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Functional characterization of tomato Sl-IAA3 and Sl-hls genes. Role ...

Functional characterization of tomato Sl-IAA3 and Sl-hls genes. Role ...

ChapitreI: Bibliographic

ChapitreI: Bibliographic review Blotchy ripening phenotype of DR12 antisense fruit (AS) at breaker +3 days compared to wild-type fruit (WT) at the same stage. In 2005, Wang et al revealed that the antisense of Aux/IAA like gene (IAA9) in tomato shows precocious fruit set and marked parthenocarpy. It appears that in wild-type plants, the presence of the IAA9 protein prevents ovary development prior to pollination, potentially by acting as a negative regulator of auxin response pathways. The downregulation of this gene in the antisense lines may release the expression of target auxin-responsive genes, thus mimicking a burst of auxin produced during pollination leading to fruit set and development independent of pollination and fertilization. (Wang et al., 2005) Figure 16. Fruit set and parthenocarpy in AS-IAA9 lines. (A) Flower buds at 1 d before anthesis in wild-type and AS-IAA9 lines (AS), showing dramatically enlarged ovary and underdeveloped stamen in AS-IAA9 lines. (B) Wild-type Ailsa Craig seeded fruit (WT AC) and AS- IAA9 parthenocarpic fruit (AS AC). VI.7. Herbicides B The largest commercial exploitation of plant hormone has been the use of synthetic auxins as selective herbicides. Around the world, a number of populations of auxinic herbicide-tolerant weeds have arisen, an indication of the long time over which applications have been made (Hall et al., 1996). Synthetic auxins such as 2,4-D acid were developed in the 1940s and use has been extensive, particularly because of their selectivity. The mechanisms of herbicidal action and the basis of selectivity are unclear. Induction of a massive synthesis of ethylene has been suggested to be the mechanism of activity. However, recent 22

ChapitreI: Bibliographic review work shows that inhibition of either ethylene synthesis or ethylene receptors does not prevent herbicidal activity. Therefore, although induction of the ethylene- synthesizing enzymes is a recognized effect of auxin application (Hansen and Grossmann, 2000; Kim et al., 1992), ethylene remains a symptom of herbicidal auxin and is not the sole mediator. Auxinic herbicides also induce ABA synthesis and this might be a consequence of elevated ethylene synthesis. Saturating auxin clearly gives rise to a number of damaging symptoms, but genetic data from resistant biotypes suggest that there is a single target site for these herbicides and this seems likely to be the auxin receptor. As more becomes known about the receptor, the understanding of plant development and auxins as agrochemicals will also grow. VII. Interaction of auxin with other hormones Interactions with other hormones play major roles in auxin action, which necessitates the existence of efficient and sensitive cross talk mechanisms among the corresponding signalling pathways (Figure 17). Recently, several studies have focused on the molecular machinery behind the interactions between auxins and other hormones, uncovering a complex network. (Weiss and Ori., 2007) 23

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