br />

is not the only solutions but is one of<br />

the solutions we have to decarbonize<br />

mobility and industry usage. Lhyfe<br />

was born to prove that this solution is<br />

feasible today, not tomorrow: we can<br />

produce green hydrogen now with renewable<br />

sources. That’s why in 2017<br />

we launched this company in Nantes<br />

and we first deployed a site in the west<br />

coast of France, which is already in<br />

operation now.”<br />

In September 2021, in fact, Lhyfe<br />

opened the world’s first industrial site<br />

with a direct link to a wind farm and<br />

seawater supplies for electrolysis. Located<br />

in Bouin in the Vendée, the site<br />

can already produce 750 kW or around<br />

300 kg of green hydrogen a day (1<br />



Lhyfe and the Swedish local energy company Trelleborgs<br />

Energi have joined forces in a pre-study that aims to build a<br />

local renewable hydrogen production system in southernmost<br />

Sweden. The initial study focuses on 5 MW of green hydrogen<br />

production capacity, in Trelleborg. The study covers the<br />

questions of energy supply, production capacity, technology<br />

selection and location, as well as utilization of waste heat and<br />

oxygen. Trelleborg is a major transport hub that will require<br />

hydrogen to supply refuelling stations as well as to already<br />

ordered hydrogen vehicles. Situated in the Öresund region,<br />

this project study in Trelleborg may contribute to securing<br />

hydrogen supply for both mobility and industry in efforts to<br />

reach zero carbon emissions. The utilization of waste heat and<br />

oxygen (a by-product of hydrogen production) is already being<br />

discussed with potential partners. Left, Thomas Créach.<br />

MW). This is set to rise to 1 tonne per<br />

day to meet growing demand.<br />

Bouin’s green hydrogen is supplied to<br />

public and private clients in the mobility<br />

sector, including a hydrogen station<br />

owned by SYDEV (Syndicat départemental<br />

d’énergie et d’équipement de<br />

la Vendée) at La Roche-sur-Yon to<br />

fuel heavy vehicles (buses, household<br />

waste trucks, service trucks) and the<br />

hydrogen distribution stations on one<br />

of the Lidl distribution group’s logistics<br />

platforms to fuel its maintenance<br />

trucks.<br />

“With our first onshore project, we<br />

have already proved that renewable<br />

green hydrogen is feasible today. Now<br />

we are developing the same kind of<br />

production site in other areas, so by<br />

2024 we will have 55 MW deployed<br />

everywhere in Europe, and 200 MW<br />

by 2026. In 2019, at Lhyfe we were<br />

only eight, now we are around 130-<br />

140 people. Lhyfe shares are listed on<br />

Euronext Paris regulated market since<br />

23 May 2022 and this gives us the financial<br />

capability to deploy faster and<br />

faster all these potential sites.”<br />

What are the main applications to<br />

which Lhyfe supplies hydrogen, manufacturing<br />

plants or e-mobility?<br />

“We deliver hydrogen for both uses.<br />

For example, in France we deliver<br />

each day to a logistic manufacturing<br />

(for hydrogen forklifts), to steel and<br />

glass industry, and to mobility (mainly<br />

truck and bus). Our main goal is to deliver<br />

renewable green hydrogen. So we<br />

have a pipeline of projects of around<br />

9,8 GW in Europe onshore. We are investing<br />

in offshore because, as I said, if<br />

we want to massively produce renewa-<br />

ble green hydrogen, then we need massive<br />

renewable sources. In offshore we<br />

have wind farms which are between 20<br />

and 50 times bigger than the onshore<br />

windfarms, the availability of electricity<br />

is between two and three times more<br />

available than onshore and the price<br />

of electricity is quite interesting to<br />

produce hydrogen. More than that, offshore<br />

you have a potential production<br />

capacity which is more than 18 times<br />

the energy demand today onshore. The<br />

first production site, in operation since<br />

2021, represented the first step of our<br />

strategy, while the second was inaugurated<br />

in September 2022.”<br />

After the pilot site, where Lhyfe already<br />

produced the first kilograms of<br />

renewable green hydrogen at quay and<br />

then at sea, operating automatically, in<br />

the most extreme conditions, the com-<br />


MARINE<br />

MARINE<br />

ly automatically, without the physical<br />

intervention of an operator, except for<br />

scheduled maintenance periods which<br />

have been optimally integrated from<br />

the design phase.<br />

To achieve this technological feat,<br />

Lhyfe relied on the facilities of the<br />

offshore testing site, SEM-REV, operated<br />

by Centrale Nantes. At the end of<br />

the quayside test phase, the Sealhyfe<br />

platform will integrate the SEM-REV<br />

offshore testing area, off the coast of<br />

Le Croisic, about 20 kilometres from<br />

the coast. The device will then be supplied<br />

with electricity by the pioneering<br />

floating wind turbine installed within<br />

the offshore test site in 2018 and still<br />

unique in France today.<br />

The electrolyser was supplied and optimized<br />

for these exceptional operating<br />

conditions by Plug Power, one of the<br />

pany has voluntarily set the bar high by<br />

installing its production unit on a floating<br />

platform, connected to a floating<br />

wind turbine. The Sealhyfe platform<br />

must therefore meet several major and<br />

unprecedented challenges, including<br />

performing all stages of hydrogen production<br />

at sea, i.e. converting the electrical<br />

voltage from the floating wind<br />

turbine, pumping, desalinating and purifying<br />

seawater, and breaking the water<br />

molecules via electrolysis to obtain<br />

renewable green hydrogen; managing<br />

the effects on the system of the platform’s<br />

motion; enduring environmental<br />

stress because Sealhyfe will have<br />

to survive the premature ageing of its<br />

parts (corrosion, impacts, temperature<br />

variations); and, last but not least,<br />

operating in an isolated environment.<br />

The platform, in fact, must operate fulmarket<br />

leaders that is strongly engaged<br />

in the offshore route. Together, Plug<br />

and Lhyfe have developed the first<br />

electrolyser capable of operating on<br />

a floating platform. The project also<br />

benefited from the expertise of French<br />

offshore and marine renewable energy<br />

players: among these, Chantiers<br />

de l’Atlantique for enhancing the resilience<br />

of the system to environmental<br />

stress, ventilation systems and the<br />

electrical architecture of the system;<br />

Geps Techno and Eiffage Energie Systèmes<br />

for the system’s integration on<br />

a platform and the naval architecture<br />

of the latter; the Port of Saint-Nazaire,<br />

and Kraken Subsea Solutions, which<br />

participated in the design of the underwater<br />

electrical connection to the renewable<br />

marine energies produced on<br />

the SEM-REV platform.<br />



#SEMREV<br />

From left, Nicolas Andrivon, president and CEO of Ees Clemessy Services; Bertrand Alessandrini, head of development<br />

at the Ecole Centrale de Nantes; Jean-Luc Longeroche, co-founder and CEO of Geps Techno; Ole Hoefelmann,<br />

General Manager of Plug Power; Thomas Créach, technical director of Lhyfe, who answered our questions.<br />

A first six-month trial phase is being<br />

started at quay, in the port of Saint-Nazaire,<br />

to obtain initial reference measurements<br />

and test all of the systems.<br />

At the end of this first stage, Sealhyfe<br />

will spend a period of 12 months off<br />

the Atlantic coast. It will be installed<br />

less than a kilometre from the floating<br />

wind turbine, fixed to the ground<br />

by a system of anchors and connected<br />

to the site’s underwater hub using<br />

an umbilical designed and dedicated<br />

for this application (energy and data<br />

transfer). At the end of this trial, Lhyfe<br />

will have a substantial<br />

volume of data,<br />

which should allow<br />

it to design mature<br />

offshore production<br />

systems, and<br />

to deploy robust<br />

and proven technologies<br />

on a large<br />

scale, in keeping<br />

with the EU’s objective<br />

to produce<br />

10 million tonnes a<br />

year of renewable<br />

hydrogen by 2030.<br />

Sealhyfe has the capacity to produce<br />

up to 400 kg of renewable green hydrogen<br />

a day, equivalent to 1MW of<br />

power. By 2030-2035, offshore could<br />

represent an additional installed capacity<br />

of around 3 GW for Lhyfe.<br />

“Today our hydrogen is much cheaper<br />

than grey hydrogen,” says Créach, “because<br />

we have optimized all the different<br />

aspects of the production sites and<br />

this means that we are able to produce<br />

at a good price. From the Lhyfe side,<br />

we wanted to prove that green hydrogen<br />

is feasible today, we have done it<br />

in just one year and half. We don’t have<br />

to wait and we should not wait because<br />

it’s important to act today. We just need<br />

companies that want to push these projects<br />

in order to become operational as<br />

soon as possible.”<br />




DAVID<br />

JOHNSON,<br />

CEO<br />

Canadian-based Westport Fuel<br />

Systems participated in IAA<br />

2022 bringing a concept truck<br />

with a special hydrogen ICE.<br />

The company’s H2 HPDI fuel system,<br />

based on the patented HPDI technology,<br />

allows the engine, when fueled<br />

with hydrogen, to increase power and<br />

torque, as well as minimize emissions.<br />

According to Westport’s view, OEMs<br />

will be able to continue using existing<br />

internal combustion engines by<br />

powering them with hydrogen, thus<br />

leveraging their investment in vehicle<br />

drivetrain design, supply chain and<br />

manufacturing. The HPDI system developed<br />

in view of hydrogen is quite<br />

similar to the one currently in use<br />

with natural gas. The latter consists<br />

of a fully integrated on-engine and<br />

off-engine fuel system components<br />

and electronic control solution, with<br />

a cryogenic tank and integral high<br />

pressure LNG pump mounted on the<br />

chassis of the truck and plumbed to<br />

the engine where fuel pressure is regulated<br />

before being supplied to the<br />

injectors via high pressure fuel rails.<br />

Technically speaking, at the heart of<br />

“When we talk about<br />

running on hydrogen,<br />

about 98% of the<br />

energy used comes<br />

from hydrogen, 2%<br />

from our pilot fuel,<br />

which can be diesel,”<br />

said David Johnson<br />

the engine is a patented injector with<br />

a dual concentric needle design. It<br />

allows for small quantities of diesel<br />

fuel and large quantities of natural<br />

gas to be delivered at high pressure<br />

to the combustion chamber. The natural<br />

gas is injected at the end of the<br />

compression stroke. At IAA, we met<br />

Westport Fuel Systems CEO, David<br />

Johnson. We had a great conversation<br />

dealing with the future of hydrogen in<br />

the truck sector. His opening words<br />

were quite significant. “Hydrogen is<br />

the fuel we need to get to, especially<br />

for long-haul heavy-duty vehicles.<br />

We need to do so in a way that still<br />

delivers for the people that move that<br />

freight, which means providing all the<br />

power and torque and efficiency. Hydrogen<br />

fuel is very expensive today,<br />

but it’s going to calm down”.<br />



David Johnson, Westport Fuel Systems CEO: “Hydrogen is the fuel we<br />

need to get to.” He adds: “Our HPDI technology gives the possibility of running<br />

like a diesel engine, however using gaseous fuels.”<br />

What about fuel cells? Will they be<br />

the main viable way to exploit hydrogen?<br />

“In our opinion, the future of hydrogen<br />

is not only related to fuel cells. We’ve<br />

demonstrated, published data that the<br />

vehicle we see here can drive on hydrogen.<br />

There’s nothing wrong with<br />

fuel cells, they’re great devices and<br />

have their place in industry. The fact is<br />

that fuel cells are, and will be, rather<br />

expensive, and this can be a true barrier<br />

in the market. Costs are important<br />

in commercial vehicles. When we<br />

think of hydrogen for transportation<br />

– I don’t know exactly when it’s going<br />

to happen – it must be cost-effective”.<br />

Also, there are quite important<br />

technological differences…<br />

“Of course. If you think of a hydrogen<br />

fuel cell truck or a hydrogen ICE<br />

truck, the difference is that with fuel<br />

cells you also need batteries, motors,<br />

cooling systems. On the other hand,<br />

the ICE is the same we have today.<br />

In terms of costs, ICE vehicles will be<br />

much more affordable. Additionally,<br />

with ICEs, we can take the engine and<br />

replace it with a new one running on<br />

hydrogen. It’s still essentially a diesel<br />

engine, running a diesel cycle.”<br />

What’s the expertise Westport can<br />

rely on when it comes to hydrogen<br />

engine development?<br />

“We’ve been in the gas business<br />

(LPG, propane, natural gas, biogas)<br />

for decades. Basically, the spark-ignited<br />

hydrogen engines have some<br />

real challenges. We decided we would<br />

investigate how our existing HPDI<br />

equipment could be adapted to hydrogen.<br />

So, we took an engine running<br />

with natural gas and started to do<br />

some tests with hydrogen. We’re respecting<br />

the limits of the engine we’re<br />

working with, so not higher cylinder<br />

pressure nor thermal loads. We did<br />

calibration, increased the power output<br />

by almost 20%, torque by about<br />

15%, efficiency by 10% compared to<br />

the diesel engine”.<br />

What about the performances?<br />

“Our HPDI natural gas engine has<br />

basically the same performance of<br />

the diesel engine, in terms of power,<br />

torque, efficiency. The combination<br />

of HPDI and hydrogen allowed us to<br />

further increase the engine performances.<br />

We’ve already seen in our<br />

labs that we can reach 4-5 percentage<br />

points of improvement in thermal efficiency,<br />

which turns in about 10% vehicle<br />

consumption reduction.”<br />






THE<br />

SUN<br />

tor.” An inspiration sparked by the<br />

interaction between R&D in Modena<br />

(Italy) and Burr Ridge, Detroit. Let’s<br />

start with the hottest topic: electrification.<br />

The CNH Industrial Group has<br />

invested in an equity stake in Monarch<br />

Tractors, a partner for the T4,<br />

and has another think tank: FPT Industrial.<br />

Although officially counted<br />

among the ranks of the Iveco Group,<br />

after the spin-off between heavy-duty<br />

on-road and industrial mobile applications,<br />

FPT remains a close partner for<br />

powertrain developments. Supporting<br />

At CNH Industrial’s first<br />

Tech Day in Phoenix,<br />

we saw the T4 Electric<br />

Power and the T7 LNG<br />

Once upon a time in the West,<br />

according to the movie, and<br />

it is in Arizona, US, that CNH<br />

Industrial has unveiled its accelerations<br />

on the path to energy transition.<br />

Named respectively T4 Electric<br />

power and T7 Methane Power are the<br />

two aces up the sleeve we assayed in<br />

the desert, not far from Phoenix. On<br />

Thursday, Dec. 8, 19-degree temperatures<br />

warmed up the zero-emission<br />

utility tractor (at the moment, unprecedented<br />

on a worldwide scale) and the<br />

T7, a heavy-duty evolution for open<br />

field tractors. Also, a pioneer: the fuel<br />

is LNG. It is Scott Wine, the CEO of<br />

CNH Industrial, who brings the epiphany<br />

of the two “alternatives” into focus.<br />

“These are customer-inspired<br />

solutions, both the electric tractor and<br />

the liquefied natural gas (LNG) tracthem<br />

are the acquisitions of Potenza<br />

Technology, which in Coventry, UK,<br />

is focused on powertrain electrification,<br />

and Microvast, headquartered<br />

in Houston, Texas, a specialist in ultra-fast-charging<br />

batteries. A critical<br />

mass that finds fertile ground on the<br />

road, as evidenced by the Crossway,<br />

an e-bus version conceived by Iveco<br />

and Microvast itself. As CNH Industrial<br />

Chief Digital & Information Officer<br />

Marc Kermisch suggests, “The<br />

T4 Electric Power is the ideal solution<br />

for lower horsepower operations. It is<br />

suited to mixed farm, livestock, municipality,<br />

orchard and specialty applications.”<br />

While waiting to test it in the<br />

field, we can anticipate that the electric<br />

motor delivers up to 88.2 kWe (120<br />

hp), with a maximum torque of 440<br />

Nm, enabling travel up to the top speed<br />



Left to right, the T4 Electric Power, the N67 NG engine<br />

by FPT Industrial and the T7 Methane Power tractor.<br />

Parag Garg, Chief Digital Product Officer, CNH Industrial:<br />

“It is no secret: connected platforms, automation and autonomy<br />

will improve the lives and work of farmers around the world.”<br />

of 40 km/h. CNH’s answer to the dilemma<br />

about range is as follows: using<br />

fast-charging systems, it only takes an<br />

hour to reach 100%. Clearly it depends<br />

on the use, however, it frequently happens<br />

that the battery pack last the full<br />

workday. The immediate benefits of<br />

this kind of power supply are manifested<br />

in reduced vibration and noise and<br />

better drivability, the medium-term<br />

benefits in reduced operating costs. It<br />

is a recipe applicable to vehicles with<br />

low energy demand. The “disruptive”<br />

scope of the T4 Electric Power also<br />

lies in the autonomization of driving.<br />

A camera is placed on the roof, along<br />

with other cameras and control units,<br />

to oversee automated functions. Farmers<br />

can remotely activate the tractor via<br />

a smartphone app. With the “Shadow -<br />

Follow Me” mode, operators synchronize<br />

the machines, aided by a 360-degree<br />

perception system that detects and<br />

avoids obstacles. Let’s move on to the<br />

270 hp of FPT’s N67 NG, which powers<br />

the T7 Methane Power. As Oscar<br />

Baroncelli, New Holland Agriculture<br />

Tractors Product Management Leader<br />

Global, points out, “CNH only recognizes<br />

biomethane, it makes no sense<br />

to talk about CNG from the grid.” Let<br />

us focus on the tank, cryogenic, because<br />

compared to the T6 CNG, we<br />

are seeing the debut of the liquefied<br />

version of methane. Iveco has adopted<br />

LNG on the heavy-duty Stralis trucks,<br />

currently S-Way. We are talking about<br />

the very truck that in 2018 traveled<br />

1,728 km from London to Madrid on<br />

a single full tank. Because that is the<br />

key, energy density, mirrored in the exponential<br />

rise in range. What farmers<br />

need to carry out power-absorbing,<br />

power-challenging operations, such<br />

as plowing or moving, without downtime.<br />

LNG management and storage<br />

were developed in collaboration with<br />

Bennamann, a British start-up specializing<br />

in systems to capture and reuse<br />

fugitive methane emissions. The collaboration<br />

began in March 2021, when<br />

CNH Industrial acquired a minority<br />

stake. The main target of this machine<br />

is medium-sized dairy farms (about<br />

110 cattle). Two farms are testing this<br />

system, in Cornwall, more will follow<br />

in the UK. We leave you with the<br />

words of Carlo Lambro, Brand President<br />

of New Holland Agriculture: “We<br />

believe that the best solution available<br />

on the market today to cut emissions<br />

and costs is natural gas and in particular<br />

biomethane.”<br />


EVENTS<br />



OF<br />

DRIVE<br />

This edition of the “mother of<br />

all trade fairs” demonstrated<br />

again pride in identity and<br />

centripetal strength. The Bauma<br />

scenery remains attractive for<br />

operators and end users regardless<br />

of some illustrious missing, see,<br />

among others, Case CE, JCB and<br />

Volvo CE. What happened, however,<br />

between pavilions A3 and A4,<br />

used as a showcase for the kinematic<br />

chain and components?<br />

Here too, despite some very important<br />

absences, such as Cummins and<br />

Deutz AG, the power density, to use<br />

an expression dear to us, was of Diesel-index<br />

kind. The “who’s who”of<br />

power transmission confirmed residency<br />

right there. If at the IAA internal<br />

combustion engines adapted<br />

to hydrogen impressed itself in our<br />

Winds of war and gusts<br />

of recession. The now<br />

endemic hunger for<br />

components, chips,<br />

semiconductors and<br />

raw materials and the<br />

secession of some<br />

brightest stars in the<br />

construction firmament.<br />

Yet Bauma is stouthearted<br />

and adapts to<br />

the course of events<br />

without making a peep.<br />

Electrification on the<br />

podium, followed by<br />

thermal and hydrogen<br />

memory, after leaving Bauma we<br />

were “shaken” by the trend towards<br />

electrification. These are now off-theshelf<br />

products, therefore immediately<br />

usable, albeit with the perplexity that<br />

still surrounds batteries, both in end<br />

users and among various operators<br />

in the sector. However, when Caterpillar,<br />

Perkins and Yanmar take the<br />

field, it goes without saying that one<br />

no longer thinks of mere special effects.<br />

The most plausible effect is that<br />

of drawing in. In fact, there is no one<br />

who has failed to exhibit the “proof”<br />

of their electric inclination: FPT Industrial<br />

carries with it the echo of the<br />

inauguration of their e-plant. Hatz<br />

tested the multifaceted dimensions of<br />

electrification thanks to the relationship<br />

with Inecosysis. Kohler has on<br />

its side the “holy alliance” with Curtis<br />




When the grounds of Messe München become the center<br />

of the construction machinery industry for seven full days,<br />

Bauma is finally taking place again. A total of around 3,200<br />

exhibitors from 60 countries (2019: 3,684 exhibitors from<br />

63 countries) and more than 495,000 visitors from over<br />

200 countries (2019: 627,603 visitors from more than 200<br />

countries) came to Munich for the world’s leading trade<br />

fair for construction machinery, building material machines,<br />

mining machines, construction vehicles and construction<br />

equipment held from October 24 through 30. The<br />

proportion of international visitors was around 50 percent.<br />

The top 10 exhibitor countries were, in this order: Germany,<br />

Italy, Turkey, Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the<br />

Netherlands, France, the U.S., Austria, Spain and China. The<br />

share of international exhibitors was nearly 65 percent.<br />

Stefan Rummel, the CEO of Messe München responsible<br />

for the event, is pleased: “This Bauma has again stoked<br />

enthusiasm and fascination! After the world fundamentally<br />

changed following the last Bauma, we’re really thrilled<br />

that Bauma 2022 demonstrates the trade fair remains<br />

a powerhouse of the construction-equipment industry<br />

thanks to our customer’s great variety of innovations, good<br />

business deals and many visitors from all over the world.”<br />

and Heila, which is expressed, at the<br />

moment, mainly in the hybridization<br />

of the KDIs. The same goes for John<br />

Deere’s recent acquisition of Kreisel.<br />

AS Labruna has designed a hybrid<br />

for construction sites, calling it Power<br />

80. Kubota too opens up to the contamination<br />

of endothermic orthodoxy,<br />

in the micro-hybrid formulation. Not<br />

to mention the Scandinavians, who, as<br />

we know, are not by chance the cradle<br />

and gymnasium of Greta Thunberg.<br />

Volvo Penta and Scania have embraced<br />

the electric breakthrough, internalising<br />

skills and starting the scale<br />

production of batteries. Let’s continue<br />

with the overview on electrification.<br />

Briggs & Stratton are appreciated for<br />

their integrated battery management,<br />

the modularity of internal components,<br />

suitable for configuration with<br />

different capacities and voltages, and<br />

the CANbus protocols. Caterpillar<br />

and Perkins have jointly developed<br />

the battery packs: in yellow the more<br />

captive oriented versions, already at<br />

work on the 320 excavators and other<br />

Cat machines; signed by Perkins for<br />

the free market.<br />

On display at Bauma was KBP63, the<br />

initials of the Kreisel Battery Pack 63<br />

(with a power of 63 kWh), a modular<br />

battery that uses immersion cooling<br />

technology patented by Kreisel.<br />

Yanmar celebrated the synergy with<br />

Eleo, which is opening a plant in the<br />

Netherlands, increasing the annual<br />

battery production capacity tenfold<br />

up to 500 MWh, equivalent to about<br />

10,000 battery packs.<br />

Hydrogen was present above all in the<br />

generative declination. Bruno Gen-<br />

erators, also mentioned at the Scania<br />

stand, is the star of an H2 group signed<br />

jointly with Punch Hydrocells. They<br />

confirm that under the TecnoGen container<br />

there is the V86.6 (the same<br />

exhibited at the Genoa Boat Show),<br />

in the stationary version, 105 kVA at<br />

50 Hz, coupled to a Leroy Somer alternator.<br />

The Flybrid electro-mechanical<br />

energy storage system is integrated<br />

into the genset. Based on the kers<br />

principle, it provides a power boost to<br />

cover peak loads, making it possible<br />

to meet the format of a conventional<br />

genset with an equivalent factor of 50<br />

percent (approximately 150 kVA). The<br />

Punch Flybrid is integrated or stand<br />

alone, connectable with electric cables<br />

to a traditional genset, therefore retrofittable.<br />

Liebherr also turns to hydrogen,<br />

signing both engine and common<br />


EVENTS<br />

rail. “The biggest challenges are the<br />

different combustion processes and<br />

the behavior of hydrogen as a medium,”<br />

explains Richard Pirkl, Technical<br />

Managing Director at Liebherr-Components.<br />

“The H2 injector must ensure<br />

stable, precise and leak-free injection.<br />

In order to achieve this, our experts in<br />

Deggendorf place particular emphasis<br />

on maximum hydrogen tightness,”<br />

continues Mr Pirkl. A 2-valve concept<br />

ensures that hydrogen loss is kept as<br />

low as possible. Depending on the<br />

particular configuration, the LPDI injector<br />

is designed for system pressures<br />

up to 60 bar. Typical applications<br />

usually lie in the 30 bar range. Liebherr’s<br />

hydrogen engines (Mahle has<br />

also a hand in it) are 6 (H966) and 4<br />

cylinders. The latter, signed H964, are<br />

powered by direct injection. Always a<br />

native German speaker, still hydrogen,<br />

this time Rolls-Royce Power Systems,<br />

which invests in the adaptation<br />

to H2 of the gas-powered series, 500<br />

and 4000, and the 600 kW fuel cell on<br />

display at the stand.<br />

Let’s stop at ICEs, because it is not<br />

true that they are a remnant of the<br />

short century. Scania proves it, with<br />

the industrial translation of the Super<br />

engine platform. Scania has managed<br />

to link together a series of broken taboos<br />

and accrued credits. Because the<br />

measurements of the 13-litre are unprecedented<br />

(BxS 130x160 mm), because<br />

an 11-litre is added to the 9, 13<br />

and the famous V8, and because this<br />

engine exceeds 50 percent efficiency.<br />

Let’s give due space to another Scandinavian,<br />

once known as Sisu. Juha<br />

Tervala, CEO of AGCO Power, gave<br />

us an interview in the summer of last<br />

year. To an explicit question about the<br />

renewal of the engine fleet, he replied:<br />

“We know that in heavy high-power<br />

applications the diesel engine will still<br />

be the main source of energy for a long<br />

time to come, which is why we still see<br />

room for a diesel engine of modern<br />

design. The family will include 4 and<br />

6-cylinder versions and alternative fuels<br />

have been considered since the beginning<br />

of the project.” And so it was.<br />

Its name is Core, the version on display<br />

is signed Core75, like the engine<br />

size, derivated from a 6-cylinder 1.25L<br />

single cylinder displacement (BxS<br />

110x132 mm). Performance is absolutely<br />

outstanding, with power equal<br />

to 223 kW between 1,500 and 1,700<br />

rpm, and a stable torque of 1,450 Nm<br />

between 1,200 and 1,400 rpm. Also in<br />



Finland they have eradicated the EGR<br />

valve and rely on a catalyst, DPF and<br />

SCR. The blower is a latest generation<br />

wastegate.<br />

Another key to understanding this<br />

year Bauma is given by “turnkey”configurations.<br />

Fabio Rigon, Vice President<br />

Commercial Operations EMEA<br />

for FPT Industrial, explained: “The<br />

absolute novelty is the NEF45 IPU,<br />

the first version with ATS mounted,<br />

a plug&play product, for a reference<br />

market which is precisely the industrial<br />

one (Industrial Power Unit). It<br />

is therefore aimed at machines that<br />

do not require extreme compactness,<br />

such as motor pumps, screening machines,<br />

crushers requiring a product<br />

that is easy to install. The F28 that we<br />

have exhibited also meets the same<br />

criteria in the Stage V Powerpack<br />

version, with radiator and air filter.<br />

And ATS on the head, also plug&play,<br />

in the diesel version. We are moving<br />

towards this kind of solution to simplify<br />

life for customers and address that<br />

very fragmented market, which needs<br />

simpler products.”<br />

We will know more about the latest<br />

generation of AGCO Power and Scania<br />

in the next issues, as well as about<br />

components, of which we will provide<br />

an exhaustive overview. You will<br />

find news from Bosch Rexroth, Comer<br />

Industries, Danfoss and Webasto,<br />

Eberspächer, MTA, Parker, Reggiana<br />

Riduttori, ZF and more.<br />





IS NOT<br />

EVIL<br />

Kubota was ready for the “ancestral<br />

call” of Bauma, proudly displaying<br />

the more recent jewels<br />

of the family’s crown. More than<br />

an indication of continuity marker with<br />

the 2019 edition: in the best tradition of<br />

Osaka, marking a turning point in the<br />

leadership of the ICE. In the spotlight<br />

was the evolution of the micro-hybrid<br />

system and the tribute to the “nouvelle<br />

vague” of hydrogen, applied to the combustion<br />

engines, not yet to the fuel cell.<br />

On the Kubota menu, however, the main<br />

course is still called the Diesel cycle, in<br />

the displacement range where Kubota is<br />

very specialized. We are talking about<br />

super-compact engines, converted to<br />

electronic control. Last year marked the<br />

unveiling of the D902-K, which went<br />

into production this year, combining the<br />

TVCR combustion chamber with com-<br />

mon rail, obviously with the direction<br />

of the electronic control unit and the<br />

mediation of the CAN communication,<br />

which enables a fertile dialogue with the<br />

vehicle. Before our very eyes, in Munich<br />

appears another star in the constellation<br />

below 19 kilowatts, the D1105-K.<br />

The 3-cylinder, 1.123 L displacement<br />

and 93 kg has a nominal power output<br />

of 18.5 kW at 3,000 rpm and 72.4 Nm at<br />

Improving pressure<br />

and combining<br />

ICE with electric or<br />

hydrogen: some<br />

good examples are<br />

D1105-K, P2 hybrid,<br />

3.8 H2 and V5009<br />

2,200 rpm, compliant with Stage V, EPA<br />

Tier 4 and China IV. It is also compliant<br />

with China’s national smoking regulations,<br />

Category III. A compliance that<br />

is anything but trivial, noticeable in the<br />

elimination of blacksmoke even when a<br />

sudden load is introduced or upon starting<br />

or acceleration. We asked a remarkable<br />

trio to check what we have stated<br />

above: in addition to the familiar faces<br />

of Daniel Grant, Marketing Manager of<br />

the European BU, and Xavier Hamel,<br />

Senior Product Manager, we had the<br />

pleasure of having a conversation with<br />

Toshiyuki Taneda, General Manager of<br />

Engine Division.<br />

Can you confirm that the good news<br />

coming from Kubota engineering<br />

is closely related to ICEs, from the<br />

1.1-litre diesel engine to the hydrogen<br />

prototype to the MicroHybrid?<br />



“The D1105-K is the big brother of the<br />

D902-K and is an electronically controlled<br />

engine, like a conventional common<br />

rail with TVCR and extremely compact<br />

dimensions,” is the first confirmatory<br />

statement. “Compactness is a key factor<br />

for the smaller sizes, which are less<br />

than 19 kW. Compared to a conventional<br />

common rail engine, the entire system is<br />

simplified. It can be used for mining and<br />

construction machinery, and also for aerial<br />

platforms. We have retained many<br />

customers with the quality of our products<br />

and have therefore developed the<br />

D1105-K and D902-K as high-end models,<br />

with lower fuel consumption and<br />

emissions, and with interactive communication.<br />

The highlight is definitely the<br />

electronic control that enables communication<br />

via a wired protocol. In the under<br />

19-kilowatt range, only mechanical<br />

engines running until now”.<br />

MicroHybrid: what has changed<br />

from the previous edition we saw three<br />

years ago at the Bauma?<br />

“You are right, what we are showing in<br />

Munich is the P2 hybrid, a different system<br />

from the P0, because the P2 can<br />

switch from the combustion engine to the<br />

electric motor. The electric motor is also<br />

aimed at providing additional power to<br />

the ICE and can operate in full electric<br />

mode, which is suitable to indoor environments<br />

(this is the typical case for small<br />

forklifts)”. Again, as with the D1105-K,<br />

Kubota’s low-power know-how comes<br />

to the low entry power ratings. Again, as<br />

with the D1105-K, Kubota’s low-power<br />

know-how comes to the fore. “This is the<br />

first time we are showing a micro-hybrid<br />

system with an engine power of less than<br />

19 kilowatts,” they point out. “The 18.5<br />

mechanical kW engine in addition to the<br />

10 electric kW motor makes it possible<br />

to skip the diesel particulate filter, with<br />

the resulting advantages for the customer<br />

(maintenance, TCO, dimensions,<br />

downtime, ed.). At Bauma 2019, we<br />

unveiled the first MicroHybrid concept.<br />

This technology has continued to evolve<br />

even during these three difficult pandemic<br />

years. This is a clear demonstration<br />

of the fact that Kubota, while the world<br />

around was trying to adapt to the new<br />

environment’s conditions, engineering<br />

continued to work hard. We can see the<br />

result three years later, at our stand, as<br />

we said, we have the P2 MicroHybrid<br />

installed on the D1105-K, less than 19<br />

kW. Previously, the MicroHybrid was<br />

above 55 kilowatts, so we are targeting<br />

a slightly different audience, and we believe<br />

that this development will prove to<br />

be very interesting for many of the OEMs<br />

showing at this exhibition”. The market<br />

trends are common among the big manufacturers,<br />

who are mainly divided on<br />

the emphasis on electric or hydrogen.<br />

Paraffin-based fuels, on the other hand,<br />

get almost everyone to agree. “We have<br />

approved the application of EN 15940,<br />

which, as you know, includes HVO and<br />

GtL.” HVO guarantees a longer “shelf<br />

life” than other fuels such as biodiesel.<br />

Finally, very reactive cold weather and<br />

cold start properties. Kubota’s team goes<br />

on: “With the mechanical version, using<br />

this fuel involves some performance<br />

compromises, while the TVCR system is<br />

able to overcome some of these issues, so<br />

this is the perfect opportunity to explain<br />

all these new developments. Using HVO<br />

and other biofuels, power and torque are<br />

no longer the same, but with the electronic<br />

version of our engines, nothing changes<br />

in terms of performance.”<br />

And finally came the turn of hydrogen<br />

fuel, injected into a combustion engine,<br />

to “turn lemons in lemonade”, as they<br />

say. An eureka moment that is spreading<br />

and proselytising the power generation<br />

sector. This is where one of the Kubota<br />

best sellers, the 3.8-litre diesel engine,<br />

comes in. “We have announced the 3.8<br />

H2, in collaboration with a Japanese<br />

company, hydrogen-powered generator<br />

sets.” The company is Denyo, which<br />

has equipped a genset with the 45 kVA<br />

ICE. “As you know, the supply of hydrogen<br />

fuel is still a big problem. Nevertheless,<br />

we want to deliver a hydrogen solution<br />

to the market. Compared to other<br />

companies you mentioned (Weichai and<br />

Cummins at IAA Hannover, ed.) we<br />

manufacture much smaller engines, but<br />

we intend to support existing customers.<br />

Unlike gas- or diesel-powered applications,<br />

there are no regulations, which<br />

means we don’t know what to comply<br />

with at the moment.”<br />

Finally, Diesel of the Year 2019. What<br />

happened to “our” awarded 5-litre engine?<br />

“The V5009 is featured in some<br />

OEM projects. Honestly, the last three<br />

years, due to the pandemic situation,<br />

have delayed many projects. We hope to<br />

find these machines at the next Bauma.<br />

The award in 2019 helped us to raise<br />

the profile of this product, it was very<br />

important, and it is something we talk<br />

about with our customers”. The chat<br />

ends like this: “Now we have to be ready<br />

for the next Diesel of the Year!”<br />


kWe - OFFHIGHWAY<br />


ITS<br />

OWN<br />


When the family is made up<br />

of Caterpillar and Perkins,<br />

synergies spring up spontaneously<br />

within the family.<br />

And that is how the 48-, 300- and<br />

600-volt battery configurations were<br />

conceived for OEMs in construction,<br />

agricultural, industrial and lifting applications.<br />

These Lithium-ion battery<br />

packs have a robust, modular design<br />

and feature factory-installed telematics<br />

to optimize performance and housing.<br />

A note on the cloudy after-life<br />

horizon: these batteries are designed<br />

for reuse and recycling at the end of<br />

the cycle. At the Perkins stand, we<br />

met an exceptional trio: Mark Borst,<br />

Global Product Marketing, Paul Muller,<br />

Technical Sales Manager, and<br />

Siobhan Scott, Marketing Manager.<br />

Let’s start with a premise that is a<br />

must for anyone who has been manufacturing<br />

ICEs for ninety years. “We<br />

have a full line of diesels from 8.2 to<br />

597 kW, EU Stage V and Tier 4 Final<br />

certified. Perkins is also already<br />

shipping China non-road Stage IV<br />

engines in preparation for December<br />

1, 2022. We are also studying alternative<br />

fuels for the diesel cycle. All<br />

engines exhibited at Bauma can use<br />

biodiesel (up to B20) and HVO. We<br />

are studying other kinds of advanced<br />

Perkins engineers are<br />

developing and field<br />

testing 48-volt, 300-volt,<br />

and 600-volt battery<br />

configurations<br />

fuels, participating in the UK government’s<br />

‘Red Diesel Replacement’<br />

competition, such as dimethyl ether<br />

(DME) as a diesel substitute. Perkins<br />

is working with Loughborough University<br />

and Flogas to explore storage<br />

and transport of DME and with Nottingham<br />

University to explore ammonia<br />

and hydrogen for commercial<br />

applications. We continue to invest in<br />

diesel engines to make them perform<br />

at their best.”<br />

So what can be said about this electric<br />

breakthrough?<br />

“With the presentation of the battery<br />

pack, our strategy has not changed,<br />

because the customers are the same.<br />

They expect that whatever we do for<br />

them is also available in an off-road<br />

version. The prototypes equipped with<br />



Lithium-ion batteries were designed<br />

to offer a different point of view to<br />

our customers who are currently using<br />

Perkins engines, so that they will<br />

turn to electrification. Not all OEMs<br />

will need the same solution, but it is<br />

moving forward. The sustainability<br />

feature is based on collaboration<br />

with machine manufacturers.”<br />

What is your proposal to complete<br />

the electrification of the driveline?<br />

“First of all, we believe that efficient<br />

engines will continue to play a role.<br />

Making them more sustainable with<br />

alternative fuels while focusing on<br />

batteries is part of this continuum.<br />

We are also focusing on aftermarket<br />

components, such as filters to protect<br />

the engine, knowing that it is important<br />

to have an efficient engine, but it<br />

is also important to keep it in efficient<br />

condition for many years. It is therefore<br />

necessary to use filters that work<br />

as well as possible, because otherwise<br />

you could damage the injectors<br />

and then, if they do not work properly,<br />

suddenly the efficiency drops,<br />

compromising sustainability. As far<br />

as electrification is concerned, batteries<br />

are the first step towards the<br />

complete electric powertrain.”<br />

Do you aim to couple the ICE with<br />

the battery within an integrated<br />

solution?<br />

“Batteries do not necessarily have to<br />

work within a hybrid system. What we<br />

are saying here at Bauma is that we<br />

have a solution that works through<br />

a battery instead of an engine, even<br />

if we don’t see a strong customer demand<br />

yet. We have used our 90 years<br />

of experience as off-highway specialists<br />

to design a battery that specifically<br />

meets the needs of OEMs and works<br />

in their off-highway applications. The<br />

batteries are designed on a modular<br />

concept to be flexible. Our current<br />

offer includes a 48-volt, 32 kWh version,<br />

which you can see on the stand<br />

together with a 300-volt, 64 kWh version,<br />

but a 600-volt, 64 kWh version<br />

is also available. You can use multiple<br />

batteries in a single installation and<br />

the battery management systems can<br />

link up with other batteries. We can<br />

increase the number of batteries in an<br />

application, thus increasing the kilowatt<br />

hours available.”<br />

What will be their first applications?<br />

“I think electrification will come first<br />

in smaller machines used in urban<br />

environments, where the infrastructure<br />

allows recharging. It will then<br />

expand to larger machines, such as<br />

wheel loaders or excavators.”<br />

What is the difference between<br />

Caterpillar’s and Perkins’ batter-<br />

ies? If I were an OEM, which one<br />

should I choose?<br />

“We are part of the same family, so<br />

the choice depends on variables such<br />

as the type of machine and market<br />

positioning. We spent a lot of time<br />

thinking about battery life cycle, reuse<br />

and recycling. Of course, if you<br />

don’t have the infrastructure, electrification<br />

is very complex. That is why<br />

we are developing technologies like<br />

HVO. We could think of HVO-powered<br />

generators to recharge a number<br />

electric machines.”<br />

Siobhan Scott, who has often enlightened<br />

us about Perkins’ aftermarket<br />

systems, stepped in at this point.<br />

“We have introduced a brand-new<br />

connectivity solution that is currently<br />

being tested on a large scale with<br />

many thousands of engines. It can<br />

run fixed speed, variable speed, mechanical<br />

with the control panel, and<br />

electronic. It communicates via 2G,<br />

3G, 4G and transmits motor information<br />

as code to the end customer.<br />

We have a solution that OEMs<br />

can access through an API on their<br />

system or through our dashboards:<br />

customers can access it through My<br />

Engine App (an old acquaintance of<br />

POWERTRAIN magazine. Perkins<br />

was one of the first companies to<br />

offer a remote connectivity system,<br />

ed.), and have all the engine information<br />

related to maintenance, service,<br />

workshop manuals and real-time information<br />

from the engine. If something<br />

happens to the engine, it means<br />

we recommend service, before engine<br />

failure. This is also sustainability:<br />

running the engine efficiently, using<br />

fuel at the optimum level and, above<br />

all, avoiding downtime. Engine data<br />

is transferred via the cloud to our<br />

system and then to OEM technicians.<br />

Machines manufacturers and final<br />

users can access it directly on their<br />

phone through Perkins My Engine<br />

App, so if they are in Italy they will<br />

receive the message in Italian.”<br />


EVENTS<br />


THE<br />

PLACE<br />

TO BE<br />

SIMA’s ambitions were reduced<br />

by the overlap with EIMA <strong>International</strong>.<br />

The effervescence we<br />

perceived in pavilion 15 of Bologna<br />

Fiere is the same as in pavilions<br />

A3 and A4 in Munich. EIMA is internationally<br />

recognized for agricultural<br />

applications under 150 horsepower.<br />

BU POWER PERKINS: The parent<br />

company in Paris, BU Power in Bologna.<br />

For both, the very recent memory<br />

of Bauma’s electric preview, with the<br />

batteries in blue. They tell us about a<br />

transversal, in-training electrification<br />

team to face a challenge that must be<br />

created, even before it can be won. And<br />

the same goes for all the actors typically<br />

devoted to diesel. We saw the 404J-22,<br />

in its structural form, for Same Deutz-<br />

Fahr. The 1024J is Perkins’ workhorse,<br />

in the industrial version, with a maxi-<br />

mum power of 150 kW at 2,200 rpm<br />

and 825 Nm. Finally, the 904J-E28T,<br />

the 2.8-litre Syncro, in the IOPU version,<br />

i.e. open power, which is getting<br />

more and more attention, as it makes<br />

the life of manufacturers easier. They<br />

told us that “some OEMs made the first<br />

requests for hybrid propulsion.”<br />

CUMMINS: Absent from Bauma,<br />

a decision taken well in advance for<br />

Covid prophylaxis, Cummins brought<br />

the 4.5-litre in a structural version to<br />

Bologna. A flexible approach to help<br />

Cummins and Deutz<br />

also wanted to attend<br />

the EIMA <strong>International</strong><br />

agricultural showcase<br />

OEMs, with 117.6 kilowatts of peak<br />

power. Mass production is expected<br />

in 2026-27, prototyping on machines<br />

is at an advanced stage. The L9 Barley<br />

was also there, with VGT instead of<br />

the wastegate, to respond to the performance<br />

of combine harvesters, which<br />

are electronically modified to have<br />

maximum torque already at 1,000 rpm.<br />

DEUTZ: EIMA was the only exception<br />

to the “fair traffic ban” in Cologne.<br />

Of course, we didn’t see the 3.9-litre<br />

on display at Coreum, but it was an opportunity<br />

to experience the 1.2-litre for<br />

the first time, and the TCD5.2, a flexible<br />

interpreter of custom-cut set-ups<br />

and configurations.<br />

DOOSAN: Two new entries are expected<br />

in <strong>2023</strong> to complete the emission<br />

high range, the DX05 and the<br />

DX08, which will preside over the<br />




The 2022 edition of EIMA international reached its highest<br />

ever result, with 327,100 visitors, of whom 57,300 from<br />

abroad. During the five days of the exhibition – the number<br />

of visitors exceeded the record (317,000) set in the 2018<br />

edition, before the crisis caused by the pandemic. Its<br />

international nature is the strong point of this exhibition –<br />

the organisers emphasise – it is the element that identifies<br />

it and makes it recognisable compared to any other. Foreign<br />

visitors, from every continent, accounted for 18% of the<br />

total attendance, and 80 official delegations of economic<br />

operators – organised thanks to the ICE Agency – animated<br />

business meetings in the Foreign Delegations Pavilion that<br />

was specially set up. The next edition of EIMA <strong>International</strong><br />

is already set for 6 to 10 November 2024, but a major<br />

event for agricultural machinery will also take place next<br />

year, with the return of Agrilevante by EIMA, the exhibition<br />

dedicated to mechanisation for crops in the Mediterranean<br />

area, which will be held at the Bari exhibition centre from<br />

5 to 8 October <strong>2023</strong>.<br />

Alessandro Malavolti, FederUnacoma President: “The success of EIMA<br />

confirms the growing interest in new-generation agricultural technologies to meet<br />

the food needs of a global population that will grow by almost a billion within<br />

the next ten years.”<br />

power range up to 230 kVA. The<br />

supply of 8,000 G2s for Goldoni<br />

Keestrack was signed at EIMA. The<br />

e-power pack will be available in 2024<br />

and is being implemented and tested<br />

on Doosan and Hyundai construction<br />

equipment. “We have been exhibiting<br />

at EIMA since 2014, and it is truly an<br />

international fair, which brings results,<br />

contacts, and customers.”<br />

FPT INDUSTRIAL: Marco Zanelli,<br />

Off-road Sales Director: “Our novelty<br />

concerns precisely the powerpack<br />

with pre-validated ATS, to be used as<br />

a ‘black box’ in various applications.<br />

I am referring to those machines that<br />

don’t require ultra-compact layouts,<br />

such as fruit harvesting wagons and<br />

motor pumps. Here, at EIMA, the F28,<br />

Diesel of the Year 2020, can be found at<br />

Antonio Carraro, Hattat (Turkish tractors<br />

from 55 to 100 kilowatts), Carraro<br />

Agritalia, and on Valtra’s ‘specialty’.<br />

The power pack is also applied to the<br />

3.6-litre and 6.7-litre gas engines”.<br />

GEMINIANI: The e-pack is an integrated<br />

solution for electric propulsion. It<br />

is the classic plu-and-play complete with<br />

permanent magnet electric machine. An<br />

electric power distributor, specifically<br />

from 70 to 200 mechanical kW, which<br />

does not repudiate the flywheel with<br />

standard SAE measures, and is therefore<br />

replaceable with diesel products,<br />

equipped with drive, distribution, control<br />

logic, customizable on power delivery.<br />

It is used for static or self-propelled<br />

applications below 40 km/h. Geminiani<br />

signed an agreement with Enel X.<br />

KUBOTA: The V5009 was exhibited<br />

in powerpack format, set up by the<br />

Italian distributor SAIM: the engine<br />

is complete with electrical system,<br />

intermediate connection wiring with<br />

ECU, urea kit (tank+DEF pump+APU<br />

control unit and CCR-engine wiring),<br />

cooling pack (radiator and intercooler).<br />

The micro-hybrid ended up on Dieci’s<br />

Apollo telehandler, accompanied by<br />

the V3007 CRT, which won an EIMA<br />

award for innovation.<br />

VOLVO PENTA: Dual fuel was also<br />

in Bologna. The challenge for the<br />

Swedes’ industrial sector, which has<br />

grown to the point of equaling the most<br />

famous marine sector, is to consolidate<br />

the current shares.<br />

YANMAR: Battery packs also reverberate<br />

in the agricultural scenario, although<br />

they are mainly aimed at construction.<br />

They can be installed in any<br />

position, certified to work both vertically<br />

and horizontally, with any inclination.<br />




CHANGE<br />

OF<br />

PACE OF<br />

If this was a Netflix serial, it would<br />

probably be Game of Thrones.<br />

Without the low blows, intrigues<br />

and fantasy atmospheres, Game<br />

of Thrones corresponds to what the<br />

American sociologist Talcott Parsons<br />

would call “need for achievement”. In<br />

summary, it is the crystal-clear expression<br />

of the three-way competition that<br />

has been unleashed in the 2,000-seahorse<br />

sector. The trio is made up of<br />

Caterpillar, MAN and mtu and for<br />

about ten years it has been raising the<br />

bar, with increases of 100 horsepower<br />

or so. It all began in Friedrichshafen,<br />

indeed in Cannes, where mtu, in 2014,<br />

decided to enter forcefully with the<br />

V2000 M96, segmented with 10, 12<br />

and 16 cylinders. A concentration of<br />

technological “delicatessens”, such<br />

as the triple sequential turbo, the doubling<br />

of cooling stages (inter- and<br />

after-cooler) and of air filtration and<br />

the restyling of Bosch common rail<br />

nozzles and of the injection pump by<br />

L’Orange. MAN did not resign itself<br />

to the muscular test of its compatriots<br />

and raised the power bar from 1,800<br />

to 1,900 horsepower and subsequently<br />

to 2,000, focusing on top-of-the-range<br />

performance. And Caterpillar? The<br />

Americans relaunched two years ago,<br />

in the Covid-19 period, with a re-engineering,<br />

applied to the C32, capable<br />

of whipping the 2,000 horses up to 8<br />

percent of navigation time. The power<br />

density reaches unexplored peaks<br />

due to the control logic of the ADEM<br />

6 ECM control unit and the timing of<br />

injection cycle.<br />

But it doesn’t stop there, because,<br />

as we anticipated in the report from<br />

Cannes and in the incipit of this comparison,<br />

MAN has decided to shift up<br />

a gear and completely redesign the<br />

barrel. The bore widens by 10 millimeters,<br />

going from 128 to 138 millimeters;<br />

travel increases from 157 to 165<br />

millimeters. It is therefore a question<br />

of joining the legendary 2-litre barrel,<br />

one of the archetypes of the motor<br />

industry and Nuremberg’s standard-bearer<br />

among heavy-duty marine<br />

and industrial applications. In terms<br />

of cubic volume, MAN therefore slips<br />

into a middle position, approaching<br />

the 32 liters of Cat. The picture that<br />

emerges from the prospectus is unequivocally<br />

rewarding for the sea lion.<br />

Separate exception for the specific<br />

power, which confirms the primacy<br />

of mtu, albeit by very few decimals.<br />

It is a completely different story when<br />



BRAND<br />

MODEL<br />


C32B<br />

MAN<br />

V12X<br />

MTU<br />

12 V2000 M96X<br />

I. D.<br />

B x S mm - S/B 145 x 162 - 1,12 138 x 165 - 1,20 135 x 156 - 1,16<br />

N. cil. - dm 3 12 - 32,10 12 - 29,61 12 - 26,79<br />

Maximum power kW - rpm 1.491 - 2.300 1.618 - 2.300 1.472 - 2.450<br />

Mep at max power bar 24,7 29,1 27,4<br />

Piston speed m/s 12,4 12,7 12,7<br />

Maximum torque Nm - rpm 5.488 - 1.400 7.350 - 1.200 5566 - 1.300<br />

Mep at max torque bar 21,9 31,8 26,6<br />

% power at max torque (kW) 26,8 35,4 27,8<br />

Torque at max power Nm 6.194 6.713 5.733<br />

% power at max torque (kW) 54 (805) 57,10 (924) 51,50 (758)<br />

Work range rpm 900 1.100 1.150<br />


Specific power kW/dm 3 46,4 54,6 54,9<br />

Specific torque Nm/dm 3 170,9 248,1 207,7<br />

Areal spec. power kW/dm 2 75,23 90,14 85,68<br />


Dry weight kg 3.075 2.720 2.850<br />

L x W x H mm 2.106x1.482x1.422 2.235x1.250x1.320 1.847x1.293x1.414<br />

Volume m 3 4,44 3,69 3,38<br />

Weight/power kg/kW 2,1 1,7 1,9<br />

Weight/displacement kg/dm 3 95,8 91,8 106,4<br />

Power density kW/m 3 335,8 438,5 435,5<br />

Total density t/m 3 0,69 0,74 0,84<br />

Displacement/volume dm 3 /m 3 7,23 8,03 7,93<br />

the two curves intertwine at 1,200<br />

rpm (the lowest start-up revs among<br />

these three) and you notice the approximately<br />

1,800 Newtonmeter difference.<br />

Assuming an approximate<br />

average of 5,550 Nm for Cat and mtu,<br />

the difference amounts to 25 percent.<br />

Even the specific torque excels, with<br />

a gap. It is significantly higher with<br />

the C32 than with the V2000 M96X.<br />

Also not to be underestimated are the<br />

efforts to limit the overhangs, especially<br />

in height, and the bare weight,<br />

which allow the V12X to look down<br />

on its competitors both in terms of dimensions<br />

and mass/power ratio. The<br />

values expressed by the indices are all<br />

in favor of the 2.47-liter barrel. Last<br />

but not least, the Diesel Index. Let’s<br />

focus on the “best in class”. That “X”<br />

at the end of the acronym winks at<br />

“next generation”, while the intuitive<br />

indications of the architecture remain<br />

unchanged: 12 V-cylinder.<br />

“MAN engines are synonymous with<br />

sturdiness. That is why numerous<br />

measures have been taken for the<br />

MAN V12X as well to ensure this high<br />

standard of durability and reliability,<br />

but also of future safety”, explains<br />

Werner Kübler, Head of Engineering<br />

at MAN Engines. Among other<br />

things, as the Bavarian manufacturer<br />

scrupulously reports, thickness of the<br />

crankcase walls has been increased in<br />

significant places, the bolt connection<br />

between the upper and lower crankcase<br />

sections has been optimized and<br />

a new crankshaft has been installed<br />

with larger diameter bearings. Great<br />

attention is also paid to the results<br />

of numerous test bench tests with associated<br />

long operating times and to<br />

the experience gained with customer<br />

water tests. In addition, the results<br />

of the E3872 stationary gas engine<br />

developed in parallel complement<br />

its development. The counterpart for<br />

power and heat generation is based on<br />

the same basic engine and was presented<br />

for the first time at the end of<br />



2021. This generation X of pleasure<br />

engines has taken precautions against<br />

stresses that could potentially lead to<br />

wear. This calibration of the MAN<br />

V12X was therefore designed for<br />

a full load ratio of up to 20 percent.<br />

The new coolant pump and thermostat<br />

housing ensure adequate coolant supply<br />

for long engine life. The engine is<br />

also available with an optional external<br />

cooling system, as an alternative<br />

to the closed coolant circuit. The revamped<br />

cylinder head of the V12X,<br />

also significantly optimized in terms<br />

of flow and cooling, was designed to<br />

achieve the same development goal.<br />

Furthermore, the oil supply has also<br />

been modified by completely renovating<br />

the circuit, with pumps and oil<br />

coolers, as well as optimizing the flow.<br />

In the V12X MAN Engines has drawn<br />

for the first time on a marine engine on<br />

a device in vogue for industrial applications,<br />

the hydraulic valve clearance<br />

adjustment. This eliminates the need<br />

to check and adjust the valve clearance<br />

and protects the tappets. Clearly<br />

the common rail played a key role in<br />

terms of performance, with an injection<br />

pressure of 2,200 bar, in concert<br />

with the renewed engine control unit.<br />

The after-treatment of the exhaust<br />

gasses makes it possible to meet the<br />

IMO Tier III requirements. The mod-<br />

BRAND<br />

MODEL<br />


C32B<br />

MAN<br />

V12X<br />

MTU<br />

12 V2000 M96X<br />

Torque 12,4 15,3 15,2<br />

Performance 7,3 9,3 8,3<br />

Stress 11,4 14,8 13,1<br />

Lightness 16,4 14,2 16,5<br />

Density 3,3 5,2 4,9<br />

DIESEL INDEX 8,1 9,1 8,6<br />





ular system, EGA in the MAN taxonomy,<br />

allows for different installation<br />

possibilities, as the individual components<br />

of the SCR catalyst can be positioned<br />

differently, enabling flexible<br />

system integration. The V12X is also<br />

available in combination with the proprietary<br />

hybrid system, also presented<br />

at Cannes last year, the “MAN Smart<br />

Hybrid Experience” (see box). “In the<br />

first stage, we use existing solutions<br />

such as dual fuel hydrogen technologies<br />

or regenerative diesel to reduce<br />

CO 2<br />

emissions. Our hybrid system,<br />

the ‘MAN Smart Hybrid Experience’,<br />

offers an entry point into the electrification<br />

of marine drives, also for the<br />

MAN V12X. For the future, we will<br />

continue to draw on the group experience<br />

and further develop suitable<br />

solutions for our customers,” says Mikael<br />

Lindner, Head of MAN Engines.<br />

The 1,618-kilowatt V12X-2200 will<br />

be available from mid-2024.<br />

The nominal power starts from 290 kW at 1,800 rpm of the 6-cylinder<br />

i6D2676LE487 in the heavy-duty version to reach 1,471 kW of the D2862<br />

LE496 V12-2000 at 2,300 rpm but with light duty calibration. On the<br />

electrical front, however, we find a permanent magnet synchronous<br />

motor (PMSM), or rather two motors with a nominal power of 184 or<br />

368 kW. With a length of 160mm and 320m respectively and with a<br />

diameter of 560mm, they are positioned directly on the gearbox-reverse<br />

unit via an electromagnetic clutch. MAN has optimized the sizing and<br />

placement of the lithium batteries, the route of the high voltage power<br />

lines (nominal voltage equal to 600V) and the integration with the other<br />

on-board systems. Particular attention is paid to the customization of the<br />

BMS and EMS (Energy Management System) management software.<br />

By combining the two electrical powers available with the various engine<br />

settings, the hybrid series can range between 474 and 1,838 kilowatts,<br />

with a level of hybridization (i.e., the incidence of electrical power on the<br />

total) which can reach 56 percent. Four navigation modes. The so-called<br />

crossover, for at least dual configurations, the engine ensures thrust<br />

and the electric motor is decoupled. The second engine, on the other<br />

hand, simply drives the electric motor in generator mode to activate the<br />

on-board services and possibly recharge the batteries. In boost mode,<br />

on the other hand, the electric motor ensures a quicker response or help<br />

in transients or in the event of rough seas or, again, a significant power<br />

boost. Traditional use is also possible, with the diesel engine or engines<br />

totally dedicated to propulsion at sea. Even if the power available for<br />

the motor generators is reduced compared to the crossover, also in this<br />

case batteries can be charged, thus avoiding starting the generator set.<br />

Finally, for a typical leisure use, when the boat is not moving it is possible<br />

to select the hotel mode. Back to the batteries, there are two recharging<br />

methods: the classic plug-in on the quay, conditioned by the on-board<br />

inverter (but there will also be an ultra-fast DC mode) and the possibility<br />

of recharging while cruising.<br />


MARINE<br />


4000<br />

DRINKS<br />


Royce Power Systems must achieve<br />

the net-zero goal”. Camuffo: “We<br />

have announced a pilot installation<br />

of the methanol engine in partnership<br />

with Sanlorenzo shipyard. This<br />

version was developed from the Gas<br />

4000 series. Methanol is the fuel that<br />

most closely resembles diesel in terms<br />

of energy density and ease of storage.<br />

It also promises the greatest availability;<br />

we are addressing the development<br />

of the supply chain with our<br />

suppliers. So far we have been talking<br />

about gray methanol, of fossil origin,<br />

used as a bridge fuel until green meth-<br />

Methanol is entering<br />

the diet of yachts,<br />

according to mtu<br />

I<br />

n Cannes, we meet Gianluca Bononi,<br />

Deputy Vice President Rolls-<br />

Royce Power Systems Marine,<br />

and Nicola Camuffo, Director of<br />

the Yacht Competence Centre. They<br />

told us about methanol, e-fuels and<br />

hybridization. Bononi: “Starting in<br />

<strong>2023</strong>, the 2000 series and the 4000<br />

series will be certified for the use of<br />

e-fuel, according to the EN 15940<br />

standard. They have been tested with<br />

exceptional results, without any modifications,<br />

also in California, by the<br />

Golden Gate Ferry Operator. In 2025,<br />

we will have the first deliveries of serially<br />

produced fuel cells. In 2030, the<br />

entire product portfolio must allow<br />

for a reduction of our carbon footprint<br />

equal to 35 percent compared to<br />

the absolute emission values of 2019.<br />

Finally, in 2050, any division of Rollsanol<br />

will be available. Hydrogen presents<br />

seemingly insurmountable storage<br />

problems, at least for long-range<br />

shipping. Methanol is produced from<br />

hydrogen, therefore it is a second degree<br />

of synthesis. The expectation is<br />

that it will become cheaper as production<br />

volumes rise. In 2026, the Mediterranean<br />

area and the United States<br />

should be covered.” Bononi: “Among<br />

the existing solutions, the natural gas<br />

engine originally addressed some<br />

technological challenges. One of the<br />

delicate aspects is the fact that methanol<br />

does not have the lubricating<br />

characteristics of diesel”.<br />

What has changed in the injection?<br />

Bononi: “The more the injection pressure<br />

rises, the more the metal parts of<br />

the pumps are stressed. Rolls-Royce<br />

Power Systems tests simulators with<br />




At the Cannes Yachting Festival the announcement concerning<br />

methanol and Sanlorenzo shipyard, at the Monaco Yacht Show the<br />

agreement with Lürssen. mtu and the German shipbuilder plan to<br />

focus on yachts with lengths of 75 meters and above, which offer<br />

great potential for being powered by methanol – ideally 'green'<br />

methanol. Daniel Chatterjee, Director of Sustainability, Technology<br />

Management & Regulatory Affairs at Rolls-Royce's Power Systems<br />

business unit, and Peter Lürssen, CEO and co-proprietor of Lürssen,<br />

discussed the opportunities and challenges of this venture during<br />

the Monaco Yacht Show. “Methanol is currently leading the<br />

discussion on alternatives to fossil diesel,” said Chatterjee, who is<br />

heavily involved in numerous committees looking into tomorrow's<br />

fuels. “Storage and usage challenges do exist because methanol<br />

is highly flammable. But the fuel is liquid at normal ambient<br />

temperatures, so these challenges can be managed safely, as with<br />

other fuels,” he added. The main challenge is that in terms of<br />

calorific value methanol has around 2.4 times more volume than<br />

diesel, so the tanks have to be correspondingly larger. “We want to<br />

work with Rolls-Royce to run a stationary methanol-fueled combined<br />

heat and power plant in one of our shipyards as a demonstrator for<br />

our customers,” said Lürssen Managing Director Justus Reinke.<br />

4000 series cylinders, fueled by methanol.<br />

Mtu is working on the entire<br />

supply chain, as evidenced by the<br />

acquisition of Hoeller Electrolyzer:<br />

from production, to storage, to consumption.<br />

%70VPN Hydrogen is difficult to<br />

transport and this move is intended<br />

to produce it locally, where it will be<br />

consumed, for industrial machinery.<br />

For marine applications, hydrogen<br />

on board is a problem; on the other<br />

hand, we see a path that also excludes<br />

electric mobility, which at present requires<br />

unsustainable dimensions of<br />

the battery pack.”<br />

For the same energy amount, is<br />

methanol now lower to diesel?<br />

Camuffo: “If we talk about engine efficiency,<br />

our tests reveal that they are<br />

almost equal. If we talk about energy<br />

density, the factor is about 2.2 - 2.4.<br />

To complete this discussion, methanol<br />

does not evaporate, it has a lower flash<br />

point than diesel and it is not subject<br />

to explosion. Shipping registries and<br />

shipyards are moving to formulate<br />

regulations that are appropriate for<br />

this type of fuel.” Bononi: “Let’s go<br />

back to the announcement regarding<br />

Sanlorenzo, to which we will supply<br />

the first pair of natural gas units for<br />

one of their displacement boats. This<br />

agreement has an exclusivity character,<br />

as far as this pilot installation is<br />

concerned. With that boat, Sanlorenzo<br />

wants to achieve the net-zero goal,<br />

with the mtu 4000 series engines and<br />

with Siemens, with which it has signed<br />

a partnership agreement for the fuel<br />

cells that will take care of hotel loads<br />

through methanol reforming”.<br />

Of course, this agreement is not<br />

limited to methanol.<br />

Camuffo: “I also want to underline<br />

the use of biofuels starting in <strong>2023</strong>,<br />

based on tests carried out on the<br />

4000 series even up to 40,000 hours.<br />

From a technical and emission point<br />

of view, they have proven to work as<br />

well as diesel and even better. Another<br />

important step is the hybrid, which<br />

allows us to avoid an architecture<br />

with heat engines that are not always<br />

used to their best advantage. The SCR<br />

remains, with closed loop control of<br />

incoming and outgoing emissions.<br />

The electric fraction is perfectly<br />

matched with the engine, the certification<br />

is our responsibility; therefore,<br />

no certification is required at the time<br />

of commissioning. The hybridized<br />

2000 series is at the center of some<br />

projects.”<br />


MARINE<br />




With a total of 1,400 exhibitors<br />

from 49 countries, distributed<br />

in the 10 pavilions<br />

of the RAI Convention<br />

Center in Amsterdam, the Metstrade<br />

seems to have returned to its pre-pandemic<br />

glories. Despite the absence of<br />

some Asian companies due to the still<br />

present restrictions, the scenario of the<br />

34 th edition was extraordinarily broad<br />

and offered a complete overview of<br />

everything that may be needed to fit<br />

out a small boat or a large yacht. In<br />

just three days, from 15 to 17 November,<br />

the organizers recorded 26,480<br />

visits, 23 percent of which in the 18-<br />

35 age group, demonstrating that the<br />

sector attracts a lot of younger people,<br />

whose presence was nurtured and supported<br />

among other things by the Metstrade<br />

Young Professionals Club with<br />

versity and skills development. Electric<br />

aircraft visionary Cory Combs<br />

issued a challenge on November 15,<br />

arguing that the maritime industry,<br />

like aviation, needs to act on sustainability<br />

now, using already existing<br />

technology. Another theme of this edition<br />

was that of gender diversity, with<br />

an international event dedicated to the<br />

growing role of women in the maritime<br />

industry.<br />

Identifying a univocal trend in such a<br />

broad scenario of products and technologies<br />

is not easy. What is certain is<br />

that we have found an important presence<br />

of companies specialized in the<br />

development of electric or hybrid propulsion<br />

systems or which in any case<br />

are urgently questioning the future of<br />

navigation, advancing technological<br />

solutions different from the traditiona<br />

series of dedicated meetings.<br />

“This means,” says Metstrade director<br />

Niels Klarenbeek, “that the industry is<br />

as enthusiastic as we are, as we see a<br />

strong participation of boat builders,<br />

wholesalers, naval architects, marina<br />

developers and other marine professionals<br />

from all over the world.”<br />

This year’s Metstrade program focused<br />

on environment, technology, di-<br />

Environment,<br />

technology,<br />

development of skills:<br />

there are many themes,<br />

the trend is one, that<br />

of integrating solutions<br />

and systems<br />




The presentation of the winners of the prestigious Dame Design Awards<br />

2022, organized by the Mets, which saw over 100 nominations this year,<br />

revealed which products today represent the pinnacle of the design effort<br />

necessary to improve user experiences and the production efficiency.<br />

Among the award-winning products, the ZF Pod 4600, presented for the<br />

first time at the Cannes Yachting Festival together with Azimut Benetti,<br />

as Nicola Pistore, Indirect Material Purchasing Manager, tells us.<br />

“It is a product that is placed in the power range that goes from 1,650<br />

to 1,750 horsepower and offers a series of advantages in terms of<br />

manoeuverability of the boat, propulsive efficiency and therefore also<br />

reduction of consumption”. Talking about the award, Massimiliano<br />

Cotterchio, ZF Padova Head of Sales Pleasure Craft Product Line,<br />

underlines: “After many years this was our first participation in the Dame<br />

Design Awards. The nomination and the award represent for us a great<br />

recognition of the innovative aspect of a system that for the first time<br />

brings the benefits of a pod propulsion on such high powers. It is a<br />

product that has no equivalent on the market in terms of dimensions<br />

and characteristics and which is used to equip important boats, exceeding<br />

80 tons, both yachts and commercial applications from 70 feet upwards”.<br />

al ones, in particular electric or hybrid<br />

marine engines or integrated propulsion<br />

systems able to offer the final<br />

customer a complete solution, from<br />

the wheel to the propeller. In short, a<br />

boating industry that is increasingly<br />

attentive to the environment, where<br />

everyone can contribute by doing<br />

their part.<br />

Volvo Penta introduces a revolutionary<br />

joystick docking system that combines<br />

rudder, bow thruster, gear and<br />

engine speed controls into one easyto-use<br />

joystick. The company is the<br />

first in the industry to integrate diesel<br />

sterndrive steering with bow thruster<br />

control on a single engine installation.<br />

“By combining multiple tasks into<br />

one easy-to-use system, it’s easier<br />

to avoid mistakes,” explains Jonas<br />

Welinder, Product Planner for marine<br />

electronics. “This new level of control<br />

also gives confidence in tight rigging,<br />

crowded ports and strong currents.”<br />

Following the launch of the low drag<br />

SD15 range of sail drive systems,<br />

Yanmar presented in Amsterdam<br />

the new 113 kW (154 horsepower)<br />

4LV150-SD15 solution, developed<br />

by partner ZF and compatible with<br />

4JH80 and 4JH110 engines. Designed<br />

for use on monohull sailing yachts<br />

and catamarans up to 65 feet, it combines<br />

the benefits of the electronically<br />

controlled Yanmar common rail and<br />

the efficiency of the electronically<br />

controlled saildrive, ensuring smooth<br />

operation and greatly reducing noise<br />

and vibration.<br />


MARINE<br />

With its ninth participation at Metstrade,<br />

AS Labruna presents itself<br />

as a “system integrator”. Without forgetting<br />

its roots as an FPT Industrial<br />

and FNM distributor, it is accelerating<br />

its path in the pursuit of sustainability<br />

and in the desire to offer customers<br />

integrated services, starting with the<br />

progressive electrification of the shaft<br />

line. The architecture of the kinematic<br />

chain and integrated services, such as<br />

assistance, must be modulated on the<br />

needs of the specific application.<br />

There are several solutions presented<br />

on the stand at the Mets, where Massimo<br />

Labruna, CEO, reiterates that<br />

“our goal, also here at RAI in Amsterdam,<br />

is to project ourselves into the<br />

circle of the main system integrators<br />

of electrification in the international<br />

arena”. Among the solutions that we<br />

the same concept as the power banks<br />

of mobile phones. AS Labruna also<br />

participated in the Mets Innovation<br />

Lab with the Power Shunt, a module<br />

positioned in the middle of the shaft<br />

line, which allows you to refit or hybridize<br />

the boat in a simple way. “With<br />

the Power Shunt we are able to supply<br />

up to 100 kilowatts of electric motor at<br />

an affordable cost,” continues Labruna.<br />

Then there is the propulsion system<br />

called Maradea, applied to a 40<br />

horsepower Vetus, but which can be<br />

coupled with any engine. There is also<br />

a full electric, from the Maradea family,<br />

with a power of 10 kilowatts, and<br />

the range of on-board generators powered<br />

by HVO, as if to reiterate that the<br />

diesel cycle is not dead, because there<br />

are “sustainable” ways of using it.<br />

Among the many companies that proalready<br />

knew, we see the Blue Hybrid<br />

System, in a version with reduced engine<br />

capacity, applied to the 13 HPF,<br />

with a 1.3-litre thermal unit. There<br />

are instead three innovations presented<br />

in Amsterdam, united by the idea<br />

of making electric propulsion within<br />

the reach of many: the Power Bank<br />

30, “the first and only zero-noise generator,<br />

which delegates a methanol<br />

fuel cell to recharge the battery pack.<br />

Three segmentations: 10 kWh, 20 kWh<br />

and 30 kWh capacity. There is an inverter<br />

that in three-phase allows you<br />

to draw up to 30 kilowatts during<br />

peaks. Thanks to two 60-liter cans of<br />

methanol we are able to store up to<br />

150 kWh of energy”. The Power Bank<br />

30 is therefore a candidate for prestigious<br />

applications, such as the hotel<br />

functions of mega yachts, relying on<br />




Hosted by British Marine, Soundings Trade Only magazine and Mets,<br />

the Women in the Marine Industry <strong>International</strong> Event welcomed more<br />

than 120 women and many attendees. Among the panel speakers: Malin<br />

Schwartz, Senior Vice President, Volvo Penta; Nona Pedersen, General<br />

Manager, Propspeed; Delphine Planes, Vice President of Purchasing,<br />

Groupe Beneteau, Boat Division; Barbara Amerio, CEO PerMare Group and<br />

Leontien Moulijn, Franchise Development Manager EMEA, Freedom Boat<br />

Club a division of Brunswick. During the panel discussion, the speakers<br />

shared their backgrounds, experience and insights as female leaders<br />

working in the marine industry with the packed theatre and thoroughly<br />

engaged audience. “It is important for us to share our struggles and<br />

successes with each and not feel alone in this. It is so empowering to sit<br />

here today in a room full of people who all want to make a difference,”<br />

commented Nona Pedersen (Propspeed). While Delphine Planes (Groupe<br />

Beneteau) added: “I have loved being at this event today. The atmosphere<br />

has been really relaxed, the audience has been really engaged and<br />

everyone seems to have had a good time. This is an important topic, but<br />

it is wonderful to be able to discuss the issues without any drama.”<br />

Another driving force behind the Women in Marine movement and<br />

bringing this event to fruition has been Barton Marine CEO, Suzanne<br />

Blaustone. “As a veteran woman in business, it is wonderful to come to<br />

an event like this and still learn new things from women like these. It is<br />

so necessary for women to meet, network and feel the support that other<br />

women can provide in the industry and that we continue to push these<br />

events forward in the future,” Suzanne commented.<br />

posed innovative solutions in Amsterdam,<br />

we identified a start-up based in<br />

Estonia, PowerUP Energy Technologies,<br />

specialized in the development<br />

and production of smart electric generators<br />

based on hydrogen fuel cells<br />

and smart grid solutions. At the Mets<br />

they presented their prototype AI<br />

smart grid system called ChargeUP,<br />

which aims to provide vessels with<br />

energy independence. The system essentially<br />

includes a 400W hydrogen<br />

fuel cell generator, a solar panel, a<br />

lithium-ion battery, and a 5-inch display.<br />

It also uses a type 4 hydrogen<br />

cylinder to supply fuel to the generator.<br />

All components of the AI smart<br />

grid system are connected to controllers<br />

and converters to convert voltage<br />

and avoid fluctuations. The energy<br />

produced by the solar panels and<br />

generator is stored in the lithium-ion<br />

battery.<br />

Ivar Kruusenberg, CEO and founder<br />

of PowerUP, said: “Although hydrogen<br />

is at the heart of what we do, we<br />

cannot deny the immense benefits of<br />

other renewable sources such as solar<br />

and wind. With this philosophy, we<br />

have created a masterpiece capable<br />

of integrating the advantages of solar<br />

panels and hydrogen in a single system.<br />

This first-of-its-kind sustainable<br />

solution is ideal for achieving zero<br />

carbon emissions in the maritime sector.<br />

We also strongly believe that hydrogen<br />

technologies supported by other<br />

renewable technologies to create a<br />

hybrid solution are the way forward.”<br />





A MOVE<br />

ON<br />

We asked Valentina Ottavi,<br />

Business Development<br />

Manager, to confirm Bonfiglioli’s<br />

acceleration in<br />

the automotive sector, after the anticipations<br />

received during the visit to the<br />

HQ, which was named EVO.<br />

The on-road section feels at home<br />

here at the IAA. Can you take stock<br />

of Bonfiglioli E-mobility?<br />

“E-mobility at Bonfiglioli focuses on<br />

e<strong>Powertrain</strong> system integration, basing<br />

on proprietary technologies of<br />

all-in-one eDrive units, configured in<br />

several power and torque sizing. Allin-one<br />

units include motor, inverter,<br />

reducer and DCDC converter, interfacing<br />

VCU, battery system BMS and<br />

auxiliaries supplied by own or clients<br />

partners. Bonfiglioli has embedded<br />

the capability to sizing the electrified<br />

powertrain system on off-highway<br />

and on-highway applications applying<br />

digital twins techniques, as functional<br />

and physical virtual model and<br />

simulations. System integration design<br />

is verified and validated at Bonfiglioli’s<br />

facilities on virtual (HIL) and<br />

physical test benches.”<br />

How is Ennowing taking root<br />

among on-road applications?<br />

“The product is an automotive de-<br />

Bonfiglioli has<br />

transferred its<br />

expertise in gearboxes<br />

for industrial and wind<br />

power applications to<br />

the road environment<br />

rived, highly compact and price effective.<br />

Bonfiglioli doesn’t compete<br />

on passenger cars market, the main<br />

targets are last mile delivery applications,<br />

shuttle buses, urban vehicles<br />

and on road applications where a replacement<br />

of combustion engine on<br />

axles or PTOs for powering hydraulic<br />

circuits are needed.”<br />

Which kind or machines are in your<br />

target market: more commercial or<br />

special vehicles?<br />

“Both, it depends from size and performances<br />

required by the customers<br />

and if those match with the features<br />

of the powertrains we offer; the two<br />

lines of products developed have just<br />

the aim to face all the main requirements<br />

on these different market segments.”<br />

Is the “last mile” a real development<br />



ALL-IN-ONE<br />

The all-in-one units include motor, inverter, DCDC gearbox and converter,<br />

VCU interfacing, battery BMS and auxiliary devices. Bonfiglioli<br />

has incorporated the ability to size the electrified propulsion system<br />

for off-highway and on-highway applications by applying digital<br />

twinning techniques such as virtual functional and physical modelling<br />

and simulations. The system integration design is checked and<br />

validated at Bonfiglioli’s facilities on virtual (HIL) and physical test<br />

benches. Bonfiglioli’s competence in the field of mechanics,<br />

gearboxes, differentials allows the application of technologies on<br />

gears, bearings and interfacing solutions that guarantee the control<br />

of high-performance high-speed electric motors of the latest<br />

generation, reducing the speed to levels compatible with those<br />

of the axle shafts, with important increases in torque at the axle.<br />

At the IAA they brought three similar products (70 kW power),<br />

the EDS70H, the EDS70X and the EDS70D, in this case a gearbox<br />

with differential. Finally, the 120 kW, with motor, inverter, DC/DC<br />

and gearbox, able to electrify LCVs up to 7.5 tonnes.<br />

MOLIERE, which stands for Multipurpose flexible high resolution strain sensor,<br />

is an European funded project, which is inserted in the EIT Manufacturing<br />

Agenda. Its main project focus is on the industrialization of an ultra-highresolution<br />

MEMS (micro electro-mechanical systems) strain sensor, 1000 higher<br />

than current commercial strain gauge. Bonfiglioli, as a partner in the project,<br />

will work on Components and FEM/CFD analysis for first applications.<br />

or one emphasized by some propaganda?<br />

How does Bonfiglioli view it?<br />

“At a global level, the electric LCV<br />

market share is 2%, about four times<br />

less than for passenger cars. Even in<br />

advanced EV markets, the LCV share<br />

barely exceeds 12%. The economic<br />

case for electrifying LCVs is stronger<br />

than for cars in cases such as urban<br />

delivery since LCV fleets are driven<br />

intensively, often operate on predictable<br />

routes and can be charged at commercial<br />

depots. China accounted for<br />

the largest number of LCVs sales in<br />

2021 at 86,000, showing rapid growth<br />

consecutively for 2020 and 2021. Europe<br />

was the second-largest market<br />

with more than 60,000 electric LCV<br />

sales in 2021 and where sales have<br />

been quickly increasing. The vast majority<br />

of electric LCVs are BEVs, only<br />

a few PHEVs are sold in Europe. This<br />

may reflect that most electric LCVs<br />

are acquired for specific uses within<br />

fixed delivery areas and may not<br />

need an extended driving range. The<br />

average battery size of LCVs is 18%<br />

smaller than for passenger cars; this<br />

may be due predictable and shorter<br />

routes, or because total ownership<br />

and operation costs are key factors in<br />

fleet owner decisions to buy electric<br />

LCVs.”<br />

What other products did you exhibit<br />

at the IAA?<br />

“We showed integrated e-powertrains<br />

configured for electrifying both mechanical<br />

and hydrostatic transmission<br />

vehicles. 70kW and 120kW peak<br />

power e-systems operating @250-<br />

420VDC.”<br />

Could Bonfiglioli’s exploration of<br />

IoT, Big Data and sensor technology<br />

be the key to opening the door<br />

to the crowded automotive market?<br />

“Bonfiglioli is focusing on Smart Sensors<br />

based on proprietary technologies<br />

for monitoring reducers and<br />

transmission systems and extract the<br />

relevant features for diagnosis and<br />

predictive maintenance by AI based<br />

algorithms. In such a way, Smart Sensors<br />

could be considered a completion<br />

of IoTwins project, as their design and<br />

information management exploit the<br />

same technical fundamentals, meaning<br />

Digital Twins methods and Big<br />

Data management. The availability<br />

of a complete technological package<br />

represents an opportunity to enlarge<br />

the presence of Bonfiglioli in mobility<br />

on-highway area, included automotive<br />

and light commercial vehicles.”<br />


TECHNO<br />



Only two years after its launch,<br />

Weichai is flanking its record-breaking<br />

engine, the first<br />

diesel truck to break the 50%<br />

efficiency threshold, with the natural<br />

gas version. A four-handed work with<br />

Bosch. In order to play it by ear (let’s<br />

not forget that Scania later achieved<br />

the same goal, also in the industrial<br />

sector), the Weifang-based company<br />

(approximately 40 billion euros<br />

in turnover) enlisted the expertise of<br />

Robert Bosch. After all, calibrating<br />

chamber pressure and ECU mapping<br />

are essential factors in achieving a<br />

goal of this significance. According<br />

to the manufacturer’s data, a thermal<br />

efficiency of 52.28% can reduce<br />

fuel consumption and carbon dioxide<br />

emissions by 12%. In September<br />

2020, Weichai launched the world’s<br />

first basic diesel engine with a thermal<br />

efficiency of 50.23%. In January<br />

2022, the company further increased<br />

the efficiency of the diesel engine to<br />

51.09%, continuing to lead the global<br />

internal combustion engine industry.<br />

The natural gas used plays an important<br />

role in reducing carbon dioxide<br />

emissions in the internal combustion<br />

engine due to its inherent properties.<br />

In 2008, the Chinese Group started to<br />

design direct in-cylinder gas injection<br />

technology, and in 2012 developed<br />

China’s first highly powerful combustion<br />

engine equipped with high-pressure<br />

compressed natural gas direct injection<br />

into the cylinder. Since 2018,<br />

Weichai’s R&D Team has made<br />

two major strides in the thermal efficiency<br />

of natural gas base engines,<br />

exceeding 45% in 2020 and 50%<br />

in 2021, compared to the industry’s<br />

42%. In November this year, the thermal<br />

efficiency of natural gas base engines<br />

was improved to 54.16%, meeting<br />

China VI emission standards,<br />

and exceeding the industry’s highest<br />

level of 47.6%. The launch of these<br />

innovative engines has been enthusiastically<br />

welcomed by the market<br />

and in particular by Steven Hartong,<br />

CEO of the Bosch Group, Chris Mason,<br />

CEO of the <strong>International</strong> Federation<br />

of Automotive Engineers, Walter<br />

Downing, COO of the Southwest<br />

Research Institute, Helmut Lister,<br />

CEO of All (Austria), Wei, President<br />

of the Chinese Engineers Association<br />

of North America, China Mechanical<br />

Engineering Society, China Internal<br />

Combustion Engine Society, China<br />

Internal Combustion Engine Industry<br />

Association, research institutes,<br />

industry institutes and national and<br />

international strategic partners.<br />




Bergen is not merely making announcements<br />

and on hydrogen<br />

has really completed testing.<br />

And everything seems to be<br />

working out for the best. According<br />

to the Norwegian company, trials running<br />

a Bergen gas engine on a blend<br />

of green hydrogen and natural gas<br />

have been successfully completed at<br />

Viscofan, the international meat products<br />

processor, at its Cáseda plant in<br />

northern Spain. It is the first time a<br />

Bergen engine has run with hydrogen<br />

in a full-scale industrial application.<br />

The trial confirmed laboratory tests<br />

that the engine performs normally in<br />

real-life conditions and that Viscofan<br />

can potentially save almost 8,000<br />

tonnes of CO 2<br />

emissions per year<br />

from its operations. Fuel blending<br />

was carried out to reach a mixed value<br />

of 15% hydrogen and 85% natural<br />

gas in an engine of the Bergen type<br />

B36:45L6AG producing 5.5MW of<br />

output in combined heat and power<br />

configuration. A temporary installation<br />

of two hydrogen semi-trailers<br />

with an approximate capacity each of<br />

4,000 Nm 3 of compressed hydrogen at<br />

200 bar, progressively increasing hydrogen<br />

flows of 400 Nm 3 /h were used.<br />

Bergen Engines first green hydrogen<br />

test in a production process concluded<br />

successfully on 100% load.<br />


At Bauma BorgWarner showed ultra-high energy battery system and<br />

eFan technology for construction vehicles, plus further 800V components<br />

including eMotors, the latest generation of inverters and high voltage<br />

coolant heaters. The high-energy battery system features new cylindrical<br />

cell battery modules, and it allows electric vehicles to increase their<br />

range. It has been developed for long-distance traffic. The eFan can be<br />

combined with either existing cooling fans or new fan designs to achieve<br />

highest efficiency and lowest noise. Its task is to cool components such<br />

as the fuel cell, traction motor, electric brake, or the battery pack in<br />

battery-electric or fuel-cell commercial vehicles.<br />


RINA has announced the Approval in Principle (AiP) of the first very large crude carrier vessel using an<br />

innovative propulsion arrangement that reduces the ship’s resistance by 5-10%. This result is achieved<br />

by splitting the thrust of a single large propeller into two smaller ones, thus reducing the required ballast<br />

draft for the full propeller immersion. The LNG/hydrogen-fuelled vessel general arrangement developed<br />

by Shanghai Waigaoqiao Shipbuilding (SWS) is based on the result of a joint project with Marin, the Liberia<br />

Administration, Wärtsilä, ABB and Helbio (a subsidiary of Metacon AB) and RINA.<br />





IS<br />

THE KEY<br />

Neeta Khare can boast a twenty-year<br />

background in the<br />

field of battery and fuel cell<br />

development. She started with<br />

her PhD for intelligent battery management<br />

where she combined artificial<br />

intelligence and state of charge<br />

and state of health algorithms, which<br />

are now very popular words, but almost<br />

twenty years ago nobody was<br />

familiar with it. That’s how the journey<br />

started, then she migrated from<br />

India to the USA to participate in a<br />

project of the US Navy and also in industry<br />

where she led an R&D team,<br />

then she moved to Switzerland as<br />

a Senior Scientist and head of BMS<br />

group with BFH-CSEM Energy Storage<br />

Research Center (ESReC), where<br />

she led the Battery Management<br />

Group developing BMS algorithms,<br />

models, software and hardware. Two<br />

positions, Vice President Technology,<br />

Leclanche, and Chief Innovation<br />

Officer, GCT, broaden her experiences<br />

to words business and productization.<br />

These roles extended her vision<br />

beyond development of the battery<br />

management system, and covered cell<br />

manufacturing to the Battery pack<br />

solution for Electric Vehicles specifically<br />

Public Transport. After that she<br />

joined FPT Industrial as Director of<br />

Battery and Fuel Cells.<br />

“I loved mathematics and physics as<br />

a young kid. My parents graduated in<br />

history, but they allowed me and my<br />

three brothers to take our own journey.<br />

They just told us: education is<br />

the only thing that we can give you,<br />

and that was true, so we understood<br />

very early that education was the key<br />

of success for us. We loved mathematics<br />

and physics, so engineering was<br />

the best way to choose. At the time<br />

engineering schools were not that<br />

common, there was a huge competition,<br />

we had to face tough entrance<br />

examination. No doubt the gender imbalance<br />

is a huge issue in technology<br />

and particularly for higher leadership<br />

roles and I think that is because when<br />

we were growing up female education<br />

was not so popular. Engineering was<br />

considered a field mainly set for men,<br />

so my school was very ‘male dominating’:<br />

of 300 engineering students, only<br />

11 were women but 5 of them were<br />

among the toppers. Having grown<br />

up with three brothers, I’ve always<br />

been in the minority. When I joined<br />

my first job in an important female<br />

university in India, in my department<br />



they were all male except me. So I remained<br />

unique in this way throughout<br />

my life. My unique identity and ability<br />

made me head of the department<br />

soon. From there, I moved to industry,<br />

but the fact that I was the only woman<br />

had remained unchanged. Most often,<br />

this turned out to be an advantage for<br />

me because people remembered me,<br />

and it was not too much of a struggle<br />

for me to get recognised for my skills.<br />

However, in technical surrounding,<br />

I had to prove myself more than my<br />

male counterparts. Sometimes twice<br />

harder.”<br />

And what about her country, India?<br />

“In India, female engineers are more<br />

acceptable and more common compared<br />

to Switzerland or United States,<br />

so I faced more challenges in these<br />

two countries compared to India. This<br />

is a very interesting part because, in<br />

India, we have many industrial female<br />

leaders, doctors, engineers and<br />

mathematicians. I think one historical<br />

reason was that the third Prime Minister<br />

after colonization was a woman,<br />

Indira Gandhi, so we accepted female<br />

leaders in India much earlier than<br />

other countries. However, in USA and<br />

Switzerland, in higher management<br />

meetings, you only find less than 1%<br />

female leaders.”<br />

What is the most challenging part<br />

of your job?<br />

“During my career, being a woman<br />

didn’t affect me too much except in<br />

few incidents. I felt being female, my<br />

ability to show empathy and providing<br />

support to the team has an advantage<br />

over the other gender. On the other<br />

side of the coin, being female, one<br />

cannot be natural all the time, you<br />

have to make a shield, you have to be<br />

stronger to face the tough situations.<br />

When I first accepted a leadership<br />

position, I was not good in handling<br />

diplomatic and stressful situations. It<br />

was not easy to adopt diplomatic approaches<br />

for me. Then I slowly opened<br />

up a little. It’s me who was challenging<br />

myself to get integrated and not to<br />

be affected by the environment. Lots<br />

of my bosses and colleagues guided<br />

me. In the end, it is a beautiful internal<br />

and external journey. Though still,<br />

I love being a technical person and I<br />

use democratic managerial approach<br />

to manage the team. I love diversity in<br />

the team: be it cultural, gender, generation,<br />

experiences and skills. This<br />

brings the best products.”<br />

If you were to compare yourself to<br />

a great character in history or literature,<br />

who would you compare to?<br />

“I cannot compare myself to someone<br />

great, because that would be unfair to<br />

them. As a kid, I didn’t have any famous<br />

role model, I think, my mom inspired<br />

me for many things rather than<br />

any bigger character. It needed lots of<br />

courage to make or to choose between<br />

career and personal choices, specially<br />

if you are female and growing up<br />

in India. I was able to do so because<br />

I saw my mum’ struggle between responsibilities<br />

for family and her passion<br />

for career.”<br />



#PARKER<br />



There was a whole host of things<br />

on display in Munich: electrification<br />

and hydrogen technologies,<br />

hydrogen-compatible materials,<br />

IoT, alternative fuel delivery<br />

systems, endothermic components<br />

and hydraulic filtration. We explored<br />

areas of interest with Steve Duricky,<br />

global platform manager for Parker’s<br />

Fluid Connectors Group. “Parker has<br />

developed precision components for<br />

natural gas engines that meet ANSI<br />

(American National Standards Institute,<br />

ed.) NGV 3.1 requirements. We<br />

have a solution for both the high-pressure<br />

side and the low-pressure side.”<br />

What differences are there between<br />

the materials used for high pressure<br />

and low pressure?<br />

“High pressure, at 3,600 psi or 250<br />

bar, has to have robust sealing to contain<br />

the methane. We have developed<br />

a pressure regulator, the FM80, specifically<br />

designed for compressed natural<br />

gas.” This regulator has a flow<br />

rate of up to 90 kg/h, an inlet pressure<br />

rating of 4,250 PSIG and an optional<br />

filtration system. “Compressed gas<br />

storage takes place at 3,600 psi or<br />

250 bar,” Duricky resumes. “We integrated<br />

an FM80 filter to make sure<br />

the methane gas is cleaned of sulfur,<br />

oils and particulate matter. Oil, as a<br />

compressor lubricant, can seep into<br />

the fuel; therefore, it is critical to have<br />

a filter to make sure there is no oil carry-over<br />

that can damage the engine.”<br />

Let’s reengage with hydrogen. In<br />

common with compressed natural<br />

gas, hydrogen is starting to be used as<br />

a fuel source for heavy duty vehicles.<br />

Duricky tells us that “storing hydrogen<br />

on board at very high pressure<br />

is extremely important to achieve a<br />

strong, reliable and safe connection.<br />

It is important to pay attention to the<br />

physics behind using hydrogen, we<br />

worked on developing compatible<br />

O-rings, used in our O-ring flat face<br />

fittings (Seal-Lok/O-Lok) to obtain a<br />

leak free solution. To be honest, this<br />

technology has been around for 30<br />

years and is found in a lot of equipment<br />

for hydraulic applications. So,<br />

what we did was to implement the<br />

technology, adapting the O-ring to<br />

work with hydrogen. Consider that<br />

hydrogen has a higher pressure, at<br />

700 bar. To prevent hydrogen embrittlement,<br />

it’s necessary to have the<br />

fittings manufactured from 316 stainless<br />

steel.”<br />

Engines and components for OEM<br />

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