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Functional characterization of tomato Sl-IAA3 and Sl-hls genes. Role ...

Functional characterization of tomato Sl-IAA3 and Sl-hls genes. Role ...

ChapitreI: Bibliographic

ChapitreI: Bibliographic review consists of two different cell types. Palisade mesophyll is composed of parenchyma cells. Spongy mesophyll consists of more irregularly shaped parenchyma cells arranged in a loose structure. Most of the plant's photosynthesis takes place in the mesophyll of the leaf. Figure 34. Cross section of a tomato leaf. VIII.6 Tomato fruit development The tomato fruit, though commonly classified as a vegetable, is really a fruit, a berry in fact and is composed of an epidermis, a thick pericarp and placental tissues surrounding the seeds. The pericarp is the outer wall of the gynoecium, which is composed of at least two carpels (this number can be much higher in some varieties) (Figure 31). epidermis palissade mesophyll spongy mesophyll phloem xylem vessele collenchyma Bilocular Multilocular Epidermi Placenta tissue Columella Pericarp Seeds Locular cavity Figure 31. Section of tomato fruit. The fruit can be either bilocular or multilocular. Tomato fruits exhibit all of the common characteristics of berries. The fruit develops from the ovary of the flower. 44

ChapitreI: Bibliographic review The tomato is fleshy due to the pericarp walls and skin. Finally there are several seeds in each tomato. There are essentially four stages of development, which are depicted in Figure 32. These are (1) a 2- to 3-weeks period between floral initiation and the production of a mature flower, during which the identity, number, and shape of all floral organs are determined; (2) a period of intensive cell division that begins at anthesis and continues for 2 weeks after fertilization; (3) a period of rapid cell expansion that begins toward the end of the cell division stage and continues until 1 week before the onset of ripening; (4) a ripening phase that initiates after growth has ceased and involves rapid chemical and structural changes that determine fruit aroma, color, texture and biochemical composition (e.g., acids and sugars) but not fruit size and shape. Figure 32. Stages of Tomato fruit development. VIII.7 Tomato ripening (1) (2) (3) (4) (Tanksley., 2004) Ripe fruit demonstrate a wide range of diversity in form, pigmentation, texture, aroma, flavour and nutrient composition. Fruit of many species undergo modification of cell wall texture, conversion of starch to sugars, increased susceptibility to post-harvest pathogens, alterations in pigment biosynthesis/accumulation and increased levels of flavour and aromatic volatiles during the maturation and ripening processes (Seymour et al., 1993). As previously outlined, ripening physiology has been classically defined as either ‘climacteric’ or ‘non-climacteric’. Climacteric fruits show a sudden increase in respiration at the onset ripening, usually in concert with increased production of ethylene. Whereas ethylene is typically necessary for climacteric ripening, non- 45

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