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Energy- and resource-efficient aluminum machining / How measurement machines and software communicate / Innovative use of tooling and workholding / Machining graphite / Machining centers as “green” welding cells

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ISSN 2628-5444<br />

high precision tooling<br />

Machine Tools, PCD, PVD, CVD, CBN, Hard Metal <strong>2023</strong> – 1<br />

In the future, Haas Schleifmaschinen<br />

will be known as Adelbert Haas.<br />

Who needs a Plan B when Plan A simply can’t be improved on?<br />

A for Adelbert.<br />

haas-anz-planA-Titel-<strong>hpt</strong>.indd 1 31.01.23 11:52<br />

■ Energy- and resource-efficient aluminum machining ■ How measurement machines and software communicate ■<br />

■ Innovative use of tooling and workholding ■ Machining graphite ■ Machining centers as “green” welding cells ■


The revolution in deep grinding<br />

THE<br />

FUTURE<br />

IS<br />

YOURS<br />

More information<br />

office@lach-diamant.de<br />

www.lach-diamant.de<br />

100 years of innovation since 1922<br />

®<br />

®


E-Mail puk@harnisch.com<br />

Internet www.harnisch.com<br />

Dr. Harnisch Verlags GmbH<br />

Eschenstraße 25<br />

90441 Nürnberg<br />

Telefon +49 (0) 911 2018-0<br />

Fax +49 (0) 911 2018-100<br />

E-Mail puk@harnisch.com<br />

Internet www.harnisch.com<br />

EINFLUTIGE SCHRAUBENSPINDELPUMPE<br />

Materials: carbon steel, stainless steel,<br />

MIT MAGNETKUPPLUNG duplex stainless steel; others on request<br />

Differenzdruck-Begrenzungsventil<br />

MEHR INFOS<br />

www.klaus-union.com<br />

Modulares, axial geteiltes Gehäuse<br />

Werkstoffe: Kohlenstoffstahl, MORE INFO Edelstahl,<br />

Duplex Edelstahl; weitere auf Anfrage<br />

Dr. Harnisch Verlags GmbH<br />

Eschenstraße 25<br />

90441 Nuremberg, Germany<br />

Phone + 49 (0) 911 2018-0<br />

Fax + 49 (0) 911 2018-100<br />

SINGLE VOLUTE TWIN SCREW PUMP<br />

WITH MAGNET DRIVE<br />

www.klaus-union.com<br />

Axial split modular casing<br />

Differential pressure limiting valve<br />

Spalttopfausführungen:<br />

E metallisch / nicht-metallisch<br />

E einschalig / doppelschalig<br />

Containment shell executions:<br />

E metallic / non-metallic<br />

E single / double shell<br />

Wasser Abwasser Umwelttechnik<br />

Energie Öl Gas Wasserstoff<br />

Fahrzeugbau Schiffbau Schwerindustrie<br />

Chemie Pharma Biotechnik<br />

Lebensmittel- und Getränkeindustrie<br />

Water Wastewater Environmental Technology<br />

Energy Oil Gas Hydrogen<br />

Automotive Shipbuilding Heavy Industry<br />

Chemistry Pharmaceutics Biotechnology<br />

Food and Beverage Industry<br />

WANGEN_PuK_Titelseite_216x182.indd 1 24.01.2022 15:23:40<br />

Independent magazine for Pumps, Compressors and Process Components<br />

WANGEN_PuK_Titelseite_216x182.indd 1 24.01.2022 15:24:33<br />

Unabhängiges Fachmagazin für Pumpen, Kompressoren und prozesstechnische Komponenten<br />

editorial<br />

GREEN EFFICIENT TECHNOLOGIES<br />

Eric Schäfer<br />

editor-in-chief<br />

Accepting challenges<br />

Despite global crises and the resulting uncertainties, the mechanical<br />

engineering and toolmaking sector can look to the future with relative<br />

confidence at the beginning of <strong>2023</strong>: the aviation industry is increasing<br />

the production of aircraft, and the energy sector is generating demand<br />

from the plant engineering sector. Wind power generators, heat pumps<br />

and plants related to the hydrogen economy, which is now increasingly<br />

coming into focus, including all the components required, are driving<br />

demand for tools.<br />

The American demand is increasing, China remains an important<br />

market, as do the East Asian markets, only the development in<br />

Europe is stagnating.<br />

However numerous challenges remain. In order to meet these in the<br />

future, machining as a production technology must strive for higher<br />

productivity and greater sustainability. For example, energy consumption<br />

in machining can be reduced by replacing peripheral processes such as<br />

wet lubrication with low-energy lubrication systems such as minimum<br />

quantity lubrication (MQL).<br />

MAXIMUM SAFETY.<br />

HIGH FLEXIBILITY.<br />

ROBUST DESIGN.<br />

MAXIMALE SICHERHEIT.<br />

HOHE FLEXIBILITÄT.<br />

ROBUSTES DESIGN.<br />

Hygienisch fördern<br />

WANGEN VarioTwin NG<br />

H DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH<br />

DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH<br />

H DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH<br />

DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH<br />

H DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH<br />

DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH<br />

DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH<br />

DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH<br />

DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH<br />

DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH DEUTSCH<br />

PROZESSTECHNIK & KOMPONENTEN<br />

2022<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS<br />

PROZESSTECHNIK & KOMPONENTEN<br />

The hygienic solution<br />

WANGEN VarioTwin NG<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS<br />

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2022<br />

2022<br />

2022<br />

Such a change, in conjunction with low-melting materials such as<br />

aluminum alloys, can lead to problems in terms of tool performance,<br />

tool life and process reliability. The authors of the Fraunhofer Institute<br />

for Manufacturing Engineering and Automation IPA and the University<br />

of Stuttgart report in a scientific study on how these can be solved and<br />

the potential of using biomimetic microstructures in this context.<br />

Examples in the user reports from the industry demonstrate how challenges<br />

in daily manufacturing processes can sometimes be overcome by the joint<br />

use of know-how from two partners.<br />

Eric Schäfer<br />

editor-in-chief<br />

The independent media platform<br />

for energy supply, efficiency<br />

enhancement and alternative<br />

energy sources and storage<br />

Sustainable opportunities in<br />

process technology<br />

Circular economy in the industrial<br />

production process<br />

Topics H 2<br />

, Synthetic Fuels, Water,<br />

Solar & Photovoltaics, Wind Power,<br />

Bioenergy, Geothermal Energy,<br />

Battery Technology,<br />

System Integration and<br />

other alternative options<br />

Dr. Harnisch Verlags GmbH · Eschenstr. 25<br />

90441 Nuremberg · Germany<br />

Tel.: +49 (0) 911 - 2018 0<br />

info@harnisch.com · www.harnisch.com


table of contents<br />

cover story<br />

Who the f*** is Adelbert?<br />

Interview with Dirk Wember, managing director Adelbert Haas GmbH 6<br />

materials & tools<br />

Kennametal expands modular drill portfolio 9<br />

Small, strong, robust – new centric vice makes a big difference 12<br />

Energy- and resource-efficient aluminum machining<br />

Supporting minimum quantity lubrication technology by biomimetic micro<br />

structures on 2D-orthogonal cutting tools generated with ultrashort laser pulses 14<br />

The revolution in tool handling 27<br />

LACH DIAMANT looks back on 100 years – 15 th part<br />

Diamond contra diamond? A reflection on the versatility of diamonds 28<br />

processes<br />

The “smallest” world sensation of <strong>2023</strong> 38<br />

Machining graphite: reliably and unmanned 41<br />

Measurement solutions from a single source in transmission component manufacture 42<br />

machining center<br />

Appealing state-of-the-art technology 44<br />

Laser processing improves quality and tool life and secures competitive advantage 46<br />

Machining centers as “green” welding cells 47<br />

components<br />

Cutting tool measurement and compensation<br />

How measurement machines and software easily communicate 48<br />

news & facts 31<br />

fairs 50<br />

impressum & company finder 51<br />

4 no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong>


Cool Micro<br />

micro milling<br />

THE WORLD’S SMALLEST ENDMILL<br />

WITH INTEGRATED COOLING<br />

Discover more!


cover story<br />

Who the f*** is Adelbert?<br />

Interview with Dirk Wember, managing director Adelbert Haas GmbH<br />

Renaming und rebranding at Haas:<br />

Haas Schleifmaschinen GmbH will be known as<br />

Adelbert Haas GmbH. Haas Schleifmaschinen looks<br />

back, forward and reflects on its pioneer and founder<br />

Adelbert Haas.<br />

Mr. Wember, the company name and the brand logo should<br />

actually be the last things to be changed. Both are, after all,<br />

the epitome of popularity, trust and, in addition, a value<br />

proposition in themselves.<br />

Dirk Wember: I completely agree with you on that. And yet<br />

there are important occasions to do so. That’s precisely why<br />

we didn’t go for extreme renaming and come up with some<br />

meaningless word creation. The need for a cautious brand<br />

evolution has become more and more imposing in recent<br />

years, and now we are boldly taking this step. I would like to<br />

explain the reasons for this, and perhaps one or two<br />

other machine manufacturer are also facing this challenge<br />

and can take us an example.<br />

We are still a bit surprised, because news from Trossingen<br />

are usually high-tech innovations. What were your reasons<br />

for taking this step?<br />

Dirk Wember: I’ll tell you the main reason that has been<br />

on my mind for years. We have long outgrown our previous<br />

name, Haas Schleifmaschinen. The name limits us ar too<br />

much and at some point in the near future slows down our<br />

business development instead of giving it a proper boost.<br />

We don’t build grinding machines, we develop unique<br />

technologies and are valued for our solution expertise. Our<br />

own software plays a decisive role in the requirements of<br />

the future. As a company we are a hybrid and unique in our<br />

industry. On the one hand, we are a machine manufacturer<br />

in the grinding segment, and on the other hand, we are a<br />

software pioneer with solutions that make us interesting<br />

outside our very specific industry. And when we reach<br />

limits at Haas, we want to overcome them as quickly<br />

as possible, currently with a new appearance and<br />

technologically anyway.<br />

Is there a specific example that illustrates this?<br />

Dirk Wember: One example among many – Styx! With<br />

our Multigrind® Styx software we visualize and optimize<br />

complete production processes before the workpiece to be<br />

ground is even clamped into the machine. This digital test<br />

bed for 3D optimization offers, with its 1:1 visualization,<br />

Mail from Trossingen: A new company name and a new logo, which remained almost completely the old one.<br />

6 no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong>


cover story<br />

Since the beginning of 2000, Dirk Wember has been a shareholder and managing director of Adelbert Haas GmbH;<br />

he shares this task with his daughter Marie-Sophie Maier-Wember and with his long-time partner<br />

and chief technology officer Thomas Bader.<br />

maximum control, pixel-perfect and without restriction.<br />

This saves a lot of time and unnecessary grinding of<br />

expensive blanks. After all, it doesn’t take much imagination<br />

here to envision what this technology could do in related<br />

industries as well.<br />

Are there any further reasons or did they just want<br />

to get rid of the term grinding machines?<br />

Dirk Wember: A common reason for changing the brand<br />

name is also successful internationalization. This has also<br />

occurred in our case. We are advancing on all continents,<br />

and this naturally generates conflicts. For us, a unique<br />

position in the market is indispensable. We want to clearly<br />

define ourselves with our cutting-edge technology and<br />

generate even more interest in our solution offerings<br />

worldwide. To do this, we need to differentiate ourselves<br />

to avoid any possible confusion. With the new name<br />

Adelbert Haas GmbH we strengthen the brand protection<br />

internationally and still remain flexible for what we have<br />

planned for the future.<br />

And what does all this have to do with the<br />

founder, Adelbert?<br />

Dirk Wember: Well, if you have a plan A, you don’t need<br />

a plan B. A like Adelbert. With Adelbert we want to create<br />

an awareness of our origin from the Black Forest. Adelbert<br />

Haas turns origins into the future. We have always been<br />

innovators, pioneers and “won’t work, doesn’t exist”<br />

enablers. We are consistent, courageous and always close to<br />

the challenges of our customers. These characteristics have<br />

characterized us for almost 90 years and are an immutable<br />

part of our corporate DNA. That’s why the decision to go<br />

with Adelbert Haas GmbH just fell into our laps.<br />

Isn’t Adelbert Haas GmbH a bit too bulky,<br />

especially outside the language area?<br />

Dirk Wember: Yes, of course Adelbert is bulky, and that’s<br />

a good thing. A name with rough edges initially causes<br />

discussions, but pays off in the long run. We are not afraid<br />

of the tongue twister, we have become far too relevant in<br />

the market for that. It is precisely what is unusual about<br />

our Adelbert that makes it special, and we want to be<br />

special for our customer, too. The company has never<br />

lacked uncompromising courage, on the contrary.<br />

Who else in our industry would have named their new<br />

tool grinding machine Multigrind® Radical? We think<br />

radically differently, act in a future-oriented way and<br />

that is exactly what our customers appreciate.<br />

(Dirk Wember laughs and adds:)<br />

People certainly need some time to get used to the Adelbert.<br />

We are happy to take this time. Acceptance and identification<br />

are very important to us, both internal and external. Just<br />

imagine our loyal customers, the Haas brand means a lot to<br />

them. And suddenly they are presented with some fantasy<br />

name? Then you take away something they valued and<br />

trusted. We want to preserve our psychological added value,<br />

and with it our attitude and our aura.<br />

It is clear, however, that even if our motives are valid, they<br />

will of course be questioned by the public, and that is a<br />

good thing. Our new name has to measure up to the<br />

no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong><br />

7


cover story<br />

Image caption,<br />

social media example<br />

for the new<br />

Multigrind® Radical.<br />

previous one, so we didn’t want a blank slate. We have<br />

proceeded cautiously and yet courageously. With a<br />

completely new brand name, memories are lost, we<br />

avoided that with the decision to Adelbert Haas GmbH.<br />

But why now of all times, our readers will ask<br />

themselves. Are there any other reasons after all?<br />

Dirk Wember: I will formulate this in the exclusion<br />

procedure so that no misunderstandings arise: there is<br />

no outside investor at Adelbert Haas. We have not merged.<br />

We were also very successful during Corona and even used<br />

the time to develop our Multigrind® Radical. Our order<br />

books are full, and we are looking ahead with great<br />

confidence. Thomas Bader and I have added another<br />

managing director to the circle in the form of my daughter<br />

Marie-Sophie Maier-Wember, placing the growth themes<br />

of digitization and software at the very top.<br />

And if there are still unanswered questions, just call me, I<br />

am always happy about the direct contact, especially<br />

after the past two years.<br />

Can such a change of name go wrong?<br />

Don’t you have sleepless nights before it?<br />

Dirk Wember: Of course, there is no guarantee; ultimately,<br />

it is the public that decides on success or failure. I can well<br />

remember a negative example from past years, and honestly,<br />

it still hurts today. The name change from Michael Deckel<br />

to ISOG was a fiasco, both in terms of craftsmanship and<br />

psychology. All the brand capital that had been built up<br />

so successfully – everything that the customer associated<br />

with the brand – was lost. We know the result:<br />

shutdown in April 2020.<br />

Mr. Wember, renaming and rebranding is certainly<br />

expensive and requires a lot of marketing know-how.<br />

Why didn’t you shy away from it? At the end of the<br />

day, it’s always a cost-benefit calculation<br />

that has to work out, isn't it?<br />

Dirk Wember: The development of a global brand, with its<br />

strategic, legal and linguistic challenges, is a real challenge,<br />

and we were aware of that from the very beginning. But<br />

pioneering spirit never looks at the costs first, but has the<br />

result, the benefit as its goal.<br />

And on the subject of marketing, that has always been my<br />

hobbyhorse and I learned the tools from scratch. If we can’t<br />

communicate our topics, they won’t exist in the market.<br />

That’s why an offensive communication and marketing<br />

strategy is essential. In line with our attitude, we always<br />

have the best professionals at the start, also in marketing.<br />

And let me tell you, marketing is really fun, just take a look<br />

at our current campaign for the launch of the Multigrind®<br />

Radical. We get a lot of praise and our competitors maybe<br />

a gray hair or two.<br />

Mr. Wember thank you for sharing your thoughts<br />

and marketing concept with our readers.<br />

Dirk Wember: I have to thank you on behalf of Adelbert<br />

Haas GmbH and on behalf of all Haas employees.<br />

More efficiency and productivity – virtual process optimization with Multigrind® Styx.<br />

further information: www.multigrind.com<br />

8 no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong>


materials & tools<br />

Kennametal expands<br />

KenTIP TM FS modular<br />

drill portfolio<br />

Kennametal adds to its KenTIP TM FS modular drill<br />

platform by leveraging the patent-protected GOdrill TM<br />

technology for a new insert, the KenTIP FS GTP, along<br />

with several new straight-fluted drills for multiple materials<br />

and applications including the KenTIP FS SCF<br />

and KenTIP FS BF holders.<br />

➢ KenTIP FS GTP: using the 140-degree solid carbide point<br />

design from Kennametal’s GOdrillTM, the KenTIP FS GTP<br />

insert allows for multiple machining applications across a<br />

range of materials including steel, stainless steel and cast<br />

iron. KenTIP FS GTP also features excellent centering<br />

capabilities, even at moderate cutting parameters, and lowaxial<br />

forces.<br />

➢ KenTIP FS SCF Holders: the KenTIP FS SCF Holders<br />

feature a straight- fluted design for static applications on<br />

lathes. The SCF shank with flange allows for quick and easy<br />

usage on common lathe turrets. With this new addition<br />

to the KenTip FS portfolio, machinists can expect reliable<br />

chip evacuation and maximum torsion resistance, plus<br />

superb temperature control and lubrication because of an<br />

internal coolant supply with four exits.<br />

➢ KenTIP FS BF Holders: these straight-fluted drills for<br />

drilling, countersinking and chamfering (in one operation)<br />

a feature Weldon shank for standard BF adaptors. The<br />

straight flute design enables the length to be adjusted and<br />

delivers reliable chip evacuation and maximum torsion resistance.<br />

The KenTIP FS BF Holders deliver superb temperature<br />

control with internal coolant supply at four exits.<br />

further information: www.kennametal.com<br />

A strong signal in<br />

the field of special<br />

machining<br />

VARIOTEC 00P: FOR SPECIAL<br />

PERFORMANCE RESULTS<br />

■ Facilitates handling when fitting a new<br />

cutting edge<br />

■ Special design of the VARIOtec 00P tools<br />

prevents the inserts from twisting in use<br />

■ Optimised chip chambers ensure excellent<br />

chip evacuation<br />

■ Enabling high cutting data and high metal<br />

removal rates<br />

www.boehlerit.com


materials & tools<br />

Precision trio inspires innovation together through successful partnership:<br />

Quality, reproducibility and<br />

delivery times guaranteed<br />

Experts from EXTRAMET, MPK and ZECHA<br />

The applications in which stamping and forming or<br />

embossing tools are required are manifold: for example<br />

the production of many everyday objects, such as<br />

components for electronic or household devices as well<br />

as the automotive industry, would not be economically<br />

possible without these tools.<br />

This is because they are usually intended for mass production,<br />

where they must deliver maximum performance every<br />

(milli) second and demonstrate a long service life. To meet<br />

these requirements, MPK Special Tools GmbH in Schwäbisch<br />

Gmünd manufactures high-quality active parts for stamping<br />

and forming with precision tools from ZECHA Hartmetall-<br />

Werkzeugfabrikation GmbH from extruded carbide from<br />

EXTRAMET AG with maximum technological diversity.<br />

Together, the three long-standing partner companies break<br />

new ground every day.<br />

“Especially customer requests that differ from the standard<br />

pose major challenges with regard to surface quality, service<br />

life, and reproducibility, which we are happy to take on.<br />

Our goal is to work together with the customer to implement<br />

solutions for its specific applications with the smallest tolerances<br />

and exacting manufacturing tasks in the best carbide,”<br />

explains Arndt Fielen, sales manager at MPK Special Tools.<br />

Thanks to the certified raw materials from EXTRAMET, the<br />

μ-precise tools from ZECHA and the combined know-how of<br />

the three experts, MPK Special Tools offers customers security<br />

from project conception to final application and analyzes,<br />

develops and manufactures the ideal solution based on customer<br />

drawings using a wide range of technology combinations<br />

in milling, grinding and eroding.<br />

For more than 40 years EXTRAMET AG has been concentrating<br />

continuously on its core competence: the production<br />

10 no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong>


materials & tools<br />

of high-quality carbide. In doing so, it relies on innovation, precision and high<br />

technology. The product range, like the entire company, has constantly evolved.<br />

In the past solid carbide rods were mainly manufactured for the tool industry,<br />

but today EXTRAMET offers its customers and partners, in addition to a comprehensive<br />

product range, primarily tailor-made solutions for their individual<br />

needs.<br />

As a solution partner for the high-tech industry, the carbide specialist supports<br />

its customers in optimizing production processes and saving manufacturing<br />

costs. Highest precision, coupled with carbide in top quality, makes the<br />

independent family business the ideal partner for companies that also place the<br />

highest demands on their product. Quality and reliability represent a principal<br />

component of the corporate philosophy. Because only through consistent and<br />

uniform quality of the carbide blank can process-stable tools be produced, that<br />

offer a high level of safety for the end customer in use.<br />

MPK Special Tools GmbH has been an expert in precision technology for<br />

over 60 years. Manufactured according to customer drawings, the holistic<br />

tool and complete solutions made of carbide and steel are characterized by the<br />

highest precision in any quantity. Stringent quality controls as well as unwavering<br />

adherence to deadlines and deliveries are essential for the success of<br />

customers, especially in sensitive industries. The services for the purchase of a<br />

tool from MPK Special Tools include on-site presence, direct exchange with the<br />

customer at the machine, and the resulting consulting and service – versatile,<br />

accurate and individualized.<br />

Your<br />

Precision<br />

Motion<br />

Made Easy<br />

ZECHA Hartmetall-Werkzeugfabrikation GmbH is among the pioneers<br />

and trendsetters in the field of micro cutting, blanking and forming tools. The<br />

company’s origins in the chronograph industry can be seen not only in its uncompromising<br />

specialization in the production of miniature tools of highest<br />

precision, but also in its sophisticated special tool solutions. Precision and quality<br />

are the key for the international employment in different industries, such<br />

as medical and dental technology, the chronograph industry, the automotive<br />

industry or in tool and mold making. Experts in the company’s own research<br />

and development department are constantly developing groundbreaking geometries<br />

and tools for sophisticated applications and innovative materials.<br />

In addition, tool reproducibility is also guaranteed even for years on account<br />

of the life number stamped at the end of the shaft of every tool. Modern CNC<br />

machines, high-end measuring and testing technologies and carefully selected<br />

carbides from leading manufacturers, as well as intensive cooperation with<br />

their customers and partners, ensure the exceptional perfection of their tools.<br />

Thanks to decades of joint experience and cooperation EXTRAMET, MPK<br />

Special Tools and ZECHA ensure excellent results in stamping and forming<br />

technology. Maximum process reliability, increased service life, and surface<br />

quality while simultaneously reducing production costs are (thus) guaranteed.<br />

The close partnership makes it possible to meet individual customer requirements<br />

quickly and flexibly, because the smooth interaction of the individual<br />

components is decisive for success.<br />

The individual areas from prototype to series production are optimally<br />

coordinated through direct communication between the specialists at<br />

EXTRAMET, MPK Special Tools and ZECHA. The three companies continue<br />

to combine their expertise in order to develop reliable solutions for their customers<br />

through internal investments and expansions. The matching of carbide<br />

grades and geometries to a wide variety of applications, new manufacturing<br />

processes, and materials to be machined will continue to have top priority<br />

in the future.<br />

further information: www.zecha.de<br />

FIND YOUR<br />

SOLUTION


materials & tools<br />

Small, strong, robust –<br />

new centric vice makes a big difference<br />

Successful sub-contract machining providers<br />

need to be flexible and respond quickly to customer<br />

requests. SIBA Metallverarbeitungs GmbH, based in<br />

Dillenburg, Germany, maximises its potential through<br />

innovative use of tooling and workholding, including<br />

clamping systems of all sizes from CERATIZIT.<br />

With the new ZSG mini centric vice, the company is now<br />

expanding its clamping range to include smaller workpieces.<br />

Small, robust and extremely strong: the ZSG mini from the<br />

WNT Performance range from CERATIZIT is expanding the<br />

range of clamping devices at SIBA Metallverarbeitungs GmbH<br />

A specialist in steel and aluminum machining, SIBA<br />

Metallverarbeitungs GmbH works with countless customers<br />

from sectors such as mechanical engineering, electrical engineering,<br />

the food industry, furniture-making and control<br />

cabinet construction. Founded in 1962 by Siegfried Bastian<br />

and currently in its third generation of family management,<br />

the company has more than 60 employees working in production<br />

and management now.<br />

Short response times for satisfied customers<br />

SIBA is geared towards maximum diversity, as Benjamin<br />

Herbert, machining production manager, explains: “Our<br />

portfolio includes sophisticated welded assemblies and we<br />

draw on a wide range of sheet metal processing methods<br />

including laser cutting, punching and bending. We also have<br />

capability for accepting and storing blanket orders and processing<br />

these on request as well has planning work from A to<br />

Z – right through to final assembly. If someone needs a single<br />

part we can help with that too – quickly and efficiently.”<br />

This is the ideal place to put the ZSG mini to work<br />

That versatility and flexibility is one of the company’s<br />

greatest strengths, not everyone can or will offer speedy<br />

response times, where the customer gets the required part<br />

within 24 or 48 hours. Vital to keeping its promises are its<br />

manufacturing efficiencies:<br />

Excellent cooperation: Lukas Faak (left),<br />

technical consulting & sales Cutting Tools at CERATIZIT and<br />

Benjamin Herbert, machining production manager at SIBA<br />

SIBA customers can often get their ordered parts<br />

between 24 to 48 hours<br />

12 no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong>


materials & tools<br />

technical consulting & sales Cutting Tools at CERATIZIT.<br />

Once in place the jaws are totally secure in the base body<br />

thanks to the integrated pull-down action generated by two<br />

spring pressure pins, that ensure total machining precision and<br />

quality. “I can insert and clamp the part during initial clamping,<br />

and the jaws hold the workpieces securely in place – without<br />

any additional pre-stamping. And I can start cutting, including<br />

ambitious milling processes, without worrying about<br />

anything,” says Benjamin Herbert. Adding to the robust nature<br />

of the vices, the base body is also made from hardened stainless<br />

steel, which makes it resistant to external influences.<br />

In terms of handling, the ZSG mini is a godsend for<br />

SIBA Metallverarbeitungs GmbH; after all, it’s a matter<br />

of seconds before the centric vice is ready to use<br />

thanks to the indexable grip jaws<br />

“In order to deliver at this speed, we need clamping<br />

devices of all shapes and sizes in our machining department.<br />

We’ve been working successfully with CERATIZIT<br />

for some time now to make this happen. And, for us,<br />

the new ZSG mini has completed the range by including<br />

smaller components,” explains Benjamin Herbert.<br />

Simple design, uncompromising functionality<br />

When the small centric vice was first presented,<br />

Benjamin Herbert and his machining team at SIBA put<br />

it straight to work, and quickly saw the benefits of this<br />

new workholding system. “In terms of its design the<br />

ZSG mini is actually very simple but uncompromising<br />

when it comes to its functionality. The various aspects<br />

that were taken into consideration in its design were<br />

definitely to our advantage: pull-down action, repeatability<br />

– it was perfect for us,” adds Benjamin Herbert.<br />

Holistic, not one-sided<br />

“What makes working with CERATIZIT so special is the fact<br />

that from the outset they’ve been very involved in our processes.<br />

In other words they’ve been proactive in trying to understand<br />

our needs and have always gone above and beyond:<br />

with tools, materials and ideas. This has resulted in an excellent<br />

collaboration over the past six years,” stresses Benjamin<br />

Herbert.<br />

In addition to clamping devices, SIBA also successfully<br />

uses adapters and tools from CERATIZIT. “The increasing<br />

challenges in the market today mean we need to be flexible and<br />

react quickly. That’s why we’ve also decided to use the ToolO-<br />

Mat from CERATIZIT. Here, we can store tools, use them flexibly<br />

and keep them available at any time – regardless of delivery<br />

times or supply chains!”<br />

PRECISE. POWERFUL. PRODUCTIVE.<br />

kapp-niles.com<br />

further information: www.ceratizit.com<br />

Short changeover times thanks to easy handling<br />

Rapid and easy handling is often the key factor in the<br />

race to reduce non-productive time to a minimum. The<br />

ZSG mini scores here highly too, as Benjamin Herbert<br />

confirms: “The ZSG mini is actually very nice to use, especially<br />

because of its excellent accessibility. The advantages<br />

of the ZSG mini become clear particularly when<br />

large pallets need to be equipped or where situations<br />

involving difficult-to-reach areas such as clamping towers<br />

or multiaxial processing need to be tackled. It can<br />

be mounted very quickly from one side and doesn’t need<br />

to be screwed underneath!”<br />

“But what saves an enormous amount of time is the<br />

quick change system for the jaws. They can be replaced in<br />

a matter of seconds without any tools at all by extracting<br />

them at an angle through the center,” explains Lukas Faak,


materials & tools<br />

Energy- and resource-efficient aluminum machining –<br />

Supporting minimum quantity lubrication technology by biomimetic micro<br />

structures on 2D-orthogonal cutting tools generated with ultrashort laser pulses<br />

written by<br />

P. Esch, O. Schwarz, K. Placzek, D. Holder, R. Weber,<br />

M. Steck, F. Hartmann, Prof. Thomas Graf<br />

Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Engineering and Automation IPA<br />

University of Stuttgart<br />

1. Introduction<br />

Machining is a widely used production technique. Latest<br />

ecological and economical aspects cause a shift in machining<br />

production towards higher productivity and more sustainability.<br />

In order to reduce the amount of energy used in<br />

machining, peripheral processes like wet lubrication may be<br />

substituted with low energetic lubrication systems like minimum<br />

quantity lubrication (MQL). This change in combination<br />

with low-melting work piece materials like aluminum<br />

alloys creates problems in terms of tool performance, tool<br />

longevity and process reliability.<br />

In order to further enhance MQL production technology<br />

at least on the performance level of conventional cutting, this<br />

research study investigates the effects of micro structuring<br />

cutting tools rake faces by laser ablation. Functional bio-inspired<br />

micro structures (biomimetic structures) are selected<br />

and evaluated in 2D-orthogonal cutting and under static<br />

conditions. The effects on the functional features during capturing,<br />

transporting and releasing of the employed MQL-oil<br />

is getting analyzed. The goal is to evaluate and quantify the<br />

potential of feasible biomimetic structure variants.<br />

(cf. Martin 2013 [1] )<br />

2. Micro structures<br />

2.1 Micro structures in machining<br />

Micro structured tools are recent subject of scientific research<br />

in order to optimize machining tools. In Chang (2011) [2]<br />

micro structured milling tools are investigated on NAK80<br />

steel. The structured tools outperformed the standard milling<br />

tool exhibiting lower cutting forces and higher longevity,<br />

indicating best results with a 90 ° orientation of micro structure<br />

cavities in relation to the cutting edge. Comparable results<br />

are reported in Schneider & Esch (2017) [3] in the application<br />

of drilling. Likewise, perpendicular structures showed<br />

best results in reducing force response and wear behaviour.<br />

Özel et al. (2021) [4] gives a comprehensive review on the state<br />

of the art in tool face functionalization by micro structuring.<br />

The general consensus of superior machining performance<br />

is accompanied by the indication of a shortage in scientific<br />

research in terms of bio-inspired approaches. In this context<br />

and without any claim to comprehensiveness only three<br />

relevant scientific contributions could be found. Tillmann et<br />

al. (2015) [5] studies the feasibility and effectiveness of bio-inspired<br />

structures on friction coefficient. Fatima & Mativenga<br />

(2017) [6] transfers the biomimetic structural approach into<br />

the machining application by investigating the effect of a<br />

replicated ball python skin structure in turning AISI4140<br />

steel. The structured tools show superior performance in<br />

terms of lower cutting temperature, reduced cutting forces<br />

and higher chip compactness. Aside biomimetic structures<br />

on a micro scale, Schmidt (2021) [7] developed macro tooth<br />

geometries for wood working application.<br />

In summary, biomimetic structures are yet to be scientifically<br />

addressed and investigated. It is also crucial to understand<br />

the effective mechanisms of biomimetic structures and<br />

its practical implementation.<br />

2.2 Generation of surface structures in the<br />

micrometer range by surface structuring<br />

with ultra-short laser pulses<br />

By means of ultra-short pulse laser ablation, it is possible to<br />

generate specific laser-induced structures (LIPSS) on the surface<br />

of the component (cf. Bonse et al. 2018 [8] ). By selecting<br />

different process parameters, different LIPSS, such as ripples,<br />

grooves and spikes can be generated (figure 1). These<br />

structures exhibit different morphological properties such<br />

as structural composition and roughness. In addition, the<br />

structures differ in wettability with water and other liquids<br />

and could function as wetting structures near the cutting<br />

edge to support lubrication. (cf. Kietzig et al. 2009 [9] )<br />

In Holder et al. (2021) [10] the use of ultrashort laser pulses<br />

for micro machining grooves for passive fluid transport on<br />

Ti-6Al-4V surfaces is demonstrated. This work shows the potential<br />

of using ultrashort laser pulses for micro machining<br />

of cavities for lubrication transport. (figure 1)<br />

3. Research<br />

The declared goal of this study is to investigate and prove<br />

the feasibility and effectiveness of laser fabricated biomimetic<br />

micro structures in the machining application. The chosen<br />

14 no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong>


materials & tools<br />

a) ripples b) grooves c) spikes<br />

figure 1<br />

SEM images of LIPSS-structures on 100Cr6 steel<br />

approach focuses on micro patterns functionalizing the tools faces in order<br />

to improve the effectiveness of deployed lubrication and help to prevent oilstarvation<br />

by reserving oil in the cavities. This second research approach will<br />

be addressed in an follow-up investigation based on the given results in this<br />

study.<br />

3.1 Methodology<br />

The chosen methodology comprises a profound research of applicable and<br />

relevant micro structures which fulfil the necessary functions. As stated before,<br />

the micro structures shall comply with two functionalities: a) transport<br />

given lubrication underneath the sliding chip and b) to release the lubrication<br />

at a spot near the cutting edge for higher lubrication effectiveness.<br />

In a biomimetic approach possible structures with similar functionalities<br />

to the technically required ones are identified. A selection of suitable<br />

structural patterns is carried out, reducing the possible range of patterns to a<br />

technological feasible choice.<br />

The selected patterns are abstracted and transferred into CAD models,<br />

which then can be produced with laser technology. The realised biomi metic<br />

structure variants are then tested in a 2D-orthogonal test stand. (figure 2)<br />

3.2 The Biomimetic approach to suitable structures for machining<br />

The aim of biomimetics is to solve technical problems by abstracting, transferring<br />

and applying knowledge gained from biological models. Its application<br />

in the product development process as<br />

an innovation method enables innovative<br />

technical solutions. With regard to resource<br />

efficiency, biomimetics offers considerable<br />

potential because one of the most important<br />

selection features in evolution was the saving<br />

of energy and material. It is assumed that<br />

so-called ecological management is possible<br />

through the transfer of biological models<br />

and principles to technol ogy. The functions<br />

and properties developed in the course of<br />

evolution are thus “ecologically” optimised.<br />

However, it must be taken into account<br />

that this optimisation has always taken place<br />

with regard to the multiple influencing variables<br />

of the environment and the optimisation<br />

of the overall performance, i.e. ensuring<br />

the survival of an organism. The maximisation<br />

of one function dissolved of the context<br />

has rarely been in the foreground. I.e. if the<br />

technical problem finds possible solutions in<br />

nature, then the overall context and boundary<br />

conditions in which it functions must be<br />

considered. In any case, there is almost always<br />

the potential for this function to become even<br />

more effective through human or technical<br />

modification, because no consideration has to<br />

be given to other life functions. In this in application-oriented<br />

work we have a top-down<br />

problem, i.e. there is a technical problem for<br />

which a solution is to be developed. (figure 2)<br />

The formulation of the technical problem is:<br />

“MQL reaches the cutting edge to an insufficient<br />

extent” (in order to reduce friction there<br />

and thus heat generation). The transfer of the<br />

problem leads via an abstraction: “How can<br />

a fluid reach defined locations over greater<br />

distances”.<br />

figure 2<br />

Procedure diagram in the search for biomimetic solutions<br />

The statement must be narrowed down and<br />

made more precise in order to expand the<br />

no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong><br />

15


materials & tools<br />

search space in nature accordingly: the specification of the fluid’s behaviour<br />

leads in principle to either hydrophilic or hydrophobic fluids. In nature, both<br />

properties are present – there are oily fluids and, of course, in the majority of<br />

cases water-based fluids.<br />

On the part of the tool geometry, the requirement is that the coolant must<br />

overcome a greater distance, i.e. several millimeters to a few centimeters and<br />

not just in the range of micrometers. Defined locations were understood to<br />

mean that the fluid is not guided randomly, but over predefined structures.<br />

In principle, a distinction must be made between transport structures and<br />

two-dimensional wetting structures.<br />

The search field for biomimetic structures is now defined and could thus<br />

be expanded. A range of wetting and transport systems could be found as<br />

described below.<br />

Queries were made in various scientific databases and in the patent database<br />

Depatis-net. The search included terms such as “water collection” and<br />

“transport”, “unidirectional” and “directional liquid transport”, “capillary<br />

effect”, “hydrophilic and (super) hydrophobic structures”, “wetting” and<br />

“moistening”, “edge angle” and as nouns or verbs in various combinations<br />

with and without the term “biomimetics” or “bionics”.<br />

On the one hand descriptive biological publications (basic research), on<br />

the other hand publications on the experimental biomimetic imitation of<br />

found principles as well as abstracted technical structures already described<br />

in patents were found.<br />

The main four principles on which the specific and unspecific conduction<br />

of water, oil or other liquids is based are the following: capillary effect, alternating<br />

hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions, hierarchical micro structuring<br />

and specific rough surfaces.<br />

3.3 Experimental setup<br />

In order to evaluate the isolated effect of micro<br />

structures on process performance, complex<br />

milling tools are transformed into simple<br />

2D orthogonal cutting tools. The given geometrical<br />

circumstances are translated into<br />

a 2D cutting tool with plane faces according<br />

to the methodology also stated in Esch et<br />

al. (2021) [11] . Plane rake faces are easily workable<br />

and geometrical influences are excluded.<br />

Figure 3 shows a tool derived from a standard<br />

aluminum cutting tool.<br />

The tool specifications are given in table 1.<br />

The workpiece material was AlMg4,5Mn0,7<br />

(EN-AW 5083). According to Ostermann<br />

(2014) [12] its main applications are rail vehicle<br />

construction and general construction due to<br />

the advantageous characteristics in ductility,<br />

corrosion resistance and fusibility. The workpiece<br />

was prepared in a sliced blank with defined<br />

towering bars the size of 5 x 10 x 250 mm<br />

in the dimensions width, height and length.<br />

specimen<br />

force<br />

dynamometer<br />

figure 4<br />

Specimen with towering bars for 2D cutting<br />

rake<br />

angle / °<br />

wedge<br />

angle / °<br />

figure 3<br />

2D cutting tools with plane rake face<br />

clear<br />

angle / °<br />

grain<br />

size / µm<br />

ISOclassification<br />

cobalt / %<br />

tungsten<br />

carbide / %<br />

10 ° 78 2 0,65 K30 10 90<br />

table 1<br />

Tool specifications<br />

Experiments were carried out on a DMG HSC<br />

70 linear. The transverse axis was used to perform<br />

the cutting motion with a maximum<br />

speed of 80 m/min. A specially designed tool<br />

holder held the tools in front of the spindle<br />

housing. The full experimental setup is given<br />

in figure 5, also showing the chip formation.<br />

The tool was guided over the bars with a cutting<br />

speed of 80 m/min. Every tool executed<br />

15 runs on a new bar strip with a defined<br />

infeed of 200 μm for each run. The deployed<br />

lubricant was a FUCHS ECOCUT MICRO<br />

PLUS 20. Lubrication supply was realized by<br />

jet nozzle and micro dosage.<br />

Force transformation was conducted according<br />

to the model of Ernst and Merchant (cf.<br />

Ernst & Merchant 1941 [13] ). The recorded force<br />

response in cutting and normal cutting direction<br />

could be translated into the effective<br />

friction and normal forces acting on the<br />

16 no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong>


materials & tools<br />

cutting direction<br />

external MYL jet nozzle<br />

Y<br />

Z<br />

X<br />

coordinate system<br />

measuring device<br />

figure 5<br />

Experimental<br />

setup in machine<br />

tool center<br />

figure 6<br />

Force translation<br />

model according to<br />

Ernst & Merchant<br />

(1941) [13]<br />

rake face. The ratio of normal to friction force also allows the<br />

derivation of the relevant friction coefficient γ. Figure 6 depicts<br />

the force vector transformation model<br />

4. Micro structures of biological models<br />

and their selection<br />

The following animal and plant species have been identified<br />

as having potentially suitable transport or wetting properties:<br />

In arid regions, water is a precious commodity that should be<br />

absorbed as quantitatively as possible and not only from rain,<br />

fog or stagnant water, but also moist soil. A group of lizards,<br />

including the Australian thorny devil (Moloch horridus), the<br />

Texas toad (Phrynosoma cornutum) or the Arabian toadhead<br />

dragon (Phrynocephalus arabicus) have developed special<br />

characteristics: moisture spreads excellently on the skin (contact<br />

angle ≤ 10 °) because it is super hydrophilic due to a honeycomb-like<br />

micro structuring. The capillaries are very fine<br />

– approx. 10 to 30 μm wide and 1 - 5 μm deep. This enables<br />

them to collect water.<br />

In these three species, there is also conduction to the mouth<br />

via a capillary structure formed by partially overlapping<br />

scales, forming a semitubular capillary system over the entire<br />

body of the lizard, with a basal width of 100 to 250 μm and a<br />

narrower opening (cf. Comanns, 2016 [14] ).<br />

Water collection and transport is passive, i.e. without any<br />

actively supporting movements.<br />

Transport velocities on the integument of Australian thorny<br />

devil for example were determined for vertical orientation; on<br />

the ventral body surface, transport was 5.8 cm within 5 min.<br />

The maximum height was 9.9 cm. However, Texas toad, in<br />

contrast to the other two, exhibits a significant directionality<br />

towards the mouth, a directional transport. In the abstracted<br />

conversions of Comanns (2016) [14] , Comanns (2011) [15] ,<br />

Comanns [16] , Joel et al. (2017) [17] , Kim et al. (2019) [18] ) in epoxy<br />

resin in the ratio 6:1 could be verified in observation and<br />

reproduced even more clearly than in the biological model.<br />

The derived technical transport structures were patented by<br />

Comanns et al. [19] .<br />

While the lizards can also draw from many sources – such<br />

as moisture from sands, the Namib desert beetle (Onymacris<br />

unguicularis) relies exclusively on nocturnal fog as a water<br />

source. Grooves on the wing covers allow the condensed dew<br />

droplets to collect due to hydrophilic and hydrophobic surface<br />

properties and then flow to the mouth following gravity.<br />

In a number of closely related species, its surface grooves<br />

proved to be particularly effective. The reason is alternating<br />

hydrophobic (wax-coated) and hydrophilic (non-waxy)<br />

regions as well as Gibbs free energy. (cf. Tan et al 2016 [20] ,<br />

Hirai et al. 2017 [21] )<br />

The shipyard cockroach (Ligia exotica) has structures that exhibit<br />

low surface energy and allow directional wettability of<br />

an entire leg. They are thought to be important for the development<br />

of a robust water transport and passive water uptake<br />

system without external energy consumption (cf. Kim et al<br />

2019 [18] , Kirner et al. 2017 [22] , Ishii et al. 2013 [23] ).<br />

no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong><br />

17


materials & tools<br />

An unidirectional transport mechanism has been developed<br />

in the spermathecae of fleas, to ensure that the seminal fluid<br />

can also meet the egg cell. It can be assumed that such a function<br />

revolution is highly optimized because it directly affects<br />

the success of reproduction. The capillaries with extensions<br />

(reservoirs) and stops in the opposite direction cause transport<br />

in only one direction, that of the egg cell. The process,<br />

described by Buchberg as “fluidic diode”, was also technically<br />

abstracted by him and could be reproduced from PMMA<br />

fabri cated by laser-ablation (cf. Buchberger 2018 [24] ). Bark<br />

bugs (Dysodius lunatus) can become darker in colour due to<br />

water wetting of the elythras, which reduces the likelihood<br />

of being detected by predators sitting on the bark of the tree<br />

when the tree trunk also becomes more colourful and darker<br />

in colour when moisture is absorbed.<br />

In addition, plant bugs are also known for their smell. This<br />

presumably serves as a defence against enemies and is therefore<br />

optimised for rapid release. The underlying rapid mechanism<br />

is based on the directional spread of the scent secretion<br />

from the glands to the wing bases (cf. Kim et al 2019 [19] , Hischen<br />

et al. 2018 [25] , Blow et al 2009 [26] ). The spreading is effected by<br />

nub-like structures. With regard to the intended technical<br />

application, it is interesting that this is suitable for oily fluids.<br />

Springtails Collembola (Collembola spec.) are a group of inconspicuous<br />

ground-dwelling wingless insects, the so-called<br />

primordial insects. In contrast to the tracheal respiration of<br />

insects, springtails breathe through their skin. This characteristic<br />

causes the springtails to adapt in a very special way,<br />

because for undisturbed breathing the skin of the springtails<br />

must remain dry and clean at all times – and this in a<br />

habitat with plenty of water and dirt. A very perplexing surface<br />

coating has been discovered on them, which is omniphobic.<br />

These not only let the medium water and dirt roll off – as<br />

with the lotus effect – but also oily liquids. The skin structure<br />

of springtails, which is honeycomb-like and shows mushroom-shaped<br />

overhangs in cross-section, could be imitated<br />

by the Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research Dresden with<br />

polymer membranes. (cf. Nickerl et al. 2014 [27] , Hensel et al.<br />

2013 [28] , Gundersen & Leinaas 2014 [29] )<br />

When asked why honey bees (Apis mellifera) themselves do<br />

not stick to their mouthparts with propolis when harvesting<br />

and processing propolis, Saccardi et. al. (2022) [30] discovered<br />

scale or honeycomb-like structures on the mandibles. They<br />

assumed a wetting structure. The structures were transferred<br />

to technical materials. It was shown that the surface pattern<br />

has no direct influence on propolis adhesion. However, it<br />

could be shown that a liquid film covering these structures<br />

and held by the hexagonal walls prevents adhesion.<br />

Superficial water-conducting structures are also known in<br />

plants.<br />

The fine spines of Opuntia microdasys apparently have the<br />

function of collecting fog or dew and directing the dew droplets<br />

to the surface of the cactus, where they roll off to the<br />

ground and can ultimately be absorbed by the root system.<br />

On the surface of the needle there are harpoon-like basally<br />

directed outgrowths. Ju et al. (2012) [31] due to the conical<br />

shape (Laplace pressure) and the surface-free energy gradient<br />

as a result of the surface becoming rougher and more hydrophobic<br />

apically (lower free energy), the fluid transport is unidirectional.<br />

The pitcher plants Sarracenia spec. and Nepenthes alata are<br />

insect-attracting plants, in order to let them slide down their<br />

smooth funnels and digest them inside. On the border of the<br />

pitcher or tube are hairs called peristomes, which have hierarchical<br />

micro channels arranged on the surface that, together<br />

with the Laplace pressures, cause water to be transported. The<br />

peristomes can be completely wetted by water and then form<br />

a slippery liquid film at the bottom of the can or tube on<br />

which insects start to slide. The formation of the liquid film is<br />

caused by a continuous transport of water from the inner to<br />

the outer border of the pitcher on the peristome. (cf. Chen et<br />

al. 2017 [32] , Zhang et al. 2017 [33] , Zhang et al. 2020 [34] )<br />

Findings exist on this, which has verified the function using<br />

planar technical replicas in a two-step UV lithography<br />

with poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). Zhang et al. (2017,<br />

2020) [33, 34] concluded that these micro channels are ultrafast<br />

water harvesting and transport structures.<br />

In Sarracenia, the hierarchical structures as shown in figure<br />

7 a) consist of usually five grooves separated by four smaller<br />

marginal boundaries (second-order micro grooves), which<br />

are flanked at the outer edge by a high marginal boundary<br />

(first-order micro grooves). (cf. Chen et al. 2018 [35]<br />

The structure of Nepenthes is more complex. It also has firstorder<br />

micro grooves with about ten second-order grooves in<br />

between, there are many anisotropic, overlapping and arcshaped<br />

microcavities along the second-order micro grooves,<br />

with the tips of the arcs pointing towards the outside of the<br />

pitcher border. The interplay of microcavities and sharp arcuate<br />

edge (about 2 - 8 °) and inclined wedge angles on both<br />

sides of the microcavities (about 90 ° at the bottom of the microcavity,<br />

to about 28 ° at the top) prevent backward water<br />

transport and cause rapid unidirectional water conduction.<br />

(cf. Zhang et al. 2017 [33] )<br />

4.1 Selection criteria for conversion to metal by laser<br />

The selection of potentially suitable transport and wetting<br />

structures was interdisciplinary. On the one hand the modifiability<br />

of the biological structures to circumvent the restrictions<br />

imposed by the laser processing of metal were considered.<br />

Secondly the robustness of principles under the technical<br />

application conditions and thirdly, the experimental<br />

results so far available in the literature were used for evaluation.<br />

The following biological examples were prioritised for<br />

technical realization:<br />

As transport structures the tube plant (Sarracenia spec.),<br />

the bark bug (Dysodius lunatus) and the toad lizard (Phrynosoma<br />

cornutum). (figure 7 c, d)<br />

As wetting structures the bark bug (Dysodius lunatus) and<br />

various cauliflower-like coarse structures, prisms, truncated<br />

cone-shaped pyramids and perforated plate-like depressions<br />

at regular intervals.<br />

18 no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong>


materials & tools<br />

a) hose plant<br />

b) spermatheca<br />

of fleas,<br />

in grey box is a<br />

«elementary cell»<br />

c) toad lizard (Phrynosoma cornutum), «elementary cell»<br />

figure 7<br />

Transport structures<br />

figure 8<br />

Wetting structures<br />

a) prisms<br />

c) truncated cone-shaped pyramids (also used as transport stucture!),<br />

inspired by Dysodius lunatus<br />

flow<br />

b) shell<br />

d) tilted steps structure<br />

As far as the nub-like structures are concerned, the<br />

distances of < 25 μm between them could not be realised with<br />

the currently available beam shaping. But the large number<br />

of conceivable variants of nap structures – in shape and<br />

spacing – that are comparatively easy to produce, as well as<br />

the facts that they are used to distribute oily liquids and that<br />

some have also been described in patents for wetting applications<br />

(cf. Comanns et al. [19] ), led to the decision to realise<br />

them later until the appropriate optical system is available.<br />

The honeycomb-like wetting structure is particularly interesting<br />

for solving the technical problem of effective MQL<br />

transport, but was initially set aside as reserve.<br />

Discarded were the structures of the Namib desert beetle.<br />

The problem seems that the transport properties are created<br />

by the complex interaction of hydrophobic and hydrophilic<br />

topographies, which cannot be realised by laser ablation, or<br />

only to some extent.<br />

Since the structures of the throwing cockroach tend to be<br />

hair-shaped protrusions, the technical feasibility of morphologies<br />

with unfavourable length-to-width ratios is difficult<br />

with lasers in metal. The technical implementation of the abstracted<br />

transport structure of the fleas’ spermathecae with<br />

laser in metal was refrained from because the complex windings<br />

are rather unsuitable for laser ablation. (figure 7 b)<br />

The omniphobic surface structures of Collembola are unfortunately<br />

not possible for ablation with laser, because of the<br />

overhangs or undercuts.<br />

The mechanism of Opuntia spines is closely related to their<br />

cylindrical shape. This bears little resemblance to the flat<br />

topographies on the tool and is therefore not transferred.<br />

The comparatively simpler channel structures of Sarracenia<br />

were preferred to those of Nepenthes, because they would<br />

require rectangular or acute angles and inclined surfaces that<br />

cannot be realised with the circular focal beam.<br />

(figure 7/8)<br />

5. Abstraction and transfer into CAD constructions<br />

In the abstraction step, which comes after the recognition of<br />

the principle as shown in figure 7, an attempt is made to implement<br />

the idea in technical material in a way that is suitable<br />

for production while retaining the functionality.<br />

The question is to what extent all angles and inclinations,<br />

curves and corners have to be transferred. Some morphological<br />

conditions can be logically explained by physical laws.<br />

Others, however, are still hidden. The potential and strength<br />

of biomimetics is such to be discovered by means of functioning<br />

models.<br />

no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong><br />

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materials & tools<br />

A practical approach is to first stay very close to the model and then to simplify<br />

it step by step. Since some structural elements cannot be realised with<br />

the defined manufacturing process, or their realisation is only possible with<br />

an uneconomical use of time and energy, compromises have to be made and<br />

simplifications chosen right at the beginning. Also, for reasons of time and<br />

capacity, only a manageable number of variants are possible. Therefore subjective<br />

selection plays a greater role than one would like.<br />

6. Implementation of the structures<br />

6.1 Experimental setup<br />

The ultrafast laser system Duetto from Time-Bandwidth, which emits laser<br />

pulses with a wavelength of 1064 nm and a pulse duration of 10 ps was used<br />

for the experiments. The laser beam had a Gaussian intensity distribution,<br />

was circularly polarized by a quarter waveplate, and had a beam quality factor<br />

of M² < 1.3. The beam was positioned and scanned over the sample surface<br />

with a Galvanometer-scanner and focused by an F-Theta lens with a focal<br />

length of 80 mm. The resulting focus diameter was d 0 = 30±2 μm. For all<br />

experiments the focus of the beam was set on the surface of the sample.<br />

(figure 9)<br />

The cross sections of the biomimetic transport structures are shown schematically<br />

in figure 11. They can be realized by ablating with a certain number<br />

of parallel lines N l with the hatch distance<br />

a h and by using a certain number of scans<br />

N s over the surface. The number of parallel<br />

lines and the hatch distance define the resulting<br />

width a w of the cavity and the depth<br />

z c of the cavity can be adjusted by the number<br />

of scans N s (figure 11 a). By reducing the number<br />

of parallel lines with increasing number of<br />

scans, cavities with trapezoidal and V-shaped<br />

cross-sections can be realized (figure 11 b).<br />

This way, complex cavities with sub cavities as<br />

shown in figure 11 c) as well as the biomimetic<br />

structure with pyramids (B2.2) can be generated,<br />

too. As laser micro machined grooves<br />

typically exhibit a V-shape in the cross section<br />

(cf. Comanns et al. 2007 [19] , Zhao et al. 2019 [36] )<br />

no ideal vertical walls of a capillary can be<br />

created. Therefore, generating cavities with a<br />

defined width by using a certain number of<br />

parallel lines N l leads to a trapezoid shape in<br />

the cross section (figure 11 d). As the depth<br />

of the cavity increases, it eventually forms a<br />

V-shaped cross section.<br />

figure 9<br />

Experimental setup for laser processing<br />

6.2 Implementation strategy<br />

The laser induced surface structures were generated by scanning the laser<br />

beam over the sample surface using a line by line strategy (figure 10). The<br />

pulse overlaps of the pulses in x-direction and in y-direction is adjusted by<br />

varying the scan velocity v s (while keeping the repetition rate of the pulses<br />

constant) and the hatch distance a h respectively. By varying the scan velo city<br />

and therefore the pulse overlap in the scanning direction, different surface<br />

structures were generated while keeping the repetition rate f rep = 500 kHz, the<br />

pulse energy E p = 21,5 μJ and the hatch distance a h = 6 μm constant. By scanning<br />

with scan velocities of v s = {3747; 1500; 300; 60} mm/s different wetting<br />

structures B1.1, B1.2, B1.3 and B1.4 were generated. (figure 13)<br />

figure 10<br />

Schematic illustration of ultra short pulse laser ablation<br />

figure 11<br />

Ideal cross section of the transport structures<br />

(a) – c)) and schematic representation of<br />

cavity formation during<br />

laser micro machining<br />

Complex 2D-structures such as the pattern<br />

inspired by bark bugs (E1 and E2) can be implemented<br />

by reproducing elementary cells in<br />

a CAD program and exporting the file as .dxf.<br />

The file can be imported into the scanner program<br />

and can be hatched using fill parameters<br />

(e.g. line hatching distance a h ). Enclosed<br />

elements (colored black in figure 12) are not<br />

scanned with the laser beam and are not ablated.<br />

(figure 12)<br />

The surface structures shown in figure 13 were<br />

generated using the implementation strategies<br />

described above: the LIPSS B1.1 – B1.4, the<br />

biomimetic structures B2.1 – B2.3, the simple<br />

transport structures T1.1 – T1.4, complex<br />

structures T2.1 – 2.4, and bug structures E1<br />

and E2. As the transport structures only vary<br />

in depth only representative images are shown<br />

in figure 13.<br />

20 no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong>


materials & tools<br />

The camera-based contact angle measuring device is shown in figure 14 on<br />

the left. A droplet with a volume of 1 μL of the fluid is placed on the structured<br />

surface using the dosing unit. The contact angle measurement is recorded<br />

from the time of droplet placement until 15 seconds after droplet<br />

placement, in order to analyze the contact angle as a function of the time<br />

after droplet placement. After the measurement, the sample was cleaned with<br />

acetone in an ultrasonic bath. The measuring fluid was the ECO CUT AL, a<br />

conventional lubricant from Fuchs based on a fatty alcohol. The functionalfigure<br />

12<br />

Implementation of complex 2D-structures<br />

LIPSS-structures B1.1 - B1.4<br />

bug structures<br />

E1 - E2<br />

Biomimetic structures B2.1 - B2.3<br />

figure 13<br />

Generated surface structures<br />

simple transport structures<br />

T1.1 - T1.4<br />

complex structures<br />

T2.1 - T2.4<br />

figure 14<br />

Schematic illustration of the setup<br />

for contact angle measurements<br />

and flow velocity measurements<br />

7. Evaluation of the structures under static conditions<br />

7.1 Methods<br />

Contact angle measurements and flow velocity measurements were performed<br />

in order to evaluate the functionality of the wetting structures and<br />

the transport structures, respectively.<br />

ity of the generated transport structures was<br />

evaluated by means of measurements of the<br />

flow velocity. The setup for these measurements<br />

is shown in figure 14 on the right. The<br />

pipette was used to deposit 5 μL of the measurement<br />

fluid at the inlet port. The flow of<br />

the fluid from the inlet port via the different<br />

transport structures to the target port is recorded<br />

by a camera. With the help of image<br />

analysis programs, the flow velocity of the<br />

individual transport structures can be determined.<br />

no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong><br />

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materials & tools<br />

7.2 Wettability of the biomimetic structures<br />

Structuring surfaces with ultrashort laser pulses can lead to a time-dependent<br />

change in wetting properties (cf. Kietzig et al. 2009 [19] ). Therefore the<br />

contact angle considered for evaluation in this chapter is the contact angle<br />

of the liquid drops on the surface structures after aging. The aging of the<br />

sample surfaces was reached after 30 days, as the value of the measured contact<br />

angle remained constant after this point of time. Figure 15 shows the<br />

contact angle determined for lubricant droplets on the aged sample as a<br />

function of time after droplet placement on the structure. For reference, the<br />

change of the contact angle over time after droplet placement was also determined<br />

for an unstructured polished sample (reference, red). Structures that<br />

did not have a lower contact angle than the reference contact angle are not<br />

shown in this figure. The reference contact angle decreases from 20 ° one second<br />

after impact of the measuring drop on the sample with increasing time<br />

figure 15<br />

Contact angle as a function of time after droplet placement on the<br />

different wetting structures and on a polished unstructured sample (reference)<br />

and stagnates at about 11 °. All wetting structures,<br />

except B2.3, show a significantly lower<br />

contact angle of θ c = 10 ° ± 1 ° already one<br />

second after impingement of the measuring<br />

drop on the structure and decrease to 0 ° after<br />

t > 8 s. The determined contact angle on the<br />

wetting structures B2.2 and B1.4 is already 0 °<br />

after two and three seconds, respectively.<br />

For this reason, the wetting structures B2.2<br />

and B1.4 were selected and structured at the<br />

2D-cutting tool tip.<br />

7.3 Fluid transport of the<br />

biomimetic structures<br />

To evaluate the structures, the flow velocity v f<br />

and the cross section of the transport structure<br />

A ts were used to determine the flow rate<br />

to = v f · A ts . With regard to the analogy tests,<br />

the maximum possible flow rate max in this<br />

process was determined with the volume flow<br />

and the number of transport structures N ts<br />

that can be structured on the 2D-cutting tool<br />

to max = · N ts . The resulting flow rates max<br />

for the lubricant as a function of the travel distance<br />

are shown in Figure 16. The biomi metic<br />

transport structures provide higher flow rates<br />

than the simple transport structures, in particular<br />

due to their higher cross-sectional area.<br />

For all transport structures, an exponential<br />

decrease of the flow rate can be observed with<br />

an increase of the travel distance. For the deep -<br />

est structures with a depth of 200 μm higher<br />

flow rates could be measured.<br />

Based on the results of section 00 and section<br />

00 different variants were selected to be investigated<br />

in the 2D-machining experiments<br />

(figure 17). The structures were generated on<br />

the entire rake face at a distance of 100 μm<br />

from the cutting edge. The variants V1 and<br />

V2, a wetting structure and a transport structure<br />

were combined and structured on the<br />

rake face.<br />

figure 16<br />

Flow rate as a function of distance traveled in simple transport structures (left)<br />

and biomimetic surface structures (right) with different depths of the grooves<br />

figure 17<br />

Overview of the variants selected for the 2D-machining experiments<br />

The wetting structures were applied near the<br />

cutting edge and have a height of 200 μm. The<br />

transport structures fill out the remaining<br />

rake face. (figure 16/17)<br />

8. 2D-machining experiments<br />

The fabricated tools have been investigated in<br />

accordance with the introduced methodology.<br />

For reason of comparability, each testing<br />

series of micro dosage and moisture lubrication<br />

was accompanied with a non-structured<br />

tool. The prepared tool variants are given in<br />

figure 18. Top row shows initial condition, second<br />

row presents the rake face condition after<br />

15 runs with micro dosed lubrication. Bottom<br />

22 no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong>


materials & tools<br />

figure 18<br />

Overview of biomimetic structured tools<br />

row illustrates the tools after testing with external<br />

MQL moisture lubrication.<br />

It can be seen, that tool variant V3 and V5<br />

failed. Both tools encountered cutting edge<br />

damage. It can be assumed that the laser struc -<br />

ture created a notch effect and hence weakened<br />

the cutting material to its limit. In terms<br />

of the variants V1, V2 and V4 the rake face<br />

performed the testing series without damage.<br />

(figure 18)<br />

tool variants<br />

tool variants<br />

figure 19<br />

Effect of biomimetic structures on cutting force response<br />

figure 20<br />

Effect of biomimetic structures on friction coefficient<br />

In terms of cutting performance, the evaluation<br />

of the cutting forces and the calcu lated<br />

friction coefficients are relevant. Figure 19<br />

shows the effect of biomimetic structures on<br />

the cutting force for both lubrication strategies.<br />

Micro dosage lubrication indicates an<br />

ad vantage, which is attributable to a higher<br />

quantity of lubricant and a more direct supply<br />

then by external misting.<br />

Regarding the effect of biomimetic structures<br />

it is evident, that in case of moisture lubrication<br />

the tool variants V1 and V3 exhibit<br />

a strong effect in reducing cutting force responses<br />

by up to 14 %. In terms of micro dosage<br />

supply the effect is diminished and only<br />

apparent for variant V1 with a slight reduction<br />

by 4 % due to an already lowered force<br />

signal compared to MQL moisture. Analogous<br />

to the force response figure 20 depicts the effect<br />

on friction coefficient. Tool variant V1 develops<br />

the best cutting performance for both<br />

lubrication strategies, too. Highest reduction<br />

is achieved by - 9 % in case of moisture supply.<br />

no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong><br />

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materials & tools<br />

figure 21<br />

Effect on chip morphology<br />

Biomimetic structures also influence chip morphology. In a<br />

qualitative display (figure 21) effects are evident in terms of<br />

compactness and curling. With respect to chip extraction,<br />

small chips are regarded as beneficial. Since cutting length<br />

was identical for all specimen, the apparent deviation in chip<br />

length can causally be linked to a higher degree in chip compression.<br />

This observation is supported by the findings from<br />

Esch (2021) [37] , proving that micro structured rake faces effect<br />

the deformation degree within the chip. (figure 21)<br />

9. Conclusion<br />

In this work was shown, that the application of micro structures<br />

has the potential to reduce the cutting force in the process<br />

by 14 %. Most of the structural variants withstand the<br />

load. Thus, it was shown that the biomimetic structures can<br />

be generated by means of ultrashort pulse laser ablation and<br />

work in the 2D process. Under static conditions, the wettability<br />

of the micro structures with lubricants was higher than<br />

the wettability of an unstructured surface. In addition, transport<br />

structures could be identified which, measured by the<br />

determined flow velocity and volume flow, correspond to the<br />

conveyances for MQL. Further structure variants will be tested<br />

as part of the project, such as honeycomb-like and scalelike<br />

micro structures.<br />

In addition, new lubricants are being developed as part<br />

of the project, which will be tested on the structured tools.<br />

On the basis of the knowledge gained from this, testing will<br />

finally be carried out in the milling process.<br />

Authors information<br />

Doctor engineer, Philipp Esch, scientific employee (exited)<br />

Master of science, Kathrin Placzek, scientific employee<br />

Master of science, Daniel Holder, scientific employee<br />

Professor doctor, Rudolf Weber,<br />

head of process development department<br />

Master of science, Manuel Steck, scientific employee<br />

Professor doctor, Oliver Schwarz, scientific employee<br />

Bachelor of engineering, Felix Hartmann,<br />

scientific employee<br />

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Moisture harvesting and water transport through<br />

specialized micro-structures on the integument of lizards<br />

Beilstein journal of nanotechnology 2, page 204 - 214.<br />

[16]<br />

P. Comanns; W. Baumgartner; W. K. Bernhard Frank (2014)<br />

Device for the capillaryTransport of liquids, use<br />

and method for producing such a device<br />

[17]<br />

A.-C. Joel; G. Buchberger; P. Comanns (2017)<br />

Moisture-Harvesting Reptiles: A Review<br />

from: Gorb, S. N. and Gorb, E. V. (publisher):<br />

Functional Surfaces in Biology III. Biologically-Inspired<br />

Systems. Cham: Springer International Publishing,<br />

page 93 - 106<br />

[18]<br />

S. Kim; V. F. Korolovych; M. J. Weissburg;<br />

V. V. Tsukruk (2019)<br />

Morphology and Surface Properties<br />

of Roach Water Transport Arrays<br />

ACS applied bio materials 2 6, page 2650 - 2660<br />

[19]<br />

P.Commans, W.Baumgartner, F. Bernhardt,<br />

K. Winands, K. Arntz (2007)<br />

Fluid Handling Device with directionally-biased<br />

wetting surface<br />

patent WO 2007/035511 A2<br />

[20]<br />

X. Tan; Y. Zhu; T. Shi; Z. Tang; G. Liao (2016)<br />

Patterned gradient surface for spontaneous<br />

droplet transportation and water collection:<br />

simulation and experiment<br />

Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering 26 11,<br />

page 115009<br />

[21]<br />

Y. Hirai; H. Mayama; Y. Matsuo; M. Shimomura (2017)<br />

Uphill Water Transport on a Wettability-Patterned<br />

Surface: Experimental and Theoretical Results<br />

ACS applied materials & interfaces 9 18, page 15814 - 15821<br />

[22]<br />

S. V. Kirner; U. Hermens; A. Mimidis; E. Skoulas;<br />

C. Florian; F. Hischen; C. Plamadeala; W. Baumgartner;<br />

K. Winands; H. Mescheder; J. Krüger; J. Solis; J. Siegel;<br />

E. Stratakis; J. Bonse (2017)<br />

Mimicking bug-like surface structures and their fluid<br />

transport produced by ultrashort laser pulse irradiation<br />

of steel Applied Physics A 123 12<br />

[23]<br />

D. Ishii; H. Horiguchi; Y. Hirai; H. Yabu; Y. Matsuo;<br />

K. Ijiro; K. Tsujii; T. Shimozawa; T. Hariyama;<br />

M. Shimomura (2013)<br />

Water transport mechanism through open capillaries<br />

analyzed by direct surface modifications on<br />

biological surfaces<br />

Scientific reports 3, page 3024<br />

[24]<br />

G. Buchberger; A. Kogler; A. Weth; R. Baumgartner;<br />

P. Comanns; S. Bauer; W. Baumgartner (2013)<br />

«Fluidic diode» for passive unidirectional liquid transport<br />

bioinspired by the spermathecae of fleas<br />

Journal of Bionic Engineering 15 1, page 42 - 56<br />

[25]<br />

F. Hischen; G. Buchberger; C. Plamadeala; O. Armbruster;<br />

E. Heiss; K. Winands; M. Schwarz; B. Jüttler; J. Heitz;<br />

W. Baumgartner (2018)<br />

The external scent efferent system of selected European<br />

true bugs (Heteroptera): a biomimetic inspiration<br />

for passive, unidirectional fluid transport<br />

Journal of the Royal Society, Interface 15 140<br />

[26]<br />

M. L. Blow; H. Kusumaatmaja; J. M. Yeomans (2009)<br />

Imbibition through an array of triangular posts<br />

Journal of physics. Condensed matter:<br />

an Institute of Physics journal 21 46, page 464125<br />

[27]<br />

J. Nickerl; M. Tsurkan; R. Hensel; C. Neinhuis;<br />

C. Werner (2014)<br />

The multi-layered protective cuticle of Collembola:<br />

a chemical analysis<br />

Journal of the Royal Society, Interface 11 99<br />

[28]<br />

R. Hensel; R. Helbig; S. Aland; H.-G. Braun; A. Voigt;<br />

C. Neinhuis; C. Werner (2013)<br />

Wetting resistance at its topographical limit:<br />

the benefit of mushroom and serif T structures<br />

Langmuir: the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids 29 4,<br />

page 1100 - 1112<br />

[29]<br />

H. Gundersen; H. P. Leinaas; C. Thaulow (2014)<br />

Surface structure and wetting characteristics<br />

of Collembola cuticles<br />

PloS one 9 2, e86783<br />

[30]<br />

L. Saccardi; F. Brümmer; J. Schiebl; O. Schwarz;<br />

A. Kovalev; S. Gorb (2022)<br />

Interaction between honeybee mandibles and propolis<br />

Beilstein journal of nanotechnology 13, page 958 - 974<br />

[31]<br />

J. Ju; H. Bai; Y. Zheng; T. Zhao; R. Fang; L. Jiang (2012)<br />

A multi-structural and multi-functional integrated<br />

fog collection system in cactus<br />

Nature Communications 3, page 1247<br />

[32]<br />

H. Chen; L. Zhang; P. Zhang; D. Zhang; Z. Han;<br />

L. Jiang (2017)<br />

A Novel Bioinspired Continuous Unidirectional<br />

Liquid Spreading Surface Structure from the<br />

Peristome Surface of Nepenthes alata<br />

Small (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany) 13 4<br />

no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong><br />

25


materials & tools<br />

[33]<br />

P. Zhang; L. Zhang; H. Chen; Z. Dong; D. Zhang (2017)<br />

Surfaces Inspired by the Nepenthes Peristome<br />

for Unidirectional Liquid Transport<br />

Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.) 29 45<br />

[34]<br />

Y. Zhang; Y. Gan; L. Zhang; D. Zhang; H. Chen (2020)<br />

Surface-Tension-Confined Channel with Biomimetic<br />

Microstructures for Unidirectional Liquid Spreading<br />

Micromachines 11 11<br />

[35]<br />

H. Chen; T. Ran; Y. Gan; J. Zhou; Y. Zhang; L. Zhang;<br />

D. Zhang; L. Jiang (2018)<br />

Ultrafast water harvesting and transport in<br />

hierarchical microchannels<br />

Nature materials 17 10, page 935 - 942<br />

[36]<br />

W. Zhao; L. Wang; Z. Yu; Chen, Jieshi, Yang, Jinv (2019)<br />

A processing technology of grooves by<br />

picosecond ultrashort pulse laser in Ni alloy:<br />

Enhancing efficiency and quality<br />

Optics & Laser Technology, page 214 - 221<br />

[35]<br />

P. Esch (2021)<br />

Untersuchung zur Wirkungsweise von lasererzeugten<br />

Mikrostrukturen auf Funktionsflächen an<br />

Bohrwerkzeugen für metallische Leichtbauwerkstoffe<br />

Universität Stuttgart, Dissertation, Stuttgart (Fraunhofer-<br />

Institut für Produktionstechnik und Automatisierung IPA)<br />

Image credits<br />

figure 1 SEM images of LIPSS-structures on 100Cr6 steel:<br />

a) ripples, b) grooves and c) spikes,<br />

D. Holder (own representation)<br />

figure 2 Procedure diagram in the search for<br />

biomimetic solutions,<br />

O. Schwarz (own representation)<br />

figure 3 2D cutting tools with plane rake face,<br />

P. Esch (own representation)<br />

figure 4 Specimen with towering bars for 2D cutting,<br />

P. Esch (own representation)<br />

figure 5 Experimental setup in machine tool center,<br />

P. Esch (own representation)<br />

figure 6 Force translation model according to<br />

Ernst & Merchant (1941) [13];<br />

H. Ernst; m. E. Merchant:<br />

Chip formation, friction, and high quality<br />

machined surfaces (1941);<br />

List of References number 34<br />

figure 7 Transport structures<br />

a) Hose plant (Sarracenia spec.), b) spermatheca<br />

of fleas, in grey box is a «elementary cell»,<br />

c) + d) Toad lizard (Phrynosoma cornutum),<br />

«elementary cell»,<br />

a)+b) O. Schwarz (own representation),<br />

c) + d) M. Steck (own representation)<br />

figure 8 Wetting structures:<br />

a) prisms b) shell,<br />

c) truncated cone-shaped pyramids (also used as<br />

tranport structure!) inspired by Dysodius lunatus),<br />

d) tilted steps structure,<br />

a) + b) from Patent WO 2007/035511 A2,<br />

c) + d) M. Steck (own representation<br />

figure 9 Experimental setup for laser processing,<br />

K. Placzek (own representation)<br />

figure 10 Schematic illustration of<br />

ultra short pulse laser ablation,<br />

K. Placzek (own representation)<br />

figure 11 Ideal cross section of the transport structures<br />

(a) – c)) and schematic representation of cavity<br />

formation during laser micro machining,<br />

K. Placzek (own representation)<br />

figure 12 Implementation of complex 2D-structures,<br />

(own representation) + picture from O. Schwarz<br />

figure 13 Generated surface structures:<br />

LIPSS-structures B1.1 - B1.4,<br />

biomimetic structures B2.1 - B2.3,<br />

simple transport structures T1.1 - T1.4,<br />

complex structures T2.1-2.4, and<br />

bug structures E1 and E2,<br />

K. Placzek (own representation)<br />

figure 14 Schematic illustration of the setup for<br />

contact angle measurements and<br />

flow velocity measurements,<br />

https://www.dataphysics-instruments.com/de/<br />

produkte/oca/#Images-SchemaOCA +<br />

own representation<br />

figure 15 Contact angle as a function of time after droplet<br />

placement on the different wetting structures,<br />

K. Placzek (own representation)<br />

figure 16 Flow rate as a function of distance traveled in simple<br />

transport structures (left) and biomimetic surface<br />

structures (right) with different depths of the grooves,<br />

K. Placzek (own representation)<br />

figure 17 Overview of the variants selected<br />

for the 2D-machining experiments,<br />

K. Placzek (own representation)<br />

figure 18 Overview of biomimetic structured tools,<br />

P. Esch (own representation)<br />

figure 19 Effect of biomimetic structures on<br />

cutting force response,<br />

P. Esch (own representation)<br />

figure 20 Effect of biomimetic structures on<br />

friction coefficient,<br />

P. Esch (own representation)<br />

figure 21 Effect on chip morphology,<br />

P. Esch (own representation)<br />

further information: www.ipa.fraunhofer.de<br />

26 no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong>


materials & tools<br />

The revolution in tool handling<br />

No more need to use sledgehammers and tyre irons<br />

to open massively heavy tools by hand! The RUD Tecdos<br />

TS makes tool handling safer and much faster. This innovation<br />

opens injection tools, punching tools and forming<br />

tools in a matter of seconds, once again revolutionising<br />

production, service and maintenance processes.<br />

By optimising these processes, the RUD Tecdos TS can pay for<br />

itself in less than a year. That’s great news, not only for managers,<br />

workshop managers and controllers, but also for health<br />

and safety officers and employees themselves. Being especially<br />

safe and ergonomic it makes the RUD Tecdos TS the ideal<br />

com panion to the RUD Tecdos TM, RUD’s tool-handling<br />

machine.<br />

“The RUD Tecdos TS is a real milestone in the history of<br />

safe and efficient tool handling”, stated Anne Kühling, product<br />

manager in RUD Ketten Rieger & Dietz GmbH u. Co.<br />

KG’s Conveyor & Drive division. “The initiative for our latest<br />

development came directly from the market. No wonder:<br />

companies often have to separate massive heavy tools by<br />

hand, using cranes, sledgehammers and tyre irons. Depending<br />

on the tool this can take between 30 min. and 3 hours,<br />

and take up the time of up to three members of staff. Other<br />

machines, such as injection moulding machines or diespotting<br />

machines, might also be put to use to separate the tool.<br />

This is very inefficient and has a direct impact on operating<br />

costs. A solution to this problem had to be found urgently”,<br />

continued Kühling.<br />

Separating tools in a matter of seconds<br />

The RUD Tecdos TS does exactly that. Instead of 3 hours and<br />

three members of staff, RUD’s innovation needs a maximum<br />

of 5 min. and one person to complete the entire process.<br />

The RUD Tecdos TS operates with an opening and closing<br />

force of 50 kN (corresponds to 5 tonnes). A PLC control<br />

system ensures effective operation. Carefully controlled force<br />

and speed ensure tool halves to open gently and close accurately:<br />

operators can set the degree of force from a theoretical<br />

0 kN – 55 kN, and set speeds from 0 mm – 2,000 mm per min.<br />

A lower working height means better ergonomics<br />

Using the RUD Tecdos TS protects expensive tools and safeguards<br />

the joints and vertebrae of its operators. Only 380 mm<br />

high, the contact surface ensures work can be performed<br />

safely and ergonomically. Another benefit: after opening, the<br />

operator can work directly on both halves of the tool while it<br />

is held securely in the RUD Tecdos TS, reducing the downtimes<br />

required for maintenance. Safety is guaranteed because<br />

it is simply not possible to operate the RUD Tecdos TS, neither<br />

by pressing buttons on the machine nor by remote control,<br />

if anyone is standing between the two halves of the tool.<br />

A revolution in tool handling: the innovative RUD Tecdos TS<br />

Compact design thanks to an electrical drive<br />

The RUD Tecdos TS is driven electrically by RUD’s innovative<br />

Tecdos Pi-Gamma 2-in-1 chain drive system, which<br />

was specially developed for horizontal and vertical applications.<br />

This system is based on a high-performance round steel<br />

chain, also developed by RUD. The drive system is especially<br />

robust, low-maintenance and with a long service life.<br />

“The RUD Tecdos TS’s electrical drive is its distinctive feature,<br />

because it operates entirely without hydraulics. A hydraulic<br />

drive not only needs more maintenance, but also<br />

takes up more space because of the additional hydraulic unit.<br />

In contrast, the RUD Tecdos TS is a compact all-in-one system”,<br />

explained Walter Lais, designer at RUD Ketten Rieger<br />

& Dietz GmbH u. Co. KG. “Its compact construction means<br />

we’ve been able to bring its contact surface down to 380 mm,<br />

which is very low. That makes it an excellent, ergonomic<br />

working height for operators.”<br />

Perfect handling for any tool<br />

In its standard version the RUD Tecdos TS is sized for tools<br />

weighing up to 10 tonnes, but it can also handle lighter or<br />

heavier tools with ease. The Tool Separator has a 1,300 mm<br />

x 1,300 mm clamping plate and a sliding and contact surface<br />

at a height of 380 mm. “Theoretically, anything is possible<br />

here: we can adjust the machine to handle lighter or heavier<br />

tools, greater or lesser forces and smaller or greater distances<br />

between the clamping plates. We can also modify the plates<br />

themselves, depending on what is required”, stated Lais. The<br />

RUD Tecdos TS can also be moved by crane, so it can be used<br />

just where it’s needed.<br />

To ensure the greatest possible safety in the workplace, optional<br />

add-on parts, such as a guard bracket, can be installed<br />

to complement the automatic stop function which triggers<br />

as soon as anyone is detected on the Tool Separator. A light<br />

curtain or protective fence can also be supplied to optimise<br />

safety in the working environment. Thanks to its radio-controlled<br />

operator devices, the Tool Separator can also be operated<br />

safely and conveniently outside the danger zone.<br />

further information: www.moldhandling.rud.com<br />

no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong><br />

27


materials & tools<br />

LACH DIAMANT looks back on 100 years – 15 th part<br />

Poly – poly – or what?<br />

Diamond contra diamond? A reflection on the versatility of diamonds<br />

Horst Lach, managing director and CEO of<br />

LACH DIAMANT, agreed to write an ongoing series of<br />

articles about the development of diamond and CBN<br />

tools and grinding wheels in modern industries.<br />

Horst Lach is known as a true industry veteran, and<br />

we are excited to have this pioneer of technology share<br />

some insights from his over 60 years of professional<br />

experience in the diamond tool business. This time<br />

he reflects on the versatile possibilities of diamonds.<br />

Today, please do not expect a new thesis regarding diamonds<br />

as the (still) hardest of all things. Named after the Greek word<br />

Adamantinos, the unconquerable, natural diamonds grow<br />

deep below the surface of Mother Earth, under pressure and<br />

in high temperatures, and are then brought from the depth<br />

to the surface by humans<br />

In the 1950’s engineering ingenuity made it possible to<br />

recreate this natural process in synthesis. The manufacturer<br />

General Electric succeeded in cultivating the so-called<br />

“Man Made TM ” diamond under almost 6,900 bar atmospheric<br />

pressure and at 3,500⁰ Celcius; a development which would<br />

lead to another industrial revolution within the quickly<br />

growing serial production industry.<br />

We cannot imagine today’s world without diamonds. Their<br />

hardness and invincibility make them a crucial cost-reducer<br />

for many tool applications in the industry – and their brilliance<br />

and everlasting beauty makes them fitting jewellry for<br />

our so much appreciated women.<br />

It starts with gemstones<br />

When preparing for the article “Diamond contra diamond?”,<br />

in 2021, I immediately (regrettably) found information on<br />

diamonds as much sought-after gemstones. For example, no<br />

buyer of a polished diamond (brilliant) with a weight of half<br />

a carat (1 ct = 0.2 gram) would expect that he only has to pay<br />

“double the price” for a whole carat. The value is not only<br />

determined by size and purity, the buyer must also take the<br />

extreme rarity of finding large diamonds into consideration.<br />

For generations this was typical for the gemstone business<br />

with natural diamonds.<br />

Of all companies, the “contra” aspect is now offered by a<br />

company formerly associated with “De Beers”. Produced in<br />

synthesis, or “in the laboratory”, the diamonds appear to have<br />

the purity of colour and clarity (factors of classification) of<br />

polished natural diamonds (brilliants); there is even a choice<br />

between white, blue or pink. And best of all: anyone, purchasing<br />

directly from this consortium, can calculate the price<br />

based on the carat weight from 0.25 to 2.0.<br />

for example: the price for<br />

0.25 ct = 200 US $<br />

0.5 ct = 400 US $<br />

1.0 ct = 800 US $<br />

et cetera, so that a 2-carat diamond would cost 1,600 US $.<br />

The troubled sales people at the diamond exchanges in<br />

Antwerp and London and jewellers should know that all of<br />

these “laboratory diamonds” are marked as such with microscopically<br />

small imprints in order to prohibit “fraudulent”<br />

mix-ups with natural diamonds.<br />

Diamond contra diamond – for example, natural diamond<br />

compared to polycrystalline diamond blades (PCD)<br />

Diamond contra diamond; for example a single natural<br />

diamond dresser compared to a diamond dressing roll<br />

28 no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong>


materials & tools<br />

for the first time at the Hanover trade show<br />

in spring 1973. With them, efficient turning<br />

machining of copper commutators (and their<br />

baked-in synthetic mica) was made possible<br />

for the first time.<br />

Once again a new technology was born.<br />

Compact diamond blocks – PCD – were the<br />

basis for the development of cutting tools,<br />

superior to carbide tools, for “faster turning,<br />

drilling and milling with synthetic<br />

diamonds”.<br />

As early as 1973 polycrystalline turning tools replaced the overturning<br />

of copper lamellas of rough and fine polished copper commutators<br />

Within the industry, the “contra” isn’t playing out as drastically<br />

In 1957 – after synthetic diamonds became first available – they were initially<br />

used as diamond grain for the development of new synthetic-resin bond<br />

diamond grinding wheels, and for the first time also for pre-grinding<br />

carbides. During the 1960’s, 1970’s and the 1980’s a multitude of innovations<br />

swept over the market, some of which could only be implemented within<br />

the industry with certain delays.<br />

What particularly comes to mind are polycrystalline synthetic diamonds<br />

(PCD), available since 1973. Simply put, they are synthetic diamond grains<br />

in a cylindrical shape which – under pressure and heat and combined with<br />

catalysers tungsten and cobalt – are pressed onto a round carbide plate (as a<br />

substrate), very similar to diamond synthesis.<br />

The first PCD plates had a diameter of only 3.2 mm. However, when they<br />

were mechanically segmented into rectangles, they were the basis for the<br />

so-called PCD cutting tools, successfully presented by LACH DIAMANT<br />

Turning of copper commutators is another<br />

“contra” argument in this reflection. Until the<br />

use of the first PCD dreborid® turning steel,<br />

copper commutators were turned exclusively<br />

with natural diamonds during fine polishing.<br />

With the result that I had to take my first car<br />

to the repair shop every 750 km to have the<br />

wiper motor exchanged; otherwise, the wiper<br />

could have failed during the next rain.<br />

And today? Problems with windscreen wiper<br />

motors? No thank you. PCD turning means<br />

they should last multiple car-lifetimes.<br />

A similar “contra” – clearly in favour of PCD –<br />

can be reported of turning motor pistons. Until<br />

the 1970’s I could observe high class automobiles<br />

broken down by the roadside when I<br />

was driving to the Hanover trade show, apparently<br />

due to piston seizure. At that time expert<br />

drivers were convinced they had to “breake<br />

in” their brand-new cars on this route. If the<br />

motor could stand it, it was a good car…<br />

The introduction of polycrystalline cutting<br />

tools in the aluminum processing automobile<br />

industry also uncovered this “contra”<br />

in piston manufacturing as well as the insight,<br />

that the surface quality achieved during<br />

turning with polycrystalline cutting materials<br />

– instead of the thus far used natural diamonds<br />

– allowed for a perfect lubricating film<br />

which immediately prevented piston seizure<br />

to the greatest possible extent.<br />

Another argument in our reflection on<br />

“diamond contra diamond” brings composite<br />

and wooden materials and their respective<br />

industry into focus.<br />

Indirectly, carbide is partially involved in<br />

this example of “contra”, since diamond is<br />

also present in the grinding wheel for carbide:<br />

pars pro toto.<br />

PCD chip milling of glass fiber reinforced plastic (GRP) during an experiment<br />

in 1974 – compared to diamond-tipped tools, very little dust formation<br />

Early on, after the successful use of PCD<br />

turning, drilling and milling tools, other<br />

non-ferrous materials, such as aluminum and<br />

no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong><br />

29


materials & tools<br />

PCD tool during front facing<br />

of an aluminum rim<br />

A diamond cut-off wheel,<br />

electroplated with diamonds during the<br />

cutting of a GRP (glass fiber reinforced<br />

plastic) component<br />

copper as well as some plastic materials were tried in experiments.<br />

Examples are soft and hard plastics, glass fiber and<br />

carbon fiber materials, electrographite carbons and miscellaneous<br />

wooden materials.<br />

The photo on the previous page was taken during these<br />

adventurous times. It shows a PCD end milling cutter during<br />

the chip machining of a GRP component.<br />

When the second productronica was held in Munich in<br />

1977, PCD tools for sawing/scoring/milling/drilling were<br />

demonstrated to an astonished audience on an Amacher<br />

electronic circuit board machine, which had been purchased<br />

especially for this purpose. It was so successful that for the<br />

time being – until the discovery of spark erosion – expectations<br />

of the relevant industry had to be disappointed.<br />

Other industries had now become just as curious and<br />

further experiments and construction continued diligently.<br />

For example, machining of carbon fiber components for the<br />

aircraft industry, which in turn should initiate revolutionary<br />

successes in the development of spiral drills, especially<br />

for one manufacturer. And a real “contra” should become<br />

clear during the machining of composite materials. A pro<br />

and contra for some imminent problem solutions. While<br />

using the same diamond material, different production<br />

and tool technologies created controversies. For the first<br />

time, PCD tools and the already “tradition-rich” diamondcoated<br />

electro-plated tools were in competition with one<br />

another.<br />

Special advantages of electro-plating<br />

Almost all profiles projected onto steel bodies can be coated<br />

with diamond and re-coated after wear in service. The<br />

diamond grains applied to the surface of the steel body allow<br />

good removal rates – depending on grain size – which is especially<br />

advisable for deburring tasks. They are versatile in use,<br />

like cut-off wheels up to high diameters, or for cutting GRP<br />

and other hard materials.<br />

The disadvantage: dust formation which must be extracted.<br />

LACH DIAMANT provides a special solution for hollow<br />

drills, featuring extraction directly at the tool.<br />

Special advantages of PCD<br />

As far as the geometries of the composite component to be<br />

machined allow, turning and milling operations can be performed<br />

efficiently and without any problems, and can therefore<br />

be recommended accordingly. Profile and drilling tools<br />

can constructively be equipped with PCD cutting edges,<br />

which is especially advantageous for larger production numbers.<br />

Further advantages result in comparison with electroplated<br />

diamond tools, e.g., grooving tools with exact tolerances<br />

for corners and radii for serial production. Chips,<br />

produced during machining, can be extracted very well.<br />

PCD blades can be reground several times.<br />

Diamond tools have become an intrinsic and valuable<br />

part in the world of technology, especially during the last<br />

50 years. The list of examples above could easily be extended<br />

– innovative spirit and (positive) thinking outside the box<br />

will con tinue to enrich “pro and contra” in many industries<br />

and many applications. For example, let’s think of the natural<br />

diamond as a single tool for dressing and profiling of grinding<br />

wheels – it was replaced as a single point dressing tool by<br />

a chain of innovations in serial production. Roughly in the<br />

order of the following developments: by the multi-point<br />

dresser, the Diamant-Fliese or rather dressing plate and – up<br />

to date – by diamond dressing rolls.<br />

When we focus at last on the diamond itself, we wonder<br />

whether it will really stay the hardest of all things? Personally,<br />

I am not so sure about that. A “contra” could be in the making<br />

here too. Recently the press featured a “glass” which supposedly<br />

could score even the surface of a diamond…<br />

Horst Lach<br />

further information: www.lach-diamant.de<br />

30 no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong>


news & facts<br />

Entrepreneurial personality Lothar Horn has died<br />

Horn Group mourns the death of its longstanding corporate leader<br />

The entrepreneur Lothar Horn passed away February<br />

5 th , <strong>2023</strong> at the age of 66 after a long, serious illness.<br />

Lothar Horn was the managing director of Paul Horn<br />

GmbH in Tübingen.<br />

He shaped the Horn Group into an internationally successful<br />

manufacturer of precision tools with production sites in<br />

England, Italy, the Czech Republic and the USA. There are<br />

additional subsidiaries in France, Hungary, China, Mexico,<br />

Turkey and Thailand. Today the company is the largest industrial<br />

employer in Tübingen. As chairman of the VDMA<br />

Precision Tools Association, Lothar Horn was the mouthpiece<br />

of his industry from 2009 to 2019. Lothar Horn is regarded by<br />

many in the sector as a pioneer and visionary. His son Markus,<br />

managing director of Paul Horn GmbH since 2018, will continue<br />

to run the company, now in its third generation of family<br />

ownership, together with Matthias Rommel, also managing<br />

director.<br />

Lothar Horn, a technology enthusiast and business economist,<br />

joined his parents’ company 1991. Before that he gained<br />

experience in the IT industry and management consultancies.<br />

He became managing director January 1 st , 1995. In 1999<br />

Lothar Horn created new production and administration facilities<br />

as well as a demonstration, research and development<br />

center at the Tübingen headquarters. The new building combined<br />

all business processes in one location for the first time,<br />

including a coating center.<br />

In order to further expand its leading position on the world<br />

market another factory was constructed next to the Tübingen<br />

headquarters, doubling the production area. Since its completion<br />

in 2016 it has been the largest industrial building in<br />

use in Tübingen.<br />

Trust in technology and people<br />

“Technology determines costs.” – This sentence epitomises<br />

Lothar Horn’s innovative driving force for selling high-precision<br />

tools on the world markets successfully. The expansion of<br />

production and administration buildings also involved the reorganisation<br />

of processes. Additionally to production and administration,<br />

the qualification and customer training took on<br />

increasing importance and space at Paul Horn GmbH under<br />

Lothar Horn’s direction. The Horn Academy is an investment<br />

in people and employees. In addition to internal and external<br />

training of people, it also offers apprenticeships, dual study<br />

programmes, retraining and further education. The facility<br />

cooperates with the chamber of industry and commerce and<br />

the Baden-Württemberg Cooperative State University (DHBW).<br />

It all depends on the right people in the company, was<br />

Lothar Horn’s conviction. He relied on freedom, trust and a<br />

culture that allows mistakes as well as the opportunity to learn<br />

from them. People were just as important to Lothar Horn as<br />

technology or modern processes. “His appreciation was for<br />

our customers as well as our employees,” says his successor<br />

Markus Horn, describing his father.<br />

Lothar Horn passed away February 5 th ,<br />

<strong>2023</strong> at the age of 66<br />

“No car drives, no plane flies (...) without<br />

precision tools being used”<br />

For ten years, in addition to his entrepreneurial activities,<br />

Lothar Horn was chairman of the Precision Tools Association<br />

of the German Engineering Federation (VDMA). 2019 his<br />

role as official representative of the trade organisation came<br />

to an end. “No car drives, no plane flies and no artificial joint<br />

can be inserted by doctors without precision tools being used,”<br />

was one of Lothar Horn’s central statements. Paul Horn GmbH<br />

is an important and visible player in the industry: hall 10 at<br />

the Stuttgart trade fair center bears its name.<br />

A jury of experts awarded Lothar Horn the Tool and Mould<br />

Making Medal of Honour at the Moulding Expo trade fair in<br />

Stuttgart, 2021. It honours personalities who, as pioneers and<br />

visionaries, have set groundbreaking benchmarks and are role<br />

models. The jury said of Lothar Horn: “Even though he<br />

directs and manages a really big company in the industry, he<br />

has remained true to himself over all these years, close and<br />

approachable for everyone. A human being.”<br />

Committed to the people of Tübingen<br />

The internationally active company leader Lothar Horn<br />

remained loyal to the Tübingen location. The Horn Group offers<br />

jobs and apprenticeships for 950 employees at the headquarters<br />

and 1,500 worldwide. This makes Paul Horn GmbH<br />

the largest industrial employer in Tübingen. Lothar Horn<br />

was also loyal to the people of the city. Paul Horn GmbH supports<br />

social institutions as well as the youth and youth development<br />

work of sports clubs, for example. A visible sign<br />

of this is the Paul Horn Arena for competitive, amateur and<br />

school sports in Tübingen.<br />

The entire Horn Group mourns with the family.<br />

further information: www.horn-group.com<br />

no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong><br />

31


news & facts<br />

Rineck shrink fit tooling and machine technology<br />

now available from Platinum Tooling<br />

Platinum Tooling, the importer and master distributor of live tools,<br />

angle heads, Swiss machine products, knurling and marking tools<br />

manufactured by various international suppliers, is now the importer<br />

of Rineck shrink fit tooling and shrink fit machine technology in the<br />

United States and Mexico.<br />

The announcement was made by Platinum Tooling president Preben Hansen,<br />

at their headquarters in Prospect Heights, Illinois, near Chicago.<br />

Established in 1966 Rineck started as a job shop for small parts, then<br />

became a producer of hydraulic parts for the mining industry and is now<br />

a globally recognized manufacturer of tool holding technology. Rineck’s investment<br />

in state-of-the-art manufacturing equipment and commitment to<br />

innovation, research and development allows them to constantly look for<br />

ways to achieve the optimal balance of quality, consistency and affordability.<br />

Rineck offers standard and custom shrink fit tool holders with various<br />

connections including CAT, HSK, BT, SK, PSC and straight shank<br />

extensions. In addition, ER shrink fit collets are available. For added rigidity,<br />

flange or dual contact holders are available for CAT and BT tapers. A clamping<br />

range from 3 mm to 32 mm is possible for both slim and standard styles.<br />

All tools are available in inch and metric sizes.<br />

Rineck produces a wide range of standard shrink fit tool holders as well as<br />

custom tooling. In addition to standard 4.5 ° taper tools, 3 ° slim and extra<br />

slim tools are available. Most holders come standard with length adjusting<br />

screws. Coolant delivery to the cutting tool can be achieved either through<br />

the center or flange of the tool holder utilizing coolant jets or slots.<br />

In addition to shrink fit tool holders, Platinum Tooling will offer shrink fit<br />

machine technology.<br />

Equipped with an elevation cooling system, heated tools can be moved to<br />

a cooling tank with a push of a button. The machine’s smart design keeps<br />

accessories stored but close at hand during operation.<br />

For this new line of shrink fit tooling and<br />

machine technology, Platinum Tooling will<br />

handle application engineering, sales and<br />

service through a network of distributors<br />

across the United States and Mexico.<br />

further information: www.platinumtooling.com<br />

CNC technology leader opens<br />

second facility in China<br />

CNC specialist NUM has opened a second branch in China, further<br />

consolidating its position within the country.<br />

As a leader in high-end CNC technology, NUM is represented in virtually<br />

every industrialised country in the world. In addition to its headquarters in<br />

Teufen, Switzerland, the company nowadays operates 13 strategically located<br />

facilities around the globe, together with an extensive network of representatives<br />

and customer support agencies.<br />

In China NUM has until now operated a single facility, located in<br />

Shanghai. The addition of this second facility – based in Guangzhou in the<br />

south of the country – means that the company is significantly increasing its<br />

local presence in the area. The facility will provide customer-focused sales<br />

and application development, as well as enhanced customer support services.<br />

Guangzhou is the capital and largest city of Guangdong province, situated<br />

about 120 kilometers (75 miles) from Hong Kong. The region features a<br />

large number of private companies involved in the construction of special<br />

NUM office in Guangzhou, southern China<br />

machines, representing a potentially large<br />

market for the type of tailor-made technical<br />

control solutions offered by NUM.<br />

further information: www.num.com<br />

32 no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong>


news & facts<br />

VOLLMER’s 15 th subsidiary founded in Thailand<br />

VOLLMER has opened its 15 th subsidiary under the name<br />

VOLLMER Asia Pacific in the Thai capital Bangkok. The branch<br />

will serve the Southeast Asian region – primarily customers from<br />

Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia, Taiwan and the Philippines – providing<br />

them with grinding and eroding machines, services and digital<br />

solutions locally.<br />

VOLLMER has been present in the Asian market for many decades. The company<br />

opened its first Asian branch in Japan 2000, followed by offices in China,<br />

South Korea and India. With VOLLMER Asia Pacific based in the Thai capital<br />

Bangkok, VOLLMER is now well placed to further expand its business<br />

in the ASEAN states (association of Southeast Asian Nations), which include<br />

Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia, the Philippines, Indonesia and Singapore.<br />

Since 2017 VOLLMER has been present in Thailand through a representative<br />

office, so this dedicated branch constitutes another company milestone<br />

in Southeast Asia. With a team of seven employees and the support of dealers<br />

based in the region, VOLLMER Asia Pacific will serve customers locally in<br />

countries such as Vietnam and Malaysia. The subsidiary will be managed by<br />

Andreas Weidenauer, who had already run the representative office and has<br />

more than 30 years of experience in the sector.<br />

The market for German engineering has continued to grow in the ASEAN<br />

territories. Both in the metalworking and woodworking industries, demand<br />

for VOLLMER grinding machines for both carbide-tipped circular saws and<br />

for grinding and eroding machines for rotary tools is constantly rising. Tool<br />

manufacturers use VOLLMER machines to produce cutting tools such as<br />

drills or milling cutters made from carbide or tipped with PCD.<br />

further information: www.vollmer-group.com<br />

In the Thai capital Bangkok the Swabian<br />

sharpening specialists VOLLMER has opened<br />

its 15 th subsidiary under the name<br />

VOLLMER Asia Pacific<br />

SUSTAINABILITY by performance and precision<br />

The CHIRON Group publishes its first sustainability report<br />

Grow profitably, acquire market shares, boost global business: the<br />

CHIRON Group will be pursuing ambitious objectives over the next<br />

few years. To help achieve this the company is setting itself apart<br />

from the competition with its product range. The company’s commit -<br />

ment to sustainability, an important topic for the future, gives<br />

customers and potential customers even more reasons to choose<br />

the CHIRON Group.<br />

The company has already achieved its first major success in this area: from<br />

the end of the year, production at the German sites will be carbon-neutral.<br />

The CHIRON Group documents the measures it has taken and the success<br />

it has enjoyed so far in its first sustainability report “SUSTAINABILITY BY<br />

PERFORMANCE AND PRECISION”.<br />

“Our objective is to achieve environmentally conscious and carbon-neutral<br />

production – the sooner the better,” states CEO Carsten Liske. To this end, in<br />

recent months, the CHIRON Group has been focusing on developing a global<br />

sustainability program. And by investing in heat recovery and photovoltaic<br />

systems, as well as purchasing the required energy from renewable sources,<br />

the first milestone has already been reached: production operations at the<br />

CHIRON Group sites in Germany are now carbon-neutral. CHIRON China<br />

will soon follow suit in <strong>2023</strong> with a photovoltaic system for the Taicang Innovation<br />

Factory, while plans are already underway<br />

at CHIRON Croatia.<br />

Benjamin Kurth, global program manager<br />

sustainability, explains that, as a machine tool<br />

manufacturer, the CHIRON Group faces a<br />

double challenge: “Firstly we are striving for<br />

carbon-neutral production at our company<br />

and, secondly, we want to ensure that our customers<br />

conserve resources and operate machining<br />

centers and manufacturing solutions<br />

ever more efficiently.” As a founding member<br />

of the VDMA Blue Competence Initiative, the<br />

CHIRON Group actively advocates for sustainability<br />

concerns and systematically implements<br />

the defined criteria in its products.<br />

Alongside successful in the long term.”<br />

The online version of the Sustainability<br />

Report 2021 is available on the CHIRON Group<br />

website under “Environment and Quality”.<br />

further information: www.chiron-group.com<br />

no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong><br />

33


news & facts<br />

LACH DIAMANT – 100 Years<br />

Tradition. Passion. Innovation<br />

part 4 (from 1957 to 1972):<br />

How NASA gave wings to a new product<br />

“When I held my first diamond in my hand in 1908, I would not<br />

have imagined that one day diamonds would not only be used in the<br />

automobile industry but also for the machining of wood and plastics”.<br />

Jakob Lach, the company founder, said this on camera in 1980.<br />

It would become the preface for the first presentation of a new technique<br />

for machining wood and plastics – using diamonds as cutting<br />

material – the Dia Tool. This video, with audio translated into<br />

multiple languages, has lost none of its relevance for the choice of<br />

appropriate tools within the furniture, flooring and plastic industries;<br />

the video can be viewed at: https://bit.ly/LACHDIAMANT<br />

In 1957 a beeping earth satellite had us look up at the sky, almost in disbelief;<br />

however, twelve years later, a much broader based media world brought<br />

it to our attention that a new era had long since begun. This was on July 20 th ,<br />

1969, the first controlled landing of a human on the moon. For the first time<br />

in the history of mankind, a human set foot on a foreign planet.<br />

Before both events, we find the development of the first synthetic diamond,<br />

at that time referred to as “Man-made diamond” by manufacturer<br />

General Electric.<br />

The beginning of a “diamond age for technology” was marked like this:<br />

for ever-advancing development and precision, which would show its first<br />

universally recognizable proof with the landing of an earth vehicle on the<br />

lunar satellite.<br />

Company founder Jakob Lach, 1894-1984<br />

(photo taken in 1980)<br />

Accompanying steps and marks<br />

for the course of LACH DIAMANT<br />

from now on:<br />

As of 1969. Space at the original building,<br />

company headquarters, and at the parental<br />

home – at Bruchköbeler Landstrasse 39 in<br />

Hanau – was getting tight, both, in the shop<br />

and in the office. Not to mention the limited<br />

use of my parents’ living space. Month after<br />

month, the sales of resin-bond diamond<br />

grinding wheels “K-MC” hit new record numbers;<br />

a result of metal-coated diamond grains,<br />

processed since 1967, which made grinding<br />

carbides economically feasible for the very<br />

first time.<br />

In 1968, Jakob Lach gave the go-ahead<br />

for building a factory and multistory office<br />

building on plot number 41, a hitherto fallow<br />

property. Turning and grinding machines,<br />

and modern high-performance heat presses<br />

for the manufacturing of wheels were ordered,<br />

and new skilled workers were hired. The move<br />

to the new building happened in 1969/70.<br />

Everything seemed to be secured for the<br />

five-year growth plan for the natural diamond<br />

cutting shop, and for manufacturing and servicing<br />

diamond dressing and turning tools<br />

for the overturning of copper commutators<br />

(Bosch, Siemens, AEG etc.).<br />

Original building at Bruchköbeler Landstr. 39, the diamond cutting shop<br />

and the first addition for manufacturing grinding wheels<br />

Differently than expected<br />

And then a development came along which<br />

the initial provider of “Man-made diamonds”<br />

(in 1957) had probably expected to happen<br />

34 no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong>


news & facts<br />

Horst Lach (right) and Kurt Wagner (†) in a section<br />

of the cutting shop for industrial diamonds<br />

Metal-coated Borazon® –<br />

cubic crystalline Boron nitride grains<br />

quite differently. In the beginning of 1969, quite suddenly and<br />

unexpectedly, the grinding industry was confronted with an<br />

abrasive that had not existed (in the Western industry) until<br />

then: “cubic boron nitride” under the name of “Borazon®”;<br />

cubic crystalline boron nitride (CBN), with a specific weight<br />

of 3.48, a thermal resistance of 1,400⁰ C, and an HK of 4,700.<br />

Though inferior in hardness compared to diamond (diamond<br />

– HK 7,800), however, significantly superior regarding<br />

thermal resistance (diamond – approx. 820⁰ C). Borazon®/<br />

CBN, processed in resin and metal-bond grinding wheels,<br />

with a great potential for grinding high-alloy hardened steels.<br />

Today I could insist on the hypothesis that General Electric<br />

did not target the “small diamond industry” at the beginning<br />

of their sales campaign for this new abrasive. This can<br />

be already concluded from the way GE intended to sell this<br />

new material: not per carat like diamonds, but per gram; in<br />

doing so, one gram of Borazon® was offered for the hefty price<br />

of five US dollars (at that time more expensive than gold).<br />

At that time, traditional manufacturers of grinding wheels<br />

for the machining of steel did not have any use for this “superior”<br />

abrasive for the grinding of hardened steels (much<br />

to the chagrin of GE): in short, all resources for dealing with<br />

this pricey new abrasive were lacking, starting with personnel,<br />

laboratory, forming and pressing capacities.<br />

Coincidence helps<br />

Since 1963 the industry had learned to produce resin- and<br />

metal-bond diamond grinding wheels in good quality. But<br />

what could be done with this new abrasive “Borazon®”, a cubic<br />

crystalline Boron nitride (short name CBN)? General Electric<br />

recommended to produce grinding wheels for steel machining<br />

with it. They suggested to solely use it during wet grinding<br />

with a cutting speed of 28 m/sec. However, the problem with<br />

this approach was that the few grams of the sample material<br />

we received, for our first tests, were not even enough to produce<br />

a 200 x 10 mm peripheral wheel for a Jung surface grinding<br />

machine. But why try surface grinding, let us right away<br />

try the new CBN grain for tool grinding. No sooner said than<br />

Successful HSS tool grinding with Borazon®<br />

no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong><br />

35


news & facts<br />

done – the first CBN grinding wheels for tool<br />

grinding were made: a 125 x 12.5 cup wheel<br />

and a 11V9-125 x 3 cone cup grinding wheel.<br />

The final test was planned to be conducted<br />

at the Simon company in Neu- Isenburg, a<br />

manufacturer of steel and tool grinding machines,<br />

and at that time one of our best diamond<br />

grinding wheel customers. But at first<br />

we were greatly disappointed. It was neither<br />

possible to do the test during wet grinding,<br />

nor did we reach the necessary cutting speed<br />

of 28 m/sec – we only had an L15 steel grinding<br />

machine with only 18 m/sec available for<br />

the cup grinding wheel. “Well, since you are<br />

already here”, said the machine operator, and<br />

the test with a clamped-in HSS turning steel<br />

began. Excellent grinding sound, no “turning<br />

blue.” The thing worked with the selected<br />

machine parameters and a CBN volume of<br />

V120 (12 % CBN per volume) instead of GErecommended<br />

V240 (24 % CBN per volume)<br />

of the grinding wheel. For LACH DIAMANT<br />

the decision was made. By coincidence we<br />

had found the worldwide first functioning<br />

Borazon®/CBN tool grinding wheel, and simultaneously,<br />

we had discovered the correct<br />

cutting speed for dry and wet grinding of<br />

CBN grinding wheels. Despite all subsequent<br />

experiments with various cooling emulsions,<br />

still the guiding principle today.<br />

The complete Borazon®/CBN grinding wheel portfolio,<br />

already presented at Hanover trade show in 1969/70<br />

The first Hanover Spring trade show 1969<br />

was on the horizon. Another historical decision<br />

was made: the long-stretched large LACH<br />

DIAMANT stand was immediately divided<br />

into two halves: on one side diamonds, on the<br />

other Borazon®. Slogans like “Borazon® easily<br />

resolves HSS problems” instantly became part<br />

of the LACH DIAMANT statements.<br />

The Borazon®/CBN programme soon included<br />

resin-bond grinding wheels (named<br />

K-MX7 for dry grinding, and K-MX3 for wet<br />

grinding), as well as metal-bond CBN grinding<br />

wheels (Bz-MX) and electroplated abrasive<br />

wheels (G-MX).<br />

Showing the claws<br />

Already a year later, in 1970, LACH DIAMANT<br />

surprised with “tressex® shows its claws”,<br />

Borazon®/CBN grinding wheels, for the first<br />

time produced based on the available polyamide-resin<br />

bonds.<br />

Hanover trade show visitors were enthusiastic,<br />

because it was the first time they witnessed<br />

the production of HSS chips during dry<br />

deep grinding with a Borazon®/CBN grinding<br />

wheel with tressex® on a Saacke UW3 universal<br />

tool grinding machine, material EW9C04.<br />

The excitement about the successes of this GE<br />

Start with Borazon®, the abrasive of a new age<br />

36 no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong>


news & facts<br />

Made visible for the first time:<br />

HSS turning chips after grinding with<br />

Borazon®/CBN<br />

Borazon®/CBN abrasive wheels with electroplated bond for<br />

internal cylindrical grinding<br />

innovation was so great at LACH DIAMANT<br />

that we decided to approach NASA with a<br />

request to use their “spider” picture of the<br />

landing on the moon in our advertising for<br />

Borazon®; we were given permission!<br />

A never-before-seen advertising campaign<br />

with folded post cards (postage seven<br />

Pfennig at the time) was launched three<br />

times a week, with various messages on the<br />

advantages of grinding with “Borazon®/<br />

CBN grinding wheels”. It was so successful<br />

that suddenly “Borazon®” was attributed to<br />

LACH DIAMANT. Understandably this was<br />

not to the liking of other subsequent competitors;<br />

upon GE’s request, we began to “only”<br />

advertise LACH CBN in the mid-1970’s.<br />

The unanticipated rapid success of the<br />

Borazon®/CBN grinding wheel, which gained<br />

extra momentum by tressex®, made us look for<br />

additional personnel.<br />

Customer requests for details on operational<br />

conditions and application techniques almost<br />

seemed overwhelming.<br />

The choice fell upon Dipl. Ing. Günter<br />

Hobohm, a stroke of luck as it turned out over<br />

the next decades of our cooperation. From the<br />

beginning on he was highly motivated and,<br />

after his hiring in 1970, many written exposés<br />

show his successful handling of this new<br />

material “Borazon®”.<br />

In retrospect, those days were also an exciting<br />

time in a young, up-and-coming enterprise<br />

in the diamond tool industry.<br />

Borazon®/CBN with tressex® for deep grinding<br />

However, let us not forget that diamond dressing tools, the diamond<br />

cutting shop for natural turning diamonds, and production remained the<br />

turnover basis, despite all previously told beginnings of diamond and now<br />

Borazon®/CBN grinding wheels.<br />

The following developments of “super abrasives” will give you, my<br />

cherished readers, further insights into a technical world of upheaval.<br />

Yours, Horst Lach<br />

further information: www.lach-diamant.de<br />

no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong><br />

37


processes<br />

The “smallest” world sensation of <strong>2023</strong>:<br />

The new micro milling cutter<br />

from Mikron Tool!<br />

According to the Global Innovation Index 2022, Switzerland is the country with the highest level of<br />

innovation worldwide. Technology-oriented companies such as the Swiss precision tool manufacturer<br />

Mikron Tool from Ticino make valuable contributions towards this. This company surprises in fact<br />

once more with a new development that is well worth seeing. A “small” world sensation.<br />

The grinding processes for such milling tools<br />

are extremely demanding;<br />

the correction range is 0.1 µm (3.94 µin)<br />

The 250 employee company is presenting its new high-performance<br />

micro milling cutter designed for roughing and<br />

finishing the most difficult-to-machine materials. The new<br />

CrazyMill Cool Micro Z3/Z4 – the smallest with integrated<br />

cooling and the first with material-specific cutting edge geometries<br />

– is available in the Ø from 0.2 mm to 1.0 mm<br />

(.008“ – .039“) with a milling depth of up to 5 x d.<br />

Designed for high-performance materials such as stainless<br />

steels, titanium and titanium alloys, heat-resistant alloys (e.g.<br />

Inconel® and Nilo®) and CoCr alloys, it offers a significant<br />

increase in performance and maximum process reliability<br />

compared to conventional standard products. Above all it<br />

demonstrates its strengths in side and slot milling as well as<br />

in milling with spiral interpolation.<br />

The challenge of miniaturisation<br />

The increasing miniaturisation of workpieces requires tools<br />

that are both high-performance and reliable, even for the<br />

smallest applications. They are increasingly sought after in<br />

medical engineering, in the watch and jewelry industry and<br />

in the electronic hardware industry. In response to this need,<br />

Mikron Tool has developed an exceptional new milling cutter<br />

for micro-machining. For the first time the engineers at<br />

Mikron Tool have succeeded in transferring complex highperformance<br />

cutting edge geometries to micro milling cutters.<br />

This requires a high level of expertise, not just in develop<br />

ment work. From a production point of view, it is also a<br />

major challenge to implement such complex geometries in<br />

milling cutters with Ø smaller than 1.0 mm (.039”).<br />

The smaller the cross-section of the tool, the more demanding<br />

is manufacturing them while maintaining quality<br />

requirements and tolerances. This requires state-of-the-art<br />

high-precision grinding centers and diamond grinding wheels<br />

with ultra-fine grit.<br />

High-precision digital measuring equipment is used<br />

throughout the production process to ensure the high<br />

38 no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong>


processes<br />

This allows for the first time, high-performance milling of<br />

hard and difficult-to-machine materials in micro-production.<br />

Furthermore the material-specific geometries process the<br />

material so perfectly that the formation of burrs is practically<br />

avoided.<br />

Tool deflection is a thing of the past<br />

Tool deflection during milling is a considerable problem<br />

with small tool diameters, which is further exacerbated with<br />

materials that are difficult to machine due to higher cutting<br />

forces.<br />

The grinding specialists of the nanotool department,<br />

who developed the grinding processes for the new<br />

CrazyMill Cool Micro Z3/Z4<br />

picture copyright Thomas Entzeroth<br />

quality standards, including custom-made digital microscopes<br />

with up to 2000 x magnification. This is not enough<br />

on its own. Thanks to the competence of the grinding specialists<br />

in the nano-tools production department, Mikron<br />

Tool produces these milling cutters with absolute maximum<br />

precision in the correction range of 0.1 µm (3.94 µin). This<br />

demands highly meticulous grinding skills from the grinding<br />

machine operator.<br />

The newly developed geometries prevent tool deflection<br />

by combining high cutting ability with robustness, depending<br />

on the material which inevitably leads to greater overall<br />

tool stability. The result: significantly higher removal volumes<br />

with perfect contour accuracy and significantly longer tool<br />

life.<br />

Stay cool!<br />

High temperatures and temperature changes around the<br />

cutting edge are extremely critical issues for any high performance<br />

materials used in milling processes, especially<br />

when it comes to micro-manufacturing. Mikron Tool benefits<br />

from its pioneering role in milling cutters with integrated<br />

cooling. The revolutionary and proven cooling concept (patented)<br />

of the CrazyMill Cool milling cutter series has been<br />

transferred to the new micro milling cutter – including the<br />

smallest diameters! – which leads to excellent results.<br />

New material-specific cutting edge geometries S<br />

and SX<br />

The specific material properties and the very different machining<br />

behaviour associated were one aspect that played a<br />

decisive role in the development of this milling cutter. The<br />

R&D department therefore took a close look at this issue during<br />

the development of the new milling cutter, and the result<br />

was remarkable. Two main groups of materials were defined,<br />

for each of which a specific cutting geometry was developed:<br />

■ Geometry S was specially developed for stainless steels,<br />

structural steels, non-ferrous metals and titanium alloys.<br />

It is characterized by a higher cutting capacity for materials<br />

with a specific cutting force of less than 2250 N/mm 2<br />

(326'335 psi).<br />

■ Geometry SX, featuring a special cutting edge protection,<br />

is suitable for materials with a specific cutting force greater<br />

than 2250 N/mm2 (326'335 psi) such as heat-resistant<br />

alloys and CoCr alloys.<br />

At the heart of the cooling concept are the cooling channels<br />

integrated into the tool. Thanks to their special shape<br />

they deliver significantly more coolant into the milling area,<br />

resulting in constant and more efficient cooling of the cutting<br />

edges.<br />

This enables to achieve the highest cutting values and<br />

significantly better material removal (compared to commercially<br />

available micro cutters).<br />

no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong><br />

39


processes<br />

Up to 2 times longer tool life, up to 3 times shorter milling processes<br />

with excellent surface quality; the new high-performance geometries<br />

of the micro cutters are sensational<br />

Elio Lupica, the new COO at Mikron Tool,<br />

is convinced: process-reliable milling with<br />

maximum efficiency is now also possible in<br />

micro production thanks to the ingenious<br />

material-specific cutting edge geometries<br />

In addition the massive cooling jet flushes the chips away from the<br />

machining area which means that repeated cutting of the chips does not<br />

take place. The result is excellent tool life and an ultrafine surface finish.<br />

Edge wear prevention down to the µin range<br />

To produce precise geometries and ultra-fine cutting edges, the right choice<br />

is important concerning the carbide the tool is made from. To meet the high<br />

demands Mikron Tool relies on state-of-the-art ultra-fine grades with high<br />

wear resilience combined with high fracture resistance. The grain size here<br />

is less than 0.5 µm (19.69 µin).<br />

Mikron Tool also uses the most up-to-date coating technology. The new<br />

revolutionary Exedur SNP coating offers excellent wear resistance even at<br />

extreme operating temperatures. The high layer smoothness and the precise<br />

uniform layer thick ness evenly protect all contours without impairing the<br />

cutting ability.<br />

Based to this coating tool life is significantly increased, which results in a<br />

high level of process reliability. As the coating is chrome free, a cross contamination<br />

on medical parts is avoided.<br />

First empirical values from the<br />

field of medical technology<br />

The first small series of the new CrazyMill Cool Micro has already rolled<br />

off the production line and is in the test phase at a medium-sized medical<br />

technology manufacturer. The company manufactures components for<br />

surgical instruments on six turn-mill centers. The producer was looking for<br />

a micro-machining solution for martensitic chrome steel. They were unsatisfied<br />

with the micro-milling cutters they had used and were looking for<br />

alternatives. Mikron Tool recommended geometry S for milling martensitic<br />

chrome steel. Milling quality, tool life and burr formation have greatly<br />

impressed the customer and enables him now to run unmanned shifts.<br />

This is the first report from the medical manufacturing sector on the latest<br />

high-performance micro milling cutter series from Mikron Tool.<br />

A star is born<br />

“Practical experience shows that Mikron<br />

Tool has once again hit the jackpot with this<br />

development. The fact that this tiny tool delivers<br />

high performance can also be seen from<br />

a chrome steel roughing application that we<br />

carried out in our technology center:<br />

Ø = 0.6 mm (.0236”); n = 30 000 rpm;<br />

ap = 0.5 mm (.0197”); ae = 0.08 mm (.0031”),<br />

the feed rate of the milling cutter is<br />

540 mm/min (21.26 in/min).<br />

For a 0.6 (.0236”) solid carbide milling<br />

cutter, these are outstanding values that<br />

set new benchmarks,”<br />

says Elio Lupica, COO at Mikron Tool.<br />

“As an innovative and agile cutting tool<br />

manufacturer, we are technology-driven and<br />

continuously invest in research. The best<br />

thing is that our employees always drive these<br />

developments actively forward with a high<br />

level of motivation. The cooperation between<br />

the grinding department and R&D on this<br />

project was an extraordinary team effort.<br />

With this new development, we have ensured<br />

the reliable and economical production of<br />

components in the smallest of dimensions,<br />

now also in high volume production. A star<br />

is born!”<br />

further information: www.mikrontool.com<br />

40 no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong>


processes<br />

Machining graphite:<br />

Reliably and unmanned<br />

Test result<br />

graphite electrode<br />

TELKOM-OT d.o.o. is a mould and tool manufacturer<br />

founded in 2006 in Pesnica near Maribor. The<br />

company, which is located near the Slovenian-Austrian<br />

border, has currently 22 employees and specialises<br />

primarily in the development, production, marketing<br />

and maintenance of die-casting, injection moulding<br />

and trimming tools. Because EDM plays a central<br />

role among the production processes a lot depends<br />

on efficient graphite machining. A real breakthrough<br />

came with the cooperation with Hufschmied<br />

Zerspanungssysteme.<br />

TELKOM-OT has modern technical equipment and qualified<br />

personnel. The business process is supported by the LARGO<br />

information system. It ensures communication between<br />

the individual units of the company. And it is the basis for<br />

direct cooperation with suppliers of castings for car factories<br />

and other system suppliers of car parts. Well-organised production,<br />

the highest quality and a quick response to customer<br />

requests are the basis of success and the foundation for<br />

the company’s further development. To improve the utilisation<br />

of the machines, those responsible at TELKOM-OT<br />

examined which time-consuming machining operations<br />

could run unattended overnight. This would have been an<br />

interesting option for electrode production, but there was a<br />

problem: “If you want to keep production running overnight<br />

without workers, the process must be reliable and maintenance-free.<br />

One aspect worried us: until now, we didn’t<br />

have a milling tool with a long enough service life to let it<br />

work all night unattended with a clear conscience,” explains<br />

Matjaz Krajnc, production manager at TELKOM-OT.<br />

Background: the difficult material graphite<br />

Graphite cannot be machined in the true sense of the word,<br />

as the material is not plastically deformable. Machining does<br />

not produce chips but breaks grains out of the composite. The<br />

result is the unloved graphite powder, which not only causes a<br />

high cleaning effort, but also has a very abrasive effect on the<br />

cutting edges of the tool – short tool life is the consequence.<br />

This places high demands on the tool coating. Another challenge:<br />

since the filigree graphite structures of the electrodes<br />

break easily, a material-optimised geometry of the milling<br />

tool must not only ensure optimal removal of the material,<br />

but also take vibrations out of the machining process and<br />

reduce forces.<br />

Specialised tool manufacturer from Swabia<br />

Matjaz Krajnc and Dušan Žolgar already met before. Dušan<br />

Žolgar works as a technical advisor in sales at Hufschmied<br />

Zerspanungssysteme GmbH. The company from Bobingen<br />

near Augsburg specialises in the development and production<br />

of process-specific tools that achieve good results, especially<br />

where materials cause problems: glass and carbon fiber<br />

composites, plastics, ceramics, hardened steels up to 72 HRC<br />

– and graphite. “When optimising milling processes, several<br />

factors have to be coordinated: the toolpaths must exhaust<br />

the possibilities of the machine and the tool, while being<br />

matched to the material and the quality requirements of<br />

the workpiece,” says Dušan Žolgar. This attitude convinced<br />

Matjaz Krajnc to test the tools.<br />

“In our milling tests we compared the life of the tool and<br />

the milling results, and evaluated the cost of the tool, the<br />

num ber of varieties of the milling tool required and the effort<br />

involved in programming,” says Krajnc. “Hufschmied’s<br />

Graftor strategy actually offers us clear advantages on all<br />

fronts, both in terms of cost efficiency and process reliability.<br />

We can reliably realise the required manufacturing tolerances<br />

of ± 0.010 mm.”<br />

The Graftor ® roughing/finishing tool<br />

The Graftor® series, available in Ø from 0.5 – 12 mm, allows<br />

roughing and finishing to be combined in one milling operation.<br />

“The patented 4-flute geometry results in a significant reduction<br />

in cutting force due to the two opposing cutting edges,<br />

one pushing and one pulling,” explains Žolgar. “The main<br />

advantage is that the quality of the finished surface of a fine<br />

finish can be achieved with high feed rates and stock allowances.<br />

Finishing of the residual material is possible over the<br />

entire cutting length.” Graftor® tolerates depth infeeds (ap)<br />

up to 2.5 x D with lateral infeeds up to 0.65 x D (ae) and<br />

can therefore compensate for significantly larger material<br />

infeeds during finishing. This means that fewer machining<br />

steps and a smaller number of tool dimensions are required<br />

to produce the final contour. Due to the low cutting pressure,<br />

filigree contours can be produced – for example conical<br />

pins with a Ø of 0.080 mm. The graphite cutters are extremely<br />

dimensionally accurate to ± 0.005 mm. Each tool is labelled<br />

with its actual diameter and radius measured on the envelope<br />

on the shank. The gauge block labelling makes it easy to meet<br />

the high accuracy requirements of automated production systems<br />

that operate 24/7. The tool range is characterised by the<br />

nanocrystalline diamond coating (DIP®) developed and patented<br />

by Hufschmied for maximum wear resistance.<br />

Non-productive time is also saved<br />

“We advised TELKOM-OT and programmed milling strategies<br />

for existing process parameters so that the company<br />

could achieve important results from its milling trials,” Dušan<br />

Žolgar reports. The Graftor tools now process graphite 50 %<br />

faster. An interesting finding was that the savings are not<br />

only due to longer tool life, but also because roughing and<br />

finishing tools are more versatile. Meaning there is no need to<br />

change between tool types as often.<br />

further information: www.hufschmied.net<br />

no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong><br />

41


processes<br />

Measurement solutions from a single source<br />

in transmission component manufacture<br />

Haoneng Technology Co., Ltd.<br />

The Chinese Haoneng Group, a leading manufacturer<br />

in the field of vehicle transmission synchronization,<br />

is operating four WGT series inspection machines<br />

from Liebherr-Verzahntechnik GmbH. These ensure<br />

the quality of the components providing accurate<br />

and smooth gear shifting in vehicles.<br />

Synchronizer rings are key components in manual, auto matic<br />

and dual clutch transmissions. They help to align the different<br />

speeds of the gears to enable accurate and smooth gear<br />

shifting. The synchronization system has a significant effect<br />

on the efficiency and noise generation of the gearbox. For the<br />

gearboxes to be efficient, quiet and as smooth as possible,<br />

accurate and reliable measuring systems must ensure the<br />

manufacturing quality.<br />

The Haoneng Group<br />

One of the world’s leading manufacturers of components<br />

for the synchronization of vehicle transmissions is the Chinese<br />

Haoneng Group. The listed parent company Chengdu<br />

Haoneng Technology Co., Ltd., and its subsidiary companies<br />

cover together the entire manufacturing process of gearbox<br />

and synchronization systems. The four companies manufacture<br />

in the Chengdu, Chongqing and Luzhou sites in the<br />

Central Chinese province of Sichuan and are suppliers to<br />

well-known European automobile manufacturers and OEMs.<br />

Measurement solutions from a single source<br />

in transmission component manufacture<br />

Chongqing Haoneng Xingfu Synchronizer Co., Ltd. specializes<br />

in synchronization systems for vehicles of the midrange<br />

and luxury classes. The company had ini tially approached<br />

Liebherr regarding a high-quality inspection machine<br />

for the quality assurance of its products in 2014.<br />

Successful test series at the Liebherr site in Shanghai then<br />

convinced the customer to invest in a WGT 280 from<br />

Liebherr.<br />

42 no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong>


processes<br />

Highly accurate inspection machines<br />

from the WGT series<br />

Liebherr’s WGT series boasts impressive accuracy, userfriendliness<br />

and longevity. Lapped granite guides, air bearings,<br />

precision rotary tables and Renishaw probe systems ensure<br />

the mechanical precision of the machine. The Liebherr<br />

WGT measures any type of gear, gear cutting tools and<br />

other rotation-symmetrical workpieces – individually configured<br />

by Liebherr according to requirements. Each model<br />

fulfills the accuracy class of group 1 according to VDI/VDE<br />

2612/2613 and measures gears from a module of > 0.12 mm.<br />

The software LHInspect enables automatic correction of setting<br />

data. It supports the manufacturer neutral GDE interface<br />

for the exchange of geometric and measurement data between<br />

gear inspection machine and gear cutting machines<br />

and opens up the possibility of transferring further production<br />

and measurement data within the open manufacturing<br />

landscape LHOpenConnect by Liebherr.<br />

Impressive in application<br />

In 2015, the subsidiary Luzhou Changjiang Machinery Co.,<br />

Ltd. also invested in a Liebherr WGT. The company, founded<br />

in 1964 and the very first manufacturer of synchronizer rings<br />

in China, required an inspection machine at short notice and<br />

quickly bought a WGT 280 which had been used as a demonstration<br />

machine at a trade fair in China. The next order<br />

came three years later: Luzhou Haoneng Drive Technology Co.,<br />

Ltd., a manufacturer of key components for vehicle trans -<br />

missions and steering systems, ordered another Liebherr<br />

WGT 280<br />

WGT 280. “We were impressed by the performance of the<br />

WGT in our sister company. This convinced us that this<br />

was precisely the inspection machine we wanted,” reports<br />

Jie Zhang, deputy CEO and quality manager at Haoneng in<br />

Luzhou. Finally, the parent company Chengdu Haoneng<br />

followed in 2021 with the purchase of a Liebherr WGT 400.<br />

Production control with the Liebherr WGT<br />

The Liebherr WGT measures pointing for synchronizer rings<br />

and involute gear teeth, in some cases with an interrupted<br />

tooth trace, missing tooth space or missing gear tooth, as well<br />

as twisting of gears, alignment gearing with involute flanks<br />

and dedendum fillets. The LHInspect software generates the<br />

programs for fully automatic inspection on the basis of the<br />

workpiece data. Parallel, the results and workpiece data can<br />

be transferred between the production machine and measuring<br />

instrument via the network and read in. After the first<br />

part has been manufactured, a control measurement takes<br />

place on the WGT which plays back the measurement results<br />

to the production machine, which in turn calculates the correction<br />

values for manufacture. After the corresponding corrections<br />

on the machine, series production can begin, which<br />

then only involves sample measurements.<br />

Since commissioning in 2015, the system is running without<br />

disruption or standstills, says Jie Zhang, adding that the<br />

functionalities of the Liebherr WGT also fulfill the end customer’s<br />

quality standards. “The Liebherr WGT convinced us<br />

with its high accuracy and inspection quality, and in Liebherr<br />

we have found a reliable partner to whom we can turn at any<br />

time when we need support,” Jie Zhang continues. His company<br />

can see itself expanding the cooperation with Liebherr<br />

in the future: “As an efficient and professional provider of<br />

holistic gearing solutions, Liebherr is a partner we can trust<br />

for the purchase of further machines, including grinding applications,”<br />

concludes Jie Zhang.<br />

Measurement of synchronizer rings for quality assurance<br />

further information: www.liebherr.com<br />

no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong><br />

43


machining center<br />

Appealing state-of-the-art technology<br />

At the Apex Tool Group GmbH (ATG) in Westhausen<br />

the S31 cylindrical grinding machine from Studer is<br />

proving to be truly universal. From individual components<br />

to medium series, it grinds gear and control<br />

shafts for electric and pneumatic Cleco assembly tools<br />

cost-effectively and flexibly. Cleco is one of the six global<br />

ATG Power & Hand Tools brands.<br />

The showroom of the Apex Tool Group – formerly Cooper<br />

Power Tools – in Westhausen boasts an impressive range of<br />

different assembly tools from the Cleco brand. These include<br />

pneumatic and electric screwdrivers, either corded or with<br />

re chargeable batteries, in a straight, angled and pistol design.<br />

In addition, there are also complete assembly stations with<br />

an integrated control system that displays screwing assembly<br />

instructions on a screen, providing the necessary parameters<br />

for screwing, the monitoring and docu mentation of them.<br />

The screwdrivers are used, for example, in the assembly of<br />

com bustion and electric engines, car bodies, transmissions<br />

and hydraulic units in vehicle manufacturing and in aviation,<br />

as well as for the automated mounting of wheels on vehicles.<br />

In order to meet current requirements for high process reliability<br />

and documented processes, the manufacturer equips<br />

the assembly tools with sensors for torque measurement as<br />

well as digital data transmission via cable or wireless (WLAN).<br />

As Niko Schindelarz, supervisor machining, explains, many<br />

manufacturers in the global industry consider Cleco assembly<br />

tools to be very high quality, robust, durable and reliable.<br />

A major contribution to this, says Niko Schindelarz, is certainly<br />

the extensive vertical integration at Apex. The company<br />

produces almost all the essential screwdriver components inhouse<br />

in Westhausen. This applies in particular to motor and<br />

gear shafts, levers, valves, cams and housings.<br />

Flexible for variants and individual features<br />

“Due to the large number of variants and the increasing demand<br />

for individual features we need to produce components<br />

in small series and even as individual pieces at very short<br />

notice”, explains Johannes Mäule, production engineer in<br />

Westhausen. As he goes on, this applies to all production<br />

steps and processes, from turning, drilling and milling<br />

through to grinding. “We need to grind our motor and gear<br />

shafts in particular to an accuracy of just a few µm. This is<br />

essential to ensure the extremely quiet running and long service<br />

life of our screwdrivers”, adds Niko Schindelarz. But this<br />

was still very complex until just a few months ago. Only one<br />

proven grinding machine, purchased back in the early 1980’s,<br />

was available for cylindrical grinding. In order to grind the<br />

large number of 30 to 650 mm (1.18” to 25.6”) long shafts with<br />

diameters between 3 and 65 mm (0.118” and 2.56”), it was<br />

nec essary to laboriously reset the machine manually, over and<br />

over again. This was contrary to a needs-based and flexible<br />

production process. “Most of all, it was increasingly uneconomical.<br />

Set-up times generally took twice or three times as<br />

long as the machining times”, explains Johannes Mäule. It<br />

Electrical and pneumatic screw spindles require grinding of a<br />

large number of different 30 – 650 mm (1.18” to 25.6”) long<br />

motor and gear shafts with Ø between 3 and 65 mm<br />

was also difficult to achieve the required accuracies in diameters<br />

and cylindricity, especially with long, thin shafts, as Niko<br />

Schindelarz remarks. As he goes on, this was only possible for<br />

experienced experts who had been grinding for many years.<br />

“These experts are currently retiring or will do so in the coming<br />

years. This means their know-how will no longer be available<br />

to us. However, the training of young talent is now focused<br />

on different aspects than it was just a few years ago.<br />

Manual interventions on machines are more undesirable, and<br />

the emphasis is on programming and optimal parameterization<br />

of processes”, explains Niko Schindelarz.<br />

Generation transition<br />

In this situation the managers responsible at Apex decided<br />

to invest in new technology for grinding – as with other machining<br />

processes, because the changing technical environment<br />

results in many additional demands on machines and<br />

production systems. In addition to high flexibility, for example<br />

options for automated process monitoring and for transferring<br />

process and production data into a digital network – a<br />

smart factory. “We need the latest future-oriented technology<br />

in order to be an attractive employer and inspire much needed<br />

new talent to come and work in our company”, adds Niko<br />

Schindelarz. After comprehensive comparisons of different<br />

machine concepts, he and Johannes Mäule decided to invest<br />

in a Studer S31 universal cylindrical grinding machine.<br />

Highly flexible thanks to short set-up times<br />

As Niko Schindelarz explains, first of all it was necessary to<br />

carefully prepare the requirement analysis, in order to obtain<br />

approval for the necessary budget from the commercial manager<br />

in the US group. “We were able to clearly demonstrate<br />

on the basis of the operational benefits that the higher initial<br />

investment – in comparison to competitor products – will<br />

quickly prove profitable”, agree Johannes Mäule and Niko<br />

Schindelarz together. The production engineers are now able<br />

to grind the entire range of shafts on just one machine. The<br />

S31 cylindrical grinding machine is easily accessible for work-<br />

44 no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong>


machining center<br />

piece and grinding wheel set-up, despite the complete enclosure.<br />

Agreeing with the machine operators, Niko Schindelarz<br />

praises the excellent working ergonomics in particular. The<br />

production engineers benefit from much shorter set-up times<br />

in comparison to previous grinding machines. The special<br />

Quick-Set function only available on Studer grinding machines<br />

makes an essential contribution here. Cornelius Wecht, responsible<br />

for Studer sales in South Germany, reports: “Thanks to<br />

Quick-Set, the control stores the precise dimensions of all<br />

grind ing wheels used on the grinding machine. This means<br />

you can also quickly set up frequently used and repeatedly<br />

dressed grinding wheels and use them again immediately.<br />

The control knows the precise dimensions after mounting of<br />

the grinding wheel and there is no requirement for re-measuring<br />

or even dressing on the machine.” Another advantage<br />

for the grinders is the ability to dress profile grinding wheels<br />

directly on the cylindrical grinding machine. The StuderDress<br />

software provides the corresponding cycles. With these cycles,<br />

only the required geometries are rotary dressed on the grinding<br />

wheel profile. As Niko Schindelarz confirms, this reduces<br />

set-up and non-productive times, and it also ensures higher<br />

accuracies and better surfaces on the ground components.<br />

Ideal for programming in the workshop<br />

For Niko Schindelarz the control concept of the S31 cylindrical<br />

grinding machine also offers exceptional advantages. As<br />

he underlines, the user interface is very easy to understand.<br />

Graphics and dialogs clearly guide operators and programmers<br />

through the input fields. The control has also a database<br />

with all the necessary grinding parameters. “We call this<br />

StuderTechnology Integrated”, explains Cornelius Wecht. The<br />

machine operator selects the parameters which the software<br />

suggests, based on the workpiece geometries as well as the required<br />

accuracies and surface quality. These ensure that the<br />

cylindrical grinding machine always reliably achieves a good<br />

grinding result. The experienced grinder can adapt the suggested<br />

parameters at any time in order to further optimize<br />

the grinding process. “The S31 is therefore ideal for use in the<br />

workshop. Any of our skilled workers trained in machining<br />

can also work flexibly on the cylindrical grinding machine.<br />

They do not require any specialized grinding knowledge. This<br />

gives us maximum flexibility”, says Niko Schindelarz.<br />

The swiveling wheelhead with two separate grinding spindles<br />

for straight and angular plunge grinding ensures short<br />

non-productive times<br />

Cornelius Wecht, responsible for Studer sales in South<br />

Germany, Niko Schindelarz, supervisor machining and a<br />

programmer and machine operator at the Apex Tool Group<br />

(from left to right)<br />

Universal thanks to B-axis<br />

The S31 cylindrical grinding machine at the Apex Tool Group<br />

in Westhausen has a wheelhead with a B-axis. The wheelhead<br />

can swivel in steps of 1 °. It comes with two spindle drives,<br />

one equipped with a grinding wheel for straight plunging and<br />

the other for angular plunging. This also contributes to short<br />

set-up times and maximum flexibility. “We can plunge-grind<br />

a workpiece straight and at an angle in one cycle without<br />

any set-up work. This means we can completely machine almost<br />

all components in a single clamping”, Niko Schindelarz<br />

explains the advantages of the B-axis and stresses: “With<br />

the equipment we have chosen, the S31 cylindrical grinding<br />

machine fully deserves the attribute ‘universal’. If there is one<br />

cylindrical grinding machine that deserves the name, then<br />

it’s the Studer S31.” After nearly five months, the S31 cylindrical<br />

grinding machine has proven that it completely fulfills the<br />

tool manufacturers’ extensive requirements.<br />

Exemplary consultation and service<br />

Johannes Mäule cites another important aspect when making<br />

investments in production systems: “For a special technology<br />

like grinding, production engineers usually only have general<br />

expertise. This applies particularly to innovative equipment<br />

features on machines and their specific advantages in relation<br />

to individual requirements.” As Niko Schindelarz adds, research<br />

ing current grinding technology was initially not so<br />

easy. “But the Studer specialists advised us in great depth and,<br />

above all, openly and honestly. We were able to develop our<br />

optimal cylindrical grinding machine configuration together<br />

in just a few steps”, he continues. This built the necessary trust<br />

to confidently invest in the expensive S31 cylindrical grinding<br />

machine. “It was also important for us that service and technical<br />

advisers are regionally present and can advise and support<br />

us directly in production within a short period of time.<br />

This is essential to guarantee that our current and forwardlooking<br />

investment in the S31 will prove profitable in the long<br />

run”, emphasizes Niko Schindelarz. He concludes, Studer has<br />

completely fulfilled all relevant criteria with its specialists<br />

and the S31 universal cylindrical grinding machine.<br />

further information: www.studer.com<br />

no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong><br />

45


machining center<br />

Laser processing improves quality and tool life and<br />

secures competitive advantage<br />

The machining of tools for the wood industry, such<br />

as saw blades, milling tools, hoggers, jointing cutters<br />

or form cutters, and of tools used in e-mobility, e.g. for<br />

stator production, reaches a new level when using the<br />

LASERTEC 50 PrecisionTool. For the first time tools<br />

with 0 of 355 mm can now also be machined.<br />

DMG MORI thus also enables all those tool manufacturers,<br />

who have larger tools in their portfolio, to switch from conventional<br />

to laser machining. The plus: laser production is<br />

many times more efficient than classic EDM and can be easily<br />

automated by means of automated pallet handling.<br />

The basis for the new development was above all the increasing<br />

customer requirements of the tool manufacturers.<br />

To this day, many toolmakers use the process of wire or disk<br />

erosion, for example, to realize the finest, filigree contours on<br />

complex tools. The problem: diamond cannot be eroded, only<br />

the bonding material is removed. This is where DMG MORI<br />

sets the tone with the LASERTEC 50 PrecisionTool, simultaneously<br />

solving the dilemma of difficult-to-erode polycrystalline<br />

diamond (PCD) types and limited corner radii. Also relevant<br />

for many tool manufacturers: tool design is now much<br />

more flexible, as laser machining allows more cutting edges on<br />

the same diameter without creating a collision. Additionally<br />

worth mentioning: diamond and binder can now be lasered<br />

equally well and even coarse-grained PCD is no longer a hurdle.<br />

In addition, users of the LASERTEC 50 PrecisionTool can<br />

look forward to a freely selectable cutting edge radius and the<br />

easy mastering of even highly complex geometries.<br />

Varied and diverse: tool pallets for the Lasertec<br />

LASERTEC 50<br />

PrecisionTool & PH 50: powerful couple for low space<br />

In the future tool manufacturers who laser instead of erode<br />

can also expect better performance: until now the best results<br />

on complex tools could be achieved almost exclusively by two<br />

to three EDM cycles. The High Speed Mode 3.0 technology<br />

integrated in the LASERTEC 50 PrecisionTool achieves – com -<br />

pared to classical machining processes – a reduction of the<br />

cutting edge chipping by a factor of two. In addition the machining<br />

time is also reduced and, for example, instead of<br />

90 min for wire EDM, is now only approx. 35 min for laser<br />

machining. Thanks to defined cutting edge radii and minimal<br />

chipping, tool manufacturers will be able to guarantee<br />

their customers up to 40 % longer tool life and thus greater<br />

efficiency in the future. And that with up to 56 % lower unit<br />

costs compared to EDM.<br />

Keyword efficiency: with the PH 50 – the most compact and<br />

cost-efficient pallet handling from DMG MORI – tool manufacturers,<br />

as other users of the LASERTEC 50 PrecisionTool,<br />

automate their machining processes and stand out from the<br />

competition due to more performance. Compared to other<br />

automation solutions, the combination of LASERTEC 50 PrecisionTool<br />

and PH 50 requires little space (2.7 m 2 ); optimal<br />

for all companies that want to increase their degree of automation<br />

in a small space. The basis of the PH 50 is a design<br />

with three NC-controlled axes. In addition to its precision,<br />

the compact pallet handling system offers enormous flexibility<br />

and can be connected to other machining centers in addition<br />

to the LASERTEC 50 PrecisionTool. The PH 50 can supply<br />

the LASERTEC 50 PrecisionTool with up to 30 pallets. The<br />

maximum workpiece weight including pallet – taking into<br />

account the pallet’s own weight – for the PH 50 is 70 kg; the<br />

LASERTEC 50 PrecisionTool alone allows 30 kg. The pallet<br />

handling is controlled directly via the machine control with<br />

the aid of the PALLET MASTER. The combination of PH 50<br />

and LASERTEC 50 PrecisionTool allows a cost-efficient entry<br />

into automated machining of a wide range of tools.<br />

In addition to the aforementioned tooling for wood processing<br />

and electromobility, lasers are also the technology of<br />

the future where super-sharp cutting edges (optical industry)<br />

or industry-specific cutting edge rounding (composite or<br />

wood processing) are required.<br />

further information: www.dmgmori.com<br />

46 no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong>


machining center<br />

Machining centers as “green” welding cells<br />

HELLER enables friction stir welding on all machine series<br />

Known as a green joining technology for nonferrous<br />

metals such as aluminum, friction stir welding<br />

(FSW) has established itself in a number of indus tries.<br />

In future manufacturing companies using HELLER<br />

machines will no longer need any additional hardware<br />

for this technology. Instead they will be able to perform<br />

this process in a single setup on all their innovative<br />

4-axis or 5-axis machining centers.<br />

Friction stir welding is a good choice when it comes to producing<br />

high quality cavity-free and tight welded joints with<br />

excellent fatigue properties. Accordingly this process is often<br />

applied in the manufacture of reservoirs, tanks and containers<br />

as well as in shipbuilding and aerospace engineering. In<br />

addition, this joining technology is increasingly establishing<br />

itself in the electrical industry and in automotive engineering<br />

with the growth market of e-mobility – for example for the<br />

welding of battery housings. According to HELLER managing<br />

director Dieter Drechsler, it provides a number of advantages<br />

for all areas of application.<br />

Firstly, the quality produced is very high. Due to the<br />

comparatively low heat input, a very fine-grained structure<br />

without cracks or pores is created in the material. Distortion<br />

in the component is minimal. As a result the welded seam<br />

meets the highest standards in terms of tightness and crash<br />

behaviour.<br />

Secondly, it offers a number of key advantages with regard<br />

to environmental and health aspects, which is why friction<br />

stir welding is also referred to as a green technology. The reasons<br />

for this are: compared to conventional welding methods,<br />

no dangerous light flashes or hazardous fumes that would<br />

have to be extracted are produced during the joining process.<br />

Moreover the environmental balance of the process is very<br />

favourable because of the low energy consumption.<br />

Integration into the machining center<br />

provides high economic efficiency<br />

Thirdly, the high cost-effectiveness is a real profit driver.<br />

As no consumables such as cored wire or shielding gas are<br />

required, consumption costs are minimal.<br />

The welding process becomes a particularly interesting<br />

technology with the successful integration into modern<br />

HELLER machine tools. It allows users to eliminate an additional<br />

work step and only requires the inexpensive tools,<br />

activation of the HELLER technology cycle and the ‘adaptive<br />

control function’ in the Sinumerik 840D sl control.<br />

The machine operator can easily program the welding path<br />

at the CNC control panel using G-code. The transfer of CAD/<br />

CAM data is also possible without any problems. In order to<br />

start the welding process, it is also necessary to determine the<br />

key parameters of pressure and speed. These depend, among<br />

other things, on factors such as the material composition and<br />

the required type and depth of the weld seam. According to<br />

Dieter Drechsler, this task poses a certain challenge. However,<br />

“our experienced experts are of course there to support<br />

you if you wish. And initial pilot projects have shown that<br />

our customers’ machine operators are able to very quickly<br />

manage this task on their own.”<br />

Once determined, pressure and speed can be called up via<br />

a cycle. After the welding process has started, the Siemens<br />

CNC logs the entire workflow and reliably controls compliance<br />

with all parameters. Previously required ‘load cells’ are<br />

obsolete.<br />

At the same time, the variety of joint types that can be<br />

produced is quite large. In addition to classic butt joints,<br />

corner and T-joints are also possible. Even lap joints – single,<br />

multiple and as a T-variant – can be realised without any<br />

problems.<br />

How does friction stir welding work?<br />

During friction stir welding the pin-shaped rotating tool is<br />

plunged into the gap between the components to be joined<br />

with high axial force until the so-called tool shoulder rests<br />

against the surface of the component. The friction created<br />

during this process heats up and eventually plasticises the<br />

component material. As a result the materials of the components<br />

mix and form a bond in the joint gap. Now the tool,<br />

which continues to rotate, is moved along the joint gap with<br />

constant contact pressure, while the material is steadily plasticised<br />

and mixes around the tool pin. As a result a highquality<br />

weld seam is created. At the end of the weld seam<br />

produced, the feed motion is stopped and the tool is lifted<br />

out of the joining zone.<br />

Functionality of friction stir welding<br />

further information: www.heller.biz<br />

no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong><br />

47


components<br />

Cutting tool measurement and compensation<br />

Interface is expanded to meet customers’ tooling needs<br />

As a cutting tool manufacturer, it is imperative to ensure your geometry<br />

is exact to maintain superior cutting performance. Getting this<br />

right gives an edge over competitors and is what ultimately builds a successful<br />

tool maker’s reputation. ZOLLER’s mea sure ment machines and<br />

ANCA software easily communicate to simplify and improve tool measure<br />

ment, wheel measurement, form measurement and compensation<br />

processes.<br />

This partnership provides key benefits to their customers by automating and<br />

refining the tool measurement process.<br />

Background<br />

ZOLLER measurement machines are widely adopted in the market as an effective<br />

tool for measuring complex geometry of cutting tools. While LaserPlus and<br />

iView are very popular and effective tools for in-process measurement of tool OD<br />

and profiles, the ZOLLER system can automatically measure a diverse range of<br />

tool features. ZOLLER is typically used for more detailed tool measurement during<br />

tool setup or intermittently during batch runs to ensure features remain in<br />

tolerance.<br />

The old interface including ToolRoom RN33.1 only supported XML format<br />

but the latest RN34.1 release supports both XML and GDX® (GDX® is a registered<br />

trademark of ISBE GmbH) interfaces. Release details for both ZOLLER and<br />

ANCA are as follows.<br />

Parameter adjustment<br />

The ToolRoom Measurement Wizard<br />

remains the easiest way to set up ANCA-<br />

ZOLLER measurement feedback. This<br />

guides the user through the available list<br />

of features for a given tool. The user can<br />

easily select which features can be measured<br />

and have compensation applied.<br />

ZOLLER Pilot 3.0 with program version 1.18.7.20043<br />

Toolroom RN34.1<br />

update 52.03<br />

ToolRoom Measurement Wizard<br />

Note: the new interface is based on the GDX® platform. It sup ports the GDX®<br />

format and is compatible with other measurement machines that also support<br />

the GDX® import/ export.<br />

Communication method<br />

Data can be transferred using a USB stick or direct network communication if<br />

both ZOLLER and ANCA machines are on the same network.<br />

ANCA-ZOLLER measurement feedback<br />

In developing a measurement and feedback process, for each parameter/feature<br />

listed (at the end of this article), ANCA and ZOLLER have worked together to<br />

agree upon a fixed ZOLLER measurement process and a fixed ANCA grinding<br />

parameter adjustment to which it is directly linked. Wheel adjustments are not<br />

supported as an option for this method of compensation. Adjustments are applied<br />

to parameters for compensation without changing the design parameters.<br />

48 no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong>


components<br />

The user can also specify the required<br />

length/angle tolerance for each parameter so<br />

that values within tolerance will not be compensated<br />

when returned from ZOLLER.<br />

When measurement data<br />

(GDX® file) is imported to the<br />

ANCA grinder, the measured<br />

parameters are brought as nominal<br />

value but compared against<br />

design value and adjustments<br />

made accordingly. Values within<br />

tolerance will not be compensated<br />

but users have an option to<br />

override this function.<br />

Each feature is initially set with a default<br />

(recommended) location for measurement<br />

(red line), although this can be manually<br />

adjusted before sending the data to ZOLLER<br />

for measurements and tolerance settings can<br />

be imported from another Tom file to avoid<br />

resetting again all parameters and tolerances<br />

individually.<br />

Note: although the file can be transferred through a network connection, an<br />

operator is still required to select the correct file, carry tools to the ZOLLER<br />

machine and apply the compensation on the correct machines. As the AIMS<br />

(ANCA Integrated Management System) product develops, we intend to offer<br />

a system that can automatically transfer, measure, compensate tools during<br />

batch grinding.<br />

Setting axial position of measurement<br />

Import from another Tom file<br />

further information: www.anca.com // zoller.info<br />

no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong><br />

49


fairs in alphabetical order<br />

AMB Stuttgart, Germany<br />

(September 10-14, 2024)<br />

bauma Shanghai, China<br />

(November 26-29, 2024)<br />

CIMT Beijing, China<br />

(April 10-15, <strong>2023</strong>)<br />

DEBURRING Karlsruhe, Germany<br />

EXPO (October 10-12, <strong>2023</strong>)<br />

EMO Hanover, Germany<br />

(September 18-23, <strong>2023</strong>)<br />

EPHJ Geneva, Switzerland<br />

(June 6-9, <strong>2023</strong>)<br />

FABTECH Toronto, Canada<br />

(June 11-13, 2024)<br />

FEIMEC São Paulo, Brazil<br />

(May 9-13, <strong>2023</strong>)<br />

GrindingHub Stuttgart, Germany<br />

(May 14-17, 2024)<br />

GrindTec Leipzig, Germany<br />

(March 7-10, <strong>2023</strong>)<br />

Hannover fair Hanover, Germany<br />

(April 17-21, <strong>2023</strong>)<br />

IMTS Chicago, USA<br />

(September 9-14, 2024)<br />

JIMTOF Tokyo, Japan<br />

(November 5-10, 2024)<br />

LIGNA Hanover, Germany<br />

(May 15-19, <strong>2023</strong>)<br />

MACH-TECH and Budapest, Hungary<br />

INDUSTRY DAYS (May 16-19, <strong>2023</strong>)<br />

METALEX Bangkok, Thailand<br />

(November 22-25, <strong>2023</strong>)<br />

MOULDING Stuttgart, Germany<br />

EXPO (June 13-16, <strong>2023</strong>)<br />

Wood TaiWan Taipei, Taiwan<br />

(April 20-23, <strong>2023</strong>)<br />

SIAMS Moutier, Switzerland<br />

(April 16-19, 2024)<br />

sps Nuremberg, Germany<br />

(November 14-16, <strong>2023</strong>)<br />

TIMTOS Taipei, Taiwan<br />

(March 6-11, <strong>2023</strong>)<br />

current status<br />

2024<br />

2024<br />

<strong>2023</strong><br />

<strong>2023</strong><br />

<strong>2023</strong><br />

<strong>2023</strong><br />

2024<br />

<strong>2023</strong><br />

2024<br />

<strong>2023</strong><br />

<strong>2023</strong><br />

2024<br />

2024<br />

<strong>2023</strong><br />

<strong>2023</strong><br />

<strong>2023</strong><br />

<strong>2023</strong><br />

<strong>2023</strong><br />

2024<br />

<strong>2023</strong><br />

<strong>2023</strong><br />

trade fair dates as by beginning of Februar <strong>2023</strong>; we are not responsible for reliability of these dates<br />

50 no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong>


impressum<br />

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editorial<br />

Adelbert Haas GmbH .................6<br />

ANCA Pty Ltd. ..................... 48<br />

CERATIZIT<br />

Deutschland GmbH ................12<br />

CHIRON Group SE ..................33<br />

DMG MORI GmbH ................. 46<br />

Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing<br />

Engineerig and Automation IPA/<br />

University of Stuttgart ..............14<br />

Fritz Studer AG .................... 44<br />

Gebr. Heller Maschinenfabrik GmbH ..47<br />

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Liebherr-Verzahntechnik GmbH ..... 42<br />

Mikron AG, Division Tool ............38<br />

NUM AG ...........................32<br />

Platinum Tooling Technologies, Inc.. ...32<br />

RUD Ketten Rieger & Dietz GmbH<br />

& Co. KG ..........................27<br />

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copyright © <strong>2023</strong> Dr. Harnisch Publications<br />

advertising index<br />

Adelbert Haas GmbH ................................................front cover<br />

Aerotech, Inc ...........................................................page 11<br />

Boehlerit GmbH & Co. KG ...............................................page 9<br />

CERATIZIT Deutschland GmbH ...................................... back cover<br />

Kapp GmbH & Co. KG ..................................................page 13<br />

Lach Diamant Jakob Lach GmbH & Co. KG ....................... inside front cover<br />

Mikron AG, Division Tool ...............................................page 5<br />

no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong><br />

51


Up2Date February <strong>2023</strong><br />

Stay tuned and check out the latest product<br />

developments from CERATIZIT!<br />

Find out more at:<br />

cutting.tools/gb/en/uptodate<br />

CERATIZIT is a high-technology engineering<br />

group specialised in cutting tools and hard<br />

material solutions.<br />

Tooling a Sustainable Future<br />

www.ceratizit.com

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