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PuK - Process Technology & Components 2023

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Editorial<br />

Artificial intelligence for industry<br />

Dear Readers,<br />

Artificial intelligence is a buzzword with distinct utopian overtones. Just about everyone has heard about ChatGPT,<br />

a program that can write texts of the same quality as a well educated person. Or about LamBDA, the computer that<br />

claims to have a consciousness and gives very human answers to questions. And who among us hasn’t seen a service<br />

robot? These are just three examples of a technology that is currently coming to the forefront in its first generation.<br />

Experience has shown that a better, stronger second generation of modern technologies quickly follows. Many<br />

renowned companies are already working on this. I am therefore confident that AI will establish itself in just a few<br />

years, just as the mobile phone and the Internet took hold and are now part of our daily routine. But what does that<br />

mean for our future? Soon, computers or robots will be able to do anything that is not directly creative, subject to<br />

changing requirements or mechanically complicated, and does not require strategic decisions linked to emotions to be<br />

made – even the production, assembly, monitoring and control of machines. On the other hand, AI can support the development<br />

of new products. Examples include circuit design, energy-optimised structures and social network effects.<br />

Is artificial intelligence a threat or an opportunity? But perhaps that isn’t the right question. Maybe I have to take a<br />

totally different approach: Central Europe is headed for a labour shortage crisis. According to the December 2022 edition<br />

of ZEIT magazine, the demand for workers is going to exceed the supply by up to 5 million people in 2035. Many<br />

jobs will be left without anyone to do them. So it would be better for us to reserve the challenging part of a job for ourselves,<br />

and to understand AI as a helpful technology that assists us in daily life. I would even go so far as to say that the<br />

country that makes this transition most effectively and quickly will have an advantage. This could mean faster, better<br />

product development or optimal system architectures. That being said, nobody really knows yet what areas are going<br />

to be affected. We should however assume that it will be of very high social and industrial relevance. Naturally one<br />

also has to consider the taxation of such services, the value of the work, working hours and the society that will subsequently<br />

establish itself. We will certainly have to reorganise ourselves and social factors must not be disregarded.<br />

Let’s take ChatGPT as an example. Using this program could streamline work processes in public or also industrial<br />

administration by having a few employees merely enter keywords, check the results that are produced, and then<br />

approve and send them out. Future workers, who are currently students, are already able to handle this.<br />

In an industrial application, for example, an AI system reports that a fault has been detected in a machine, indicating a<br />

damaged seal. The AI system could not only initiate the seal replacement but also order the new part. AI could propose<br />

how a circuit design can be improved, or assist with the programming of new software. AI is able to respond effectively,<br />

extremely quickly and rationally. Thus the first question we should ask is where using AI will be the most helpful. Have<br />

courage and seek advice. It’s worth your while.<br />

With best regards,<br />

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Eberhard Schlücker<br />

Prof. (ret.), advisor on hydrogen and energy issues<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong><br />

5


PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS<br />

Editorial Advisory Board<br />

Editorial Advisory Board <strong>2023</strong><br />

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Eberhard Schlücker, Prof. (ret.), advisor on hydrogen and energy issues<br />

Head of the Editorial Advisory Board<br />

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Eberhard Schlücker was born in 1956 and studied mechanical engineering at the Heilbronn University of Applied<br />

Sciences and Chemical Engineering at the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg where he did his doctorate in 1993. His industrial<br />

activity comprised an apprenticeship as a mechanic, three years as a designing engineer, four years as head of the R&D department<br />

and five years as proxy in the Engineering division. From 2000-2022 he has been professor and has been holding<br />

the chair in “<strong>Process</strong> Machinery and System Engineering“ at the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg. His subject area included<br />

layout and operation of systems, machines and plants for chemistry, water, food and biotechnological engineering as well as<br />

practical management. His research focus is on the pulsation problem and system dynamics in plants, the optimization and simulation of pumps,<br />

compressors and systems, the high-pressure component and process technology, the application of ionic fluids, the energetic optimization of<br />

systems and the research of wear processes. In 2008 he was Vice Dean of the School of Engineering, is editor of journals, member of several committees<br />

and research associations, gives hydrogen seminars throughout Germany, and is a technical consultant for companies and lecturer in international<br />

training programs.<br />

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Andreas Brümmer, Head of Fluidics at Technical University Dortmund<br />

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Andreas Brümmer, born in 1963, studied aerospace engineering at the Technical University of Braunschweig<br />

where he received a doctorate at the Institute of Fluid Mechanics in the field of Flight of Birds. His industrial career started in<br />

1997 as Head of Department for Fluid Dynamics at Kötter Consulting Engineers KG. There, he gained first experiences in the<br />

physical analysis and elimination of flow-induced vibrations in industrial plants. In 2005, he became Technical Director of the<br />

company. Since 2066, he has been professor and Head of Fluidics at the Technical University of Dortmund. His research foci<br />

included the theoretical and experimental analysis of screw-type machines, both in compressor applications (e. g. refrigeration<br />

compressors and air compressors, vacuum pumps) and in expander applications (e. g. waste heat utilization). Furthermore,<br />

he researches the interaction between unsteady pipe flow and gas flow meters. From 2008 to 2011, he was Vice Dean and Dean of the Faculty<br />

of Mechanical Enginee ring and since 2012 he has been Senator at the Technical University of Dortmund. He is reviewer of several international<br />

journals, member of industrial advisory boards and scientific committees and scientific director of the VDI symposium “Screw-Type Machines”.<br />

Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Gerhart Hobusch, Project Engineer, KAESER KOMPRESSOREN SE, Coburg<br />

Gerhart Hobusch, born in 1964, studied mechanical engineering at the University of Applied Sciences in Schweinfurt, Northern<br />

Bavaria. He graduated with a degree in mechanical engineering and completed postgraduate studies with a degree in industrial<br />

engineering. He has been working as a project engineer at KAESER KOMPRESSOREN SE, Coburg, since 1989. His responsibilities<br />

include the planning of compressed air stations, the development of economical, energy-saving concepts for compressed<br />

air stations and the worldwide training of KAESER project engineers. As part of his job, he has worked on research projects<br />

such as the “Compressed Air Efficiency” campaign, the EnEffAH joint project, as well as FOREnergy and Green Factory Bavaria,<br />

and is active in the VDMA's compressed air technology department. The standard compliant implementation of volume flow<br />

and power measurements on compressors, also in connection with China Energy Label efficiency requirements, as well as compressed air quality<br />

measurements according to ISO standards are also part of his tasks. In addition to the specialist lectures on compressed air technology held<br />

over the years, he is participating in the development of the KAESER blended learning concept with the design of e-learning courses and the implementation<br />

of online training courses.<br />

Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Johann Vetter, Head of Integrated Management Systems, NETZSCH Pumps & Systems GmbH, Waldkraiburg<br />

Johann Vetter, born in 1966, studied mechanical engineering at the Technical Colleage of Regensburg. His diploma thesis<br />

dealt with the topic “Filters and filter materials“ in Environmental and <strong>Process</strong> Engineering. Prior to his studies, Mr. Vetter had<br />

completed an apprenticeship as machine fitter and thus created a practical basis for his later activities in the automotive industry,<br />

where he worked for 16 years as a quality engineer, development engineer, project manager and department manager<br />

for airbag systems. Mr. Vetter has shown outstanding achievements in the field of “gas generators“, where he has applied for<br />

several patents. Since 2013, Mr. Vetter has been responsible for special projects mainly for the oil and gas industry at NETZSCH<br />

Pumps & Systems, where he took over the position of Quality Manager after 3 years. Since October 2019 he has been responsible<br />

for the areas of integrated management systems and is also a member of the Management Board of NETZSCH Pumps & Systems.<br />

Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Sebastian Oberbeck, Manager Research & Development Backing Pumps, Pfeiffer Vacuum GmbH, Asslar<br />

Sebastian Oberbeck, born 1970, graduated at the University of Applied Sciences Mittelhessen in engineering and precision<br />

mechanics. His career startet as project engineer and later as project manager at the Fraunhofer Institute for Microsystems<br />

in Mainz developing mainly micro pumps, micro valves and microsystems (MEMS) in publically funded as well as in industry<br />

sponsored projects. From 1998 he was responsible for nano technically manufactured Pointprobe AFM sensors at Nanosensors<br />

GmbH in Wetzlar. In 1999 he became founding member and partner of the startup company CPC Cellular Chemistry<br />

Systems GmbH where he was responsible for developing micro chemical reaction systems in Laboratory and Pilot plant applications<br />

in the chemical and pharmaceutical industry. 2004 he took the product management responsibility for automotive<br />

drive shaft components of Daimler Chrysler and Getrag at tier 1 supplier Selzer Fertigungstechnik GmbH in Driedorf. Since 2009 he is employed<br />

at Pfeiffer Vacuum GmbH as R&D Manager for backing pumps and backing pump systems.<br />

6 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong>


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PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS<br />

Contents<br />

Title<br />

100 % availability, 0 % problems<br />

AERZEN packages ensure reliable transport processes<br />

at A+S BioTec GmbH<br />

Availability and reliability have top priority at A+S BioTec GmbH.<br />

For this reason, the Saarland-based family business has exclusively<br />

used blowers and compressors from Aerzen for the pneumatic<br />

conveying of its raw materials and products for more than<br />

50 years. The packages provide absolutely oil- and absorption<br />

material-free air and guarantee a safe, reliable material flow.<br />

Service and support are also excellent in every respect.<br />

(starting on page 18)<br />

Contents<br />

Editorial<br />

Artificial intelligence for industry 5<br />

Leading article<br />

Artificial intelligence and the digitalisation of process components 10<br />

Hydrogen<br />

Anything but standard: Elastomer seal challenges in<br />

hydrogen applications 14<br />

Unafraid of hydrogen 16<br />

Cover story<br />

100 % availability, 0 % problems 18<br />

Pumps and Systems<br />

Diaphragm metering pumps<br />

Condition monitoring and prediction for<br />

diaphragm metering pumps 22<br />

Companies – Innovations – Products<br />

Pumps/Vacuum technology 49<br />

Index of Advertisers 64<br />

Impressum 64<br />

Trade fairs and events<br />

DIAM & DDM 66<br />

Compressors und Systems<br />

Energetic use of biogas<br />

Farm energy independence – for a crisis-proof future 68<br />

Screw compressors<br />

GEA compressor important component of new particle<br />

accelerator facility at GSI Helmholtzzentrum<br />

für Schwerionenforschung 72<br />

Compressed air supply<br />

Uninterrupted compressed air supply<br />

with added efficiency 74<br />

Compressed air technology<br />

Compressed air remote monitoring<br />

This is how it’s done – maintenance and service 4.0 76<br />

<strong>Components</strong><br />

Sensors<br />

How to protect pumps from air and gas inclusions 79<br />

Valves<br />

Pure and affordable drinking water for a whole region 82<br />

Operation under high pressure 84<br />

Companies – Innovations – Products<br />

Compressors/Compressed air/<strong>Components</strong> 86<br />

Technical Data Purchasing 91<br />

Intelligent pump technology<br />

Automatic adjustable pump makes life easier in WWTP 28<br />

Report – Industrial hose pumps<br />

Bredel industrial hose pumps convey corrosive media<br />

in flue gas purification 32<br />

Report – Downhole progressing cavity pumps<br />

60 % fewer production losses: Downhole<br />

progressing cavity pumps simplify replacment and reduce<br />

costs with special flush-by unit 35<br />

Report – Intelligent pumping solutions<br />

Energy savings potential with intelligent pumping solutions –<br />

how a beverage producer expects 430,000 €<br />

in energy savings per year 38<br />

Vacuum technology<br />

Vacuum-based leak testing methods<br />

Vacuum-based methods for testing the packaging<br />

of pharmaceutical products for leaks 40<br />

Reduction of production downtime<br />

7 ways to reduce production downtime 46<br />

8<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong>


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PROCESS TECHNOLOGY<br />

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Leading article<br />

Artificial intelligence and the digitalisation<br />

of process components<br />

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Eberhard Schlücker, Dominik Haspel<br />

<strong>Process</strong> components and process<br />

technology systems have moving<br />

fixtures and fittings. Substances<br />

pass through them, they are controlled<br />

electronically or electrically,<br />

moved electrically or with flow<br />

forces. They move liquids, gases<br />

and solids. As a result, forces are<br />

exerted on the component that,<br />

when measurable, also provide information<br />

about the condition or<br />

state. Thus the response to a controlling,<br />

driving or conveying action<br />

necessarily contains information<br />

about the device or machine. This<br />

may be visible directly in the current<br />

profile or indicated by vibrations.<br />

The latter tends to be the result of<br />

pulsing disturbances (all natural frequencies<br />

are excited) and intermittent<br />

events, which are usually typical<br />

for the type of damage.<br />

While the signals that are visible in<br />

load curves and control characteristics<br />

can be analysed relatively well in<br />

a chronological sequence, are easily<br />

and well recognised by computers<br />

and can be used for control purposes,<br />

vibration signals are somewhat more<br />

difficult to analyse and comprehend.<br />

At the same time however, they are<br />

the more interesting sources of information<br />

for (early) fault detection.<br />

They are the first indication we have<br />

of a fault, as soon as a mechanism<br />

develops a very small defect that<br />

can still be repaired in many cases,<br />

but the damage is not yet significant.<br />

Vibration measurements therefore<br />

support genuine early fault detection.<br />

That being said, how do we analyse<br />

and interpret vibrations correctly?<br />

A first step of such an analysis is<br />

to convert the data from the time domain<br />

to the frequency domain with<br />

the Fourier transform (FT). Measurements<br />

in practice consist only of values<br />

at discrete times of measurement.<br />

Consequently, a discrete<br />

Fourier transform is applied that determines<br />

amplitudes for discrete frequency<br />

values. However, these are<br />

always burdened with deviations<br />

due to the leakage effect or frequencies<br />

between two discrete frequency<br />

values. Individual aspects of the discrete<br />

transform can be improved with<br />

the application of various window<br />

functions (Figure 1). For example,<br />

the mathematical leakage effect can<br />

be reduced or the amplitude can be<br />

correctly described, but not both at<br />

once. In addition, measurements always<br />

contain a certain amount of additional<br />

noise, which is also found in<br />

the Fourier-transformed spectrum.<br />

AI-based approaches can be used<br />

here to identify these influences and<br />

correct for the resulting deviations.<br />

Vibration analysis<br />

As a rule, vibration patterns for early<br />

fault detection are based on structure-borne<br />

sound measurements.<br />

Structure-borne sound sensors are<br />

therefore required. Since their functioning<br />

is non-invasive, they can be<br />

easily installed anywhere. Measuring<br />

close to the sound source of the functional<br />

component being monitored is<br />

important here.<br />

Frequency images obtained from<br />

these measurement data using FT<br />

represent an intransparent mass<br />

of information for many, even experts.<br />

One often puzzles over which<br />

peak means what. However, a basic<br />

rule can help: The higher the amplitudes<br />

are overall, the greater the<br />

probability of damage. But to find<br />

out exactly what the damage is, or<br />

to identify initial signs of impending<br />

damage early on, one needs to go<br />

deeper and quickly encounters difficulties.<br />

Algorithms that process the<br />

data and provide additional information<br />

can be extremely helpful here.<br />

The four diagrams in Figure 2<br />

show what errors can occur even<br />

during measurement. On the left,<br />

Fig. 1: Transform results with different<br />

window functions.<br />

you see the signal sequence with a<br />

high sampling rate. Below that is the<br />

Fourier transform that, corresponding<br />

to the measurement signal, exhibits<br />

numerous frequency peaks<br />

and seems difficult to interpret. On<br />

the right, you see the same signal sequence<br />

with a lower sampling rate<br />

and a transform result consisting of<br />

only a few discrete frequencies. It differs<br />

considerably from the spectrum<br />

on the left.<br />

The second rule we can derive<br />

from this is that we need a high sampling<br />

frequency to correctly capture<br />

reality. A good recommendation for<br />

this is based on the natural frequencies<br />

of small components, indicating<br />

a sampling frequency of 20 KHz.<br />

To evaluate such signals, one<br />

now attempts to extract those peaks<br />

from the spectrum as a whole that<br />

belong to actually occurring frequencies<br />

in the measurement signal, and<br />

to exclude those caused by interfering<br />

factors due to the transform.<br />

The peaks extracted in this way and<br />

their corresponding amplitude value<br />

are then used to reconstruct the<br />

10<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong>


Leading article<br />

Signal sequence<br />

Signal sequence<br />

Pressure [bar]<br />

Time [s]<br />

Frequency spectrum<br />

Time [s]<br />

Frequency spectrum<br />

Amplitude [bar]<br />

Amplitude [bar]<br />

Pressure [bar]<br />

Frequency [Hz]<br />

Frequency [Hz]<br />

Fig. 2: Signal sequences with different sampling rates and the corresponding Fourier transforms.<br />

unadulterated signal as accurately as<br />

possible.b Neural networks, for example,<br />

can be used to differentiate<br />

whether a large amplitude value corresponds<br />

to a peak or was caused by<br />

interfering factors. One can imagine a<br />

neural network as an extremely complex<br />

function with a very large number<br />

of variables. The input values for<br />

this function are the spectrum being<br />

evaluated, and the result is a statement<br />

whether there is a peak for<br />

each frequency of the spectrum. With<br />

the skilful construction of this “neural<br />

function”, it can be derived according<br />

to its individual variables. Assuming<br />

one now has training data (input<br />

values and the corresponding correct<br />

answers), these derivations can be<br />

used to determine how the individual<br />

variables have to be changed so<br />

that the result of the function corresponds<br />

as closely as possible to the<br />

correct answers. With a large volume<br />

of such training data, all variables can<br />

thus be optimised so that the total<br />

error of the function as a whole for<br />

the training set is as small a possible.<br />

With a sufficiently large and diverse<br />

training set, one can subsequently<br />

Fig. 3: Peak recognition by a neural network<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong><br />

11


Leading article<br />

assume that the neural network can<br />

represent the underlying principles.<br />

It will therefore obtain corresponding<br />

good results for new, unknown input<br />

data as well.<br />

Results of such a neural network<br />

with corresponding training are<br />

shown in Figure 3. The Convolutional<br />

Neural Network (CNN) used in this<br />

case is composed of a series of mathematical<br />

convolutions. Here the individual<br />

entries in the respective convolution<br />

matrix are the variables to<br />

be optimised. With this construct, the<br />

same processing steps are applied<br />

at every position of the frequency<br />

spectrum. Hereby the principle that<br />

can be determined at a point in the<br />

spectrum from its surrounding values<br />

must be able to define whether<br />

this is a regular peak. Such peaks do<br />

not have to be “learned” separately<br />

for each frequency value, but are<br />

executed in the same way for every<br />

frequency. As a result, the network<br />

then supplies a value between 0 and<br />

1 for each frequency, reflecting how<br />

“certain” the network is that there is<br />

a real peak at the respective position.<br />

As a design parameter, one now still<br />

has to choose a suitable threshold<br />

at which one assumes that there is<br />

in fact a peak. Figure 3 presents an<br />

examination of the influence of this<br />

threshold. A signal of three vibrations<br />

(green markings) and additional<br />

white noise was examined for this<br />

purpose. Here the ratio of the vibration<br />

amplitude to the average noise<br />

intensity and the selected threshold<br />

were varied. The average noise intensity<br />

increases from no noise on the<br />

left to intense noise on the right. The<br />

required threshold for the positive<br />

identification of a peak (red markings)<br />

increases from top to bottom.<br />

One can see that increasing noise<br />

causes additional false positive identifications<br />

(see the right-hand column<br />

in particular). The number of false results<br />

can be reduced by choosing a<br />

higher threshold. However, note that<br />

setting the threshold too high can<br />

also cause false negative results (existing<br />

peaks are missed) (see the bottom<br />

row in particular).<br />

When a suitable threshold is selected,<br />

all real peaks can be identified<br />

and there are few false positive<br />

results, even with intense noise.<br />

Overall it was shown in this case that<br />

the detection of peaks using neural<br />

networks produced better results<br />

than comparable, conventional<br />

peak detection methods. Especially<br />

in cases with high noise levels, neural<br />

networks were able to produce<br />

signifi cantly better results.<br />

This example shows how AIbased<br />

algorithms can complement/<br />

improve classic approaches or support<br />

manual evaluations with additional<br />

information in the evaluation of<br />

vibration spectrums. Such methods<br />

also have potential for subsequent<br />

evaluation steps. A neural network<br />

could provide comparable support in<br />

obtaining a more exact, undisturbed<br />

value for the respective amplitudes of<br />

the individual frequencies.<br />

In contrast to manual evaluation,<br />

algorithms can, for example, take into<br />

account the information from numerous<br />

different window functions at<br />

the same time. Additional application<br />

possibilities for AI-based methods<br />

can also be identified for the subsequent<br />

evaluation of the peaks that<br />

are found. For example, grouping<br />

multiple peaks into a basic vibration<br />

and their corresponding harmonics<br />

is a task one should be able<br />

to automate using machine learning.<br />

Overall, AI-based methods have<br />

great potential for the automation of<br />

evaluation steps that currently have<br />

to be performed manually as a rule.<br />

More elaborate evaluations, which<br />

are currently carried out manually in<br />

isolated cases only, will therefore be<br />

automated in the future and available<br />

for live monitoring.<br />

Consequently, increasingly small<br />

changes in the spectrum can be evaluated.<br />

Changes (and possible impending<br />

damage) can be detected earlier,<br />

and discerning between different<br />

changes (for example, different types<br />

of damage) can be improved.<br />

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Eberhard Schlücker<br />

Prof. (ret.), advisor on hydrogen<br />

and energy issues and Dominik Haspel<br />

12<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong>


14th – 15th June <strong>2023</strong><br />

/ Globana Trade Center Leipzig/ Schkeuditz<br />

Save<br />

the<br />

Date<br />

The largest national<br />

meeting for<br />

industrial valves &<br />

sealing technologies<br />

/ 08th – 09th November <strong>2023</strong><br />

/ Jahrhunderthalle Bochum<br />

DIAM-DDM.DE


Hydrogen<br />

Anything but standard: Elastomer seal<br />

challenges in hydrogen applications<br />

Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Michael Krüger<br />

Mobility, the energy sector and industry<br />

– there is tremendous potential<br />

for modern hydrogen technologies<br />

in many areas. Hydrogen is of<br />

central importance as a versatile<br />

energy carrier and offers new possibilities<br />

for production processes<br />

as a chemical raw material. Therefore,<br />

science and industry experts<br />

are conducting intensive research<br />

in the vast field of hydrogen technologies<br />

and continuously develop<br />

their practical applications. The optimal<br />

coordination of components is<br />

among the most important success<br />

factors here. In particular, the seals<br />

being used are of the greatest importance<br />

in terms of functionality.<br />

Countless projects in the mechanical<br />

engineering segment are therefore<br />

dedicated to this topic. A central difficulty<br />

at this juncture for both users<br />

and seal manufacturers is that hydrogen<br />

projects and their applications<br />

are rarely comparable to each other.<br />

This difficulty begins with the umbrella<br />

term “hydrogen applications”. It describes<br />

an extensive domain starting<br />

with H 2<br />

production and extending to<br />

transportation and distribution as well<br />

as the use and consumption of hydrogen.<br />

Many projects are still in the development<br />

phase, which means development<br />

teams are not making any<br />

project details public, protecting their<br />

development advantage for market<br />

strategy reasons. This in turn tends<br />

to produce individual solutions rather<br />

than standard applications.<br />

Choosing a suitable elastomer<br />

sealing material in the hydrogen environment<br />

is of vital importance. All<br />

operating parameters that occur in a<br />

real-world application must be taken<br />

into account.<br />

The following requirements for<br />

sealing materials (selection) have to<br />

be clarified:<br />

− Chemical resistance for all media<br />

that may come into contact with<br />

the seal (during operation, during<br />

assembly)<br />

− Temperature resistance (ambient<br />

temperature, operating temperature,<br />

also absolute short-term peak<br />

temperatures)<br />

− Pressure resistance, also in case of<br />

pronounced pressure fluctuations<br />

(resistance to explosive decompression<br />

where applicable)<br />

− Good physical properties (compressive<br />

deformation test, stress<br />

relaxation)<br />

− Low permeation (gas permeability)<br />

Hydrogen permeation<br />

Hydrogen permeation is an important<br />

selection criterion. Since the colourless<br />

and odourless H 2<br />

gas is highly<br />

inflammable and the production of<br />

molecular hydrogen is complicated<br />

and expensive, preventing volatilisation<br />

is essential for both safety and<br />

cost reasons. The H 2<br />

permeation coefficient<br />

varies considerably between<br />

the ASTM classes (elastomer material<br />

groups) and there are significant differences<br />

between the materials within<br />

an ASTM class as well. VMQ (silicone),<br />

for example, has a very poor<br />

permeation coefficient, EPDM has a<br />

much better one and FKM (fluororubber)<br />

has the best value in comparison.<br />

The temperature has a significant influence<br />

on the result as well. A value<br />

determined at 23 °C may, for example,<br />

exhibit a factor of +5 for EPDM<br />

Fig. 1: Test setup H 2<br />

permeation test (all photos © : COG<br />

materials and a factor of +3 to over 16<br />

for FKM at 80 °C. Tested materials are<br />

therefore clearly recommended in H 2<br />

applications.<br />

The field of application itself can<br />

also be an important selection criterion.<br />

Seals for natural gas containing<br />

hydrogen (in distribution/transport,<br />

for example) have to meet the<br />

requirements of the DVGW:<br />

− Gases according to DVGW worksheet<br />

G 260 (max. hydrogen content<br />

10 %)<br />

− DIN-DVGW certification of the sealing<br />

material according to DIN<br />

EN 549 and/or DIN EN 682<br />

− Typical operating temperature<br />

ranges:<br />

− DIN EN 549: -20 °C to +80 °C<br />

(class B2)<br />

− DIN EN 682: -15°C to +50°C<br />

(type GBL)<br />

− Typical pressure ranges:<br />

− Up to 5 bar (DIN EN 549)<br />

− Up to 100 bar (DIN EN 682)<br />

Fig. 2: Material exposure tests<br />

14 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong>


Hydrogen<br />

Fig. 3: Permeation test evaluation – “Vi 840”<br />

as high-quality FKM comparison material<br />

A comprehensive survey of the application<br />

process is essential for the selection<br />

of materials.<br />

Practical example –<br />

hydrogen electrolyser<br />

Permeability is not always the decisive<br />

selection criterion. A manufacturer of<br />

AEM (anion exchange membrane)<br />

electrolysers for hydrogen production<br />

experienced major problems with the<br />

elastomer seals. The chosen NBR material<br />

failed after a short time. The<br />

medium in the electrolyser was 5 %<br />

caustic potash solution (KOH) at max.<br />

65 °C. The seal manufacturer COG<br />

suggested a peroxide cross-linked<br />

EPDM as a suitable material. Surprisingly<br />

this too failed after approximately<br />

100 hours. Exposure tests in caustic<br />

potash solution (KOH 5 %) at 65 °C did<br />

not result in any significant material<br />

changes. It was therefore presumed<br />

that the material incompatibility was<br />

related to the materials used in the<br />

electrolyser itself. AEM electrolysis requires<br />

a catalyst and nickel was used<br />

in this case. Nickel is known to be<br />

“toxic” to rubber. Ethylene propylene<br />

diene monomers (EPDM) are terpolymers<br />

made of ethylene, propylene<br />

and diene. Dienes contain two carbon-carbon<br />

double bonds (C=C double<br />

bonds). Nickel attacks precisely<br />

those double bonds in diene and destroys<br />

the rubber.<br />

COG then proposed using an<br />

ethy lene propylene copolymer (EPM).<br />

This rubber does not contain diene<br />

and therefore has no double bonds<br />

in the polymer. Its resistance to caustic<br />

potash solution in the specified<br />

temperature range is very good. The<br />

chosen EPM O-ring exhibited no significant<br />

changes after being used for<br />

more than 6000 hours.<br />

This example shows that different<br />

and in part complex circumstances<br />

may play a significant role in the<br />

evalu ation of suitable sealing materials<br />

for hydrogen projects.<br />

H 2<br />

Sealing flagship project<br />

The independent manufacturer<br />

C. Otto Gehrckens (COG) has developed<br />

the new H 2<br />

Sealing series of<br />

sealing materials for hydrogen applications.<br />

The company has accumulated<br />

extensive experience in<br />

various hydrogen projects and developed<br />

sealing solutions for a wide<br />

range of customers. This has resulted<br />

in two high-performance materials<br />

covering a broad range of hydrogen<br />

applications: An FKM and an EPDM<br />

compound specifically designed for<br />

hydrogen applications. Both materials<br />

are the result of intensive development<br />

efforts by the seal manufacturer<br />

and have proven their optimal<br />

suitability for use in hydrogen technologies<br />

in external tests of their hydrogen<br />

permeability (gas permeability)<br />

by an independent laboratory.<br />

Fig. 4: COG H 2<br />

Sealing hydrogen seal series<br />

Measuring the hydrogen permeability<br />

using an increasing pressure method<br />

based on DIN 53380 takes centre<br />

stage in the extensive test series.<br />

The FKM material Vi 208 with a<br />

hardness of 80 Shore A developed by<br />

the seal experts passed the test convincingly<br />

with a very good hydrogen<br />

permeation coefficient of just 281 Ncm 3<br />

mally expected for FKM compounds. A<br />

high chemical resistance and a broad<br />

operating temperature range from -10<br />

to +200 °C complete the material profile.<br />

The newly developed EPDM AP<br />

208 also passed the H 2<br />

permeation<br />

test with very convincing values for<br />

an EPDM material (hydrogen permeation<br />

coefficient: 1317 Ncm 3 mm m -2<br />

day -1 bar -1 ). With a compression set of<br />


Hydrogen<br />

Unafraid of hydrogen<br />

Dipl.-Ing. Norbert Weimer<br />

The topic in this paper is the sealing<br />

of hydrogen using static flat gaskets<br />

made of fibrous materials (FA). Hydrogen<br />

is being hailed as the “oil of<br />

the future”, underlining how many<br />

designers and practitioners will<br />

have to become familiar with using<br />

it in their construction projects,<br />

plant designs, procurement scenarios<br />

and assembly activities. This<br />

includes determining how to seal<br />

components properly when working<br />

with hydrogen. The aim of this<br />

article is to raise awareness of this<br />

issue and provide information to enable<br />

proper decision-making for the<br />

material selection and the installation<br />

situation.<br />

One of the most common forms of<br />

sealing is static sealing, where the<br />

components to be sealed remain<br />

immobile in relation to each other.<br />

With these connections, considerable<br />

pressure is exerted on the sealing<br />

material installed between the<br />

flanges - the high-pressure seal.<br />

To seal properly, the material<br />

used must be adaptable and migrate<br />

into the roughness of the flange surface<br />

as well as compensate for its<br />

waviness. Conversely, despite the<br />

high forces involved, the material<br />

must remain intact - a typical technical<br />

compromise.<br />

Klinger has developed a manufacturing<br />

process to meet this compromise:<br />

The calendering process involves<br />

processing a mixture of fibres<br />

and fillers with elastomer as a binder<br />

into a sealing sheet on a hot roller by<br />

exerting enormous pressure.<br />

The result is a highly resilient<br />

seal, typically capable of withstanding<br />

loads of over 200 MPa (approx.<br />

2 tonnes per cm²) at room temperature,<br />

which has the smallest of pores<br />

and allows adaptation to the surface<br />

roughness by compressing the pores<br />

and the elastomer.<br />

Pressing together, e. g. via screws,<br />

prevents surface leakage and leakage<br />

through the sealing material - the<br />

higher the sealing force, the tighter<br />

the connection.<br />

Leakage requirements<br />

for gas supply<br />

The DIN-DVGW type test according<br />

to DIN 3535-6 of April 2019 specifies<br />

corresponding values. The specific<br />

Static gaskets - Soft gaskets<br />

Fig. 2: Sealing surface and seal<br />

leakage rate must be ≤ 0.1 mg/(s x m).<br />

For FA gasket materials, a gasket<br />

thickness of 2.0 mm, internal pressure<br />

of 40 bar and surface pressure<br />

of 32 MPa are assumed. The test gas<br />

is nitrogen.<br />

So far, we have been using fossil<br />

media such as natural gas (predominantly<br />

methane) and propane and<br />

butane as standards for our energy<br />

supply. For these gases, the tightness<br />

requirements are sufficient - but<br />

what about hydrogen?<br />

Does hydrogen differ from the<br />

usual fuel gases?<br />

Fig. 1: Flange with high-pressure seal (Photo © : KLINGER)<br />

Hydrogen gas has a low density and<br />

the atom has very low spatial expansion.<br />

In fact, it is the smallest atom in<br />

16 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong>


Hydrogen<br />

the periodic table of elements. This is<br />

why, in theory, it traverses the smallest<br />

channels with greater ease than<br />

larger atoms. The reality, however, is<br />

different, because hydrogen is only<br />

atomic when produced and immediately<br />

combines with the next hydrogen<br />

atom to form the hydrogen molecule<br />

H 2<br />

, which can be pictured in the<br />

shape of a dumbbell. Nevertheless,<br />

the fuel gases having proliferated to<br />

date, methane CH 4<br />

(the main component<br />

of natural gas), propane C 3<br />

H 8<br />

and butane C 4<br />

H 10<br />

are all clearly larger.<br />

Recent years have seen a growing<br />

shift in the use of helium (He) rather<br />

than nitrogen as the test gas for<br />

measuring any leakage from sealed<br />

joints. Accordingly, now we have the<br />

second-smallest atom in the periodic<br />

table of elements as our standard<br />

test gas, which is usable to detect<br />

the smallest leaks. Rather than being<br />

rigid, our gas particles move due<br />

to Brownian molecular motion. If we<br />

now compare the kinetic diameters<br />

of the relevant gas particles, we see<br />

that the helium atom and hydrogen<br />

molecule are comparable in size.<br />

In the table of kinetic diameters<br />

(www.arnold-chemie.de ) we see<br />

hydrogen H 2<br />

helium He<br />

and for methane CH 4<br />

3.8 Å<br />

where 1 Å = 0.1 nm<br />

2.3 – 2.9 Å<br />

2.6 – 2.7 Å<br />

And what we notice is that hydrogen,<br />

although “smaller” than methane,<br />

is on a par with our test gas helium,<br />

size-wise. Similarly, previous actual<br />

comparative measurements have<br />

shown that, despite differences in the<br />

quantities of hydrogen and helium<br />

leaking, they are of the same order of<br />

magnitude.<br />

One other thing to note about hydrogen<br />

is that it burns faster than natural<br />

gas, which explains the smaller<br />

distances between the burner nozzle<br />

and flame in gas burners. As a result,<br />

both the flame detection technology<br />

and the material selection of the<br />

burner nozzle and other parameters<br />

have to be adjusted. Furthermore,<br />

unlike other gases, hydrogen has a<br />

negative Joule-Thompson effect. But<br />

none of this is relevant in the context<br />

of tightness of connections.<br />

What practical experience<br />

do you have?<br />

Hydrogen has been a common raw<br />

material in the chemical industry for<br />

many years. According to the VCI, hydrogen<br />

is crucial here and forms the<br />

starting point of important chemical<br />

value chains. Already today, about<br />

12.5 billion cubic metres of hydrogen<br />

are used annually in Germany (according<br />

to vci.de).<br />

The town gas used in the past<br />

contained hydrogen up to around<br />

50 %. Hydrogen is not chemically aggressive<br />

and does not attack the usual<br />

fibre, graphite and PTFE sealing<br />

materials used.<br />

Ample proof of our strong familiarity<br />

with the medium and the fact<br />

we have long been successfully implementing<br />

corresponding sealing<br />

strategies.<br />

A look at the potential dangers<br />

of hydrogen<br />

As with all fuel gases, there is also a<br />

risk of unintentional combustion in<br />

the form of an explosion with hydrogen.<br />

And here, the explosion limits<br />

of the various fuel gases must be<br />

observed. The lower explosion limit<br />

(LEL) in air is 4 vol% for hydrogen and<br />

4.4 vol% for methane - which resembles<br />

the figures just mentioned. The<br />

upper explosion limits, however, at<br />

77 vol% H 2<br />

and 16.5 vol% CH 4<br />

are<br />

poles apart.<br />

Within CEN/TC 58 - Safety and<br />

control devices for Burners and appliances<br />

burning gaseous or liquid<br />

fuels - there is working group 15,<br />

which handles the subject of hydrogen<br />

and prepares information for international<br />

standardisation. Among<br />

other things, the “CEN/TC 58 WG 15<br />

evaluations 2022-04-14” presentation<br />

deals with a comparison of fuel<br />

gases methane, propane and butane<br />

with hydrogen and hydrogen/natural<br />

gas mixtures 20 % to 80 % with a view<br />

to gas installation equipment. Gas fixtures<br />

installed, like heating system<br />

burners, appliances and household<br />

devices, offer wide-ranging potential<br />

for future hydrogen applications.<br />

With all this in mind, the working<br />

group performed a hazard assessment,<br />

the scope of which included extensive<br />

calculations and initial measurements<br />

to get a clear picture.<br />

The danger from combustible<br />

gases is influenced not only by their<br />

leakage behaviour but also their<br />

ignit ability. So the working group assessed<br />

such influences and described<br />

them mathematically. Clearly, although<br />

the hazard potential of hydrogen<br />

exceeds that of natural gas<br />

(methane), it remains well below that<br />

of propane and butane.<br />

Conclusion<br />

1. We have positive experience with<br />

our well-known and high-quality<br />

fibre-based gaskets sealing materials<br />

from a history of safe sealing of hydrogen.<br />

2. Independent leakage measurements<br />

also show that we are within<br />

the usual ranges for fuel gases with<br />

hydrogen.<br />

3. And with the potential explosion<br />

hazard in mind, our experience with<br />

hydrogen underlines our progress<br />

within a familiar framework that<br />

has been safely controlled for many<br />

years.<br />

In sum, therefore, we see no need<br />

to fear hydrogen as a future carbon-<br />

free energy carrier. Contingent<br />

on appropriate design and having<br />

professionals in to install, hydrogen<br />

can be a safe means of achieving decarbonisation.<br />

The hydrogen age is<br />

on the horizon!<br />

The Author: Dipl.-Ing. Norbert Weimer,<br />

KLINGER GmbH, Idstein, Germany<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong><br />

17


Cover story<br />

100 % availability, 0 % problems<br />

AERZEN packages ensure reliable transport processes<br />

at A+S BioTec GmbH<br />

Sebastian Meißler<br />

Availability and reliability have top<br />

priority at A+S BioTec GmbH. For<br />

this reason, the Saarland-based<br />

family business has exclusively used<br />

blowers and compressors from<br />

Aerzen for the pneumatic conveying<br />

of its raw materials and products for<br />

more than 50 years. The packages<br />

provide absolutely oil- and absorption<br />

material-free air and guarantee<br />

a safe, reliable material flow. Service<br />

and support are also excellent<br />

in every respect.<br />

Whether oat flakes, apricot kernels<br />

or bran: when it comes to the production,<br />

processing and refinement<br />

of raw materials for the food, cosmetics,<br />

technology and pharmaceutical<br />

industries, no one can ignore<br />

A+S BioTec GmbH. The family-owned<br />

company with headquarters in Völklingen,<br />

Saarland, specialises in grinding,<br />

drying, sieving, mixing, roasting<br />

and packaging and is one of the<br />

leading companies in this branch.<br />

The company also makes no compromises<br />

when it comes to blower technology<br />

and has relied on the robust<br />

and reliable packages from AERZEN<br />

for over 50 years. Approximately 40<br />

positive displacement blowers and<br />

two screw compressors guarantee<br />

maximum safety and availability in<br />

pneumatic conveying of powdery and<br />

small-grained materials.<br />

Development, production and<br />

finishing for large-scale industry<br />

A+S BioTec GmbH is part of the globally<br />

active Abel+Schäfer Group, which<br />

was founded as a milling company in<br />

1892. The company looks back on a<br />

long tradition, is characterised by innovations<br />

and is still family-owned<br />

today. In the meantime, the fifth generation<br />

has been steering the fortunes<br />

of the traditional company.<br />

Abel+Schäfer was one of the first<br />

Fig. 1: A+S BioTec GmbH at the Völklingen site is a specialist in the development, manufacture<br />

and refinement of raw materials and products (all photos © : AERZEN)<br />

manufacturers worldwide to launch<br />

baking premixes on the market in the<br />

middle of the 20 th century and has<br />

been successfully serving the growing<br />

demand ever since. Today, the<br />

group of companies produces at 14<br />

locations around the globe.<br />

In Völklingen, the focus is still on<br />

mill technology. The core areas here<br />

are on comminution as well as mixing<br />

and drying. The spectrum ranges<br />

from powdered raw materials to fermented<br />

or thermally treated to protein-enriched<br />

products. Of course,<br />

also in organic, kosher and halal as<br />

well as GMO- and allergen-free. In addition<br />

to its own products, the company<br />

makes its modern, flexible technology<br />

as well as its know-how and<br />

manpower available to contract customers<br />

as part of contract manufacturing<br />

services.<br />

Oil-free conveying air for transport<br />

from A to B<br />

From the delivery of the raw material<br />

to the finished end product, the<br />

materials go through several process<br />

steps and sometimes have to travel<br />

long distances for this. For example,<br />

the piping from the feed hopper on<br />

the ground floor extends over five<br />

Fig. 2: Via the silver pipe, the raw material is<br />

transported by AERZEN conveying air from<br />

the ground floor up to the fifth floor in the<br />

pre-silo for grinding<br />

18 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong>


Cover story<br />

“We produce 24 hours a day, five<br />

days a week. This is why we need 100<br />

per cent machine availability,” emphasises<br />

the Technical Manager at<br />

the Völklingen site. Reliability has top<br />

priority, and so has low downtime.<br />

“For this reason, we have been using<br />

blowers from Aerzen exclusively for<br />

more than 50 years. These machines<br />

are powerful, robust, need only little<br />

maintenance and are durable. It just<br />

fits nicely,” he says and adds: “What<br />

I particularly appreciate about the<br />

supplier is the availability of the employees.<br />

When the going gets tough,<br />

we have a contact person available<br />

at all times. A great product and a<br />

great team.”<br />

Fig. 3: In micronisation, the products are finely ground. Positive displacement blowers are<br />

used for the discharge (silver pipe)<br />

Positive displacement blowers are<br />

tough endurance runners<br />

Fig. 4: Via the bent silver pipe, the end product enters the pre-silo for bagging<br />

The proverbial reliability of the positive<br />

displacement blowers has its reason:<br />

All core components itself, from<br />

the package to the control system,<br />

are manufactured in-house. In doing<br />

so, the family business attaches great<br />

importance to quality and sustainability.<br />

Only high-quality materials are<br />

used for the production. The development,<br />

production, distribution, assembly<br />

and maintenance of the company’s<br />

products as well as the quality<br />

management system have been certified<br />

several times. In 1868, the familyowned<br />

company from Lower Saxony<br />

brought Europe’s first positive displacement<br />

blower onto the market.<br />

floors until it reaches the pre-silo for<br />

grinding under the roof. Even the<br />

transport after grinding to the bagging<br />

plant, where the filling into 25 kg<br />

bags or big bags takes place, is not<br />

exactly a stone’s throw. This is where<br />

the positive displacement blowers<br />

from the specialists in Aerzen come<br />

into play. The approximately 40 positive<br />

displacement blowers provide<br />

air which is absolutely free of oil<br />

and absorption material. With volume<br />

flows between 3 and 20 m³/min,<br />

a conveying speed of 25 to 30 m/s<br />

and a conveying pressure of 300 to<br />

500 mbar, they ensure efficient, gentle<br />

and reliable transport of the sensitive<br />

bulk materials.<br />

Fig. 5: The blower cellar houses the majority of the packages<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong><br />

19


Cover story<br />

These stages and packages are now<br />

among the most successful compressors<br />

ever.<br />

First choice for generating pneumatic<br />

conveying air<br />

The positive displacement blowers<br />

are characterised by high efficiency,<br />

low maintenance costs, reduced lifecycle<br />

costs, compactness as well as<br />

easy handling. They are considered<br />

the first choice for generating pneumatic<br />

conveying air due to their high<br />

quality and reliability. These blowers<br />

achieve intake volume flows between<br />

30 and 15,000 m³/h with a control<br />

range of 25 % to 100 % and conveying<br />

pressures of up to 1 bar positive<br />

pressure or differential pressures of<br />

up to 1,000 mbar(g). The drive concept<br />

with belt drive enables optimum<br />

volume flow design, and subsequent<br />

power adjustments can also<br />

be implemented quickly and easily.<br />

A+S BioTec GmbH and its production<br />

facility use this flexibility in order to<br />

react in a fast and easy way to customers’<br />

needs.<br />

The blower specialist is ISO<br />

22000 certified, guarantees oil-free<br />

operation according to ISO 8573-1,<br />

class 0 and trusts in silencers without<br />

absorption material. This means<br />

that the machines meet the highest<br />

food safety requirements and guarantee<br />

100 % product purity. The process<br />

air is guaranteed free of impurities<br />

such as oil, abrasion or insulation<br />

material.<br />

In addition to the 40 positive displacement<br />

blowers, the Saarland<br />

company also uses two VML screw<br />

compressors with start unloading<br />

device. The single stage packages<br />

can overcome a differential pressure<br />

Fig. 6: Two VML screw compressors are<br />

used to unload the trucks<br />

of 3,500 mbar and are thus the perfect<br />

choice for unloading the delivering<br />

silo vehicles high up into the silos.<br />

Annual maintenance guarantees<br />

optimum availability<br />

The supplier has been manufacturing<br />

quality products for over 150<br />

years and is today one of the world’s<br />

leading application specialists in the<br />

conveying and compression of gases.<br />

The high level of customer orientation<br />

is not only reflected in the product<br />

portfolio, but also in the range<br />

of services. Thanks to bespoke offers<br />

for every phase of the machines’<br />

lives, the specialist supports its customers<br />

in the maintenance and servicing<br />

of their packages. Abel+Schäfer<br />

at the Völklingen site also likes to rely<br />

on the know-how of the service technicians<br />

and has all blowers and compressors<br />

inspected thoroughly once<br />

a year. The maintenance work in-<br />

cludes, among other things, changing<br />

the oil, changing the suction filter<br />

and replacing the components for the<br />

power transmission (V-belts, clamping<br />

bushes). The condition of the<br />

packages is also examined and possible<br />

need for repair is determined.<br />

“The maintenance contract is a great<br />

advantage for us. This allows us to<br />

concentrate on our core tasks and at<br />

the same time benefit from optimal<br />

availabili ty,” the Technical Manager<br />

makes clear and is pleased: “Since we<br />

have had the maintenance contract -<br />

that is, for about ten years - there has<br />

not been a single machine failure.”<br />

Relying on the proven<br />

A+S BioTec GmbH is at home in the<br />

food world, but also produces for the<br />

cosmetics and technology industries.<br />

And the tendency is increasing, because<br />

natural, plant-based materials<br />

- as they are exclusively processed in<br />

Völklingen - are in vogue. For example,<br />

specially processed flour is needed for<br />

glue production, crushed grain husks<br />

for plastic profiles or ground apricot<br />

kernels for face and body scrubs.<br />

New fields of application, new<br />

methods, new processes: The company<br />

adapts to the requirements of<br />

its customers. One thing, however,<br />

will not change in the near future:<br />

the blower technology for pneumatic<br />

conveying comes from the supplier<br />

from Aerzen, which is considered to<br />

be well supplied all around.<br />

The Author: Sebastian Meißler,<br />

Marketing, Communication &<br />

Branding Maschinenfabrik Aerzen<br />

GmbH, Aerzen, Germany<br />

20 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong>


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info@uraca.de • www.uraca.com


Pumps and Systems<br />

Diaphragm metering pumps<br />

Condition monitoring and prediction for<br />

diaphragm metering pumps<br />

Detect and avoid failures at an early stage<br />

Moritz Pastow<br />

Pump and plant availability are<br />

key factors for success in manufacturing<br />

companies. Production<br />

standstills mean sales losses. Due<br />

to more complex production systems<br />

and increasingly rigorous requirements<br />

for specific operator<br />

know-how, support from digital<br />

monitoring and analysis systems is<br />

necessary now in order to remain<br />

competitive in the future.<br />

1. Diaphragm metering pump<br />

trends in the process industry<br />

Pumps are often primary units in<br />

the process industry. Diaphragm<br />

metering pumps are particularly<br />

used in critical processes. The trouble-free<br />

and efficient operation of<br />

the installed pumps is crucial for a<br />

safe and profitable plant.<br />

The major driver of innovation<br />

in the process industry is digitalization<br />

– and it doesn’t stop at pumps.<br />

It is true that a diaphragm metering<br />

pump is initially a mechanical product<br />

and, with proper maintenance,<br />

it is also quite durable and troublefree.<br />

Nevertheless, continuous operational<br />

monitoring is necessary<br />

in order to detect process deviations<br />

and damage in time. In addition,<br />

the requirements for energy<br />

efficiency and safety are becoming<br />

more stringent.<br />

As a result, various trends are<br />

visible in numerous companies:<br />

Smart Factory<br />

The process industry is in the<br />

middle of a digital transformation.<br />

Factories are becoming increasingly<br />

networked and data exchange both<br />

within and between process chains<br />

is increasing. Since pumps are often<br />

operation-criti cal units but few have<br />

a digital moni toring system, there is<br />

neither data nor characteristic values<br />

for many processes. Many operators<br />

use their pump based on experience<br />

and follow cyclical or reactive<br />

maintenance strategies.<br />

System complexity<br />

The complexity of production systems<br />

is continuously increasing.<br />

This is related to the requirements<br />

for quality and process reliability, as<br />

well as to the general digitalization of<br />

many production facilities.<br />

Know-how<br />

The changes in the labor market also<br />

impact the day-to-day operations in<br />

the process industry. More and more<br />

experienced employees are retiring,<br />

turnover is rising and specific process<br />

and plant knowledge is declining.<br />

For this reason, many operators<br />

are increasingly turning to digital<br />

monitoring and support systems.<br />

Safety and environmental<br />

requirements<br />

The requirements for operational<br />

safety are increasing, and characteristic<br />

values that reflect the ecological<br />

footprint of production are taking<br />

on greater importance. The comprehensive<br />

environmental report has<br />

long been more than a marketing<br />

gimmick for companies. For investors,<br />

authorities and employees, it<br />

is an essential factor for evaluation,<br />

auditing or personal identification.<br />

Energy management<br />

The transformation in the energy<br />

sector directly affects the process industry.<br />

Pumps in the process industry<br />

often run 24/7 and are thus major<br />

consumers of energy. Optimizing<br />

their efficiency can have a significant<br />

impact on the energy efficiency of<br />

the entire plant. But here, too, evaluation<br />

requires characteristic values.<br />

2. Pump monitoring requirements<br />

Based on the trends in the process industry,<br />

various focal points can be derived<br />

for monitoring systems for diaphragm<br />

metering pumps.<br />

Condition monitoring and<br />

predication<br />

First of all, the operating states of the<br />

pump must be monitored and deviations<br />

from target values must be detected<br />

in good time. In the process,<br />

various parts of the pump must be<br />

monitored in a specific context:<br />

– Drive unit<br />

– Hydraulic system<br />

– Pump head<br />

– Valves<br />

System monitoring<br />

Within the plant, the pump can be<br />

used as a sensor for the complete<br />

system. With diagnostics collected<br />

in the pump, it is possible to derive<br />

statements about the system status:<br />

– Piping suction side<br />

– Piping pressure side<br />

– Pulsation<br />

– Flow rate<br />

– Fluid state<br />

Energy management and efficiency<br />

By measuring incoming energy<br />

and hydraulic power, it is not only<br />

possible to determine efficiency and<br />

CO 2<br />

balance, but also to diagnose material-related<br />

signs of wear.<br />

– Efficiency<br />

– CO 2<br />

balance<br />

– Load collectives<br />

3. Digital monitoring and operational<br />

support<br />

LEWA Smart Monitoring is a monitoring<br />

system consisting of sensors,<br />

a programmable logic controller<br />

(PLC), an industrial PC (IPC) and<br />

22 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong>


Pumps and Systems<br />

Diaphragm metering pumps<br />

Fig. 1: Structure of LEWA Smart Monitoring<br />

data analysis for new and existing<br />

pumps. The system determines<br />

characteristic values and key performance<br />

indicators. There is no process<br />

control intervention or direct<br />

contact between the sensor system<br />

and the conveyed fluid.<br />

With parameter-based condition<br />

monitoring, operators detect<br />

and monitor their pumps proactively.<br />

They can also optimize the overall<br />

output and robustness of their<br />

pump and piping systems. This increases<br />

the efficiency of their entire<br />

production plant.<br />

Characteristic value determination<br />

is based on recording measured<br />

variables such as structure-borne<br />

noise, hydraulic pressure and trigger.<br />

To get results, 2,000 signals per<br />

pump head are processed per second.<br />

These signals are recorded by<br />

the connected PLC.<br />

The characteristic values and diagnoses<br />

are output and transmitted<br />

via various interfaces. The IPC has a<br />

web-based interface for making settings<br />

and visualizing the determined<br />

characteristic values and diagnoses.<br />

An OPC UA server is provided for<br />

transmission to a control center.<br />

In addition, characteristic values<br />

and diagnoses can be transmitted<br />

to the LEWA cloud and the customer<br />

portal via an Internet connection.<br />

Overview of diagnosis<br />

Fig. 2: Diagnoses with LEWA Smart Monitoring<br />

Hydraulic system: Diagnoses that<br />

are possible based on the analysis of<br />

the hydraulic operation of the pump<br />

Drive unit: Diagnoses that enable<br />

statements to be made about the action<br />

and condition of the pump unit<br />

Valves: Statements on the condition<br />

of valves on the suction and discharge<br />

sides of the pump<br />

Pump head: Diagnoses regarding the<br />

pump head and the diaphragm<br />

System: Diagnoses regarding the<br />

connected system, which consists of<br />

piping, pulsation dampers and MSR<br />

technology<br />

Table 1: Pump design<br />

5. Use case: Data-based failure<br />

prevention and root cause analysis<br />

As described above, the various requirements<br />

for a monitoring solution<br />

for diaphragm metering pumps can<br />

be summarized in the categories of<br />

condition monitoring and prediction,<br />

system monitoring and energy management<br />

& economy.<br />

In the following, various use cases<br />

are described based on the practical<br />

use of a Smart Monitoring System<br />

in a metering system. The characteristic<br />

values used to describe the use<br />

4. Smart Monitoring System<br />

performance<br />

The following diagram shows the possible<br />

diagnoses and characteristic<br />

values in the cross-section of a diaphragm<br />

metering pump. A distinction<br />

is made between five main areas for<br />

diagnostics.<br />

Bar force [N] 2000<br />

Stroke adjustment type<br />

Electric<br />

Stroke frequency max [min -1 ] 163<br />

Metering flow at pmax [l/h] 367<br />

Max. perm. working pressure [bar] 19.5<br />

Motor power [kW] 0.55<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong><br />

23


Pumps and Systems<br />

Diaphragm metering pumps<br />

Table 2: Operating fluid<br />

Fluid<br />

Aqueous<br />

Operating temperature [°C] 20<br />

Density [g/cm 3 ] 1.00<br />

cases are standardized. This means In the metering application, the deterioration<br />

of the valve condition due to<br />

that the set point is represented by<br />

the value 1 and the deviations refer<br />

to this value. In the following, we could already be measured at time t 1<br />

an increased structure-borne noise<br />

.<br />

will therefore speak of “standardized The operator receives a warning from<br />

characteristic values.”<br />

the Smart Monitoring System that<br />

the limit value has been exceeded. At<br />

6. Predictively measure valve wear this point, the valve wear has no influence<br />

on the performance of the<br />

In processes with abrasive fluids and plant, which is visible in the flow rate<br />

high pressures, the valves of diaphragm<br />

metering pumps are subject At time t 2<br />

(cf. Fig. 5).<br />

, the flow rate measurement<br />

also shows that the limit value<br />

to particularly high stress. Valve wear<br />

affects the sealing ability of the pump has been exceeded. The valve wear<br />

head during the stroke and thus the is now so advanced that it has a<br />

volumetric performance of the pump. nega tive effect on the performance<br />

For this reason, it is important for operators<br />

to monitor valve wear in or-<br />

Without valve monitoring, wear<br />

of the plant.<br />

der to schedule maintenance to avoid only becomes measurable when the<br />

unplanned shutdowns. It must also flow rate in the piping decreases (t 2<br />

).<br />

be ensured that the process quality is At this point, the process has already<br />

not impaired by valve wear.<br />

been disrupted and controlled main-<br />

Fig. 4: Comparison of worn valve set (l) and as-new valve set (r)<br />

tenance planning is no longer possible.<br />

With valve monitoring, signs<br />

of wear can be detected before they<br />

have a negative impact on the process<br />

(t 1<br />

).<br />

Viscosity [mPa·s] 1.04<br />

Plant diagram (P&ID)<br />

Fig. 3: Design of the pilot plant<br />

Fig. 5: Curve of structure-borne noise<br />

measurement (top) and flow rate (below)<br />

Identify worn valves<br />

With multi-head pumps in particular,<br />

it is difficult to detect wear.<br />

Both the damage pattern and the<br />

affected valve must be identified.<br />

The previous example showed how<br />

valve wear is detected before it<br />

has a nega tive effect on the performance<br />

of the plant.<br />

With the Smart Monitoring System,<br />

each valve in all pump heads<br />

can be analyzed individually, so that<br />

the cause of the fault can be determined<br />

precisely. Analyzing the individual<br />

pump heads shows that<br />

the structure-borne noise has increased<br />

in the second pump head (B)<br />

(Cf. Fig. 6). In this case, the Smart<br />

Monitoring System issues a plain text<br />

message about the valve wear that<br />

is occurring and also indicates which<br />

valve in which pump head is affected.<br />

24 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong>


Pumps and Systems<br />

Diaphragm metering pumps<br />

Conclusion<br />

Valve monitoring not only enables<br />

valve wear to be measured before it<br />

affects plant operation. It also makes<br />

the exact localization of the affected<br />

valves possible. This creates the basis<br />

for targeted, condition-oriented and<br />

predictive maintenance.<br />

7. Prevent diaphragm ruptures<br />

Fig. 6: Structure-borne noise measurement<br />

across all pump heads<br />

Diaphragm ruptures are always critical<br />

for diaphragm metering pumps<br />

and lead to immediate process interruption.<br />

Since diaphragm ruptures<br />

can have various causes, prevention<br />

is difficult. While diaphragm ruptures<br />

due to foreign bodies in the fluid or<br />

wear cannot be predicted, hydraulically<br />

induced diaphragm ruptures are<br />

easy to identify in certain operating<br />

situations.<br />

The Smart Monitoring System<br />

determines the length of the “snifting<br />

phase” (leak supplement phase)<br />

for various diagnoses. In the sniffing<br />

phase, the hydraulic oil lost during<br />

the pressure phase due to internal<br />

leakage in the pump head is replenished.<br />

When the length of the sniffing<br />

phase (t 1<br />

) decreases, a condition develops<br />

that leads to diaphragm rupture<br />

(t 2<br />

) (Cf. Fig. 7). The system issues<br />

a warning when the sniffing phase<br />

can no longer be measured. In many<br />

cases, operators can see in good time<br />

when a hydraulically induced diaphragm<br />

rupture is imminent and can<br />

react accordingly.<br />

Fig. 7: Measurement of the sniffing phase<br />

at the pump head<br />

Conclusion<br />

Monitoring pump hydraulics enables<br />

undesirable conditions to be detected<br />

in good time and prevents hydraulically<br />

induced diaphragm ruptures.<br />

Monitoring makes controlled shutdown<br />

and maintenance possible.<br />

8. Avoid pulsations in the piping<br />

Piping and pulsation dampers are<br />

often subject to the inherent vibrations<br />

of the system, which can develop<br />

into pulsation shocks. These<br />

shocks not only endanger the process,<br />

but are also a safety risk. Monitoring<br />

the pump also simultaneously<br />

enables the vibration behavior of the<br />

peripher al systems to be monitored.<br />

Figure 8 shows a peak of the pressure-side<br />

pulsation in the piping, the<br />

“coupling pressure pulsation” (t 1<br />

). At<br />

the same time, the discharge pressure<br />

of the pump is constant during<br />

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PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong><br />

25


Pumps and Systems<br />

Diaphragm metering pumps<br />

the same period. This means that<br />

pulsation cannot be detected in the<br />

opera tor's process control system by<br />

measuring the flow rate. The Smart<br />

Monitoring System issues warning<br />

messages when the coupling pressure<br />

pulsation exceeds the limit values.<br />

This enables operators to see in<br />

good time when pulsation impacts<br />

occur in the piping, even if the process<br />

control system measures a constant<br />

flow rate.<br />

Fig. 8: Coupling pressure pulsation and discharge<br />

pressure in the same time period<br />

Conclusion<br />

Monitoring the piping enables pulsation<br />

shocks to be detected. The characteristic<br />

values are a reliable indicator<br />

of the condition of the piping<br />

system and can be used as the basis<br />

for optimizing pulsation dampers.<br />

9. Detecting and preventing drive<br />

unit damage in good time<br />

Drive unit damage in diaphragm metering<br />

pumps is rare, but usually the<br />

result of bearing wear. Active bearing<br />

monitoring in the drive unit using<br />

sensors is complex and costly. For this<br />

reason, indirect bearing monitoring is<br />

easier to implement and is a good basis<br />

for diagnostics and prediction.<br />

In this case, passive bearing monitoring<br />

means that the bearing itself<br />

is not monitored. Instead, the energy<br />

input into the pump is set in relation<br />

to its hydraulic power. If the ratio<br />

deteriorates, there is a loss of energy<br />

due to heat input into the system.<br />

This is usually a sign of unwanted friction<br />

due to bearing wear, which in<br />

this case is detected at an early stage.<br />

Subsequent damage due to damaged<br />

bearings can be prevented by timely<br />

shutdown and maintenance.<br />

Figure 9 shows the efficiency<br />

of the drive unit and the hydraulic<br />

power of the pump. It shows that the<br />

efficiency of the drive unit decreases<br />

while the hydraulic efficiency remains<br />

the same. This means that the<br />

pump requires more energy to provide<br />

the same hydraulic power. This<br />

indicates that there is a loss of energy<br />

Fig. 9: Drive unit efficiency and hydraulic<br />

efficiency<br />

in the system – usually due to frictional<br />

heat. The Smart Monitoring System<br />

informs operators with a warning<br />

that the relative efficiency has fallen<br />

below a limit value. This leaves time<br />

for a drive unit inspection before subsequent<br />

damage from a damaged<br />

bearing occurs, which can have farreaching<br />

consequences.<br />

Conclusion<br />

With the indirect monitoring of bearings<br />

via the energy balance, the Smart<br />

Monitoring System offers an efficient<br />

and reliable alternative to sensorbased<br />

bearing monitoring.<br />

10. Overall conclusion<br />

Smart Monitoring is a comprehensive<br />

condition monitoring and prediction<br />

system that process plants‘ operators<br />

can use to increase availability<br />

and operational safety. The system<br />

also makes a valuable contribution<br />

in other areas of application such as<br />

energy management and KPI-based<br />

production optimization.<br />

26 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong>


Pumps and Systems<br />

Diaphragm metering pumps<br />

Fig. 10: Smart Factory Enablement<br />

Based on various practical examples,<br />

it was possible to prove that<br />

the Smart Monitoring System detects<br />

criti cal operating states before they<br />

affect plant operation.<br />

Investing in the system with its<br />

various possible applications will<br />

pay for itself over the life cycle of the<br />

plant, as operating costs, especially<br />

those for unplanned shutdowns, can<br />

be reduced.<br />

In the future, the Smart Monitoring<br />

System will provide the basis for<br />

introducing a Smart Factory concept<br />

with a focus on diaphragm pumps. In<br />

addition to pump monitoring, LEWA<br />

offers solutions for user training, asset<br />

management, spare part management,<br />

remote services and other<br />

services. The figure below visualizes<br />

services based on the analysis of operational<br />

data.<br />

The Author: Moritz Pastow,<br />

Program Manager Digital Services &<br />

Industrial IoT LEWA GmbH,<br />

Leonberg, Germany


Pumps and Systems<br />

Intelligent pump technology<br />

Automatic adjustable pump makes<br />

life easier in WWTP<br />

Intelligent pump technology facilitates more sustainable<br />

operation at WWTP in Gelsenkirchen, Germany<br />

It's all a matter of adjustment:<br />

Municipal water supply is experiencing<br />

a smooth transition into the<br />

digital age and is becoming more<br />

sustainable. Intelligent pump technology<br />

from SEEPEX makes them<br />

fit for the future. One of the world’s<br />

leading specialists in progressive<br />

cavity pumps, pump systems and<br />

digital solutions was able to solve<br />

various technical challenges and<br />

help save time as well as energy in<br />

a municipal WWTP. The special feature<br />

of the pump is the digitally<br />

monitored, automated adjustment<br />

of the pumping elements. The SCT<br />

AutoAdjust increases the pump’s<br />

service life, leads to lower energy<br />

and resource consumption, increases<br />

operational reliability and process<br />

efficiency, and reduces maintenance<br />

requirements.<br />

sees “high savings potential in the<br />

more than 10,000 municipal WWTPs.<br />

These are responsible for an aver age<br />

of almost 20 percent of the electricity<br />

consumption of all municipal facilities.”<br />

Among the consumers with<br />

Saving energy, preserving resources,<br />

in short: sustainable behavior is<br />

on everyone’s mind. This applies, in<br />

particular, to the field of environmental<br />

technology. The German Federal<br />

Environment Agency, for example,<br />

Fig. 2: Installation of a BN35-6LAS with pump monitor at a plant.<br />

Fig. 1: SCT AutoAdjust - The progressive cavity pump with automatic stator clamping.<br />

Hydraulically adjustable and highly precise all at the touch of a button.<br />

high power consumption are “the<br />

continuously running pumps.” “With<br />

the automated progressive cavity<br />

pump, SEEPEX has been able to demonstrate,<br />

using the Gelsenkirchen<br />

WWTP as an example, that the investment<br />

in the new technology pays<br />

off both economically and for the<br />

climate,” says the Head of Product<br />

Mana gement, giving a positive summary<br />

after two years.<br />

Requirements placed on modern<br />

pump technology are getting more<br />

demanding in many places. The project<br />

at the WWTP in Gelsenkirchen<br />

demonstrates how the efficiency<br />

of conveying and processing highly<br />

abrasive sewage sludge can be fur-<br />

28 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong>


Pumps and Systems<br />

Intelligent pump technology<br />

ther improved. The high viscosity of<br />

the sewage sludge and the highly<br />

abrasive dry matter content - in this<br />

case of around 3 to 4 percent at a<br />

flow rate of 5 to 7 m³/h and 2 to 6 bar<br />

back pressure - have an increasing<br />

effect on energy requirements and<br />

wear, making it a demanding conveying<br />

task.<br />

In the past, the pump’s performance<br />

decreased over time because<br />

the stator and rotor - as in many sewage<br />

treatment plants - are subject<br />

to high abrasive wear. At constant<br />

speed, wear becomes noticeable in<br />

a steadily accelerating decrease in<br />

flow rate. The reduced flow rate can<br />

be compensated for by increasing the<br />

speed. However, this leads to an increased<br />

energy demand of the pump<br />

and an exponential increase in the<br />

wear rate. In addition to increased<br />

operating costs, this leads to a shortened<br />

rotor and stator life, increased<br />

downtime, more resource requirements<br />

and higher costs for spare<br />

parts and maintenance.<br />

Perfect operating point at the<br />

push of a button<br />

As part of the municipal water management<br />

system, the WWTP in the<br />

north of the city is responsible for<br />

treating the wastewater of a population<br />

of more than 57,000 in this region.<br />

The pump manufacturer from<br />

Bottrop replaced its standard progressing<br />

cavity pump, previously<br />

used here in discontinuous operation,<br />

with state-of-the-art technology.<br />

Fig. 3: The flow rate per rotor revolution is scaled to the set point or optimal operating point.<br />

100 % stands for the optimal required operating point of the pump. The pump should run<br />

between 80 % and 100 % (green area) due to normal operating conditions.<br />

“The auto mated pump combines a<br />

new type of hydraulic adjustment unit<br />

with simultaneous digital moni toring<br />

and control, making it the world’s first<br />

progressive cavity pump that automatically<br />

(Auto) adjusts its operating<br />

point (Adjust) at the push of a button,”<br />

says the Head of Product Management,<br />

explaining the prin ciple. In<br />

this way, it can compensate for any<br />

wear that occurs and always operates<br />

at maximum efficiency at the<br />

optimum operating point. The new<br />

technology made it possible by using<br />

a smaller sized pump, including a less<br />

energy consuming drive than before,<br />

resulting in lower costs in terms of resources<br />

and energy.<br />

Real-time data at a glance<br />

The modern pump can be operated<br />

from the control room, on a tablet<br />

or smartphone. Long distances for<br />

control and maintenance are a thing<br />

of the past. The SCT AutoAdjust is<br />

equipped with an innovative hydraulic<br />

adjustment unit with associated<br />

sensor technology which, together<br />

with the digital connection of the<br />

pump (Pump Monitoring and Connected<br />

Services), enables automated<br />

adjustment of the stator clamping.<br />

The stator clamping is performancedetermining<br />

for the operation of the<br />

pump and can now always be optimally<br />

adjusted to the operating conditions.<br />

The digital connection is established<br />

via sensors, which record important<br />

parameters such as flow rate,<br />

pressure, rotor speed or temperature<br />

in real time and analyzes them in<br />

Connected Services using modern algorithms<br />

and artificial intelligence. In<br />

this way, the operating status of the<br />

pump can be monitored regardless<br />

of location. The wear caused by the<br />

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Pumps and Systems<br />

Intelligent pump technology<br />

Fig. 4: The result of continuous innovation: SCT AutoAdjust - the world's most intelligent<br />

progressive cavity pump technology.<br />

highly abrasive medium is compensated<br />

for with the aid of the hydraulic<br />

adjustment unit by increasing the stator<br />

clamping. The optimum operating<br />

SCT extends the service life of the rotor and stator<br />

point is characterized here by a defined<br />

flow rate per rotor revolution.<br />

The initial results of the automated<br />

pump in Gelsenkirchen are promi sing<br />

The pump manufacturer from Bottrop has continuously optimized its Smart Conveying<br />

<strong>Technology</strong> (SCT) since 2008. The proven design principle: the Smart Stator consists<br />

of two halves, which makes maintenance very easy, without removing suction or discharge<br />

lines. An integrated re-tensioning device ensures that the clamping between<br />

the rotor and stator can be adjusted for optimum conveying if the flow rate is reduced,<br />

for example, due to wear. This significantly extends the service life of the rotor and<br />

stator, reduces the need for spare parts, and lowers the life cycle costs of pumps -<br />

while maximizing energy yield.<br />

Digital Solutions provide real-time information<br />

To ensure that the pump is always in top shape, SEEPEX uses its Digital Solutions in<br />

numerous applications. The digital solutions are in alignment with the requirements<br />

of the industrial era 4.0 in which intelligent and interconnected machines exchange<br />

information directly with each other in real time. In addition to Pump Monitoring and<br />

Connected Services, the supplier has developed other products that provide users<br />

with important data and derived information about operations. The added value for<br />

customers lies in tailored solutions, simpler processes and greater transparency. The<br />

focus here is on improved know-how about the performance of the pumps and lower<br />

maintenance costs thanks to optimized operation.<br />

In addition to remote monitoring via Connected Services, apps are also available for<br />

service and maintenance. These include a remote monitoring package, the Advanced<br />

Analytics package for process optimization, and tool interfaces for transferring data<br />

and operating parameters. The free maintenance app offers step-by-step instructions<br />

and 3-D animations. In a logbook, the maintenance history of the pump as well as the<br />

respective status is noted and the location is clearly displayed. Users can also track operating<br />

parameters such as speed, flow rate and current consumption in the logbook,<br />

so that they have all the necessary data at hand for optimal readjustment of the rotor/<br />

stator clamping. The Service Point app supports uncomplicated spare parts procurement.<br />

Simply scan the QR code on the nameplate of the pump and various help functions<br />

and important data are available at the virtual Service Point. Suitable spare parts<br />

can be ordered easily. The operating instructions for the progressive cavity pump are<br />

also available for download and the experts offer their support directly by e-mail,<br />

phone or live chat via the app.<br />

after the first two years, as the Head<br />

of Product Management reports.<br />

“By automatically increasing the stator<br />

clamping, the pump escapes the<br />

downward spiral of exponentially progressing<br />

wear, including negative consequences<br />

such as shortened service<br />

life, frequent maintenance, including<br />

rotor and stator replacement, and increased<br />

resource requirements for<br />

spare parts and maintenance personnel.<br />

As a result, pumping efficiency<br />

has increased by 20 percent with a<br />

reduced pump size compared to the<br />

predecessor pump, which consumes<br />

less energy. Our innovation has<br />

demonstrated its great potential and<br />

advantages in the wear-intensive conveying<br />

of abrasive sewage sludge at<br />

the Gelsenkirchen WWTP. As part of<br />

the plant, it makes an important contribution<br />

to sustainable, reliable and<br />

efficient water management.”<br />

Water management benefits from<br />

innovative technology<br />

The more efficient use of resources<br />

on the one hand and the use of digital,<br />

intelligent technology on the<br />

other have long become a central issue<br />

in municipal environmental technology.<br />

For example, the German<br />

Association of Water, Wastewater<br />

and Waste (DWA) states in a position<br />

paper: “Digitalization affects all areas<br />

of water management, from planning<br />

tools and plant technology to staff<br />

training standards and use by the<br />

public. In this context, the automation<br />

and networking of water management<br />

plants, for example, has been<br />

standard practice for a long time. Extremely<br />

rapid advances in software,<br />

hardware and networking, however,<br />

continue to offer opportunities for<br />

improvement, especially in holistic<br />

approaches, benefiting the environment<br />

and people.”<br />

Seepex GmbH, Bottrop, Germany<br />

30 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong>


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Pumps and Systems<br />

Report<br />

Bredel industrial hose pumps convey<br />

corrosive media in flue gas purification<br />

Bredel hose pumps, a brand of<br />

Watson-Marlow Fluid <strong>Technology</strong><br />

Solutions, offer a powerful and reliable<br />

solution for many pumping<br />

tasks in energy-from-waste plants.<br />

In the AVA Velsen waste treatment<br />

plant, the pumps were able to prove<br />

their suitability in the processing<br />

of corrosive and abrasive media in<br />

several process stages of flue gas<br />

purification. In the process, they<br />

offer longer service life and lower<br />

costs than the centrifugal and rotary<br />

lobe pumps previously used.<br />

The Zweckverband Entsorgungsverband<br />

Saar (EVS) is an association of all<br />

52 municipalities in the German state<br />

of Saarland. EVS is responsible for regional<br />

wastewater treatment and environmentally<br />

sound waste disposal<br />

throughout the state. The non-recyclable<br />

waste, especially a large part of<br />

the residual waste and commercial<br />

waste, is thermally recycled in the<br />

waste incineration plant AVA Velsen.<br />

In total, about 255,000 tonnes of<br />

residual waste are thermally recycled<br />

annually in AVA Velsen, generating<br />

about 150,000 MWh of electricity.<br />

This is achieved by optimised waste<br />

allocation and low-fault operation,<br />

based on the consistent use of modern<br />

and reliable technologies.<br />

Hose pumps in the flue gas<br />

cleaning system<br />

The flue gases produced during waste<br />

incineration are fed into a multi-stage<br />

flue gas cleaning system to remove<br />

pollutants. For flue gas scrubbing,<br />

the gas is first cooled in the so-called<br />

quench, by intensive spraying with<br />

water, which flushes out the first pollutants.<br />

The contaminated wash water<br />

(“quench water”) is later subjected<br />

to further treatment steps to precipitate<br />

and filter out more pollutants.<br />

Initially, several centrifugal pumps<br />

were used throughout the plant to<br />

transport the wash water. Since the<br />

wash water is very acidic (pH 0) and<br />

highly corrosive, these pumps repeatedly<br />

broke down: The mechanical<br />

seals of the centrifugal pumps<br />

proved to be especially susceptible to<br />

damage and had to be replaced frequently,<br />

reports the team leader of<br />

AVA Velsen GmbH responsible for the<br />

wastewater treatment and evaporation<br />

plant. In many cases, the damage<br />

even proved so serious that the<br />

entire pump head of the centrifugal<br />

pumps had to be replaced - with considerable<br />

costs for spare parts and<br />

downtime.<br />

Pumping without seals and valves<br />

AVA Velsen GmbH found a solution<br />

to these problems in the hose pumps<br />

from the supplier. These pumps require<br />

neither seals nor other additional<br />

equipment such as ball check<br />

valves, diaphragms, immersed rotors,<br />

stators or pistons, which can<br />

leak, clog or corrode and then have<br />

to be replaced at great expense. No<br />

moving pump components come into<br />

contact with the medium.<br />

The only spare part in the hose<br />

pumps is the precision-manufactured<br />

hose element. Depending on the application<br />

and purpose, it is available<br />

in a variety of different materials, including<br />

EPDM, which offers excellent<br />

resistance to aggressive chemicals<br />

and concentrated acids.<br />

A total of four centrifugal pumps<br />

in the wastewater treatment plant<br />

were replaced with industrial hose<br />

pumps. With great success: The service<br />

life of the EPDM hose elements<br />

enabled total costs to be reduced<br />

by more than 50 percent compared<br />

to the previously used centrifugal<br />

pumps.<br />

High reliability in the processing of<br />

limestone slurry<br />

Fig. 1: At AVA Velsen, about 255,000 tonnes of residual waste are thermally recycled<br />

per year and approx. 150,000 MWh of electricity are produced<br />

(all photos: Watson-Marlow Fluid <strong>Technology</strong> Solutions)<br />

The industrial peristaltic pumps have<br />

already been able to prove their suitability<br />

for difficult and demanding<br />

pumping applications in another application<br />

at AVA Velsen: During a subsequent<br />

process step, limestone slurry<br />

(“milk of lime”) is added to the wash<br />

32 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong>


Fig. 2: Industrial hose pump for pumping very<br />

acidic (pH value 0) and corrosive washing water.<br />

Since only the hose elements made of EPDM<br />

touch the aggressive medium, it offers a long<br />

service life.<br />

water in a treatment plant, thus enabling<br />

the sulphur dioxide to be filtered off in the<br />

form of gypsum. A rotary lobe pump was<br />

initially used to transport the limestone<br />

slurry. Due to the abrasive character and<br />

relatively high solids content of the limestone<br />

slurry, this pump proved to be very<br />

susceptible to breakdowns and caused<br />

high repair and downtime costs. The solution<br />

here was also a robust industrial<br />

Fig. 3: Pump to process lime slurry with a high<br />

solids content without any problems.<br />

Fig. 4: The direct-coupled design combines the<br />

reliability of the long-coupled design with the advantages<br />

of the compact close-coupled design.<br />

hose pump from the manufacturer. The<br />

pump now delivers the milk of lime with<br />

a high degree of reliability. The hose elements<br />

used achieve a service life of about<br />

nine months, reports the team leader. For<br />

safety reasons, however, the hose element<br />

is replaced every six months as part<br />

of planned maintenance. The costs for this<br />

are very low compared to the repair costs<br />

of the rotary lobe pump and moreover, the<br />

replacement of peristaltic hose elements<br />

can be carried out quickly and easily onsite.<br />

For these reasons, the hose pumps in<br />

various sizes are now also used in the AVA<br />

Velsen for pumping a saturated NaCl solution<br />

as well as filtrates.<br />

As the pumps are exposed to a corrosive<br />

atmosphere, the components have<br />

been made of stainless steel wherever possible.<br />

The pumps are also painted according<br />

to the C4 painting standard or are protected<br />

with a double layer of paint. More over,<br />

the pump manufacturer offers pumps<br />

with a paint-free, galvanically coated pump<br />

housing for aggressive atmospheres.<br />

Ideal solution for many applications in<br />

energy-from-waste plants<br />

At various application at AVA Velsen, the<br />

pumps are demonstrating the numerous<br />

advantages of peristaltic hose pumps for<br />

processing aggressive or abrasive pumped<br />

media: They offer a suction head of up to<br />

9.5 metres, are self-priming and offer good<br />

dry-running capabilities. Without internal<br />

seals or valves, no moving parts come<br />

into contact with the medium, and they<br />

impress with their high reliability and low<br />

maintenance requirements.<br />

Maximum reliability is also ensured by<br />

the manufacturers patented direct-coupling<br />

technology: it combines the reliability<br />

of the long-coupled design with the advantages<br />

of the compact close-coupled design:<br />

An innovative buffer zone protects the<br />

gearbox, bearings and pump head in case<br />

of leakage. Heavy-duty pump rotor bearings<br />

support the radial load, so the drive<br />

shaft transmits only the torque and speed<br />

needed for the specific application.<br />

Depending on the pump model and<br />

size, the hose pumps offer a high flow<br />

rate of up to 108,000 litres at a pressure<br />

of up to 16 bar and convey abrasive slurries,<br />

pastes and viscous media with up to<br />

80 percent solids content with 100 percent<br />

volumetric accuracy.<br />

Therefore, the supplier’s peristaltic<br />

pumps are the first choice for many applications<br />

in the environmental and energy<br />

industries. In these industries, they are<br />

used wherever corrosive, viscous, abrasive<br />

or other difficult-to-handle media<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong><br />

Problem solver for<br />

process engineering<br />

and sewage technology<br />

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Turo ® Vortex series T and TA<br />

Suitable for high solids concentrations<br />

and shear sensitive products in<br />

the chemical industry and for clogfree<br />

pumping of raw sewage with<br />

fibres and sludge.<br />

Iris ® Diaphragm Control Valve<br />

Highly precise and energy saving<br />

control of flow rate through concentric<br />

Iris ® diaphragms. For aeration airflow<br />

control in WWTP’s and for gases or<br />

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SWISS ENGINEERED<br />

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Emile Egger & Cie SA<br />

Route de Neuchâtel 36<br />

2088 Cressier NE<br />

Phone +41 (0)32 758 71 11<br />

Germany<br />

Emile Egger & Co. GmbH<br />

Wattstrasse 28<br />

68199 Mannheim<br />

Phone +49 (0)621 84 213-0


Pumps and Systems<br />

Report<br />

must be transferred safely. Applications<br />

include alkalis, acids, flocculants<br />

or other chemicals, process water<br />

and waste water, as well as slurries,<br />

brines or sludges, additives or dyes,<br />

plasticisers or solvents. Compared to<br />

other types of pumps, they often provide<br />

significant savings in total cost of<br />

ownership and a fast ROI of often less<br />

than twelve months.<br />

Interaction of pump and<br />

hose element<br />

Fig. 5: Pumps for pumping a saturated NaCl solution<br />

Fig. 6: Precision-machined hose elements are reinforced with multiple extruded layers of<br />

braided nylon. Thanks to precision grinding, they meet tight tolerances in wall thickness<br />

The heart of every industrial hose<br />

pump is the hose element. It is not<br />

only the single wearing part, but also<br />

the only component on the entire<br />

pump that comes into contact with<br />

the fluid. Only a perfect match of<br />

pump and hose element offers maximum<br />

reliability and performance: As<br />

one of few pump manufacturers, the<br />

supplier has its own production of<br />

high-performance hose elements -<br />

especially and exclusively for use with<br />

its own peristaltic pumps.<br />

Unlike many hoses from other<br />

manufacturers, the hose elements<br />

are precision-engineered. This means<br />

that only the highest quality rubber<br />

compounds are used, reinforced with<br />

several extruded layers of braided nylon,<br />

which ensure the automatic relaxing<br />

of the hose element and strong<br />

suction capabilities of the pump. As a<br />

result, the pump is self-priming and<br />

dry-running and can handle even high<br />

viscosity fluids with ease. Due to the<br />

extruded layers, the hose element offers<br />

higher strength and longer service<br />

life than hose elements with<br />

wrapped layers. The hose elements<br />

are ground to meet the tight tolerances<br />

in wall thickness thus providing<br />

maximum hose and pump life.<br />

Watson-Marlow GmbH<br />

Rommerskirchen, Germany<br />

34 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong>


Pumps and Systems<br />

Report<br />

60 % fewer production losses: Downhole<br />

progressing cavity pumps simplify replacment<br />

and reduce costs with special flush-by unit<br />

Pump service life is two to three times longer<br />

compared to previous models<br />

At one of Turkey’s largest and most<br />

productive oil fields, the BATMAN<br />

field in southeast Anatolia, different<br />

downhole progressing cavity<br />

pumps are used to pump a mixture<br />

of crude oil and water to the surface.<br />

To increase the service life of<br />

the pumps and to reduce the installation<br />

costs and the pump replacement<br />

time, the owners decided to<br />

test the use of insertable progressing<br />

cavity pumps. They chose the<br />

downhole variant of the proven<br />

progressing cavity pumps from<br />

the global manufacturer NETZSCH<br />

Pumpen & Systeme GmbH based in<br />

southern Germany. As all progressing<br />

cavity pumps, they use a special<br />

operating principle where a helical<br />

rotor rotates inside a fixed stator to<br />

form closed conveying chambers.<br />

These chambers continuously move<br />

the oil-and-water mixture to the delivery<br />

side with a consistent volumetric<br />

flow. While the efficiency of<br />

this system is between 40 and 70 %<br />

of the oil production maximum, the<br />

volumetric efficiency of a downhole<br />

progressing cavity pump reaches an<br />

impressive 75 to 95 % of the theoretically<br />

possible volume flow. Another<br />

essential advantage of the insertable<br />

pumps – three of which are<br />

now in use on the Turkish oil field –<br />

is that they are relatively easy to install<br />

directly in the conveying line. In<br />

addition, they can be replaced using<br />

a special flush-by unit without removing<br />

them from the pipe and uninstalling<br />

the well sensors. This significantly<br />

reduced the expenditures<br />

for workovers at the oil field, which<br />

minimised production losses by up<br />

to 60 per cent and significantly lowered<br />

costs. In addition to this, the<br />

Fig. 1: The Batı-Raman field in southeast Anatolia is one of the largest and most productive<br />

oil fields in Turkey. (Photo © : Adobe Stock/Inna)<br />

service life of the pumps is two to<br />

three times longer compared to the<br />

previously used conventional progressing<br />

cavity pumps.<br />

Various pump types from different<br />

manufacturers are used for pumping<br />

oil on the BATMAN field in Turkey,<br />

including NETZSCH standard downhole<br />

pumps. On this standard version,<br />

the stator is bolted to the tubing<br />

at the lowest point and, in a second<br />

step, the rotor is installed through<br />

the tubing together with the sucker<br />

rod. “To replace these pumps, however,<br />

they have to be removed together<br />

with the tubing in a complex<br />

process, which requires us to buy<br />

and use an expensive workover unit,”<br />

explains the Technical Support Engineer,<br />

Oil & Gas Upstream, NETZSCH<br />

Pumps and Systems Turkey. To lower<br />

rig costs and to shorten the pump<br />

replacement time, the owners therefore<br />

decided to use insertable down-<br />

Fig. 2: Different pump types from various<br />

manufacturers are in use on the oil field,<br />

including pumps type NTZ from NETZSCH<br />

Pumpen & Systeme GmbH. (Photos © 2-6:<br />

NETZSCH Pumpen & Systeme GmbH)<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong><br />

35


Pumps and Systems<br />

Report<br />

hole progressing cavity pumps from<br />

the supplier. These pumps feature a<br />

very small outer diameter.<br />

Reliable pumping of<br />

multi-phase media<br />

Just like conventional progressing<br />

cavity pumps from the Bavarian supplier,<br />

these pumps are also based on<br />

a rotor that rotates in a geometrically<br />

adapted fixed stator in an oscillating<br />

motion. The precise geometry pairing<br />

produces conveying chambers during<br />

the rotation and the medium is gently<br />

transported in these chambers from<br />

the intake side to the delivery side.<br />

The chambers are closed, which not<br />

only prevents backflow but also ensures<br />

movement of the medium with<br />

stable volume and pressure so that<br />

no shear forces and hardly any pulsation<br />

occur. This is crucial because<br />

oil-and-water mixtures otherwise produce<br />

emulsification effects. These effects<br />

would make the subsequent<br />

separation of the mixtures at the surface<br />

much more difficult. This risk also<br />

exists for the medium that is pumped<br />

on the BATMAN field, because it consists<br />

of 25 % water and 75 % oil.<br />

The volumetric efficiency of the<br />

downhole progressing cavity pumps<br />

is between 75 and 95 % of the theoretically<br />

possible volume flow. While<br />

conventional pumping systems soon<br />

reach their limitations in the case of<br />

fluctuating consistencies, resulting<br />

in pumping interruptions, pressure<br />

loss, and material damage, the consistency<br />

and viscosity of the medium<br />

are irrelevant with this displacement<br />

technology. The pumps are therefore<br />

particularly suitable for difficult<br />

multi-phase media and can transport<br />

even highly viscous oils to the<br />

surface with over 50,000 mPas. The<br />

pumped volume is determined by<br />

the pump size and the speed of the<br />

unit, meaning it can be controlled<br />

with great precision. Another key feature<br />

of the downhole models based<br />

on the progressing cavity pump is the<br />

high level of flexibility with respect to<br />

the flow rate – it can be between 0.5<br />

and 475 m³/d. For the medium on the<br />

BATMAN field, which is pumped at<br />

60 °C with a pressure of 15 bar, the<br />

flow rate is 4.77 m³/d.<br />

Fig. 3: Like all progressing cavity pumps, they feature a special pumping principle where a<br />

helical rotor rotates in a fixed stator to form closed conveying chambers. These chambers<br />

move the oil-water mixture to the delivery side in a continuous, consistent volumetric flow.<br />

Fig. 4: These insertable progressing cavity pumps were developed with the main objective of<br />

minimising the costs for installing the pumps in the well. Pictured: equipment for securing<br />

the downhole pump in the tubing.<br />

Fig. 5: The first two models of this NETZSCH downhole pump, which is much easier to replace,<br />

were installed on the Turkish oil field.<br />

36 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong>


Fig. 6: Subsequent replacement or<br />

maintenance of the pump can be carried<br />

out with a special flush-by unit:<br />

The pump can be replaced with a rod<br />

pulling unit which is much less expensive<br />

than a workover unit.<br />

Installation directly in<br />

the tubing and replacement<br />

with rod pulling unit<br />

or the locking system. The installation<br />

is completed by lowering<br />

the pump until it reaches the<br />

nipple or the locking system once<br />

again and then securing it there<br />

with a friction anchor and an<br />

axial lock. Another advantage is<br />

that subsequent replacement or<br />

maintenance of the pump can be<br />

carried out with a special flush-by<br />

unit. The pump can be replaced<br />

with a rod pulling system which is<br />

much less expensive than a complex<br />

workover unit with special<br />

hydraulic tongs for bolting the<br />

tubing. Overall, this procedure<br />

can significantly reduce costs because<br />

the pump with the sucker<br />

rod can be removed through the<br />

tubing. The tubing, any well sensors,<br />

and the sensor cable do not<br />

have to be removed. This minimises<br />

the time required for the<br />

workover and reduces production<br />

losses by up to 60 %.<br />

The longer service life<br />

of the pumps<br />

World Class.<br />

The pumps used at the Anatolian<br />

oil field have other special<br />

features as well: They are insertable<br />

progressing cavity pumps<br />

designed with the main focus<br />

on minimising the costs for installation<br />

of the pumps in the<br />

well. The key feature of these<br />

pumps is therefore the installation<br />

through the tubing string.<br />

That means that the pump is not<br />

connected to the tubing, but installed<br />

directly inside it. The procedure<br />

is as follows: The pump<br />

is first lowered into the tubing<br />

string until the installation clamp<br />

reaches the wellhead and is then<br />

held by means of the pump rod.<br />

The installation clamp can then<br />

be removed and the sucker rod<br />

can be installed. The pump is<br />

subsequently lowered down to<br />

nipple N11 or the pump locking<br />

system N12 – one of these systems<br />

will have already been installed<br />

in the well beforehand.<br />

The engineers can then check the<br />

position of the pump by pulling<br />

the rod string upwards and releasing<br />

the pump from the nipple<br />

The first two models of these<br />

much easier-to-replace downhole<br />

pumps installed in the<br />

Turkish oilfield were so successful<br />

that a third model followed<br />

in the year after. “The purchaser<br />

is very satis fied with the result<br />

of this project because it<br />

not only reduced the plant costs<br />

but also increased the service<br />

life of the pumps,” summarises<br />

the Technical Support Engineer.<br />

“It is two to three times as<br />

long as the service life of conventional<br />

progressing cavity<br />

pumps from NETZSCH that are<br />

not installed inside the tubing.”<br />

The Bavarian pump manu-<br />

facturer also regards this as a<br />

highly successful project because<br />

this was the first time that insertable<br />

downhole progressing cavity<br />

pumps were used in Turkey.<br />

NETZSCH Pumpen & Systeme GmbH<br />

Waldkraiburg, Germany<br />

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ecoflow series for diaphragm and packed plunger<br />

pumps combines various drive unit sizes with<br />

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Customers rely on more than 70 years<br />

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Pumps and Systems<br />

Report<br />

Energy savings potential with intelligent<br />

pumping solutions – how a<br />

beverage producer expects 430,000 €<br />

in energy savings per year<br />

Energy crisis, 1.5 degree target, CO 2<br />

savings, science-based targets, water<br />

scarcity... these are all topics<br />

that we are currently encountering<br />

again and again. Turning down the<br />

heating, taking shorter showers and<br />

not leaving electrical appliances on<br />

standby are familiar recommendations<br />

for private households. But<br />

what are the possibilities for industry?<br />

How can water and energy consumption<br />

in the manufacturing sector<br />

be reduced?<br />

Many industrial applications like temperature<br />

control, water treatment<br />

and wash & clean are energy-intensive<br />

and consume a lot of water. And<br />

pumps always play a part. But at the<br />

same time, these areas offer relatively<br />

simple and quick ways on how to<br />

realise savings. Let’s take energy savings<br />

as an example, upgrading the<br />

current pump installation can pay<br />

for itself quite quickly due to the increased<br />

energy costs. How process<br />

optimisation can be realised in an<br />

existing plant is shown in the following<br />

example. The soft drink manufacturer<br />

Britvic is expecting ener gy savings of<br />

more than 430,000 € per year by investing<br />

in new pressure boosting<br />

equipment.<br />

Fig. 1: The four booster sets with CR pumps<br />

The situation<br />

Water is essential to Britvic’s production<br />

processes and used widely<br />

throughout its value chain. An element<br />

of this includes the heating and cooling<br />

of water at its factory in Rugby, UK.<br />

The pump manufacturer<br />

Grundfos performed an Energy<br />

Check Advanced on site to measure<br />

the actual energy use in the system.<br />

This is not simply a ‘nameplate’ check<br />

of efficiency; sensors are placed in<br />

Fig. 2: The Energy Check is a pump survey by the customer or a member of the pump<br />

supplier’s staff with subsequent analysis/calculation by the supplier<br />

the system to get the live data from<br />

the existing setup, helping operators<br />

find potential energy savings in<br />

their pumps. The proven and validated<br />

measurements help the soft drink<br />

manufacturer support its ‘Healthier<br />

People, Healthier Planet’ strategy and<br />

the focus on energy and carbon emissions<br />

reduction.<br />

The solution<br />

To help achieve these twin goals, the<br />

recommended solution was a full<br />

turnkey project consisting of four<br />

booster sets. The booster sets were<br />

custom built for Duty/Assist/Standby<br />

operation, delivering the optimal<br />

amount of chilled water to the<br />

38 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong>


Fig. 3: Custom-built booster sets with<br />

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The booster sets installed<br />

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The outcome<br />

For each<br />

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the perfect<br />

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of Grundfos<br />

facility’s production lines, to allow<br />

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Each of the installed booster sets<br />

incorporated three CR pumps<br />

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These booster sets are designed<br />

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or pressure, at maximum energy<br />

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This intelligent booster set<br />

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This project helps the beverage<br />

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The soft drink manufacturer<br />

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Vacuum technology<br />

Vacuum-based leak testing methods<br />

Vacuum-based methods for testing<br />

the packaging of pharmaceutical products<br />

for leaks<br />

Secure packaging of pharmaceutical products<br />

The quality and effectiveness of<br />

medicines depends to a significant<br />

extent on their proper packaging:<br />

Sterile products and medicines that<br />

are sensitive to moisture or oxygen<br />

must remain extremely well sealed<br />

throughout their entire shelf life to<br />

protect them from biological contamination<br />

and the ingress of water<br />

and oxygen. Otherwise, there may<br />

be serious consequences.<br />

The most important barrier for ensuring<br />

sufficient integrity of pharmaceutical<br />

products and for protecting<br />

them against harmful external influences<br />

is the so-called primary packaging.<br />

The most common types of<br />

primary packaging include plastic or<br />

glass bottles, vials and syringes, but<br />

also IV bags and blister packs.<br />

(1) Product development and<br />

process validation<br />

In the first part of the life cycle, the<br />

requirements for the primary packaging<br />

and the container closure system<br />

are defined. The goal is to define<br />

the minimum requirements for<br />

sealing. This includes testing using<br />

sensitive test methods such as helium<br />

leak detection. In the case of particularly<br />

sensitive products, such as<br />

sterile medicines, the so-called MALL<br />

(Maximum Allowable Leakage Limit)<br />

is checked, for example, which is defined<br />

in USP as < 0.2 μm de-<br />

Fig. 2: Microbial ingress failure rate as a function of leak size in µm and mbar•l/s. [1]<br />

ate various widely used methods. The fect size or < 6*10 -6 mbar • l/s. This<br />

directive divides the product life cycle defect size was determined in a study<br />

into three parts, each of which places by Kirsch, in which the microbial ingress<br />

failure rate was measured for<br />

different demands on the leak testing<br />

systems:<br />

various defect sizes. From a defect<br />

Fig. 1: Selection of common primary packaging used for pharmaceuticals.<br />

Necessity of leak detection<br />

The primary packaging must be subjected<br />

to leak tests at various times<br />

throughout the life cycle of the pharmaceutical<br />

product. The United<br />

States Pharmacopeia (USP), which is<br />

the government body responsible for<br />

standards and directives in the pharmaceutical<br />

industry in the USA, introduced<br />

a new directive in 2016: USP<br />

. This describes methods and<br />

procedures for the leak testing of<br />

pharmaceutical packaging and gives<br />

the user guidelines on how to evalu-<br />

size 0.2 μm onward, no microbial ingress<br />

can be detected. By means of<br />

a helium leak test, this value has also<br />

been quantitively determined with a<br />

gas flow measured in mbar*l/s. [1]<br />

(2) Product manufacturing<br />

The second step involves regular testing<br />

and monitoring of the quality of<br />

the chosen packaging during the production<br />

process. Here, random inspections<br />

are often performed, but<br />

also 100-percent checking of the containers.<br />

Since sterility has already<br />

been demonstrated during product<br />

40 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong>


Vacuum technology<br />

Vacuum-based leak testing methods<br />

development, the chosen methods<br />

prioritize faster testing times rather<br />

than higher sensitivity.<br />

(3) Assessment of the<br />

commercial shelf life<br />

Integrity tests are then carried out on<br />

a sufficient number of samples during<br />

various periods throughout the<br />

entire shelf life of the products. The<br />

objective here is to ensure that the integrity<br />

of the packaging is maintained<br />

even if the product is stored for long<br />

periods.<br />

Different test methods<br />

The high risk involved with leaks in<br />

pharmaceutical container closure integrity<br />

(CCI) testing has resulted in a<br />

strictly regulated environment. The<br />

FDA (USA) and the EMA (Europe), for<br />

example, are two of the key authorities.<br />

These bodies have published directives<br />

that stipulate reliable, physical<br />

measurements to ensure proper<br />

CCI. In practice, however, these directives<br />

are rather broad and give<br />

no concrete recommendations. Often,<br />

the official regulations fail to give<br />

detailed instructions on how the CCI<br />

tests should be carried out.<br />

USP was introduced in<br />

order to provide more clarity in this<br />

respect. This directive concentrates<br />

on sterile and critical pharmaceutical<br />

products and therefore does not<br />

attempt to describe all possible test<br />

methods. It does, however, provide a<br />

good overview and basic guidelines<br />

for the evaluation of various different<br />

methods.<br />

The test methods are divided into<br />

so-called probabilistic and deterministic<br />

test methods, whereby the latter<br />

are generally recommended. By<br />

way of example, we take a closer<br />

look, here, at the blue dye test as a<br />

proba bilistic method, and the three<br />

va cuum test methods as deterministic<br />

test methods.<br />

a) Probabilistic test methods<br />

A probabilistic leak testing procedure<br />

is based on a series of sequential<br />

and/or simultaneous events, each<br />

of which is associated with uncertainties.<br />

These methods are therefore inherently<br />

stochastic, since the results<br />

are randomly affected by probability<br />

distributions. To compensate for<br />

this uncertainty as much as possible,<br />

larger random sample sizes and strict<br />

monitoring of the test conditions are<br />

necessary.<br />

The blue dye test is a probabilistic<br />

test method. This test involves<br />

submerging the test packaging into<br />

a methylene blue solution. The dye<br />

bath is placed in a temporary vacuum<br />

chamber, from which some of<br />

the air is evacuated in the first stage<br />

of the test. After a predefined evacuation<br />

time, the chamber is returned<br />

to atmospheric pressure, or is pressurized.<br />

Finally, after a defined resting<br />

period, the packaging is taken<br />

out of the bath and then cleaned and<br />

visu ally inspected to see whether or<br />

not the blue liquid has penetrated<br />

the packaging.<br />

b) Deterministic test methods<br />

In contrast to probabilistic test<br />

methods, deterministic test methods<br />

are based on phenomena that follow<br />

a predictable chain of events. This is<br />

because the leaks are measured via a<br />

Table 1: Probabilistic and deterministic methods according to USP [2]<br />

Probabilistic<br />

Series of sequential and/or<br />

simultaneous events<br />

Random result based on the<br />

probability distribution<br />

Subjective and qualitative results<br />

Primarily destructive<br />

Sample preparation required;<br />

high risk of error<br />

Deterministic<br />

Predictable chain of events<br />

Measured physical or chemical<br />

end point<br />

Objective and quantitative results<br />

Non-destructive<br />

Usually no sample preparation<br />

required, therefore low risk of<br />

preparation errors<br />

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PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong><br />

41


Vacuum technology<br />

Vacuum-based leak testing methods<br />

physical or chemical end point, which<br />

can be easily checked and monitored.<br />

In the vacuum test methods, for example,<br />

the gas flow through an open<br />

leakage channel is measured as a<br />

specific differential pressure is applied,<br />

and the results are then evaluated.<br />

Below, three of the deterministic vacuum<br />

test methods are described in<br />

more detail:<br />

Mass extraction technology<br />

With mass extraction technology, the<br />

packaging specimen is placed in a volume-optimized<br />

vacuum chamber. A<br />

mass extraction sensor, which measures<br />

the gas flow, is installed between<br />

the vacuum reservoir of the test device<br />

and the vacuum chamber (see<br />

Figure 3).<br />

pressure of < 1•10 -02 mbar. In the sensor,<br />

a plasma is ignited with the gas<br />

that escapes through defects in the<br />

specimen, and the gas-specific light<br />

emission is intercepted by an optical<br />

spectrometer. Information about the<br />

integrity of the packaging is then provided<br />

based on the intensity of the<br />

light emission. This test method is selective<br />

for different gases and does<br />

not necessarily require the use of a<br />

volume-optimized chamber, which<br />

means that several test specimens<br />

can be tested simultaneously.<br />

that the test packaging must have<br />

previously been filled with helium.<br />

The helium-filled test specimens are<br />

placed in a vacuum chamber, as with<br />

the other methods. The escaping gas<br />

is ionized in the detector by a heating<br />

filament, and is deflected by the magnetic<br />

field along different curves depending<br />

on the mass.<br />

The incoming ion current is processed<br />

by the electronics in the device<br />

and displayed as a leakage rate<br />

signal. The helium selectivity ensures<br />

high sensitivity.<br />

Fig. 4: Illustration showing the operating principle of O.E.S.<br />

Fig. 3: Operating principle of mass extraction<br />

technology<br />

The first step involves evacuating the<br />

entire device and the chamber to a<br />

pressure of around 1 mbar. The differential<br />

pressure between chamber and<br />

the inside of the packaging now allows<br />

gas to escape through any prevailing<br />

leaks and to flow toward the vacuum<br />

reservoir. The sensor installed in<br />

the flow path measures the gas flow<br />

quantitively and provides information<br />

on the integrity of the test specimen.<br />

With mass extraction technology, the<br />

test specimen does not need to contain<br />

a specific type of test gas.<br />

Helium mass spectrometry<br />

The helium leakage test is the most<br />

sensitive of the deterministic test<br />

methods. The sensor used here is a<br />

magnetic sector mass spectrometer,<br />

which is set up selectively for helium<br />

atoms with a mass of 4. This means<br />

Study comparing different defects<br />

In addition to the aforementioned<br />

study by Kirsch, there is a further<br />

study, by Burrel et al, that compares<br />

the sensitivity of the blue dye test<br />

and the microbial ingress method.<br />

Optical emission spectroscopy<br />

No special test gas is required for the<br />

optical emission spectroscopy (O.E.S.)<br />

procedure either. The gas mixture<br />

present in the head room inside the<br />

packaging specimen is used – usually<br />

ambient air or nitrogen. A multigas<br />

sensor is used to detect gases<br />

that escape from a leaking specimen.<br />

This method involves placing the<br />

test specimen into a vacuum chamber<br />

and evacuating the chamber to a<br />

Fig. 5: Structure of a helium mass spectrometer<br />

42 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong>


Vacuum technology<br />

Vacuum-based leak testing methods<br />

The test vials used in the study were<br />

prepared with 3-cm-long capillary defects.<br />

The widely accepted sensitivity<br />

limit of a defect size of 20 µm for the<br />

blue dye test is based on the results<br />

of this study. [3]<br />

Fig. 6: Percentage of specimens showing blue dye ingress as a function of leak size in µm. [3]<br />

Table 2: Specimen preparation for the comparative study<br />

Preparation of<br />

positive control<br />

samples<br />

Composition<br />

of vials<br />

20 ml vials prepared<br />

with micro-pipettes<br />

With reference<br />

to Kirsch<br />

20 ml vials prepared<br />

with capillaries (3 cm<br />

long)<br />

With reference<br />

to Burrel<br />

Head room<br />

Liquid<br />

Defects<br />

helium, the O.E.S., and the mass extraction<br />

methods, and the measured<br />

values were recorded. Then, the vials<br />

were subjected to the blue dye<br />

test. The vials were submerged in the<br />

blue dye for 60 minutes at a relative<br />

ø: 0.1/0.2/0.4/1/2/5/10 µm<br />

30 specimens for each diameter<br />

30 negative control specimens<br />

(adhesive on the defect)<br />

ø: 2/5/10/15/18/30/40 µm<br />

30 specimens for each diameter<br />

30 negative control specimens<br />

(adhesive on the defect)<br />

Gas mixture:<br />

20 % helium<br />

80 % nitrogen<br />

6 ml WFI<br />

(water for injection)<br />

The defects are in the area of<br />

the head room – they have no<br />

contact with the liquid.<br />

vacuum pressure of -370 mbar. The<br />

specimens were then brought to atmospheric<br />

pressure and cleaned before<br />

being visually inspected by three<br />

technicians, in order to obtain the<br />

most objective results possible. The<br />

diagrams in Figure 7 and Figure 8<br />

summarize the results of the study.<br />

With a measured detection limit<br />

of 20 µm for the capillaries and 5 µm<br />

for the micro-pipettes, the blue dye<br />

test is found to have the lowest sensitivity.<br />

The most sensitive method,<br />

even with a helium concentration of<br />

just 20 %, was found to be the helium<br />

mass spectrometry method with approximately<br />

4 µm for the capillaries<br />

and 0.1 µm for the micro-pipettes. If<br />

a helium concentration of 100 % is<br />

assumed, then even the 2 µm capillaries<br />

are measurable. Both the O.E.S.<br />

method, with a detection limit of<br />

~ 7 µm for the capillaries and ~ 0.6 µm<br />

for the micro-pipettes, and the mass<br />

extraction method, with 15 µm for the<br />

capillaries and ~ 1-2 µm for the micropipettes,<br />

lie somewhere between the<br />

other two methods. It must be noted,<br />

however, that the O.E.S. method is<br />

quicker and more sensitive for both<br />

types of defect.<br />

Pros and cons of the<br />

different test methods<br />

There are other factors, in addition<br />

to sensitivity, that may be taken into<br />

account when deciding whether to<br />

switch from the blue dye test to a<br />

vacuum-based test method. A few of<br />

these factors are shown in Table 3.<br />

To allow a comparison of the sensitivity<br />

of the three deterministic vacuum<br />

methods with the known studies<br />

and, above all, with the blue dye test,<br />

a comparative study of different defects<br />

was carried out. Here, the defect<br />

types from the Kirsch study as well<br />

as those from the Burrel study were<br />

used. The types of specimen are explained<br />

in Table 2.<br />

The gas composition makes it<br />

possible to use all three deterministic<br />

methods. The vials were filled with the<br />

gas mixture before they were sealed.<br />

The tests were carried out sequentially<br />

and non-destructively with the<br />

Fig. 7: Study results for micro-pipettes<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong><br />

43


Vacuum technology<br />

Vacuum-based leak testing methods<br />

Fig. 8: Study results for capillaries<br />

30 minutes at atmospheric pressure).<br />

The time required for testing depends<br />

on the type of packaging. In practical<br />

applications, significantly shorter test<br />

durations are usually chosen for the<br />

blue dye test, which further reduces<br />

the sensitivity. The test duration for<br />

vacuum-based methods is significantly<br />

shorter, even taking into account<br />

that several specimens can be<br />

tested at once with the blue dye test.<br />

Furthermore, the evaluation time for<br />

the blue dye test is longer.<br />

With regard to the latest directives,<br />

the great advantage of the<br />

vacuum-based test methods is that<br />

all three deterministic test methods<br />

meet the criteria of USP . Both<br />

Table 3: Parameters used to compare vacuum-based test methods with the blue dye test<br />

Parameter Helium (20 %) O.E.S. Mass Extraction Blue dye test<br />

Sensitivity<br />

– Capillaries<br />

– Micro-pipettes<br />

4 µm<br />

0.1 µm<br />

~ 7 µm<br />

~ 0.6 µm<br />

~ 15 µm<br />

~ 1-2 µm<br />

20 µm<br />

5 µm<br />

Test duration < 20 seconds 25 seconds 75 seconds Batch dependent<br />

Deterministic Yes Yes Yes No<br />

Non-destructive<br />

Simple set-up<br />

(Yes)<br />

only for open packaging<br />

No<br />

Helium as a test gas<br />

is challenging to handle.<br />

Yes Yes No<br />

Yes Yes Yes<br />

Can be automated No Yes Yes No<br />

As shown in the comparative study,<br />

the vacuum-based test methods are<br />

significantly more sensitive than the<br />

blue dye test. This is a plus point,<br />

since the test requirements for primary<br />

packaging of pharmaceutical<br />

products have become increasingly<br />

stringent in recent years. It must<br />

also be noted, here, that the sensitivity<br />

results for the blue dye test were<br />

achieved based on a lengthy test duration<br />

(60 minutes under vacuum and<br />

the mass extraction method and helium<br />

mass spectrometry method<br />

are explicitly listed as deterministic<br />

methods in this directive.<br />

Also, the vacuum-based test<br />

methods are non-destructive, which<br />

44 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong>


Vacuum technology<br />

Vacuum-based leak testing methods<br />

means that the specimens can be<br />

used again, e. g. for additional tests<br />

at a later date. Only the helium test is<br />

limited insofar as it can only be used<br />

for open packaging or packaging that<br />

has already been filled with helium.<br />

Although helium is the most sensitive<br />

method, this limitation means that it<br />

is not usually possible to use the test<br />

during production. Also, setting up<br />

a system for helium testing is more<br />

challenging compared to the other<br />

methods, since helium as a test gas is<br />

not easy to handle.<br />

Only the O.E.S. and mass extraction<br />

methods can be expediently<br />

automated in order to increase<br />

the throughput of tested packaging<br />

units during production. With these<br />

methods, throughput can be increased<br />

relatively easily and cost-effectively<br />

by introducing automated<br />

loading and unloading, for example.<br />

The O.E.S. method can also be used<br />

to test several vials in one chamber,<br />

which can significantly increase the<br />

throughput at little extra cost.<br />

The use of vacuum-based test<br />

methods is subject to the additional<br />

basic restriction that the primary<br />

packaging must be able to withstand<br />

a differential pressure of approximately<br />

1 bar. This can be mitigated<br />

by using volume-optimized vacuum<br />

chambers that have been prepared<br />

for special use, but the method is still<br />

limited, to non-porous primary packaging/packaging<br />

types in general.<br />

Summary<br />

The steadily increasing demands<br />

placed on the integrity of packaging<br />

for pharmaceutical products are<br />

leading to a shift toward different CCI<br />

leak testing methods. Directives such<br />

as USP promote a move away<br />

from probabilistic test methods such<br />

as the blue dye test, which has been<br />

well established for decades, and toward<br />

deterministic test methods,<br />

which also include the vacuum-based<br />

test methods (helium mass spectrometry,<br />

optical emission spectroscopy,<br />

and mass extraction).<br />

The comparative study shows<br />

that a significantly lower detection<br />

limit can be achieved with vacuumbased<br />

test methods than with the<br />

conventional blue dye test. The first<br />

step for users to take when switching<br />

to one of the deterministic test<br />

methods is to carry out a series of<br />

tests to determine the detection limit<br />

currently achieved with their blue dye<br />

test. Users should also be clear about<br />

the critical detection limit that needs<br />

to be achieved in regular testing, for<br />

example during production. This may<br />

already narrow down the range of<br />

possible new test methods.<br />

The area of application must also<br />

be determined. Helium mass spectrometry,<br />

for example, is the most<br />

sensitive test method, but the difficulties<br />

of handling helium make it more<br />

suitable for use in R&D, or in the development<br />

and validation of packaging.<br />

Where in-process testing during<br />

production is required, the blue dye<br />

test can best be replaced by the O.E.S.<br />

or mass extraction test method.<br />

List of sources<br />

[1] L. E. Kirsch: PDA J Pharm Sci Technol<br />

54,4, 2000, p. 305-314<br />

[2] United States Pharmacopeia:<br />

Package Integrity Testing in<br />

the Product Life Cycle – Test Method<br />

Selection and Validation.<br />

[3] L. S. Burrell: PDA J Pharm Sci Technol<br />

54 (2000) 6,449-455<br />

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Transfer abrasive fluids with up to 80% solids<br />

wmfts.com | +44 1326 370 370<br />

Fluid<br />

<strong>Technology</strong><br />

Solutions<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong><br />

45


Vacuum technology<br />

Reduction of production downtime<br />

7 ways to reduce production downtime<br />

Production downtime is one of the<br />

biggest risks in the manufacturing<br />

industry. From equipment failures<br />

to shortages of raw materials, any<br />

production downtime can result in<br />

major losses in revenue and market<br />

share.<br />

There are two types of downtime:<br />

planned and unplanned.<br />

Planned downtime is a scheduled<br />

shutdown of manufacturing equipment<br />

or processes to perform maintenance,<br />

inspections, repairs, upgrades<br />

or manufacturing setups. It is<br />

essential to plan downtime for maintenance<br />

to keep the equipment in<br />

its optimum condition and to avoid<br />

unplanned downtime. Although<br />

planned downtime interrupts the<br />

manufacturing process, you are still<br />

in control of productivity processes.<br />

Thus, preventing production downtime<br />

is key to ensuring productivity.<br />

Follow our seven tips to reduce<br />

machine downtime in your production<br />

line.<br />

1. Develop a system for quickly<br />

identifying and resolving production<br />

issues<br />

The system should gather and analyze<br />

data that gives insight into the<br />

equipment’s total maintenance requirements.<br />

Interpretation of the<br />

data can help your teams resolve<br />

production issues by carrying out<br />

preventive maintenance. The implementation<br />

of such a system allows<br />

factories cut down on time lost due to<br />

production issues and prevent costly<br />

unplanned downtime by alerting employees<br />

of possible upcoming equipment<br />

failures.<br />

2. Use predictive analytics to<br />

identify potential problems before<br />

they occur<br />

Predictive analytics detect patterns<br />

in real-time machine data that could<br />

lead to the onset of a problem. Data<br />

analytics can inform you weeks in<br />

advance about which parts of a machine<br />

are likely to fail. This allows you<br />

to plan your maintenance schedules<br />

and order spare parts in advance,<br />

effectively reducing downtime and<br />

lessening the likelihood of issues reoccurring.<br />

3. Implement a preventive maintenance<br />

program<br />

Preventive maintenance programs are<br />

one of the most effective ways to minimize<br />

unplanned machine downtime.<br />

You can routinely collect valuable<br />

information about your equipment for<br />

Unplanned downtime occurs when<br />

there is an unexpected shutdown or<br />

failure of the manufacturing equipment<br />

or process. It causes foodstuffs<br />

to spoil if they are not packaged, as<br />

well as expensive delays in production<br />

and delivery schedules. Additionally,<br />

when operations are unstable, it<br />

is more difficult to adhere to environmental<br />

regulations and comply with<br />

sustainability measures. This could<br />

result in an increase of environmental<br />

incidents.<br />

a systematic maintenance approach.<br />

With the right targeted maintenance,<br />

you can react to predicted equipment<br />

failures or accidents before they occur.<br />

By reducing the possibility of unexpected<br />

downtime, your staff can focus<br />

on more profitable tasks.<br />

4. Create a system for dealing with<br />

glitches and problems as they arise<br />

Having a system that tracks and monitors<br />

glitches as they arise allows you<br />

to identify the root cause of an issue<br />

in your production line. This will en-<br />

46 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong>


Vacuum technology<br />

Reduction of production downtime<br />

downtime in your manufacturing<br />

process. If operators know how to<br />

use equipment correctly, they are<br />

less likely to halt production and can<br />

respond faster in emergency situations.<br />

Proper training also prevents<br />

unplanned downtime caused by human<br />

error and decreases the risk of<br />

workplace accidents.<br />

able you to understand how production<br />

failures occur and how to prevent<br />

them from happening again.<br />

This reduces unplanned machine<br />

downtime while increasing manufacturing<br />

efficiency.<br />

5. Automate as many processes as<br />

possible to reduce human error<br />

Reduce downtime and make your<br />

production process more efficient<br />

by automating repetitive and tedious<br />

tasks that are prone to human error.<br />

This will give your staff more time to<br />

focus on profitable tasks and develop<br />

their skill sets, which will translate<br />

into higher profits for your company<br />

and show your workforce that they<br />

are your most valuable resource.<br />

6. Train operators on how to<br />

properly operate equipment<br />

Training operators to properly use<br />

equipment can significantly reduce<br />

7. Use intelligent IoT solutions<br />

Are six tips too many? Then use tip 7<br />

for an all-in-one solution! Intelligent<br />

IoT solutions help reduce downtime<br />

by providing you with a system that<br />

quickly identifies and resolves production<br />

issues (tip 1). It tracks and<br />

monitors your equipment and process<br />

with predictive analytics, enabling<br />

you to create a maintenance<br />

schedule and order the necessary<br />

spare parts ahead of time (tip 2). Sensors<br />

and data analytics enable IoT<br />

to continuously track and monitor<br />

performance and process optimization<br />

data from your equipment. This<br />

gives you the opportunity to imple-<br />

MAXIMUM SAFETY.<br />

HIGH FLEXIBILITY.<br />

ROBUST DESIGN.<br />

SINGLE VOLUTE TWIN SCREW PUMP<br />

WITH MAGNET DRIVE<br />

Axial split modular casing<br />

Differential pressure limiting valve<br />

Containment shell executions:<br />

E metallic / non-metallic<br />

E single / double shell<br />

Materials: carbon steel, stainless steel,<br />

duplex stainless steel; others on request<br />

MORE INFO<br />

www.klaus-union.com


Vacuum technology<br />

Reduction of production downtime<br />

are two types of downtime: planned<br />

and unplanned.<br />

Planned downtime is a scheduled<br />

shutdown of manufacturing equipment<br />

to perform maintenance, inspections,<br />

repairs and upgrades.<br />

Unplanned downtime is an unexpected<br />

shutdown or failure of your<br />

manufacturing equipment or process.<br />

ment preventive maintenance (tip 3)<br />

and predict potential issues as they<br />

arise (tip 4), effectively lessening the<br />

frequency of planned or unplanned<br />

downtime. IoT also enables the automation<br />

of tasks, shortening the time<br />

it takes to complete them and ultimately<br />

boosting productivity and reducing<br />

human errors (tip 5). Thanks<br />

to its user-friendly tools, it is easy to<br />

learn how to operate IoT. Your workforce<br />

will be able to use it properly in<br />

no time (tip 6).<br />

Would you like to optimize your process<br />

by installing an IoT system?<br />

Busch also provides you with preventive<br />

maintenance by automatically<br />

dispatching a service specialist based<br />

on the analysis of the collected data<br />

when needed.<br />

FAQs<br />

What is production downtime?<br />

Downtime is the time during which a<br />

production process is stopped. There<br />

How do you calculate production<br />

downtime?<br />

Use the following equation to calculate<br />

production downtime costs:<br />

Downtime % = (amount of downtime/<br />

planned operating time) * 100<br />

What is the average production<br />

downtime?<br />

Manufacturers lose an average of<br />

800 hours per year, or more than 15<br />

hours per week, of production time<br />

due to equipment downtime.<br />

Let's consider a common scenario for<br />

a parmesan cheese factory:<br />

A parmesan cheese block weighs an<br />

average of 42 kg. The estimated price<br />

is 9 Euro per kilo, amounting to one<br />

parmesan block having a total value<br />

of 378 Euro. Three cheese blocks can<br />

be produced per minute, resulting in<br />

68,040 Euro per hour.<br />

If the parmesan factory experienced<br />

15 hours of unplanned downtime<br />

caused by equipment failure in one<br />

week, they would lose 1,020,600 Euro.<br />

Busch Vacuum Solutions<br />

Maulburg, Germany<br />

48 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong>


Pumps/Vacuum technology<br />

Companies – Innovations – Products<br />

Conveyance made easy<br />

Powerful rotary lobe pumps for demanding environments<br />

The more demanding the liquid, the higher the demands on the technology<br />

of the pump – a principle that also applies to industrial pumps.<br />

This is because in branches of industry such as the oil or chemical sectors,<br />

pumps must be capable of conveying abrasive, aggressive or viscous<br />

media in a reliable and safe manner. To be able to meet these<br />

requirements, robust, powerful, sophisticated and flexible pump technology<br />

is needed. In addition, it is necessary for the pumps to meet<br />

special industry-specific norms and standards in order to be approved<br />

for use in potentially explosive environments.<br />

High efficiency pump series<br />

With its EP and VY series, Vogelsang GmbH & Co. KG offers two pump<br />

series designed for use in demanding industrial environments. Both<br />

pump series feature rotary lobe pumps made of a flow-optimised onepiece<br />

housing. This ensures a particularly high degree of efficiency.<br />

The pumps reliably convey thin-bodied as well as highly viscous, pure<br />

and solids-laden media at temperatures of up to 200 degrees. They<br />

can be flexibly equipped with variable sealing systems and are ATEX<br />

and TA-Luft compliant. This makes them suitable for use in demanding<br />

areas such as the oil and gas sectors or the chemical industry. Thanks<br />

to increased efficiency and new seal versatility, Vogelsang is opening<br />

up new areas of application for its proven pump technology.<br />

EP series: high performance in extreme conditions<br />

The EP series is designed for extreme conditions such as use in explosive<br />

environments. Unique on the market so far: the high-performance<br />

gearbox, which is built into the pumps and allows for a uniform<br />

pressure output of up to 18 bar. Helical gears in the gearbox<br />

ensure smooth performance and reduce noise emissions. In addition,<br />

pulsation-free conveying reduces wear on the adjacent pipeline to a<br />

minimum. The pumps’ performance spectrum ranges from 1 m³/h to<br />

120 m³/h at a pressure of 10 to a maximum of 18 bar. The free ball passage<br />

is 40 mm. The high-pressure performance and temperature limit<br />

of 200 °C along with its seal versatility make the EP series suitable for<br />

application areas in which companies previously used primarily screw,<br />

gear and progressive cavity pumps. These are usually larger and have<br />

difficulty maintaining the conveyance volume when the viscosity of the<br />

medium changes. The new areas of application include the oil and gas<br />

sector, tank farms, the petrochemical industry and the production of<br />

paints and varnishes, paper, glue and sugar.<br />

For greater operational reliability and temperature resistance,<br />

Vogelsang has also equipped the EP series with an AirGap. This air gap<br />

atmospherically separates the gearbox and the pump chamber, ensuring<br />

that in the event of a leak, liquid will drain off to the outside rather<br />

than entering the gearbox. At the same time, the AirGap protects the<br />

gearbox when conveying hot media. If required, integrated sensors in<br />

all chambers provide information about the current operating status.<br />

VY series: the all-rounder with high efficiency<br />

With the VY series, Vogelsang has further developed its VX series,<br />

opening up new fields of application for its proven pump technology.<br />

Thanks to its highly versatile sealing, the VY series is an all-rounder for<br />

demanding applications such as the chemical industry or the paper<br />

and textile sectors. The VY pumps’ performance spectrum ranges from<br />

1 m³/h to 120 m³/h at a maximum pressure of 10 bar. Integrated sensors<br />

provide all important information about the pump’s operating status.<br />

The VY series is also available with axial and radial wear protection<br />

for media with abrasive components.<br />

Fig. 2: The double-acting mechanical seal CoX-Cartridge is designed for use at high<br />

temperatures and pressures.<br />

Fig.1: The Vogelsang Automatic Supply Unit (ASU) is compact and increases the<br />

service life of a seal by up to 100 percent.<br />

Wide range of seals for even more flexibility<br />

Depending on the industry-specific standards and requirements, a variety<br />

of different sealing systems can be used in the housings of the<br />

new pump series. In addition to the Vogelsang Quality Cartridge, a<br />

completely pre-assembled mechanical seal in a cartridge design, additional<br />

special mechanical seals are available for the EP and VY series.<br />

Vogelsang has developed the double-acting, TA-Luft compliant mechanical<br />

seal CoX-Cartridge together with leading manufacturers. The<br />

company consequently offers the right solution for various fields of<br />

application, such as for use in the oil and gas industry or in the chemical<br />

sectors. If required, the new pump series can also be equipped with<br />

robust mechanical seals according to API 682.<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong><br />

49


Pumps/Vacuum technology<br />

Companies – Innovations – Products<br />

Service-friendly assembly and cleaning<br />

For a high degree of service-friendliness, both pump series feature<br />

a quick connection in addition to a variety of seals. This allows pipelines<br />

to be connected to pumps in a matter of minutes, thus minimising<br />

time, effort and costs for installation and conversion. Maintaining<br />

the pumps is also quick and easy. Via a quick service cover, wear parts<br />

can be replaced quickly without removing the pump from the pipeline.<br />

The design of the new housings, which minimizes dead space, also allows<br />

for easy cleaning.<br />

bpsense – intelligent monitoring of<br />

unregulated pumps<br />

bpsense integrates unregulated pumps into automated processes<br />

– Comprehensive energy monitoring<br />

– Continuous condition monitoring<br />

– Predictive maintenance<br />

New framework concept: even easier maintenance and service<br />

To protect the pump casings of the EP series from abrasive or aggressive<br />

media, the interiors can be fitted with radial casing protection<br />

plates. The innovative framework concept makes it possible to loosen<br />

the screw connection from the outside. It is based on an intelligent fastening<br />

system consisting of four modules that are screwed together<br />

from the outside. This way, the radial protection plates are optimally<br />

positioned and can be changed very easily for servicing. For maintenance<br />

or service purposes, the user only has to remove the covers and<br />

take out the modules. This straightforward handling greatly simplifies<br />

access and reduces downtimes during maintenance or servicing, which<br />

also saves time and money.<br />

Fig. 1: BRINKMANN PUMPS has developed the pump monitor bpsense, a fully integrated<br />

monitoring system for unregulated pumps (Photos © : Brinkmann Pumpen)<br />

Fig. 3: The innovative framework concept makes it possible to loosen the screw<br />

connection from the outside.<br />

With the pump control bplogic and the variable frequency drive (VFD)<br />

bpdrive, the portfolio of BRINKMANN PUMPS includes important products<br />

to digitize existing system environments. Now the Sauerlandbased<br />

manufacturer of intelligent pump solutions and innovative systems<br />

is taking the next step: The bpsense pump monitoring system<br />

provides a smart entry into the world of digital pumps. In practice, this<br />

Innovative seal supply system in miniature format<br />

In addition to the two-pump series, the innovative Automatic Supply<br />

Unit (ASU) seal supply system is also suitable for use in demanding industrial<br />

environments. The ASU is significantly smaller than conventional<br />

seal supply systems and can be easily installed even in tight installation<br />

spaces. The patented system is much less expensive than<br />

currently available options while extending the service life of seals by<br />

up to 100 percent. To maintain the barrier pressure, the ASU consists<br />

of a reciprocating piston pump that adds barrier fluid to the seal with<br />

each revolution. This keeps the overpressure at either 2.0 or 4.3 bar.<br />

Vogelsang GmbH & Co. KG<br />

Holthöge 10-14<br />

49632 Essen (Oldenburg), Germany<br />

Tel +49 (5434) 83-0<br />

Fax +49 (5434) 83-10<br />

germany@vogelsang.info<br />

www.vogelsang.info<br />

Fig. 2: The Team Digital for more efficiency: bpsense perfectly complements the<br />

digital portfolio of BRINKMANN PUMPS<br />

50 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong>


Pumps/Vacuum technology<br />

Companies – Innovations – Products<br />

means: bpsense integrates unregulated pumps into automated processes<br />

and takes companies a big step further in their efforts to meet<br />

Industry 4.0 conditions. The integration of unregulated pumps into the<br />

digital landscape ensures complete transparency of the fluid system.<br />

bpsense – Entry into the digital world of pumps<br />

Digital. Integrated. Simple. This is the short formula for entering<br />

the digital pump world of BRINKMANN PUMPS. Thanks to the intelligent<br />

onboard sensor technology, bpsense enables the continuous<br />

monitoring of unregulated pumps. The simultaneous evaluation of<br />

acceleration, vibration, sound and temperature sensor signals makes<br />

it possible to detect the status of unregulated pumps in real time. Furthermore,<br />

extensive analysis functionality allows plant operators to enhance<br />

the system availability. bpsense is already prepared for wear<br />

detection of centrifugal pumps, which is a feature that is currently developed.<br />

Among the most important benefits of the digital pump monitoring<br />

system is that bpsense significantly helps to increase production<br />

quality through the traceability of production steps and continuous<br />

process monitoring.<br />

bpsense – seamless integration into digital system landscapes<br />

The pump monitor integrates into digital architectures – even as part<br />

of a retrofit of existing pumps. bpsense is IIoT-capable (Industrial Internet<br />

of Things) and enables the monitoring of complex systems by integrating<br />

unregulated pumps. In addition to optimal process monitoring,<br />

bpsense enables the entry into predictive maintenance – one of the<br />

key elements of Industry 4.0. bpsense impresses with good scalability.<br />

It can be used both as a stand-alone solution and in an online network,<br />

for example when combined with Brinkmann Pumps’ bplogic or a comparable<br />

pump controller. An NFC (Near Field Communication) connection<br />

allows the display of basic data such as energy consumption or<br />

operating hours even when the device is removed from the system or<br />

operating in off-grid environments. All you need is a smartphone and<br />

a standard NFC app, meaning, no cables or special tools are required.<br />

bpsense – Monitoring without additional wiring effort<br />

The bpsense pump monitor can be easily integrated into existing system<br />

landscapes. Optionally, the connection can be made via fieldbus<br />

or a data gateway such as bplogic. Two analog inputs on the bpsense<br />

provide all the prerequisites for the integration of additional sensors.<br />

In addition, there is an IEPE input for connecting external vibration sensors<br />

and an analog output for external actuators. bpsense fits into the<br />

terminal box of the pump drive and uses the existing power supply of<br />

the pump system. Additional wiring or batteries are not required to<br />

mount the pump monitoring system.<br />

BRINKMANN PUMPEN<br />

K.H. Brinkmann GmbH & Co. KG<br />

Friedrichstr. 2<br />

58791 Werdohl, Germany<br />

Tel + 49 (2392) 5006-0<br />

Fax + 49 (2392) 5006-180<br />

kontakt@brinkmannpumps.de<br />

www.brinkmannpumps.de<br />

We tackle the<br />

challenges of the<br />

future – with our<br />

intelligent vacuum<br />

solutions.<br />

www.buschvacuum.com


Pumps/Vacuum technology<br />

Companies – Innovations – Products<br />

Vertical inline twin-screw pumps in block design<br />

The universal pump solution<br />

for space problems<br />

In many companies, lack of space is a major problem. However, relocating<br />

production to another location is usually not an alternative.<br />

So, another solution must be found. It is often difficult do replace a<br />

positive displacement pump in a narrow room or to integrate it into<br />

a new plant if the available installation space is limited. While some<br />

models can be arranged vertically, this usually requires a near wall<br />

or side support frame for vertical mounting. The versatile HYGHSPIN<br />

and CHEMSPIN inline twin-screw pumps offer new approaches that effectively<br />

solve these problems. Thanks to special block design, these<br />

pumps allow free vertical installation in space without lateral structures<br />

for horizontally running pipelines.<br />

Fig. 2: The models of the CHEMSPIN and HYGHSPIN series are also available in<br />

vertical version<br />

The HYGHSPIN and CHEMSPIN pumps have a wide speed range. The<br />

pumping is almost pulsation-free. The low mass inertia of the rotors and<br />

an imbalance-free design also contribute to the smooth running.<br />

Not only for space reasons, but also because of the high viscosity<br />

and volume flow ranges, these twin-screw pumps can effectively replace<br />

other pump types. Thus, HYGHSPIN and CHEMSPIN pumps can also be<br />

used for CIP and SIP processes without an additional bypass. Furthermore,<br />

the pumps are characterized by a low risk of cavitation even when<br />

pumping viscous media. The pumps are available in five sizes each.<br />

Hygienic HYGHSPIN twin-screw pumps are used in the beverage and<br />

food industry, for cosmetics and pharmaceutical products, and animal<br />

feed. Examples of applications for CHEMSPIN pumps are adhesives, underbody<br />

protection, paints, lacquers, cleaning agents as well as tank<br />

farms. Manufacturing is carried out exclusively in Germany.<br />

Fig. 1: Vertical inline twin-screw pumps in block design<br />

The block design is a construction characteristic of the north German<br />

pump manufacturer Jung <strong>Process</strong> Systems, which has been building<br />

hygienic stainless steel pumps according to this principle since 2009.<br />

The pump and the motor shaft are positioned by geometry therefore<br />

cannot shift. Problems caused by unaligned or strained couplings are<br />

avoided. The twin-screw pumps in block design can thus be mounted<br />

vertically on the front cover free-standing like multi-stage centrifugal<br />

pumps.<br />

The modules are very compact and can be easily integrated into<br />

existing plants. When installed vertically, the footprint of a HYGHSPIN<br />

or CHEMSPIN twin-screw pump is reduced up to 70% compared to<br />

other pumps types. The pumps are self-emptying via the lower connection<br />

on the front cover. The main difference to the well-known horizontal<br />

pumps is the front cover especially designed for vertical installation.<br />

This makes it possible to retrofit existing pumps if changes in the<br />

plant require this.<br />

Jung <strong>Process</strong> Systems GmbH<br />

Auweg 8<br />

25495 Kummerfeld, Germany<br />

Tel +49 (4101) 80409-0<br />

Fax +49 (4101) 80409-142<br />

info@jung-process-systems.de<br />

www.jung-process-systems.de<br />

Polymer metering capabilities<br />

advanced with the<br />

new Qdos 60 PU pump<br />

With an expanding market worldwide for advanced polymer dosing<br />

systems, the introduction of the Qdos 60 PU peristaltic pump from<br />

Watson-Marlow Fluid <strong>Technology</strong> Solutions (WMFTS) is a timely addition<br />

to the company’s range. It means operators can now deploy efficient,<br />

safe, and reliable polymer metering at any water or wastewater<br />

treatment plant.<br />

52 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong>


Pumps/Vacuum technology<br />

Companies – Innovations – Products<br />

Polymers are used mostly in coagulation and dewatering applications<br />

in the sludge treatment process. Dewatering sludge minimises sludge<br />

bulk, which can reduce the cost associated with storage and disposal<br />

by up to 75 per cent.<br />

There are strong regulatory drivers globally for efficient sludge<br />

dewatering. In <strong>2023</strong>, sludge treatment will be included under the UK<br />

Government's environmental permitting system to encourage use of<br />

sludge as a beneficial resource.<br />

Accurate and reliable metering of polymers in the sludge dewatering<br />

process is essential to ensure it is managed properly.<br />

The Qdos 60 PU offers precise and repeatable flows for many hard<br />

to handle fluids, including viscous flows and aliphatic hydrocarbons, at<br />

linear flow rates of up to 60 l/h and pressures of up to 5 bar. The pump<br />

provides excellent compatibility for complex polymers such as polyacrylamide<br />

(PAM) and other flocculants and coagulants used in wastewater<br />

treatment.<br />

Peristaltic pumps have notable advantages over diaphragm pumps in<br />

PAM metering applications, including enhanced accuracy and reliability.<br />

There is no need for diaphragms, valves, or seals that risk clogging.<br />

The highly innovative design of Qdos pumps means the only part<br />

of the pump that ever requires replacing is the patented ReNu pumphead.<br />

The ReNu pumphead offers repeatable, accurate flow rates,<br />

and lasts longer for tough applications in the field. It takes less than<br />

a minute to replace the ReNu pumphead - a new pumphead is a new<br />

peristaltic pump, ready to serve again.<br />

Adeel Hassan, product manager at WMFTS said, “The new Qdos<br />

ReNu PU pumphead has extended the range of applications of our<br />

Qdos series. These versatile pumps can be used for accurate and safe<br />

dosing of liquids up to 120l/h and 7 bar pressure in various applications<br />

across a range of sectors. They are available in different sizes and<br />

control options depending on requirements.”<br />

WMFTS expects market scope to grow significantly, particularly<br />

with the pump’s integral leak detection and chemical containment<br />

capability, which reduces operators' exposure to chemicals during<br />

maintenance.<br />

Customers in the food and beverage industry can also benefit from<br />

the Qdos 60 PU pump as it is also compatible with fats, oils, and grease,<br />

and is Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Commission<br />

(EC) 1935/2004 certified.<br />

Watson-Marlow Limited<br />

Bickland Water Road, Falmouth<br />

Cornwall, TR11 4RU, United Kingdom<br />

Tel +44 (1326) 370370<br />

info@wmfts.com<br />

www.wmfts.com<br />

New PROFINET-enabled pumps from<br />

Watson-Marlow enable seamless<br />

integration of fluid delivery up to<br />

enterprise-level<br />

– 530, 630 and 730 pumps are now PROFINET-enabled<br />

– Industrial Ethernet provides real time process information for<br />

enhanced productivity<br />

– Network dosing and dispensing features avoid network lags<br />

– Reduce system cost and complexity by using the pump as a gateway<br />

to sensor data<br />

Photos © : Watson-Marlow Fluid <strong>Technology</strong> Solutions<br />

Leveraging decades of engineering expertise and research and<br />

development experience at WMFTS, the Qdos 60 PU is optimised for<br />

low-shear, gentle pumping to protect polymer chains and maintain<br />

product integrity. As with the Qdos 20 PU, it uses an aliphatic hydrocarbon-resistant<br />

tubing material, enhancing chemical compatibility in<br />

peristaltic pumps.<br />

Watson-Marlow Fluid <strong>Technology</strong> Solutions (WMFTS) is extending its industrial<br />

Ethernet control offer by making PROFINET available on its 530,<br />

630 and 730 series of cased peristaltic pumps. This additional communication<br />

capability allows customers to access fast, accurate performance<br />

data and seamless connectivity with modern PLC control systems and<br />

the Internet of Things (IoT) using either EtherNet/IP and PROFINET ® .<br />

Industry’s transition to digitalisation is emanating from the need<br />

to improve process performance, reduce operating costs and minimise<br />

downtime. With Watson-Marlow’s extended range of PROFINETenabled<br />

process pumps for digital network control, users no longer<br />

need digital gateways, adaptors or expensive PLC interface cards. Instead,<br />

by using the pump as a gateway to sensor data, it is possible to<br />

reduce system cost and complexity.<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong><br />

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Pumps/Vacuum technology<br />

Companies – Innovations – Products<br />

ultra-high-pressure pumps. A high vertical range of manufacture at<br />

the headquarter in Germany guarantees the required quality and lifetime<br />

at the highest level. The high-pressure plunger pumps are used in<br />

many different high-pressure applications all over the world and have<br />

proven themselves for decades in manufacturing, production and<br />

cleaning processes.<br />

In order to continue maintaining such a high level of quality and<br />

sustainability, the expansion of state-of-the-art drive systems is being<br />

intensified and optimization of the pumps is being ensured by<br />

reducing internal friction losses and minimizing damaged spaces. Depending<br />

on the operating conditions and flow rate, the machines are<br />

individually adapted so that long-term economic success is achieved.<br />

Photo © : Watson-Marlow Fluid <strong>Technology</strong> Solutions<br />

These pumps include network dispensing functions, allowing users to<br />

create dispensing and dosing recipes which can be controlled and adjusted<br />

remotely or through the pump HMI. This capability ensures accurate<br />

and repeatable dosing and filling for optimal process performance.<br />

The pumps feature a direct interface to third-party pressure and<br />

flow sensors. This extended, smart communication capability enables<br />

users to read information across their network via the pump. It is<br />

also possible to set local control limits, offering a simple, cost-effective<br />

way to safeguard process integrity through independent performance<br />

monitoring.<br />

Watson-Marlow’s 530, 630 and 730 Industrial Ethernet pump<br />

range is fully compatible with advanced distributed control systems<br />

and leading brands of PLC, including Rockwell Automation, Emerson<br />

(Delta-V), Siemens and Beckhoff. Furthermore, the pumps support a<br />

broad range of sensor technologies such as Krohne, Pendotech, Sonotec<br />

and Em-tec for single-use biopharma as well as Parker Hannifin and<br />

Balluff for process industries.<br />

Watson-Marlow Limited<br />

Bickland Water Road, Falmouth<br />

Cornwall, TR11 4RU, United Kingdom<br />

Tel +44 (1326) 370370<br />

info@wmfts.com<br />

www.wmfts.com<br />

Energy-efficient high-pressure pumps<br />

Full power, full efficiency<br />

Especially in the field of energy and power efficiency URACA pumps<br />

can score with very high efficiencies. The flow rates of the pumps can<br />

be controlled independently of the pressure. Another advantage is an<br />

almost constant high efficiency over the entire delivery range. Also unbeatable<br />

is the product quality, which reflects the efficient use of resources.<br />

URACA pumps are known for their durability and can be used<br />

as continuous runners for decades. URACA has been building highly<br />

efficient positive displacement pumps “Made in Germany” for over<br />

125 years and is one of the world's pioneers in the field of high and<br />

Also in the field of drinking water URACA contributes to an environmentally<br />

conscious use of water and energy. Especially in higher regions<br />

it is a special challenge for municipal and private suppliers to install<br />

energy-efficient pumping stations.<br />

By using the special drinking water URACA plunger pumps, this<br />

task is optimally mastered both ecologically and economically. The<br />

high-pressure pumps achieve a very high efficiency in direct comparison<br />

to centrifugal pumps. This applies over the entire speed range of<br />

the pump, which also includes partial load operation. The significantly<br />

better efficiency - compared to other types of pumps - not only notice-<br />

54 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong>


Pumps/Vacuum technology<br />

Companies – Innovations – Products<br />

The pump manufacturer established its head office in Ottobrunn in<br />

March 2008. More than 800 square metres of production and warehouse<br />

space along with office space of 800 square metres support further<br />

growth, ensuring that special customer requests can be met over<br />

the long term. Eccentric screw pumps are designed and produced at a<br />

second site in Upper Bavaria.<br />

Personal and technical consulting by the employees, the greatest<br />

possible flexibility throughout the enterprise and direct contact with<br />

customers helped establish the company’s good reputation in the drum<br />

pump segment. The company’s owners have set the goal of maintaining<br />

close personal connections with their customers through numerous<br />

trade fair presentations. Flexibility thanks to the clear company structure<br />

is proven in particular regarding delivery times and special requests.<br />

Sales partners in Germany, Europe and around the world complement<br />

this concept and guarantee optimal customer support.<br />

Two of the proven pump types are presented here:<br />

ably lowers operating costs, but also considerably reduces CO 2<br />

emissions.<br />

The following applies: The greater the height or pressure differences,<br />

the higher the energy-related savings. In addition to their low<br />

energy requirements, the pumps are also characterized by very favourable<br />

maintenance and service costs, which also significantly reduce the<br />

cost of maintaining the high-pressure pump. Economically short payback<br />

times can be achieved even for small differences in height. The<br />

pumps are used, for example, in the Alps and low mountain ranges<br />

such as the Swabian Alb.<br />

JP-810 double diaphragm pump<br />

Functionality<br />

The double diaphragm pump works with compressed air and starts<br />

automatically. A pneumatic drive at the heart of the pump alternately<br />

pulls and pushes the left and right diaphragms. Balls in the pump serve<br />

as a non-return valve, directing the flow direction from the pressure input<br />

side to the pressure output side.<br />

URACA GmbH & Co. KG<br />

Sirchinger Str. 15<br />

72574 Bad Urach, Germany<br />

Tel +49 (7125) 133-0<br />

Fax +49 (7125) 133-202<br />

info@uraca.de<br />

www.uraca.de<br />

Flexible pumps to handle<br />

challenging media<br />

bpsense<br />

Jessberger, a family business based in Ottobrunn near Munich, not<br />

only develops pumps and applications for its customers but also builds<br />

them to customer specifications.<br />

The company manufactures drum pumps, manual hand pumps and<br />

eccentric screw pumps. Compressed air operated diaphragm pumps,<br />

rotary pumps and other industrial pumps complete the portfolio.<br />

Jessberger works closely with customers to find the right pump for any<br />

medium. Typical fields of application for Jessberger pumps include<br />

chemical applications, food, wastewater and agriculture (for drums,<br />

IBCs and also inline)<br />

The company has a wealth of pump technology experience thanks<br />

to long-term employees and the business owners. Even though<br />

JESSBERGER has only existed as a company name in the drum pump<br />

segment since the beginning of 2003, the supplier has established itself<br />

quickly as a true alternative. Setting new standards in terms of<br />

price combined with the highest quality was the goal, with impressive<br />

results.<br />

DIGITAL. INTEGRATED. EASY.<br />

The intelligent pump monitoring for<br />

uncontrolled pumps. Also retrofittable.<br />

■ Comprehensive energy monitoring<br />

■ Continuous condition monitoring<br />

■ Predictive maintenance<br />

BRINKMANN PUMPEN | K.H. Brinkmann GmbH & Co. KG<br />

T +49 2392 5006-0 | sales@brinkmannpumps.de | www.brinkmannpumps.de


Pumps/Vacuum technology<br />

Companies – Innovations – Products<br />

The JP-810 is self-priming and, with the selection of suitable conductive<br />

materials and the pneumatic drive, can be used in explosion-prone<br />

areas. It is suitable for ATEX zone 2 or 1 depending on the chosen materials.<br />

Particles or pieces of fruit can also be conveyed thanks to gentle<br />

pumping, depending on the pump size. A major advantage of this<br />

pump is that it can also run dry in addition to being self-priming.<br />

The robust and handy double diaphragm pump is designed<br />

specifi cally for the customer’s medium. All components with media<br />

contact can be carried out in various materials. Aside from the food<br />

industry, these pumps have therefore been established in the chemicals<br />

sector for many years as well. The JP-810 pumps have a pump capacity<br />

of 8 –1050 l/min.<br />

the operating panel after each stroke. The pump stops automatically<br />

after a configured number of strokes or just counts the strokes (no action),<br />

depending on the configuration.<br />

A hose reel is mounted on the carriage so the customer does not<br />

have to search for the compressed air hose. This application is possible<br />

with smaller or larger pumps as well. The smallest volume is 18 ml, the<br />

largest is 9750 ml per stroke.<br />

Sample application 2<br />

Customers have a choice of various connections (flanged, NPT thread,<br />

BSP or Triclamp). A CIP-compatible pump for food applications can<br />

be realised as well. To prevent the (sometimes) unwanted vibration<br />

in the line, a damper can be installed as a sensible accessory in the<br />

pressure line or screwed directly onto the pump. Precise operation<br />

of these pumps can be guaranteed with optional stroke counters.<br />

The pumps are suitable for viscosities up to 55,000 mPas. JP-810 diaphragm<br />

pumps are easy to disassemble and just about all parts can be<br />

replaced quickly.<br />

A customer has an aggressive liquid medium with smaller particles.<br />

However, a suction pipe similar to the Jessberger drum pumps is<br />

needed, rather than a suction hose.<br />

Sample application 1<br />

A customer wants a portable pump for the flexible conveying of chemicals.<br />

The pump needs to be air operated, with an adjustable volume.<br />

The solution<br />

Jessberger configures a JP-810 double diaphragm pump for the customer.<br />

All materials are tailored to the chemicals in question. A damper<br />

is permanently mounted on the pump to prevent pulsation of the<br />

medium. Installed on a carriage, it can now be moved from site to site.<br />

The volume is precisely adjustable per stroke using a handheld<br />

panel. The pump used in this application conveys 700 ml per stroke. To<br />

count the strokes, a pneumatic signal is transmitted from the pump to<br />

56 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong>


Pumps/Vacuum technology<br />

Companies – Innovations – Products<br />

The solution<br />

A JP-810 with a threaded bottom suction opening is provided for the<br />

customer. This permits the installation of a fixed suction pipe that is<br />

screwed to the pump, which then sits on the tap hole. The pump can<br />

convey small particles of 2–12 mm, depending on the pump size.<br />

Leakage detection is implemented here so the customer knows<br />

immediately if a diaphragm breaks, even before medium leaks out<br />

of the pump.<br />

This leakage detection is optional and screwed directly into the<br />

pump’s air-side pressure section. It monitors the pressure chamber on<br />

the air side and emits a signal when moisture enters.<br />

The drum pump<br />

The drum pump is one of Jessberger’s best-known products. It always<br />

comprises two components, a motor and a pump unit. The pump unit<br />

consists of a pipe with a rotor or impeller, which pushes the medium<br />

up towards the discharge. Pump units are configured according to the<br />

conveying medium. The pump units can be made of PP, PVDF, stainless<br />

steel or aluminium. A suitable motor (electric or pneumatic) is manually<br />

screwed onto the pump according to the required delivery volume.<br />

No tools are needed. Motors are available up to IP classification 55<br />

and for ATEX applications. Typical fields of application include emptying<br />

IBCs or drums in the chemicals industry and food sector.<br />

Aside from ease of operation, an advantage of the drum pump is that<br />

it can be combined with a nozzle and, depending on the medium, also<br />

with a meter or even volume pre-selection.<br />

Jessberger employees are happy to help you in case of questions<br />

and to support your projects. Many pumps in different versions are<br />

available directly from stock or at short notice. Please visit our website<br />

for monthly offers.<br />

Jessberger is celebrating its 20 th anniversary this year. Inflation and<br />

crises notwithstanding, the company has once again decided not to<br />

raise prices in <strong>2023</strong> for its own production programme.<br />

JESSBERGER GmbH<br />

Jägerweg 5-7<br />

85521 Ottobrunn, Germany<br />

Tel +49 (89) 6666 33-400<br />

Fax +49 (89) 6666 33-411<br />

info@jesspumpen.de<br />

www.jesspumpen.de<br />

THINK BIG – Exhaust gas cleaning<br />

for large engines<br />

Users of diesel vehicles are familiar with “AdBlue”. The pollutants produced<br />

during combustion are usually effectively removed directly in<br />

the engine, the exhaust gas drives the turbocharger and then passes<br />

through the oxidation catalytic converter. Now AdBlue - a mixture of<br />

synthetic urea and water - is added. Through a chemical reaction, the<br />

SCR catalytic converter then converts the nitrogen oxides into water<br />

and nitrogen. With the introduction of the EURO 6 emissions standard<br />

in 2015, the use of AdBlue in new cars has become mandatory -<br />

commercial vehicle owners and drivers have been obliged to do so for<br />

much longer.<br />

Jessberger supplies a comprehensive range of accessories for its products.<br />

Hoses and nozzles are offered to customers as a rule in addition<br />

to the pump units and motors. Please note that the pump units always<br />

have to be positioned vertically in the drum or tank. Suitable adapters<br />

are offered. Liquids up to 1000 mPas can be conveyed with this solution.<br />

Jessberger also offers a version of this pump that allows the drum<br />

to be completely emptied.<br />

Industrial and large engines, such as those on ships, are now also subject<br />

to increasingly stringent emission guidelines. Engine manufacturers<br />

are therefore forced to significantly reduce emissions of both soot<br />

particles and nitrogen oxides.<br />

The reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions can be achieved on the<br />

one hand through lower-pollution combustion, i. e. an internal engine<br />

solution, and on the other hand through exhaust gas post-treatment<br />

with an SCR catalytic converter (SCR: selective catalytic reduction). Often,<br />

a combination is used - first lower-pollution combustion, then SCR.<br />

The chemical reaction at the SCR catalytic converter is selective, i.e.<br />

the nitrogen oxides (NO, NO 2<br />

) are reduced preferentially, while undesirable<br />

side reactions such as the oxidation of sulphur dioxide to sulphur<br />

trioxide are largely suppressed.<br />

The reaction requires ammonia (NH 3<br />

), which is mixed into the exhaust<br />

gas. When urea is used, it must first be decomposed in a thermolysis<br />

and subsequent hydrolysis reaction in order to release the ammonia<br />

necessary for the SCR reaction.<br />

The dimensions of industrial and large engines make the use of<br />

dosing systems possible and necessary. The dosing system from sera<br />

is used in exhaust gas post-treatment. The urea solution is dosed from<br />

a day tank with a sera dosing pump. The urea is finely atomised by<br />

means of a nozzle lance. The urea quantity required for optimum pollutant<br />

reduction is specified via a control system by means of a control<br />

signal of the iSTEP series metering pump.<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong><br />

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Pumps/Vacuum technology<br />

Companies – Innovations – Products<br />

In depth filtration, diatomaceous earth, due to its fine structure, is<br />

washed up with water on cellulose cloths, thus forming a filter cake<br />

that holds back the yeast particles. To prevent this layer from sticking<br />

together, diatomaceous earth continues to be dosed in during filtration,<br />

thus building up new filter layers. Accurate dosing under increasing<br />

counterpressure is therefore crucial to ensure that the beer does<br />

not undergo any negative changes in taste.<br />

A large German private brewery has therefore switched to hose<br />

pumps with the support of AxFlow. A peristaltic metering pump of the<br />

brand realAx is now used for the addition of diatomaceous earth. In<br />

this application, the hose pump delivers at a rate of 125 l/h and a pressure<br />

of 2.5 bar. The realAx ISI 22 model in use operates with roller compression.<br />

In this process, the hose is compressed by the movement of<br />

the rollers and the filter medium in the hose is gently conveyed. Rollers<br />

generate significantly less friction on the hose than shoes. As a result,<br />

the hose wears slower and needs to be replaced less frequently. In<br />

addition, a drive with lower power consumption is sufficient, so that<br />

energy costs are saved during operation.<br />

The dosing of the urea is monitored with pressure and volume flow<br />

sensors. Since optimal atomisation and evaporation of the aqueous<br />

urea solution is crucial for the process, the nozzle lance is also supplied<br />

with compressed air. The compressed air cools the nozzle lance. Furthermore,<br />

the compressed air is used to flush the urea line via a bypass<br />

function between the compressed air and the urea line, so that blockages<br />

caused by crystallising urea are avoided.<br />

In this way, sera products ensure clean air by post-treatment of exhaust<br />

gases from industrial and large engines.<br />

sera GmbH<br />

sera-Str. 1<br />

34376 Immenhausen, Germany<br />

Tel. +49 (5673) 999-0<br />

Fax +49 (5673) 999-01<br />

info@sera-web.com<br />

www.sera-web.com<br />

Beer filtration with improved results<br />

thanks to the right pump technology<br />

In breweries, diatomaceous earth is often used to filter the beer. Its<br />

fine-pored structure absorbs the suspended particles from the beer,<br />

resulting in a clear product. In diatomaceous earth filtration, it is therefore<br />

essential that the particles are pumped gently and that the porous<br />

surface of the diatomaceous earth is preserved. AxFlow has used hose<br />

pumps in many breweries here, most recently in a large German private<br />

brewery.<br />

After the new beer has been given its taste 'finishing touches' in the<br />

maturation cellar, the turbid matter must be filtered off in the case of<br />

clear beer varieties. This filtration removes residual yeast cells and other<br />

turbidity from the beer. Depth filtration and screen or surface filtration<br />

are common processes in this case, using both feed and discharge<br />

pumps for diatomaceous earth.<br />

Composed mainly of the constituents of fossil algae, diatomaceous<br />

earth is an excellent filter medium. Optimized filtration improves the<br />

appearance, shelf life and saleability of the beer.<br />

realAx ISI 22 roller hose pump in a large German private brewery<br />

As part of the installation, AxFlow service engineers assisted with the<br />

initial cleaning of the hose pump and system. In a first step, the pump<br />

was cleaned with diluted caustic solution in a second step with an acid<br />

mixture and then rinsed.<br />

As a valveless technology, hose pumps stand out for their troublefree<br />

operation. Despite the highly abrasive properties of diatomaceous<br />

earth, hose pumps operate reliably and require less maintenance than<br />

comparable pump technologies. At the same time, realAx brand hose<br />

58 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong>


Pumps/Vacuum technology<br />

Companies – Innovations – Products<br />

pumps with high-strength hoses have strong resetting forces and thus<br />

excellent suction performance. The food-grade hoses, made of natural<br />

rubber, are reinforced with multiple layers of nylon fabric. They are<br />

manufactured with precision surfaces so that there is even less friction,<br />

resulting in a high efficiency and long durability.<br />

The brewmaster is very satisfied with the filtration result. Gentle<br />

conveying with roller hose pumps preserves the surface structure of<br />

the diatomaceous earth and results in a safe product that is attractive<br />

to the end customer.<br />

AxFlow GmbH<br />

Theodorstraße 105<br />

40472 Düsseldorf, Germany<br />

Tel +49 (211) 23806-0<br />

Fax +49 (211) 23806-20<br />

info@axflow.de<br />

www.axflow.de<br />

Wide-range Speed Control for Diaphragm Metering Pumps<br />

Energy efficient in accordance with<br />

class IE5+: Compact permanent magnet<br />

synchronous motor extends control<br />

range and reduces total cost of<br />

ownership<br />

In many applications, metering ingredients in the pharmaceutical or<br />

food industry for example, pumps are required that not only can be<br />

precisely controlled in terms of flow rate and dosing time, but also<br />

convey the ingredients particularly gently. To enable the proven pump<br />

units of the ecodos series from LEWA GmbH to fulfill this demanding<br />

task with even more flexibility and energy efficiency in the future, the<br />

manufacturer is expanding the portfolio to include a new form of widerange<br />

speed control. Alongside asynchronous motors and servomotors,<br />

permanent magnet synchronous motors, or PMSMs for short, are<br />

also used now. They are characterized by high energy efficiency and a<br />

control range greater than 1:200. This significantly expands the range<br />

of applications.<br />

Fig. 1: LEWA ecodos LED3 with PMSM (Photo © : LEWA GmbH)<br />

be dispensed with and the required flow rate can be realized by speed<br />

control only. The PMSM also has a constant torque, from engine<br />

speed 0 rpm (standstill) up to the rated speed of the motor. This ensures<br />

particularly smooth and gentle system start-up, since each process<br />

can be started with a pump capacity of 1 percent instead of the<br />

usual 10 percent.<br />

The diaphragm metering pumps in the LEWA ecodos series are particularly<br />

well suited for applications in the food or pharmaceutical industries.<br />

All materials in contact with the fluids used in the pump units<br />

meet the FDA and USP Class VI requirements, and the EU directives for<br />

the food industry. In the hygienic version, for example, the pump head<br />

is made of PP or electropolished stainless steel with a surface roughness<br />

< 0.5 µm. This facilitates cleaning of the surfaces in contact with<br />

the product.<br />

Wide-range speed control with permanent magnet synchronous<br />

motor extends the range of applications<br />

Unlike the asynchronous motor, the rotor of this drive consists of<br />

permanent magnets and rotates synchronously, i.e. without loaddependent<br />

slip. Among other things, it features an extreme control<br />

range, which often makes the use of multiple pumps for different flow<br />

rates unnecessary. Particularly in the case of multiple pumps, an additional<br />

manual stroke adjustment or electric stroke adjustment can<br />

Fig. 2: In contrast to the ASMs shown, the constant torque of the PMSM enables<br />

continuous operation at low speeds. Oversizing for the required pump starting<br />

torque has become unnecessary due to the high overload capability of the PMSM.<br />

(Source: LEWA GmbH)<br />

It also features a high short-term overload capacity, which enables<br />

a drive design without oversizing for the starting torque. As a result,<br />

smaller, more cost-efficient sizes can be realized than with classic<br />

drives. Like the asynchronous motor, the PMSM can be controlled via<br />

a standard frequency converter, so users can rely on common parts.<br />

The compact drive can be easily cleaned due to its fanless design and<br />

offers high IP protection. If required an additional conversion process<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong><br />

59


Pumps/Vacuum technology<br />

Companies – Innovations – Products<br />

– called nsd tupH – can be applied to the aluminum body for FDA requirements.<br />

This makes the surface extremely resistant and even easier<br />

to clean – ideal for applications with stringent hygienic requirements,<br />

such as aroma metering in the food industry or additive dosing<br />

in the pharmaceutical industry.<br />

LEWA GmbH<br />

Ulmer Str. 10<br />

71229 Leonberg, Germany<br />

Tel +49 (7152) 14-0<br />

www.lewa.de<br />

From the outside the KAMAT unit looks like an ordinary 20-foot-long<br />

container with soundproofing on the inside but it is filled with hightech.<br />

The compact format allows it to be transported and operated<br />

mobile, just like any ordinary container. A powerful Scania engine, an<br />

industrial engine with eight cylinders arranged in a V-shape, an automated<br />

ZF Traxon transmission and a high-performance pump work in<br />

a perfect triad here.<br />

New pump concept at KAMAT:<br />

Perfect triad of industrial engine,<br />

automated transmission and KAMAT<br />

high-performance pump<br />

In cooperation with Scania from Sweden KAMAT has developed a technically<br />

complete new mobile high-pressure pump unit. The made in<br />

Witten container unit represents a never seen unity of a Scania industrial<br />

V8 diesel engine, the automated Traxon-gearbox by ZF and our<br />

tried and true high-pressure plunger pumps. The innovation of the<br />

high-pressure pump unit lies in the interaction and communication of<br />

all of these three outstanding components.<br />

A central control unit steers all three components instead of the usual<br />

three separate controls. The control with three separate controls usually<br />

led to an inefficient operation at non optimal rpm. This led to a reduction<br />

in longevity of all parts of the high-pressure pump unit while<br />

also reducing the energy efficiency of the entire application.<br />

The well tested and intelligent V8 Scania with its 450 kW of KAMAT’s<br />

supplier ScanDiesel, the ZF gearbox as well as the KAMAT pumps are<br />

now controlled by a singular fully automated control unit. All the user<br />

has to do is to enter the wanted working pressure into the main control<br />

panel. After that, the fully automated control unit recognizes which<br />

water tools are being used and adjusts all three components to work at<br />

optimal efficiency for the pressure and flow rate needed. This doesn’t<br />

just increase the longevity of any component but also reduces fuel consumption<br />

and therefore costs of running drastically.<br />

Fig. 2: The turnkey unit viewed from the outside: A normal 20-foot container but<br />

with a perfect interior.<br />

The mission of this unique development is to change the way mobile<br />

units are operated. It is delivered key-ready and can be operated with<br />

very little knowledge needed. It reduces the chances of operator error<br />

induces inefficiencies to minimum and therefore achieves to date unseen<br />

efficiencies. “With our new system, we replicate what only experienced<br />

operators have been able to do so far, for everyone” explains<br />

KAMAT general manager Dipl. Ing. Jan Sprakel, who came up with the<br />

idea for the development, always striving for improvement.<br />

The unit is now set up in a way that it recognizes all kind of tools<br />

without any need for manual input. Therefore, long working task with<br />

multiple different tools can be done without the time-consuming<br />

breaks needed for adjustment of the parameters. “From now on, the<br />

user only has to enter the wanted working pressure and from there<br />

on the control unit takes over and adjusts everything as needed.” Jan<br />

Sprakel summarizes the advantages of the new designed high-pressure<br />

pump unit.<br />

The design of the new high-pressure unit is mainly aimed at industrial<br />

service providers. It is not unusual to accumulate above 10 hours<br />

of runtime a day for a unit like this when it comes to industrial cleaning<br />

of tanks for example. In this environment, the sustainability of the<br />

drive plays an important role. Therefore, the new unit can drastically<br />

reduce the running cost and increase the maximum runtime of each<br />

of the components. The fuel efficiency being important in two different<br />

ways, firstly the cost of running and secondary reducing the time it<br />

takes to finish a task. Every litre and minute that a unit safes is money<br />

for the entrepreneur.<br />

Fig. 1: The new pump concept: the perfect triad of industrial engine, automated<br />

transmission and KAMAT high-performance pump<br />

KAMAT GmbH & Co. KG<br />

Salinger Feld 10<br />

58454 Witten, Germany<br />

Tel +49 (2302) 89 030<br />

info@KAMAT.de<br />

www.KAMAT.de/en/<br />

60 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong>


Pumps/Vacuum technology<br />

Companies – Innovations – Products<br />

Green light for green pumps – KAMAT<br />

receives order for pilot project testing<br />

H 2<br />

-pressure tanks<br />

The year <strong>2023</strong> starts with an unusual and green order at KAMAT which<br />

we received at the end of 2022: Within a project of the federal ministry<br />

for digital affairs and transport, trying to decrease pollution caused by<br />

traffic, KAMAT is delivering two high-pressure pump units to be used in<br />

pressure testing systems for hydraulic pressure tests on H 2<br />

gas tanks.<br />

chokes, sensors and controls) is to precisely hit and control the desired<br />

pressure.<br />

Due to the design of the KAMAT pump, upper pressures of up<br />

to 1350 bar can be achieved in this setup. This raises the question<br />

of how exactly the pumps can be pressure-controlled. A suitable solution<br />

was designed with the engineering department, including the<br />

necessary valve, control and automation technology. All of the parts<br />

needed are designed and manufactured in-house at KAMAT – All<br />

from one provider.<br />

Last year the company Industrieanlagenbetriebsgesellschaft mbH with<br />

headquarters in Ottobrunn (IABG) reached out to us with a contract<br />

within the pilot project commissioned by the ministry for the pressure<br />

testing of hydrogen tanks. The IABG is building a hydraulic testing<br />

unit for hydrogen tanks that are to be used in various vehicles. This<br />

includes the technology for the filling of such tanks. IABG asked us to<br />

check whether KAMAT’s high-pressure units could meet the requirements<br />

needed for the project. Sales director Fabian Hoff didn’t hesitate<br />

for long. He was confident that KAMAT could meet the requirements.<br />

Straightaway he started talks with the head of the project. He requested<br />

more information to create the best possible technical solution for<br />

the application.<br />

Fig. 2: Suitable for the unit for the pilot project in the field of H 2<br />

gas tank testing:<br />

KAMAT high-pressure pump of type K50018A-3G<br />

About the pilot project using high-pressure pumps for pressure<br />

testing units of H 2<br />

gas tanks<br />

KAMAT’s client is a member of a consortium of companies. The companies<br />

specialize in hydrogen tanks, filling of tanks, testing and commercial<br />

vehicles. This consortium is supported by the Ministry of Digital<br />

Affairs and Traffic with 25 million Euro for a period of three years<br />

that started 2020. The consortium’s aim is to provide a market ready<br />

solution for hydrogen driven vehicles, applications and filling technology<br />

by 2025.<br />

Fig. 1: KAMAT receives green light for pilot project testing H 2<br />

-pressure tanks<br />

The task: Impinging tanks with a minimum volume of 600 l with cyclic<br />

pressure using water as media. According to the IABG, there are only<br />

very limited test options for tanks of this size class, which is why IABG<br />

cannot fall back on existing systems and they therefore weren’t sure<br />

for the feasibility of the project. “The customer, before starting talks<br />

with us, had talked to other companies about possible solutions. But<br />

all of them were limited by volume due to the use of pressure transducers.<br />

The tanks that are to be tested in this project needed a lot<br />

more volume than others were able to work with, that is where we<br />

came in to play with our high-pressure plunger pumps. Because our<br />

high-pressure pumps are basically also suitable for volumes well over<br />

600 l”, says a delighted Fabian Hoff.<br />

At any rate, a key function our units have to fulfil is both to run<br />

1-10 full cycles per minute and to be able to release that pressure after<br />

ramping it up. Accordingly, that means that our pumps have to be<br />

operated in intervals or with swelling loads. Another unique challenge<br />

when strength testing for pump systems (including valves, regulating<br />

Fig. 3: KAMAT control throttle 3000 bar: New product from KAMAT for use in the<br />

area of pressure vessel testing<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong><br />

61


Pumps/Vacuum technology<br />

Companies – Innovations – Products<br />

IABG, a leading testing expert, is taking on the part of tanks and filling<br />

of the tanks. IABG is now developing a testing mechanism to ensure<br />

safety when using CRYOGAS tanks and the filling of them. The task<br />

of developing emission free transport and traffic will lead to steep increase<br />

in their high-pressure filling and testing capacity at IABGs headquarters<br />

in Dresden and Lichtenau (Paderborn). Exactly that is where<br />

KAMAT comes into play as a supplier for knowledge in high-pressure<br />

technology and pumping units.<br />

KAMAT’s delivery scope for use in the field of hydraulic leak, pressure,<br />

and burst testing:<br />

– Unit (drive 630 kW) including the necessary valve technology, control<br />

throttle and control technology for cycling tests on hydrogen tanks –<br />

K55032A2-5G-E630B<br />

– Unit including the necessary valve technology and control technology<br />

for bursting hydrogen tanks (small mobile unit with high efficiency)<br />

– K108A-3-E15B<br />

– Cycling test with max. upper pressure peak value of 1500 bar, unit<br />

design 1500 bar<br />

– Burst test with a maximum achievable static pressure of 2200 bar<br />

KAMAT GmbH & Co. KG<br />

Salinger Feld 10<br />

58454 Witten, Germany<br />

Tel +49 (2302) 89 030<br />

info@KAMAT.de<br />

www.KAMAT.de/en/<br />

Reliable filter press feeding with<br />

ABEL hydraulic diaphragm pumps –<br />

optimized due to use of<br />

the monitoring system SPA<br />

The customer<br />

Our customer, the company SOLVALOR in Rouen (France), specializes<br />

in recycling and recovery of soils – for the most part excavated soils in<br />

civil engineering and mainly coming from Paris. Today, the company is<br />

market leader in the recovery and recycling of soils.<br />

Fig. 1: Application of the ABEL HM-pumps for filter press feeding at the French<br />

company SOLVALOR<br />

Optimal support through the ABEL Smart Pump Assistant<br />

The daily deployment and monitoring of the two ABEL HM pumps is<br />

supported at the company SOLVALOR by the monitoring system Smart<br />

Pump Assistant (SPA).<br />

With this SPA, ABEL offers remote assistance. Immediate anomalies<br />

are detected based on the data and appropriate corrective action<br />

is suggested.<br />

Furthermore, our customer receives a monthly performance report,<br />

which documents the daily use as well as the condition of their<br />

pump-/ filtration process. “The performance report allows us to optimize<br />

production scheduling as well as maintenance planning.”, so<br />

Maxime Jolly, Industrial Director, SOLVALOR.<br />

On special request, now, the customer can also access the theoretically<br />

calculated throughput capacity which saves them costly flowmeters.<br />

Thus, information on the state of their ABEL pumps is constantly<br />

available to the ABEL customer.<br />

By means of the Smart Pump Assistant detailed operational parameters<br />

like temperature and pressures can be visualized. If parameters<br />

are exceeded, the customer receives an alert.<br />

The implementation of the knowledge gained through the ABEL<br />

Smart Pump Assistant results in the customer saving significant quantities<br />

of time, costs and energy in the production process while at the<br />

same time accelerating the productivity throughout the company.<br />

Figure 2 below shows that the ABEL pumps have managed 46 filter<br />

press cycles in 5 production days without any standstill.<br />

On the whole, the company SOLVALOR is very satisfied with the<br />

performance of the ABEL pumps as well as the ABEL services.<br />

The plant<br />

In spring 2021, two ABEL hydraulic diaphragm pumps were put into operation<br />

at the plant of this French customer. These diaphragm pumps<br />

of the type HMD-G-80-1000 are used for filter press feeding at a level<br />

of 80 m³/h and 12 bar.<br />

Fig. 2: “The ABEL pumps have allowed me to increase the productivity dramatically<br />

and to transfer more slurry, because – compared with the prior technology –<br />

I can manage more filtration cycles in the same time. Also, it doesn’t matter any<br />

longer what kind of slurry I transfer – the ABEL pump will get the job done!”, says<br />

Maxime Jolly, Industrial Director, SOLVALOR.<br />

62 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong>


Pumps/Vacuum technology<br />

Companies – Innovations – Products<br />

Fig. 3: Filter press at SOLVALOR<br />

The ABEL piston diaphragm pump is an important component in filter<br />

press feeding. Among the advantages of ABEL pumps compared with<br />

other types of pumps are:<br />

– High wear resistance<br />

– Robustness and durability<br />

– Very long service intervals<br />

– Low energy requirements<br />

– Reduction of operating costs<br />

The ABEL piston diaphragm pumps fulfil the requirements of filter<br />

press feeding in various ways.<br />

Equipped with an analogue pressure transducer and a frequency<br />

converter, the initial flow rate, the break-point and the minimum flow<br />

rate can be set easily. It is particularly important that these components<br />

can be varied if required, which is crucial for some applications.<br />

Compared with other feeding pumps, whose feed rate – due to<br />

the design – is dependent on the counterpressure, the flexibility of the<br />

ABEL pumps provides a real added value – particularly so when the<br />

customer needs filtration times to be as short as possible and a high<br />

solids content.<br />

The ABEL hydraulic diaphragm pumps are extremely energy-efficient<br />

and durable and they have a high efficiency rate when used as<br />

filter press feed pumps.<br />

Due to their robust design, the ABEL piston diaphragm pumps are<br />

also employed in other industrial areas throughout the world for the<br />

transport of difficult media. ABEL pumps are used, for example, in<br />

mining for dewatering mines and in the water and sewage industry<br />

as transport pumps. Furthermore, many customers in a wide range of<br />

industrial sectors use the ABEL pumps for spray dryer feed and rotary<br />

kiln charging.<br />

ABEL GmbH<br />

Abel-Twiete 1<br />

21514 Büchen, Germany<br />

Tel +49 (4155) 818-0<br />

Fax +49 (4155) 818-499<br />

abel-mail@idexcorp.com<br />

www.abelpumps.com<br />

Your newsletter registration at:<br />

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The newsletter of Dr. Harnisch Publications<br />

Always know the latest news? In addition to our<br />

print magazines, we will keep you up to date with<br />

our newsletter free of charge. Receive current<br />

information and exclusive content from various<br />

industries. You can register for the newsletter at:<br />

www.harnisch.com<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong><br />

63


PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS<br />

Index of Advertisers<br />

Index of Advertisers<br />

Aerzener Maschinenfabrik GmbH<br />

Cover page<br />

KLAUS UNION GmbH & Co. KG page 47<br />

AxFlow GmbH page 29<br />

BAUER KOMPRESSOREN GmbH page 81<br />

BOGE KOMPRESSOREN Otto Boge GmbH & Co. KG page 71<br />

BRINKMANN PUMPEN<br />

K.H. Brinkmann GmbH & Co. KG page 55<br />

Busch Dienste GmbH page 51<br />

C. Otto Gehrckens GmbH & Co. KG page 69<br />

Emile Egger & Cie SA page 33<br />

GRUNDFOS GMBH page 7<br />

Hammelmann GmbH page 9<br />

JESSBERGER GmbH<br />

3. Cover page<br />

Kaeser Kompressoren SE<br />

Insert<br />

KAMAT GmbH & Co. KG page 27<br />

KLINGER GmbH page 41<br />

LEWA GmbH page 37<br />

MT – Messe & Event GmbH page 13<br />

NETZSCH Pumpen & Systeme GmbH<br />

4. Cover page<br />

Pfeiffer Vacuum GmbH page 73<br />

Pumpenfabrik Wangen GmbH page 39<br />

SEEPEX GmbH<br />

2. Cover page<br />

URACA GmbH & Co. KG page 21<br />

Vogelsang GmbH & Co. KG page 31<br />

Watson-Marlow GmbH page 45<br />

WOMA GmbH page 25<br />

Zwick Armaturen GmbH page 67<br />

Your media contact<br />

D-A-CH<br />

Thomas Mlynarik<br />

Tel.: +49 (0) 911 2018 165<br />

Mobile: +49 (0) 151 5481 8181<br />

mlynarik@harnisch.com<br />

INTERNATIONAL<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS<br />

Gabriele Fahlbusch<br />

Tel.: +49 (0) 911 2018 275<br />

fahlbusch@harnisch.com<br />

Impressum<br />

Publisher<br />

Dr. Harnisch Verlags GmbH in cooperation<br />

with the Editorial Advisory Board under the<br />

management of Prof. Dr.-Ing. Eberhard Schlücker<br />

©<br />

<strong>2023</strong>, Dr. Harnisch Verlags GmbH<br />

Errors excepted<br />

Reprinting and photomechanical<br />

reproduction,even in extract form, is<br />

only possible with the written consent<br />

of the publisher<br />

Editor<br />

Silke Watkins<br />

Advertisements<br />

Silke Watkins<br />

Responsible for content<br />

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Eberhard Schlücker<br />

Silke Watkins<br />

Publishing company and reader service<br />

Dr. Harnisch Verlags GmbH<br />

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Phone (911) 2018-0<br />

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Editorial Advisory Board <strong>2023</strong><br />

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Eberhard Schlücker,<br />

Prof. (ret.), advisor on hydrogen<br />

and energy issues<br />

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Andreas Brümmer,<br />

TU Dortmund<br />

Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Gerhart Hobusch,<br />

KAESER KOMPRESSOREN SE<br />

Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Johann Vetter,<br />

NETZSCH Pumpen & Systeme GmbH<br />

Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Sebastian Oberbeck,<br />

Pfeiffer Vacuum GmbH<br />

Suppliers source<br />

Matti Schneider<br />

Technical Director<br />

Armin König<br />

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D-97821 Marktheidenfeld<br />

ISSN 2364-723X<br />

64 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong>


GREEN EFFICIENT TECHNOLOGIES<br />

The independent media platform for<br />

energy supply, efficiency enhancement and<br />

alternative energy sources and storage<br />

Sustainable opportunities in process<br />

technology<br />

Circular economy in the industrial<br />

production process<br />

Topics H 2<br />

, Synthetic Fuels, Water,<br />

Solar & Photovoltaics, Wind Power,<br />

Bioenergy, Geothermal Energy, Battery<br />

<strong>Technology</strong>, System Integration and<br />

other alternative options<br />

Dr. Harnisch Verlags GmbH · Eschenstr. 25 · 90441 Nuremberg · Tel.: +49 (0) 911 - 2018 0 · info@harnisch.com · www.harnisch.com


Trade fairs and events<br />

DIAM & DDM<br />

DIAM & DDM <strong>2023</strong> - Double pack<br />

for the 10 th anniversary<br />

A special year is coming for all DIAM<br />

& DDM interested parties. In addition<br />

to the double pack this year,<br />

the trade fair for industrial valves<br />

& sealing technology celebrates its<br />

10 th anniversary. The DIAM & DDM<br />

will kick off the anniversary year on<br />

June 14 th and 15 th <strong>2023</strong> in Leipzig/<br />

Schkeuditz. This is already the third<br />

time that the national meeting takes<br />

place in the Central German Chemistry<br />

Triangle. On the grounds of the<br />

Globana Trade Center, all conditions<br />

for an uncomplicated trade fair presence<br />

are in place. You will find an optimal<br />

connection by the airport and<br />

motorway, the hotel right next to the<br />

exhibition hall as well as a comfortable<br />

parking situation.<br />

The Bochum edition of the DIAM &<br />

DDM will be on agenda in the autumn<br />

of this year, exactly on November<br />

the 8 th and 9 th . Since the beginning<br />

in 2013, it will be held for the 6 th time<br />

in the Jahrhunderthalle Bochum. In<br />

October 2021, the DIAM & DDM returned<br />

to the face-to-face event<br />

during the ongoing pandemic. More<br />

than 1.600 visitors came to Bochum.<br />

The consequence of this consistently<br />

very successful event was a high rebooking<br />

rate of exhibitors. Since the<br />

start of the fair, this was the highest<br />

percentage rebooking rate.<br />

Exactly 10 years ago, the premiere<br />

took place with 90 exhibitors in<br />

the Jahrhunderthalle Bochum. At that<br />

time, the event was still under the<br />

sole DIAM flag and developed steadily<br />

from time to time, before the DDM –<br />

the trade fair for sealing technology<br />

was added for the first time in 2017.<br />

This is how the trade fair for industrial<br />

valves & sealing technology<br />

was created. Since the beginning, the<br />

organiser has been in close cooperation<br />

with its exhibitors. Many exhibitors<br />

use the term “family reunion”.<br />

The initiator of the DIAM & DDM –<br />

Malte Theuerkauf – takes a stand on<br />

this: “It is precisely this term “family<br />

reunion” that makes it all. The entire<br />

team is looking forward to our two<br />

trade fairs in this special year for all<br />

of us. Personally, I am thrilled with<br />

the popularity of the DIAM, which was<br />

launched in 2013. There were more<br />

and more exhibitors, the DDM joined<br />

the DIAM in 2017 and the exhibition<br />

concept has established itself. It fills<br />

me with pride how the DIAM & DDM<br />

has matured into the familiar and national<br />

industry meeting for industrial<br />

valves & sealing technology. For this<br />

I would like to thank all exhibitors,<br />

partners, visitors and employees.<br />

With two of our own events and our<br />

10th anniversary, for which we have<br />

some surprises, there is every reason<br />

to be excited about the DIAM & DDM<br />

anniversary events.<br />

With the following voucher code, interested<br />

parties can register free of<br />

charge at www.tickets.diam-ddm.de.<br />

The voucher code is valid for both locations.<br />

Voucher code: PUK-23<br />

The dates<br />

GLOBANA Trade Center<br />

Leipzig/Schkeuditz<br />

14-15 June <strong>2023</strong><br />

Jahrhunderthalle Bochum<br />

08-09 November <strong>2023</strong><br />

Opening hours:<br />

1 st day of the fair from 09–17 h<br />

2 nd day of the fair from 09–16 h<br />

The DIAM & DDM team is looking forward<br />

to your visit!<br />

www.diam-ddm.de<br />

66 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong>


WWW.ZWICK-ARMATUREN.DE<br />

TRI-SHARK<br />

100 % CONTROL VALVE<br />

100 % TIGHT*<br />

*acc. to DIN EN 12266-1


Compressos and Systems<br />

Energetic use of biogas<br />

Farm energy independence –<br />

for a crisis-proof future<br />

Helei Ammura<br />

Natural gas has been in short supply<br />

since the start of Russia’s war against<br />

Ukraine. The energy supply has been<br />

a leading topic in Germany over the<br />

past year. Germany does however<br />

have a very large pool of biomass.<br />

Around 9,600 biogas plants (as of<br />

August 2022) are producing more<br />

than 5,600 megawatts of electricity<br />

in Germany right now. At the latest<br />

since 1 January 2021, the operators of<br />

biogas production plants have been<br />

forced to reconsider their operations.<br />

Funding under the Renewable Energies<br />

Act (EEG) for renewable energy<br />

plants, which have been subsidised<br />

for the last 20 years, has ended. The<br />

good news: Notwithstanding the end<br />

of funding, an economically viable<br />

solution is available to operators by<br />

converting to an intelligent own use<br />

concept. This is particularly beneficial<br />

for operators in the current situation.<br />

Using biogas to produce biomethane<br />

as an energy carrier makes a significant<br />

contribution to sustainable development,<br />

especially in rural areas.<br />

It considerably improves the security<br />

of the energy supply.<br />

Biogas processing is the first step in<br />

using biogas as biomethane. It primarily<br />

involves separating the accompanying<br />

carbon dioxide gas and other<br />

components from the raw biogas<br />

using various technical processes.<br />

The resulting biomethane is chemically<br />

equivalent to natural gas. It can<br />

be fed into the natural gas network<br />

and thus used just like natural gas.<br />

Biomethane made from biogas is a<br />

renewable energy source. It is an important<br />

part of the energy transformation<br />

and can be readily used anywhere<br />

that natural gas is consumed.<br />

Plants that produce biogas and<br />

process this into biomethane have<br />

increasingly established themselves<br />

in recent years. Martin Schulze<br />

therefore implemented the concept<br />

described above in his farming<br />

operation in 2022. BAUER<br />

KOMPRESSOREN supplied the filling<br />

station technology required for<br />

the project. Mr Schulze was willing<br />

to discuss several points and explain<br />

them in more detail from the perspective<br />

of a farming operation:<br />

Mr Schulze, what exactly prompted<br />

you to process biogas produced on<br />

your farm when EEG funding ended?<br />

I believe we need to explore new fuel<br />

supply sources, regardless of compensation<br />

for electricity produced<br />

from biogas under the EEG or in the<br />

market. Using biomethane in agriculture<br />

became possible with the advent<br />

of biomethane-fuelled tractors. A degree<br />

of energy supply independence<br />

also played a role.<br />

To what extent was this compatible<br />

with your farming concept?<br />

Since we have our own biogas plant,<br />

the only questions that remained after<br />

the methane-fuelled tractor from<br />

New Holland became available was<br />

how to produce our own fuel-quality<br />

biogas and get it into the tank. I<br />

studied a do-it-yourself gas purification<br />

solution for a few months because<br />

small processing plants are not<br />

available in the market. Then I was offered<br />

a pilot plant by chance. Now I<br />

have my own biomethane supply on<br />

the farm along with the compressor<br />

system and filling station.<br />

Biomethane fuelling solutions –<br />

economical for the future<br />

As a premium manufacturer and natural<br />

gas compression pioneer with<br />

more than 40 years of global experience,<br />

BAUER KOMPRESSOREN has<br />

the required state-of-the-art technology<br />

in the form of tailor-made,<br />

turnkey fuelling systems from one<br />

source. The sustainability-oriented,<br />

ISO 14001 certified company puts<br />

great emphasis on actively working<br />

towards reaching climate protection<br />

and energy transformation<br />

targets. Thus the company firmly<br />

Fig. 1: CTA120 (B800, fast fill post)<br />

68 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong>


Compressors and Systems<br />

Energetic use of biogas<br />

supports the continued operation<br />

of existing renewable energy<br />

plants for bio methane production.<br />

Its fuelling systems are<br />

generally designed to be used<br />

with biome thane as well as conventional<br />

natural gas. As a rule,<br />

they consist of a high or medium-pressure<br />

compressor system<br />

that is tailor-made for fuelling, a<br />

gas drying and filtering system,<br />

an appropriate storage solution<br />

and the fuel dispenser. The practical,<br />

modular design of the system<br />

supports fast, straightforward<br />

installation and integration<br />

into existing infrastructures.<br />

System versions with a low,<br />

moderate or high daily output are<br />

available, tailored to the respective<br />

demand. This is illustrated by<br />

the following example of farmer<br />

Martin Schulze’s concept:<br />

Martin Schulze work yard<br />

filling station – a compact,<br />

energy-independent and<br />

highly economical solution<br />

The small, compact module<br />

consists of a compressor with<br />

a flow rate of 11-51 Nm 3 /h or<br />

7.9-36.7 kg/h, an intake pressure<br />

of 0.05-4 bar (gauge) and a discharge<br />

pressure of 250-300 bar.<br />

In continuous operation, the daily<br />

delivery rate of the compressor<br />

unit is 190-880 kg in 24 hours.<br />

The system has integrated filter<br />

and final drying cartridges installed<br />

on the high pressure side.<br />

These clean the compressed gas<br />

and remove residual moisture.<br />

The high-pressure gas reservoir<br />

is comprised of individual<br />

Fig. 2: B3360 storage module<br />

Fig. 3: Fast fill/slow fill post filling station<br />

high-pressure cylinders mounted<br />

on one frame. The standard<br />

capacity is up to 42 high-pressure<br />

storage cylinders, with a filling<br />

volume of 80 litres per storage<br />

module. Capacities of 265 m 3<br />

to 1105 m 3 of geometric gas filling<br />

volume at 300 bar can thus<br />

be realised.<br />

A “fill post” is used as the fuel<br />

dispenser since public fuelling<br />

is not provided. This model was<br />

developed especially for simple,<br />

temperature-compensated and<br />

low-cost fuelling. The fuel dispenser<br />

series is frequently used<br />

for natural gas filling stations in<br />

work yards that are not staffed.<br />

Depending on the filling<br />

capa city, fuel volume and compressor<br />

model, fuelling times of<br />

around 5 minutes are obtained<br />

with the “fast fill post” version<br />

used here. The Munich-based<br />

manufacturer offers the “slow fill<br />

post” version without the integrated<br />

storage module for applications<br />

where the fuelling time is<br />

less important. Here vehicles are<br />

fuelled directly from the compressor.<br />

For technical reasons,<br />

fuelling times vary considerably<br />

in this case. Overnight vehicle<br />

fuelling is an ideal application<br />

scenario.<br />

Using a fuel dispenser is required<br />

by law for the operation<br />

of public filling stations. Fuel<br />

payment at the dispenser, without<br />

staff, can be realised with<br />

a customer activated terminal.<br />

The dispenser can also be realised<br />

with a calibratable flow meter<br />

(display of the delivered fuel<br />

volume in kg or m³) and a display<br />

panel that shows the specific gas<br />

price and the total price in the desired<br />

currency.<br />

Core competence –<br />

economical and comprehensive<br />

project development<br />

First the project engineers select<br />

the best site for the filling station<br />

according to the customer’s<br />

speci fications and in close coordination<br />

with them. Special attention<br />

is paid to exact compliance<br />

with legal regulations. By<br />

mini mising explosion protection<br />

zones and tailoring the size<br />

of the filling station, the Munichbased<br />

supplier is able to find<br />

an optimal installation solution,<br />

even when the available space<br />

presents a challenge. Installation<br />

comprises the complete pipe-<br />

work for the system according to<br />

the applicable directives. This includes<br />

all pressure lines from the<br />

compressor to the reservoir and<br />

from there to the filling station<br />

and dispenser. An inspection by<br />

an approved regulatory authority<br />

such as TÜV follows. The project<br />

team manages and coordinates<br />

the necessary scheduling with<br />

the companies and authorities<br />

that are involved.<br />

Service technicians install the<br />

electrical wiring for the compressor<br />

system and the filling station/<br />

dispenser according to the approved<br />

plans. The operator only<br />

has to provide a high-voltage<br />

connection. After installation, the<br />

compressor system is started up<br />

for the first time and inspected<br />

again in detail.<br />

End-to-end project organisation<br />

is handled by the supplier.<br />

This includes the installation<br />

and putting into operation<br />

of the compressor/storage unit<br />

and fuel dispenser technology<br />

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Compressos and Systems<br />

Energetic use of biogas<br />

as well as detailed scheduling. As a<br />

rule, the system can be put into operation<br />

within a few days. The installation<br />

is inspected by an expert after it<br />

has been completed on site. This acceptance<br />

at the installation location is<br />

also performed by a service team in<br />

cooperation with the respective regulatory<br />

authority. Comprehensive service<br />

includes detailed instruction for<br />

authorised personnel of the customer<br />

in the system technology and electrical<br />

equipment. This ensures that<br />

the operator is able to handle basic<br />

settings and simple maintenance independently.<br />

Continuous monitoring of the<br />

compressor system with 24-hour and<br />

after-sales service is offered on request.<br />

Changes to settings and adjustments<br />

can then be made around the<br />

clock, online over the Internet or using<br />

a mobile device. Status messages including<br />

operating hours and gas volume<br />

sales can be delivered by SMS<br />

or e-mail, along with maintenance requests<br />

or fault messages.<br />

Biomethane supply with BAUER<br />

Aside from filling stations, the compressor<br />

manufacturer from Munich<br />

has developed special compressor<br />

systems for biomethane production<br />

based on its expertise acquired<br />

over many years and successfully established<br />

them in the market. They<br />

are used among other things for<br />

the seasonal compensation of transport<br />

fluctuations and network overloads:<br />

When a low-pressure line is<br />

overloaded, for instance by an increase<br />

in the biomethane supply,<br />

the excess biomethane-natural gas<br />

mixture can be supplied to a highergrade<br />

network. Existing buffer volumes<br />

in high-pressure transmission<br />

networks are more effectively utilised<br />

as a result. Biomethane is supplied<br />

to a natural gas network in various<br />

network types with pressure ratings<br />

from PN10 to a maximum of PN100.<br />

Climate-neutral mobility for the<br />

hydrogen future<br />

Based on its sustainability-oriented<br />

philosophy, the company stands for<br />

climate-friendly mobility concepts<br />

without compromise. The manufacturer<br />

as a technology leader in mechanical<br />

engineering and a member<br />

of Zentrum Wasserstoff.Bayern<br />

(H2.B) therefore consistently supports<br />

the broad establishment of this<br />

future energy carrier with a recently<br />

launched development offensive for<br />

H 2<br />

filling station systems.<br />

Sources<br />

FGS brochure<br />

https://www.bmel.de/DE/themen/<br />

html#:~:text=Derzeit%20erzeu<br />

gen%20in%20Deutschland%20<br />

etwa,Prozent%20des%20<br />

landwirtschaft/bioeokonomienachwachsende-rohstoffe/biogas.<br />

deutschen%20Stromverbrauchs%20ab.<br />

The Author:<br />

Helai Ammura,<br />

Sales and Project Engineer<br />

Fuel Gas Systems,<br />

BAUER KOMPRESSOREN,<br />

Munich, Germany<br />

70 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong>


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Compressors and Systems<br />

Screw compressors<br />

GEA compressor important component of<br />

new particle accelerator facility at GSI<br />

Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung<br />

GEA Grasso screw compressors for<br />

the compression of helium gas are<br />

playing a crucial role in one of the<br />

world’s largest construction projects<br />

for cutting-edge international research.<br />

The compressors are part of<br />

the FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and<br />

Ion Research) particle accelerator<br />

facility for cooling superconducting<br />

magnets.<br />

Powerful compressors - driving<br />

force in the cooling process<br />

The order placed with GEA by the<br />

project partner Enerproject S.A. includes<br />

compressors type XH, GEA's<br />

largest compressors, XE compressors<br />

and XC compressors, all belonging<br />

to GEA's proven LT series. The<br />

GEA compressors are the driving<br />

force of the process to liquefy the<br />

helium and thus cool the superconducting<br />

magnets. The entire refrigeration<br />

system will have a cooling capacity<br />

of 15 kW at about -269°C.<br />

The ions are accelerated with<br />

high electric fields. Magnets are<br />

used to direct and bundle them.<br />

The ions can be accelerated to a<br />

maximum speed of around 90 percent<br />

of the speed of light, i.e. almost<br />

270,000 km/s. Researchers from all<br />

over the world use the accelerated<br />

ions at GSI for experiments in a variety<br />

of research fields, from particle,<br />

nuclear and atomic physics to plasma<br />

physics, materials research, biophysics<br />

and tumor therapy.<br />

Together with its partners such<br />

as Enerproject S.A. and Linde<br />

Kryotechnik AG, both from Switzerland,<br />

the compressor manufacturer’s<br />

team faced major challenges - and<br />

mastered them. To cool the magnets,<br />

it is not possible to use ammonia<br />

or any other refrigerant to<br />

reach the required temperature.<br />

This is only possible with helium, the<br />

“coldest” element on earth. The normal<br />

boiling point of helium is 4.2 K,<br />

which corresponds to about -269 °C.<br />

The entire plant contains 12.5 tons<br />

of helium. The project manager and<br />

key account for gas compressors<br />

(DACH), explains: “Helium is an expensive<br />

and extremely rare chemical<br />

element that cannot be produced artificially.<br />

Therefore, the loss and contamination<br />

of helium must be minimized<br />

in order to reduce costs for<br />

the customer. For this reason, the installation<br />

of a second O-ring seal for<br />

the low-pressure compressors, as<br />

well as a leak test (sniff test) with helium<br />

were necessary.”<br />

For the evaluation phase, the supplier<br />

was able to recruit an expert for<br />

the team: a specialist for screw compressors<br />

and with a cryo technical<br />

background due to his research<br />

time at the Technical University of<br />

Dresden. He provided valuable technical<br />

advice to the various parties<br />

involved in the project phase and is<br />

keen to promote the use of the supplier’s<br />

screw compressors for helium<br />

and hydrogen applications.<br />

Reference for future projects<br />

The FAIR project is an important reference<br />

for the compressor manufacturer<br />

for further future projects<br />

in the application of helium in refrigeration<br />

for such low temperatures<br />

as for the FAIR ring accelerator. Another<br />

challenge was to coordinate<br />

this long-term project in close cooperation<br />

with all parties involved<br />

so that the compressors could be<br />

de livered on time. For example, leak<br />

testing by the ILK Institut für Luftund<br />

Kältetechnik Dresden had to<br />

be organized after completion and<br />

prior to shipment. According to current<br />

planning, the helium compressor<br />

plant is scheduled to be commissioned<br />

in 2024 and the first jet<br />

in 2025.<br />

With this project, GEA demonstrated<br />

its competencies not only<br />

Major challenges mastered<br />

The photo shows the GEA XH compressors before delivery. (Photo: GEA)<br />

72 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong>


Compressors and Systems<br />

Screw compressors<br />

in ammonia as a natural refrigerant,<br />

but also in the compression<br />

of gases such as the noble<br />

gas of helium. The company is<br />

confident that it will be able to<br />

meet further requests for similar<br />

helium plants.<br />

GEA, Düsseldorf, Germany<br />

FAIR mega construction project<br />

The FAIR particle accelerator facility in Darmstadt is one of the world's largest construction projects for cutting-edge<br />

international research. Among other things, an underground accelerator ring tunnel 1,100 meters long, laboratories<br />

and other operational and utility buildings are being built on an area of around 150,000 square meters. The transfer<br />

building is the most complex building in the facility. It is the central hub of the facility beamline. The 1,100-meter tunnel<br />

for the SIS100 particle accelerator will also be up to 17 meters underground. Adjacent to the accelerator tunnel itself<br />

will be a supply tunnel that will house, among other things, lines for electricity and liquid helium, space for power<br />

supply equipment and facilities for controlling ion beam quality.<br />

An integrated construction schedule was developed for the multinational, highly complex mega-construction project,<br />

closely coordinating civil engineering, accelerator development and construction, and scientific experiments. Construction<br />

began in the summer of 2017.<br />

Facts and figures on construction:<br />

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...will be moved - as much as for 5,000 single-family homes<br />

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PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong><br />

73


Compressors and Systems<br />

Report<br />

GER4TECH relies on BOGE<br />

Uninterrupted compressed air supply<br />

with added efficiency<br />

From simple sheet metal parts to<br />

complex assemblies and entire<br />

machine parts, GER4TECH GmbH<br />

in Redlham (Austria) offers a<br />

broad wide range of metalworking<br />

services. The company also has substantial<br />

expertise in developing customer-driven<br />

solutions for automated<br />

manufacturing processes.<br />

It depends on compressed air<br />

in almost all of its production<br />

areas, which is where compressed<br />

air expert BOGE comes in – ensuring<br />

an efficient and reliable supply to<br />

the company thanks to three of its<br />

screw compressors. But that’s not<br />

all – the supplier has also helped the<br />

company achieve excellent system<br />

availability levels of over 95 per cent<br />

and a significant increase in efficiency<br />

thanks to consistent recirculation<br />

of waste heat.<br />

a broad range of services in the laser<br />

cutting and bending to machining<br />

(turning, milling) and welding sectors.<br />

In addition to metalworking with the<br />

latest technology, it also provides<br />

customised automation projects and<br />

currently employs 75 members of<br />

staff in its metal and mechatronics<br />

departments. The family-owned company<br />

requires compressed air for<br />

numerous metalwork processes: as<br />

pneumatic actuator for the laser cutting<br />

machines, for the break forming<br />

presses and sheet metal warehouse,<br />

to cool the cutting machines and to<br />

run the welding robots.<br />

Constant compressed air for<br />

three-shift operations<br />

“Nothing would run at all in our company<br />

without compressed air,” explains<br />

GER4TECH GmbH’s Mana -<br />

ging Director. “We already had a<br />

Founded in 2012, the company<br />

moved from its initial production facilities<br />

in 2019 after construction finished<br />

on the GER4TECH Metall &<br />

Mechatronik Center in Redlham (Austria).<br />

Over a total surface area of<br />

9,600 sq. metres, the company offers<br />

Fig. 2: The company offers a broad range of services in the laser cutting and bending to<br />

machining (turning, milling) and welding sectors.<br />

Fig. 1: GER4TECH GmbH left its original production facilities in 2019 after completing construction<br />

of the GER4TECH Metall & Mechatronik Center with 9,600 sq. metres of production<br />

space in Redlham. (All photos: GER4TECH)<br />

BOGE compressor at our previous<br />

location that also reliably provided<br />

compressed air, so we completely<br />

equipped our new facilities with the<br />

supplier’s devices”. This machinery<br />

was actually integrated into the building<br />

during the construction phase.<br />

The compressor room (which was designed<br />

specifically for the plant) was<br />

constructed once all the devices had<br />

been installed. The company operates<br />

two oil-lubricated screw compressors<br />

with a performance of<br />

55 kW to cover the base load, while<br />

two refrigerant compressed air dryers<br />

provide a constant pressure dew<br />

point at each operating stage. In addition,<br />

a compressor with refrigerant<br />

74 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong>


Compressors and Systems<br />

Report<br />

covered by the heat recovery from<br />

the compressor, with the winter seeing<br />

additional support from the company’s<br />

wood chip and gas heating<br />

system. The compressed air expert<br />

took responsibility for the entire interface<br />

management in order to implement<br />

these energy saving measures<br />

and help GER4TECH achieve<br />

maximum efficiency.<br />

Fig. 3: The family-owned company requires compressed air for numerous metalwork processes:<br />

as pneumatic actuator for the laser cutting machines, for the break forming presses<br />

and sheet metal warehouse, to cool the cutting machines and to run the welding robots.<br />

Excellent service and<br />

maximum availability<br />

dryer covers the reduced demand<br />

over the weekends. The operating<br />

pressure is 7.5 bar at a free air delivery<br />

of between 2.25 and 9.8 m³/min.<br />

All the compressors are frequencycontrolled<br />

and guarantee a constant<br />

compressed air supply throughout<br />

all three shifts every day. An oil-water<br />

separator purifies the condensate<br />

and reduces the residual oil content<br />

to under 10 ppm.<br />

Flexibility and efficiency<br />

The compressors from the Bielefeld<br />

supplier with tried and tested airends<br />

and high-quality components ensure<br />

maximum efficiency, with SLF<br />

devices offering the highest standards.<br />

On one hand, the fully designed<br />

in-house airend permits high free air<br />

delivery combined with a low power<br />

demand and the highly developed<br />

oil separation system with horizontal<br />

receiver results in optimum efficiency<br />

yield. The direct drive and frequency<br />

control complete the highly<br />

flexible system that can adapt to the<br />

actual demand. The clear layout of<br />

the functional areas ensures fast and<br />

simple maintenance. The ingenious<br />

construction concept, high-grade<br />

components and flexible fields of application<br />

make the screw compressors<br />

particularly reliable and longlasting.<br />

As a belt-driven compressor<br />

with integrated frequency regulation,<br />

the C 25 F screw compressor also<br />

adapts the volumetric flow rate to the<br />

actual demand, meaning the energy<br />

consumption falls as the compressed<br />

air demand drops. Idling is also minimised<br />

which, especially in the metalworking<br />

sector with its wildly fluctuating<br />

compressed air demand, is a<br />

huge advantage. Soft starts and stops<br />

conserve the material and prolong<br />

the service life of the device. And, in<br />

addition, thanks to its compact, integrated<br />

construction, pressure losses<br />

are kept to a minimum.<br />

“We really value maximum reliability<br />

and high system availability,<br />

which for compressors from the supplier<br />

reaches an impressive 95 per<br />

cent,” tells the Managing Director.<br />

“If we should ever need any repairs,<br />

we know we can count on 24/7 support,<br />

too”. Certified technicians are<br />

available around the clock for any<br />

questions and technical assistance.<br />

On top of that, the Austrian company<br />

also benefits from high spare part<br />

availability from the compressed air<br />

specialist. Regular maintenance using<br />

original spare parts guarantee continued<br />

high system efficiency and a<br />

five-year warranty on all replacement<br />

parts round off the service package.<br />

“We’re extremely happy with the<br />

quality of the compressed air and the<br />

reliable operation of the systems”,<br />

concludes the Managing Director. “In<br />

addition to the technology itself, we<br />

appreciate the extremely extensive<br />

customer-focused service. We feel<br />

very well supported and prepared for<br />

whatever the future might hold”.<br />

Making use of excess heat<br />

Fig. 4: In the compressor room (specially<br />

designed by BOGE), the company operates<br />

two SLF 75-3 oil-lubricated screw compressors<br />

with a performance of 55 kW, two<br />

powerful refrigerant compressed air dryers<br />

and a C 25 F compressor with refrigerant<br />

dryer.<br />

GER4TECH’s total hot water demand<br />

is 15,000 litres split across three<br />

buffer tanks. Heat produced by the<br />

compressors is transferred into one<br />

of these tanks where it is used to<br />

heat process and hot water, meaning<br />

approx. 70 per cent of the heat energy<br />

used in the compressor can be<br />

recovered. During the summer, the<br />

entire hot water demand can be<br />

BOGE KOMPRESSOREN,<br />

Bielefeld, Germany<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong><br />

75


Compressors and Systems<br />

Compressed air remote monitoring<br />

Compressed air remote monitoring<br />

This is how it’s done –<br />

maintenance and service 4.0<br />

Dipl. Betriebswirtin Daniela Koehler, Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Gerhart Hobusch<br />

Milchwerke Oberfranken West eG<br />

has been a leading international<br />

manufacturer of fine cheese<br />

speciali ties for many years now<br />

and its products are becoming ever<br />

more popular around the world.<br />

Production, which has been constantly<br />

growing for years, requires<br />

a reliable source of premium-quality<br />

compressed air around the clock,<br />

seven days a week. This state-of-theart<br />

company has been using remote<br />

monitoring for some time now,<br />

which is a service package that not<br />

only ensures smooth compressed<br />

air supply, but also makes costs<br />

fully predictable at a fixed price over<br />

multiple-year terms.<br />

The delivered milk – separated according<br />

to type – is purified, pasteurised,<br />

cooled and subsequently stored<br />

in tanks. From there, it passes into the<br />

production stage. Prior to processing,<br />

the milk is heated and enriched with<br />

cheese-specific cultures, depending<br />

on the intended type of cheese being<br />

manufactured. Only then does<br />

the actual cheesemaking process begin.<br />

Once complete, 60 different varieties<br />

leave the company, including<br />

hard cheese, soft cheese, mozzarella<br />

and ready meals such as baked and<br />

grilled cheese products. 70 percent of<br />

the cheese stays in Germany and customers<br />

include all major retail chains;<br />

the rest is exported throughout the<br />

world, from China to Canada.<br />

As in many industrial production<br />

facilities, compressed air is essential<br />

for almost every application<br />

Milchwerke Oberfranken processes<br />

500 million litres of milk annually<br />

to make its cheese – that’s around<br />

1.35 million litres of milk per day!<br />

Production runs around the clock in<br />

three shifts, seven days a week, under<br />

stringent food-industry quality<br />

standards. Accordingly, the compressed<br />

air supply must also be of a<br />

suitably high quality.<br />

Fig. 2: Milk, curds and whey are stored in huge tanks.<br />

Fig. 1: Fresh milk being delivered.<br />

throughout the plant and plays an<br />

integral role in product manufacture<br />

from start to finish. The valves that<br />

direct the liquid products and concentrates<br />

from the milk intake to the<br />

pipeline transport are controlled by<br />

compressed air, as are the cleaning<br />

systems. The cheese presses, as well<br />

as the feeders and ejectors for the<br />

cheese-forming towers, in which the<br />

raw cheese is shaped into manageable<br />

blocks, also operate using compressed<br />

air, as do the cheese cutters<br />

and packaging machines. The airconditioning<br />

for the cheese-maturing<br />

rooms is even supported by compressed<br />

air.<br />

A total of four stations, comprising<br />

compressors and blowers, is cur-<br />

76 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong>


Compressors and Systems<br />

Compressed air remote monitoring<br />

Fig. 3: A wide variety of cheeses are made<br />

from the curd.<br />

compressors, but also the treatment<br />

components such as dryers, filters,<br />

air-main charging system and condensate<br />

treatment equipment. Upon<br />

initial commissioning, the entire system<br />

is digitally recorded and the local<br />

conditions analysed in order to<br />

gain an overall picture of the operation.<br />

The Sigma Air Manager “learns”<br />

the behaviour of the compressed air<br />

system, including the reaction times<br />

of the individual components, and<br />

uses this “knowledge” in the event of<br />

fluctuating consumption to adjust the<br />

compressed air supply to the most<br />

energy-efficient operation possible,<br />

based on past experience and the<br />

measured values available. Here, the<br />

master controller is also guided by<br />

the required pressure – i. e. the network<br />

pressure actually required by<br />

the customer at the air station outlet.<br />

The controller endeavours to maintain<br />

this pressure as low as possible,<br />

whilst at the same time ensuring that<br />

it does not drop below the minimum<br />

permissible value.<br />

If remote monitoring is used, the<br />

controller simultaneously transmits<br />

operating, service and energy performance<br />

data from the compressed<br />

air system to the service provider’s<br />

data centre. In this instance, the dairy<br />

plant works in close partnership with<br />

Kaeser Kompressoren. The service<br />

provider’s data centre contains a<br />

“digi tal twin” of the customer air station,<br />

which identically mirrors the actual<br />

station and, thanks to data transfer,<br />

is constantly updated in real time,<br />

rently responsible for ensuring reliable<br />

operation of the dairy-production<br />

facility in Upper Franconia. Compressed<br />

air is used for everything<br />

from delivery right through to the industrial<br />

wastewater treatment plant.<br />

Unsurprisingly, a highly reliable and<br />

economical supply of dry, technically<br />

oil-free compressed air is essential,<br />

with even higher-quality sterile<br />

air being required in the maturing<br />

rooms. Due to the high and constantly<br />

growing demand, the systems almost<br />

always run at high load. The<br />

stations were kept in peak condition<br />

by the compressed air systems provider<br />

for a long time on the basis of a<br />

classic maintenance contract. In 2021<br />

however, the dairy plant decided to<br />

switch to the very latest maintenance<br />

concept: remote monitoring.<br />

This was possible because the<br />

dairy plant’s compressed air station<br />

was already centrally controlled by<br />

an advanced master compressed air<br />

management system. Such a system<br />

is an optimal prerequisite to enable<br />

users to benefit from all of the advantages<br />

that Industrie 4.0 services<br />

have to offer. This master controller<br />

constantly monitors and evaluates<br />

compressed air generation and<br />

always selects the most efficient solution<br />

for the respective needs of the<br />

business in everyday operation. It<br />

achieves this by collating and analysing<br />

all operating data from the components<br />

in the system; not only the<br />

Fig. 4: Certain cheeses are automatically turned during the maturing process.<br />

Fig. 5: Two of the four compressed air stations at Milchwerke Oberfranken.<br />

Blowers on the left, compressors on the right.<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong><br />

77


Compressors and Systems<br />

Compressed air remote monitoring<br />

Fig. 6: Data are transmitted to the service provider via the advanced master controller<br />

(Sigma Air Manager). The service technician performs demand-optimised maintenance.<br />

monitored and analysed for any further<br />

requirements. Data transmission<br />

is encrypted in real time via a<br />

proprietary network that is specially<br />

developed for this purpose. Access<br />

to the operator’s network is therefore<br />

not required to perform this task.<br />

The service package offers many<br />

advantages. With a classic maintenance<br />

contract, service technicians<br />

are scheduled to make visits and perform<br />

certain checks at fixed intervals.<br />

With remote monitoring, thanks to direct<br />

insight into station performance<br />

data, maintenance is performed on<br />

a system-specific basis according to<br />

actual system status. Maintenance<br />

is therefore needs-based and takes<br />

place only when actually necessary.<br />

This is where the provider’s expertise<br />

comes into play to facilitate predictive<br />

maintenance. Through the availability<br />

of the compressed air system’s<br />

process data and the resulting analysis,<br />

it is possible to determine the ideal<br />

time to implement maintenance<br />

work. Consequently, necessary service<br />

measures are recognised early<br />

on and can be carried out in a timely<br />

manner as required. This not only reduces<br />

downtime and increases energy<br />

efficiency, but also saves time and<br />

money. This combination of remote<br />

diagnostics and needs-based, preventative<br />

maintenance ensures maximum<br />

dependability for the operator’s<br />

compressed air supply.<br />

Maintenance costs can also be<br />

significantly reduced. With a classic<br />

Fig. 7: If a station is being serviced, the relevant<br />

compressors can be bridged externally<br />

using a portable compressor.<br />

maintenance contract, the operator<br />

bears all of the costs incurred, even<br />

if a major repair is needed. With the<br />

remote monitoring model, the operator<br />

pays a fixed service rate per<br />

year based on the actual volume of<br />

compressed air generated. All costs<br />

for maintenance and any repairs, regardless<br />

of the amount, are borne by<br />

the service provider. The service rate<br />

is fixed for five years, so that the operator<br />

knows exactly what to expect<br />

and is able to plan precisely, regardless<br />

of potential market price increases<br />

or actual repair costs.<br />

In addition to these maintenancerelated<br />

aspects, remote monitoring<br />

also provides further benefits for<br />

compressed air station operators.<br />

Since data are transmitted live and<br />

constantly monitored and analysed,<br />

the key figures generated will quickly<br />

show if a business’ compressed air<br />

demand should change. The smart<br />

service package includes monitoring<br />

of key figures such as service costs,<br />

reserve levels and specific package<br />

input power. When an operation<br />

grows, so too does its compressed<br />

air consumption. When this happens,<br />

it may be that the existing air station<br />

soon reaches the limit of its capacity,<br />

whereby the back-up compressors installed<br />

for reserve must be operated<br />

constantly. Or indeed the reverse<br />

may be the case; e. g. due to a change<br />

in production processes, a company’s<br />

compressed air consumption actually<br />

drops. Constant data monitoring<br />

identifies such developments early<br />

on, giving the operator the opportunity<br />

to verify the need for any expansion<br />

or investment plans they may<br />

have in good time.<br />

Furthermore, remote monitoring<br />

makes energy and life-cycle management<br />

possible throughout the air station’s<br />

entire service life. Up-to-date<br />

key energy management figures from<br />

a single source provide the basis for<br />

energy management in accordance<br />

with ISO 50001.<br />

In contrast to so-called “Contracting”,<br />

where the service provider<br />

makes the air system available and<br />

the user only purchases the compressed<br />

air that is used, with this service<br />

package the operator continues<br />

to be the owner of the compressed<br />

air station. After almost a year, the<br />

dairy plant is highly satisfied with the<br />

new service model. Based on past experience,<br />

the company is more than<br />

confident that it made the right decision<br />

in terms of economy, reliability<br />

and safety.<br />

The Authors:<br />

Dipl. Betriebswirtin Daniela Koehler,<br />

Press Officer,<br />

Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Gerhart Hobusch,<br />

Lead Project Engineer,<br />

both Kaeser Kompressoren,<br />

Coburg, Germany<br />

78 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong>


<strong>Components</strong><br />

Sensors<br />

How to protect pumps<br />

from air and gas inclusions<br />

New sensor technology for intelligent gas bubble<br />

detection prevents pumps from running dry<br />

Julian Budde<br />

When pumps fail, production stops,<br />

cooling systems are interrupted,<br />

and machines must be stopped.<br />

That is why effective pump protection<br />

is a crucial task for both plant<br />

engineers and technicians. It is particularly<br />

important to detect unwanted<br />

gas inclusions in fluid media<br />

at an early stage. This is remedied<br />

with a novel sensor technology detecting<br />

gas bubbles before they<br />

damage pumps.<br />

Fig. 1: By detecting gas bubbles in the supply pipe, the sensor protects pumps from running<br />

dry. (Photo: Baumer)<br />

Pumps are a key component to ensure<br />

consistent process flow where<br />

fluids are involved. They can be found<br />

virtually everywhere and are used to<br />

keep industrial processes moving forward,<br />

heat homes, and supply machines<br />

with lubricant. To ensure a<br />

process runs smoothly, pumps must<br />

be prevented from running dry and<br />

any cavitation must be identified, as<br />

both can lead to damage or failure.<br />

Dry running describes the situation<br />

that occurs when gas bubbles get<br />

into a pump and cannot be released.<br />

This means that there is too little or no<br />

fluid in the pump housing. One reason<br />

for this may be the improper commissioning<br />

of systems with, for example,<br />

an empty tank or closed suction pipe.<br />

Another may be the improper installation<br />

of pumps – if plant engineers do<br />

not pay sufficient attention to differences<br />

in height, this can lead to pump<br />

suction problems in the future.<br />

Possible damage caused by<br />

dry running<br />

So, what happens when pumps run<br />

dry? Depending on how quickly gas is<br />

detected in the pipes and on the volume<br />

of the gas inclusions, the effects<br />

may be more or less severe. At best,<br />

components are temporarily overloaded;<br />

in the worst-case scenario,<br />

the pump is destroyed. Dry running<br />

can cause, among other things, the<br />

following pump damage:<br />

– Considerable overheating of<br />

the bearings<br />

– Leakage due to destroyed sealing<br />

– Loss of performance, pressure<br />

loss, increased noise levels<br />

– Stiffness<br />

– Increased energy consumption and<br />

labor-intensive maintenance work<br />

– Complete destruction of the pump<br />

Bubble formation by cavitation<br />

Cavitation in fluid occurs when bubbles<br />

form on fast-moving objects or<br />

in constricted areas and dissipate<br />

again abruptly. This often occurs on<br />

ship propellers and in pumps and can<br />

cause considerable damage, or worst<br />

case, total failure. How does cavitation<br />

occur and why does it damage<br />

pumps? The reason behind cavitation<br />

is explained by Bernoulli’s principle<br />

stating that the faster a fluid moves,<br />

the lower its static pressure will be.<br />

When it comes to the fast-moving<br />

parts of a pump, the static pressure<br />

can even drop below the evaporation<br />

pressure of the fluid. If the static<br />

pressure falls below this threshold,<br />

gas bubbles form on these parts. As<br />

soon as the ambient pressure rises<br />

again as the flow continues, the gas<br />

bubbles implode loudly and cause vibrations.<br />

These implosions are characterized<br />

by high pressures which<br />

can damage or destroy the impeller<br />

and pump housing through pitting if<br />

they are not stopped in time. Cavitation<br />

does not only occur in pumps,<br />

but also in constricted areas of the<br />

supply pipes. This can also result in<br />

gas bubbles which damage the pump<br />

interior.<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong><br />

79


<strong>Components</strong><br />

Sensors<br />

How does gas get into pumps?<br />

There are various causes behind gas<br />

inclusions in systems. The most common<br />

reasons include:<br />

– Leakages<br />

– Leakages due to the manufacturing<br />

process (for example, when stirring<br />

and mixing ingredients and components)<br />

– Valves<br />

– Outgassing of media<br />

– Air pockets in the medium<br />

– Cavitation<br />

The more complex the system, the<br />

greater the likelihood of gas getting<br />

into pipes and pumps. Given the<br />

damage often associated with downtime<br />

and high maintenance costs, it<br />

would be ideal to detect gas in the<br />

system at an early stage. Reliable gas<br />

bubble detection provides the following<br />

benefits:<br />

Novel sensor detects even the<br />

smallest of gas bubbles<br />

To ensure effective pump protection,<br />

gas bubbles must be reliably detected<br />

before they enter the pump interior.<br />

No sensor was able to do this to<br />

date. The Baumer analysis sensor now<br />

closes this gap, which reliably detects<br />

even the smallest gas bubbles and air<br />

bubbles in the medium. Thanks to the<br />

smart sensor principle, it will immediately<br />

report any individually adjustable<br />

limit for gas inclusions being exceeded.<br />

The sensor measuring principle is<br />

dc-value based detection (dc = dielectric<br />

constant) of air and gas bubbles in<br />

fluids with a minimum conductivity of<br />

dc > 1.5. Thanks to sophisticated algorithms,<br />

the sensor will recognize very<br />

precisely any presence of gas and fluid<br />

in the flow. It measures independently<br />

of the medium, providing maximum<br />

flexibility. The “Gas bubbles in the medium”<br />

signal can be used to shut down<br />

the pump or report an alarm warning.<br />

The analysis sensor has its origins<br />

in the food industry. For years,<br />

dairy company Sachsenmilch GmbH<br />

was unable to completely empty the<br />

delivery containers containing an expensive<br />

fruit concentrate for the production<br />

of fruit yogurt. The problem<br />

was that if the yogurt manufacturer<br />

wanted to use nearly all the fruit concentrate,<br />

it ran the risk of gas pene-<br />

– Increased service life of pumps<br />

– Less maintenance and downtime<br />

– Increased system availability<br />

– <strong>Process</strong> safety<br />

– Higher product quality<br />

– System effectiveness and process<br />

efficiency<br />

– Cost reduction<br />

– Food safety in hygienic applications<br />

How have plant operators protected<br />

their pumps from harmful gas bubbles<br />

to date? In closed systems not<br />

allowing for visual inspection, operators<br />

can only guess at the presence<br />

of gas bubbles. Pump protection is<br />

therefore mostly based on acoustic<br />

monitoring – in other words, when<br />

an attentive technician hears something<br />

unusual. Given that machines<br />

suddenly generate much more noise<br />

when there is gas in the pumps, this is<br />

usually quite easy to detect.<br />

A sensor solution for detecting<br />

empty pipes has also been available<br />

for several years. A limit level sensor,<br />

which is embedded in the pipe<br />

from above, checks whether the pipe<br />

is filled with fluid or not. This method<br />

is primarily intended to provide the<br />

start-up signal for the pump as soon<br />

as it no longer draws gas, but only the<br />

fluid medium.<br />

Fig. 2: The Baumer analysis sensor reliably detects even the smallest gas and air bubbles.<br />

(Photo: Baumer)<br />

Fig. 3: Destructive gas bubbles have caused minor cavitation damage on this centrifugal<br />

pump. (Photo: stock.adobe.com<br />

80 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong>


<strong>Components</strong><br />

Sensors<br />

trating the system which then had to<br />

be exhausted at great expense. For<br />

this reason, the company always left a<br />

safety reserve of the expensive ingredient<br />

in the container when changing<br />

containers. Working together<br />

with Sachsenmilch GmbH, Baumer<br />

developed the solution, which is ideal<br />

for protecting pumps. At the dairy<br />

company, the analysis sensor detects<br />

air and gas bubbles in the pipe system,<br />

pinpointing the imminent emptiness<br />

of the container and defining<br />

the best point in time for exchanging<br />

containers.<br />

The benefits for Sachsenmilch<br />

GmbH can be quantified precisely.<br />

By completely emptying the transport<br />

containers, the dairy company<br />

can use up to 8 kilograms more fruit<br />

concentrate per product type and<br />

production line than before. What’s<br />

more, the company can produce up<br />

to an extra 10000 cups of yogurt.<br />

This is because the sensor prevents<br />

the 15-minute downtimes that used<br />

to be required for cleaning and reconditioning<br />

the system when the<br />

container was empty.<br />

Ideal for the food industry and<br />

heating/cooling systems<br />

Wherever fluids are moved in closed<br />

systems, the analysis sensor can protect<br />

pumps from air and gas: in industrial<br />

applications, food production,<br />

building technology, or water<br />

supply. More target applications include<br />

monitoring cooling circuits and<br />

dry run prevention, process monitoring<br />

and ensuring process safety in<br />

terms of pump protection. The application<br />

is particularly beneficial for the<br />

food industry and in heating/cooling<br />

systems. In heating systems, a similar<br />

phenomenon happens right at home.<br />

When there is air in the system,<br />

household radiators do not properly<br />

heat up and energy is wasted. This<br />

is even more true for industrial heating<br />

and cooling systems. Gas bubble<br />

detection therefore ensures both resource-efficient<br />

operation and system<br />

effectiveness. <strong>Process</strong> safety and<br />

pump service life are increased, while<br />

the maintenance effort is reduced.<br />

In industrial applications, functioning<br />

pumps are all the more important<br />

because downstream processes can<br />

also be jeopardized if a failure occurs.<br />

In food production, unwanted gas<br />

bubbles in the system are particularly<br />

problematic because they can endanger<br />

not only the pumps but also food<br />

safety. This is because contact with<br />

air or gas during processing, filling,<br />

or packaging can have a direct impact<br />

on the quality of the food produced.<br />

In this scenario, early gas detection<br />

can reduce waste and increase system<br />

efficiency.<br />

The analysis sensor is particularly<br />

suited to protecting centrifugal<br />

pumps, gear pumps, and piston<br />

pumps.<br />

The Author: Julian Budde,<br />

Product Manager, Baumer GmbH,<br />

Friedberg, Germany<br />

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NEW


<strong>Components</strong><br />

Valves<br />

Pure and affordable drinking water<br />

for a whole region<br />

Sliding gate valves are optimising Belgium’s largest facility<br />

for RO water purification<br />

Veolia Water Technologies has built<br />

an ultra-modern plant to produce<br />

drinking water in Ostend, Belgium.<br />

In a multi-stage filtration process,<br />

the local water supplier is now producing<br />

drinking water of excellent<br />

quality – far above the statutory<br />

requirements. At critical points of<br />

the process – during reverse osmosis,<br />

filtration with activated carbon<br />

and remineralisation of the water<br />

– sliding gate valves made by<br />

Schubert & Salzer Control Systems<br />

are responsible for regulating pressure<br />

and flow rate.<br />

The water supplier, FARYS, produces<br />

drinking water for the city of Ostend<br />

and its surrounding area from<br />

the brackish water in the Bruges-<br />

Ostend Canal. In the current development<br />

stage of the waterworks built<br />

by Veolia Water Technologies, up to<br />

1,200 cubic metres of drinking water<br />

per hour can be fed directly into the<br />

pipe network. The plant constructed<br />

by the leading specialist for water<br />

Fig. 1: One DN125 and one DN50 sliding<br />

gate valve are used in each of the twelve<br />

reverse osmosis units. (Photo © : Schubert &<br />

Salzer Control Systems)<br />

Fig. 2: In reverse osmosis, microcontaminants<br />

down to particle sizes of 0.1 nanometres<br />

are filtered out of the water. The<br />

fine-pored, semi-permeable filter layers are<br />

rolled up in pressure tubes.<br />

treatment is the largest Belgian drinking<br />

water production facility using<br />

RO technology and the production<br />

speed is among the fastest in the<br />

world. It is also unique that the installation<br />

can be used very flexibly within<br />

a variety of canal water qualities and<br />

that the entire process is done within<br />

consider ably reduced energy costs.<br />

The project manager of Veolia<br />

Water Technologies Belgium, describes<br />

the process as follows: “The<br />

canal water is treated in eight stages.<br />

First, in coarse, fine and microfiltration,<br />

all suspended particles, microbiological<br />

substances and pathogenic<br />

microorganisms are removed. During<br />

the subsequent reverse osmosis,<br />

fine-pored, semipermeable membranes<br />

filter microcontaminants up<br />

to particle sizes of 0.1 nanometre as<br />

well as minerals and salts.” Only water<br />

molecules remain. This water is<br />

sent through activated carbon filters<br />

and after injection with carbon<br />

dioxide, remineralised with limestone.<br />

Finally, the water is disinfected<br />

with UV light and then chlorinated.<br />

The result – drinking water of the<br />

highest quality – is fed into the pipe<br />

network via buffer storage tanks.<br />

“The operator of the waterworks<br />

wanted a facility that works cost-<br />

effectively. Maximum energy efficiency<br />

was required everywhere – even at<br />

the control valves”, explains the International<br />

Sales Manager at Schubert &<br />

Salzer Control Systems. “Equally, reverse<br />

osmosis and the subsequent<br />

process stages are demanding applications.<br />

There are special requirements<br />

here in terms of the control<br />

accuracy and reaction speed of the<br />

valves used.”<br />

Sliding gate valves provide effective<br />

protection against damage<br />

“During the reverse osmosis process,<br />

precise and fast pressure regulation<br />

is very important”, emphasises the<br />

Fig. 3: Sliding gate valves from Schubert &<br />

Salzer with a nominal size of 150 millimetres<br />

control the pressure at the outlet of the<br />

total of 12 reverse osmosis units. Striking:<br />

the compact dimensions of the valve and<br />

electropneumatic actuator.<br />

82 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong>


<strong>Components</strong><br />

Valves<br />

Fig. 4: The precise flow control of the sliding gate valves ensures that each of the<br />

eight activated carbon filters (pictured here) and 13 remineralisation tanks are<br />

evenly utilised.<br />

Veolia engineer. “The highly sensitive<br />

filtration layers are rolled<br />

up in pressure pipes. Pressure<br />

shocks and excessive flow quantities<br />

have to be reliably prevented.<br />

Even the slightest overshoots<br />

in the control process could damage<br />

the expensive membranes.<br />

That is why we use one DN125<br />

and one DN50 sliding gate valve<br />

in each of the twelve reverse osmosis<br />

units. They ensure the exact<br />

regulation of the high process<br />

pressures that are ne cessary to<br />

compensate for the osmotic pressure<br />

of the brackish water and<br />

keep the reverse osmosis going.<br />

The decisive factor for the<br />

high precision and extremely<br />

short response time of the sliding<br />

gate valves is their special design<br />

principle. The sliding gate technology<br />

controls the flow rate in<br />

milliseconds, by two slotted sealing<br />

discs arranged vertically to<br />

the direction of flow moving on<br />

top of each other. The pneumatic<br />

actuator only has to overcome<br />

the sliding friction between the<br />

two discs. This means that the<br />

required actuating force is up to<br />

90 per cent less than on other<br />

types of valves. The actuators can<br />

be dimensioned consider ably<br />

smaller and the need for control<br />

air can be reduced. Simultaneously,<br />

the short strokes of only a<br />

few millimetres and the reduced<br />

kinetic masses of the throttle element<br />

protect the actuator and<br />

the spindle seal.<br />

Material and energy efficiency<br />

help overall cost-effectiveness<br />

The special design principle of<br />

the sliding gate valves has a double<br />

positive effect on the weight<br />

and dimensions. On the one<br />

hand, the valves are smaller and<br />

lighter due to the intermediate<br />

flange design and the smaller actuators.<br />

On the other hand, the<br />

significantly better flow properties<br />

due to the particularly high<br />

KVS values also allow the use<br />

of smaller nominal sizes, which<br />

makes these valves even more<br />

compact and lighter than common<br />

alternative solutions. Hence<br />

the 45 sliding gate valves in the<br />

plant weigh just 1,100 kilograms<br />

altogether. Seat valves in comparison<br />

would weigh in at around<br />

5 tonnes. This difference is considerable<br />

and, due to the savings<br />

on resources and CO 2<br />

, has positive<br />

effects over the valve’s entire<br />

life cycle – from manufacture to<br />

transport through to its operation<br />

in the plant. The maintenance<br />

and hence the operating<br />

costs are also reduced because<br />

of the more compact dimensions<br />

and low weight.<br />

The long service lives of the<br />

sliding gate valves were also a decisive<br />

point. These result, among<br />

other things, from the fact that<br />

they neutralise the damaging effects<br />

of cavitation. In alternative<br />

globe valves, imploding cavitation<br />

bubbles often cause cost-intensive<br />

wear due to erosion. Due<br />

to the special design of the sliding<br />

gate valves without flow deflection,<br />

the cavitation bubbles<br />

implode clearly behind the valve<br />

in the pipeline. This can easily be<br />

designed so that no damaging effect<br />

arises from the cavitation.<br />

Fig. 5: Size comparison between a normal seat valve and a sliding gate valve. In<br />

the example, the nominal size of both valves is identical.<br />

For this purpose, it is sufficient to<br />

run the pipe straight for a short<br />

distance after the valve. The control<br />

valves remain more or less<br />

untouched even in case of water<br />

shocks. The force of any water<br />

shock occurring in the pipework<br />

is not transferred to the actuator<br />

for the sliding gate valves, meaning<br />

that this cannot be damaged<br />

by pressure spikes.<br />

Even utilisation due to<br />

high-precision positioners<br />

“Before the treated water is fed<br />

into the region’s pipe network,<br />

we use DN150 sliding gate valves<br />

during the activated carbon filtration<br />

and remineralisation with<br />

limestone and CO 2<br />

”, adds the Project<br />

Manager. Here too, the supplier’s<br />

high-precision positioners,<br />

combined with the sliding gate<br />

valves, guarantee extremely accurate<br />

flow control, such that<br />

the eight activated carbon filters<br />

and 13 remineralisation tanks<br />

are evenly utilised. In this application,<br />

a linear flow characteristic<br />

curve proves to be particularly<br />

suitable for the regulation of the<br />

flow quantities to keep the process<br />

stable.<br />

Reliable, regional water supply<br />

guaranteed<br />

With an average output of 24,000<br />

cubic metres per day, the plant<br />

makes an important contribution<br />

to the reliable and cost-effective<br />

supply of drinking water to the<br />

people in the Ostend region.<br />

Periods of water shortage – as<br />

Belgium has experienced in the<br />

past summers and which will become<br />

even more frequent due to<br />

climate change - will be avoided in<br />

the future. For this reason, FARYS<br />

is already planning a second similar<br />

plant in Nieuwpoort.<br />

Schubert & Salzer<br />

Control Systems GmbH,<br />

Ingolstadt, Germany<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong><br />

83


<strong>Components</strong><br />

Valves<br />

Operation under high pressure<br />

Specially adapted automatic basket strainer<br />

for pressures up to 1,160 psi (80 bar)<br />

Ulrich Latz<br />

In a hydroelectric power plant of the<br />

Swiss energy company Kraftwerke<br />

Oberhasli AG, specially modified<br />

Eaton automatic basket strainers<br />

minimize the wear on the hydraulic<br />

control valves caused by glaciers<br />

and suspended solids. They are designed<br />

for water pressures of up to<br />

1,160 psi (80 bar) and filter out particles<br />

with a fineness of 25 μm.<br />

the runoff into the reservoir and collect<br />

there together with other suspended<br />

matter brought in by rainfall.<br />

These 25 to 200 micron particles pose<br />

a problem for the huge turbines in<br />

the KWO power plants, as they cause<br />

heavy wear of the slide valves. These<br />

valves use the pressure of the water to<br />

control the ball valves which, in turn,<br />

control the intake to the turbines. Due<br />

sis, but now they are no longer available<br />

on the market. In order to reduce<br />

or, ideally, eliminate costly and<br />

time-consuming repairs, the hydroelectric<br />

power plant operator was interested<br />

in finding a new solution.<br />

“The installation of larger settling<br />

tanks was not an option,” continues<br />

the manager. “At water pressures of<br />

870 psi (60 bar), 1,160 psi (80 bar) or<br />

even more than 1,450 psi (100 bar),<br />

very large and complex tanks would<br />

be needed. But that would not be feasible<br />

for economic and environmental<br />

reasons, and for lack of space. Converting<br />

to oil hydraulics was likewise<br />

not feasible for the same reasons.”<br />

Therefore, KWO decided to install<br />

filter systems directly upstream of<br />

the control valves and turned to BT-<br />

Hydraulik, a leading company in the<br />

field of hydraulic drive technology.<br />

The experts from the Bernebased<br />

company advised KWO to use<br />

an auto matic basket strainer. Conventional<br />

filters clog up over time and<br />

Grimselsee in Switzerland (Photo © : gettyimages/Francesco Meroni)<br />

The Kraftwerke Oberhasli AG power<br />

plant (KWO) can generate energy<br />

on demand at any time using water<br />

dammed in the Grimselsee, 1909 meters<br />

above sea level. The Swiss energy<br />

company makes an important contribution<br />

to generating electricity and<br />

stabilizing the grid in Switzerland and<br />

Europe from its hydroelectric power<br />

plants in the Grimsel area. In addition,<br />

reservoirs act as natural batteries<br />

in which energy can be stored in<br />

the form of water and later used to<br />

generate electricity. However, the use<br />

of natural glacial runoff and rainwater<br />

poses a problem-suspended matter.<br />

The glacier is continuously eroding<br />

very fine stone particles from the<br />

mountains. These solids, derived from<br />

glacial abrasion, are transported by<br />

to the water’s drop height of 670 meters,<br />

very high pressures occur in the<br />

valves and their supply lines.<br />

Heavy wear on hydraulic<br />

control valves<br />

Sand settling tanks are in place upstream,<br />

which prevent the entry<br />

of coarse particles into the control<br />

valves, however they have demonstrated<br />

only limited success. “Until<br />

now, the valves had to be cleaned and<br />

repaired by the KWO every three to<br />

four months,” explains the Sales and<br />

Technical Manager at BT-Hydraulik<br />

AG, which was commissioned by KWO<br />

to find a solution to the problem. In<br />

the past, the valves even had to be<br />

completely replaced on a regular ba-<br />

Fig. 1: This strainer is designed for continuous,<br />

uninterrupted removal of entrained<br />

solids from liquids in pipeline systems.<br />

Model 2596 strainers are available in different<br />

sizes from DN50 to DN900 (standard<br />

pressure ratings PN10/PN16), with automatic<br />

backwash and a broad selection of<br />

screen options. (Photo © : Eaton)<br />

84 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong>


<strong>Components</strong><br />

Valves<br />

need to be serviced and replaced at<br />

regular intervals. An automatically<br />

self-cleaning filter is the more economical<br />

solution. The problem is that<br />

standard backwash filters are not designed<br />

for the high pressures in a hydroelectric<br />

power plant. BT-Hydraulik,<br />

together with Eaton, continued<br />

to work on refining the strainer. This<br />

motor-driven strainer provides continuous<br />

removal of solids from fluids<br />

in pipework systems - though only<br />

within a standard pressure range up<br />

to a maximum of 232 psi (16 bar).<br />

However, the supplier provides customization<br />

of this filter system to<br />

serve customer-specific applications.<br />

Modified automatic basket<br />

strainer withstands pressures up<br />

to 1,160 psi (80 bar)<br />

A version of the automatic basket<br />

strainer was developed for KWO<br />

that is designed for pressures of up<br />

to 1,160 psi (80 bar). However, a variety<br />

of measures were required to<br />

make this possible: First of all, in order<br />

to withstand the high pressures,<br />

Eaton modified the entire housing<br />

by increasing the wall thickness and<br />

making the cover considerably sturdier.<br />

In addition, the flushing arm<br />

drive shaft was sealed with a quadruple<br />

mechanical seal. A particularly<br />

challenging problem was to find<br />

a filter element that offers the highest<br />

possible filter fineness that could<br />

also withstand the high pressures<br />

and was backwashable. A reinforced<br />

version of the DuraWedge ® filter elements<br />

proved the solution: Made of<br />

V-shaped stainless steel wire profiles,<br />

even the standard version is capable<br />

of being used in demanding applications.<br />

After being further reinforced,<br />

they now can withstand the high pressures<br />

in the hydroelectric power plant,<br />

filtering out a large part of the suspended<br />

matter due to a filter fineness<br />

of 25 μm. The system had to be ad-<br />

Fig. 2: With flow rates of up to 35.000 GPM (7.950 l/min), a broad selection of screen<br />

options and automatic backwashing, this strainer is designed for continuous, uninterrupted<br />

removal of entrained solids from liquids in pipeline systems. (Photo © : Eaton)<br />

ditionally adjusted so that the screen<br />

baskets would not be deformed in the<br />

backwash phase. A pressure reduction<br />

of 870 psi (60 bar) to the ambient<br />

pressure would have been problematic<br />

despite the reinforcement.<br />

The high-pressure basket strainers<br />

used in KWO’s hydroelectric power<br />

plant – so far there are four – have<br />

also been adapted to the operating<br />

parameters used there. The connector<br />

size for two of the filters is<br />

2 inches and for the other two is<br />

3 inches, with a flow rate of between<br />

53 and 106 gallons per minute (200<br />

and 400 liters per minute). How ever,<br />

the design of the high-pressure strainer<br />

basket developed jointly by Eaton<br />

and BT-Hydraulik can also be adapted<br />

to other parameters – in line with<br />

whatever the application requires. The<br />

backwash is triggered by a control – in<br />

KWO’s case, whenever the differential<br />

pressure reaches 11.6 psi (0.8 bar). Alternatively,<br />

control using predetermined<br />

time intervals or permanent<br />

backwashing would also be feasible.<br />

Wear and repair costs significantly<br />

reduced<br />

Even though the test phase of the<br />

new filter system is scheduled to run<br />

for several years, initial results are<br />

already clear. “The results are very<br />

good,” says KWO. “So far we have<br />

had no outages and the system perfectly<br />

meets our needs in terms of<br />

maintaining and cleaning the baskets.”<br />

Especially compared to the<br />

turbine lines where the sliding gate<br />

valves have not yet been retrofitted,<br />

it is clear that wear and tear has been<br />

significantly reduced – the amount of<br />

maintenance required and the associated<br />

costs have been minimized by<br />

the high-pressure automatic basket<br />

strainer.<br />

The Author: Ulrich Latz<br />

Global Product Manager,<br />

Industrial Filtration,<br />

Eaton Technologies GmbH,<br />

Nettersheim, Germany<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong><br />

85


Compressors/Compressed air/<strong>Components</strong><br />

Companies – Innovations – Products<br />

No things by half with actubar ® !<br />

Every pneumatic actuator in the actubar ® series is now equipped<br />

with the additional pneumatic interface of the bar-vacotrol ® system<br />

as standard. The openings of the pneumatic air duct as a direct connection<br />

between actuator and control unit are closed with a blow-outproof<br />

and reusable screw. When retrofitting control units from the<br />

bar-vacotrol ® series, only the screw plug is unscrewed from the actuator<br />

housing to open the direct connection. The control unit can be<br />

mounted directly and put into operation.<br />

bar-vacotrol ® as an integrated air duct realises an increased level in<br />

the reduction of interfaces between actuator and control unit and is<br />

predestined for an optimal realisation according to VDI/ VDE 3847-2.<br />

The suitably developed generation of control components makes external<br />

piping unnecessary, is easily accessible and logical to operate.<br />

This applies to the bar-positrol ® and bar-positurn2 positioners as well<br />

as to the bar-posiswitch ® and bar-valve&switch ® limit switch boxes.<br />

Thus, devices with internal as well as external solenoid valves can be<br />

selected for more flexibility in adapting to the installation situation and<br />

environment.<br />

In the 4 largest actubar ® actuators of the 18 available sizes, the solenoid<br />

valve interface can be flexibly adjusted to ¼" or ½" air flow with<br />

additional mounting plates, which also achieves better adaptation to<br />

existing process conditions.<br />

bar pneumatische Steuerungssysteme GmbH<br />

Auf der Hohl 1<br />

53547 Dattenberg, Germany<br />

Tel +49 (2644) 96070<br />

Fax +49 (2644) 960735<br />

bar-info@wattswater.com<br />

www.bar-gmbh.de<br />

BOGE at the <strong>2023</strong> Hanover Trade Fair<br />

Increasing efficiency of<br />

compressed air systems with<br />

digital transformation<br />

Smart compressed air management in the age of Industry 4.0 – at the<br />

Hanover Trade Fair, BOGE will show how compressed air systems can<br />

easily be analysed and optimised using BOGE connect. The smart service<br />

tool has been expanded with additional connection options and is<br />

therefore even more versatile. Trade fair visitors can find out for themselves,<br />

thanks to the C 14 PM screw compressor on display.<br />

A constant overview of all operating data – BOGE connect records,<br />

monitors and visualises all important parameters, thus significantly<br />

simplifying administrative work. All relevant data is saved in a digital<br />

machine file. Continuous monitoring allows conclusions to be drawn<br />

regarding the device’s status at all times. Anomalies can be detected<br />

and malfunctions fixed early, thanks to data analysis. BOGE connect<br />

will provide timely automatic reminders of upcoming maintenance<br />

or servicing. Data can be retrieved in real-time from anywhere and is<br />

available on all mobile end devices.<br />

Clean business: Pipe-free connection with bar-vacotrol ® .<br />

Advantages<br />

Emissions due to leakage are minimized by eliminating susceptible<br />

pneumatic fittings and the small number of robust sealing points. There<br />

is no dead volume in lines. <strong>Process</strong> operation is less susceptible to faults<br />

and less sensitive to vibrations. External influences lead to damage<br />

and failures much less frequently. This results in longer running times<br />

and higher availability for the systems. When changing components,<br />

the modular system makes adjustments to pipelines super fluous. The<br />

changeover process of components can be easily integrated into the<br />

workflows and assembly times are considerably reduced.<br />

New connection options<br />

Thanks to numerous interfaces, even older models and products from<br />

other brands as well as various components can be connected. The re-<br />

NAMUR+<br />

In addition, a new adapter plate has been developed with which the<br />

NAMUR interface can be an extension to the Namur+ connection. Solenoid<br />

valves with NAMUR+ interface can be screwed onto the free flange<br />

surface of the adapter plate. Connections for supply compressed air,<br />

control air and venting are easily accessible from the side. Assembly or<br />

replacement is possible without having to tighten and seal the pneumatic<br />

fittings.<br />

At the Hanover Trade Fair, BOGE will show how compressed air systems can be<br />

easily analysed and optimised with BOGE connect. (Photo © : BOGE)<br />

86 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong>


Compressors/Compressed air/<strong>Components</strong><br />

Companies – Innovations – Products<br />

vised version features new interface modules 2.0 for the connection of<br />

compressors and loose as well as built-in accessories. Additional Modbus<br />

TCP components can be connected using the 5-way switch with<br />

four free Ethernet ports. Overall, BOGE connect, in the bigger switch<br />

cabinet version, now offers more space for modules and therefore optimised<br />

connection options. Visitors to Hannover Trade Fair can test<br />

the comprehensive functions of the advanced service tool using the example<br />

of the C 14 PM screw compressor. The compact compressor is<br />

equipped with a permanent motor and, even by itself, delivers incredible<br />

performance, combined with a very low noise level. However, with<br />

BOGE connect, performance can be increased again. Seamless reporting<br />

across the entire life cycle ensures low operating costs, maximum<br />

planning reliability and maximum efficiency. The service tool, as an industrial<br />

IoT platform, paves the way for future smart services such as<br />

predictive maintenance.<br />

At Hanover Trade Fair, BOGE experts will report on current trends<br />

in technology and support at Booth D27 in Hall 7 from 17 th to 21 st April.<br />

Fig. 1: High pressure test bench up to 1500 bar<br />

BOGE Kompressoren<br />

Otto Boge GmbH & Co. KG<br />

Otto-Boge-Str. 1-7<br />

33739 Bielefeld, Germany<br />

Tel +49 (5206) 601-0<br />

Fax +49 (5206) 601-200<br />

info@boge.com<br />

www.boge.com<br />

Hydrogen on the rise – from small<br />

projects to large-scale plants<br />

Fig. 2: High pressure safety valves for technical gases up to 1500 bar<br />

Hydrogen has long since become our focus. Initially, we supplied fittings<br />

for small projects, but now we also supply large plants.<br />

The initial situation is clear: a way is needed to make electricity from<br />

renewable sources storable. The technology required for this ranges<br />

from electrolysis to pure hydrogen and oxygen to the production of<br />

ammonia and synthetic hydrocarbon compounds produced with PtX<br />

processes. Fittings are needed for all these processes.<br />

Well prepared<br />

We are well prepared and have qualified our product range for use<br />

with the medium hydrogen. This ranges from specific material testing<br />

to the fulfilment of special standards for seals. Especially for the application<br />

for storing high-pressure hydrogen, we have significantly expanded<br />

the possibilities in production with new test benches.<br />

As a manufacturer of safety valves, pressure reducing valves and<br />

overflow valves, Goetze products are used in almost all areas of the<br />

hydrogen value chain - from generation via electrolysis or other thermal<br />

processes and via storage at high pressures or cryogenic liquefied<br />

up to the point-of-use at the end user. We regulate the pressure before<br />

electrolysis, secure the feedwater pump circuit and ultimately the<br />

tanks for storing the hydrogen against impermissible overpressure.<br />

Employees already trained<br />

The hydrogen industry needs suitable fittings, for which certain materials<br />

are to be used. We focus in particular on stainless steels with a higher<br />

nickel content, for example, to prevent hydrogen embrittlement. For<br />

seals, compliance with certain standards is important. The very small<br />

H 2<br />

molecule can accumulate in sealing materials, penetrate them and<br />

destroy them from the inside. The seal must therefore be manufactured<br />

and specially tested with this in mind.<br />

We do not see the use of hydrogen as a challenge, but rather the way<br />

to get there, in order to have it widely available as quickly as possible. Internally,<br />

we are looking at proven designs that we can improve and optimise<br />

for hydrogen applications and realise with high-quality, tested materials.<br />

Our employees have already been trained on this topic.<br />

Valves get bigger<br />

As a company, we are globally positioned, but we see a focus in Europe,<br />

due to the lack of gas from Russia.<br />

Like the markets, the hydrogen projects are also growing. While<br />

pressures of up to 350 bar were common in the past, the valves are<br />

now required for significantly higher pressures, e. g. protection against<br />

overpressure in vehicle refuelling systems for 700 bar. Here, our Goetze<br />

valves protect the system components at up to 960 bar. We could<br />

go even higher. An end? Not in sight...<br />

Goetze KG Armaturen<br />

Robert-Mayer-Str. 21<br />

71636 Ludwigsburg, Germany<br />

Tel +49 (7141) 488 946-0<br />

Fax +49 (7141) 488 9488<br />

info@goetze-armaturen.de<br />

www.goetze-group.com<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong><br />

87


Compressors/Compressed air/<strong>Components</strong><br />

Companies – Innovations – Products<br />

Compact performers – BAUER’s new<br />

BM Medium Pressure Series NB<br />

The new BM Series from BAUER KOMPRESSOREN is the perfect combination<br />

of performance and compact design. With free air delivery<br />

from 620 to 7200 l/min and power rating from 11 to 132 kW, these aircooled<br />

directly coupled systems serve an enormously broad range of<br />

applications.<br />

They deliver pressures of up to 40 bar for the two-stage models, and<br />

100 bar for the three-stage models. A suite of optional features is available<br />

including compressor control unit, pressure and temperature<br />

monitoring system for all compressor stages, and air and gas purification<br />

systems. This allows bespoke configurations to be tailored to customers’<br />

individual needs.<br />

Like all BAUER systems, the BM series is synonymous with ultimate<br />

ruggedness and reliability in even the toughest environments, making<br />

these compressors the ideal choice for difficult application scenarios.<br />

And their extra-low operating costs, with minimum oil consumption<br />

and long maintenance cycles, are particularly attractive to compressor<br />

operators.<br />

The BM Series’ extensive features and capabilities open up a virtually<br />

unlimited range of applications for their users. With compact footprint,<br />

low centre of gravity and ability to operate at extreme angles up<br />

to 30°, they are perfect for marine and offshore scenarios. DNV approval<br />

is naturally possible.<br />

BAUER KOMPRESSOREN GmbH<br />

Stäblistr. 8<br />

81477 München, Germany<br />

Tel +49 (89)78049-0<br />

Fax +49 (89)78049-167<br />

industrie@bauer-kompressoren.de<br />

www.bauer-kompressoren.de<br />

It's time to shake hands again...<br />

After the last “virtual” edition of Hannover Messe, the event will once<br />

again take place in presence in one of the most prestigious Exhibition<br />

Centers in Europe. Some of the most important players in the compressed<br />

air technology sector will meet again to take stock of the situation<br />

on market developments and future prospects.<br />

With this in mind, Logika Control will be on stage with new products<br />

and even more “smart” applications. What better opportunity to concretely<br />

show the potential and reliability of LogiTronik series electronic<br />

controllers, whose continuous evolution allows to fully meet the requirements<br />

of the most important compressor manufacturers (OEM)<br />

and to facilitate the valuable work of Service Centers.<br />

In addition to all standard functions of electronic controllers<br />

and control units for monitoring compressed air production plants,<br />

LogiTronik range is set up as an appropriate tool for reducing energy<br />

consumption. Developed to ensure maximum machine performance<br />

and plant efficiency, they now also have a consumption detector that<br />

provides reliable data on actual energy usage.<br />

Logika Control enters the App Stores<br />

Next edition of Hannover Messe will be the springboard for LogikAir,<br />

the new App developed by R&D Department of Logika Control, which<br />

allows to have the full of LogikaCloud system at your smartphone. A<br />

multi-purpose tool that supports users with all the essential functions<br />

for monitoring and managing air compressors and that let devices to<br />

be interconnected in complete comfort and safety.<br />

LogikAir is also able to autonomously set up the maintenance calendar<br />

(Predictive Maintainance) according to the operation parameters<br />

of the machines and the relative wear level. Thanks to the integration<br />

with Android and iOS navigation systems, LogikAir sets the optimal<br />

route to reach the plant to be maintained.<br />

LogikAir will soon be available on Apple Store and on Google Play<br />

Store: a new milestone for Logika Control which reconfirms its leading<br />

role in the sector.<br />

Logika Control Srl<br />

Via Garibaldi, 83A<br />

20834 Nova Milanese (MB), Italy<br />

Tel +39 (362) 3700-1<br />

Fax +39 (362) 3700-30<br />

info@logikacontrol.it<br />

www.logikacontrol.it<br />

88 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong>


Compressors/Compressed air/<strong>Components</strong><br />

Companies – Innovations – Products<br />

ChemBall - A revolution in PFA-lined<br />

ball valves<br />

The PFA-lined ball valve ChemBall is the new flagship of the Swiss company<br />

ChemValve-Schmid AG. The TrueFloat ® technology, developed<br />

in-house and patented worldwide, is revolutionary and strict on-site<br />

production ensures that this ball valve always bears the hallmark<br />

“Swiss Made”.<br />

ChemValve-Schmid AG, based in Welschenrohr, Solothurn is synonymous<br />

with insourcing instead of outsourcing. The independently<br />

owned company is a leading European manufacturer of PTFE-lined<br />

butterfly valves. Continuous research and development is the driving<br />

force behind the company and its production, the most recent example<br />

being the ChemBall.<br />

Maiden voyage of the flagship<br />

The first prototypes of the ChemBall were delivered to a European textile<br />

fibre manufacturer in October 2020 in a unique venture. After a<br />

two-year test phase, the product specification was successfully completed.<br />

Today, the ChemBall is also on sale throughout North America<br />

and Asia.<br />

PFA-lined ball valve ChemBall<br />

The PFA-lined ball valve ChemBall is based on the TrueFloat ® technology<br />

developed and patented in-house. Specifically, this means that a<br />

single-piece PFA jacket encloses the floating ball stem, which is able to<br />

move within itself. The ball is suspended by means of a metal-to-metal<br />

connection, which eliminates wear. The result is maximum tightness<br />

combined with an extended service life. The valve can be used in temperatures<br />

ranging from -20° C to 200° C. Whereas development and<br />

production initially focused in particular on the chlor-alkali industry,<br />

the further-developed ChemBall is ideal for use with all types of aggressive<br />

media.<br />

The ball valve is currently available in the EN sizes DN 25, 40, 50,<br />

80, 100 and 150 and in the ASME nominal diameters 1″, 1-1/2″, 2″, 3″,<br />

4″ and 6″. In the first half of <strong>2023</strong>, the product range will be expanded<br />

to include the nominal diameters DN 15, 20, 32 and 65.<br />

Swiss-made for shorter paths to success<br />

ChemValve-Schmid AG has outstanding expertise in PFA manufacturing.<br />

Dedicated PFA-injection-moulding machines have been specially<br />

developed for the production of these unique valves. Both metal and<br />

PTFE valves, such as the ChemBall, are developed, produced, tested<br />

and prepared for shipping in Dünnernstrasse 540, Welschenrohr,<br />

Switzer land. “We are a down-to-earth team, the decision-making process<br />

is short, and people find it easy to talk to us” says the managing director,<br />

Christoph Schmid. Despite a high workload, it only takes a short<br />

space of time from the quotation stage to production. The standard<br />

delivery time is four weeks. Every PFA ball valve and every PTFE butterfly<br />

valve from ChemValve-Schmid AG is given a unique “valve ID” so<br />

that it can still be clearly identified years later. Every product test and<br />

certificate is fully traceable.<br />

Join the Valve Revolution! Now!<br />

The declared objective of ChemValve-Schmid AG is to increase its presence<br />

in the German market. “As a medium-sized Swiss company that<br />

develops and produces valves itself, we are on the lookout for trade<br />

partners as well as end users. We welcome every contact” says Managing<br />

Director Christoph Schmid. He has been on board for around 17<br />

years now, but the flagship, the ChemBall, is new.<br />

ChemValve-Schmid AG<br />

Dünnernstr. 540<br />

4716 Welschenrohr, Switzerland<br />

Tel +41 (32) 639 5010<br />

sales@chemvalve-schmid.com<br />

www.chemvalve-schmid.com<br />

New BioPure braided hose assemblies<br />

offer a total solution for bulk fluid<br />

transfer in critical bioprocess fluid<br />

transfer applications<br />

Watson-Marlow Fluid <strong>Technology</strong> Solutions (WMFTS) has launched<br />

BioPure Braided Hose assemblies as an end-to-end solution for companies<br />

requiring fitting, hose, assembly and testing.<br />

Providing a safe, reliable and repeatable method of high-pressure fluid<br />

transfer, braided silicone hose assemblies combine BioPure platinumcured<br />

silicone hose fitted with biopharmaceutical grade stainless steel<br />

tri-clamp connections.<br />

Biopharmaceutical and pharmaceutical companies can reduce<br />

supply chain risk and ensure quality control with the WMFTS total offering<br />

of hose assemblies designed for bulk fluid transfer and repeat<br />

use by autoclave sterilisation. With testing and assembly centres in the<br />

United States and the United Kingdom, the hose assemblies meet USP<br />

Class VI standards with 316 Stainless Fittings and an SF4 surface finish.<br />

Mark Lovallo, Product Manager – Fluid Path – WMFTS, said:<br />

“Watson-Marlow is one of the only suppliers that produces biopharmaceutical<br />

grade silicone hose and machines stainless hygienic fittings<br />

in-house. With decades of experience in silicone extrusion, CNC<br />

machining and hose assembly and testing, Watson-Marlow provides<br />

a unique opportunity for end-users to minimise supply chain risk and<br />

source silicone hose assemblies from a trusted supplier.”<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong><br />

89


Compressors/Compressed air/<strong>Components</strong><br />

Companies – Innovations – Products<br />

Photo © : Watson-Marlow Fluid <strong>Technology</strong> Solutions<br />

The hose assemblies are made to custom lengths and come with a permanently<br />

crimped stainless steel triclamp style fitting. All hose assemblies<br />

are pressure tested to check and confirm hose integrity.<br />

The SAUER Orkan series is suitable for the compression of many gases<br />

and a variety of applications. The first standard types of the series are<br />

two high-pressure air compressors with a final pressure of up to 350 and<br />

500 barg respectively, a high-pressure helium compressor with a final<br />

pressure of up to 350 barg, and a high-pressure nitrogen booster with<br />

a final pressure of up to 350 barg and an inlet pressure of 4 to 8 barg.<br />

Next to developing completely new compressor platforms Compressors<br />

focuses on the enhancement and expansion of existing compressor<br />

series. The air-cooled series SAUER Hurricane is a good example<br />

for that. The new nitrogen boosters SAUER Hurricane WP4366LH<br />

B3-8 and WP4399LH B3-8 provide a final pressure of up to 350 barg<br />

and an inlet pressure of 3 to 8 barg. They are specially designed for the<br />

compression of nitrogen and are based on the robust platform of the<br />

series, that has proven itself under toughest operating conditions for<br />

years. The new launches complement Sauer Compressors’ portfolio of<br />

gas compressors, also including oil-free, dry-running and hermetically<br />

gas-tight types of the HAUG product line, which will be exhibited at the<br />

fair as well.<br />

Watson-Marlow Limited<br />

Bickland Water Road, Falmouth<br />

Cornwall, TR11 4RU, United Kingdom<br />

Tel +44 (1326) 370370<br />

info@wmfts.com<br />

www.wmfts.com<br />

Sauer Compressors presents new<br />

gas compressors<br />

Sauer Compressors traditionally invests in new compressor concepts,<br />

and this way constantly expands its product portfolio. At this year’s<br />

Hannover Messe/Compressed Air & Vacuum the company introduces<br />

several new types of gas compressors. The first standard types of the<br />

SAUER Orkan series will celebrate their premieres. Furthermore, expansions<br />

of the trusted SAUER Hurricane series will be shown. (Hannover<br />

Messe, 17 - 21 April, Hall 4, stand D07)<br />

Sauer Compressors developed the new gas compressors in close cooperation<br />

with partners and customers to ensure that they are perfectly<br />

designed for current and upcoming requirements of the gas industry.<br />

Fig. 2: The SAUER Hurricane series is already the 3 rd generation of air-cooled<br />

SAUER high-pressure compressors for industry and is located directly below the<br />

new SAUER Orkan series in the performance range. (Photo © : Sauer Compressors)<br />

One-stop-shop for complete compressor systems<br />

Sauer Compressors furthermore constantly expands its selection of<br />

accessories for high-pressure applications, like refrigerant dryers, adsorption<br />

dryers, and gas cylinder bundles. The self-developed, intelligent<br />

compressor control system Sauer ecc 4.0 is one of those. The<br />

compressor manufacturer from the north of Germany provides the<br />

industry with individually designed complete solutions. The portfolio<br />

ranges from compressor systems on base frames over complete systems<br />

compiling high-pressure compressors including gas processing,<br />

storage, and distribution to complex ATEX compliant hydrogen plants<br />

for the space industry.<br />

Second fair presence regarding hydrogen<br />

Sauer Compressors will also be present with a stand at Hydrogen +<br />

Fuel Cells Europe. At this occasion the company will show its newest<br />

solutions for the hydrogen industry from the product lines SAUER and<br />

HAUG. (Hall 13, stand D43/1)<br />

Fig. 1: The high-pressure compressors of the SAUER Orkan series are suitable for<br />

many gases and applications. (Photo © : Sauer Compressors)<br />

J.P. Sauer & Sohn<br />

Maschinenbau GmbH<br />

Brauner Berg 15<br />

24159 Kiel, Germany<br />

Tel +49 (431) 3940-0<br />

Fax +49 (431) 3940-24<br />

info@sauercompressors.de<br />

www.sauercompressors.com<br />

90 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2023</strong>


PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS<br />

<strong>2023</strong><br />

Water Wastewater Environmental <strong>Technology</strong><br />

Energy Oil Gas Hydrogen<br />

Automotive<br />

Shipbuilding Heavy Industry<br />

Chemistry Pharmaceutics Biotechnology<br />

Food and Beverage Industry<br />

ENGLISH ENGLISH ENGLISH ENGLISH ENGLISH ENGLISH<br />

ENGLISH ENGLISH ENGLISH ENGLISH ENGLISH ENGLISH<br />

ENGLISH ENGLISH ENGLISH ENGLISH ENGLISH ENGLISH<br />

H ENGLISH ENGLISH ENGLISH ENGLISH ENGLISH ENGLISH<br />

ENGLISH ENGLISH ENGLISH ENGLISH ENGLISH ENGLISH<br />

SH ENGLISH ENGLISH ENGLISH ENGLISH ENGLISH ENGLISH<br />

ENGLISH ENGLISH ENGLISH ENGLISH ENGLISH ENGLISH<br />

Technical Data Purchasing >>><br />

Independent magazine for Pumps, Compressors and <strong>Process</strong> <strong>Components</strong><br />

91


Pumps<br />

Range of applications/Applications<br />

Manufacturers/Suppliers<br />

Agricultural technology<br />

Automobile industry<br />

Beverage industry<br />

Biochemistry<br />

Breweries<br />

Building services engineering<br />

Chemical industry<br />

Construction industry<br />

Cosmetics industry<br />

Dairy farming<br />

Dosing technology<br />

Drainage<br />

Electrical industry/Information industry<br />

Emptying<br />

Energy industry<br />

Environmental engineering<br />

Filling technology<br />

Fire extinguishing/foaming agent dosing technlogy<br />

Food technology and bioprocess engineering<br />

Fountains/Sprinkler systems/Irrigation<br />

Gas drying<br />

Gas scrubber<br />

Geothermics<br />

Groundwater technology/Wells<br />

Heat transfer systems<br />

Heating and house technology<br />

High-pressure cleaning and descaling<br />

Atlas Copco Gas and <strong>Process</strong><br />

Schlehenweg 15, 50999 Köln/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)2236 9650 0<br />

E-mail: atlascopco.energas@de.atlascopco.com<br />

Website: www.atlascopco-gap.com<br />

AxFlow GmbH<br />

Theodorstr. 105, 40472 Düsseldorf/Germany<br />

Tel +49 (0)211 238060<br />

E-mail: info@axflow.de<br />

Website: www.axflow.de<br />

BRINKMANN PUMPEN, K.H. Brinkmann GmbH & Co. KG<br />

Friedrichstr. 2, 58791 Werdohl/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)2392 5006-0, Fax: +49 (0)2392 5006-180<br />

E-mail: sales@brinkmannpumps.de<br />

Website: www.brinkmannpumps.de<br />

Emile Egger & Cie SA<br />

Route de Neuchâtel 36, 2088 Cressier NE/Switzerland<br />

Phone: +41 32 758 71 11<br />

E-mail: info@eggerpumps.com<br />

Website: www.eggerpumps.com<br />

GRUNDFOS GmbH<br />

Schlüterstr. 33, 40699 Erkrath/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)211 92969-0, Fax: +49 (0)211 92969-3799<br />

E-mail: infoservice@grundfos.de<br />

Website: www.grundfos.com/de<br />

Hammelmann GmbH<br />

Carl-Zeiss-Str. 6-8, 59302 Oelde/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)2522 76-0, Fax: +49 (0)2522 76-140<br />

E-mail: mail@hammelmann.de<br />

Website: www.hammelmann.de<br />

JESSBERGER GmbH<br />

Jägerweg 5-7, 85521 Ottobrunn/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)89 666633-400, Fax: +49 (0)89 666633-411<br />

E-mail: info@jesspumpen.de<br />

Website: www.jesspumpen.de<br />

KAMAT GmbH & Co. KG<br />

Salinger Feld 10, 58454 Witten-Annen/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)2302 8903-0, Fax: +49 (0)2302 801917<br />

E-mail: info@KAMAT.de<br />

Website: www.KAMAT.de<br />

KLAUS UNION GmbH & Co. KG<br />

POB 101349, 44713 Bochum/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)234 4595-0, Fax: +49 (0)234 4595-7000<br />

E-mail: info@klaus-union.com<br />

Website: www.klaus-union.com<br />

Leistritz Pumpen GmbH<br />

Markgrafenstraße 36-39, 90459 Nürnberg/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (911) 4306- 9650, Fax: +49 (911) 4306-439<br />

E-mail: pumps@leistritz.com<br />

Website: pumps.leistritz.com<br />

•<br />

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92


High-temperature engineering<br />

Horticulture<br />

Industrial technology<br />

Injection<br />

Laboratory technology<br />

Machine and plant engineering<br />

Metallurgical plants and Rolling mills<br />

Mineral oil industry<br />

Mining, pit and quarry<br />

Multiphase fluids<br />

Nuclear and reactor technology<br />

Odorizers<br />

Offshore installations<br />

Oil hydraulics and presses<br />

Oil production technology<br />

Osmosis technology<br />

Paper and pulp industry<br />

Petrochemical industry<br />

Pharmaceutical industry<br />

Pipeline<br />

Power plant technology<br />

Precision mechanics and optical industry<br />

Pressure rise<br />

Pressure test<br />

<strong>Process</strong> engineering<br />

<strong>Process</strong> technology<br />

Public services<br />

Refrigeration and air conditioning technology<br />

Seawater desalination<br />

Sewage technology/Canalisation<br />

Ship technology/Shipyard<br />

Steel industry<br />

Sterile technology<br />

Swimming pool technology<br />

Tank systems<br />

Technical universities<br />

Textile industry<br />

Tunnel construction<br />

Vehicle construction/Aircraft construction<br />

Viscose and adhesives<br />

Wastewater treatment plants<br />

Waterjet cutting<br />

Water supply/Water technology<br />

Water treatment<br />

Woodworking and wood processing<br />

• • • • •<br />

• • • • • • • • •<br />

• • • • • •<br />

• • • • • • • • • • • • • •<br />

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93


Pumps<br />

Range of applications/Applications<br />

Manufacturers/Suppliers<br />

Agricultural technology<br />

Automobile industry<br />

Beverage industry<br />

Biochemistry<br />

Breweries<br />

Building services engineering<br />

Chemical industry<br />

Construction industry<br />

Cosmetics industry<br />

Dairy farming<br />

Dosing technology<br />

Drainage<br />

Electrical industry/Information industry<br />

Emptying<br />

Energy industry<br />

Environmental engineering<br />

Filling technology<br />

Fire extinguishing/foaming agent dosing technology<br />

Food technology and bioprocess engineering<br />

Fountains/Sprinkler systems/Irrigation<br />

Gas drying<br />

Gas scrubber<br />

Geothermics<br />

Groundwater technology/Wells<br />

Heat transfer systems<br />

Heating and house technology<br />

High-pressure cleaning and descaling<br />

LEWA GmbH<br />

Ulmer Str. 10, 71229 Leonberg/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)7152 14-0, Fax: +49 (0)7152 14-1303<br />

Website: www.lewa.com<br />

• • • • • • • •<br />

NETZSCH Pumpen & Systeme GmbH<br />

Geretsrieder Str. 1, 84478 Waldkraiburg/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)8638 63-0<br />

E-mail: info.nps@netzsch.com<br />

Website: www.pumps-systems.netzsch.com<br />

Pumpenfabrik Wangen GmbH<br />

Simoniusstr. 17, 88239 Wangen im Allgäu/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)7522 997-0, Fax: +49 (0)7522 997-199<br />

E-mail: mail@wangen.com<br />

Website: www.wangen.com<br />

SEEPEX GmbH<br />

Scharnhölzstr. 344, 46240 Bottrop/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)2041 996-0<br />

E-mail: info@seepex.com<br />

Website: www.seepex.com<br />

URACA GmbH & Co. KG<br />

Sirchinger Str. 15, 72574 Bad Urach/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)7125 133-0, Fax: +49 (0)7125 133-202<br />

E-mail: info@uraca.de<br />

Website: www.uraca.de<br />

Vogelsang GmbH & Co. KG<br />

Holthoege 10-14, 49632 Essen (Oldenburg)/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)5434 83-0, Fax: +49 (0)5434 83-10<br />

E-mail: contact@vogelsang.info<br />

Website: www.vogelsang.info<br />

Watson-Marlow Limited<br />

Bickland Water Road, Falmouth Cornwall, TR11 4RU, United Kingdom<br />

Tel +44 (1326) 370 370<br />

E-mail: info@wmfts.com<br />

Website: www.wmfts.com<br />

WOMA GmbH I Kärcher Group<br />

Werthauser Str. 77-79, 47226 Duisburg/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)2065 304-0, Fax: +49 (0)2065 304-200<br />

E-mail: info@woma.kaercher.com<br />

Website: www.woma-group.com<br />

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •<br />

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• • • • • • • •<br />

94


High-temperature engineering<br />

Horticulture<br />

Industrial technology<br />

Injection<br />

Laboratory technology<br />

Machine and plant engineering<br />

Metallurgical plants and Rolling mills<br />

Mineral oil industry<br />

Mining, pit and quarry<br />

Multiphase fluids<br />

Nuclear and reactor technology<br />

Odorizers<br />

Offshore installations<br />

Oil hydraulics and presses<br />

Oil production technology<br />

Osmosis technology<br />

Paper and pulp industry<br />

Petrochemical industry<br />

Pharmaceutical industry<br />

Pipeline<br />

Power plant technology<br />

Precision mechanics and optical industry<br />

Pressure rise<br />

Pressure test<br />

<strong>Process</strong> engineering<br />

<strong>Process</strong> technology<br />

Public services<br />

Refrigeration and air conditioning technology<br />

Seawater desalination<br />

Sewage technology/Canalisation<br />

Ship technology/Shipyard<br />

Steel industry<br />

Sterile technology<br />

Swimming pool technology<br />

Tank systems<br />

Technical universities<br />

Textile industry<br />

Tunnel construction<br />

Vehicle construction/Aircraft construction<br />

Viscose and adhesives<br />

Wastewater treatment plants<br />

Waterjet cutting<br />

Water supply/Water technology<br />

Water treatment<br />

Woodworking and wood processing<br />

• • • • • • • • • •<br />

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •<br />

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95


Pumps<br />

Type of pumps<br />

Manufacturers/Suppliers<br />

Centrifugal pumps<br />

Axial flow pumps<br />

Block pumps<br />

Channel impeller pumps<br />

Inline pumps<br />

Mixed flow pumps<br />

Pitot tube pumps<br />

Propeller pumps<br />

Radial flow pumps<br />

Side channel pumps<br />

Standardized pumps<br />

Vortex pumps<br />

Rotary positive displacement pumps<br />

Eccentric screw pumps<br />

Gear pumps<br />

Peristaltic pumps<br />

Rotary lobe pumps<br />

Screw pumps<br />

Vane pumps<br />

Oscillating displacement pumps<br />

Disposable design<br />

Hose diaphragm piston pumps<br />

Hydraulic diaphragm pumps<br />

Mechanical diaphragm pumps<br />

Piston/Plunger pumps<br />

Atlas Copco Gas and <strong>Process</strong><br />

Schlehenweg 15, 50999 Köln/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)2236 9650 0<br />

E-mail: atlascopco.energas@de.atlascopco.com<br />

Website: www.atlascopco-gap.com<br />

AxFlow GmbH<br />

Theodorstr. 105, 40472 Düsseldorf/Germany<br />

Tel +49 (0)211 238060<br />

E-mail: info@axflow.de<br />

Website: www.axflow.de<br />

BRINKMANN PUMPEN, K.H. Brinkmann GmbH & Co. KG<br />

Friedrichstr. 2, 58791 Werdohl/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)2392 5006-0, Fax: +49 (0)2392 5006-180<br />

E-mail: sales@brinkmannpumps.de<br />

Website: www.brinkmannpumps.de<br />

Emile Egger & Cie SA<br />

Route de Neuchâtel 36, 2088 Cressier NE/Switzerland<br />

Phone: +41 32 758 71 11<br />

E-mail: info@eggerpumps.com<br />

Website: www.eggerpumps.com<br />

GRUNDFOS GmbH<br />

Schlüterstr. 33, 40699 Erkrath/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)211 92969-0, Fax: +49 (0)211 92969-3799<br />

E-mail: infoservice@grundfos.de<br />

Website: www.grundfos.de<br />

Hammelmann GmbH<br />

Carl-Zeiss-Str. 6-8, 59302 Oelde/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)2522 76-0, Fax: +49 (0)2522 76-140<br />

E-mail: mail@hammelmann.de<br />

Website: www.hammelmann.de<br />

JESSBERGER GmbH<br />

Jägerweg 5-7, 85521 Ottobrunn/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)89 666633-400, Fax: +49 (0)89 666633-411<br />

E-mail: info@jesspumpen.de<br />

Website: www.jesspumpen.de<br />

KAMAT GmbH & Co. KG<br />

Salinger Feld 10, 58454 Witten-Annen/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)2302 8903-0, Fax: +49 (0)2302 801917<br />

E-mail: info@KAMAT.de<br />

Website: www.KAMAT.de<br />

KLAUS UNION GmbH & Co. KG<br />

POB 101349, 44713 Bochum/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)234 4595-0, Fax: +49 (0)234 4595-7000<br />

E-mail: info@klaus-union.com<br />

Website: www.klaus-union.com<br />

Leistritz Pumpen GmbH<br />

Markgrafenstraße 36-39, 90459 Nürnberg/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (911) 4306- 9650, Fax: +49 (911) 4306-439<br />

E-mail: pumps@leistritz.com<br />

Website: pumps.leistritz.com<br />

• • • • • • • •<br />

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•<br />

•<br />

•<br />

96


Drive concept Design features Conveyed media Services<br />

Canned motor<br />

Combustion engine<br />

Hydraulic drive<br />

Linear motor<br />

Magnetic rotor<br />

Pneumatic drive<br />

Stepper motor<br />

Submersible motor<br />

Three-phase asynchronous motor<br />

Abrasion resistant<br />

Hermetically/Leakage-free<br />

High-temperature applications<br />

Hygienic design<br />

Nickel-based materials<br />

Plastic/Plastic lining<br />

Rubberized<br />

Self-priming<br />

Special materials<br />

Stainless steels<br />

Suction aid (Priming aid)<br />

Biomaterials/Foodstuffs<br />

Boiler feed water<br />

Brackish water<br />

Chemicals/Acids/Alkaline solutions<br />

Concrete/Mortar/Cement<br />

Condensate<br />

Coolant<br />

Faeces/Liquid manure<br />

Fish<br />

Fuel<br />

Heating oil<br />

Oils/Greases/Lubricants<br />

Water/Waste water<br />

Installation and commissioning<br />

Maintenance, service and repair<br />

Status and demand analysis<br />

Support and project engineering<br />

Training and instruction<br />

• •<br />

• • • • • • • • • • • • •<br />

• • • • • • • • • • • •<br />

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •<br />

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •<br />

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97


Pumps<br />

Type of pumps<br />

Manufacturers/Suppliers<br />

Centrifugal pumps<br />

Axial flow pumps<br />

Block pumps<br />

Channel impeller pumps<br />

Inline pumps<br />

Mixed flow pumps<br />

Pitot tube pumps<br />

Propeller pumps<br />

Radial flow pumps<br />

Side channel pumps<br />

Standardized pumps<br />

Vortex pumps<br />

Rotary positive displacement pumps<br />

Eccentric screw pumps<br />

Gear pumps<br />

Peristaltic pumps<br />

Rotary lobe pumps<br />

Screw pumps<br />

Vane pumps<br />

Oscillating displacement pumps<br />

Disposable design<br />

Hose diaphragm piston pumps<br />

Hydraulic diaphragm pumps<br />

Mechanical diaphragm pumps<br />

Piston/Plunger pumps<br />

LEWA GmbH<br />

Ulmer Str. 10, 71229 Leonberg/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)7152 14-0, Fax: +49 (0)7152 14-1303<br />

Website: www.lewa.de<br />

• • •<br />

NETZSCH Pumpen & Systeme GmbH<br />

Geretsrieder Str. 1, 84478 Waldkraiburg/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)8638 63-0<br />

E-mail: info.nps@netzsch.com<br />

Website: www.pumps-systems.netzsch.com<br />

Pumpenfabrik Wangen GmbH<br />

Simoniusstr. 17, 8239 Wangen im Allgäu/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)7522 997-0, Fax: +49 (0)7522 997-199<br />

E-mail: mail@wangen.com<br />

Website: www.wangen.com<br />

SEEPEX GmbH<br />

Scharnhölzstr. 344, 46240 Bottrop/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)2041 996-0<br />

E-mail: info@seepex.com<br />

Website: www.seepex.com<br />

• •<br />

• • • •<br />

• •<br />

URACA GmbH & Co. KG<br />

Sirchinger Str. 15, 72574 Bad Urach/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)7125 133-0, Fax: +49 (0)7125 133-202<br />

E-mail: info@uraca.de<br />

Website: www.uraca.de<br />

• • •<br />

Vogelsang GmbH & Co. KG<br />

Holthoege 10-14, 49632 Essen (Oldenburg)/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)5434 83-0, Fax: +49 (0)5434 83-10<br />

E-mail: contact@vogelsang.info<br />

Website: www.vogelsang.info<br />

Watson-Marlow Limited<br />

Bickland Water Road, Falmouth Cornwall, TR11 4RU, United Kingdom<br />

Tel +44 (1326) 370 370<br />

E-mail: info@wmfts.com<br />

Website: www.wmfts.com<br />

• •<br />

• •<br />

WOMA GmbH I Kärcher Group<br />

Werthauser Str. 77-79, 47226 Duisburg/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)2065 304-0, Fax: +49 (0)2065 304-200<br />

E-mail: info@woma.kaercher.com<br />

Website: www.woma-group.com<br />

• •<br />

98


Drive concept Design features Conveyed media Services<br />

Canned motor<br />

Combustion engine<br />

Hydraulic drive<br />

Linear motor<br />

Magnetic rotor<br />

Pneumatic drive<br />

Stepper motor<br />

Submersible motor<br />

Three-phase asynchronous motor<br />

Abrasion resistant<br />

Hermetically/Leakage-free<br />

High-temperature applications<br />

Hygienic design<br />

Nickel-based materials<br />

Plastic/Plastic lining<br />

Rubberized<br />

Self-priming<br />

Special materials<br />

Stainless steels<br />

Suction aid (Priming aid)<br />

Biomaterials/Foodstuffs<br />

Boiler feed water<br />

Brackish water<br />

Chemicals/Acids/Alkaline solutions<br />

Concrete/Mortar/Cement<br />

Condensate<br />

Coolant<br />

Faeces/Liquid manure<br />

Fish<br />

Fuel<br />

Heating oil<br />

Oils/Greases/Lubricants<br />

Water/Waste water<br />

Installation and commissioning<br />

Maintenance, service and repair<br />

Status and demand analysis<br />

Support and project engineering<br />

Training and instruction<br />

• • • • • • • • • • • •<br />

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •<br />

• • • • • • • • • • • • •<br />

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •<br />

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •<br />

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •<br />

• • • • • • • • • • • • • •<br />

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • •<br />

99


Pumps<br />

Matrix Power ratings<br />

Head p [MPa]<br />

(1 MPa = 10 bar =<br />

100 mWS)<br />

< 0,5 < 2,0 < 6,3 < 25,0 > 25,0<br />

Capacity Q [m3 / h]<br />

< 1 A F K P V<br />

< 10 B G L R W<br />

< 100 C H M S X<br />

< 500 D I N T Y<br />

> 500 E J O U Z<br />

Manufacturers/Suppliers<br />

Centrifugal pumps<br />

Axial flow pumps<br />

Block pumps<br />

Channel impeller pumps<br />

Inline pumps<br />

Mixed flow pumps<br />

Pitot tube pumps<br />

Propeller pumps<br />

Radial flow pumps<br />

Atlas Copco Gas and <strong>Process</strong><br />

Schlehenweg 15, 50999 Köln/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)2236 9650 0<br />

E-mail: atlascopco.energas@de.atlascopco.com<br />

Website: www.atlascopco-gap.com<br />

API 610<br />

centrifugal<br />

pumps<br />

AxFlow GmbH<br />

Theodorstr. 105, 40472 Düsseldorf/Germany<br />

Tel +49 (0)211 238060<br />

E-mail: info@axflow.de<br />

Website: www.axflow.de<br />

A, B, C,<br />

F, G, H,<br />

K, L, M<br />

BRINKMANN PUMPEN, K.H. Brinkmann GmbH & Co. KG<br />

Friedrichstr. 2, 58791 Werdohl/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)2392 5006-0, Fax: +49 (0)2392 5006-180<br />

E-mail: sales@brinkmannpumps.de<br />

Website: www.brinkmannpumps.de<br />

A, B, C,<br />

D, F, G,<br />

H<br />

A, B, C,<br />

D<br />

Emile Egger & Cie SA<br />

Route de Neuchâtel 36, 2088 Cressier NE/Switzerland<br />

Phone: +41 32 758 71 11<br />

E-mail: info@eggerpumps.com<br />

Website: www.eggerpumps.com<br />

D, E A to O A to O D, E<br />

GRUNDFOS GmbH<br />

Schlüterstr. 33, 40699 Erkrath/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)211 92969-0, Fax: +49 (0)211 92969-3799<br />

E-mail: infoservice@grundfos.de<br />

Website: www.grundfos.de<br />

0.25 - 630<br />

kW<br />

11 - 700<br />

kW<br />

0.25 - 200<br />

kW<br />

1.1 - 11<br />

kW<br />

0.12 - 630<br />

kW<br />

11 - 700<br />

kW<br />

0.25 - 630<br />

kW<br />

Hammelmann GmbH<br />

Carl-Zeiss-Str. 6-8, 59302 Oelde/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)2522 76-0, Fax: +49 (0)2522 76-140<br />

E-mail: mail@hammelmann.de<br />

Website: www.hammelmann.de<br />

JESSBERGER GmbH<br />

Jägerweg 5-7, 85521 Ottobrunn/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)89 666633-400, Fax: +49 (0)89 666633-411<br />

E-mail: info@jesspumpen.de<br />

Website: www.jesspumpen.de<br />

A, B, C A, B, C<br />

KAMAT GmbH & Co. KG<br />

Salinger Feld 10, 58454 Witten-Annen/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)2302 8903-0, Fax: +49 (0)2302 801917<br />

E-mail: info@KAMAT.de<br />

Website: www.KAMAT.de<br />

KLAUS UNION GmbH & Co. KG<br />

POB 101349, 44713 Bochum/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)234 4595-0, Fax: +49 (0)234 4595-7000<br />

E-mail: info@klaus-union.com<br />

Website: www.klaus-union.com<br />

C, D, E B, C, G, H C, D, E A, B, C,<br />

D, E, G,<br />

H, I, J, L,<br />

M, N, S<br />

Leistritz Pumpen GmbH<br />

Markgrafenstraße 36-39, 90459 Nürnberg/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (911) 4306- 9650, Fax: +49 (911) 4306-439<br />

E-mail: pumps@leistritz.com<br />

Website: pumps.leistritz.com<br />

100


Side channel pumps<br />

Standardized pumps<br />

Vortex pumps<br />

Rotary positive displacement pumps<br />

Eccentric screw pumps<br />

Gear pumps<br />

Peristaltic pumps<br />

Rotary lobe pumps<br />

Screw pumps<br />

Vane pumps<br />

Oscillating displacement pumps<br />

Disposable design<br />

Hose diaphragm piston pumps<br />

Hydraulic diaphragm pumps<br />

Mechanical diaphragm pumps<br />

Piston/Plunger pumps<br />

A, B, C,<br />

D, F, G,<br />

H, I, K,<br />

L, M<br />

A, B, C,<br />

D, F, G,<br />

H, I<br />

A, B, C,<br />

F, G, H<br />

A, B, C,<br />

D, F, G<br />

A, B, C,<br />

D, F, G,<br />

H, I<br />

A, B, C,<br />

F, G, H,<br />

K, L, M,<br />

P, R,<br />

V, W<br />

A, B, C,<br />

F, G, H,<br />

K, L, M,<br />

P, R,<br />

V, W<br />

A, B, C,<br />

F, G, H,<br />

K, L, M,<br />

P, R<br />

A to J<br />

0.25 - 630<br />

kW<br />

0.25 - 75<br />

kW<br />

1.5 - 90<br />

kW<br />

0.09 - 2.2<br />

kW<br />

0.09 - 1.1<br />

kW<br />

0.09 - 2.2<br />

kW<br />

on request<br />

A, B, F,<br />

G<br />

A, B, C,<br />

F, G<br />

A, B, F, G A, B, C, F,<br />

G, H<br />

K, L, M,<br />

N, P, R,<br />

S, T, V,<br />

W, X, Y<br />

A, B, C,<br />

F, G,H,<br />

L, M<br />

B, C, D,<br />

G, H, I<br />

C, D, E,<br />

H, I, J,<br />

M, N, O,<br />

S, T, U<br />

A-V<br />

and<br />

E-Z<br />

101


Pumps<br />

Matrix Power ratings<br />

Head p [MPa]<br />

(1 MPa = 10 bar =<br />

100 mWS)<br />

< 0,5 < 2,0 < 6,3 < 25,0 > 25,0<br />

Capacity Q [m3 / h]<br />

< 1 A F K P V<br />

< 10 B G L R W<br />

< 100 C H M S X<br />

< 500 D I N T Y<br />

> 500 E J O U Z<br />

Manufacturers/Suppliers<br />

Centrifugal pumps<br />

Axial flow pumps<br />

Block pumps<br />

Channel impeller pumps<br />

Inline pumps<br />

Mixed flow pumps<br />

Pitot tube pumps<br />

Propeller pumps<br />

Radial flow pumps<br />

LEWA GmbH<br />

Ulmer Str. 10, 71229 Leonberg/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)7152 14-0, Fax: +49 (0)7152 14-1303<br />

Website: www.lewa.de<br />

NETZSCH Pumpen & Systeme GmbH<br />

Geretsrieder Str. 1, 84478 Waldkraiburg/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)8638 63-0<br />

E-mail: info.nps@netzsch.com<br />

Website: www.pumps-systems.netzsch.com<br />

Pumpenfabrik Wangen GmbH<br />

Simoniusstr. 17, 8239 Wangen im Allgäu/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)7522 997-0, Fax: +49 (0)7522 997-199<br />

E-mail: mail@wangen.com<br />

Website: www.wangen.com<br />

SEEPEX GmbH<br />

Scharnhölzstr. 344, 46240 Bottrop/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)2041 996-0<br />

E-mail: info@seepex.com<br />

Website: www.seepex.com<br />

URACA GmbH & Co. KG<br />

Sirchinger Str. 15, 72574 Bad Urach/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)7125 133-0, Fax: +49 (0)7125 133-202<br />

E-mail: info@uraca.de<br />

Website: www.uraca.de<br />

Vogelsang GmbH & Co. KG<br />

Holthoege 10-14, 49632 Essen (Oldenburg)/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)5434 83-0, Fax: +49 (0)5434 83-10<br />

E-mail: contact@vogelsang.info<br />

Website: www.vogelsang.info<br />

Watson-Marlow Limited<br />

Bickland Water Road, Falmouth Cornwall, TR11 4RU, United Kingdom<br />

Tel +44 (1326) 370 370<br />

E-mail: info@wmfts.com<br />

Website: www.wmfts.com<br />

WOMA GmbH I Kärcher Group<br />

Werthauser Str. 77-79, 47226 Duisburg/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)2065 304-0, Fax: +49 (0)2065 304-200<br />

E-mail: info@woma.kaercher.com<br />

Website: www.woma-group.com<br />

102


Side channel pumps<br />

Standardized pumps<br />

Vortex pumps<br />

Rotary positive displacement pumps<br />

Eccentric screw pumps<br />

Gear pumps<br />

Peristaltic pumps<br />

Rotary lobe pumps<br />

Screw pumps<br />

Vane pumps<br />

Oscillating displacement pumps<br />

Disposable design<br />

Hose diaphragm piston pumps<br />

Hydraulic diaphragm pumps<br />

Mechanical diaphragm pumps<br />

Piston/Plunger pumps<br />

A, B, C,<br />

F, G, H,<br />

K, L, M,<br />

P, R, S,<br />

V, W, X<br />

A, B, F,<br />

G<br />

A, B, C, D,<br />

F, G, H, I,<br />

K, L, M,N,<br />

P, R, S, T,<br />

V, W, X, Y<br />

Up to<br />

1.000<br />

m 3 /h<br />

up to<br />

240 bar<br />

Up to<br />

21 m 3 /h<br />

up to<br />

10 bar<br />

Up to<br />

1.000<br />

m 3 /h<br />

up to<br />

10 bar<br />

Up to<br />

3.000<br />

m 3 /h<br />

up to<br />

160 bar<br />

A, B, C, D,<br />

F, G, H,<br />

K, L, M<br />

A, B, C,<br />

D, F, G,<br />

H, I<br />

on<br />

request<br />

K, L, M,<br />

N, O, P,<br />

R, S, T,<br />

U, V, W,<br />

X, Y<br />

K, L, M,<br />

N, P, R,<br />

S, T, V,<br />

W, X,<br />

K, L, M,<br />

N, O, P,<br />

R, S, T,<br />

U, V, W,<br />

X, Y<br />

U<br />

U<br />

A, B, C A, B, C,<br />

D, F, G,<br />

H, I<br />

K, L, M,<br />

N, P, R,<br />

S, V,<br />

W, X<br />

103


Vacuum technology<br />

Range of applications/Applications<br />

Manufacturers/Suppliers<br />

Agricultural technology<br />

Automobile industry<br />

Beam conducting systems<br />

Beverage industry<br />

Biotechnology<br />

Ceramic industry<br />

Chemical industry<br />

Clamping devices<br />

Coating<br />

Conveying/Materials handling<br />

Distillation in the fine vacuum range<br />

Distillation in the low vacuum range<br />

Distilling<br />

Dry freezing<br />

Drying technology<br />

Electrical industry/Information industry<br />

Electronics<br />

Electron microscopy<br />

Energy technology<br />

Filling technology<br />

Food preservation and packing<br />

Foodstuffs, drinks and tobacco industry<br />

Foundry technology<br />

Heat treatment<br />

Hoisting<br />

Laboratory technology<br />

Aerzener Maschinenfabrik GmbH<br />

Reherweg 28, 31855 Aerzen/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)5154-81-0, Fax: +49 (0)5154-81-9191<br />

E-mail: info@aerzener.de<br />

Website: www.aerzener.de<br />

Busch Vacuum Solutions<br />

Schauinslandstr. 1, 79689 Maulburg/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)7622-681-0, Fax: +49 (0)7622-5484<br />

E-mail: sales@busch.de<br />

Website: www.buschvacuum.com<br />

KAESER KOMPRESSOREN SE<br />

POB 2143, 96410 Coburg/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)9561-640-0, Fax: +49 (0)9561-640-130<br />

E-mail: produktinfo@kaeser.com<br />

Website: www.kaeser.com<br />

Pfeiffer Vacuum GmbH<br />

Berliner Str. 43, 35614 Asslar/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)6441-802-0, Fax: +49 (0)6441-802-1202<br />

E-mail: info@pfeiffer-vacuum.de<br />

Website: www.pfeiffer-vacuum.com<br />

• • • • • • • • • • • •<br />

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •<br />

• • • • • • • • • • • • • •<br />

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •<br />

104


Vacuum accessories<br />

Laser technology<br />

Leak detection<br />

Low-pressure plasma treatment<br />

Materials technology<br />

Mechanical engineering<br />

Medical technology<br />

Metal finishing<br />

Packaging technology<br />

Petrochemical industry<br />

Pharmaceutical industry<br />

Plastics industry<br />

Printing and paper industry<br />

Refrigeration/Air conditioning technology<br />

Research institutions<br />

Space simulation technology<br />

Space travel<br />

Spectrometry/Spectroscopy<br />

Sputtering<br />

Steel industry<br />

Suction/Exhausting<br />

Textile industry<br />

Thin layer technology<br />

Universities<br />

Vaporising<br />

Vapour sterilisation<br />

Ventilating<br />

Accessories, other<br />

Analysis devices<br />

Ball valves<br />

Chambers<br />

Cold traps<br />

Component parts<br />

<strong>Components</strong><br />

Condensers<br />

Container<br />

Custom-made devices<br />

Filters<br />

Flange components (flanges, seals, cables)<br />

Leak detectors<br />

Measurement devices<br />

Separators/Traps<br />

Service<br />

Sound enclosures<br />

Special components<br />

Valves<br />

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •<br />

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •<br />

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •<br />

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •<br />

105


Vacuum technology<br />

Vacuum pumps and systems<br />

Manufacturers/Suppliers<br />

Claw-type vacuum pumps<br />

Cryo-vacuum pumps<br />

Diaphragm vacuum pumps<br />

Diffusion vacuum pumps<br />

Fuel jet vacuum pumps<br />

Gas ring vacuum pumps (Side channel blower)<br />

Getter pumps<br />

Liquid ring vacuum pumps<br />

Pressure vacuum pumps<br />

Reciprocating vacuum pumps<br />

Roots vacuum pumps<br />

Rotary piston vacuum pumps<br />

Rotary vane vacuum pumps, dry-running<br />

Rotary vane vacuum pumps, fluisealed<br />

Screw vacuum pumps (Helicoidal gear vacuum pumps)<br />

Scroll vacuum pumps<br />

Slide vane rotary vacuum pumps<br />

Steam ejectors<br />

Turbomolecular vacuum pumps<br />

Vacuum systems<br />

Aerzener Maschinenfabrik GmbH<br />

Reherweg 28, 31855 Aerzen/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)5154-81-0, Fax: +49 (0)5154-81-9191<br />

E-mail: info@aerzener.de<br />

Website: www.aerzener.de<br />

Busch Vacuum Solutions<br />

Schauinslandstr. 1, 79689 Maulburg/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)7622-681-0, Fax: +49 (0)7622-5484<br />

E-mail: sales@busch.de<br />

Website: www.buschvacuum.com<br />

KAESER KOMPRESSOREN SE<br />

POB 2143, 96410 Coburg/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)9561-640-0, Fax: +49 (0)9561-640-130<br />

E-mail: produktinfo@kaeser.com<br />

Website: www.kaeser.com<br />

Pfeiffer Vacuum GmbH<br />

Berliner Str. 43, 35614 Asslar/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)6441-802-0, Fax: +49 (0)6441-802-1202<br />

E-mail: info@pfeiffer-vacuum.de<br />

Website: www.pfeiffer-vacuum.com<br />

•<br />

• • • • • • • • • • • • •<br />

• •<br />

• • • • • • •<br />

106


Vacuum pumping stations<br />

Services<br />

Diffusion pumping stations<br />

Roots vacuum pumping stations with dry-running backing pump<br />

Roots vacuum pumping stations with fluisealed backing pump<br />

Special pumping stations chemical applications<br />

Special pumping stations customer-specific designs<br />

Special pumping stations helium leak detection<br />

Special pumping stations HV and UHV design<br />

Turbomolecular pumping stations with dry-running backing pump<br />

Turbomolecular pumping stations with fluisealed backing pump<br />

Installation and commissioning<br />

Maintenance, service and repair<br />

Status and demand analysis<br />

Support and project engineering<br />

Training and instruction<br />

• • • • • • • • • • • • •<br />

• • •<br />

• • • • • • • • • • • • •<br />

107


Vacuum technology<br />

Power Ratings<br />

Key for pressure range<br />

Coarse vacuum 1000 mbar – 1 mbar A<br />

Fine vacuum 1 mbar – 10 -3 mbar B<br />

High vacuum 10 -3 mbar – 10 -7 mbar C<br />

Ultra-high vacuum < 10 -7 mbar D<br />

Manufacturers/Suppliers<br />

Claw-type vacuum pumps<br />

Cryo-vacuum pumps<br />

Diaphragm vacuum pumps<br />

Diffusion vacuum pumps<br />

Fuel jet vacuum pumps<br />

Gas ring vacuum pumps (Side channel blower)<br />

Getter pumps<br />

Liquid ring vacuum pumps<br />

Pressure vacuum pumps<br />

Reciprocating vacuum pumps<br />

Roots vacuum pumps<br />

Rotary piston vacuum pumps<br />

Aerzener Maschinenfabrik GmbH<br />

Reherweg 28, 31855 Aerzen/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)5154-81-0, Fax: +49 (0)5154-81-9191<br />

E-mail: info@aerzener.de<br />

Website: www.aerzener.de<br />

A, B, C<br />

Busch Vacuum Solutions<br />

Schauinslandstr. 1, 79689 Maulburg/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)7622-681-0, Fax: +49 (0)7622-5484<br />

E-mail: sales@busch.de<br />

Website: www.buschvacuum.com<br />

KAESER KOMPRESSOREN SE<br />

POB 2143, 96410 Coburg/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)9561-640-0, Fax: +49 (0)9561-640-130<br />

E-mail: produktinfo@kaeser.com<br />

Website: www.kaeser.com<br />

Pfeiffer Vacuum GmbH<br />

Berliner Str. 43, 35614 Asslar/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)6441-802-0, Fax: +49 (0)6441-802-1202<br />

E-mail: info@pfeiffer-vacuum.de<br />

Website: www.pfeiffer-vacuum.com<br />

A C A A A A,B<br />

A, B A, B, C<br />

A<br />

108


Rotary vane vacuum pumps, dry-running<br />

Rotary vane vacuum pumps, fluisealed<br />

Screw vacuum pumps (Helicoidal gear vacuum pumps)<br />

Scroll vacuum pumps<br />

Slide vane rotary vacuum pumps<br />

Steam ejectors<br />

Turbomolecular vacuum pumps<br />

Vacuum systems<br />

Diffusion pumping stations<br />

Roots vacuum pumping stations with dry-running backing pump<br />

Roots vacuum pumping stations with fluisealed backing pump<br />

Special pumping stations chemical applications<br />

Special pumping stations customer-specific designs<br />

Special pumping stations helium leak detection<br />

Special pumping stations HV and UHV design<br />

Turbomolecular pumping stations with dry-running backing pump<br />

Turbomolecular pumping stations with fluisealed backing pump<br />

Chambers<br />

<strong>Components</strong><br />

Leak detectors<br />

Measurement devices<br />

A A, B A, B A, B A, B C on request<br />

on request<br />

on request<br />

on request<br />

on request<br />

on request<br />

on request<br />

on request<br />

on request<br />

A<br />

A, B A, B A, B C, D A, B, C,<br />

D<br />

A, B, C A, B, C A, B A, B, C,<br />

D<br />

A, B, C,<br />

D<br />

C, D C, D C, D on request<br />

on request<br />

A, B, C,<br />

D<br />

A, B, C,<br />

D<br />

109


Compressors<br />

Range of applications/Applications<br />

Manufacturers/Suppliers<br />

Agricultural technology<br />

Automobile industry<br />

Biogas<br />

Biotechnology<br />

Blast-furnace blowers<br />

Blasting technology<br />

Brewery technology<br />

Bulk transport<br />

Chemical industry<br />

Cleaning (blowing out)<br />

Coke oven technology<br />

Compensating air<br />

Compressed air tools<br />

Construction industry<br />

Control air<br />

Conveying air<br />

Drying<br />

Electrical industry/Information industry<br />

Energy industry<br />

Fertiliser industry<br />

Filling technology<br />

Foodstuffs, drinks and tobacco industry<br />

Foundries<br />

Garage equipment/Tool drive<br />

Garage technology<br />

Aerzener Maschinenfabrik GmbH<br />

Reherweg 28, 31855 Aerzen/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)5154-81-0, Fax: +49 (0)5154-81-9191<br />

E-mail: info@aerzener.de<br />

Website: www.aerzener.de<br />

Atlas Copco Gas and <strong>Process</strong><br />

Schlehenweg 15, 50999 Köln/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)2236 9650 0<br />

E-mail: atlascopco.energas@de.atlascopco.com<br />

Website: www.atlascopco-gap.com<br />

BAUER KOMPRESSOREN GmbH<br />

Stäblistr. 8, 81477 München/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)89 78049-0, Fax: +49 (0)89 78049-167<br />

E-mail: industrie@bauer-kompressoren.de<br />

Website: www.bauer-kompressoren.de<br />

BOGE KOMPRESSOREN Otto Boge GmbH & Co. KG<br />

Otto-Boge-Straße 1-7, 33739 Bielefeld/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)5206 601-0, Fax +49 (0)5206 601-200<br />

E-mail: info@boge.com<br />

Website: www.boge.com<br />

Busch Vacuum Solutions<br />

Schauinslandstr. 1, 79689 Maulburg/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)7622-681-0, Fax: +49 (0)7622-5484<br />

E-mail: sales@busch.de<br />

Website: www.buschvacuum.com<br />

KAESER KOMPRESSOREN SE<br />

POB 2143, 96410 Coburg/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)9561-640-0, Fax: +49 (0)9561-640-130<br />

E-mail: produktinfo@kaeser.com<br />

Website: www.kaeser.com<br />

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •<br />

• • • •<br />

• • • • • • •<br />

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •<br />

• • • • •<br />

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •<br />

110


Gas compressor helium<br />

Gas compressor nitrogen<br />

Gas transport<br />

General factory air<br />

Harbour basins<br />

Heat recovery<br />

Laboratory technology<br />

Lifting/Clamping<br />

Machinery and plant engineering<br />

Manual operation<br />

Medical technology<br />

Metallurgical plants and Rolling mills<br />

Mineral oil industry<br />

Mining, pit and quarry<br />

Natural gas industry<br />

Offshore installations<br />

Oil field<br />

Oil firing blowers<br />

Packaging (exclusive foodstuffs)<br />

Paint coating units<br />

Paint spraying technology<br />

Paper and pulp industry<br />

Petrochemical industry<br />

Petrol stations<br />

Pharmaceutical industry<br />

Pneumatic delivery blowers<br />

Powder coating<br />

Precision mechanics and optical industry<br />

Printing industry<br />

Public services<br />

Refinery<br />

Sand blasting<br />

Sewage technology/Canalisation<br />

Ship technology/Shipyard<br />

Silo technology<br />

Starting of motors/Engines<br />

Switchgears<br />

Technical universities<br />

Textile industry<br />

Trade<br />

Vehicle construction/Aircraft construction<br />

Ventilation of instruments<br />

Wastewater treatment plants<br />

Wind tunnel<br />

Woodworking and wood processing<br />

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •<br />

• • • • • • • • • • • •<br />

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •<br />

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •<br />

• • • • • • • • • • •<br />

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •<br />

111


Compressors<br />

Type of compressors<br />

Manufacturers/Suppliers<br />

Axial compressors<br />

Booster, dry-running<br />

Booster, fluilubricated<br />

Breathing air compressors<br />

Construction compressors<br />

Dental compressors<br />

Diaphragm compressors<br />

Gas compressors<br />

Liquid ring compressors<br />

Piston compressors, dry-running<br />

Piston compressors, fluilubricated<br />

Portable screw compressors, fluicooled<br />

Portable screw compressors, fluifree compression<br />

Roots compressors<br />

Rotary gear compressor<br />

Rotary piston blowers<br />

Rotary vane compressors<br />

Rotary vane compressors, dry-running<br />

Rotary vane compressors, fluilubricated<br />

Screw compressors, dry-running<br />

Screw compressors, fluilubricated<br />

Aerzener Maschinenfabrik GmbH<br />

Reherweg 28, 31855 Aerzen/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)5154-81-0, Fax: +49 (0)5154-81-9191<br />

E-mail: info@aerzener.de<br />

Website: www.aerzener.de<br />

• • • • • • • •<br />

Atlas Copco Gas and <strong>Process</strong><br />

Schlehenweg 15, 50999 Köln/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)2236 9650 0<br />

E-mail: atlascopco.energas@de.atlascopco.com<br />

Website: www.atlascopco-gap.com<br />

BAUER KOMPRESSOREN GmbH<br />

Stäblistr. 8, 81477 München/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)89 78049-0, Fax: +49 (0)89 78049-167<br />

E-mail: industrie@bauer-kompressoren.de<br />

Website: www.bauer-kompressoren.de<br />

• • • • •<br />

BOGE KOMPRESSOREN Otto Boge GmbH & Co. KG<br />

Otto-Boge-Straße 1-7, 33739 Bielefeld/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)5206 601-0, Fax +49 (0)5206 601-200<br />

E-mail: info@boge.com<br />

Website: www.boge.com<br />

Busch Vacuum Solutions<br />

Schauinslandstr. 1, 79689 Maulburg/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)7622-681-0, Fax: +49 (0)7622-5484<br />

E-mail: sales@busch.de<br />

Website: www.buschvacuum.com<br />

KAESER KOMPRESSOREN SE<br />

POB 2143, 96410 Coburg/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)9561-640-0, Fax: +49 (0)9561-640-130<br />

E-mail: produktinfo@kaeser.com<br />

Website: www.kaeser.com<br />

• • • • • •<br />

• • • • • • • • • •<br />

112


Conveyed media<br />

Services<br />

Scroll compressors<br />

Side channel compressors<br />

Small and very small compressors<br />

Turbo chargers<br />

Turbo compressors, axial<br />

Turbo compressors, radial<br />

Turbo compressors, radial/axial<br />

Acetylene<br />

Ammonia<br />

Breathing air<br />

Carbonic acid<br />

Chloric gas<br />

Compressed air<br />

Ethylene<br />

Gases, other<br />

Helium<br />

Hydrogen<br />

Natural gas<br />

Nitrogen<br />

Oxygen<br />

Synthesis gas<br />

Vapour<br />

Installation and commissioning<br />

Maintenance, service and repair<br />

Status and demand analysis<br />

Support and project engineering<br />

Training and instruction<br />

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •<br />

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •<br />

• • • • • • • • • • • • •<br />

• • • • • • • •<br />

• • • • • • • • • •<br />

• • • • • • • • • •<br />

113


Compressors<br />

Power Ratings<br />

Key for volume flow and pressure<br />

Volume V<br />

m<br />

[ ]<br />

3<br />

min<br />

<br />

Pressure [in bar] 0–0,2 0,2–5 5–20 20–100 > 100<br />

0 – 2 A B C D E<br />

2 – 10 F G H I J<br />

10 – 25 K L M N O<br />

25 – 50 P Q R S T<br />

> 50 U V W X Y<br />

Manufacturers/Suppliers<br />

Axial compressors<br />

Booster, dry-running<br />

Booster, fluilubricated<br />

Breathing air compressors<br />

Construction compressors<br />

Dental compressors<br />

Diaphragm compressors<br />

Gas compressors<br />

Liquid ring compressors<br />

Piston compressors, dry-running<br />

Piston compressors, fluilubricated<br />

Portable screw compressors, fluicooled<br />

Aerzener Maschinenfabrik GmbH<br />

Reherweg 28, 31855 Aerzen/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)5154-81-0<br />

Fax: +49 (0)5154-81-9191<br />

E-mail: info@aerzener.de<br />

Website: www.aerzener.de<br />

E, J, O,<br />

T<br />

Atlas Copco Gas and <strong>Process</strong><br />

Schlehenweg 15, 50999 Köln/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)2236 9650 0<br />

E-mail: atlascopco.energas@de.atlascopco.com<br />

Website: www.atlascopco-gap.com<br />

BAUER KOMPRESSOREN GmbH<br />

Stäblistr. 8, 81477 München/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)89 78049-0<br />

Fax: +49 (0)89 78049-167<br />

E-mail: industrie@bauer-kompressoren.de<br />

Website: www.bauer-kompressoren.de<br />

25-500<br />

bar<br />

1,1-315<br />

kW<br />

Motorpower<br />

25-500<br />

bar<br />

1,1-315<br />

kW<br />

Motorpower<br />

25-500<br />

bar<br />

1,1-315<br />

kW<br />

Motorpower<br />

25-500<br />

bar<br />

1,1-315<br />

kW<br />

Motorpower<br />

BOGE KOMPRESSOREN Otto Boge GmbH & Co. KG<br />

Otto-Boge-Straße 1-7, 33739 Bielefeld/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)5206 601-0<br />

Fax +49 (0)5206 601-200<br />

E-mail: info@boge.com<br />

Website: www.boge.com<br />

5.5<br />

up to<br />

11 kW<br />

5.5<br />

up to<br />

18.5 kW<br />

0.75<br />

up to<br />

30 kW<br />

0.75<br />

up to<br />

30 kW<br />

5.5<br />

up to<br />

18.5 kW<br />

0.75<br />

up to<br />

11 kW<br />

0.65<br />

up to<br />

18.5 kW<br />

Busch Vacuum Solutions<br />

Schauinslandstr. 1, 79689 Maulburg/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)7622-681-0<br />

Fax: +49 (0)7622-5484<br />

E-mail: sales@busch.de<br />

Website: www.buschvacuum.com<br />

B, C<br />

KAESER KOMPRESSOREN SE<br />

POB 2143, 96410 Coburg/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)9561-640-0<br />

Fax: +49 (0)9561-640-130<br />

E-mail: produktinfo@kaeser.com<br />

Website: www.kaeser.com<br />

G, H, L,<br />

M, Q, R<br />

G, H, I,<br />

L, M, N<br />

F, G F, G, K,<br />

L, P, Q<br />

G, H, I,<br />

L, M, N<br />

114


Portable screw compressors, fluifree compression<br />

Roots compressors<br />

Rotary gear compressor<br />

Rotary piston blowers<br />

Rotary vane compressors<br />

Rotary vane compressors, dry-running<br />

Rotary vane compressors, fluilubricated<br />

Screw compressors, dry-running<br />

Screw compressors, fluilubricated<br />

Scroll compressors<br />

Side channel compressors<br />

Small and very small compressors<br />

Turbo chargers<br />

Turbo compressors, axial<br />

Turbo compressors, radial<br />

Turbo compressors, radial/axial<br />

B, C, D,<br />

E<br />

B, C, D,<br />

E<br />

B, C, D,<br />

E, G, H,<br />

I, J, M,<br />

N, O<br />

G, H, I,<br />

J, L, M,<br />

N, O, T<br />

900 kW Air up to<br />

30 MW,<br />

500,000<br />

m 3 /h;<br />

PP/PE:<br />

10 MW,<br />

65,000<br />

m 3 /h<br />

up to<br />

35 MW,<br />

208 bar,<br />

500,000<br />

m 3 /h<br />

on<br />

request<br />

on<br />

request<br />

45<br />

up to<br />

355 kW<br />

2.2<br />

up to<br />

315 kW<br />

4 up to<br />

30 kW<br />

0.65<br />

up to<br />

1.5 kW<br />

150 +<br />

220 kW<br />

A, B, C,<br />

D<br />

B, C A, B, C,<br />

D<br />

B B B, C<br />

on B, C, D,<br />

request E<br />

B, C, D,<br />

E<br />

H, I G, H, I,<br />

L, M, N<br />

D, E<br />

115


Compressed air technology<br />

Compressed air production<br />

Compressed air treatment<br />

Manufacturers/Suppliers<br />

Booster, dry-running<br />

Booster, fluilubricated<br />

Diaphragm compressors<br />

Piston compressors, dry-running<br />

Piston compressors, fluilubricated<br />

Roots compressors/Rotary piston blowers<br />

Rotary gear compressor<br />

Rotary vane compressors, dry-running<br />

Rotary vane compressors, fluilubricated<br />

Screw compressors, dry-running<br />

Screw compressors, fluilubricated<br />

Scroll compressors<br />

Turbo compressors<br />

Adsorber (hydrocarbon)<br />

Adsorption dryer<br />

Combination dryer (Refrigeration/adsorption dryer)<br />

Compressed air filter<br />

Condensation drain and treatment<br />

Emulsion separator<br />

Maintenance unit<br />

Membrane dryer<br />

Nitrogen generators<br />

Oil-water separator<br />

Pressure maintaining systems<br />

Pressure vessels<br />

Refrigeration dryer<br />

Water separator<br />

Aerzener Maschinenfabrik GmbH<br />

Reherweg 28, 31855 Aerzen/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)5154 81-0, Fax: +49 (0)5154 81-9191<br />

E-mail: info@aerzener.de<br />

Website: www.aerzener.de<br />

BAUER KOMPRESSOREN GmbH<br />

Stäblistr. 8, 81477 München/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)89 78049-0, Fax: +49 (0)89 78049-167<br />

E-mail: industrie@bauer-kompressoren.de<br />

Website: www.bauer-kompressoren.de<br />

BOGE KOMPRESSOREN Otto Boge GmbH & Co. KG<br />

Otto-Boge-Straße 1-7, 33739 Bielefeld/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)5206 601-0, Fax +49 (0)5206 601-200<br />

E-mail: info@boge.com<br />

Website: www.boge.com<br />

KAESER KOMPRESSOREN SE<br />

POB 2143, 96410 Coburg/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)9561 640-0, Fax: +49 (0)9561 640-130<br />

E-mail: produktinfo@kaeser.com<br />

Website: www.kaeser.com<br />

• • • • • • • • • • •<br />

• • • • • •<br />

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •<br />

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •<br />

116


Pressure<br />

distribution<br />

Compressed air tools Other Services<br />

Connection technology<br />

Hoses<br />

Pipes/Pipe systems<br />

Valves<br />

Workshop equipment<br />

Clamping/Nailing/Riveting<br />

Drilling/Screwing<br />

Grinding/Polishing/Brushing<br />

Hammering/Chiselling<br />

Milling/Thread<br />

Painting/Spraying<br />

Planing/Filing<br />

Sandblasting/Purging<br />

Sawing/Cutting/Separating<br />

Other Compressed air tools<br />

Controllers and management systems<br />

Heat exchangers and aftercoolers<br />

Heat recovery systems<br />

Measurement devices (volume flow, pressure, dew point)<br />

Residual oil content measurement<br />

Suction filters<br />

Installation and commissioning<br />

Maintenance, service and repair<br />

Status and demand analysis<br />

Support and project engineering<br />

Training and instruction<br />

• • • • • • • •<br />

• • • • • •<br />

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •<br />

• • • • • • • • • •<br />

117


<strong>Components</strong><br />

Range of applications<br />

Manufacturers/Suppliers<br />

Agricultural technology<br />

Biotechnology<br />

Chemical and process technology<br />

Containers and tanks<br />

Conveyor technology<br />

District heating<br />

Fluid technology<br />

Food and beverage industry<br />

Gas distribution<br />

Marine and sea engineering<br />

Pharmaceutical industry and cosmetics<br />

Pipeline systems and offshore technology<br />

Power plant technology and energy supply<br />

Refrigeration and cryo technology<br />

Solids<br />

Water production, supply and sewage<br />

Other industrial applications<br />

AxFlow GmbH<br />

Theodorstr. 105, 40472 Düsseldorf/Germany<br />

Tel +49 (0)211 238060<br />

E-mail: info@axflow.de<br />

Website: www.axflow.de<br />

C. Otto Gehrckens GmbH & Co. KG<br />

Gehrstücken 9, 25421 Pinneberg/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)4101 5002-0, Fax: +49 (0)4101 5002-83<br />

E-mail: info@cog.de<br />

Website: www.cog.de<br />

Emile Egger & Cie SA<br />

Route de Neuchâtel 36, 2088 Cressier NE/Switzerland<br />

Phone: +41 32 758 71 11<br />

E-mail: info@eggerpumps.com<br />

Website: www.eggerpumps.com<br />

Goetze KG Armaturen<br />

Robert-Mayer-Str. 21, 71636 Ludwigsburg/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)7141 48894-60, Fax: +49 (0)7141 48894-88<br />

E-mail: info@goetze-armaturen.de<br />

Website: www.goetze-group.com<br />

JESSBERGER GmbH<br />

Jaegerweg 5, 85521 Ottobrunn/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)89 666633-400, Fax: +49 (0)89 666633-411<br />

E-mail: info@jesspumpen.de<br />

Website: www.jesspumpen.de<br />

KLAUS UNION GmbH & Co. KG<br />

POB 101349, 44713 Bochum/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)234 4595-0, Fax: +49 (0)234 4595-7000<br />

E-mail: info@klaus-union.com<br />

Website: www.klaus-union.com<br />

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •<br />

• • •<br />

• • • •<br />

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •<br />

• • • • • • • •<br />

KLINGER GmbH<br />

RicharKlinger-Str. 37, 65510 Idstein/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)6126 4016-0, Fax: +49 (0)6126 4016-11<br />

E-mail: mail@klinger.de<br />

Website: www.klinger.de<br />

Leistritz Pumpen GmbH<br />

Markgrafenstraße 36-39, 90459 Nürnberg/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (911) 4306- 9650, Fax: +49 (911) 4306-439<br />

E-mail: pumps@leistritz.com<br />

Website: pumps.leistritz.com<br />

LEWA GmbH<br />

Ulmer Str. 10, 71229 Leonberg/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)7152 14-0, Fax: +49 (0)7152 14-1303<br />

Website: www.lewa.de<br />

• • • • • • •<br />

• • • • • • • • •<br />

118


Industrial valves<br />

Valves<br />

Automatic valves<br />

Check valves, lift type<br />

Heavy duty valves<br />

Outlet valves for vessels<br />

Plastic valves<br />

Regulators and control valves<br />

Shut-off valves<br />

Special valves<br />

Stainless steel valves<br />

Angle seat valves<br />

Bellow-type valves<br />

Check valves, lift type<br />

Compressed air valves<br />

Control valves<br />

Cryogenic valves<br />

Diaphragm valves<br />

Drain and vent valves<br />

Float valves<br />

Hydraulic valves<br />

Magnetic valves<br />

Monoflange valves<br />

Multiway valves<br />

Needle valves<br />

Pinch valves<br />

Piston valves<br />

Pressure control valves<br />

Pressure reducing valves<br />

Safety valves<br />

Sampling valves<br />

Shut-off valves<br />

Special valves<br />

Steam valves<br />

Other valves<br />

•<br />

• • •<br />

• • • • • • •<br />

• • • • • • • • • • • • •<br />

119


<strong>Components</strong><br />

Range of applications<br />

Manufacturers/Suppliers<br />

Agricultural technology<br />

Biotechnology<br />

Chemical and process technology<br />

Containers and tanks<br />

Conveyor technology<br />

District heating<br />

Fluid technology<br />

Food and beverage industry<br />

Gas distribution<br />

Marine and sea engineering<br />

Pharmaceutical industry and cosmetics<br />

Pipeline systems and offshore technology<br />

Power plant technology and energy supply<br />

Refrigeration and cryo technology<br />

Solids<br />

Water production, supply and sewage<br />

Other industrial applications<br />

Pfeiffer Vacuum GmbH<br />

Berliner Str. 43, 35614 Asslar/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)6441 802-0, Fax: +49 (0)6441 802-1202<br />

E-mail: info@pfeiffer-vacuum.de<br />

Website: www.pfeiffer-vacuum.com<br />

• • • • • • • • • • • • • •<br />

Watson-Marlow Limited<br />

Bickland Water Road, Falmouth Cornwall, TR11 4RU, United Kingdom<br />

Tel +44 (1326) 370 370<br />

E-mail: info@wmfts.com<br />

Website: www.wmfts.com<br />

Zwick Armaturen GmbH<br />

Egerstr. 1 & 25, 58256 Ennepetal/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)2333 9856-5, Fax: +49 (0)2333 9856-6<br />

E-mail: info@zwick-gmbh.de,<br />

Website: www.zwick-armaturen.de<br />

• • • • • • • •<br />

120


Industrial valves<br />

Valves<br />

Automatic valves<br />

Check valves, lift type<br />

Heavy duty valves<br />

Outlet valves for vessels<br />

Plastic valves<br />

Regulators and control valves<br />

Shut-off valves<br />

Special valves<br />

Stainless steel valves<br />

Angle seat valves<br />

Bellow-type valves<br />

Check valves, lift type<br />

Compressed air valves<br />

Control valves<br />

Cryogenic valves<br />

Diaphragm valves<br />

Drain and vent valves<br />

Float valves<br />

Hydraulic valves<br />

Magnetic valves<br />

Monoflange valves<br />

Multiway valves<br />

Needle valves<br />

Pinch valves<br />

Piston valves<br />

Pressure control valves<br />

Pressure reducing valves<br />

Safety valves<br />

Sampling valves<br />

Shut-off valves<br />

Special valves<br />

Steam valves<br />

Other valves<br />

• • • • • • • • • • •<br />

• • •<br />

• • • • • •<br />

121


<strong>Components</strong><br />

<strong>Components</strong> and assemblies<br />

Butterfly/Gate valves<br />

Manufacturers/Suppliers<br />

Compensators<br />

Condensate separators<br />

Couplings<br />

Filters<br />

Gear drives<br />

Pipelines and hoses<br />

Pipe fittings<br />

Pressure vessels<br />

Seals and seals systems, dynamic<br />

Seals and seals systems, static<br />

Separators<br />

Sight glasses<br />

Other accessories<br />

Backflow flaps<br />

Butterfly control valves<br />

Butterfly valves, shut-off<br />

Check valves, swing type<br />

Gate valves, shut-off<br />

Knife-gate valves<br />

Slide valves<br />

C. Otto Gehrckens GmbH & Co. KG<br />

Gehrstücken 9, 25421 Pinneberg/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)4101 5002-0, Fax: +49 (0)4101 5002-83<br />

E-mail: info@cog.de<br />

Website: www.cog.de<br />

• •<br />

Emile Egger & Cie SA<br />

Route de Neuchâtel 36, 2088 Cressier NE/Switzerland<br />

Phone: +41 32 758 71 11<br />

E-mail: info@eggerpumps.com<br />

Website: www.eggerpumps.com<br />

Goetze KG Armaturen<br />

Robert-Mayer-Str. 21, 71636 Ludwigsburg/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)7141 48894-60, Fax: +49 (0)7141 48894-88<br />

E-mail: info@goetze-armaturen.de<br />

Website: www.goetze-group.com<br />

JESSBERGER GmbH<br />

Jaegerweg 5, 85521 Ottobrunn/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)89 666633-400, Fax: +49 (0)89 666633-411<br />

E-mail: info@jesspumpen.de<br />

Website: www.jesspumpen.de<br />

KLAUS UNION GmbH & Co. KG<br />

POB 101349, 44713 Bochum/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)234 4595-0, Fax: +49 (0)234 4595-7000<br />

E-mail: info@klaus-union.com<br />

Website: www.klaus-union.com<br />

KLINGER GmbH<br />

RicharKlinger-Str. 37, 65510 Idstein/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)6126 4016-0, Fax: +49 (0)6126 4016-11<br />

E-mail: mail@klinger.de<br />

Website: www.klinger.de<br />

• • • •<br />

•<br />

Leistritz Pumpen GmbH<br />

Markgrafenstraße 36-39, 90459 Nürnberg/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (911) 4306- 9650, Fax: +49 (911) 4306-439<br />

E-mail: pumps@leistritz.com<br />

Website: pumps.leistritz.com<br />

LEWA GmbH<br />

Ulmer Str. 10, 71229 Leonberg/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)7152 14-0, Fax: +49 (0)7152 14-1303<br />

Website: www.lewa.de<br />

Pfeiffer Vacuum GmbH<br />

Berliner Str. 43, 35614 Asslar/Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)6441 802-0, Fax: +49 (0)6441 802-1202<br />

E-mail: info@pfeiffer-vacuum.de<br />

Website: www.pfeiffer-vacuum.com<br />

• • • • • • • • • • • •<br />

122


Ball and plug valves Actuators and positioners Measuring-Control technology/Sensors Other<br />

Ball valves<br />

Cylindrical plug valves<br />

Floor drain ball valves<br />

Multiway ball valves<br />

Plug valves<br />

Sampling ball valves<br />

Actuator accessories<br />

Actuators<br />

Control actuators<br />

Electrical actuators<br />

Electropneumatically and electrohydraulically positioners<br />

Hydraulic actuators<br />

Manual actuators<br />

Pneumatic actuators<br />

Underwater actuators<br />

Other actuators<br />

Analysis<br />

Condition monitoring<br />

Electronic monitoring and control<br />

Fill level<br />

Flow<br />

Function monitoring<br />

Gas leakage<br />

Humidity<br />

Pressure<br />

Residual oil vapour<br />

Temperature<br />

Commissioning<br />

Planning/Engineering<br />

Services/Maintenance<br />

Training/Instruction<br />

•<br />

• • •<br />

• • •<br />

• • • •<br />

• • • • • • • • • • • • • •<br />

123


<strong>Components</strong><br />

<strong>Components</strong> and assemblies<br />

Butterfly/Gate valves<