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Functional characterization of tomato Sl-IAA3 and Sl-hls genes. Role ...

Functional characterization of tomato Sl-IAA3 and Sl-hls genes. Role ...

ChapitreI: Bibliographic

ChapitreI: Bibliographic review 6), France (chromosome 7), Japan (chromosome 8), Spain (chromosome 9), Italy (chromosome 12) and the United States (chromosomes 1, 10 and 11). (From Solanaceae Genomic Network (SGN), June 2008) Figure 30: The International tomato genome sequencing project. This project aims to sequence the gene-rich euchromatic portions of the twelve tomato chromosomes. An international consortium of sequencing centers is performing most of the genomic sequencing. Each chromosome is assigned to a sequencing center. The genome is split into manageable chunks known as BACs (Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes), which are sequenced separately, then assembled together. The total size of the tomato genome is estimated to be approximately 950 Mb of DNA, more than 75% of which is heterochromatic, rich in repetitive sequences and largely devoid of genes. The French effort devoted to sequencing of the gene-rich portion of tomato chromosome 7 is led by our laboratory of Genomics and Fruit Biotechnology and involves Genome Express (Meylan, France) as a main sequencing partner (Delaland et al., 2007). The sequencing of the tomato genome opens exciting new perspectives for the understanding of the genetic basis of plant morphological and physiological diversity. It is also expected that the comparative sequence information will possibly uncover the underlying mechanisms driving plant evolution. VIII.4 Microtom: characteristics of miniature tomato The tomato cultivar Micro-Tom was produced for ornamental purposes by crossing 3 cultivars and displays a very dwarf phenotype with small and red ripened fruits (Scott and Harbaugh., 1989) (Figure 33A). Its small size, rapid growth and easy transformation have led to its proposal as a convenient model system for research on the regulation of berry fruit development (Meissner et al., 1997; Eyal and Levy., 2002). Micro-Tom plants have a bushy appearance and their leaves are small, with deformed leaflets, and a deep green colour compared with diverse wild-type cultivars. Those phenotypic characteristics are similar to 42

ChapitreI: Bibliographic review those described for BR-deficient mutants (Altmann, 1998). It was shown that Micro-Tom has mutations in the SELF PRUNING (SP) and DWARF (D) genes. SP belongs to the CETS family of regulatory genes encoding modulator proteins that determine the potential for continuous growth of the shoot apical meristem (Pnueli et al., 2001). The DWARF (D) gene encodes a P450 protein involved in brassinosteroid (BR) biosynthesis (Bishopet al., 1999). The dwarf phenotype of Micro-tom is thus a consequence of these mutations in addition to the lower reponse to GA, possibly due to the reduced content of BR in this cultivar (Marti et al., 2006). µT AC µt AC Figure 33. Plant of micro-Tom (µT), Ailsa Craig (AC). (A) Plants at the time of flowering. (B) Compound leaf from tomato. VIII.5 Tomato plant characteristics B Terminal leaflet Compound leaflet Petiolule rachis The tomato plant has compound leaves. A compound leaf is made up of leaflets, which are distributed along the leaf rachis. While the entire leaf is connected to the stem by the petiole, the leaflets are connected to the rachis of the leaf by the petiolule. Some of the leaflets on this leaf are compound as well (Figure 33B). Most leaves are protected by a thin outer cuticle. Just inside the cuticle lies the epidermis. Note that the epidermis surrounds the leaf and is therefore visible on the abaxial (lower) and adaxial (upper) sides of the leaf in cross section (Figure 34). The epidermis contains stomata. The xylem is in the center of the vein with the phloem distributed on both the adaxial and abaxial sides of the bundle. In the center of the leaf lies the mesophyll. The mesophyll 43

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