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Functional characterization of tomato Sl-IAA3 and Sl-hls genes. Role ...

Functional characterization of tomato Sl-IAA3 and Sl-hls genes. Role ...

CHAPITRE I Bibliographic

CHAPITRE I Bibliographic review

I.Introduction Auxin ChapitreI: Bibliographic review Auxin biology is among the oldest fields of experimental plant research. Charles Darwin performed early auxin experiments, observing the effects of a hypothetical substance modulating plant shoot elongation to allow tropic growth toward light (Darwin, 1880). Darwin’s experiments expanded upon Theophil Ciesielski’s research examining roots bending toward gravity (Ciesielski, 1872). The term auxin was coined by scientists examining plant growth modulating substances in human urine named auxins A and B (Kögl and Haagen Smit., 1931). A structurally distinct compound with auxin activity isolated from fungi was called heteroauxin; auxins A and B were gradually abandoned for the reproducibly bioactive heteroauxin, which was later determined to be indole-3- acetic acid (IAA) (Thimann, 1977). Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) In the plant life cycle, few developmental processes occur without the involvement of the phytohormone auxin from embryonic patterning to fruit dehiscence including the process of wounding. II. Synthesis of IAA The naturally predominant auxin in all plants is IAA. In seeds and seedlings, it is synthesized primarily from storage conjugates in the endosperm, but just a few days after germination de novo synthesis starts and from then on it seems that young leaves close to the shoot apex are the primary, but not the sole source of IAA (Ljung et al., 2002). Some plant species synthesize additional active auxin molecules such as 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid (CAA), phenylacetic acid (PA), 1

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