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Functional characterization of tomato Sl-IAA3 and Sl-hls genes. Role ...

Functional characterization of tomato Sl-IAA3 and Sl-hls genes. Role ...

ChapitreI: Bibliographic

ChapitreI: Bibliographic review Moreover, Nemhauser et al. suggested that the activity of some of the auxin signalling transcription factors, ARFs, is modulated by the formation of specific transcriptional complexes, involving input from both auxin and brassinosteroid signalling pathways. Furthermore, Nakamura et al. provided evidence that the activity of certain Aux/IAA proteins could be jointly regulated by auxin and brassinosteroids (Nakamura et al., 2006). (De Grauwe et al., 2005) Figure 20. Model of the interaction between ethylene, auxin and brassinosteroids in the hook of etiolated seedlings. VII.6 Auxin and ethylene Auxin and ethylene have a long history of reported interactions both at the physiological and molecular level. The antagonistic effects of these hormones in the control of abscission of fruits and flowers (Brown, 1997) as opposed to their synergistic effects in the regulation of root elongation, root hair formation, and growth in Arabidopsis thaliana (Pitts et al., 1998; Rahman et al., 2002; Swarup et al., 2002) illustrate some of the complexity of the auxin–ethylene crosstalk. Mutant analysis has uncovered additional levels of complexity in the relationship between these two hormones. 30

ChapitreI: Bibliographic review Ethylene is synthesized from the amino acid Met by the consecutive action of three enzymatic activities: S-adenosyl- L-methionine (SAM) synthase, 1- aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase, and ACC oxidase (Figure 21). ACC synthase catalyzes the main regulatory step in this biosynthetic pathway, the conversion of SAM to ACC (Wang et al., 2002). Auxin is known to stimulate ethylene production by activating this particular biosynthetic step (Abel et al., 1995). In fact, transcription of eight out of the nine Arabidopsis ACS genes is upregulated by auxin, and many auxin response elements have been found in the promoters of several of these biosynthetic genes (Tsuchisaka and Theologis., 2004). Once produced, ethylene is sensed by a family of receptors that show similarity to the bacterial two-component His kinases. Ethylene binding to the ACC synthase ACC Oxidase Figure 21. Ethylene biosynthesis. The amino acid Methionine is conversed by the consecutive action of three enzymatic activities: S-adenosyl- L-methionine (SAM) synthase, 1aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase, and ACC oxidase. 31

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