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chapter 5 turbulent diffusion flames - FedOA

chapter 5 turbulent diffusion flames - FedOA


2.5 TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS A complete flame characterization needs the knowledge of the flame temperature profile, because the maximum flame temperature (Tmax) may be considered as a marker of the position of the flame front. To perform temperature measurements, thermocouple directly entered within the flame to the desired location are typically used. However, when the thermocouple is inserted into a particles- forming flame, NOC or soot particles deposit on the thermocouple junction determining an increase in both emissivity and diameter of the thermocouple junction, as showed by Rolando et al. [71]. Since these parameters are required to calculate the gas temperature from the indicated junction temperature, particulate deposition can greatly increase the error in the temperature measurement. To minimize such errors, many authors use a procedure, developed by Kent and Wagner [72]: a soot-free thermocouple is rapidly swept into the flame to the desired measurements location and its junction temperature is measured as quick as possible. Furthermore, temperature, is not the only information that a thermocouple inserted within a flame can provide. Eisner and Rosner [73] in the 1985, and subsequently McEnally et al. [48] developed a method, called Thermocouple Particle Densitometry (TPD), for measuring absolute soot volume fraction in flames following the temporal history of a thermocouple rapidly inserted into a soot-containing flame region, and then optimizing the fit between this temperature-flame history and the one calculated from the principles of thermophoretic mass transfer. McEnally et al. [41] studying methane and ethylene laminar diffusion flames found that soot volume fractions inferred from TPD method was in agreement with those inferred by extinction measurements. However the authors point out the soot volume fractions by mass deposition were larger than extinction results in the lower portion of the ethylene flame, and throughout the methane one, possibly due to deposition of high mass visible light-transparent particles. This was also observed by D’Alessio et al. [20 - 22] studying sooting and non-sooting flames by optical 56

techniques and subsequently by Rolando et al. [71] who implemented this method to detect both soot and nanoparticles in a ethylene co-flowing diffusion flame. 2.6 EXPERIMENTAL LAY-OUT AND INSTRUMENTS To perform optical and spectroscopic measurements, all the flames analyzed, laminar premixed flames, laminar an turbulent diffusion flames, have been characterized by ultraviolet laser- induced spectroscopy using the fifth or the fourth harmonic of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser (λ0 = 213 nm and λ0 = 266 nm) as exciting source. The pulse energy was kept constant and opportunely attenuated to avoid excessive photo-fragmentation or particle vaporization, while the pulse duration was 8 ns (FWHM). The laser beam was focused at the selected position within the flame with a 500 mm focal lens. The collected signal at 90° respect the incident beam was focused onto a 50 μm, or 280 μm, entrance slit of a spectrometer and was detected by a gated ICCD camera. The experimental components and their configuration for optical measurements is schematically reported in fig 2.10. ICCD Camera Lens Plasma Lens Second Harmonic, 532 nm Burner 8 mm Lens Delay Generetor 57 Nd:YAG Laser Fifth Harmonic, 213 nm Fig. 2.10 Lay-out of the optical set-up for laser induced spectroscopy and extinction measurements. PC

DNS of Turbulent Nonpremixed Ethylene Flames
Heat release rate measurement in turbulent flames