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chapter 5 turbulent diffusion flames - FedOA

chapter 5 turbulent diffusion flames - FedOA

ABSTRACT It is now well

ABSTRACT It is now well know that the fraction of particulate mater in the ambient air defined as ultrafine particles can be considered the most critical for adverse human health effects because of their chemical composition and the ability of these particles to penetrate deeply into the respiratory tract. Moreover combustion has been recognised as the major source of harmful fine and ultrafine particles. The aim of the present thesis work is to investigate carbonaceous nanoparticles formation by combustion processes. An experimental procedure based on the use of the fifth harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser at 213 nm as exiting source and on an accurate signals acquisition has been realized. In-situ spectral optical measurements based on a combination of: Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF), Laser Induced Incandescence (LII), Light Extinction (Kext) and Laser Light Scattering (Qvv) techniques have allowed to follow particles formation and their evolution directly in combustion environments with high spatial and temporal resolution. Laminar premixed and laminar and turbulent diffusion flames have been investigated burning ethylene, methane and benzene as fuels. Optical results are then compared with Particle Size Distribution Function (PSDF) obtained by Scanning Mobility Particles Sizer (SMPS) measurements in same flame conditions. An experimental investigation of the particulate emissions from commercial burners for home appliances fueled with natural gas has been also included. The experimental evidences, in according to literature in laminar premixed conditions, allow to conclude that two classes of nanoparticles are formed in flame: Nanoparticles of Organic Carbon (NOC) with sizes smaller than three nanometers and “primary” soot particles with sizes larger than ten nanometers that lead to the formation of soot aggregates. Moreover, the thesis work shows that these combustion-generated nanoparticles strongly depend on the type of fuel, type of combustion system and eventual exhaust treatment systems. 2

CONTENTS ABBREVIATIONS _5 INTRODUCTION _7 1. PARTICLES GENERATED BY COMBUSTION PROCESSES 10 1.1. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS FORMATION IN COMBUSTION 13 1.2. NANOPARTICLES OF ORGANIC CARBON (NOC) 18 1.3. SOOT FORMATION, GROWTH AND OXIDATION 23 1.4. HUMAN HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS 28 2. COMBUSTION SYSTEMS AND EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES 29 2.1. OBJECTIVES 29 2.2. LABORATORY COMBUSTION REACTORS 31 2.2.1 LAMINAR PREMIXED FLAMES 31 2.2.2 LAMINAR DIFFUSION FLAMES 31 2.2.3 TURBULENT DIFFUSION FLAMES 33 2.3. OPTICAL MEASUREMENTS 37 2.5.1 LASER INDUCED INCANDESCENCE 37 2.5.2 LASER INDUCED FLUORESCENCE 46 2.5.3 LIGHT EXTINCTION 48 2.5.4 ELASTIC LIGHT SCATTERING 50 2.4. SCANNING MOBILITY PARTICLES SIZER (SMPS) 54 2.5. TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS 56 2.6. EXPERIMENTAL LAY-OUT AND INSTRUMENTS 57 3. LAMINAR PREMIXED FLAMES 59 3.1. LAMINAR PREMIXED ETHYLENE FLAMES 59 3.1.1 LASER INDUCED EMISSION SPECTRUM 60 3.1.2 LASER POWER, TIME AND WAVELEGTH SPECTRUM DEPENDENCE 60 3.1.3 SIGNALS CALIBRATION 65 3.2. LAMINAR PREMIXED METHANE FLAMES 67 3.2.1 SOOT AND NOC VOLUME FRACTIONS 67 3.2.2 SOOT AND NOC MEAN DIAMETERS 70 3.3. LAMINAR PREMIXED BENZENE FLAMES 72 4. LAMINAR DIFFUSION FLAMES 80 4.1. LAMINAR DIFFUSION ETHYLENE FLAME 80 4.1.1 LASER INDUCED EMISSION AND EXINCTION DATA 80 4.1.2 SOOT AND NOC VOLUME FRACTIONS AND MEAN DIAMETERS 80 4.2. LAMINAR DIFFUSION METHANE FLAME 86 4.2.1 SOOT AND NOC:VOLUME FRACTIONS AND MEAN DIAMETERS 88 4.3. COMPARISON ETHYLENE AND METHANE 89 5. TURBULENT DIFFUSION FLAMES 91 5.1. TURBULENT DIFFUSION ETHYLENE FLAMES 91 5.1.1 SOOT AND NOC VOLUME FRACTION AND MEAN DIAMETERS 91 5.2. TURBULENT DIFFUSION METHANE FLAMES 96 5.2.1. SOOT AND NOC VOLUME FRACTION AND MEAN DIAMETERS 96 3

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