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PIER 56 SEASCAPE_PKG CAPSTONE PROJECT

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COMPULSIVE

BUYING DISORDER


COMPULSIVE BUYING DISORDER

Compulsive Buying Disorder (CBD) is excessive buying to a dysfunctional level and to have the urge to engage

in buying behaviors, which lead to problems with the person’s social life and finances.

You have a compulsion to buy new goods and spend the money that you have, regardless of what you already

own, what you actually need, what you can afford or what financial means you have.

This condition is similar to addictive disorders, like gambling or disordered eating.

HISTORY OF THE TERM

1892 German Physician Max Nordau and French psychiatrist Valentin Magnan coined the term oniomania

Magnan describes compulsive buying as a symptom of degeneration.

Nardau calls oniomania or “buying craze” a stigma of degeneration

“Compulsive Buying Disorder was first described clinically in the early 20th

century”

There was little interest taken in CBD until the 1990s and even in the 21st century, compulsive shopping can be

considered a barely recognized mental illness.

6.6%

In 2018, people of all genders

worldwide compulsively shop

=

420, 000, 000

People worldwide having compulsive shopping

disorder

CBD attracted little attention throughout the 20th century except among consumer behaviorists and

psychoanalysts.

Interest revived in the early 1990s, when clinical case series from three independent research groups appeared.

The disorder was described worldwide with reports coming from the US, England, Germany, France and

Brazil.

85%

Of Compulsive buyers recognize they have a

problem and are worried about their shopping

habits and debt

18 to 24 years

Age group when Compulsive Buying

Behavior begin

COMPULSIVE VS. IMPULSIVE BEHAVIOR

Compulsive Behavior

Acting on instinct

A serious mental health condition

Involves a constant and irresistible urge

Usually uncomfortable

Impulsive Behavior

Acting on instinct

Relatively normal

Can happen once in a while

May be controlled

CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPULSIVE BUYING DISORDER

Secretive about their shopping

Financial difficulties

Problems at work, school, or home because of uncontrolled shopping

Spending a great deal of time researching items on what to buy next

While similar sounding, these two behaviors differ in intent. Impulsive behavior is action without thought,

compulsive behavior is premeditated.

“Most people realize how much of a problem this is, but are unable to change

their situation, simply because it’s been apart of their mindset for so long.”

Difficulty resisting the purchase of unneeded items

Stress, loneliness, low self-esteem, and negative emotions

1 2



IDENTIFYING THE PROBLEM

TYPES OF COMPULSIVE SHOPPERS

THE FOUR PHASES OF COMPULSIVE BUYING

Compulsive shopaholics

who shop under emotional distress

Trophy shopaholics

Status shopaholics

who obsessively shop for the perfect item

who shop to maintain the image of a big spender with flashy items

PHASE 4

SPENDING

PHASE 1

ANTICIPATION

Bargain seekers

who purchase items on sale even if they don’t need them

Bulimic shoppers

who are caught in a vicious cycle of buying and returning

Collectors

WHAT DO PEOPLE OFTEN BUY ?

who don’t feel complete unless they are in possession of certain sets of

handpicked items

PHASE 3

SHOPPING

PHASE 2

PREPARATION

ANTICIPATION

Person with CBD develops thoughts, urges, or preoccupations with either having a specific item or with the act

of shopping.

Clothing & Shoes Jewelry Cosmetics Household Items

PREPARATION

Person prepares for shopping and spending.

HOW OFTEN DO PEOPLE PURCHASE

ITEMS THEY DON’T NEED OR DIDN’T

PLAN TO BUY?

12%

Almost

Always

3%

Almost Never

70%

Occasionally

15%

Frequently

HOW OFTEN PEOPLE GO SHOPPING

TO IMPROVE THEIR MOODS?

11%

Frequently

45%

Occasionally

44%

Never

This includes decisions on when and where to go, on how to dress and even which credit cards to use.

Considerable research may have taken place about sale items, new fashions or new shops.

SHOPPING

The actual shopping experience which many individuals with CBD describe as intensively exciting.

Person gets a “high” from the shopping experience.

SPENDING

The act is complete with a purchase often followed by a sense of let down or disappointment with oneself.

In a study of antecedents and consequences of CBD, Miltenberger reported negative emotions.

(Depression, Anxiety, Boredom, Self-critical thoughts, anger) were mostly cited antecedents of CBD, while

euphoria or relief from the negative emotions were the most common consequence.

3 4



COLLEGE STUDENT DEBT

CREDIT CARD DEBT IN COLLEGE STUDENTS

581 out of 625

of college students reported having some

form of debt

MOST COMMON FORMS OF COLLEGE STUDENT DEBT

Credit card debt

Student loan debt

Cellphone bills

64.8%

58.0%

64.8%

College Student are the most worried

about their Credit card debt

IS COMPULSIVE BUYING LINKED TO MENTAL ILLNESS?

Compulsive Buying Disorder is not recognized by the Diagnostic and Statical Manual of Mental Disorder

To determine whether CBD is present, a mental health practitioner will likely interview the patient about their

shopping behaviors and feelings before and after shopping and it may include assessments to look for other

mental health disorders.

Goals of the CBD diagnostic process is to determine whether the patient’s shopping behavior fits the pattern of

the disorder or is in line with normal buying behavior.

The practitioner will look for a distinctive pattern of CBD behavior that includes:

-A preoccupation with thoughts about shopping and a tendency to anticipate the shopping experience

-Negative emotions such as anxiety, boredom, self-criticism, or anger that precede shopping or buying

-A sense of euphoria or relief from the negative emotions at the time of the purchase

-A feeling of disappointment, shame, or guilt after the purchase

Medical debt

Personal loan debt

$3,280

36.3%

33.1%

On Average, college students had over

$3,280 worth of credit card debt

Source: Survey of 625 college students with credit cards

People with CBD often meet criteria for other mental illnesses such as

Mood disorders, anxiety disorders, substance disorders, eating disorders, ADHD and a variety of impulse

control disorders.

CBD are most likely driven by feelings of anxiety, depression or low self-esteem.

For some people, shopping ends up turning into Compulsive Buying.

AVERAGE CREDIT CARD DEBT IN AMERICA BY AGE

MENTAL HEALTH DISORDERS ASSOCIATED WITH CBD

Generation Z (1997-2012)

$1,963

Mood Changes

Depression

Avoidance Personality

Millennial (1981-1996)

$4,322

Generation X (1956-1980)

Baby boomers (1946-1964)

Silent Generation (1928-1945)

$3,177

$6,043

$7,155

Eating Disorder

Obsessive Compulsive

Anxiety

Substance use

Borderline Personality Disorder

5

6



COPING MECHANISMS

Develop new hobbies

Most people compulsively shop turn to shopping when they are bored or stressed.

Find a healthier replacement.

Stick to a list

Make a list of what you specifically need & stick with it.

Enlist a person

Try enlisting a friend to keep you accountable when going to the store.

If possible, have another member in your household be responsible to shop for the essentials needed for the

house.

Pay in cash

Give yourself cash allowance and put credit cards away, cash used for emergencies only.

You will less likely to spend more if you have limited amount of cash in your wallet.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)

Effectively reduce symptoms by helping people identify the ways people use shopping as a coping mechanism

and develop healthier coping skills.

Selective Serotonin Re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs)

Mediation may be used to manage symptoms of underlying mental illness and control unwanted or intrusive

thoughts about shopping.

Treatment centers

There are treatment centers available to break you spending habits in a controlled environment.

These centers treat behavioral addictions with inpatient rehab and outpatient counseling.

REFERENCES

DOAN, Semra. “How Conscious Is a Compulsive Buyer? A Case Study.” Optimum Ekonomi ve Yönetim

Bilimleri Dergisi 9, no. 1 (2022): 15-36.

Darrat, Aadel Ali, Mahmoud Ali Darrat, and Mohamad Ali Darrat. “Does wanting more lead to losing control?

Examining the psychological drivers of compulsive buying.” Young Consumers 24, no. 1 (2023): 56-73.

Díez, Dominica, Núria Aragay, Mercè Soms, Gemma Prat, Pere Bonet, and Miquel Casas. “Women with

compulsive buying or gambling disorder: Similar profiles for different behavioural addictions.” Comprehensive

Psychiatry 87 (2018): 95-99.

DOAN, Semra. “How Conscious Is a Compulsive Buyer? A Case Study.” Optimum Ekonomi ve Yönetim

Bilimleri Dergisi 9, no. 1 (2022): 15-36.

Gallagher, Catherine E., Margo C. Watt, Angela D. Weaver, and Keely A. Murphy. ““I fear, therefore, I shop!”

Exploring anxiety sensitivity in relation to compulsive buying.” Personality and Individual Differences 104

(2017): 37-42.

Harnish, Richard J., K. Robert Bridges, Rajan Nataraajan, Joshua T. Gump, and Alicia E. Carson. “The impact

of money attitudes and global life satisfaction on the maladaptive pursuit of consumption.” Psychology &

Marketing 35, no. 3 (2018): 189-196.

Moulding, Richard, Annie Duong, Maja Nedeljkovic, and Michael Kyrios. “Do you think that money can buy

happiness? A review of the role of mood, materialism, self, and cognitions in compulsive buying.” Current

Addiction Reports 4 (2017): 254-261.

Zhang, Chenshu, Judith S. Brook, Carl G. Leukefeld, Mario De La Rosa, and David W. Brook. “Compulsive

buying and quality of life: An estimate of the monetary cost of compulsive buying among adults in early

midlife.” Psychiatry research 252 (2017): 208-214

Support groups dealing with compulsive buying behaviors

Support groups or sponsors that can help guide you.

Finding those who have struggles with addiction could make a significant difference in your recovery.

(debtorsanonymous.org)

Individual therapy

Counseling services are available for all varieties of addiction and mental health disorders.

One on one services offer personalized treatment to help you get on track.

7 8



SPATIAL DESIGN STRATEGIES

This project implements a space where people have all kinds of services that can aid their mental well-being without the

pressures of needing to spend loads of money with regret. This community hub offers a range of activities and services to

the neighborhood that is beneficial to the consumer.

SHARED WORK SPACE

An open co-working space where people can

work and study alone or with their peers. It

provides a space to get work done outside

their homes.

WELLNESS FITNESS CENTER

A boutique fitness gym and wellness center

where people can get treatments done that

are scientifically proven to aid mental health.

(cryotherapy, saunas & float therapy)

RETAIL SHOPS

Small business retail shops where local businesses

can rent out the space and sell goods.

LOCAL FOOD VENDORS

There are 6 food vendor rental kitchen where

businesses can rent out on a lease to showcase their

food specialties.

9 10



SEASCAPE

Pier 56

Pier 56 The Seascape is the central waterfront located in Seattle, WA. Its one of nine piers located at the center of

Seattle’s waterfront built around the 1800s. It has been a central destination and meeting point for people.

The adaptive reuse design of Pier 56 is a retail community social hub where people can browse around small

retail shops, eat from local food vendors, use the wellness fitness center, and attend weekly learning workshops

for the community. In addition, there is a co-working space that provides flexible workspaces for anyone wanting

a place to study or work.

Parking

Restaurant

Local Activity

Grocery Store

11 12



Adaptive reuse building

Mobile ordering

Solar Panel & Skylight

Delivery robot

Low flow plumbing fixtures

Automated daylight sensors

Recycling room

SECTION A

Glazed windows

Sun shading

Trash chute

ENERGY

The building design utilizes plenty sources of natural sunlight from the custom window facades to the skylights

on the roof, decreasing the usage of artificial lighting. There are solar panels implemented onto the building to

generate sunlight into electricity to produce light.

WASTE

Located at the west side of Pier 56 is a trash & recycling room. A trash chute connecting from level 1 up to level

2 for easier access transporting trash outside. Next to this room is a service elevator for employees only to access

both floors of the building.

SECTION B

13 14



LEVEL 1

15 16



1.

1. Aluminum

2. Wood Panels

3. Lime Wash Paint

4. Concrete tiles

5. Oak wood beams

6. Custom tile

7. Marble stone counters

8. Luxury vinyl tile flooring

9. Upholstery fabric

10. White oak wood tables

3.

9. 9.

9. 9.

10.

8. 8.

5.

6.

1.

7.

2.

3.

4.

17 18



LOCAL FOOD VENDOR & CAFE BRANDING

There are 6 full kitchen food vendor booths

that is open to any small business to rent out

along with a shared storage space.

The idea came from food trucks but instead

it is placed in an indoor seating where people

can gather together and eat food with the

view of the Seattle Great wheel.

18 19



LEVEL 2

20 21



3.

2.

1.

4.

5.

1. Wood Panels

2. Lime Wash Paint

3. Black wood Panels

4. Luxury Vinyl Tile

5. Luxury Vinyl Tile

22 23



Pier 56

SEASCAPE

24 25


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