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Functional characterization of tomato Sl-IAA3 and Sl-hls genes. Role ...

Functional characterization of tomato Sl-IAA3 and Sl-hls genes. Role ...

ChapitreI: Bibliographic

ChapitreI: Bibliographic review (Nemhauser et al., 2006) Figure 29. Key role of auxin in hormone network. Lines with arrowheads represent upregulation of hormone biosynthetic genes or downregulation of genes involved in hormone inactivation. Blocked arrows represent downregulation of genes involved in hormone biosynthesis or upregulation of genes involved in inactivation of a hormone. VIII. Tomato as model plant VIII.1 Fruit as an important component in the human fruit diet Fruit are an important component of the human and animal diet and are developmental systems that are unique to plant. As a result, considerable scientific study has focused on questions of fruit organogenesis, development and maturation. Ripening has an impact on fibre content and composition, lipid metabolism, and the levels of vitamins and various antioxidants (Ronen et al., 1999). Breeding or biotechnologies are the most suitable means to understand the regulatory points involved in ripening. Manipulation of the ripening associated attributes related to biosynthesis of carotenoids, flavonoids, vitamins, and flavour volatiles, will allow the improvement of manipulation of nutrition and quality characteristics. Possibly, the most convincing argument for the promotion of plant genetic engineering will be the development of modified plants or plant-derived products with direct consumer appeal such as increased quality and nutrition. Ripening is influenced by internal and external signals, including developmental gene regulation, hormones, light and temperature. Two major classifications of ripening fruit, climacteric and non-climacteric, have been used to 40

ChapitreI: Bibliographic review distinguish fruit on the basis of respiration and ethylene biosynthesis rates. Climacteric fruit (e.g. tomato, avocado, apple, banana) are distinguished from non-climacteric fruits (e.g. strawberry, grape, citrus) by their increased respiration and ethylene biosynthesis rates during ripening (Lelievre et al., 1997). While non- climacteric fruits do not require ethylene for ripening of their fruits, ethylene has been shown to be necessary for the co-ordination and completion of ripening in climacteric fruit (Yen et al., 1995; Klee et al., 1991; Oeller et al., 1991; Lanahan et al., 1994; Wilkinson et al., 1995). VIII.2 Tomato as a model system for fruit ripening Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) the centerpiece of the Solanaceae family, has emerged as a model of fleshy fruit development, primarily because of its importance as a food crop species and this is the species for which the genetic and molecular toolkits are most advanced. Extensive germplasm collections, well- characterized mutant stocks, high-density genetic maps, immortalized mapping populations, efficient transient and stable transformation, deep expressed sequence tag (EST) resources, microarrays and an ongoing genome sequencing efforts all contribute to the utility of this experimental system (www.sgn.cornell.edu and www.tigr.org for links to these resources). Well- characterized ripening mutations, short generation time, a long history of physiological, biochemical and molecular investigations related to fruit development and maturation and interest in the species as an important commodity crop, have fuelled considerable effort on understanding ripening in tomato. VIII.3 The sequencing of the tomato genome The tomato genome sequencing project is an international effort involving 12 different countries. Currently, the 12 tomato chromosomes are split up between the countries as follows: Korea (chromosome 2), China (chromosome 3), United Kingdom (chromosome 4), India (chromosome 5), the Netherlands (chromosome 41

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