hpt 2023 #1

Energy- and resource-efficient aluminum machining / How measurement machines and software communicate / Innovative use of tooling and workholding / Machining graphite / Machining centers as “green” welding cells

Energy- and resource-efficient aluminum machining / How measurement machines and software communicate / Innovative use of tooling and workholding / Machining graphite / Machining centers as “green” welding cells


You also want an ePaper? Increase the reach of your titles

YUMPU automatically turns print PDFs into web optimized ePapers that Google loves.

ISSN 2628-5444<br />

high precision tooling<br />

Machine Tools, PCD, PVD, CVD, CBN, Hard Metal <strong>2023</strong> – 1<br />

In the future, Haas Schleifmaschinen<br />

will be known as Adelbert Haas.<br />

Who needs a Plan B when Plan A simply can’t be improved on?<br />

A for Adelbert.<br />

haas-anz-planA-Titel-<strong>hpt</strong>.indd 1 31.01.23 11:52<br />

■ Energy- and resource-efficient aluminum machining ■ How measurement machines and software communicate ■<br />

■ Innovative use of tooling and workholding ■ Machining graphite ■ Machining centers as “green” welding cells ■

The revolution in deep grinding<br />

THE<br />

FUTURE<br />

IS<br />

YOURS<br />

More information<br />

office@lach-diamant.de<br />

www.lach-diamant.de<br />

100 years of innovation since 1922<br />

®<br />


E-Mail puk@harnisch.com<br />

Internet www.harnisch.com<br />

Dr. Harnisch Verlags GmbH<br />

Eschenstraße 25<br />

90441 Nürnberg<br />

Telefon +49 (0) 911 2018-0<br />

Fax +49 (0) 911 2018-100<br />

E-Mail puk@harnisch.com<br />

Internet www.harnisch.com<br />


Materials: carbon steel, stainless steel,<br />

MIT MAGNETKUPPLUNG duplex stainless steel; others on request<br />

Differenzdruck-Begrenzungsventil<br />


www.klaus-union.com<br />

Modulares, axial geteiltes Gehäuse<br />

Werkstoffe: Kohlenstoffstahl, MORE INFO Edelstahl,<br />

Duplex Edelstahl; weitere auf Anfrage<br />

Dr. Harnisch Verlags GmbH<br />

Eschenstraße 25<br />

90441 Nuremberg, Germany<br />

Phone + 49 (0) 911 2018-0<br />

Fax + 49 (0) 911 2018-100<br />



www.klaus-union.com<br />

Axial split modular casing<br />

Differential pressure limiting valve<br />

Spalttopfausführungen:<br />

E metallisch / nicht-metallisch<br />

E einschalig / doppelschalig<br />

Containment shell executions:<br />

E metallic / non-metallic<br />

E single / double shell<br />

Wasser Abwasser Umwelttechnik<br />

Energie Öl Gas Wasserstoff<br />

Fahrzeugbau Schiffbau Schwerindustrie<br />

Chemie Pharma Biotechnik<br />

Lebensmittel- und Getränkeindustrie<br />

Water Wastewater Environmental Technology<br />

Energy Oil Gas Hydrogen<br />

Automotive Shipbuilding Heavy Industry<br />

Chemistry Pharmaceutics Biotechnology<br />

Food and Beverage Industry<br />

WANGEN_PuK_Titelseite_216x182.indd 1 24.01.2022 15:23:40<br />

Independent magazine for Pumps, Compressors and Process Components<br />

WANGEN_PuK_Titelseite_216x182.indd 1 24.01.2022 15:24:33<br />

Unabhängiges Fachmagazin für Pumpen, Kompressoren und prozesstechnische Komponenten<br />

editorial<br />


Eric Schäfer<br />

editor-in-chief<br />

Accepting challenges<br />

Despite global crises and the resulting uncertainties, the mechanical<br />

engineering and toolmaking sector can look to the future with relative<br />

confidence at the beginning of <strong>2023</strong>: the aviation industry is increasing<br />

the production of aircraft, and the energy sector is generating demand<br />

from the plant engineering sector. Wind power generators, heat pumps<br />

and plants related to the hydrogen economy, which is now increasingly<br />

coming into focus, including all the components required, are driving<br />

demand for tools.<br />

The American demand is increasing, China remains an important<br />

market, as do the East Asian markets, only the development in<br />

Europe is stagnating.<br />

However numerous challenges remain. In order to meet these in the<br />

future, machining as a production technology must strive for higher<br />

productivity and greater sustainability. For example, energy consumption<br />

in machining can be reduced by replacing peripheral processes such as<br />

wet lubrication with low-energy lubrication systems such as minimum<br />

quantity lubrication (MQL).<br />







Hygienisch fördern<br />

WANGEN VarioTwin NG<br />












2022<br />



The hygienic solution<br />

WANGEN VarioTwin NG<br />















2022<br />

2022<br />

2022<br />

Such a change, in conjunction with low-melting materials such as<br />

aluminum alloys, can lead to problems in terms of tool performance,<br />

tool life and process reliability. The authors of the Fraunhofer Institute<br />

for Manufacturing Engineering and Automation IPA and the University<br />

of Stuttgart report in a scientific study on how these can be solved and<br />

the potential of using biomimetic microstructures in this context.<br />

Examples in the user reports from the industry demonstrate how challenges<br />

in daily manufacturing processes can sometimes be overcome by the joint<br />

use of know-how from two partners.<br />

Eric Schäfer<br />

editor-in-chief<br />

The independent media platform<br />

for energy supply, efficiency<br />

enhancement and alternative<br />

energy sources and storage<br />

Sustainable opportunities in<br />

process technology<br />

Circular economy in the industrial<br />

production process<br />

Topics H 2<br />

, Synthetic Fuels, Water,<br />

Solar & Photovoltaics, Wind Power,<br />

Bioenergy, Geothermal Energy,<br />

Battery Technology,<br />

System Integration and<br />

other alternative options<br />

Dr. Harnisch Verlags GmbH · Eschenstr. 25<br />

90441 Nuremberg · Germany<br />

Tel.: +49 (0) 911 - 2018 0<br />

info@harnisch.com · www.harnisch.com

table of contents<br />

cover story<br />

Who the f*** is Adelbert?<br />

Interview with Dirk Wember, managing director Adelbert Haas GmbH 6<br />

materials & tools<br />

Kennametal expands modular drill portfolio 9<br />

Small, strong, robust – new centric vice makes a big difference 12<br />

Energy- and resource-efficient aluminum machining<br />

Supporting minimum quantity lubrication technology by biomimetic micro<br />

structures on 2D-orthogonal cutting tools generated with ultrashort laser pulses 14<br />

The revolution in tool handling 27<br />

LACH DIAMANT looks back on 100 years – 15 th part<br />

Diamond contra diamond? A reflection on the versatility of diamonds 28<br />

processes<br />

The “smallest” world sensation of <strong>2023</strong> 38<br />

Machining graphite: reliably and unmanned 41<br />

Measurement solutions from a single source in transmission component manufacture 42<br />

machining center<br />

Appealing state-of-the-art technology 44<br />

Laser processing improves quality and tool life and secures competitive advantage 46<br />

Machining centers as “green” welding cells 47<br />

components<br />

Cutting tool measurement and compensation<br />

How measurement machines and software easily communicate 48<br />

news & facts 31<br />

fairs 50<br />

impressum & company finder 51<br />

4 no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong>

Cool Micro<br />

micro milling<br />



Discover more!

cover story<br />

Who the f*** is Adelbert?<br />

Interview with Dirk Wember, managing director Adelbert Haas GmbH<br />

Renaming und rebranding at Haas:<br />

Haas Schleifmaschinen GmbH will be known as<br />

Adelbert Haas GmbH. Haas Schleifmaschinen looks<br />

back, forward and reflects on its pioneer and founder<br />

Adelbert Haas.<br />

Mr. Wember, the company name and the brand logo should<br />

actually be the last things to be changed. Both are, after all,<br />

the epitome of popularity, trust and, in addition, a value<br />

proposition in themselves.<br />

Dirk Wember: I completely agree with you on that. And yet<br />

there are important occasions to do so. That’s precisely why<br />

we didn’t go for extreme renaming and come up with some<br />

meaningless word creation. The need for a cautious brand<br />

evolution has become more and more imposing in recent<br />

years, and now we are boldly taking this step. I would like to<br />

explain the reasons for this, and perhaps one or two<br />

other machine manufacturer are also facing this challenge<br />

and can take us an example.<br />

We are still a bit surprised, because news from Trossingen<br />

are usually high-tech innovations. What were your reasons<br />

for taking this step?<br />

Dirk Wember: I’ll tell you the main reason that has been<br />

on my mind for years. We have long outgrown our previous<br />

name, Haas Schleifmaschinen. The name limits us ar too<br />

much and at some point in the near future slows down our<br />

business development instead of giving it a proper boost.<br />

We don’t build grinding machines, we develop unique<br />

technologies and are valued for our solution expertise. Our<br />

own software plays a decisive role in the requirements of<br />

the future. As a company we are a hybrid and unique in our<br />

industry. On the one hand, we are a machine manufacturer<br />

in the grinding segment, and on the other hand, we are a<br />

software pioneer with solutions that make us interesting<br />

outside our very specific industry. And when we reach<br />

limits at Haas, we want to overcome them as quickly<br />

as possible, currently with a new appearance and<br />

technologically anyway.<br />

Is there a specific example that illustrates this?<br />

Dirk Wember: One example among many – Styx! With<br />

our Multigrind® Styx software we visualize and optimize<br />

complete production processes before the workpiece to be<br />

ground is even clamped into the machine. This digital test<br />

bed for 3D optimization offers, with its 1:1 visualization,<br />

Mail from Trossingen: A new company name and a new logo, which remained almost completely the old one.<br />

6 no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong>

cover story<br />

Since the beginning of 2000, Dirk Wember has been a shareholder and managing director of Adelbert Haas GmbH;<br />

he shares this task with his daughter Marie-Sophie Maier-Wember and with his long-time partner<br />

and chief technology officer Thomas Bader.<br />

maximum control, pixel-perfect and without restriction.<br />

This saves a lot of time and unnecessary grinding of<br />

expensive blanks. After all, it doesn’t take much imagination<br />

here to envision what this technology could do in related<br />

industries as well.<br />

Are there any further reasons or did they just want<br />

to get rid of the term grinding machines?<br />

Dirk Wember: A common reason for changing the brand<br />

name is also successful internationalization. This has also<br />

occurred in our case. We are advancing on all continents,<br />

and this naturally generates conflicts. For us, a unique<br />

position in the market is indispensable. We want to clearly<br />

define ourselves with our cutting-edge technology and<br />

generate even more interest in our solution offerings<br />

worldwide. To do this, we need to differentiate ourselves<br />

to avoid any possible confusion. With the new name<br />

Adelbert Haas GmbH we strengthen the brand protection<br />

internationally and still remain flexible for what we have<br />

planned for the future.<br />

And what does all this have to do with the<br />

founder, Adelbert?<br />

Dirk Wember: Well, if you have a plan A, you don’t need<br />

a plan B. A like Adelbert. With Adelbert we want to create<br />

an awareness of our origin from the Black Forest. Adelbert<br />

Haas turns origins into the future. We have always been<br />

innovators, pioneers and “won’t work, doesn’t exist”<br />

enablers. We are consistent, courageous and always close to<br />

the challenges of our customers. These characteristics have<br />

characterized us for almost 90 years and are an immutable<br />

part of our corporate DNA. That’s why the decision to go<br />

with Adelbert Haas GmbH just fell into our laps.<br />

Isn’t Adelbert Haas GmbH a bit too bulky,<br />

especially outside the language area?<br />

Dirk Wember: Yes, of course Adelbert is bulky, and that’s<br />

a good thing. A name with rough edges initially causes<br />

discussions, but pays off in the long run. We are not afraid<br />

of the tongue twister, we have become far too relevant in<br />

the market for that. It is precisely what is unusual about<br />

our Adelbert that makes it special, and we want to be<br />

special for our customer, too. The company has never<br />

lacked uncompromising courage, on the contrary.<br />

Who else in our industry would have named their new<br />

tool grinding machine Multigrind® Radical? We think<br />

radically differently, act in a future-oriented way and<br />

that is exactly what our customers appreciate.<br />

(Dirk Wember laughs and adds:)<br />

People certainly need some time to get used to the Adelbert.<br />

We are happy to take this time. Acceptance and identification<br />

are very important to us, both internal and external. Just<br />

imagine our loyal customers, the Haas brand means a lot to<br />

them. And suddenly they are presented with some fantasy<br />

name? Then you take away something they valued and<br />

trusted. We want to preserve our psychological added value,<br />

and with it our attitude and our aura.<br />

It is clear, however, that even if our motives are valid, they<br />

will of course be questioned by the public, and that is a<br />

good thing. Our new name has to measure up to the<br />

no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong><br />


cover story<br />

Image caption,<br />

social media example<br />

for the new<br />

Multigrind® Radical.<br />

previous one, so we didn’t want a blank slate. We have<br />

proceeded cautiously and yet courageously. With a<br />

completely new brand name, memories are lost, we<br />

avoided that with the decision to Adelbert Haas GmbH.<br />

But why now of all times, our readers will ask<br />

themselves. Are there any other reasons after all?<br />

Dirk Wember: I will formulate this in the exclusion<br />

procedure so that no misunderstandings arise: there is<br />

no outside investor at Adelbert Haas. We have not merged.<br />

We were also very successful during Corona and even used<br />

the time to develop our Multigrind® Radical. Our order<br />

books are full, and we are looking ahead with great<br />

confidence. Thomas Bader and I have added another<br />

managing director to the circle in the form of my daughter<br />

Marie-Sophie Maier-Wember, placing the growth themes<br />

of digitization and software at the very top.<br />

And if there are still unanswered questions, just call me, I<br />

am always happy about the direct contact, especially<br />

after the past two years.<br />

Can such a change of name go wrong?<br />

Don’t you have sleepless nights before it?<br />

Dirk Wember: Of course, there is no guarantee; ultimately,<br />

it is the public that decides on success or failure. I can well<br />

remember a negative example from past years, and honestly,<br />

it still hurts today. The name change from Michael Deckel<br />

to ISOG was a fiasco, both in terms of craftsmanship and<br />

psychology. All the brand capital that had been built up<br />

so successfully – everything that the customer associated<br />

with the brand – was lost. We know the result:<br />

shutdown in April 2020.<br />

Mr. Wember, renaming and rebranding is certainly<br />

expensive and requires a lot of marketing know-how.<br />

Why didn’t you shy away from it? At the end of the<br />

day, it’s always a cost-benefit calculation<br />

that has to work out, isn't it?<br />

Dirk Wember: The development of a global brand, with its<br />

strategic, legal and linguistic challenges, is a real challenge,<br />

and we were aware of that from the very beginning. But<br />

pioneering spirit never looks at the costs first, but has the<br />

result, the benefit as its goal.<br />

And on the subject of marketing, that has always been my<br />

hobbyhorse and I learned the tools from scratch. If we can’t<br />

communicate our topics, they won’t exist in the market.<br />

That’s why an offensive communication and marketing<br />

strategy is essential. In line with our attitude, we always<br />

have the best professionals at the start, also in marketing.<br />

And let me tell you, marketing is really fun, just take a look<br />

at our current campaign for the launch of the Multigrind®<br />

Radical. We get a lot of praise and our competitors maybe<br />

a gray hair or two.<br />

Mr. Wember thank you for sharing your thoughts<br />

and marketing concept with our readers.<br />

Dirk Wember: I have to thank you on behalf of Adelbert<br />

Haas GmbH and on behalf of all Haas employees.<br />

More efficiency and productivity – virtual process optimization with Multigrind® Styx.<br />

further information: www.multigrind.com<br />

8 no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong>

materials & tools<br />

Kennametal expands<br />

KenTIP TM FS modular<br />

drill portfolio<br />

Kennametal adds to its KenTIP TM FS modular drill<br />

platform by leveraging the patent-protected GOdrill TM<br />

technology for a new insert, the KenTIP FS GTP, along<br />

with several new straight-fluted drills for multiple materials<br />

and applications including the KenTIP FS SCF<br />

and KenTIP FS BF holders.<br />

➢ KenTIP FS GTP: using the 140-degree solid carbide point<br />

design from Kennametal’s GOdrillTM, the KenTIP FS GTP<br />

insert allows for multiple machining applications across a<br />

range of materials including steel, stainless steel and cast<br />

iron. KenTIP FS GTP also features excellent centering<br />

capabilities, even at moderate cutting parameters, and lowaxial<br />

forces.<br />

➢ KenTIP FS SCF Holders: the KenTIP FS SCF Holders<br />

feature a straight- fluted design for static applications on<br />

lathes. The SCF shank with flange allows for quick and easy<br />

usage on common lathe turrets. With this new addition<br />

to the KenTip FS portfolio, machinists can expect reliable<br />

chip evacuation and maximum torsion resistance, plus<br />

superb temperature control and lubrication because of an<br />

internal coolant supply with four exits.<br />

➢ KenTIP FS BF Holders: these straight-fluted drills for<br />

drilling, countersinking and chamfering (in one operation)<br />

a feature Weldon shank for standard BF adaptors. The<br />

straight flute design enables the length to be adjusted and<br />

delivers reliable chip evacuation and maximum torsion resistance.<br />

The KenTIP FS BF Holders deliver superb temperature<br />

control with internal coolant supply at four exits.<br />

further information: www.kennametal.com<br />

A strong signal in<br />

the field of special<br />

machining<br />



■ Facilitates handling when fitting a new<br />

cutting edge<br />

■ Special design of the VARIOtec 00P tools<br />

prevents the inserts from twisting in use<br />

■ Optimised chip chambers ensure excellent<br />

chip evacuation<br />

■ Enabling high cutting data and high metal<br />

removal rates<br />


materials & tools<br />

Precision trio inspires innovation together through successful partnership:<br />

Quality, reproducibility and<br />

delivery times guaranteed<br />

Experts from EXTRAMET, MPK and ZECHA<br />

The applications in which stamping and forming or<br />

embossing tools are required are manifold: for example<br />

the production of many everyday objects, such as<br />

components for electronic or household devices as well<br />

as the automotive industry, would not be economically<br />

possible without these tools.<br />

This is because they are usually intended for mass production,<br />

where they must deliver maximum performance every<br />

(milli) second and demonstrate a long service life. To meet<br />

these requirements, MPK Special Tools GmbH in Schwäbisch<br />

Gmünd manufactures high-quality active parts for stamping<br />

and forming with precision tools from ZECHA Hartmetall-<br />

Werkzeugfabrikation GmbH from extruded carbide from<br />

EXTRAMET AG with maximum technological diversity.<br />

Together, the three long-standing partner companies break<br />

new ground every day.<br />

“Especially customer requests that differ from the standard<br />

pose major challenges with regard to surface quality, service<br />

life, and reproducibility, which we are happy to take on.<br />

Our goal is to work together with the customer to implement<br />

solutions for its specific applications with the smallest tolerances<br />

and exacting manufacturing tasks in the best carbide,”<br />

explains Arndt Fielen, sales manager at MPK Special Tools.<br />

Thanks to the certified raw materials from EXTRAMET, the<br />

μ-precise tools from ZECHA and the combined know-how of<br />

the three experts, MPK Special Tools offers customers security<br />

from project conception to final application and analyzes,<br />

develops and manufactures the ideal solution based on customer<br />

drawings using a wide range of technology combinations<br />

in milling, grinding and eroding.<br />

For more than 40 years EXTRAMET AG has been concentrating<br />

continuously on its core competence: the production<br />

10 no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong>

materials & tools<br />

of high-quality carbide. In doing so, it relies on innovation, precision and high<br />

technology. The product range, like the entire company, has constantly evolved.<br />

In the past solid carbide rods were mainly manufactured for the tool industry,<br />

but today EXTRAMET offers its customers and partners, in addition to a comprehensive<br />

product range, primarily tailor-made solutions for their individual<br />

needs.<br />

As a solution partner for the high-tech industry, the carbide specialist supports<br />

its customers in optimizing production processes and saving manufacturing<br />

costs. Highest precision, coupled with carbide in top quality, makes the<br />

independent family business the ideal partner for companies that also place the<br />

highest demands on their product. Quality and reliability represent a principal<br />

component of the corporate philosophy. Because only through consistent and<br />

uniform quality of the carbide blank can process-stable tools be produced, that<br />

offer a high level of safety for the end customer in use.<br />

MPK Special Tools GmbH has been an expert in precision technology for<br />

over 60 years. Manufactured according to customer drawings, the holistic<br />

tool and complete solutions made of carbide and steel are characterized by the<br />

highest precision in any quantity. Stringent quality controls as well as unwavering<br />

adherence to deadlines and deliveries are essential for the success of<br />

customers, especially in sensitive industries. The services for the purchase of a<br />

tool from MPK Special Tools include on-site presence, direct exchange with the<br />

customer at the machine, and the resulting consulting and service – versatile,<br />

accurate and individualized.<br />

Your<br />

Precision<br />

Motion<br />

Made Easy<br />

ZECHA Hartmetall-Werkzeugfabrikation GmbH is among the pioneers<br />

and trendsetters in the field of micro cutting, blanking and forming tools. The<br />

company’s origins in the chronograph industry can be seen not only in its uncompromising<br />

specialization in the production of miniature tools of highest<br />

precision, but also in its sophisticated special tool solutions. Precision and quality<br />

are the key for the international employment in different industries, such<br />

as medical and dental technology, the chronograph industry, the automotive<br />

industry or in tool and mold making. Experts in the company’s own research<br />

and development department are constantly developing groundbreaking geometries<br />

and tools for sophisticated applications and innovative materials.<br />

In addition, tool reproducibility is also guaranteed even for years on account<br />

of the life number stamped at the end of the shaft of every tool. Modern CNC<br />

machines, high-end measuring and testing technologies and carefully selected<br />

carbides from leading manufacturers, as well as intensive cooperation with<br />

their customers and partners, ensure the exceptional perfection of their tools.<br />

Thanks to decades of joint experience and cooperation EXTRAMET, MPK<br />

Special Tools and ZECHA ensure excellent results in stamping and forming<br />

technology. Maximum process reliability, increased service life, and surface<br />

quality while simultaneously reducing production costs are (thus) guaranteed.<br />

The close partnership makes it possible to meet individual customer requirements<br />

quickly and flexibly, because the smooth interaction of the individual<br />

components is decisive for success.<br />

The individual areas from prototype to series production are optimally<br />

coordinated through direct communication between the specialists at<br />

EXTRAMET, MPK Special Tools and ZECHA. The three companies continue<br />

to combine their expertise in order to develop reliable solutions for their customers<br />

through internal investments and expansions. The matching of carbide<br />

grades and geometries to a wide variety of applications, new manufacturing<br />

processes, and materials to be machined will continue to have top priority<br />

in the future.<br />

further information: www.zecha.de<br />



materials & tools<br />

Small, strong, robust –<br />

new centric vice makes a big difference<br />

Successful sub-contract machining providers<br />

need to be flexible and respond quickly to customer<br />

requests. SIBA Metallverarbeitungs GmbH, based in<br />

Dillenburg, Germany, maximises its potential through<br />

innovative use of tooling and workholding, including<br />

clamping systems of all sizes from CERATIZIT.<br />

With the new ZSG mini centric vice, the company is now<br />

expanding its clamping range to include smaller workpieces.<br />

Small, robust and extremely strong: the ZSG mini from the<br />

WNT Performance range from CERATIZIT is expanding the<br />

range of clamping devices at SIBA Metallverarbeitungs GmbH<br />

A specialist in steel and aluminum machining, SIBA<br />

Metallverarbeitungs GmbH works with countless customers<br />

from sectors such as mechanical engineering, electrical engineering,<br />

the food industry, furniture-making and control<br />

cabinet construction. Founded in 1962 by Siegfried Bastian<br />

and currently in its third generation of family management,<br />

the company has more than 60 employees working in production<br />

and management now.<br />

Short response times for satisfied customers<br />

SIBA is geared towards maximum diversity, as Benjamin<br />

Herbert, machining production manager, explains: “Our<br />

portfolio includes sophisticated welded assemblies and we<br />

draw on a wide range of sheet metal processing methods<br />

including laser cutting, punching and bending. We also have<br />

capability for accepting and storing blanket orders and processing<br />

these on request as well has planning work from A to<br />

Z – right through to final assembly. If someone needs a single<br />

part we can help with that too – quickly and efficiently.”<br />

This is the ideal place to put the ZSG mini to work<br />

That versatility and flexibility is one of the company’s<br />

greatest strengths, not everyone can or will offer speedy<br />

response times, where the customer gets the required part<br />

within 24 or 48 hours. Vital to keeping its promises are its<br />

manufacturing efficiencies:<br />

Excellent cooperation: Lukas Faak (left),<br />

technical consulting & sales Cutting Tools at CERATIZIT and<br />

Benjamin Herbert, machining production manager at SIBA<br />

SIBA customers can often get their ordered parts<br />

between 24 to 48 hours<br />

12 no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong>

materials & tools<br />

technical consulting & sales Cutting Tools at CERATIZIT.<br />

Once in place the jaws are totally secure in the base body<br />

thanks to the integrated pull-down action generated by two<br />

spring pressure pins, that ensure total machining precision and<br />

quality. “I can insert and clamp the part during initial clamping,<br />

and the jaws hold the workpieces securely in place – without<br />

any additional pre-stamping. And I can start cutting, including<br />

ambitious milling processes, without worrying about<br />

anything,” says Benjamin Herbert. Adding to the robust nature<br />

of the vices, the base body is also made from hardened stainless<br />

steel, which makes it resistant to external influences.<br />

In terms of handling, the ZSG mini is a godsend for<br />

SIBA Metallverarbeitungs GmbH; after all, it’s a matter<br />

of seconds before the centric vice is ready to use<br />

thanks to the indexable grip jaws<br />

“In order to deliver at this speed, we need clamping<br />

devices of all shapes and sizes in our machining department.<br />

We’ve been working successfully with CERATIZIT<br />

for some time now to make this happen. And, for us,<br />

the new ZSG mini has completed the range by including<br />

smaller components,” explains Benjamin Herbert.<br />

Simple design, uncompromising functionality<br />

When the small centric vice was first presented,<br />

Benjamin Herbert and his machining team at SIBA put<br />

it straight to work, and quickly saw the benefits of this<br />

new workholding system. “In terms of its design the<br />

ZSG mini is actually very simple but uncompromising<br />

when it comes to its functionality. The various aspects<br />

that were taken into consideration in its design were<br />

definitely to our advantage: pull-down action, repeatability<br />

– it was perfect for us,” adds Benjamin Herbert.<br />

Holistic, not one-sided<br />

“What makes working with CERATIZIT so special is the fact<br />

that from the outset they’ve been very involved in our processes.<br />

In other words they’ve been proactive in trying to understand<br />

our needs and have always gone above and beyond:<br />

with tools, materials and ideas. This has resulted in an excellent<br />

collaboration over the past six years,” stresses Benjamin<br />

Herbert.<br />

In addition to clamping devices, SIBA also successfully<br />

uses adapters and tools from CERATIZIT. “The increasing<br />

challenges in the market today mean we need to be flexible and<br />

react quickly. That’s why we’ve also decided to use the ToolO-<br />

Mat from CERATIZIT. Here, we can store tools, use them flexibly<br />

and keep them available at any time – regardless of delivery<br />

times or supply chains!”<br />


kapp-niles.com<br />

further information: www.ceratizit.com<br />

Short changeover times thanks to easy handling<br />

Rapid and easy handling is often the key factor in the<br />

race to reduce non-productive time to a minimum. The<br />

ZSG mini scores here highly too, as Benjamin Herbert<br />

confirms: “The ZSG mini is actually very nice to use, especially<br />

because of its excellent accessibility. The advantages<br />

of the ZSG mini become clear particularly when<br />

large pallets need to be equipped or where situations<br />

involving difficult-to-reach areas such as clamping towers<br />

or multiaxial processing need to be tackled. It can<br />

be mounted very quickly from one side and doesn’t need<br />

to be screwed underneath!”<br />

“But what saves an enormous amount of time is the<br />

quick change system for the jaws. They can be replaced in<br />

a matter of seconds without any tools at all by extracting<br />

them at an angle through the center,” explains Lukas Faak,

materials & tools<br />

Energy- and resource-efficient aluminum machining –<br />

Supporting minimum quantity lubrication technology by biomimetic micro<br />

structures on 2D-orthogonal cutting tools generated with ultrashort laser pulses<br />

written by<br />

P. Esch, O. Schwarz, K. Placzek, D. Holder, R. Weber,<br />

M. Steck, F. Hartmann, Prof. Thomas Graf<br />

Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Engineering and Automation IPA<br />

University of Stuttgart<br />

1. Introduction<br />

Machining is a widely used production technique. Latest<br />

ecological and economical aspects cause a shift in machining<br />

production towards higher productivity and more sustainability.<br />

In order to reduce the amount of energy used in<br />

machining, peripheral processes like wet lubrication may be<br />

substituted with low energetic lubrication systems like minimum<br />

quantity lubrication (MQL). This change in combination<br />

with low-melting work piece materials like aluminum<br />

alloys creates problems in terms of tool performance, tool<br />

longevity and process reliability.<br />

In order to further enhance MQL production technology<br />

at least on the performance level of conventional cutting, this<br />

research study investigates the effects of micro structuring<br />

cutting tools rake faces by laser ablation. Functional bio-inspired<br />

micro structures (biomimetic structures) are selected<br />

and evaluated in 2D-orthogonal cutting and under static<br />

conditions. The effects on the functional features during capturing,<br />

transporting and releasing of the employed MQL-oil<br />

is getting analyzed. The goal is to evaluate and quantify the<br />

potential of feasible biomimetic structure variants.<br />

(cf. Martin 2013 [1] )<br />

2. Micro structures<br />

2.1 Micro structures in machining<br />

Micro structured tools are recent subject of scientific research<br />

in order to optimize machining tools. In Chang (2011) [2]<br />

micro structured milling tools are investigated on NAK80<br />

steel. The structured tools outperformed the standard milling<br />

tool exhibiting lower cutting forces and higher longevity,<br />

indicating best results with a 90 ° orientation of micro structure<br />

cavities in relation to the cutting edge. Comparable results<br />

are reported in Schneider & Esch (2017) [3] in the application<br />

of drilling. Likewise, perpendicular structures showed<br />

best results in reducing force response and wear behaviour.<br />

Özel et al. (2021) [4] gives a comprehensive review on the state<br />

of the art in tool face functionalization by micro structuring.<br />

The general consensus of superior machining performance<br />

is accompanied by the indication of a shortage in scientific<br />

research in terms of bio-inspired approaches. In this context<br />

and without any claim to comprehensiveness only three<br />

relevant scientific contributions could be found. Tillmann et<br />

al. (2015) [5] studies the feasibility and effectiveness of bio-inspired<br />

structures on friction coefficient. Fatima & Mativenga<br />

(2017) [6] transfers the biomimetic structural approach into<br />

the machining application by investigating the effect of a<br />

replicated ball python skin structure in turning AISI4140<br />

steel. The structured tools show superior performance in<br />

terms of lower cutting temperature, reduced cutting forces<br />

and higher chip compactness. Aside biomimetic structures<br />

on a micro scale, Schmidt (2021) [7] developed macro tooth<br />

geometries for wood working application.<br />

In summary, biomimetic structures are yet to be scientifically<br />

addressed and investigated. It is also crucial to understand<br />

the effective mechanisms of biomimetic structures and<br />

its practical implementation.<br />

2.2 Generation of surface structures in the<br />

micrometer range by surface structuring<br />

with ultra-short laser pulses<br />

By means of ultra-short pulse laser ablation, it is possible to<br />

generate specific laser-induced structures (LIPSS) on the surface<br />

of the component (cf. Bonse et al. 2018 [8] ). By selecting<br />

different process parameters, different LIPSS, such as ripples,<br />

grooves and spikes can be generated (figure 1). These<br />

structures exhibit different morphological properties such<br />

as structural composition and roughness. In addition, the<br />

structures differ in wettability with water and other liquids<br />

and could function as wetting structures near the cutting<br />

edge to support lubrication. (cf. Kietzig et al. 2009 [9] )<br />

In Holder et al. (2021) [10] the use of ultrashort laser pulses<br />

for micro machining grooves for passive fluid transport on<br />

Ti-6Al-4V surfaces is demonstrated. This work shows the potential<br />

of using ultrashort laser pulses for micro machining<br />

of cavities for lubrication transport. (figure 1)<br />

3. Research<br />

The declared goal of this study is to investigate and prove<br />

the feasibility and effectiveness of laser fabricated biomimetic<br />

micro structures in the machining application. The chosen<br />

14 no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong>

materials & tools<br />

a) ripples b) grooves c) spikes<br />

figure 1<br />

SEM images of LIPSS-structures on 100Cr6 steel<br />

approach focuses on micro patterns functionalizing the tools faces in order<br />

to improve the effectiveness of deployed lubrication and help to prevent oilstarvation<br />

by reserving oil in the cavities. This second research approach will<br />

be addressed in an follow-up investigation based on the given results in this<br />

study.<br />

3.1 Methodology<br />

The chosen methodology comprises a profound research of applicable and<br />

relevant micro structures which fulfil the necessary functions. As stated before,<br />

the micro structures shall comply with two functionalities: a) transport<br />

given lubrication underneath the sliding chip and b) to release the lubrication<br />

at a spot near the cutting edge for higher lubrication effectiveness.<br />

In a biomimetic approach possible structures with similar functionalities<br />

to the technically required ones are identified. A selection of suitable<br />

structural patterns is carried out, reducing the possible range of patterns to a<br />

technological feasible choice.<br />

The selected patterns are abstracted and transferred into CAD models,<br />

which then can be produced with laser technology. The realised biomi metic<br />

structure variants are then tested in a 2D-orthogonal test stand. (figure 2)<br />

3.2 The Biomimetic approach to suitable structures for machining<br />

The aim of biomimetics is to solve technical problems by abstracting, transferring<br />

and applying knowledge gained from biological models. Its application<br />

in the product development process as<br />

an innovation method enables innovative<br />

technical solutions. With regard to resource<br />

efficiency, biomimetics offers considerable<br />

potential because one of the most important<br />

selection features in evolution was the saving<br />

of energy and material. It is assumed that<br />

so-called ecological management is possible<br />

through the transfer of biological models<br />

and principles to technol ogy. The functions<br />

and properties developed in the course of<br />

evolution are thus “ecologically” optimised.<br />

However, it must be taken into account<br />

that this optimisation has always taken place<br />

with regard to the multiple influencing variables<br />

of the environment and the optimisation<br />

of the overall performance, i.e. ensuring<br />

the survival of an organism. The maximisation<br />

of one function dissolved of the context<br />

has rarely been in the foreground. I.e. if the<br />

technical problem finds possible solutions in<br />

nature, then the overall context and boundary<br />

conditions in which it functions must be<br />

considered. In any case, there is almost always<br />

the potential for this function to become even<br />

more effective through human or technical<br />

modification, because no consideration has to<br />

be given to other life functions. In this in application-oriented<br />

work we have a top-down<br />

problem, i.e. there is a technical problem for<br />

which a solution is to be developed. (figure 2)<br />

The formulation of the technical problem is:<br />

“MQL reaches the cutting edge to an insufficient<br />

extent” (in order to reduce friction there<br />

and thus heat generation). The transfer of the<br />

problem leads via an abstraction: “How can<br />

a fluid reach defined locations over greater<br />

distances”.<br />

figure 2<br />

Procedure diagram in the search for biomimetic solutions<br />

The statement must be narrowed down and<br />

made more precise in order to expand the<br />

no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong><br />


materials & tools<br />

search space in nature accordingly: the specification of the fluid’s behaviour<br />

leads in principle to either hydrophilic or hydrophobic fluids. In nature, both<br />

properties are present – there are oily fluids and, of course, in the majority of<br />

cases water-based fluids.<br />

On the part of the tool geometry, the requirement is that the coolant must<br />

overcome a greater distance, i.e. several millimeters to a few centimeters and<br />

not just in the range of micrometers. Defined locations were understood to<br />

mean that the fluid is not guided randomly, but over predefined structures.<br />

In principle, a distinction must be made between transport structures and<br />

two-dimensional wetting structures.<br />

The search field for biomimetic structures is now defined and could thus<br />

be expanded. A range of wetting and transport systems could be found as<br />

described below.<br />

Queries were made in various scientific databases and in the patent database<br />

Depatis-net. The search included terms such as “water collection” and<br />

“transport”, “unidirectional” and “directional liquid transport”, “capillary<br />

effect”, “hydrophilic and (super) hydrophobic structures”, “wetting” and<br />

“moistening”, “edge angle” and as nouns or verbs in various combinations<br />

with and without the term “biomimetics” or “bionics”.<br />

On the one hand descriptive biological publications (basic research), on<br />

the other hand publications on the experimental biomimetic imitation of<br />

found principles as well as abstracted technical structures already described<br />

in patents were found.<br />

The main four principles on which the specific and unspecific conduction<br />

of water, oil or other liquids is based are the following: capillary effect, alternating<br />

hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions, hierarchical micro structuring<br />

and specific rough surfaces.<br />

3.3 Experimental setup<br />

In order to evaluate the isolated effect of micro<br />

structures on process performance, complex<br />

milling tools are transformed into simple<br />

2D orthogonal cutting tools. The given geometrical<br />

circumstances are translated into<br />

a 2D cutting tool with plane faces according<br />

to the methodology also stated in Esch et<br />

al. (2021) [11] . Plane rake faces are easily workable<br />

and geometrical influences are excluded.<br />

Figure 3 shows a tool derived from a standard<br />

aluminum cutting tool.<br />

The tool specifications are given in table 1.<br />

The workpiece material was AlMg4,5Mn0,7<br />

(EN-AW 5083). According to Ostermann<br />

(2014) [12] its main applications are rail vehicle<br />

construction and general construction due to<br />

the advantageous characteristics in ductility,<br />

corrosion resistance and fusibility. The workpiece<br />

was prepared in a sliced blank with defined<br />

towering bars the size of 5 x 10 x 250 mm<br />

in the dimensions width, height and length.<br />

specimen<br />

force<br />

dynamometer<br />

figure 4<br />

Specimen with towering bars for 2D cutting<br />

rake<br />

angle / °<br />

wedge<br />

angle / °<br />

figure 3<br />

2D cutting tools with plane rake face<br />

clear<br />

angle / °<br />

grain<br />

size / µm<br />

ISOclassification<br />

cobalt / %<br />

tungsten<br />

carbide / %<br />

10 ° 78 2 0,65 K30 10 90<br />

table 1<br />

Tool specifications<br />

Experiments were carried out on a DMG HSC<br />

70 linear. The transverse axis was used to perform<br />

the cutting motion with a maximum<br />

speed of 80 m/min. A specially designed tool<br />

holder held the tools in front of the spindle<br />

housing. The full experimental setup is given<br />

in figure 5, also showing the chip formation.<br />

The tool was guided over the bars with a cutting<br />

speed of 80 m/min. Every tool executed<br />

15 runs on a new bar strip with a defined<br />

infeed of 200 μm for each run. The deployed<br />

lubricant was a FUCHS ECOCUT MICRO<br />

PLUS 20. Lubrication supply was realized by<br />

jet nozzle and micro dosage.<br />

Force transformation was conducted according<br />

to the model of Ernst and Merchant (cf.<br />

Ernst & Merchant 1941 [13] ). The recorded force<br />

response in cutting and normal cutting direction<br />

could be translated into the effective<br />

friction and normal forces acting on the<br />

16 no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong>

materials & tools<br />

cutting direction<br />

external MYL jet nozzle<br />

Y<br />

Z<br />

X<br />

coordinate system<br />

measuring device<br />

figure 5<br />

Experimental<br />

setup in machine<br />

tool center<br />

figure 6<br />

Force translation<br />

model according to<br />

Ernst & Merchant<br />

(1941) [13]<br />

rake face. The ratio of normal to friction force also allows the<br />

derivation of the relevant friction coefficient γ. Figure 6 depicts<br />

the force vector transformation model<br />

4. Micro structures of biological models<br />

and their selection<br />

The following animal and plant species have been identified<br />

as having potentially suitable transport or wetting properties:<br />

In arid regions, water is a precious commodity that should be<br />

absorbed as quantitatively as possible and not only from rain,<br />

fog or stagnant water, but also moist soil. A group of lizards,<br />

including the Australian thorny devil (Moloch horridus), the<br />

Texas toad (Phrynosoma cornutum) or the Arabian toadhead<br />

dragon (Phrynocephalus arabicus) have developed special<br />

characteristics: moisture spreads excellently on the skin (contact<br />

angle ≤ 10 °) because it is super hydrophilic due to a honeycomb-like<br />

micro structuring. The capillaries are very fine<br />

– approx. 10 to 30 μm wide and 1 - 5 μm deep. This enables<br />

them to collect water.<br />

In these three species, there is also conduction to the mouth<br />

via a capillary structure formed by partially overlapping<br />

scales, forming a semitubular capillary system over the entire<br />

body of the lizard, with a basal width of 100 to 250 μm and a<br />

narrower opening (cf. Comanns, 2016 [14] ).<br />

Water collection and transport is passive, i.e. without any<br />

actively supporting movements.<br />

Transport velocities on the integument of Australian thorny<br />

devil for example were determined for vertical orientation; on<br />

the ventral body surface, transport was 5.8 cm within 5 min.<br />

The maximum height was 9.9 cm. However, Texas toad, in<br />

contrast to the other two, exhibits a significant directionality<br />

towards the mouth, a directional transport. In the abstracted<br />

conversions of Comanns (2016) [14] , Comanns (2011) [15] ,<br />

Comanns [16] , Joel et al. (2017) [17] , Kim et al. (2019) [18] ) in epoxy<br />

resin in the ratio 6:1 could be verified in observation and<br />

reproduced even more clearly than in the biological model.<br />

The derived technical transport structures were patented by<br />

Comanns et al. [19] .<br />

While the lizards can also draw from many sources – such<br />

as moisture from sands, the Namib desert beetle (Onymacris<br />

unguicularis) relies exclusively on nocturnal fog as a water<br />

source. Grooves on the wing covers allow the condensed dew<br />

droplets to collect due to hydrophilic and hydrophobic surface<br />

properties and then flow to the mouth following gravity.<br />

In a number of closely related species, its surface grooves<br />

proved to be particularly effective. The reason is alternating<br />

hydrophobic (wax-coated) and hydrophilic (non-waxy)<br />

regions as well as Gibbs free energy. (cf. Tan et al 2016 [20] ,<br />

Hirai et al. 2017 [21] )<br />

The shipyard cockroach (Ligia exotica) has structures that exhibit<br />

low surface energy and allow directional wettability of<br />

an entire leg. They are thought to be important for the development<br />

of a robust water transport and passive water uptake<br />

system without external energy consumption (cf. Kim et al<br />

2019 [18] , Kirner et al. 2017 [22] , Ishii et al. 2013 [23] ).<br />

no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong><br />


materials & tools<br />

An unidirectional transport mechanism has been developed<br />

in the spermathecae of fleas, to ensure that the seminal fluid<br />

can also meet the egg cell. It can be assumed that such a function<br />

revolution is highly optimized because it directly affects<br />

the success of reproduction. The capillaries with extensions<br />

(reservoirs) and stops in the opposite direction cause transport<br />

in only one direction, that of the egg cell. The process,<br />

described by Buchberg as “fluidic diode”, was also technically<br />

abstracted by him and could be reproduced from PMMA<br />

fabri cated by laser-ablation (cf. Buchberger 2018 [24] ). Bark<br />

bugs (Dysodius lunatus) can become darker in colour due to<br />

water wetting of the elythras, which reduces the likelihood<br />

of being detected by predators sitting on the bark of the tree<br />

when the tree trunk also becomes more colourful and darker<br />

in colour when moisture is absorbed.<br />

In addition, plant bugs are also known for their smell. This<br />

presumably serves as a defence against enemies and is therefore<br />

optimised for rapid release. The underlying rapid mechanism<br />

is based on the directional spread of the scent secretion<br />

from the glands to the wing bases (cf. Kim et al 2019 [19] , Hischen<br />

et al. 2018 [25] , Blow et al 2009 [26] ). The spreading is effected by<br />

nub-like structures. With regard to the intended technical<br />

application, it is interesting that this is suitable for oily fluids.<br />

Springtails Collembola (Collembola spec.) are a group of inconspicuous<br />

ground-dwelling wingless insects, the so-called<br />

primordial insects. In contrast to the tracheal respiration of<br />

insects, springtails breathe through their skin. This characteristic<br />

causes the springtails to adapt in a very special way,<br />

because for undisturbed breathing the skin of the springtails<br />

must remain dry and clean at all times – and this in a<br />

habitat with plenty of water and dirt. A very perplexing surface<br />

coating has been discovered on them, which is omniphobic.<br />

These not only let the medium water and dirt roll off – as<br />

with the lotus effect – but also oily liquids. The skin structure<br />

of springtails, which is honeycomb-like and shows mushroom-shaped<br />

overhangs in cross-section, could be imitated<br />

by the Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research Dresden with<br />

polymer membranes. (cf. Nickerl et al. 2014 [27] , Hensel et al.<br />

2013 [28] , Gundersen & Leinaas 2014 [29] )<br />

When asked why honey bees (Apis mellifera) themselves do<br />

not stick to their mouthparts with propolis when harvesting<br />

and processing propolis, Saccardi et. al. (2022) [30] discovered<br />

scale or honeycomb-like structures on the mandibles. They<br />

assumed a wetting structure. The structures were transferred<br />

to technical materials. It was shown that the surface pattern<br />

has no direct influence on propolis adhesion. However, it<br />

could be shown that a liquid film covering these structures<br />

and held by the hexagonal walls prevents adhesion.<br />

Superficial water-conducting structures are also known in<br />

plants.<br />

The fine spines of Opuntia microdasys apparently have the<br />

function of collecting fog or dew and directing the dew droplets<br />

to the surface of the cactus, where they roll off to the<br />

ground and can ultimately be absorbed by the root system.<br />

On the surface of the needle there are harpoon-like basally<br />

directed outgrowths. Ju et al. (2012) [31] due to the conical<br />

shape (Laplace pressure) and the surface-free energy gradient<br />

as a result of the surface becoming rougher and more hydrophobic<br />

apically (lower free energy), the fluid transport is unidirectional.<br />

The pitcher plants Sarracenia spec. and Nepenthes alata are<br />

insect-attracting plants, in order to let them slide down their<br />

smooth funnels and digest them inside. On the border of the<br />

pitcher or tube are hairs called peristomes, which have hierarchical<br />

micro channels arranged on the surface that, together<br />

with the Laplace pressures, cause water to be transported. The<br />

peristomes can be completely wetted by water and then form<br />

a slippery liquid film at the bottom of the can or tube on<br />

which insects start to slide. The formation of the liquid film is<br />

caused by a continuous transport of water from the inner to<br />

the outer border of the pitcher on the peristome. (cf. Chen et<br />

al. 2017 [32] , Zhang et al. 2017 [33] , Zhang et al. 2020 [34] )<br />

Findings exist on this, which has verified the function using<br />

planar technical replicas in a two-step UV lithography<br />

with poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). Zhang et al. (2017,<br />

2020) [33, 34] concluded that these micro channels are ultrafast<br />

water harvesting and transport structures.<br />

In Sarracenia, the hierarchical structures as shown in figure<br />

7 a) consist of usually five grooves separated by four smaller<br />

marginal boundaries (second-order micro grooves), which<br />

are flanked at the outer edge by a high marginal boundary<br />

(first-order micro grooves). (cf. Chen et al. 2018 [35]<br />

The structure of Nepenthes is more complex. It also has firstorder<br />

micro grooves with about ten second-order grooves in<br />

between, there are many anisotropic, overlapping and arcshaped<br />

microcavities along the second-order micro grooves,<br />

with the tips of the arcs pointing towards the outside of the<br />

pitcher border. The interplay of microcavities and sharp arcuate<br />

edge (about 2 - 8 °) and inclined wedge angles on both<br />

sides of the microcavities (about 90 ° at the bottom of the microcavity,<br />

to about 28 ° at the top) prevent backward water<br />

transport and cause rapid unidirectional water conduction.<br />

(cf. Zhang et al. 2017 [33] )<br />

4.1 Selection criteria for conversion to metal by laser<br />

The selection of potentially suitable transport and wetting<br />

structures was interdisciplinary. On the one hand the modifiability<br />

of the biological structures to circumvent the restrictions<br />

imposed by the laser processing of metal were considered.<br />

Secondly the robustness of principles under the technical<br />

application conditions and thirdly, the experimental<br />

results so far available in the literature were used for evaluation.<br />

The following biological examples were prioritised for<br />

technical realization:<br />

As transport structures the tube plant (Sarracenia spec.),<br />

the bark bug (Dysodius lunatus) and the toad lizard (Phrynosoma<br />

cornutum). (figure 7 c, d)<br />

As wetting structures the bark bug (Dysodius lunatus) and<br />

various cauliflower-like coarse structures, prisms, truncated<br />

cone-shaped pyramids and perforated plate-like depressions<br />

at regular intervals.<br />

18 no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong>

materials & tools<br />

a) hose plant<br />

b) spermatheca<br />

of fleas,<br />

in grey box is a<br />

«elementary cell»<br />

c) toad lizard (Phrynosoma cornutum), «elementary cell»<br />

figure 7<br />

Transport structures<br />

figure 8<br />

Wetting structures<br />

a) prisms<br />

c) truncated cone-shaped pyramids (also used as transport stucture!),<br />

inspired by Dysodius lunatus<br />

flow<br />

b) shell<br />

d) tilted steps structure<br />

As far as the nub-like structures are concerned, the<br />

distances of < 25 μm between them could not be realised with<br />

the currently available beam shaping. But the large number<br />

of conceivable variants of nap structures – in shape and<br />

spacing – that are comparatively easy to produce, as well as<br />

the facts that they are used to distribute oily liquids and that<br />

some have also been described in patents for wetting applications<br />

(cf. Comanns et al. [19] ), led to the decision to realise<br />

them later until the appropriate optical system is available.<br />

The honeycomb-like wetting structure is particularly interesting<br />

for solving the technical problem of effective MQL<br />

transport, but was initially set aside as reserve.<br />

Discarded were the structures of the Namib desert beetle.<br />

The problem seems that the transport properties are created<br />

by the complex interaction of hydrophobic and hydrophilic<br />

topographies, which cannot be realised by laser ablation, or<br />

only to some extent.<br />

Since the structures of the throwing cockroach tend to be<br />

hair-shaped protrusions, the technical feasibility of morphologies<br />

with unfavourable length-to-width ratios is difficult<br />

with lasers in metal. The technical implementation of the abstracted<br />

transport structure of the fleas’ spermathecae with<br />

laser in metal was refrained from because the complex windings<br />

are rather unsuitable for laser ablation. (figure 7 b)<br />

The omniphobic surface structures of Collembola are unfortunately<br />

not possible for ablation with laser, because of the<br />

overhangs or undercuts.<br />

The mechanism of Opuntia spines is closely related to their<br />

cylindrical shape. This bears little resemblance to the flat<br />

topographies on the tool and is therefore not transferred.<br />

The comparatively simpler channel structures of Sarracenia<br />

were preferred to those of Nepenthes, because they would<br />

require rectangular or acute angles and inclined surfaces that<br />

cannot be realised with the circular focal beam.<br />

(figure 7/8)<br />

5. Abstraction and transfer into CAD constructions<br />

In the abstraction step, which comes after the recognition of<br />

the principle as shown in figure 7, an attempt is made to implement<br />

the idea in technical material in a way that is suitable<br />

for production while retaining the functionality.<br />

The question is to what extent all angles and inclinations,<br />

curves and corners have to be transferred. Some morphological<br />

conditions can be logically explained by physical laws.<br />

Others, however, are still hidden. The potential and strength<br />

of biomimetics is such to be discovered by means of functioning<br />

models.<br />

no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong><br />


materials & tools<br />

A practical approach is to first stay very close to the model and then to simplify<br />

it step by step. Since some structural elements cannot be realised with<br />

the defined manufacturing process, or their realisation is only possible with<br />

an uneconomical use of time and energy, compromises have to be made and<br />

simplifications chosen right at the beginning. Also, for reasons of time and<br />

capacity, only a manageable number of variants are possible. Therefore subjective<br />

selection plays a greater role than one would like.<br />

6. Implementation of the structures<br />

6.1 Experimental setup<br />

The ultrafast laser system Duetto from Time-Bandwidth, which emits laser<br />

pulses with a wavelength of 1064 nm and a pulse duration of 10 ps was used<br />

for the experiments. The laser beam had a Gaussian intensity distribution,<br />

was circularly polarized by a quarter waveplate, and had a beam quality factor<br />

of M² < 1.3. The beam was positioned and scanned over the sample surface<br />

with a Galvanometer-scanner and focused by an F-Theta lens with a focal<br />

length of 80 mm. The resulting focus diameter was d 0 = 30±2 μm. For all<br />

experiments the focus of the beam was set on the surface of the sample.<br />

(figure 9)<br />

The cross sections of the biomimetic transport structures are shown schematically<br />

in figure 11. They can be realized by ablating with a certain number<br />

of parallel lines N l with the hatch distance<br />

a h and by using a certain number of scans<br />

N s over the surface. The number of parallel<br />

lines and the hatch distance define the resulting<br />

width a w of the cavity and the depth<br />

z c of the cavity can be adjusted by the number<br />

of scans N s (figure 11 a). By reducing the number<br />

of parallel lines with increasing number of<br />

scans, cavities with trapezoidal and V-shaped<br />

cross-sections can be realized (figure 11 b).<br />

This way, complex cavities with sub cavities as<br />

shown in figure 11 c) as well as the biomimetic<br />

structure with pyramids (B2.2) can be generated,<br />

too. As laser micro machined grooves<br />

typically exhibit a V-shape in the cross section<br />

(cf. Comanns et al. 2007 [19] , Zhao et al. 2019 [36] )<br />

no ideal vertical walls of a capillary can be<br />

created. Therefore, generating cavities with a<br />

defined width by using a certain number of<br />

parallel lines N l leads to a trapezoid shape in<br />

the cross section (figure 11 d). As the depth<br />

of the cavity increases, it eventually forms a<br />

V-shaped cross section.<br />

figure 9<br />

Experimental setup for laser processing<br />

6.2 Implementation strategy<br />

The laser induced surface structures were generated by scanning the laser<br />

beam over the sample surface using a line by line strategy (figure 10). The<br />

pulse overlaps of the pulses in x-direction and in y-direction is adjusted by<br />

varying the scan velocity v s (while keeping the repetition rate of the pulses<br />

constant) and the hatch distance a h respectively. By varying the scan velo city<br />

and therefore the pulse overlap in the scanning direction, different surface<br />

structures were generated while keeping the repetition rate f rep = 500 kHz, the<br />

pulse energy E p = 21,5 μJ and the hatch distance a h = 6 μm constant. By scanning<br />

with scan velocities of v s = {3747; 1500; 300; 60} mm/s different wetting<br />

structures B1.1, B1.2, B1.3 and B1.4 were generated. (figure 13)<br />

figure 10<br />

Schematic illustration of ultra short pulse laser ablation<br />

figure 11<br />

Ideal cross section of the transport structures<br />

(a) – c)) and schematic representation of<br />

cavity formation during<br />

laser micro machining<br />

Complex 2D-structures such as the pattern<br />

inspired by bark bugs (E1 and E2) can be implemented<br />

by reproducing elementary cells in<br />

a CAD program and exporting the file as .dxf.<br />

The file can be imported into the scanner program<br />

and can be hatched using fill parameters<br />

(e.g. line hatching distance a h ). Enclosed<br />

elements (colored black in figure 12) are not<br />

scanned with the laser beam and are not ablated.<br />

(figure 12)<br />

The surface structures shown in figure 13 were<br />

generated using the implementation strategies<br />

described above: the LIPSS B1.1 – B1.4, the<br />

biomimetic structures B2.1 – B2.3, the simple<br />

transport structures T1.1 – T1.4, complex<br />

structures T2.1 – 2.4, and bug structures E1<br />

and E2. As the transport structures only vary<br />

in depth only representative images are shown<br />

in figure 13.<br />

20 no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong>

materials & tools<br />

The camera-based contact angle measuring device is shown in figure 14 on<br />

the left. A droplet with a volume of 1 μL of the fluid is placed on the structured<br />

surface using the dosing unit. The contact angle measurement is recorded<br />

from the time of droplet placement until 15 seconds after droplet<br />

placement, in order to analyze the contact angle as a function of the time<br />

after droplet placement. After the measurement, the sample was cleaned with<br />

acetone in an ultrasonic bath. The measuring fluid was the ECO CUT AL, a<br />

conventional lubricant from Fuchs based on a fatty alcohol. The functionalfigure<br />

12<br />

Implementation of complex 2D-structures<br />

LIPSS-structures B1.1 - B1.4<br />

bug structures<br />

E1 - E2<br />

Biomimetic structures B2.1 - B2.3<br />

figure 13<br />

Generated surface structures<br />

simple transport structures<br />

T1.1 - T1.4<br />

complex structures<br />

T2.1 - T2.4<br />

figure 14<br />

Schematic illustration of the setup<br />

for contact angle measurements<br />

and flow velocity measurements<br />

7. Evaluation of the structures under static conditions<br />

7.1 Methods<br />

Contact angle measurements and flow velocity measurements were performed<br />

in order to evaluate the functionality of the wetting structures and<br />

the transport structures, respectively.<br />

ity of the generated transport structures was<br />

evaluated by means of measurements of the<br />

flow velocity. The setup for these measurements<br />

is shown in figure 14 on the right. The<br />

pipette was used to deposit 5 μL of the measurement<br />

fluid at the inlet port. The flow of<br />

the fluid from the inlet port via the different<br />

transport structures to the target port is recorded<br />

by a camera. With the help of image<br />

analysis programs, the flow velocity of the<br />

individual transport structures can be determined.<br />

no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong><br />


materials & tools<br />

7.2 Wettability of the biomimetic structures<br />

Structuring surfaces with ultrashort laser pulses can lead to a time-dependent<br />

change in wetting properties (cf. Kietzig et al. 2009 [19] ). Therefore the<br />

contact angle considered for evaluation in this chapter is the contact angle<br />

of the liquid drops on the surface structures after aging. The aging of the<br />

sample surfaces was reached after 30 days, as the value of the measured contact<br />

angle remained constant after this point of time. Figure 15 shows the<br />

contact angle determined for lubricant droplets on the aged sample as a<br />

function of time after droplet placement on the structure. For reference, the<br />

change of the contact angle over time after droplet placement was also determined<br />

for an unstructured polished sample (reference, red). Structures that<br />

did not have a lower contact angle than the reference contact angle are not<br />

shown in this figure. The reference contact angle decreases from 20 ° one second<br />

after impact of the measuring drop on the sample with increasing time<br />

figure 15<br />

Contact angle as a function of time after droplet placement on the<br />

different wetting structures and on a polished unstructured sample (reference)<br />

and stagnates at about 11 °. All wetting structures,<br />

except B2.3, show a significantly lower<br />

contact angle of θ c = 10 ° ± 1 ° already one<br />

second after impingement of the measuring<br />

drop on the structure and decrease to 0 ° after<br />

t > 8 s. The determined contact angle on the<br />

wetting structures B2.2 and B1.4 is already 0 °<br />

after two and three seconds, respectively.<br />

For this reason, the wetting structures B2.2<br />

and B1.4 were selected and structured at the<br />

2D-cutting tool tip.<br />

7.3 Fluid transport of the<br />

biomimetic structures<br />

To evaluate the structures, the flow velocity v f<br />

and the cross section of the transport structure<br />

A ts were used to determine the flow rate<br />

to = v f · A ts . With regard to the analogy tests,<br />

the maximum possible flow rate max in this<br />

process was determined with the volume flow<br />

and the number of transport structures N ts<br />

that can be structured on the 2D-cutting tool<br />

to max = · N ts . The resulting flow rates max<br />

for the lubricant as a function of the travel distance<br />

are shown in Figure 16. The biomi metic<br />

transport structures provide higher flow rates<br />

than the simple transport structures, in particular<br />

due to their higher cross-sectional area.<br />

For all transport structures, an exponential<br />

decrease of the flow rate can be observed with<br />

an increase of the travel distance. For the deep -<br />

est structures with a depth of 200 μm higher<br />

flow rates could be measured.<br />

Based on the results of section 00 and section<br />

00 different variants were selected to be investigated<br />

in the 2D-machining experiments<br />

(figure 17). The structures were generated on<br />

the entire rake face at a distance of 100 μm<br />

from the cutting edge. The variants V1 and<br />

V2, a wetting structure and a transport structure<br />

were combined and structured on the<br />

rake face.<br />

figure 16<br />

Flow rate as a function of distance traveled in simple transport structures (left)<br />

and biomimetic surface structures (right) with different depths of the grooves<br />

figure 17<br />

Overview of the variants selected for the 2D-machining experiments<br />

The wetting structures were applied near the<br />

cutting edge and have a height of 200 μm. The<br />

transport structures fill out the remaining<br />

rake face. (figure 16/17)<br />

8. 2D-machining experiments<br />

The fabricated tools have been investigated in<br />

accordance with the introduced methodology.<br />

For reason of comparability, each testing<br />

series of micro dosage and moisture lubrication<br />

was accompanied with a non-structured<br />

tool. The prepared tool variants are given in<br />

figure 18. Top row shows initial condition, second<br />

row presents the rake face condition after<br />

15 runs with micro dosed lubrication. Bottom<br />

22 no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong>

materials & tools<br />

figure 18<br />

Overview of biomimetic structured tools<br />

row illustrates the tools after testing with external<br />

MQL moisture lubrication.<br />

It can be seen, that tool variant V3 and V5<br />

failed. Both tools encountered cutting edge<br />

damage. It can be assumed that the laser struc -<br />

ture created a notch effect and hence weakened<br />

the cutting material to its limit. In terms<br />

of the variants V1, V2 and V4 the rake face<br />

performed the testing series without damage.<br />

(figure 18)<br />

tool variants<br />

tool variants<br />

figure 19<br />

Effect of biomimetic structures on cutting force response<br />

figure 20<br />

Effect of biomimetic structures on friction coefficient<br />

In terms of cutting performance, the evaluation<br />

of the cutting forces and the calcu lated<br />

friction coefficients are relevant. Figure 19<br />

shows the effect of biomimetic structures on<br />

the cutting force for both lubrication strategies.<br />

Micro dosage lubrication indicates an<br />

ad vantage, which is attributable to a higher<br />

quantity of lubricant and a more direct supply<br />

then by external misting.<br />

Regarding the effect of biomimetic structures<br />

it is evident, that in case of moisture lubrication<br />

the tool variants V1 and V3 exhibit<br />

a strong effect in reducing cutting force responses<br />

by up to 14 %. In terms of micro dosage<br />

supply the effect is diminished and only<br />

apparent for variant V1 with a slight reduction<br />

by 4 % due to an already lowered force<br />

signal compared to MQL moisture. Analogous<br />

to the force response figure 20 depicts the effect<br />

on friction coefficient. Tool variant V1 develops<br />

the best cutting performance for both<br />

lubrication strategies, too. Highest reduction<br />

is achieved by - 9 % in case of moisture supply.<br />

no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong><br />


materials & tools<br />

figure 21<br />

Effect on chip morphology<br />

Biomimetic structures also influence chip morphology. In a<br />

qualitative display (figure 21) effects are evident in terms of<br />

compactness and curling. With respect to chip extraction,<br />

small chips are regarded as beneficial. Since cutting length<br />

was identical for all specimen, the apparent deviation in chip<br />

length can causally be linked to a higher degree in chip compression.<br />

This observation is supported by the findings from<br />

Esch (2021) [37] , proving that micro structured rake faces effect<br />

the deformation degree within the chip. (figure 21)<br />

9. Conclusion<br />

In this work was shown, that the application of micro structures<br />

has the potential to reduce the cutting force in the process<br />

by 14 %. Most of the structural variants withstand the<br />

load. Thus, it was shown that the biomimetic structures can<br />

be generated by means of ultrashort pulse laser ablation and<br />

work in the 2D process. Under static conditions, the wettability<br />

of the micro structures with lubricants was higher than<br />

the wettability of an unstructured surface. In addition, transport<br />

structures could be identified which, measured by the<br />

determined flow velocity and volume flow, correspond to the<br />

conveyances for MQL. Further structure variants will be tested<br />

as part of the project, such as honeycomb-like and scalelike<br />

micro structures.<br />

In addition, new lubricants are being developed as part<br />

of the project, which will be tested on the structured tools.<br />

On the basis of the knowledge gained from this, testing will<br />

finally be carried out in the milling process.<br />

Authors information<br />

Doctor engineer, Philipp Esch, scientific employee (exited)<br />

Master of science, Kathrin Placzek, scientific employee<br />

Master of science, Daniel Holder, scientific employee<br />

Professor doctor, Rudolf Weber,<br />

head of process development department<br />

Master of science, Manuel Steck, scientific employee<br />

Professor doctor, Oliver Schwarz, scientific employee<br />

Bachelor of engineering, Felix Hartmann,<br />

scientific employee<br />

Literature<br />

[1]<br />

Martin Dix (2013)<br />

Ressourceneffizientes Hochleistungsbohren<br />

mit Spiralbohrern: Analyse und Prozessgestaltung<br />

Zugl.: Chemnitz, Techn. Univ., Diss., Auerbach/V.:<br />

Verl. Wiss. Scripten, Berichte aus dem IWU; 77<br />

[2]<br />

W. Chang; J. Sun; X. Luo; J. M. Ritchie; C. Mack (2011)<br />

Investigation of microstructured milling tool for<br />

deferring tool wear<br />

Wear 271 9 - 10, page 2433 - 2437<br />

[3]<br />

M. Schneider; P. Esch (2017)<br />

Mikrostrukturen verbessern die Bohrbedingung.<br />

Mikrostrukturen verhelfen Bohrwerkzeugen<br />

zu höherer Leistung<br />

wt Werkstatttechnik online 107, page 834 - 840<br />

[4]<br />

T. Özel; D. Biermann; T. Enomoto; P. Mativenga (2021)<br />

Structured and textured cutting tool surfaces<br />

for machining applications<br />

CIRP Annals Manufacturing Technology 70, page 495 - 518<br />

[5]<br />

W. Tillmann; D. Stangier; L. Hagen; D. Biermann;<br />

P. Kersting; E. Krebs (2015)<br />

Tribologische Untersuchung bionischer und<br />

mikrostrukturierter Funktionsflächen<br />

Materialwissenschaft und Werkstofftechnik 46 11,<br />

page 1096 - 1104<br />

[6]<br />

A. Fatima; P. T. Mativenga (2017)<br />

On the comparative cutting performance<br />

of nature-inspired structured cutting tool in<br />

dry cutting of AISI/SAE 4140<br />

Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part<br />

B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture 231 11,<br />

page 1941 - 1948<br />

[7]<br />

C. Schmidt (2021)<br />

Übertragung biologischer Strukturen auf<br />

Sägezähne zur Holzbearbeitung<br />

Universität Bayreuth, Dissertation, BayreuthFraunhofer-<br />

Institut für Produktionstechnik und Automatisierung)<br />

[8]<br />

J. Bonse; S. V. Kirner; M. Griepentrog; D. Spaltmann;<br />

J. Krüger (2018)<br />

Femtosecond Laser Texturing of Surfaces for<br />

Tribological Applications<br />

Materials (Basel, Switzerland) 11 5<br />

24 no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong>

materials & tools<br />

[9]<br />

A.-M. Kietzig; S. G. Hatzikiriakos; P. Englezos (2009)<br />

Patterned superhydrophobic metallic surfaces<br />

Langmuir: the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids 25 8,<br />

page 4821 - 4827<br />

[10]<br />

Holder, D., Weber, R. a. Graf, T. (publisher) (2021)<br />

Laser micromachining of V-shaped grooves on<br />

Ti-6Al-4V with ultrashort laser pulses for<br />

passive directional transport of fluids<br />

[11]<br />

P. Esch; F. Klocke; T. Bauernhansl; M. Schneider (2021)<br />

Methodic development of laser micro structured cutting<br />

tools with microscale textures for AW7075 aluminum<br />

alloy using a Plackett–Burman screening design<br />

CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology 32,<br />

page 188 - 195<br />

[12]<br />

Ostermann, F. (2014)<br />

Anwendungstechnologie Aluminium<br />

Springer Vieweg<br />

[13]<br />

H. Ernst; m. E. Merchant (1941)<br />

Chip formation, friction, and high quality<br />

machined surfaces<br />

[14]<br />

P. Comanns (2016)<br />

Water acquisition and water transport on the<br />

integument of moisture harvesting lizards:<br />

biophysical fundamentals and technical applicability<br />

RWTH Aachen, Dissertation, Aachen<br />

[15]<br />

P. Comanns; C. Effertz; F. Hischen; K. Staudt;<br />

W. Böhme; W. Baumgartner (2011)<br />

Moisture harvesting and water transport through<br />

specialized micro-structures on the integument of lizards<br />

Beilstein journal of nanotechnology 2, page 204 - 214.<br />

[16]<br />

P. Comanns; W. Baumgartner; W. K. Bernhard Frank (2014)<br />

Device for the capillaryTransport of liquids, use<br />

and method for producing such a device<br />

[17]<br />

A.-C. Joel; G. Buchberger; P. Comanns (2017)<br />

Moisture-Harvesting Reptiles: A Review<br />

from: Gorb, S. N. and Gorb, E. V. (publisher):<br />

Functional Surfaces in Biology III. Biologically-Inspired<br />

Systems. Cham: Springer International Publishing,<br />

page 93 - 106<br />

[18]<br />

S. Kim; V. F. Korolovych; M. J. Weissburg;<br />

V. V. Tsukruk (2019)<br />

Morphology and Surface Properties<br />

of Roach Water Transport Arrays<br />

ACS applied bio materials 2 6, page 2650 - 2660<br />

[19]<br />

P.Commans, W.Baumgartner, F. Bernhardt,<br />

K. Winands, K. Arntz (2007)<br />

Fluid Handling Device with directionally-biased<br />

wetting surface<br />

patent WO 2007/035511 A2<br />

[20]<br />

X. Tan; Y. Zhu; T. Shi; Z. Tang; G. Liao (2016)<br />

Patterned gradient surface for spontaneous<br />

droplet transportation and water collection:<br />

simulation and experiment<br />

Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering 26 11,<br />

page 115009<br />

[21]<br />

Y. Hirai; H. Mayama; Y. Matsuo; M. Shimomura (2017)<br />

Uphill Water Transport on a Wettability-Patterned<br />

Surface: Experimental and Theoretical Results<br />

ACS applied materials & interfaces 9 18, page 15814 - 15821<br />

[22]<br />

S. V. Kirner; U. Hermens; A. Mimidis; E. Skoulas;<br />

C. Florian; F. Hischen; C. Plamadeala; W. Baumgartner;<br />

K. Winands; H. Mescheder; J. Krüger; J. Solis; J. Siegel;<br />

E. Stratakis; J. Bonse (2017)<br />

Mimicking bug-like surface structures and their fluid<br />

transport produced by ultrashort laser pulse irradiation<br />

of steel Applied Physics A 123 12<br />

[23]<br />

D. Ishii; H. Horiguchi; Y. Hirai; H. Yabu; Y. Matsuo;<br />

K. Ijiro; K. Tsujii; T. Shimozawa; T. Hariyama;<br />

M. Shimomura (2013)<br />

Water transport mechanism through open capillaries<br />

analyzed by direct surface modifications on<br />

biological surfaces<br />

Scientific reports 3, page 3024<br />

[24]<br />

G. Buchberger; A. Kogler; A. Weth; R. Baumgartner;<br />

P. Comanns; S. Bauer; W. Baumgartner (2013)<br />

«Fluidic diode» for passive unidirectional liquid transport<br />

bioinspired by the spermathecae of fleas<br />

Journal of Bionic Engineering 15 1, page 42 - 56<br />

[25]<br />

F. Hischen; G. Buchberger; C. Plamadeala; O. Armbruster;<br />

E. Heiss; K. Winands; M. Schwarz; B. Jüttler; J. Heitz;<br />

W. Baumgartner (2018)<br />

The external scent efferent system of selected European<br />

true bugs (Heteroptera): a biomimetic inspiration<br />

for passive, unidirectional fluid transport<br />

Journal of the Royal Society, Interface 15 140<br />

[26]<br />

M. L. Blow; H. Kusumaatmaja; J. M. Yeomans (2009)<br />

Imbibition through an array of triangular posts<br />

Journal of physics. Condensed matter:<br />

an Institute of Physics journal 21 46, page 464125<br />

[27]<br />

J. Nickerl; M. Tsurkan; R. Hensel; C. Neinhuis;<br />

C. Werner (2014)<br />

The multi-layered protective cuticle of Collembola:<br />

a chemical analysis<br />

Journal of the Royal Society, Interface 11 99<br />

[28]<br />

R. Hensel; R. Helbig; S. Aland; H.-G. Braun; A. Voigt;<br />

C. Neinhuis; C. Werner (2013)<br />

Wetting resistance at its topographical limit:<br />

the benefit of mushroom and serif T structures<br />

Langmuir: the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids 29 4,<br />

page 1100 - 1112<br />

[29]<br />

H. Gundersen; H. P. Leinaas; C. Thaulow (2014)<br />

Surface structure and wetting characteristics<br />

of Collembola cuticles<br />

PloS one 9 2, e86783<br />

[30]<br />

L. Saccardi; F. Brümmer; J. Schiebl; O. Schwarz;<br />

A. Kovalev; S. Gorb (2022)<br />

Interaction between honeybee mandibles and propolis<br />

Beilstein journal of nanotechnology 13, page 958 - 974<br />

[31]<br />

J. Ju; H. Bai; Y. Zheng; T. Zhao; R. Fang; L. Jiang (2012)<br />

A multi-structural and multi-functional integrated<br />

fog collection system in cactus<br />

Nature Communications 3, page 1247<br />

[32]<br />

H. Chen; L. Zhang; P. Zhang; D. Zhang; Z. Han;<br />

L. Jiang (2017)<br />

A Novel Bioinspired Continuous Unidirectional<br />

Liquid Spreading Surface Structure from the<br />

Peristome Surface of Nepenthes alata<br />

Small (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany) 13 4<br />

no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong><br />


materials & tools<br />

[33]<br />

P. Zhang; L. Zhang; H. Chen; Z. Dong; D. Zhang (2017)<br />

Surfaces Inspired by the Nepenthes Peristome<br />

for Unidirectional Liquid Transport<br />

Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.) 29 45<br />

[34]<br />

Y. Zhang; Y. Gan; L. Zhang; D. Zhang; H. Chen (2020)<br />

Surface-Tension-Confined Channel with Biomimetic<br />

Microstructures for Unidirectional Liquid Spreading<br />

Micromachines 11 11<br />

[35]<br />

H. Chen; T. Ran; Y. Gan; J. Zhou; Y. Zhang; L. Zhang;<br />

D. Zhang; L. Jiang (2018)<br />

Ultrafast water harvesting and transport in<br />

hierarchical microchannels<br />

Nature materials 17 10, page 935 - 942<br />

[36]<br />

W. Zhao; L. Wang; Z. Yu; Chen, Jieshi, Yang, Jinv (2019)<br />

A processing technology of grooves by<br />

picosecond ultrashort pulse laser in Ni alloy:<br />

Enhancing efficiency and quality<br />

Optics & Laser Technology, page 214 - 221<br />

[35]<br />

P. Esch (2021)<br />

Untersuchung zur Wirkungsweise von lasererzeugten<br />

Mikrostrukturen auf Funktionsflächen an<br />

Bohrwerkzeugen für metallische Leichtbauwerkstoffe<br />

Universität Stuttgart, Dissertation, Stuttgart (Fraunhofer-<br />

Institut für Produktionstechnik und Automatisierung IPA)<br />

Image credits<br />

figure 1 SEM images of LIPSS-structures on 100Cr6 steel:<br />

a) ripples, b) grooves and c) spikes,<br />

D. Holder (own representation)<br />

figure 2 Procedure diagram in the search for<br />

biomimetic solutions,<br />

O. Schwarz (own representation)<br />

figure 3 2D cutting tools with plane rake face,<br />

P. Esch (own representation)<br />

figure 4 Specimen with towering bars for 2D cutting,<br />

P. Esch (own representation)<br />

figure 5 Experimental setup in machine tool center,<br />

P. Esch (own representation)<br />

figure 6 Force translation model according to<br />

Ernst & Merchant (1941) [13];<br />

H. Ernst; m. E. Merchant:<br />

Chip formation, friction, and high quality<br />

machined surfaces (1941);<br />

List of References number 34<br />

figure 7 Transport structures<br />

a) Hose plant (Sarracenia spec.), b) spermatheca<br />

of fleas, in grey box is a «elementary cell»,<br />

c) + d) Toad lizard (Phrynosoma cornutum),<br />

«elementary cell»,<br />

a)+b) O. Schwarz (own representation),<br />

c) + d) M. Steck (own representation)<br />

figure 8 Wetting structures:<br />

a) prisms b) shell,<br />

c) truncated cone-shaped pyramids (also used as<br />

tranport structure!) inspired by Dysodius lunatus),<br />

d) tilted steps structure,<br />

a) + b) from Patent WO 2007/035511 A2,<br />

c) + d) M. Steck (own representation<br />

figure 9 Experimental setup for laser processing,<br />

K. Placzek (own representation)<br />

figure 10 Schematic illustration of<br />

ultra short pulse laser ablation,<br />

K. Placzek (own representation)<br />

figure 11 Ideal cross section of the transport structures<br />

(a) – c)) and schematic representation of cavity<br />

formation during laser micro machining,<br />

K. Placzek (own representation)<br />

figure 12 Implementation of complex 2D-structures,<br />

(own representation) + picture from O. Schwarz<br />

figure 13 Generated surface structures:<br />

LIPSS-structures B1.1 - B1.4,<br />

biomimetic structures B2.1 - B2.3,<br />

simple transport structures T1.1 - T1.4,<br />

complex structures T2.1-2.4, and<br />

bug structures E1 and E2,<br />

K. Placzek (own representation)<br />

figure 14 Schematic illustration of the setup for<br />

contact angle measurements and<br />

flow velocity measurements,<br />

https://www.dataphysics-instruments.com/de/<br />

produkte/oca/#Images-SchemaOCA +<br />

own representation<br />

figure 15 Contact angle as a function of time after droplet<br />

placement on the different wetting structures,<br />

K. Placzek (own representation)<br />

figure 16 Flow rate as a function of distance traveled in simple<br />

transport structures (left) and biomimetic surface<br />

structures (right) with different depths of the grooves,<br />

K. Placzek (own representation)<br />

figure 17 Overview of the variants selected<br />

for the 2D-machining experiments,<br />

K. Placzek (own representation)<br />

figure 18 Overview of biomimetic structured tools,<br />

P. Esch (own representation)<br />

figure 19 Effect of biomimetic structures on<br />

cutting force response,<br />

P. Esch (own representation)<br />

figure 20 Effect of biomimetic structures on<br />

friction coefficient,<br />

P. Esch (own representation)<br />

figure 21 Effect on chip morphology,<br />

P. Esch (own representation)<br />

further information: www.ipa.fraunhofer.de<br />

26 no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong>

materials & tools<br />

The revolution in tool handling<br />

No more need to use sledgehammers and tyre irons<br />

to open massively heavy tools by hand! The RUD Tecdos<br />

TS makes tool handling safer and much faster. This innovation<br />

opens injection tools, punching tools and forming<br />

tools in a matter of seconds, once again revolutionising<br />

production, service and maintenance processes.<br />

By optimising these processes, the RUD Tecdos TS can pay for<br />

itself in less than a year. That’s great news, not only for managers,<br />

workshop managers and controllers, but also for health<br />

and safety officers and employees themselves. Being especially<br />

safe and ergonomic it makes the RUD Tecdos TS the ideal<br />

com panion to the RUD Tecdos TM, RUD’s tool-handling<br />

machine.<br />

“The RUD Tecdos TS is a real milestone in the history of<br />

safe and efficient tool handling”, stated Anne Kühling, product<br />

manager in RUD Ketten Rieger & Dietz GmbH u. Co.<br />

KG’s Conveyor & Drive division. “The initiative for our latest<br />

development came directly from the market. No wonder:<br />

companies often have to separate massive heavy tools by<br />

hand, using cranes, sledgehammers and tyre irons. Depending<br />

on the tool this can take between 30 min. and 3 hours,<br />

and take up the time of up to three members of staff. Other<br />

machines, such as injection moulding machines or diespotting<br />

machines, might also be put to use to separate the tool.<br />

This is very inefficient and has a direct impact on operating<br />

costs. A solution to this problem had to be found urgently”,<br />

continued Kühling.<br />

Separating tools in a matter of seconds<br />

The RUD Tecdos TS does exactly that. Instead of 3 hours and<br />

three members of staff, RUD’s innovation needs a maximum<br />

of 5 min. and one person to complete the entire process.<br />

The RUD Tecdos TS operates with an opening and closing<br />

force of 50 kN (corresponds to 5 tonnes). A PLC control<br />

system ensures effective operation. Carefully controlled force<br />

and speed ensure tool halves to open gently and close accurately:<br />

operators can set the degree of force from a theoretical<br />

0 kN – 55 kN, and set speeds from 0 mm – 2,000 mm per min.<br />

A lower working height means better ergonomics<br />

Using the RUD Tecdos TS protects expensive tools and safeguards<br />

the joints and vertebrae of its operators. Only 380 mm<br />

high, the contact surface ensures work can be performed<br />

safely and ergonomically. Another benefit: after opening, the<br />

operator can work directly on both halves of the tool while it<br />

is held securely in the RUD Tecdos TS, reducing the downtimes<br />

required for maintenance. Safety is guaranteed because<br />

it is simply not possible to operate the RUD Tecdos TS, neither<br />

by pressing buttons on the machine nor by remote control,<br />

if anyone is standing between the two halves of the tool.<br />

A revolution in tool handling: the innovative RUD Tecdos TS<br />

Compact design thanks to an electrical drive<br />

The RUD Tecdos TS is driven electrically by RUD’s innovative<br />

Tecdos Pi-Gamma 2-in-1 chain drive system, which<br />

was specially developed for horizontal and vertical applications.<br />

This system is based on a high-performance round steel<br />

chain, also developed by RUD. The drive system is especially<br />

robust, low-maintenance and with a long service life.<br />

“The RUD Tecdos TS’s electrical drive is its distinctive feature,<br />

because it operates entirely without hydraulics. A hydraulic<br />

drive not only needs more maintenance, but also<br />

takes up more space because of the additional hydraulic unit.<br />

In contrast, the RUD Tecdos TS is a compact all-in-one system”,<br />

explained Walter Lais, designer at RUD Ketten Rieger<br />

& Dietz GmbH u. Co. KG. “Its compact construction means<br />

we’ve been able to bring its contact surface down to 380 mm,<br />

which is very low. That makes it an excellent, ergonomic<br />

working height for operators.”<br />

Perfect handling for any tool<br />

In its standard version the RUD Tecdos TS is sized for tools<br />

weighing up to 10 tonnes, but it can also handle lighter or<br />

heavier tools with ease. The Tool Separator has a 1,300 mm<br />

x 1,300 mm clamping plate and a sliding and contact surface<br />

at a height of 380 mm. “Theoretically, anything is possible<br />

here: we can adjust the machine to handle lighter or heavier<br />

tools, greater or lesser forces and smaller or greater distances<br />

between the clamping plates. We can also modify the plates<br />

themselves, depending on what is required”, stated Lais. The<br />

RUD Tecdos TS can also be moved by crane, so it can be used<br />

just where it’s needed.<br />

To ensure the greatest possible safety in the workplace, optional<br />

add-on parts, such as a guard bracket, can be installed<br />

to complement the automatic stop function which triggers<br />

as soon as anyone is detected on the Tool Separator. A light<br />

curtain or protective fence can also be supplied to optimise<br />

safety in the working environment. Thanks to its radio-controlled<br />

operator devices, the Tool Separator can also be operated<br />

safely and conveniently outside the danger zone.<br />

further information: www.moldhandling.rud.com<br />

no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong><br />


materials & tools<br />

LACH DIAMANT looks back on 100 years – 15 th part<br />

Poly – poly – or what?<br />

Diamond contra diamond? A reflection on the versatility of diamonds<br />

Horst Lach, managing director and CEO of<br />

LACH DIAMANT, agreed to write an ongoing series of<br />

articles about the development of diamond and CBN<br />

tools and grinding wheels in modern industries.<br />

Horst Lach is known as a true industry veteran, and<br />

we are excited to have this pioneer of technology share<br />

some insights from his over 60 years of professional<br />

experience in the diamond tool business. This time<br />

he reflects on the versatile possibilities of diamonds.<br />

Today, please do not expect a new thesis regarding diamonds<br />

as the (still) hardest of all things. Named after the Greek word<br />

Adamantinos, the unconquerable, natural diamonds grow<br />

deep below the surface of Mother Earth, under pressure and<br />

in high temperatures, and are then brought from the depth<br />

to the surface by humans<br />

In the 1950’s engineering ingenuity made it possible to<br />

recreate this natural process in synthesis. The manufacturer<br />

General Electric succeeded in cultivating the so-called<br />

“Man Made TM ” diamond under almost 6,900 bar atmospheric<br />

pressure and at 3,500⁰ Celcius; a development which would<br />

lead to another industrial revolution within the quickly<br />

growing serial production industry.<br />

We cannot imagine today’s world without diamonds. Their<br />

hardness and invincibility make them a crucial cost-reducer<br />

for many tool applications in the industry – and their brilliance<br />

and everlasting beauty makes them fitting jewellry for<br />

our so much appreciated women.<br />

It starts with gemstones<br />

When preparing for the article “Diamond contra diamond?”,<br />

in 2021, I immediately (regrettably) found information on<br />

diamonds as much sought-after gemstones. For example, no<br />

buyer of a polished diamond (brilliant) with a weight of half<br />

a carat (1 ct = 0.2 gram) would expect that he only has to pay<br />

“double the price” for a whole carat. The value is not only<br />

determined by size and purity, the buyer must also take the<br />

extreme rarity of finding large diamonds into consideration.<br />

For generations this was typical for the gemstone business<br />

with natural diamonds.<br />

Of all companies, the “contra” aspect is now offered by a<br />

company formerly associated with “De Beers”. Produced in<br />

synthesis, or “in the laboratory”, the diamonds appear to have<br />

the purity of colour and clarity (factors of classification) of<br />

polished natural diamonds (brilliants); there is even a choice<br />

between white, blue or pink. And best of all: anyone, purchasing<br />

directly from this consortium, can calculate the price<br />

based on the carat weight from 0.25 to 2.0.<br />

for example: the price for<br />

0.25 ct = 200 US $<br />

0.5 ct = 400 US $<br />

1.0 ct = 800 US $<br />

et cetera, so that a 2-carat diamond would cost 1,600 US $.<br />

The troubled sales people at the diamond exchanges in<br />

Antwerp and London and jewellers should know that all of<br />

these “laboratory diamonds” are marked as such with microscopically<br />

small imprints in order to prohibit “fraudulent”<br />

mix-ups with natural diamonds.<br />

Diamond contra diamond – for example, natural diamond<br />

compared to polycrystalline diamond blades (PCD)<br />

Diamond contra diamond; for example a single natural<br />

diamond dresser compared to a diamond dressing roll<br />

28 no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong>

materials & tools<br />

for the first time at the Hanover trade show<br />

in spring 1973. With them, efficient turning<br />

machining of copper commutators (and their<br />

baked-in synthetic mica) was made possible<br />

for the first time.<br />

Once again a new technology was born.<br />

Compact diamond blocks – PCD – were the<br />

basis for the development of cutting tools,<br />

superior to carbide tools, for “faster turning,<br />

drilling and milling with synthetic<br />

diamonds”.<br />

As early as 1973 polycrystalline turning tools replaced the overturning<br />

of copper lamellas of rough and fine polished copper commutators<br />

Within the industry, the “contra” isn’t playing out as drastically<br />

In 1957 – after synthetic diamonds became first available – they were initially<br />

used as diamond grain for the development of new synthetic-resin bond<br />

diamond grinding wheels, and for the first time also for pre-grinding<br />

carbides. During the 1960’s, 1970’s and the 1980’s a multitude of innovations<br />

swept over the market, some of which could only be implemented within<br />

the industry with certain delays.<br />

What particularly comes to mind are polycrystalline synthetic diamonds<br />

(PCD), available since 1973. Simply put, they are synthetic diamond grains<br />

in a cylindrical shape which – under pressure and heat and combined with<br />

catalysers tungsten and cobalt – are pressed onto a round carbide plate (as a<br />

substrate), very similar to diamond synthesis.<br />

The first PCD plates had a diameter of only 3.2 mm. However, when they<br />

were mechanically segmented into rectangles, they were the basis for the<br />

so-called PCD cutting tools, successfully presented by LACH DIAMANT<br />

Turning of copper commutators is another<br />

“contra” argument in this reflection. Until the<br />

use of the first PCD dreborid® turning steel,<br />

copper commutators were turned exclusively<br />

with natural diamonds during fine polishing.<br />

With the result that I had to take my first car<br />

to the repair shop every 750 km to have the<br />

wiper motor exchanged; otherwise, the wiper<br />

could have failed during the next rain.<br />

And today? Problems with windscreen wiper<br />

motors? No thank you. PCD turning means<br />

they should last multiple car-lifetimes.<br />

A similar “contra” – clearly in favour of PCD –<br />

can be reported of turning motor pistons. Until<br />

the 1970’s I could observe high class automobiles<br />

broken down by the roadside when I<br />

was driving to the Hanover trade show, apparently<br />

due to piston seizure. At that time expert<br />

drivers were convinced they had to “breake<br />

in” their brand-new cars on this route. If the<br />

motor could stand it, it was a good car…<br />

The introduction of polycrystalline cutting<br />

tools in the aluminum processing automobile<br />

industry also uncovered this “contra”<br />

in piston manufacturing as well as the insight,<br />

that the surface quality achieved during<br />

turning with polycrystalline cutting materials<br />

– instead of the thus far used natural diamonds<br />

– allowed for a perfect lubricating film<br />

which immediately prevented piston seizure<br />

to the greatest possible extent.<br />

Another argument in our reflection on<br />

“diamond contra diamond” brings composite<br />

and wooden materials and their respective<br />

industry into focus.<br />

Indirectly, carbide is partially involved in<br />

this example of “contra”, since diamond is<br />

also present in the grinding wheel for carbide:<br />

pars pro toto.<br />

PCD chip milling of glass fiber reinforced plastic (GRP) during an experiment<br />

in 1974 – compared to diamond-tipped tools, very little dust formation<br />

Early on, after the successful use of PCD<br />

turning, drilling and milling tools, other<br />

non-ferrous materials, such as aluminum and<br />

no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong><br />


materials & tools<br />

PCD tool during front facing<br />

of an aluminum rim<br />

A diamond cut-off wheel,<br />

electroplated with diamonds during the<br />

cutting of a GRP (glass fiber reinforced<br />

plastic) component<br />

copper as well as some plastic materials were tried in experiments.<br />

Examples are soft and hard plastics, glass fiber and<br />

carbon fiber materials, electrographite carbons and miscellaneous<br />

wooden materials.<br />

The photo on the previous page was taken during these<br />

adventurous times. It shows a PCD end milling cutter during<br />

the chip machining of a GRP component.<br />

When the second productronica was held in Munich in<br />

1977, PCD tools for sawing/scoring/milling/drilling were<br />

demonstrated to an astonished audience on an Amacher<br />

electronic circuit board machine, which had been purchased<br />

especially for this purpose. It was so successful that for the<br />

time being – until the discovery of spark erosion – expectations<br />

of the relevant industry had to be disappointed.<br />

Other industries had now become just as curious and<br />

further experiments and construction continued diligently.<br />

For example, machining of carbon fiber components for the<br />

aircraft industry, which in turn should initiate revolutionary<br />

successes in the development of spiral drills, especially<br />

for one manufacturer. And a real “contra” should become<br />

clear during the machining of composite materials. A pro<br />

and contra for some imminent problem solutions. While<br />

using the same diamond material, different production<br />

and tool technologies created controversies. For the first<br />

time, PCD tools and the already “tradition-rich” diamondcoated<br />

electro-plated tools were in competition with one<br />

another.<br />

Special advantages of electro-plating<br />

Almost all profiles projected onto steel bodies can be coated<br />

with diamond and re-coated after wear in service. The<br />

diamond grains applied to the surface of the steel body allow<br />

good removal rates – depending on grain size – which is especially<br />

advisable for deburring tasks. They are versatile in use,<br />

like cut-off wheels up to high diameters, or for cutting GRP<br />

and other hard materials.<br />

The disadvantage: dust formation which must be extracted.<br />

LACH DIAMANT provides a special solution for hollow<br />

drills, featuring extraction directly at the tool.<br />

Special advantages of PCD<br />

As far as the geometries of the composite component to be<br />

machined allow, turning and milling operations can be performed<br />

efficiently and without any problems, and can therefore<br />

be recommended accordingly. Profile and drilling tools<br />

can constructively be equipped with PCD cutting edges,<br />

which is especially advantageous for larger production numbers.<br />

Further advantages result in comparison with electroplated<br />

diamond tools, e.g., grooving tools with exact tolerances<br />

for corners and radii for serial production. Chips,<br />

produced during machining, can be extracted very well.<br />

PCD blades can be reground several times.<br />

Diamond tools have become an intrinsic and valuable<br />

part in the world of technology, especially during the last<br />

50 years. The list of examples above could easily be extended<br />

– innovative spirit and (positive) thinking outside the box<br />

will con tinue to enrich “pro and contra” in many industries<br />

and many applications. For example, let’s think of the natural<br />

diamond as a single tool for dressing and profiling of grinding<br />

wheels – it was replaced as a single point dressing tool by<br />

a chain of innovations in serial production. Roughly in the<br />

order of the following developments: by the multi-point<br />

dresser, the Diamant-Fliese or rather dressing plate and – up<br />

to date – by diamond dressing rolls.<br />

When we focus at last on the diamond itself, we wonder<br />

whether it will really stay the hardest of all things? Personally,<br />

I am not so sure about that. A “contra” could be in the making<br />

here too. Recently the press featured a “glass” which supposedly<br />

could score even the surface of a diamond…<br />

Horst Lach<br />

further information: www.lach-diamant.de<br />

30 no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong>

news & facts<br />

Entrepreneurial personality Lothar Horn has died<br />

Horn Group mourns the death of its longstanding corporate leader<br />

The entrepreneur Lothar Horn passed away February<br />

5 th , <strong>2023</strong> at the age of 66 after a long, serious illness.<br />

Lothar Horn was the managing director of Paul Horn<br />

GmbH in Tübingen.<br />

He shaped the Horn Group into an internationally successful<br />

manufacturer of precision tools with production sites in<br />

England, Italy, the Czech Republic and the USA. There are<br />

additional subsidiaries in France, Hungary, China, Mexico,<br />

Turkey and Thailand. Today the company is the largest industrial<br />

employer in Tübingen. As chairman of the VDMA<br />

Precision Tools Association, Lothar Horn was the mouthpiece<br />

of his industry from 2009 to 2019. Lothar Horn is regarded by<br />

many in the sector as a pioneer and visionary. His son Markus,<br />

managing director of Paul Horn GmbH since 2018, will continue<br />

to run the company, now in its third generation of family<br />

ownership, together with Matthias Rommel, also managing<br />

director.<br />

Lothar Horn, a technology enthusiast and business economist,<br />

joined his parents’ company 1991. Before that he gained<br />

experience in the IT industry and management consultancies.<br />

He became managing director January 1 st , 1995. In 1999<br />

Lothar Horn created new production and administration facilities<br />

as well as a demonstration, research and development<br />

center at the Tübingen headquarters. The new building combined<br />

all business processes in one location for the first time,<br />

including a coating center.<br />

In order to further expand its leading position on the world<br />

market another factory was constructed next to the Tübingen<br />

headquarters, doubling the production area. Since its completion<br />

in 2016 it has been the largest industrial building in<br />

use in Tübingen.<br />

Trust in technology and people<br />

“Technology determines costs.” – This sentence epitomises<br />

Lothar Horn’s innovative driving force for selling high-precision<br />

tools on the world markets successfully. The expansion of<br />

production and administration buildings also involved the reorganisation<br />

of processes. Additionally to production and administration,<br />

the qualification and customer training took on<br />

increasing importance and space at Paul Horn GmbH under<br />

Lothar Horn’s direction. The Horn Academy is an investment<br />

in people and employees. In addition to internal and external<br />

training of people, it also offers apprenticeships, dual study<br />

programmes, retraining and further education. The facility<br />

cooperates with the chamber of industry and commerce and<br />

the Baden-Württemberg Cooperative State University (DHBW).<br />

It all depends on the right people in the company, was<br />

Lothar Horn’s conviction. He relied on freedom, trust and a<br />

culture that allows mistakes as well as the opportunity to learn<br />

from them. People were just as important to Lothar Horn as<br />

technology or modern processes. “His appreciation was for<br />

our customers as well as our employees,” says his successor<br />

Markus Horn, describing his father.<br />

Lothar Horn passed away February 5 th ,<br />

<strong>2023</strong> at the age of 66<br />

“No car drives, no plane flies (...) without<br />

precision tools being used”<br />

For ten years, in addition to his entrepreneurial activities,<br />

Lothar Horn was chairman of the Precision Tools Association<br />

of the German Engineering Federation (VDMA). 2019 his<br />

role as official representative of the trade organisation came<br />

to an end. “No car drives, no plane flies and no artificial joint<br />

can be inserted by doctors without precision tools being used,”<br />

was one of Lothar Horn’s central statements. Paul Horn GmbH<br />

is an important and visible player in the industry: hall 10 at<br />

the Stuttgart trade fair center bears its name.<br />

A jury of experts awarded Lothar Horn the Tool and Mould<br />

Making Medal of Honour at the Moulding Expo trade fair in<br />

Stuttgart, 2021. It honours personalities who, as pioneers and<br />

visionaries, have set groundbreaking benchmarks and are role<br />

models. The jury said of Lothar Horn: “Even though he<br />

directs and manages a really big company in the industry, he<br />

has remained true to himself over all these years, close and<br />

approachable for everyone. A human being.”<br />

Committed to the people of Tübingen<br />

The internationally active company leader Lothar Horn<br />

remained loyal to the Tübingen location. The Horn Group offers<br />

jobs and apprenticeships for 950 employees at the headquarters<br />

and 1,500 worldwide. This makes Paul Horn GmbH<br />

the largest industrial employer in Tübingen. Lothar Horn<br />

was also loyal to the people of the city. Paul Horn GmbH supports<br />

social institutions as well as the youth and youth development<br />

work of sports clubs, for example. A visible sign<br />

of this is the Paul Horn Arena for competitive, amateur and<br />

school sports in Tübingen.<br />

The entire Horn Group mourns with the family.<br />

further information: www.horn-group.com<br />

no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong><br />


news & facts<br />

Rineck shrink fit tooling and machine technology<br />

now available from Platinum Tooling<br />

Platinum Tooling, the importer and master distributor of live tools,<br />

angle heads, Swiss machine products, knurling and marking tools<br />

manufactured by various international suppliers, is now the importer<br />

of Rineck shrink fit tooling and shrink fit machine technology in the<br />

United States and Mexico.<br />

The announcement was made by Platinum Tooling president Preben Hansen,<br />

at their headquarters in Prospect Heights, Illinois, near Chicago.<br />

Established in 1966 Rineck started as a job shop for small parts, then<br />

became a producer of hydraulic parts for the mining industry and is now<br />

a globally recognized manufacturer of tool holding technology. Rineck’s investment<br />

in state-of-the-art manufacturing equipment and commitment to<br />

innovation, research and development allows them to constantly look for<br />

ways to achieve the optimal balance of quality, consistency and affordability.<br />

Rineck offers standard and custom shrink fit tool holders with various<br />

connections including CAT, HSK, BT, SK, PSC and straight shank<br />

extensions. In addition, ER shrink fit collets are available. For added rigidity,<br />

flange or dual contact holders are available for CAT and BT tapers. A clamping<br />

range from 3 mm to 32 mm is possible for both slim and standard styles.<br />

All tools are available in inch and metric sizes.<br />

Rineck produces a wide range of standard shrink fit tool holders as well as<br />

custom tooling. In addition to standard 4.5 ° taper tools, 3 ° slim and extra<br />

slim tools are available. Most holders come standard with length adjusting<br />

screws. Coolant delivery to the cutting tool can be achieved either through<br />

the center or flange of the tool holder utilizing coolant jets or slots.<br />

In addition to shrink fit tool holders, Platinum Tooling will offer shrink fit<br />

machine technology.<br />

Equipped with an elevation cooling system, heated tools can be moved to<br />

a cooling tank with a push of a button. The machine’s smart design keeps<br />

accessories stored but close at hand during operation.<br />

For this new line of shrink fit tooling and<br />

machine technology, Platinum Tooling will<br />

handle application engineering, sales and<br />

service through a network of distributors<br />

across the United States and Mexico.<br />

further information: www.platinumtooling.com<br />

CNC technology leader opens<br />

second facility in China<br />

CNC specialist NUM has opened a second branch in China, further<br />

consolidating its position within the country.<br />

As a leader in high-end CNC technology, NUM is represented in virtually<br />

every industrialised country in the world. In addition to its headquarters in<br />

Teufen, Switzerland, the company nowadays operates 13 strategically located<br />

facilities around the globe, together with an extensive network of representatives<br />

and customer support agencies.<br />

In China NUM has until now operated a single facility, located in<br />

Shanghai. The addition of this second facility – based in Guangzhou in the<br />

south of the country – means that the company is significantly increasing its<br />

local presence in the area. The facility will provide customer-focused sales<br />

and application development, as well as enhanced customer support services.<br />

Guangzhou is the capital and largest city of Guangdong province, situated<br />

about 120 kilometers (75 miles) from Hong Kong. The region features a<br />

large number of private companies involved in the construction of special<br />

NUM office in Guangzhou, southern China<br />

machines, representing a potentially large<br />

market for the type of tailor-made technical<br />

control solutions offered by NUM.<br />

further information: www.num.com<br />

32 no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong>

news & facts<br />

VOLLMER’s 15 th subsidiary founded in Thailand<br />

VOLLMER has opened its 15 th subsidiary under the name<br />

VOLLMER Asia Pacific in the Thai capital Bangkok. The branch<br />

will serve the Southeast Asian region – primarily customers from<br />

Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia, Taiwan and the Philippines – providing<br />

them with grinding and eroding machines, services and digital<br />

solutions locally.<br />

VOLLMER has been present in the Asian market for many decades. The company<br />

opened its first Asian branch in Japan 2000, followed by offices in China,<br />

South Korea and India. With VOLLMER Asia Pacific based in the Thai capital<br />

Bangkok, VOLLMER is now well placed to further expand its business<br />

in the ASEAN states (association of Southeast Asian Nations), which include<br />

Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia, the Philippines, Indonesia and Singapore.<br />

Since 2017 VOLLMER has been present in Thailand through a representative<br />

office, so this dedicated branch constitutes another company milestone<br />

in Southeast Asia. With a team of seven employees and the support of dealers<br />

based in the region, VOLLMER Asia Pacific will serve customers locally in<br />

countries such as Vietnam and Malaysia. The subsidiary will be managed by<br />

Andreas Weidenauer, who had already run the representative office and has<br />

more than 30 years of experience in the sector.<br />

The market for German engineering has continued to grow in the ASEAN<br />

territories. Both in the metalworking and woodworking industries, demand<br />

for VOLLMER grinding machines for both carbide-tipped circular saws and<br />

for grinding and eroding machines for rotary tools is constantly rising. Tool<br />

manufacturers use VOLLMER machines to produce cutting tools such as<br />

drills or milling cutters made from carbide or tipped with PCD.<br />

further information: www.vollmer-group.com<br />

In the Thai capital Bangkok the Swabian<br />

sharpening specialists VOLLMER has opened<br />

its 15 th subsidiary under the name<br />

VOLLMER Asia Pacific<br />

SUSTAINABILITY by performance and precision<br />

The CHIRON Group publishes its first sustainability report<br />

Grow profitably, acquire market shares, boost global business: the<br />

CHIRON Group will be pursuing ambitious objectives over the next<br />

few years. To help achieve this the company is setting itself apart<br />

from the competition with its product range. The company’s commit -<br />

ment to sustainability, an important topic for the future, gives<br />

customers and potential customers even more reasons to choose<br />

the CHIRON Group.<br />

The company has already achieved its first major success in this area: from<br />

the end of the year, production at the German sites will be carbon-neutral.<br />

The CHIRON Group documents the measures it has taken and the success<br />

it has enjoyed so far in its first sustainability report “SUSTAINABILITY BY<br />


“Our objective is to achieve environmentally conscious and carbon-neutral<br />

production – the sooner the better,” states CEO Carsten Liske. To this end, in<br />

recent months, the CHIRON Group has been focusing on developing a global<br />

sustainability program. And by investing in heat recovery and photovoltaic<br />

systems, as well as purchasing the required energy from renewable sources,<br />

the first milestone has already been reached: production operations at the<br />

CHIRON Group sites in Germany are now carbon-neutral. CHIRON China<br />

will soon follow suit in <strong>2023</strong> with a photovoltaic system for the Taicang Innovation<br />

Factory, while plans are already underway<br />

at CHIRON Croatia.<br />

Benjamin Kurth, global program manager<br />

sustainability, explains that, as a machine tool<br />

manufacturer, the CHIRON Group faces a<br />

double challenge: “Firstly we are striving for<br />

carbon-neutral production at our company<br />

and, secondly, we want to ensure that our customers<br />

conserve resources and operate machining<br />

centers and manufacturing solutions<br />

ever more efficiently.” As a founding member<br />

of the VDMA Blue Competence Initiative, the<br />

CHIRON Group actively advocates for sustainability<br />

concerns and systematically implements<br />

the defined criteria in its products.<br />

Alongside successful in the long term.”<br />

The online version of the Sustainability<br />

Report 2021 is available on the CHIRON Group<br />

website under “Environment and Quality”.<br />

further information: www.chiron-group.com<br />

no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong><br />


news & facts<br />

LACH DIAMANT – 100 Years<br />

Tradition. Passion. Innovation<br />

part 4 (from 1957 to 1972):<br />

How NASA gave wings to a new product<br />

“When I held my first diamond in my hand in 1908, I would not<br />

have imagined that one day diamonds would not only be used in the<br />

automobile industry but also for the machining of wood and plastics”.<br />

Jakob Lach, the company founder, said this on camera in 1980.<br />

It would become the preface for the first presentation of a new technique<br />

for machining wood and plastics – using diamonds as cutting<br />

material – the Dia Tool. This video, with audio translated into<br />

multiple languages, has lost none of its relevance for the choice of<br />

appropriate tools within the furniture, flooring and plastic industries;<br />

the video can be viewed at: https://bit.ly/LACHDIAMANT<br />

In 1957 a beeping earth satellite had us look up at the sky, almost in disbelief;<br />

however, twelve years later, a much broader based media world brought<br />

it to our attention that a new era had long since begun. This was on July 20 th ,<br />

1969, the first controlled landing of a human on the moon. For the first time<br />

in the history of mankind, a human set foot on a foreign planet.<br />

Before both events, we find the development of the first synthetic diamond,<br />

at that time referred to as “Man-made diamond” by manufacturer<br />

General Electric.<br />

The beginning of a “diamond age for technology” was marked like this:<br />

for ever-advancing development and precision, which would show its first<br />

universally recognizable proof with the landing of an earth vehicle on the<br />

lunar satellite.<br />

Company founder Jakob Lach, 1894-1984<br />

(photo taken in 1980)<br />

Accompanying steps and marks<br />

for the course of LACH DIAMANT<br />

from now on:<br />

As of 1969. Space at the original building,<br />

company headquarters, and at the parental<br />

home – at Bruchköbeler Landstrasse 39 in<br />

Hanau – was getting tight, both, in the shop<br />

and in the office. Not to mention the limited<br />

use of my parents’ living space. Month after<br />

month, the sales of resin-bond diamond<br />

grinding wheels “K-MC” hit new record numbers;<br />

a result of metal-coated diamond grains,<br />

processed since 1967, which made grinding<br />

carbides economically feasible for the very<br />

first time.<br />

In 1968, Jakob Lach gave the go-ahead<br />

for building a factory and multistory office<br />

building on plot number 41, a hitherto fallow<br />

property. Turning and grinding machines,<br />

and modern high-performance heat presses<br />

for the manufacturing of wheels were ordered,<br />

and new skilled workers were hired. The move<br />

to the new building happened in 1969/70.<br />

Everything seemed to be secured for the<br />

five-year growth plan for the natural diamond<br />

cutting shop, and for manufacturing and servicing<br />

diamond dressing and turning tools<br />

for the overturning of copper commutators<br />

(Bosch, Siemens, AEG etc.).<br />

Original building at Bruchköbeler Landstr. 39, the diamond cutting shop<br />

and the first addition for manufacturing grinding wheels<br />

Differently than expected<br />

And then a development came along which<br />

the initial provider of “Man-made diamonds”<br />

(in 1957) had probably expected to happen<br />

34 no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong>

news & facts<br />

Horst Lach (right) and Kurt Wagner (†) in a section<br />

of the cutting shop for industrial diamonds<br />

Metal-coated Borazon® –<br />

cubic crystalline Boron nitride grains<br />

quite differently. In the beginning of 1969, quite suddenly and<br />

unexpectedly, the grinding industry was confronted with an<br />

abrasive that had not existed (in the Western industry) until<br />

then: “cubic boron nitride” under the name of “Borazon®”;<br />

cubic crystalline boron nitride (CBN), with a specific weight<br />

of 3.48, a thermal resistance of 1,400⁰ C, and an HK of 4,700.<br />

Though inferior in hardness compared to diamond (diamond<br />

– HK 7,800), however, significantly superior regarding<br />

thermal resistance (diamond – approx. 820⁰ C). Borazon®/<br />

CBN, processed in resin and metal-bond grinding wheels,<br />

with a great potential for grinding high-alloy hardened steels.<br />

Today I could insist on the hypothesis that General Electric<br />

did not target the “small diamond industry” at the beginning<br />

of their sales campaign for this new abrasive. This can<br />

be already concluded from the way GE intended to sell this<br />

new material: not per carat like diamonds, but per gram; in<br />

doing so, one gram of Borazon® was offered for the hefty price<br />

of five US dollars (at that time more expensive than gold).<br />

At that time, traditional manufacturers of grinding wheels<br />

for the machining of steel did not have any use for this “superior”<br />

abrasive for the grinding of hardened steels (much<br />

to the chagrin of GE): in short, all resources for dealing with<br />

this pricey new abrasive were lacking, starting with personnel,<br />

laboratory, forming and pressing capacities.<br />

Coincidence helps<br />

Since 1963 the industry had learned to produce resin- and<br />

metal-bond diamond grinding wheels in good quality. But<br />

what could be done with this new abrasive “Borazon®”, a cubic<br />

crystalline Boron nitride (short name CBN)? General Electric<br />

recommended to produce grinding wheels for steel machining<br />

with it. They suggested to solely use it during wet grinding<br />

with a cutting speed of 28 m/sec. However, the problem with<br />

this approach was that the few grams of the sample material<br />

we received, for our first tests, were not even enough to produce<br />

a 200 x 10 mm peripheral wheel for a Jung surface grinding<br />

machine. But why try surface grinding, let us right away<br />

try the new CBN grain for tool grinding. No sooner said than<br />

Successful HSS tool grinding with Borazon®<br />

no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong><br />


news & facts<br />

done – the first CBN grinding wheels for tool<br />

grinding were made: a 125 x 12.5 cup wheel<br />

and a 11V9-125 x 3 cone cup grinding wheel.<br />

The final test was planned to be conducted<br />

at the Simon company in Neu- Isenburg, a<br />

manufacturer of steel and tool grinding machines,<br />

and at that time one of our best diamond<br />

grinding wheel customers. But at first<br />

we were greatly disappointed. It was neither<br />

possible to do the test during wet grinding,<br />

nor did we reach the necessary cutting speed<br />

of 28 m/sec – we only had an L15 steel grinding<br />

machine with only 18 m/sec available for<br />

the cup grinding wheel. “Well, since you are<br />

already here”, said the machine operator, and<br />

the test with a clamped-in HSS turning steel<br />

began. Excellent grinding sound, no “turning<br />

blue.” The thing worked with the selected<br />

machine parameters and a CBN volume of<br />

V120 (12 % CBN per volume) instead of GErecommended<br />

V240 (24 % CBN per volume)<br />

of the grinding wheel. For LACH DIAMANT<br />

the decision was made. By coincidence we<br />

had found the worldwide first functioning<br />

Borazon®/CBN tool grinding wheel, and simultaneously,<br />

we had discovered the correct<br />

cutting speed for dry and wet grinding of<br />

CBN grinding wheels. Despite all subsequent<br />

experiments with various cooling emulsions,<br />

still the guiding principle today.<br />

The complete Borazon®/CBN grinding wheel portfolio,<br />

already presented at Hanover trade show in 1969/70<br />

The first Hanover Spring trade show 1969<br />

was on the horizon. Another historical decision<br />

was made: the long-stretched large LACH<br />

DIAMANT stand was immediately divided<br />

into two halves: on one side diamonds, on the<br />

other Borazon®. Slogans like “Borazon® easily<br />

resolves HSS problems” instantly became part<br />

of the LACH DIAMANT statements.<br />

The Borazon®/CBN programme soon included<br />

resin-bond grinding wheels (named<br />

K-MX7 for dry grinding, and K-MX3 for wet<br />

grinding), as well as metal-bond CBN grinding<br />

wheels (Bz-MX) and electroplated abrasive<br />

wheels (G-MX).<br />

Showing the claws<br />

Already a year later, in 1970, LACH DIAMANT<br />

surprised with “tressex® shows its claws”,<br />

Borazon®/CBN grinding wheels, for the first<br />

time produced based on the available polyamide-resin<br />

bonds.<br />

Hanover trade show visitors were enthusiastic,<br />

because it was the first time they witnessed<br />

the production of HSS chips during dry<br />

deep grinding with a Borazon®/CBN grinding<br />

wheel with tressex® on a Saacke UW3 universal<br />

tool grinding machine, material EW9C04.<br />

The excitement about the successes of this GE<br />

Start with Borazon®, the abrasive of a new age<br />

36 no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong>

news & facts<br />

Made visible for the first time:<br />

HSS turning chips after grinding with<br />

Borazon®/CBN<br />

Borazon®/CBN abrasive wheels with electroplated bond for<br />

internal cylindrical grinding<br />

innovation was so great at LACH DIAMANT<br />

that we decided to approach NASA with a<br />

request to use their “spider” picture of the<br />

landing on the moon in our advertising for<br />

Borazon®; we were given permission!<br />

A never-before-seen advertising campaign<br />

with folded post cards (postage seven<br />

Pfennig at the time) was launched three<br />

times a week, with various messages on the<br />

advantages of grinding with “Borazon®/<br />

CBN grinding wheels”. It was so successful<br />

that suddenly “Borazon®” was attributed to<br />

LACH DIAMANT. Understandably this was<br />

not to the liking of other subsequent competitors;<br />

upon GE’s request, we began to “only”<br />

advertise LACH CBN in the mid-1970’s.<br />

The unanticipated rapid success of the<br />

Borazon®/CBN grinding wheel, which gained<br />

extra momentum by tressex®, made us look for<br />

additional personnel.<br />

Customer requests for details on operational<br />

conditions and application techniques almost<br />

seemed overwhelming.<br />

The choice fell upon Dipl. Ing. Günter<br />

Hobohm, a stroke of luck as it turned out over<br />

the next decades of our cooperation. From the<br />

beginning on he was highly motivated and,<br />

after his hiring in 1970, many written exposés<br />

show his successful handling of this new<br />

material “Borazon®”.<br />

In retrospect, those days were also an exciting<br />

time in a young, up-and-coming enterprise<br />

in the diamond tool industry.<br />

Borazon®/CBN with tressex® for deep grinding<br />

However, let us not forget that diamond dressing tools, the diamond<br />

cutting shop for natural turning diamonds, and production remained the<br />

turnover basis, despite all previously told beginnings of diamond and now<br />

Borazon®/CBN grinding wheels.<br />

The following developments of “super abrasives” will give you, my<br />

cherished readers, further insights into a technical world of upheaval.<br />

Yours, Horst Lach<br />

further information: www.lach-diamant.de<br />

no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong><br />


processes<br />

The “smallest” world sensation of <strong>2023</strong>:<br />

The new micro milling cutter<br />

from Mikron Tool!<br />

According to the Global Innovation Index 2022, Switzerland is the country with the highest level of<br />

innovation worldwide. Technology-oriented companies such as the Swiss precision tool manufacturer<br />

Mikron Tool from Ticino make valuable contributions towards this. This company surprises in fact<br />

once more with a new development that is well worth seeing. A “small” world sensation.<br />

The grinding processes for such milling tools<br />

are extremely demanding;<br />

the correction range is 0.1 µm (3.94 µin)<br />

The 250 employee company is presenting its new high-performance<br />

micro milling cutter designed for roughing and<br />

finishing the most difficult-to-machine materials. The new<br />

CrazyMill Cool Micro Z3/Z4 – the smallest with integrated<br />

cooling and the first with material-specific cutting edge geometries<br />

– is available in the Ø from 0.2 mm to 1.0 mm<br />

(.008“ – .039“) with a milling depth of up to 5 x d.<br />

Designed for high-performance materials such as stainless<br />

steels, titanium and titanium alloys, heat-resistant alloys (e.g.<br />

Inconel® and Nilo®) and CoCr alloys, it offers a significant<br />

increase in performance and maximum process reliability<br />

compared to conventional standard products. Above all it<br />

demonstrates its strengths in side and slot milling as well as<br />

in milling with spiral interpolation.<br />

The challenge of miniaturisation<br />

The increasing miniaturisation of workpieces requires tools<br />

that are both high-performance and reliable, even for the<br />

smallest applications. They are increasingly sought after in<br />

medical engineering, in the watch and jewelry industry and<br />

in the electronic hardware industry. In response to this need,<br />

Mikron Tool has developed an exceptional new milling cutter<br />

for micro-machining. For the first time the engineers at<br />

Mikron Tool have succeeded in transferring complex highperformance<br />

cutting edge geometries to micro milling cutters.<br />

This requires a high level of expertise, not just in develop<br />

ment work. From a production point of view, it is also a<br />

major challenge to implement such complex geometries in<br />

milling cutters with Ø smaller than 1.0 mm (.039”).<br />

The smaller the cross-section of the tool, the more demanding<br />

is manufacturing them while maintaining quality<br />

requirements and tolerances. This requires state-of-the-art<br />

high-precision grinding centers and diamond grinding wheels<br />

with ultra-fine grit.<br />

High-precision digital measuring equipment is used<br />

throughout the production process to ensure the high<br />

38 no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong>

processes<br />

This allows for the first time, high-performance milling of<br />

hard and difficult-to-machine materials in micro-production.<br />

Furthermore the material-specific geometries process the<br />

material so perfectly that the formation of burrs is practically<br />

avoided.<br />

Tool deflection is a thing of the past<br />

Tool deflection during milling is a considerable problem<br />

with small tool diameters, which is further exacerbated with<br />

materials that are difficult to machine due to higher cutting<br />

forces.<br />

The grinding specialists of the nanotool department,<br />

who developed the grinding processes for the new<br />

CrazyMill Cool Micro Z3/Z4<br />

picture copyright Thomas Entzeroth<br />

quality standards, including custom-made digital microscopes<br />

with up to 2000 x magnification. This is not enough<br />

on its own. Thanks to the competence of the grinding specialists<br />

in the nano-tools production department, Mikron<br />

Tool produces these milling cutters with absolute maximum<br />

precision in the correction range of 0.1 µm (3.94 µin). This<br />

demands highly meticulous grinding skills from the grinding<br />

machine operator.<br />

The newly developed geometries prevent tool deflection<br />

by combining high cutting ability with robustness, depending<br />

on the material which inevitably leads to greater overall<br />

tool stability. The result: significantly higher removal volumes<br />

with perfect contour accuracy and significantly longer tool<br />

life.<br />

Stay cool!<br />

High temperatures and temperature changes around the<br />

cutting edge are extremely critical issues for any high performance<br />

materials used in milling processes, especially<br />

when it comes to micro-manufacturing. Mikron Tool benefits<br />

from its pioneering role in milling cutters with integrated<br />

cooling. The revolutionary and proven cooling concept (patented)<br />

of the CrazyMill Cool milling cutter series has been<br />

transferred to the new micro milling cutter – including the<br />

smallest diameters! – which leads to excellent results.<br />

New material-specific cutting edge geometries S<br />

and SX<br />

The specific material properties and the very different machining<br />

behaviour associated were one aspect that played a<br />

decisive role in the development of this milling cutter. The<br />

R&D department therefore took a close look at this issue during<br />

the development of the new milling cutter, and the result<br />

was remarkable. Two main groups of materials were defined,<br />

for each of which a specific cutting geometry was developed:<br />

■ Geometry S was specially developed for stainless steels,<br />

structural steels, non-ferrous metals and titanium alloys.<br />

It is characterized by a higher cutting capacity for materials<br />

with a specific cutting force of less than 2250 N/mm 2<br />

(326'335 psi).<br />

■ Geometry SX, featuring a special cutting edge protection,<br />

is suitable for materials with a specific cutting force greater<br />

than 2250 N/mm2 (326'335 psi) such as heat-resistant<br />

alloys and CoCr alloys.<br />

At the heart of the cooling concept are the cooling channels<br />

integrated into the tool. Thanks to their special shape<br />

they deliver significantly more coolant into the milling area,<br />

resulting in constant and more efficient cooling of the cutting<br />

edges.<br />

This enables to achieve the highest cutting values and<br />

significantly better material removal (compared to commercially<br />

available micro cutters).<br />

no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong><br />


processes<br />

Up to 2 times longer tool life, up to 3 times shorter milling processes<br />

with excellent surface quality; the new high-performance geometries<br />

of the micro cutters are sensational<br />

Elio Lupica, the new COO at Mikron Tool,<br />

is convinced: process-reliable milling with<br />

maximum efficiency is now also possible in<br />

micro production thanks to the ingenious<br />

material-specific cutting edge geometries<br />

In addition the massive cooling jet flushes the chips away from the<br />

machining area which means that repeated cutting of the chips does not<br />

take place. The result is excellent tool life and an ultrafine surface finish.<br />

Edge wear prevention down to the µin range<br />

To produce precise geometries and ultra-fine cutting edges, the right choice<br />

is important concerning the carbide the tool is made from. To meet the high<br />

demands Mikron Tool relies on state-of-the-art ultra-fine grades with high<br />

wear resilience combined with high fracture resistance. The grain size here<br />

is less than 0.5 µm (19.69 µin).<br />

Mikron Tool also uses the most up-to-date coating technology. The new<br />

revolutionary Exedur SNP coating offers excellent wear resistance even at<br />

extreme operating temperatures. The high layer smoothness and the precise<br />

uniform layer thick ness evenly protect all contours without impairing the<br />

cutting ability.<br />

Based to this coating tool life is significantly increased, which results in a<br />

high level of process reliability. As the coating is chrome free, a cross contamination<br />

on medical parts is avoided.<br />

First empirical values from the<br />

field of medical technology<br />

The first small series of the new CrazyMill Cool Micro has already rolled<br />

off the production line and is in the test phase at a medium-sized medical<br />

technology manufacturer. The company manufactures components for<br />

surgical instruments on six turn-mill centers. The producer was looking for<br />

a micro-machining solution for martensitic chrome steel. They were unsatisfied<br />

with the micro-milling cutters they had used and were looking for<br />

alternatives. Mikron Tool recommended geometry S for milling martensitic<br />

chrome steel. Milling quality, tool life and burr formation have greatly<br />

impressed the customer and enables him now to run unmanned shifts.<br />

This is the first report from the medical manufacturing sector on the latest<br />

high-performance micro milling cutter series from Mikron Tool.<br />

A star is born<br />

“Practical experience shows that Mikron<br />

Tool has once again hit the jackpot with this<br />

development. The fact that this tiny tool delivers<br />

high performance can also be seen from<br />

a chrome steel roughing application that we<br />

carried out in our technology center:<br />

Ø = 0.6 mm (.0236”); n = 30 000 rpm;<br />

ap = 0.5 mm (.0197”); ae = 0.08 mm (.0031”),<br />

the feed rate of the milling cutter is<br />

540 mm/min (21.26 in/min).<br />

For a 0.6 (.0236”) solid carbide milling<br />

cutter, these are outstanding values that<br />

set new benchmarks,”<br />

says Elio Lupica, COO at Mikron Tool.<br />

“As an innovative and agile cutting tool<br />

manufacturer, we are technology-driven and<br />

continuously invest in research. The best<br />

thing is that our employees always drive these<br />

developments actively forward with a high<br />

level of motivation. The cooperation between<br />

the grinding department and R&D on this<br />

project was an extraordinary team effort.<br />

With this new development, we have ensured<br />

the reliable and economical production of<br />

components in the smallest of dimensions,<br />

now also in high volume production. A star<br />

is born!”<br />

further information: www.mikrontool.com<br />

40 no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong>

processes<br />

Machining graphite:<br />

Reliably and unmanned<br />

Test result<br />

graphite electrode<br />

TELKOM-OT d.o.o. is a mould and tool manufacturer<br />

founded in 2006 in Pesnica near Maribor. The<br />

company, which is located near the Slovenian-Austrian<br />

border, has currently 22 employees and specialises<br />

primarily in the development, production, marketing<br />

and maintenance of die-casting, injection moulding<br />

and trimming tools. Because EDM plays a central<br />

role among the production processes a lot depends<br />

on efficient graphite machining. A real breakthrough<br />

came with the cooperation with Hufschmied<br />

Zerspanungssysteme.<br />

TELKOM-OT has modern technical equipment and qualified<br />

personnel. The business process is supported by the LARGO<br />

information system. It ensures communication between<br />

the individual units of the company. And it is the basis for<br />

direct cooperation with suppliers of castings for car factories<br />

and other system suppliers of car parts. Well-organised production,<br />

the highest quality and a quick response to customer<br />

requests are the basis of success and the foundation for<br />

the company’s further development. To improve the utilisation<br />

of the machines, those responsible at TELKOM-OT<br />

examined which time-consuming machining operations<br />

could run unattended overnight. This would have been an<br />

interesting option for electrode production, but there was a<br />

problem: “If you want to keep production running overnight<br />

without workers, the process must be reliable and maintenance-free.<br />

One aspect worried us: until now, we didn’t<br />

have a milling tool with a long enough service life to let it<br />

work all night unattended with a clear conscience,” explains<br />

Matjaz Krajnc, production manager at TELKOM-OT.<br />

Background: the difficult material graphite<br />

Graphite cannot be machined in the true sense of the word,<br />

as the material is not plastically deformable. Machining does<br />

not produce chips but breaks grains out of the composite. The<br />

result is the unloved graphite powder, which not only causes a<br />

high cleaning effort, but also has a very abrasive effect on the<br />

cutting edges of the tool – short tool life is the consequence.<br />

This places high demands on the tool coating. Another challenge:<br />

since the filigree graphite structures of the electrodes<br />

break easily, a material-optimised geometry of the milling<br />

tool must not only ensure optimal removal of the material,<br />

but also take vibrations out of the machining process and<br />

reduce forces.<br />

Specialised tool manufacturer from Swabia<br />

Matjaz Krajnc and Dušan Žolgar already met before. Dušan<br />

Žolgar works as a technical advisor in sales at Hufschmied<br />

Zerspanungssysteme GmbH. The company from Bobingen<br />

near Augsburg specialises in the development and production<br />

of process-specific tools that achieve good results, especially<br />

where materials cause problems: glass and carbon fiber<br />

composites, plastics, ceramics, hardened steels up to 72 HRC<br />

– and graphite. “When optimising milling processes, several<br />

factors have to be coordinated: the toolpaths must exhaust<br />

the possibilities of the machine and the tool, while being<br />

matched to the material and the quality requirements of<br />

the workpiece,” says Dušan Žolgar. This attitude convinced<br />

Matjaz Krajnc to test the tools.<br />

“In our milling tests we compared the life of the tool and<br />

the milling results, and evaluated the cost of the tool, the<br />

num ber of varieties of the milling tool required and the effort<br />

involved in programming,” says Krajnc. “Hufschmied’s<br />

Graftor strategy actually offers us clear advantages on all<br />

fronts, both in terms of cost efficiency and process reliability.<br />

We can reliably realise the required manufacturing tolerances<br />

of ± 0.010 mm.”<br />

The Graftor ® roughing/finishing tool<br />

The Graftor® series, available in Ø from 0.5 – 12 mm, allows<br />

roughing and finishing to be combined in one milling operation.<br />

“The patented 4-flute geometry results in a significant reduction<br />

in cutting force due to the two opposing cutting edges,<br />

one pushing and one pulling,” explains Žolgar. “The main<br />

advantage is that the quality of the finished surface of a fine<br />

finish can be achieved with high feed rates and stock allowances.<br />

Finishing of the residual material is possible over the<br />

entire cutting length.” Graftor® tolerates depth infeeds (ap)<br />

up to 2.5 x D with lateral infeeds up to 0.65 x D (ae) and<br />

can therefore compensate for significantly larger material<br />

infeeds during finishing. This means that fewer machining<br />

steps and a smaller number of tool dimensions are required<br />

to produce the final contour. Due to the low cutting pressure,<br />

filigree contours can be produced – for example conical<br />

pins with a Ø of 0.080 mm. The graphite cutters are extremely<br />

dimensionally accurate to ± 0.005 mm. Each tool is labelled<br />

with its actual diameter and radius measured on the envelope<br />

on the shank. The gauge block labelling makes it easy to meet<br />

the high accuracy requirements of automated production systems<br />

that operate 24/7. The tool range is characterised by the<br />

nanocrystalline diamond coating (DIP®) developed and patented<br />

by Hufschmied for maximum wear resistance.<br />

Non-productive time is also saved<br />

“We advised TELKOM-OT and programmed milling strategies<br />

for existing process parameters so that the company<br />

could achieve important results from its milling trials,” Dušan<br />

Žolgar reports. The Graftor tools now process graphite 50 %<br />

faster. An interesting finding was that the savings are not<br />

only due to longer tool life, but also because roughing and<br />

finishing tools are more versatile. Meaning there is no need to<br />

change between tool types as often.<br />

further information: www.hufschmied.net<br />

no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong><br />


processes<br />

Measurement solutions from a single source<br />

in transmission component manufacture<br />

Haoneng Technology Co., Ltd.<br />

The Chinese Haoneng Group, a leading manufacturer<br />

in the field of vehicle transmission synchronization,<br />

is operating four WGT series inspection machines<br />

from Liebherr-Verzahntechnik GmbH. These ensure<br />

the quality of the components providing accurate<br />

and smooth gear shifting in vehicles.<br />

Synchronizer rings are key components in manual, auto matic<br />

and dual clutch transmissions. They help to align the different<br />

speeds of the gears to enable accurate and smooth gear<br />

shifting. The synchronization system has a significant effect<br />

on the efficiency and noise generation of the gearbox. For the<br />

gearboxes to be efficient, quiet and as smooth as possible,<br />

accurate and reliable measuring systems must ensure the<br />

manufacturing quality.<br />

The Haoneng Group<br />

One of the world’s leading manufacturers of components<br />

for the synchronization of vehicle transmissions is the Chinese<br />

Haoneng Group. The listed parent company Chengdu<br />

Haoneng Technology Co., Ltd., and its subsidiary companies<br />

cover together the entire manufacturing process of gearbox<br />

and synchronization systems. The four companies manufacture<br />

in the Chengdu, Chongqing and Luzhou sites in the<br />

Central Chinese province of Sichuan and are suppliers to<br />

well-known European automobile manufacturers and OEMs.<br />

Measurement solutions from a single source<br />

in transmission component manufacture<br />

Chongqing Haoneng Xingfu Synchronizer Co., Ltd. specializes<br />

in synchronization systems for vehicles of the midrange<br />

and luxury classes. The company had ini tially approached<br />

Liebherr regarding a high-quality inspection machine<br />

for the quality assurance of its products in 2014.<br />

Successful test series at the Liebherr site in Shanghai then<br />

convinced the customer to invest in a WGT 280 from<br />

Liebherr.<br />

42 no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong>

processes<br />

Highly accurate inspection machines<br />

from the WGT series<br />

Liebherr’s WGT series boasts impressive accuracy, userfriendliness<br />

and longevity. Lapped granite guides, air bearings,<br />

precision rotary tables and Renishaw probe systems ensure<br />

the mechanical precision of the machine. The Liebherr<br />

WGT measures any type of gear, gear cutting tools and<br />

other rotation-symmetrical workpieces – individually configured<br />

by Liebherr according to requirements. Each model<br />

fulfills the accuracy class of group 1 according to VDI/VDE<br />

2612/2613 and measures gears from a module of > 0.12 mm.<br />

The software LHInspect enables automatic correction of setting<br />

data. It supports the manufacturer neutral GDE interface<br />

for the exchange of geometric and measurement data between<br />

gear inspection machine and gear cutting machines<br />

and opens up the possibility of transferring further production<br />

and measurement data within the open manufacturing<br />

landscape LHOpenConnect by Liebherr.<br />

Impressive in application<br />

In 2015, the subsidiary Luzhou Changjiang Machinery Co.,<br />

Ltd. also invested in a Liebherr WGT. The company, founded<br />

in 1964 and the very first manufacturer of synchronizer rings<br />

in China, required an inspection machine at short notice and<br />

quickly bought a WGT 280 which had been used as a demonstration<br />

machine at a trade fair in China. The next order<br />

came three years later: Luzhou Haoneng Drive Technology Co.,<br />

Ltd., a manufacturer of key components for vehicle trans -<br />

missions and steering systems, ordered another Liebherr<br />

WGT 280<br />

WGT 280. “We were impressed by the performance of the<br />

WGT in our sister company. This convinced us that this<br />

was precisely the inspection machine we wanted,” reports<br />

Jie Zhang, deputy CEO and quality manager at Haoneng in<br />

Luzhou. Finally, the parent company Chengdu Haoneng<br />

followed in 2021 with the purchase of a Liebherr WGT 400.<br />

Production control with the Liebherr WGT<br />

The Liebherr WGT measures pointing for synchronizer rings<br />

and involute gear teeth, in some cases with an interrupted<br />

tooth trace, missing tooth space or missing gear tooth, as well<br />

as twisting of gears, alignment gearing with involute flanks<br />

and dedendum fillets. The LHInspect software generates the<br />

programs for fully automatic inspection on the basis of the<br />

workpiece data. Parallel, the results and workpiece data can<br />

be transferred between the production machine and measuring<br />

instrument via the network and read in. After the first<br />

part has been manufactured, a control measurement takes<br />

place on the WGT which plays back the measurement results<br />

to the production machine, which in turn calculates the correction<br />

values for manufacture. After the corresponding corrections<br />

on the machine, series production can begin, which<br />

then only involves sample measurements.<br />

Since commissioning in 2015, the system is running without<br />

disruption or standstills, says Jie Zhang, adding that the<br />

functionalities of the Liebherr WGT also fulfill the end customer’s<br />

quality standards. “The Liebherr WGT convinced us<br />

with its high accuracy and inspection quality, and in Liebherr<br />

we have found a reliable partner to whom we can turn at any<br />

time when we need support,” Jie Zhang continues. His company<br />

can see itself expanding the cooperation with Liebherr<br />

in the future: “As an efficient and professional provider of<br />

holistic gearing solutions, Liebherr is a partner we can trust<br />

for the purchase of further machines, including grinding applications,”<br />

concludes Jie Zhang.<br />

Measurement of synchronizer rings for quality assurance<br />

further information: www.liebherr.com<br />

no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong><br />


machining center<br />

Appealing state-of-the-art technology<br />

At the Apex Tool Group GmbH (ATG) in Westhausen<br />

the S31 cylindrical grinding machine from Studer is<br />

proving to be truly universal. From individual components<br />

to medium series, it grinds gear and control<br />

shafts for electric and pneumatic Cleco assembly tools<br />

cost-effectively and flexibly. Cleco is one of the six global<br />

ATG Power & Hand Tools brands.<br />

The showroom of the Apex Tool Group – formerly Cooper<br />

Power Tools – in Westhausen boasts an impressive range of<br />

different assembly tools from the Cleco brand. These include<br />

pneumatic and electric screwdrivers, either corded or with<br />

re chargeable batteries, in a straight, angled and pistol design.<br />

In addition, there are also complete assembly stations with<br />

an integrated control system that displays screwing assembly<br />

instructions on a screen, providing the necessary parameters<br />

for screwing, the monitoring and docu mentation of them.<br />

The screwdrivers are used, for example, in the assembly of<br />

com bustion and electric engines, car bodies, transmissions<br />

and hydraulic units in vehicle manufacturing and in aviation,<br />

as well as for the automated mounting of wheels on vehicles.<br />

In order to meet current requirements for high process reliability<br />

and documented processes, the manufacturer equips<br />

the assembly tools with sensors for torque measurement as<br />

well as digital data transmission via cable or wireless (WLAN).<br />

As Niko Schindelarz, supervisor machining, explains, many<br />

manufacturers in the global industry consider Cleco assembly<br />

tools to be very high quality, robust, durable and reliable.<br />

A major contribution to this, says Niko Schindelarz, is certainly<br />

the extensive vertical integration at Apex. The company<br />

produces almost all the essential screwdriver components inhouse<br />

in Westhausen. This applies in particular to motor and<br />

gear shafts, levers, valves, cams and housings.<br />

Flexible for variants and individual features<br />

“Due to the large number of variants and the increasing demand<br />

for individual features we need to produce components<br />

in small series and even as individual pieces at very short<br />

notice”, explains Johannes Mäule, production engineer in<br />

Westhausen. As he goes on, this applies to all production<br />

steps and processes, from turning, drilling and milling<br />

through to grinding. “We need to grind our motor and gear<br />

shafts in particular to an accuracy of just a few µm. This is<br />

essential to ensure the extremely quiet running and long service<br />

life of our screwdrivers”, adds Niko Schindelarz. But this<br />

was still very complex until just a few months ago. Only one<br />

proven grinding machine, purchased back in the early 1980’s,<br />

was available for cylindrical grinding. In order to grind the<br />

large number of 30 to 650 mm (1.18” to 25.6”) long shafts with<br />

diameters between 3 and 65 mm (0.118” and 2.56”), it was<br />

nec essary to laboriously reset the machine manually, over and<br />

over again. This was contrary to a needs-based and flexible<br />

production process. “Most of all, it was increasingly uneconomical.<br />

Set-up times generally took twice or three times as<br />

long as the machining times”, explains Johannes Mäule. It<br />

Electrical and pneumatic screw spindles require grinding of a<br />

large number of different 30 – 650 mm (1.18” to 25.6”) long<br />

motor and gear shafts with Ø between 3 and 65 mm<br />

was also difficult to achieve the required accuracies in diameters<br />

and cylindricity, especially with long, thin shafts, as Niko<br />

Schindelarz remarks. As he goes on, this was only possible for<br />

experienced experts who had been grinding for many years.<br />

“These experts are currently retiring or will do so in the coming<br />

years. This means their know-how will no longer be available<br />

to us. However, the training of young talent is now focused<br />

on different aspects than it was just a few years ago.<br />

Manual interventions on machines are more undesirable, and<br />

the emphasis is on programming and optimal parameterization<br />

of processes”, explains Niko Schindelarz.<br />

Generation transition<br />

In this situation the managers responsible at Apex decided<br />

to invest in new technology for grinding – as with other machining<br />

processes, because the changing technical environment<br />

results in many additional demands on machines and<br />

production systems. In addition to high flexibility, for example<br />

options for automated process monitoring and for transferring<br />

process and production data into a digital network – a<br />

smart factory. “We need the latest future-oriented technology<br />

in order to be an attractive employer and inspire much needed<br />

new talent to come and work in our company”, adds Niko<br />

Schindelarz. After comprehensive comparisons of different<br />

machine concepts, he and Johannes Mäule decided to invest<br />

in a Studer S31 universal cylindrical grinding machine.<br />

Highly flexible thanks to short set-up times<br />

As Niko Schindelarz explains, first of all it was necessary to<br />

carefully prepare the requirement analysis, in order to obtain<br />

approval for the necessary budget from the commercial manager<br />

in the US group. “We were able to clearly demonstrate<br />

on the basis of the operational benefits that the higher initial<br />

investment – in comparison to competitor products – will<br />

quickly prove profitable”, agree Johannes Mäule and Niko<br />

Schindelarz together. The production engineers are now able<br />

to grind the entire range of shafts on just one machine. The<br />

S31 cylindrical grinding machine is easily accessible for work-<br />

44 no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong>

machining center<br />

piece and grinding wheel set-up, despite the complete enclosure.<br />

Agreeing with the machine operators, Niko Schindelarz<br />

praises the excellent working ergonomics in particular. The<br />

production engineers benefit from much shorter set-up times<br />

in comparison to previous grinding machines. The special<br />

Quick-Set function only available on Studer grinding machines<br />

makes an essential contribution here. Cornelius Wecht, responsible<br />

for Studer sales in South Germany, reports: “Thanks to<br />

Quick-Set, the control stores the precise dimensions of all<br />

grind ing wheels used on the grinding machine. This means<br />

you can also quickly set up frequently used and repeatedly<br />

dressed grinding wheels and use them again immediately.<br />

The control knows the precise dimensions after mounting of<br />

the grinding wheel and there is no requirement for re-measuring<br />

or even dressing on the machine.” Another advantage<br />

for the grinders is the ability to dress profile grinding wheels<br />

directly on the cylindrical grinding machine. The StuderDress<br />

software provides the corresponding cycles. With these cycles,<br />

only the required geometries are rotary dressed on the grinding<br />

wheel profile. As Niko Schindelarz confirms, this reduces<br />

set-up and non-productive times, and it also ensures higher<br />

accuracies and better surfaces on the ground components.<br />

Ideal for programming in the workshop<br />

For Niko Schindelarz the control concept of the S31 cylindrical<br />

grinding machine also offers exceptional advantages. As<br />

he underlines, the user interface is very easy to understand.<br />

Graphics and dialogs clearly guide operators and programmers<br />

through the input fields. The control has also a database<br />

with all the necessary grinding parameters. “We call this<br />

StuderTechnology Integrated”, explains Cornelius Wecht. The<br />

machine operator selects the parameters which the software<br />

suggests, based on the workpiece geometries as well as the required<br />

accuracies and surface quality. These ensure that the<br />

cylindrical grinding machine always reliably achieves a good<br />

grinding result. The experienced grinder can adapt the suggested<br />

parameters at any time in order to further optimize<br />

the grinding process. “The S31 is therefore ideal for use in the<br />

workshop. Any of our skilled workers trained in machining<br />

can also work flexibly on the cylindrical grinding machine.<br />

They do not require any specialized grinding knowledge. This<br />

gives us maximum flexibility”, says Niko Schindelarz.<br />

The swiveling wheelhead with two separate grinding spindles<br />

for straight and angular plunge grinding ensures short<br />

non-productive times<br />

Cornelius Wecht, responsible for Studer sales in South<br />

Germany, Niko Schindelarz, supervisor machining and a<br />

programmer and machine operator at the Apex Tool Group<br />

(from left to right)<br />

Universal thanks to B-axis<br />

The S31 cylindrical grinding machine at the Apex Tool Group<br />

in Westhausen has a wheelhead with a B-axis. The wheelhead<br />

can swivel in steps of 1 °. It comes with two spindle drives,<br />

one equipped with a grinding wheel for straight plunging and<br />

the other for angular plunging. This also contributes to short<br />

set-up times and maximum flexibility. “We can plunge-grind<br />

a workpiece straight and at an angle in one cycle without<br />

any set-up work. This means we can completely machine almost<br />

all components in a single clamping”, Niko Schindelarz<br />

explains the advantages of the B-axis and stresses: “With<br />

the equipment we have chosen, the S31 cylindrical grinding<br />

machine fully deserves the attribute ‘universal’. If there is one<br />

cylindrical grinding machine that deserves the name, then<br />

it’s the Studer S31.” After nearly five months, the S31 cylindrical<br />

grinding machine has proven that it completely fulfills the<br />

tool manufacturers’ extensive requirements.<br />

Exemplary consultation and service<br />

Johannes Mäule cites another important aspect when making<br />

investments in production systems: “For a special technology<br />

like grinding, production engineers usually only have general<br />

expertise. This applies particularly to innovative equipment<br />

features on machines and their specific advantages in relation<br />

to individual requirements.” As Niko Schindelarz adds, research<br />

ing current grinding technology was initially not so<br />

easy. “But the Studer specialists advised us in great depth and,<br />

above all, openly and honestly. We were able to develop our<br />

optimal cylindrical grinding machine configuration together<br />

in just a few steps”, he continues. This built the necessary trust<br />

to confidently invest in the expensive S31 cylindrical grinding<br />

machine. “It was also important for us that service and technical<br />

advisers are regionally present and can advise and support<br />

us directly in production within a short period of time.<br />

This is essential to guarantee that our current and forwardlooking<br />

investment in the S31 will prove profitable in the long<br />

run”, emphasizes Niko Schindelarz. He concludes, Studer has<br />

completely fulfilled all relevant criteria with its specialists<br />

and the S31 universal cylindrical grinding machine.<br />

further information: www.studer.com<br />

no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong><br />


machining center<br />

Laser processing improves quality and tool life and<br />

secures competitive advantage<br />

The machining of tools for the wood industry, such<br />

as saw blades, milling tools, hoggers, jointing cutters<br />

or form cutters, and of tools used in e-mobility, e.g. for<br />

stator production, reaches a new level when using the<br />

LASERTEC 50 PrecisionTool. For the first time tools<br />

with 0 of 355 mm can now also be machined.<br />

DMG MORI thus also enables all those tool manufacturers,<br />

who have larger tools in their portfolio, to switch from conventional<br />

to laser machining. The plus: laser production is<br />

many times more efficient than classic EDM and can be easily<br />

automated by means of automated pallet handling.<br />

The basis for the new development was above all the increasing<br />

customer requirements of the tool manufacturers.<br />

To this day, many toolmakers use the process of wire or disk<br />

erosion, for example, to realize the finest, filigree contours on<br />

complex tools. The problem: diamond cannot be eroded, only<br />

the bonding material is removed. This is where DMG MORI<br />

sets the tone with the LASERTEC 50 PrecisionTool, simultaneously<br />

solving the dilemma of difficult-to-erode polycrystalline<br />

diamond (PCD) types and limited corner radii. Also relevant<br />

for many tool manufacturers: tool design is now much<br />

more flexible, as laser machining allows more cutting edges on<br />

the same diameter without creating a collision. Additionally<br />

worth mentioning: diamond and binder can now be lasered<br />

equally well and even coarse-grained PCD is no longer a hurdle.<br />

In addition, users of the LASERTEC 50 PrecisionTool can<br />

look forward to a freely selectable cutting edge radius and the<br />

easy mastering of even highly complex geometries.<br />

Varied and diverse: tool pallets for the Lasertec<br />

LASERTEC 50<br />

PrecisionTool & PH 50: powerful couple for low space<br />

In the future tool manufacturers who laser instead of erode<br />

can also expect better performance: until now the best results<br />

on complex tools could be achieved almost exclusively by two<br />

to three EDM cycles. The High Speed Mode 3.0 technology<br />

integrated in the LASERTEC 50 PrecisionTool achieves – com -<br />

pared to classical machining processes – a reduction of the<br />

cutting edge chipping by a factor of two. In addition the machining<br />

time is also reduced and, for example, instead of<br />

90 min for wire EDM, is now only approx. 35 min for laser<br />

machining. Thanks to defined cutting edge radii and minimal<br />

chipping, tool manufacturers will be able to guarantee<br />

their customers up to 40 % longer tool life and thus greater<br />

efficiency in the future. And that with up to 56 % lower unit<br />

costs compared to EDM.<br />

Keyword efficiency: with the PH 50 – the most compact and<br />

cost-efficient pallet handling from DMG MORI – tool manufacturers,<br />

as other users of the LASERTEC 50 PrecisionTool,<br />

automate their machining processes and stand out from the<br />

competition due to more performance. Compared to other<br />

automation solutions, the combination of LASERTEC 50 PrecisionTool<br />

and PH 50 requires little space (2.7 m 2 ); optimal<br />

for all companies that want to increase their degree of automation<br />

in a small space. The basis of the PH 50 is a design<br />

with three NC-controlled axes. In addition to its precision,<br />

the compact pallet handling system offers enormous flexibility<br />

and can be connected to other machining centers in addition<br />

to the LASERTEC 50 PrecisionTool. The PH 50 can supply<br />

the LASERTEC 50 PrecisionTool with up to 30 pallets. The<br />

maximum workpiece weight including pallet – taking into<br />

account the pallet’s own weight – for the PH 50 is 70 kg; the<br />

LASERTEC 50 PrecisionTool alone allows 30 kg. The pallet<br />

handling is controlled directly via the machine control with<br />

the aid of the PALLET MASTER. The combination of PH 50<br />

and LASERTEC 50 PrecisionTool allows a cost-efficient entry<br />

into automated machining of a wide range of tools.<br />

In addition to the aforementioned tooling for wood processing<br />

and electromobility, lasers are also the technology of<br />

the future where super-sharp cutting edges (optical industry)<br />

or industry-specific cutting edge rounding (composite or<br />

wood processing) are required.<br />

further information: www.dmgmori.com<br />

46 no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong>

machining center<br />

Machining centers as “green” welding cells<br />

HELLER enables friction stir welding on all machine series<br />

Known as a green joining technology for nonferrous<br />

metals such as aluminum, friction stir welding<br />

(FSW) has established itself in a number of indus tries.<br />

In future manufacturing companies using HELLER<br />

machines will no longer need any additional hardware<br />

for this technology. Instead they will be able to perform<br />

this process in a single setup on all their innovative<br />

4-axis or 5-axis machining centers.<br />

Friction stir welding is a good choice when it comes to producing<br />

high quality cavity-free and tight welded joints with<br />

excellent fatigue properties. Accordingly this process is often<br />

applied in the manufacture of reservoirs, tanks and containers<br />

as well as in shipbuilding and aerospace engineering. In<br />

addition, this joining technology is increasingly establishing<br />

itself in the electrical industry and in automotive engineering<br />

with the growth market of e-mobility – for example for the<br />

welding of battery housings. According to HELLER managing<br />

director Dieter Drechsler, it provides a number of advantages<br />

for all areas of application.<br />

Firstly, the quality produced is very high. Due to the<br />

comparatively low heat input, a very fine-grained structure<br />

without cracks or pores is created in the material. Distortion<br />

in the component is minimal. As a result the welded seam<br />

meets the highest standards in terms of tightness and crash<br />

behaviour.<br />

Secondly, it offers a number of key advantages with regard<br />

to environmental and health aspects, which is why friction<br />

stir welding is also referred to as a green technology. The reasons<br />

for this are: compared to conventional welding methods,<br />

no dangerous light flashes or hazardous fumes that would<br />

have to be extracted are produced during the joining process.<br />

Moreover the environmental balance of the process is very<br />

favourable because of the low energy consumption.<br />

Integration into the machining center<br />

provides high economic efficiency<br />

Thirdly, the high cost-effectiveness is a real profit driver.<br />

As no consumables such as cored wire or shielding gas are<br />

required, consumption costs are minimal.<br />

The welding process becomes a particularly interesting<br />

technology with the successful integration into modern<br />

HELLER machine tools. It allows users to eliminate an additional<br />

work step and only requires the inexpensive tools,<br />

activation of the HELLER technology cycle and the ‘adaptive<br />

control function’ in the Sinumerik 840D sl control.<br />

The machine operator can easily program the welding path<br />

at the CNC control panel using G-code. The transfer of CAD/<br />

CAM data is also possible without any problems. In order to<br />

start the welding process, it is also necessary to determine the<br />

key parameters of pressure and speed. These depend, among<br />

other things, on factors such as the material composition and<br />

the required type and depth of the weld seam. According to<br />

Dieter Drechsler, this task poses a certain challenge. However,<br />

“our experienced experts are of course there to support<br />

you if you wish. And initial pilot projects have shown that<br />

our customers’ machine operators are able to very quickly<br />

manage this task on their own.”<br />

Once determined, pressure and speed can be called up via<br />

a cycle. After the welding process has started, the Siemens<br />

CNC logs the entire workflow and reliably controls compliance<br />

with all parameters. Previously required ‘load cells’ are<br />

obsolete.<br />

At the same time, the variety of joint types that can be<br />

produced is quite large. In addition to classic butt joints,<br />

corner and T-joints are also possible. Even lap joints – single,<br />

multiple and as a T-variant – can be realised without any<br />

problems.<br />

How does friction stir welding work?<br />

During friction stir welding the pin-shaped rotating tool is<br />

plunged into the gap between the components to be joined<br />

with high axial force until the so-called tool shoulder rests<br />

against the surface of the component. The friction created<br />

during this process heats up and eventually plasticises the<br />

component material. As a result the materials of the components<br />

mix and form a bond in the joint gap. Now the tool,<br />

which continues to rotate, is moved along the joint gap with<br />

constant contact pressure, while the material is steadily plasticised<br />

and mixes around the tool pin. As a result a highquality<br />

weld seam is created. At the end of the weld seam<br />

produced, the feed motion is stopped and the tool is lifted<br />

out of the joining zone.<br />

Functionality of friction stir welding<br />

further information: www.heller.biz<br />

no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong><br />


components<br />

Cutting tool measurement and compensation<br />

Interface is expanded to meet customers’ tooling needs<br />

As a cutting tool manufacturer, it is imperative to ensure your geometry<br />

is exact to maintain superior cutting performance. Getting this<br />

right gives an edge over competitors and is what ultimately builds a successful<br />

tool maker’s reputation. ZOLLER’s mea sure ment machines and<br />

ANCA software easily communicate to simplify and improve tool measure<br />

ment, wheel measurement, form measurement and compensation<br />

processes.<br />

This partnership provides key benefits to their customers by automating and<br />

refining the tool measurement process.<br />

Background<br />

ZOLLER measurement machines are widely adopted in the market as an effective<br />

tool for measuring complex geometry of cutting tools. While LaserPlus and<br />

iView are very popular and effective tools for in-process measurement of tool OD<br />

and profiles, the ZOLLER system can automatically measure a diverse range of<br />

tool features. ZOLLER is typically used for more detailed tool measurement during<br />

tool setup or intermittently during batch runs to ensure features remain in<br />

tolerance.<br />

The old interface including ToolRoom RN33.1 only supported XML format<br />

but the latest RN34.1 release supports both XML and GDX® (GDX® is a registered<br />

trademark of ISBE GmbH) interfaces. Release details for both ZOLLER and<br />

ANCA are as follows.<br />

Parameter adjustment<br />

The ToolRoom Measurement Wizard<br />

remains the easiest way to set up ANCA-<br />

ZOLLER measurement feedback. This<br />

guides the user through the available list<br />

of features for a given tool. The user can<br />

easily select which features can be measured<br />

and have compensation applied.<br />

ZOLLER Pilot 3.0 with program version<br />

Toolroom RN34.1<br />

update 52.03<br />

ToolRoom Measurement Wizard<br />

Note: the new interface is based on the GDX® platform. It sup ports the GDX®<br />

format and is compatible with other measurement machines that also support<br />

the GDX® import/ export.<br />

Communication method<br />

Data can be transferred using a USB stick or direct network communication if<br />

both ZOLLER and ANCA machines are on the same network.<br />

ANCA-ZOLLER measurement feedback<br />

In developing a measurement and feedback process, for each parameter/feature<br />

listed (at the end of this article), ANCA and ZOLLER have worked together to<br />

agree upon a fixed ZOLLER measurement process and a fixed ANCA grinding<br />

parameter adjustment to which it is directly linked. Wheel adjustments are not<br />

supported as an option for this method of compensation. Adjustments are applied<br />

to parameters for compensation without changing the design parameters.<br />

48 no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong>

components<br />

The user can also specify the required<br />

length/angle tolerance for each parameter so<br />

that values within tolerance will not be compensated<br />

when returned from ZOLLER.<br />

When measurement data<br />

(GDX® file) is imported to the<br />

ANCA grinder, the measured<br />

parameters are brought as nominal<br />

value but compared against<br />

design value and adjustments<br />

made accordingly. Values within<br />

tolerance will not be compensated<br />

but users have an option to<br />

override this function.<br />

Each feature is initially set with a default<br />

(recommended) location for measurement<br />

(red line), although this can be manually<br />

adjusted before sending the data to ZOLLER<br />

for measurements and tolerance settings can<br />

be imported from another Tom file to avoid<br />

resetting again all parameters and tolerances<br />

individually.<br />

Note: although the file can be transferred through a network connection, an<br />

operator is still required to select the correct file, carry tools to the ZOLLER<br />

machine and apply the compensation on the correct machines. As the AIMS<br />

(ANCA Integrated Management System) product develops, we intend to offer<br />

a system that can automatically transfer, measure, compensate tools during<br />

batch grinding.<br />

Setting axial position of measurement<br />

Import from another Tom file<br />

further information: www.anca.com // zoller.info<br />

no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong><br />


fairs in alphabetical order<br />

AMB Stuttgart, Germany<br />

(September 10-14, 2024)<br />

bauma Shanghai, China<br />

(November 26-29, 2024)<br />

CIMT Beijing, China<br />

(April 10-15, <strong>2023</strong>)<br />

DEBURRING Karlsruhe, Germany<br />

EXPO (October 10-12, <strong>2023</strong>)<br />

EMO Hanover, Germany<br />

(September 18-23, <strong>2023</strong>)<br />

EPHJ Geneva, Switzerland<br />

(June 6-9, <strong>2023</strong>)<br />

FABTECH Toronto, Canada<br />

(June 11-13, 2024)<br />

FEIMEC São Paulo, Brazil<br />

(May 9-13, <strong>2023</strong>)<br />

GrindingHub Stuttgart, Germany<br />

(May 14-17, 2024)<br />

GrindTec Leipzig, Germany<br />

(March 7-10, <strong>2023</strong>)<br />

Hannover fair Hanover, Germany<br />

(April 17-21, <strong>2023</strong>)<br />

IMTS Chicago, USA<br />

(September 9-14, 2024)<br />

JIMTOF Tokyo, Japan<br />

(November 5-10, 2024)<br />

LIGNA Hanover, Germany<br />

(May 15-19, <strong>2023</strong>)<br />

MACH-TECH and Budapest, Hungary<br />

INDUSTRY DAYS (May 16-19, <strong>2023</strong>)<br />

METALEX Bangkok, Thailand<br />

(November 22-25, <strong>2023</strong>)<br />

MOULDING Stuttgart, Germany<br />

EXPO (June 13-16, <strong>2023</strong>)<br />

Wood TaiWan Taipei, Taiwan<br />

(April 20-23, <strong>2023</strong>)<br />

SIAMS Moutier, Switzerland<br />

(April 16-19, 2024)<br />

sps Nuremberg, Germany<br />

(November 14-16, <strong>2023</strong>)<br />

TIMTOS Taipei, Taiwan<br />

(March 6-11, <strong>2023</strong>)<br />

current status<br />

2024<br />

2024<br />

<strong>2023</strong><br />

<strong>2023</strong><br />

<strong>2023</strong><br />

<strong>2023</strong><br />

2024<br />

<strong>2023</strong><br />

2024<br />

<strong>2023</strong><br />

<strong>2023</strong><br />

2024<br />

2024<br />

<strong>2023</strong><br />

<strong>2023</strong><br />

<strong>2023</strong><br />

<strong>2023</strong><br />

<strong>2023</strong><br />

2024<br />

<strong>2023</strong><br />

<strong>2023</strong><br />

trade fair dates as by beginning of Februar <strong>2023</strong>; we are not responsible for reliability of these dates<br />

50 no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong>

impressum<br />

ISSN 2628-5444<br />

publisher<br />

Benno Keller<br />

phone + 49 (0)911 - 2018 200<br />

fax + 49 (0)911 - 2018 100<br />

keller@harnisch.com<br />

editor-in-chief<br />

Eric Schäfer<br />

phone +49 (0)911 - 504 98 82<br />

fax +49 (0)911 - 506 38 32<br />

eric.schaefer@harnisch.com<br />

managing editor<br />

Christiane Ebner<br />

phone +49 (0)911 - 2018 260<br />

fax +49 (0)911 - 2018 100<br />

ebner@harnisch.com<br />

publishing company<br />

Dr. Harnisch Publications<br />

management board<br />

Dr. Claus-Jörg Harnisch<br />

Benno Keller<br />

Eschenstrasse 25<br />

90441 Nuremberg<br />

Germany<br />

phone +49 (0)911 - 2018 0<br />

fax +49 (0)911 - 2018 100<br />

<strong>hpt</strong>@harnisch.com<br />

www.harnisch.com<br />

www.<strong>hpt</strong>ooling-mag.com<br />

advertising Germany, Austria, Switzerland<br />

Thomas Mlynarik<br />

phone +49 (0)911 - 2018 165<br />

phone +49 (0)9127 - 902 346<br />

mobile +49 (0)151 - 548 181 81<br />

fax +49 (0)911 - 2018 100<br />

mlynarik@harnisch.com<br />

advertising Europe<br />

Britta Steinberg<br />

phone +49 (0)2309 - 574 47 40<br />

mobile +49 (0)176 - 478 601 38<br />

fax +49 (0)911 - 2018 100<br />

steinberg@harnisch.com<br />

advertising USA, Canada<br />

Steve Max<br />

phone +1 (0)215 - 284 87 87<br />

steve.max@harnisch.com<br />

advertising China, Hong Kong, Taiwan<br />

Mike Hay<br />

phone +852 (0)9096 - 88 95<br />

mchhay@ringier.com.hk<br />

advertising Taiwan<br />

Sydney Lai<br />

phone +886 (0)4 - 232 973 18<br />

sydneylai@ringier.com.hk<br />

Four issues per year<br />

printed by<br />

Schleunungdruck GmbH<br />

Eltertstrasse 27<br />

97828 Marktheidenfeld, Germany<br />

editorial<br />

Adelbert Haas GmbH .................6<br />

ANCA Pty Ltd. ..................... 48<br />


Deutschland GmbH ................12<br />

CHIRON Group SE ..................33<br />

DMG MORI GmbH ................. 46<br />

Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing<br />

Engineerig and Automation IPA/<br />

University of Stuttgart ..............14<br />

Fritz Studer AG .................... 44<br />

Gebr. Heller Maschinenfabrik GmbH ..47<br />

Hartmetall-Werkzeugfabrik<br />

Paul Horn GmbH ..................31<br />

HUFSCHMIED Zerspanungssysteme<br />

GmbH ............................41<br />

company finder<br />

Kennametal Inc. ......................9<br />

Lach Diamant Jakob Lach<br />

GmbH & Co. KG ............... 28, 34<br />

Liebherr-Verzahntechnik GmbH ..... 42<br />

Mikron AG, Division Tool ............38<br />

NUM AG ...........................32<br />

Platinum Tooling Technologies, Inc.. ...32<br />

RUD Ketten Rieger & Dietz GmbH<br />

& Co. KG ..........................27<br />


Maschinenfabrik GmbH ............33<br />

ZECHA Hartmetall-<br />

Werkzeugfabrikation GmbH ........10<br />

VAT DE 133 510 873<br />

The articles contained in this magazine,<br />

including the illustrations, are subject<br />

to copyright law. Any use without the<br />

consent of the publisher is not permitted<br />

and will be prosecuted. This applies to<br />

every conceivable form of reproduction.<br />

Copies and reprints can be ordered on<br />

request. Articles which are identified by<br />

name or which are to be assigned to an<br />

author by an abbreviation do not necessarily<br />

reflect the opinion of the editorial staff.<br />

Unsolicited manuscripts cannot be returned.<br />

If a manuscript is accepted by the editorial<br />

staff, publishing and copyright law as well<br />

as all rights for publication and distribution<br />

are transferred to the publisher. The<br />

publisher accepts no liability with regard<br />

to the facts set out in these articles.<br />

copyright © <strong>2023</strong> Dr. Harnisch Publications<br />

advertising index<br />

Adelbert Haas GmbH ................................................front cover<br />

Aerotech, Inc ...........................................................page 11<br />

Boehlerit GmbH & Co. KG ...............................................page 9<br />

CERATIZIT Deutschland GmbH ...................................... back cover<br />

Kapp GmbH & Co. KG ..................................................page 13<br />

Lach Diamant Jakob Lach GmbH & Co. KG ....................... inside front cover<br />

Mikron AG, Division Tool ...............................................page 5<br />

no. 1, March <strong>2023</strong><br />


Up2Date February <strong>2023</strong><br />

Stay tuned and check out the latest product<br />

developments from CERATIZIT!<br />

Find out more at:<br />

cutting.tools/gb/en/uptodate<br />

CERATIZIT is a high-technology engineering<br />

group specialised in cutting tools and hard<br />

material solutions.<br />

Tooling a Sustainable Future<br />


Hooray! Your file is uploaded and ready to be published.

Saved successfully!

Ooh no, something went wrong!